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Sample records for aorta radiologic-pathologic correlation

  1. PathBot: A Radiology-Pathology Correlation Dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelahan, Linda C; Kalaria, Amit D; Filice, Ross W

    2017-12-01

    Pathology is considered the "gold standard" of diagnostic medicine. The importance of radiology-pathology correlation is seen in interdepartmental patient conferences such as "tumor boards" and by the tradition of radiology resident immersion in a radiologic-pathology course at the American Institute of Radiologic Pathology. In practice, consistent pathology follow-up can be difficult due to time constraints and cumbersome electronic medical records. We present a radiology-pathology correlation dashboard that presents radiologists with pathology reports matched to their dictations, for both diagnostic imaging and image-guided procedures. In creating our dashboard, we utilized the RadLex ontology and National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) Annotator to identify anatomic concepts in pathology reports that could subsequently be mapped to relevant radiology reports, providing an automated method to match related radiology and pathology reports. Radiology-pathology matches are presented to the radiologist on a web-based dashboard. We found that our algorithm was highly specific in detecting matches. Our sensitivity was slightly lower than expected and could be attributed to missing anatomy concepts in the RadLex ontology, as well as limitations in our parent term hierarchical mapping and synonym recognition algorithms. By automating radiology-pathology correlation and presenting matches in a user-friendly dashboard format, we hope to encourage pathology follow-up in clinical radiology practice for purposes of self-education and to augment peer review. We also hope to provide a tool to facilitate the production of quality teaching files, lectures, and publications. Diagnostic images have a richer educational value when they are backed up by the gold standard of pathology.

  2. The crazy-paving pattern: a radiological-pathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Walter; Meersschaert, Joke; Coolen, Johan; Verbeken, Eric; Verschakelen, Johny A

    2011-04-01

    The crazy-paving pattern is a linear pattern superimposed on a background of ground-glass opacity, resembling irregularly shaped paving stones. The crazy-paving pattern is initially described as the pathognomonic sign of alveolar proteinosis. Nowadays this pattern is a common finding on high-resolution CT imaging, and can be seen in a number of acute and chronic diseases. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate different diseases that cause this crazy-paving pattern and to correlate the radiological findings from computed tomography with the histopathological findings.

  3. A cavernous haemangioma of breast in male: radiological-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, C.; Romero, C.; Urbasos, M.; Pinto, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Francisco, J.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Vascular tumours of the breast are especially rare in men, and a majority of them are angiosarcomas. In fact, we found only four cases of haemangioma in males in the literature. We present a case of cavernous haemangioma in a male aged 48 years, and which commenced as a palpable mass. We performed differential diagnosis and radiological-pathological correlation. We established the correct classification of this case histologically, and decided on the definitive therapeutic approach. (orig.)

  4. A history of radiologic pathology correlation at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and its evolution into the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Mark D; Madewell, John E; Olmsted, William W; Ros, Pablo R; Neiman, Harvey L

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has played an important role in the history of pathology education and in radiologic pathology correlation in the United States. From its humble beginnings as a museum, showcasing dried and varnished morbid specimens--human relics of the Civil War, the institute became a leader in pathology. Later, it became a center of instruction for radiology residents seeking to understand the pathologic findings that underlay the radiologic appearance of disease. Images were gathered by the AFIP and the American Registry of Pathology (ARP) and have been used in research and education in radiology and other fields (ophthalmology, otalaryngology, dermatology, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery). Despite the contributions of the AFIP, the ARP, and the Radiologic Pathology Correlation Course, high-ranking members of the military and the federal government frowned on a military-owned educational system that also served civilians. Although support from the radiology community dissuaded military officers and federal officials from taking action against the participation of civilians, the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) provisions mandated the disestablishment of the AFIP, forcing the redistribution of some of its resources to other military-only organizations and disbanding other AFIP functions. To ensure that the correlation course, known to radiology residents as the "rad-path" course, was not a casualty of the BRAC, the American College of Radiology (ACR) and leaders of the AFIP and ARP agreed that the ACR should continue this vital educational endeavor. In January 2011, the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology of the ACR debuted and successfully instructed 268 radiology residents, including 40 international residents. The faculty and staff, who had been part of the course at the AFIP, continue to help enrich and improve the course established by their predecessors. © RSNA, 2011

  5. Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation: Acellular Dermal Matrix (Alloderm®) Used in Breast Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine U; Bobr, Aleh; Torres-Mora, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) such as Alloderm ® is sometimes used in tissue reconstruction in primary and reconstructive breast surgeries. As ADM is incorporated into the native tissues, the evolving imaging findings that would correlate with varying degrees of host migration and neoangiogenesis into the matrix can be challenging to recognize. In the setting of a palpable or clinical area of concern after breast reconstructive surgery following breast cancer, confident diagnosis of a mass representing ADM rather than recurring or developing disease can be challenging. Such diagnostic imaging uncertainties generally result in short-term imaging and clinical follow-up, but occasionally, biopsy is performed for histopathological confirmation of benignity. A case of biopsy-proven Alloderm ® is described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first radiologic-pathologic correlation of ADM in the literature.

  6. Chondroblastoma of the thoracic spine: a rare location. Case report with radiologic-pathologic correlation

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    Venkatasamy, A. [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France); Chenard, M.P. [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Pathology, Strasbourg (France); Massard, G. [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Strasbourg (France); Steib, J.P. [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Spine Surgery, Strasbourg (France); Bierry, G. [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France); University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Pathology, Strasbourg (France); University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Strasbourg (France); University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Spine Surgery, Strasbourg (France)

    2017-03-15

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilage neoplasm that arises from the appendicular skeleton in the vast majority of the cases (80%). Chondroblastoma of the spine is an even more rare condition (30 cases reported), and vertebral chondroblastomas, unlike chondroblastomas of the extremities, present with the appearance of an aggressive tumor on CT and MR imaging and occur at least a decade later. Even though vertebral chondroblastomas are very uncommon tumors, they should nonetheless be included in the differential diagnosis when encountered with an aggressive vertebral mass, and a histological confirmation should be performed. We present a case of chondroblastoma of the thoracic spine of a 27-year-old female for which detailed radiologic-pathologic correlation was obtained. (orig.)

  7. Plain Radiography and computed tomography of invasive thymomas: Clinico-radiologic-pathologic correlation

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    Yang, W.T.; Lei, K.I.K.; Metreweli, C. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong)

    1997-05-01

    Fifteen computed tomography (CT) scans in nine patients with invasive thymoma are presented. The CT findings were an anterior mediastinal mass (89%), pleural deposits (78%), local infiltration of the mediastinum (100%), invasion of the cardiovascular structures (22%), lung invasion (11%) and diaphragmatic or subdiaphragmatic deposits (33%). Radiologic-pathologic correlation available in six patients showed a sensitivity of 89.5%, specificity of 87.5% and accuracy of 88.6% for CT. We conclude that CT is superior to plain radiography in the diagnosis of invasive thymoma. It provides an accurate pre-operative assessment by better demonstration of the full extent of abnormalities, and is useful in surgical planning, monitoring of therapeutic response and detecting recurrence. (authors). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Plain Radiography and computed tomography of invasive thymomas: Clinico-radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.T.; Lei, K.I.K.; Metreweli, C.

    1997-01-01

    Fifteen computed tomography (CT) scans in nine patients with invasive thymoma are presented. The CT findings were an anterior mediastinal mass (89%), pleural deposits (78%), local infiltration of the mediastinum (100%), invasion of the cardiovascular structures (22%), lung invasion (11%) and diaphragmatic or subdiaphragmatic deposits (33%). Radiologic-pathologic correlation available in six patients showed a sensitivity of 89.5%, specificity of 87.5% and accuracy of 88.6% for CT. We conclude that CT is superior to plain radiography in the diagnosis of invasive thymoma. It provides an accurate pre-operative assessment by better demonstration of the full extent of abnormalities, and is useful in surgical planning, monitoring of therapeutic response and detecting recurrence. (authors)

  9. Multiple thoracic vertebral compression fractures caused by non-accidental injury: case report with radiological-pathological correlation

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    Twomey, Eilish L.; Iemsawatdikul, Kriengkrai; Stephens, Boyd G.; Gooding, Charles A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0628, 94143-0628, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    We report a 21-month-old boy with multiple contiguous thoracic vertebral compression fractures involving eight vertebral bodies, attributable to non-accidental injury. No subluxation was associated, however, there was extensive injury to the upper cervical and lower lumbar regions of the spinal cord. Anterosuperior beaking, thought to represent a previous injury, was evident in a mid-lumbar vertebra. Clinical examination revealed bilateral retinal hemorrhages and retinoschisis. Death occurred as a result of severe brain edema with bilateral subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages. Radiological-pathological correlation is presented. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of HRCT findings of small bronchioloalveolar carcinoma by radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Satoh, Katashi; Takahashi, Kazue

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the appearance of early stage bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) on HRCT in correlation with pathological findings. Fourteen cases of BAC were examined. Diameter of the lesion in all cases was less than 1.5 cm. Two cases of BAC appeared as inhomogeneous ground-glass opacity (GGO) in correlation with foci of BAC. Two cases of BAC appeared as homogeneous GGO on HRCT in correlation with hyperplasia of alveolar cells on mildly hyperplastic alveolar septa. One case of BAC had microscopical small alveolar collapse area, however the foci were too small to be recognized as elevated density area on HRCT. Eight cases of BAC appeared as elevated density areas in GGO. These elevated density areas were correlated with areas of diminishing intraalveolar air caused by fibrotic foci due to collapse of alveolar structure, high grade atypia of tumor cells with severe hyperplasia of alveolar septa, lymphoproliferation scattered in the lesion and cellular infiltration in alveoli. One case of BAC appeared as consolidative small nodule in correlation with mucinous BAC. (author)

  11. MR imaging of the hip in avascular necrosis: Radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.S.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Cho, Z.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging is the most sensitive modality for diagnosing avascular necrosis (AVN), but there is no established explanation for the change of signal intensity of the osteonecrotic segment. Ten surgically removed femoral heads with AVN underwent MR imaging at 2.0 T. A combination of high gradient strength (0.1 m T/cm) and small radio frequency coil (8 cm in diameter) was used to obtain images with effective thickness of 2.0 mm and pixel dimensions as small as 200 μm. MR images were correlated with high-resolution CT and histologic findings. This paper illustrates how MR images the histologic findings of AVN

  12. Computed tomography of the anterior mediastinum in myasthemia gravis: a radiologic-pathologic correlative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fon, G.T.; Bein, M.E.; Mancuso, A.A.; Keesey, J.C.; Lupetin, A.R.; Wong, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans of the mediastinum were correlated with pathologic findings of the thymus following thymectomy in 57 patients with myasthenia gravis. Based on the patient's age and the overall morphology of the anterior mediastinum, CT scans were assigned one of four grades in an attempt to predict thymus pathologic findings. Using this grading, 14 of 16 cases of thymoma were suspected or definitely diagnosed. One of the two cases not diagnosed on CT was a microscopic tumor. There were no false-positive diagnoses in 11 cases graded as definitely thymoma. We conclude that thymoma can be sensitively diagnosed in patients older than 40 years of age. However, thymoma cannot be predicted with a high level of confidence in patients younger than 40 because of the difficulty in differentiating normal thymus or hyperplasia from thymoma. Recommendations for the use of CT in the preoperative evaluation of myasthenic patients are presented

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: radiologic-pathologic correlation of the response and disease-free survival depending on molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Ciria, S; Jiménez Aragón, F; García Mur, C; Esteban Cuesta, H; Gros Bañeres, B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic and pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their correlation in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to analyze their impact in disease-free survival. We included 205 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the radiologic response by comparing MRI images acquired before and after chemotherapy. The pathologic response was classified on the Miller and Payne scale. For each subtype (HER2+, TN, luminal A, luminal B HER2-, and luminal B HER2+), we used the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and Kendall's Tau-b to evaluate the radiologic response and the pathologic response, the radiologic-pathologic correlation, and the disease-free survival. The subtypes HER2+ (62.1%) and TN (45.2%) had higher rates of complete radiologic response. The pathologic response was 65.5% in the HER2+ subtype, 38.1% in the TN subtype, 2.6% in the luminal A subtype, 8.2% in the luminal B HER2- subtype, and 31% in the luminal B HER2+ subtype. The rate of radiologic-pathologic correlation was significant in all subtypes, higher in TN and HER2 (Tau-b coefficients 0.805 and 0.717, respectively). Disease-free survival was higher in HER2+ (91.9±3.3 months) and lower in TN (69.5±6.3 months), with significant differences between the cases with poor and good radiologic responses (P=.040). Survival was greater in cases with good radiologic response, except in cases with luminal A subtype. MRI can be a useful tool that provides information about the evolution of breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which varies with the immunohistochemical subtype. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging and radiological-pathological correlation in histologically proven cases of focal cortical dysplasia and other glial and neuronoglial malformative lesions in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Anson, B. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Addenbrooke' s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Thom, M.; Moran, N.; Stevens, J.; Scaravilli, F. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a pathological entity first described in 1971. Other more subtle cortical malformations found in patients with epilepsy include microdysgenesis (MD), and glioneuronal hamartias. Although these glial and neuronoglial malformations have distinct histological features, there is terminological confusion in the radiological literature. Few cases have been reported in adults with both imaging and histology. We address these issues, giving a radiological-pathological correlation of histologically proven cortical malformations in adults. We describe clinical, radiological and histological features of 12 cases (five FCD, five MD with glioneuronal hamartias, and two hamartomas), unassociated with other conditions, and discuss them in the light of the literature. FCD is usually seen on MRI as cortical thickening, with or without signal change, which may extend into the adjacent white matter. On histology, abnormal neurons and/or glial cells, blurring of the grey-white matter interface, myelin pallor, demyelination, and gliosis may be found. Glioneuronal hamartias and hamartomas usually appear as complex masses on MRI. FCD and hamartias may be associated, and a combination of imaging findings may be seen on MRI. Atrophy of the ipsilateral hippocampus may be present on MRI in patients with hamartias, and minor cell loss on histology, but not definitive hippocampal sclerosis. Although the imaging findings of cortical malformations are protean, some characteristic MRI features, with histological correlates, may be found. The relevance of most of these observations remains unclear. (orig.)

  15. Imaging and radiological-pathological correlation in histologically proven cases of focal cortical dysplasia and other glial and neuronoglial malformative lesions in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ansón, B; Thom, M; Moran, N; Stevens, J; Scaravilli, F

    2000-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a pathological entity first described in 1971. Other more subtle cortical malformations found in patients with epilepsy include microdysgenesis (MD), and glioneuronal hamartias. Although these glial and neuronoglial malformations have distinct histological features, there is terminological confusion in the radiological literature. Few cases have been reported in adults with both imaging and histology. We address these issues, giving a radiological-pathological correlation of histologically proven cortical malformations in adults. We describe clinical, radiological and histological features of 12 cases (five FCD, five MD with glioneuronal hamartias, and two hamartomas), unassociated with other conditions, and discuss them in the light of the literature. FCD is usually seen on MRI as cortical thickening, with or without signal change, which may extend into the adjacent white matter. On histology, abnormal neurons and/or glial cells, blurring of the grey-white matter interface, myelin pallor, demyelination, and gliosis may be found. Glioneuronal hamartias and hamartomas usually appear as complex masses on MRI. FCD and hamartias may be associated, and a combination of imaging findings may be seen on MRI. Atrophy of the ipsilateral hippocampus may be present on MRI in patients with hamartias, and minor cell loss on histology, but not definitive hippocampal sclerosis. Although the imaging findings of cortical malformations are protean, some characteristic MRI features, with histological correlates, may be found. The relevance of most of these observations remains unclear.

  16. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented

  17. Pseudoprominent aorta: Radiographic findings and CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.T.; Shepard, J.A.O.; Stewart, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    The presence of a persistent left-sided superior vena cava (LSVC) in the absence of a right-sided superior vena cava (RSVC) may be suspected on a posteroanterior (PA) chest radiograph because of a prominent-appearing ascending aorta, which results from the absence of the RSVC. In the absence of an RSVC, the right upper lobe abuts and outlines the course of the ascending aorta, allowing better demonstration of its profile. This report describes a patient with this finding on a PA chest radiograph. Computed tomographic correlation is presented.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of kidney allograft fibrosis with shear wave elastography: A radiological-pathological correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Maggie Km; Law, Helen Kw; Tse, Kin Sun; Chan, Kwok Wah; Chan, Gary Cw; Yap, Desmond Yh; Mok, Maggie My; Kwan, Lorraine Py; Tang, Sydney Cw; Choy, Bo Ying; Chan, Tak Mao

    2018-02-14

    To evaluate the use of shear wave elastography in assessment of kidney allograft tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Shear wave elastography assessment was carried out by two independent operators in kidney transplant recipients who underwent allograft biopsy for clinical indications (i.e. rising creatinine >15% or proteinuria >1 g/day). Allograft biopsies were interpreted by the same pathologist according to the 2013 Banff Classification. A total of 40 elastography scans were carried out (median creatinine 172.5 μmol/L [interquartile range 133.8-281.8 μmol/L]). Median tissue stiffness at the cortex (22.6 kPa [interquartile range 18.8-25.7 kPa] vs 22.3 kPa [interquartile range 19.0-26.5 kPa], P = 0.70) and medulla (15.0 kPa [interquartile range 13.7-18.0 kPa] vs 15.6 kPa [interquartile range 14.4-18.2 kPa]) showed no significant differences between the two observers. Interobserver agreement was satisfactory (intraclass correlation coefficient of the cortex 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient of the medulla 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.94). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for detection of tubulointerstitial fibrosis were estimated to be 0.75 (95% CI 0.61-0.89), 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53-0.78) for cortical, medullary tissue stiffness and serum creatinine, respectively. Shear wave elastography can be used as a non-invasive tool to evaluate kidney allograft fibrosis with reasonable interobserver agreement and superior test performance to serum creatinine in detecting early tubulointerstitial fibrosis. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Optical mammography: a new technique for visualizing breast lesions in women presenting non palpable BIRADS 4-5 imaging findings: preliminary results with radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Alexandra; Vanel, Daniel; Fournier, Laure; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared breast optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) 4-5 non-palpable lesions scheduled for biopsy, using pathology after core or excisional biopsy as a reference. The patient's breast was positioned onto a panel of red light-emitting diodes (640 nm). A soft membrane was inflated to exert a uniform pressure on the breast. Transmitted light was detected using a CCD camera. The entire acquisition sequence took 1 minute. Image processing generated dynamic images displayed in colour scale, to reveal time-dependent changes in the transmitted light intensity caused by the pressure change. Dynamic curves were classified in two categories: consistently decreasing intensity suspicious for malignancy, and sinusoidal increasing intensity considered as benign. Seventy-eight women consulting for non-palpable breast lesions were initially included in the study. An imaging-histology correlation was obtained for seventy-two patients, the remaining six patients were excluded for technical optical scan reasons. We experienced an overall sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 38%, the false negative results being mainly small size (<10 mm) infiltrating malignant lesions and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). False positive results were seen in benign proliferative lesions. Dynamic optical breast imaging is a novel, low-cost, non-invasive technique yielding a new type of information about the physiology of breast lesions. Absorption is due to haemoglobin and its products, therefore reflecting the angiogenic status of breast tumours.

  20. Neurocutaneous melanosis: radiological-pathological correlation

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    Peretti-Viton, P.; Gorincour, G.; Lambot, K.; Brunel, H.; Raybaud, C. [Department of Neuroradiology, La Timone Hospital, Marseille (France); Feuillet, L.; Cherif, Ali A. [Department of Neurology, La Timone Hospital, Marseille (France); Pellissier, J.F. [Department of Neuropathology, La Timone Hospital, Marseille (France)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a young patient with neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) who presented with temporary aphasia and right hemiparesis followed by progressive coma and death. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this disease examined by CT, MRI, angiography and in which an autopsy was performed to assert the diagnosis with histology. Besides, we discuss differential diagnoses and interest of MRI for early diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Neurocutaneous melanosis: radiological-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti-Viton, P.; Gorincour, G.; Lambot, K.; Brunel, H.; Raybaud, C.; Feuillet, L.; Cherif, Ali A.; Pellissier, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a young patient with neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) who presented with temporary aphasia and right hemiparesis followed by progressive coma and death. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this disease examined by CT, MRI, angiography and in which an autopsy was performed to assert the diagnosis with histology. Besides, we discuss differential diagnoses and interest of MRI for early diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Cheol; Suh, Gee Young; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are at present classified as one of four types: usual, nonspecific, acute, or desquamative. The acute form has the worst prognosis, followed by the usual and the nonspecific form; it is in desquamative cases that prognosis is best. At high-resolution CT, usual interstitial pneumonia, the most frequent type, manifests as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacity, and honeycombing, which the nonspecific type, the second most frequent, appears as subpleural patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation with associated areas of irregular linear opacity. Acute interstitial pneumonia demonstrates extensive bilateral airspace consolidation and patchy or diffuse bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation in middle and lower lung zones

  3. Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL is a rare cause of congenital macrodactyly, characterised by progressive proliferation of all mesenchymal elements, with disproportionate increase in fibro-adipose tissue. It occurs most frequently in lower limbs along the distribution of the medial plantar nerve. MDL presents as localised gigantism of the hand or foot and comes to clinical attention for cosmetic reasons, mechanical problems secondary to degenerative joint disease, or development of neurovascular compression. Here, we report a case of MDL, with altered soft tissue growth due to an earlier surgery, making clinical diagnosis difficult. However, with a complete radio-clinical work-up and review of the history, a provisional diagnosis of MDL was made, which was confirmed by histopathology and during surgery.

  4. Benign breast diseases. Radiology, pathology, risk assessment. 2. ed.

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    Chinyama, Catherine N. [Princess Elizabeth Hospital, Le Vauquiedor, St. Martin' s Guernsey, Channel Islands (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Radiological and pathological correlation of the full range of benign breast lesions, with emphasis on screen-detected lesions. Detailed discussion of risk assessment. Revised and updated edition, with a new chapter on gynaecomastia. Ideal aid to the management of patients with benign or indeterminate breast lesions in a multidisciplinary setting. The second edition of this book has been extensively revised and updated. There have been numerous scientific advances in the radiology, pathology and risk assessment of benign breast lesions since the publication of the first edition. The first edition concentrated on screen-detected lesions, which has since been rectified; new symptomatic and screen-detected lesions are discussed in the second edition and include: mastitis and breast abscesses, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, phyllodes tumours, gynaecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The chapters on columnar cell lesions and mucocele-like lesions have been extensively updated. Where applicable, genetic analysis of the benign lesions, which is becoming part of personalised medicine in the field of breast cancer, has been included. The book also presents detailed analyses of the main models, such as the Gail Model, used to assess the subsequent risk of breast cancer in individuals. The current trend in the management of all cancers is preventative. Screening mammography detects early curable cancers as well as indeterminate lesions, the latter of which are invariably pathologically benign. The author has collated important benign lesions and, based on peer-reviewed publications, has documented the relative risk of subsequent cancer to allow the patient and the clinician to implement preventative measures where possible. This book will therefore serve as an essential component of multidisciplinary management of patients with symptomatic and screen-detected benign breast lesions.

  5. Study of 164 primary malignant tumors of the kidneys. Radiological-pathological correlation in 43 cases; Estudo de 164 neoplasias malignas primarias do rim, com analise macroscopica e radiologica de 43 casos

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    Marques Filho, C.N.; Freitas, A.P.; Moreira, D.M.; Cavallieri, S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    In our days, the radiology is essential; for the early diagnosis of the small renal tumors. We realized a research with 164 patients with renal tumors is our institution (INCa-RJ). The radiologic aspects were correlated with the macroscopic ones in 43 cases selected from our first group (164 patients). We found significant similarity according to the literature in the following aspects: histologic type (the relative frequency), sex, age, sonographic and tomographic aspects. Unfortunately, the patients are sent to our hospital very lately, some of them with large tumors. (author). 16 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs.

  6. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma: radiologic-pathologic correlation

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    Yilmaz, Sabri; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Infantile hemangiomas demonstrate a pattern of proliferative growth in infancy followed by a slow phase of involution. In contrast a rare type of vascular tumor, intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma, usually presents beyond the period of infancy with nonspecific symptoms and no evidence of involution. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, imaging, histopathological characteristics and management of intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. We performed a retrospective review of a 20-year period to identify children diagnosed with intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. Patient demographics, imaging and histopathological findings were recorded. We included 18 children (10 boys, 8 girls) with histologically proven intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma - and adequate imaging. The mean age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 1 day to 19 years). Twelve lesions involved muscles of the extremities, 4 were located in the trunk and 2 were in the head and neck. MRI had been performed in all children and demonstrated a soft-tissue mass with flow voids, consistent with fast flow. The lesion was well-circumscribed in 16 children and intralesional fat was seen in 14. Doppler US demonstrated a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly isoechoic to surrounding muscle, with enlarged arterial feeders. Enlarged feeding arteries, inhomogeneous blush and lack of arteriovenous shunting were noted on angiography (n = 5). The most common histopathological findings were lobules of capillaries with plump endothelium and at least some adipose tissue. The lesions were excised in six children. Two children were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 10, follow-up MRI studies ranging from 3 months to 10 years showed that the lesion enlarged in proportion to the child (n = 7), demonstrated slow growth (n = 2) or remained stable (n = 1). There was no change in imaging characteristics on follow-up. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor of skeletal muscle. The most typical imaging features show a heterogeneous intramuscular mass with fast flow, and intralesional fat. Although the lesion is relatively stable in appearance over time, imaging does not obviate the need for a biopsy to rule out sarcoma. The diagnosis can usually be established by typical findings on histopathology. (orig.)

  7. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Chondrosarcomatous Differentiation: Radiological-Pathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathyayini Paidipati Gopalkishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 63-year-old woman with malignant phyllodes tumor in her left breast. On imaging, a large, dumbbell-shaped, predominantly cystic mass with thin peripheral enhancement was noted. The lesion was causing rib destruction, chest wall invasion, and intrathoracic extension. These aggressive imaging features were considered highly suspicious of a malignant chest wall tumor. Subsequent chest wall resection of the tumor showed breast tissue with a biphasic lesion composed of proliferated spindle cells in loose sheets with extensive islands of atypical cartilage and a scanty epithelial component, including compressed ducts in the periphery of the lesion. A diagnosis of a malignant phyllodes tumor with stromal overgrowth and chondrosarcomatous differentiation was made in view of the presence of a benign epithelial component and negative reaction of the stromal component with a pancytokeratin. To the best of our knowledge, a phyllodes tumor with the radiological features of chest wall invasion and intrathoracic extension has not been described in the literature until now. Malignant phyllodes should be included in the list of differentials along with sarcomas on encountering lesions with such aggressive imaging features.

  8. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  11. Breast Intraductal Papillomas without Atypia in Radiologic-Pathologic Concordant Core Needle Biopsies: Predictors of Upgrade to Carcinoma at Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Corben, Adriana; Brennan, Sandra; Murray, Melissa P.; Bowser, Zenica; Jakate, Kiran; Sebastiano, Christopher; Morrow, Monica; Morris, Elizabeth; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Background The surgical management of breast intraductal papilloma without atypia (IDP) identified at core needle biopsy (CNB) is controversial. We assessed the rate of upgrade to carcinoma at surgical excision, and identified parameters predictive of upgrade. Methods We identified women with CNB diagnosis of intraductal papilloma without atypia or carcinoma at our center between 2003 and 2013. Radiologic-pathologic concordance was assessed for all cases, and discordant cases were excluded. We correlated the radiologic and clinicopathologic features of patients with CNB diagnosis of IDP with upgrade to carcinoma at surgical excision. Results Our study population consists of 189 women with 196 IDPs; 166 women (171 IDPs) underwent excision. The upgrade rate was 2.3% (4/171). The upgrade lesions were 2 invasive lobular carcinomas and 2 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). One case of DCIS involved the residual IDP, whereas the other 3 carcinomas were ≥8 mm away. Twenty-four women (25 IDPs) did not undergo excision, and had stable imaging at follow-up (median of 23.5 months). Conclusions The upgrade rate at excision of IDP diagnosed at CNB with radiologic-pathologic concordance is 2.3%. Our findings suggest that observation is appropriate for patients with radiologic-pathologic concordant CNB yielding IDP, regardless of its size. PMID:27315013

  12. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  13. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with (/sup 32/P)Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-(5,4-d) azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta.

  14. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with [ 32 P]Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-[5,4-d] azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta

  15. Breast intraductal papillomas without atypia in radiologic-pathologic concordant core-needle biopsies: Rate of upgrade to carcinoma at excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Corben, Adriana D; Brennan, Sandra B; Murray, Melissa P; Bowser, Zenica L; Jakate, Kiran; Sebastiano, Christopher; Morrow, Monica; Morris, Elizabeth A; Brogi, Edi

    2016-09-15

    The surgical management of mammary intraductal papilloma without atypia (IDP) identified at core-needle biopsy (CNB) is controversial. This study assessed the rate of upgrade to carcinoma at surgical excision (EXC). This study identified women with a CNB diagnosis of intraductal papilloma without atypia or carcinoma at a cancer center between 2003 and 2013. Radiologic-pathologic concordance was assessed for all cases, and discordant cases were excluded. The radiologic and clinicopathologic features of patients with a CNB diagnosis of IDP were correlated with an upgrade to carcinoma at EXC. The study population consists of 189 women with 196 IDPs; 166 women (171 IDPs) underwent EXC. The upgrade rate was 2.3% (4 of 171). The upgraded lesions were 2 invasive lobular carcinomas and 2 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). One case of DCIS involved the residual IDP, whereas the other 3 carcinomas were ≥ 8 mm away. Twenty-four women (25 IDPs) did not undergo EXC and had stable imaging on follow-up (median, 23.5 months). The upgrade rate at EXC for IDPs diagnosed at CNB with radiologic-pathologic concordance was 2.3%. These findings suggest that observation is appropriate for patients with radiologic-pathologic concordant CNB yielding IDP, regardless of its size. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2819-2827. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Radiology-Pathology Conference: Reviving the Art of Oral Case Presentation in Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Susan; Scheinfeld, Meir H; Burns, Judah; Koenigsberg, Mordecai; Mantilla, Jose G; Goldberg-Stein, Shlomit

    2017-06-01

    To improve resident oral case communication and preparatory skills by providing residents an opportunity to prepare for and conduct a new interdisciplinary Radiology-Pathology (Rad-Path) conference series. To assess whether conference goals were being achieved, we surveyed trainees and attendings in the radiology and pathology departments. Percentages were examined for each variable. Mann-Whitney U test for ordinal variable significance was applied to determine statistical significance between radiology trainee and attending survey responses. Most surveyed radiology trainees (57.1%) strongly agreed or agreed with: "I wish I felt more comfortable with oral presentations." Sixty-five percent of radiology attendings (34 of 52) either agreed or strongly agreed that the residents should be more comfortable with oral case presentations. Of resident Rad-Path conference presenters, 69% (9 of 13) either agreed or strongly agreed that the conference improved their confidence and/or ability to present case information orally. Of responders who attended at least one Rad-Path conference in person, 83% of residents (19/23) and 61% (17/28) of attendings agreed or strongly agreed that the conference improved their ability to formulate a differential diagnosis. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, no significant difference was found between radiology trainees and attendings' responses. Our Rad-Path correlation conference was specifically designed and structured to provide residents with focused experience in formal oral case preparation and presentation. We consider our conference a success, with 69% of resident presenters reporting that the Rad-Path conference improved their confidence and/or ability to present case information orally. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: report of 2 cases with radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carvalho, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign tumor that affects most commonly children and young adults. In the lung, it comprises less than 1% of all neoplasms. The authors describe the clinical, radiological, and pathologic features of 2 cases of incidentally discovered pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

  18. Ganglioneuromas of the sacrum-a report of two cases with radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Thacker, Mihir M.; Pitcher, J. David; Scully, Sean P.; Temple, H. Thomas; Eismont, Frank [University of Miami, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Miami, FL (United States); Humble, Scott; Azouz, Michel E.

    2006-02-15

    Ganglioneuromas are rare, benign, well-differentiated, slow-growing tumors, composed of ganglion cells and Schwann cells. Ganglioneuromas are derived from the neural crest cells and can arise anywhere from the base of the skull to the pelvis. We present and discuss the clinicopathologic and radiographic features of two patients with ganglioneuroma arising from the sacrum, a rare anatomic location. (orig.)

  19. Common and uncommon manifestations of Wegener granulomatosis at chest CT: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Felipe; Chung, Jonathan H; Digumarthy, Subba R; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Abbott, Gerald F; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Mark, Eugene J; Sharma, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Wegener granulomatosis is an uncommon necrotizing vasculitis that classically manifests as a clinical triad consisting of upper and lower airway involvement and glomerulonephritis. Other less frequently involved organ systems include the central and peripheral nervous system and large joints. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical and laboratory findings. Because thoracic involvement often predominates, chest radiographic findings are often the first to suggest the diagnosis. However, chest computed tomography (CT) has superior sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the airways, lung parenchyma, and mediastinum, particularly with the use of multiplanar reformatted and three-dimensional images. Common pulmonary radiologic findings include waxing and waning nodules, masses, ground-glass opacities, and consolidation. Airway involvement is usually characterized by circumferential tracheobronchial thickening, which can be smooth or nodular. Pleural effusions are the most common manifestation of pleural disease and can result from primary involvement or be secondary to renal failure. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy is a nonspecific finding and is usually reactive. Uncommon thoracic radiologic manifestations include involvement of the heart and great vessels. CT is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, surveillance, and follow-up in patients with Wegener granulomatosis. © RSNA, 2012.

  20. Fascial relationship of the thymus: radiologic-pathologic correlation in neonatal pneumomediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quattromani, F.L. (Children' s Hospital, Denver, CO); Foley, L.C.; Bowen, A.D.; Weisman, L.; Hernandez, J.

    1981-12-01

    The radiographic appearance of retrothymic pneumomediastinum is quite specific. The findings include elevation of the thymus away from other mediastinal structures with increased lucency beneath it, visualization of a radiodense line extending from the inferior pole of the thymus to the midportion of the heart, and tenting of the pericardium at the point of attachment of this line. This constellation of findings will aid in the differential diagnosis of medial anterior pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, and intrapulmonary cyst in the infant with air block. The paper details the mediastinal anatomy with special emphasis on a previously undescribed layer of connective tissue that accounts for this specific radiographic appearance.

  1. Helical CT pneumocolon to assess colonic tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C J; Amin, Z; Hare, C M; Gillams, A R; Novelli, M R; Boulos, P B; Lees, W R

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of helical CT pneumocolon in the staging of colonic carcinomas. Fifty-two patients (27 men, 25 women; age range, 40-88 years old; mean age, 67 years old) with known or strongly suspected colonic disorders underwent CT pneumocolon. After bowel cleansing, administration of smooth muscle relaxant, and rectal air insufflation, CT pneumocolon was performed with 5-mm collimation, 2.5-mm reconstruction interval, and a pitch of 1.5. Two contrast administration protocols were used. Twelve patients received 100 ml of i.v. contrast material that was injected at 3 ml/sec; scan delay was 45 sec. The other 40 patients received 150 ml of contrast material at 5 ml/sec; scan delay was 25 sec. Images were prospectively evaluated. All patients had pathologic confirmation: 46 patients had resections and six patients had endoscopic biopsies. Diagnostic images were obtained in 47 of 52 patients. In the 47 patients, there were 38 colonic carcinomas (one synchronous), nine diverticular strictures, eight polyps, one ischemic stricture, and one normal study. Thirty of 38 carcinomas were correctly staged by CT. Sensitivity and specificity for serosal infiltration were 100% (35/35 carcinomas) and 33% (one of three carcinomas), respectively; sensitivity and specificity for lymph node involvement were 56% (nine of 16 carcinomas) and 95% (21/22 carcinomas), respectively. Four polyps that were smaller than 5 mm in diameter were not revealed by CT. Twelve of 14 benign lesions were correctly diagnosed and two were believed to be malignant. No malignant lesion was misdiagnosed. CT pneumocolon gave an overall staging accuracy of 79% in 38 carcinomas.

  2. CT and MRI of the male genital tract: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik-Huch, R.A. [UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Hailemariam, S. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Hamm, B. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    1999-02-01

    Technical advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), notably in high-resolution MRI, have opened up new diagnostic applications in male pelvic pathology. A major indication is the preoperative staging of prostate cancer, where MRI is more reliable than other imaging modalities in differentiating between localized and advanced disease. In monitoring local recurrence after radical prostatectomy MRI is also valuable in differentiating scar tissue from new growth. In benign prostate disease, MRI effectively displays the congenital cysts that may be associated with infertility. Other disease, however - notably benign prostatic hyperplasia - is generally an incidental finding. Ultrasound remains the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of pathologies of the penis, testis and scrotum, e. g. in differentiating malignant from benign scrotal masses or in diagnosing acute scrotum due to testicular torsion or rupture. In isolated cases, MRI is also a valuable diagnostic aid in conditions of these organs, e. g. in the preoperative localization of ectopic testes in cryptorchidism or if US findings are equivocal. (orig.) (orig.) With 27 figs., 85 refs.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraosseous lipomas: a radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacksin, M.F.; Ende, N.; Benevenia, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four patients with intraosseous lipomas were studied with magnetic resonance imaging. The imaging features and histology of each tumor were compared. Magnetic resonance imaging was very helpful in establishing a pathologic diagnosis. If a severe degree of involution was present, then the magnetic resonance findings could be ambiguous, making diagnosis more difficult. (orig.)

  4. Correlations between anterior wall motion velocity of ascending aorta measured by quantitative tissue velocity image and left ventricular geometry as well as left heart function in hypertension patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunyue; Liu, Yan; Li, Zuojia; Lin, Jianying; Chen, Ru; Zhang, Tieshan; Hu, Ying; Cheng, Guanxun

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the correlations between anterior wall motion velocity of ascending aorta measured by quantitative tissue velocity image (QTVI) technique and left ventricular geometry as well as left heart function to evaluate its value of clinical application. One hundred ten hypertension patients and 35 healthy controls were included, divided into left ventricular concentric remodeling group and left ventricular hypertrophy group. The QTVI technique was used to obtain the velocity curve of anterior wall of ascending aorta, the peak systolic velocity (Vs), peak velocity of early diastolic motion (Ve) and peak velocity of late diastolic motion (Va). The single-plane Simpson method was utilized to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). The QTVI method was used to obtain the index of left ventricular diastolic function (Em/Am). Compared to control group, both Vs and Ve values significantly reduced in hypertension group (Pvelocity of ascending aorta could be indicator for the geometric patterns and function of left ventricle, which may provide a simple and comprehensive method for clinical assessment of hypertensive heart disease.

  5. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  6. Coarctation of the Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is usually successful, the condition requires careful lifelong follow-up. Coarctation of the aorta care at ... of developing high blood pressure. You will need lifelong follow-up for coarctation of the aorta, and ...

  7. Análise da correlação entre síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação e aneurisma de aorta abdominal Analysis of correlation between pseudoexfoliation syndrome and aneurysm of the abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Ponte Pierre Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar a correlação sugerida entre síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação e aneurisma de aorta abdominal. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e cinco pacientes recentemente operados por aneurisma de aorta abdominal e 51 controles com aterosclerose periférica, sem aneurisma, submeteram-se ao exame oftalmológico sob dilatação pupilar para investigar a presença de síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre a média de idade, distribuição por sexo e raça entre os 2 grupos (p > 0,05. Dois dos 65 pacientes com aneurisma de aorta e um dos 51 controles apresentaram síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação (p = 1,00. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação em pacientes operados por aneurisma de aorta abdominal e em pacientes com aterosclerose periférica foi similar. Este achado não confirma a associação proposta entre síndrome de pseudo-exfoliação e aneurisma de aorta abdominal.PURPOSE: To investigate the suggested association between pseudoexfoliation syndrome and aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. METHODS: 65 patients recently operated for abdominal aortic aneurysm and 51 controls with peripheral atherosclerosis, without aneurysm, underwent an ophthalmologic examination under pupillary dilatation to detect the presence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. RESULTS: There were no significant differences regarding mean age and distribution by gender and race between the groups (p > 0.05. Two of 65 patients with aortic aneurysm and one of 51 controls presented pseudoexfoliation syndrome (p = 1.00. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome in patients operated for abdominal aortic aneurysm and in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis were similar. This finding does not support the proposed association between pseudoexfoliation syndrome and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  8. An experimental study of the radiologic-pathologic findings of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Dong Sung; Oh, Joo Hyung; Yoon, Yup; Cho, Kyu Suck; Choi, Young Gyu; Lee, Joo Hee [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Lee, Soon Jin [Soungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the low attenuation of mosaic pattern in pulmonary embolism, as observed on HRCT, and to correlate the findings with the pathologic features of resected lung. Using permanent embolic materials, pulmonary embolism was induced in eight Yorkshire pigs. Pre-and post-embolic pulmonary angiography was performed and after 6 weeks, the incidence and pattern of parenchymal change in low attenuation (mosaic pattern), as seen on HRCT, was evaluated. The animals were then sacrificed and contact radiography of the lung was performed. Thirty-eight segments of pathology were taken from the area in which the presence of embolism had been suggested. Pathologic and HRCT findings were then correlated. HRCT findings of pulmonary embolism at six weeks after embolization showed variable patterns of low attenuation, diminished diameter of pulmonary arteries, and normal diameter of bronchi. In cases with large segmental arterial occlusion, the findings of low attenuation was more common; this may be due to reduced blood flow to the embolic area, in combination with bronchiolar spasm. For the early diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, these findings may be useful. (author). 18 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformation: a novel imaging appearance with radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Anand S. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Interventional Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Schulman, Joshua M.; Ruben, Beth S. [University of California, San Francisco, Departments of Pathology and Dermatology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hoffman, William Y. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Plastic Surgery, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Dowd, Christopher F. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Frieden, Ilona J. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Dermatology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hess, Christopher P. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Clinic, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The absence of a discrete mass, surrounding signal abnormality and solid enhancement are imaging features that have traditionally been used to differentiate soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations from vascular tumors on MRI. We have observed that these findings are not uncommon in arteriovenous malformations, which may lead to misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment. To estimate the frequency of atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations and assess their relationship to lesion size, location, tissue type involved and vascular architecture. Medical records, MRI and histopathology were reviewed in consecutive patients with soft-tissue arteriovenous malformations in a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic. Arteriovenous malformations were divided into those with and without atypical MRI findings (perilesional T2 signal abnormality, enhancement and/or a soft-tissue mass). Lesion location, size, tissue involved and vascular architecture were also compared between groups. Tissue stains were reviewed in available biopsy or resection specimens to assess relationships between MRI findings and histopathology. Thirty patients with treatment-naive arteriovenous malformations were included. Fifteen lesions demonstrated atypical MRI. There was no difference in age, gender, lesion size or involved body part between the groups. However, more than half of the atypical lesions demonstrated multicompartmental involvement, and tiny intralesional flow voids were more common in atypical arteriovenous malformations. Histopathology also differed in atypical cases, showing densely packed endothelial cells with connective tissue architectural distortion and edema. Arteriovenous malformations may exhibit features of a vascular tumor on MRI, particularly when multicompartmental and/or containing tiny internal vessels. These features are important to consider in suspected fast-flow vascular malformations and may have implications with respect to their treatment. (orig.)

  10. Ectopic Anterior Mediastinal Pathology in the Chest: Radiologic-pathologic Correlation of Unexpected Encounters with the "Terrible Ts"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsan Rashidfarokhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex embryology of the anterior mediastinum makes it home to an array of primary neoplasms tied to the presence of the thyroid and thymus glands in that compartment. While the occurrence of ectopic thyroid deposits in the extramediastinal thorax has not been convincingly established, the other three "Ts" of the classic "4T" mnemonic for the differential diagnosis of an anterior mediastinal mass have occurred in the lung parenchyma, pleural space, and endobronchially as primary tumors. Finding any of the three lesions - thymoma, teratoma, or B-cell lymphoma - in the chest outside the mediastinum is very unusual, but that possibility exists. Herein, we illustrate examples of this rare phenomenon.

  11. Ectopic Anterior Mediastinal Pathology in the Chest: Radiologic-pathologic Correlation of Unexpected Encounters with the "Terrible Ts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidfarokhi, Mahsan; Gupta, Jessica; Leytin, Anatoly; Epelbaum, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The complex embryology of the anterior mediastinum makes it home to an array of primary neoplasms tied to the presence of the thyroid and thymus glands in that compartment. While the occurrence of ectopic thyroid deposits in the extramediastinal thorax has not been convincingly established, the other three "Ts" of the classic "4T" mnemonic for the differential diagnosis of an anterior mediastinal mass have occurred in the lung parenchyma, pleural space, and endobronchially as primary tumors. Finding any of the three lesions - thymoma, teratoma, or B-cell lymphoma - in the chest outside the mediastinum is very unusual, but that possibility exists. Herein, we illustrate examples of this rare phenomenon.

  12. Ectopic Anterior Mediastinal Pathology in the Chest: Radiologic-pathologic Correlation of Unexpected Encounters with the “Terrible Ts”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidfarokhi, Mahsan; Gupta, Jessica; Leytin, Anatoly; Epelbaum, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The complex embryology of the anterior mediastinum makes it home to an array of primary neoplasms tied to the presence of the thyroid and thymus glands in that compartment. While the occurrence of ectopic thyroid deposits in the extramediastinal thorax has not been convincingly established, the other three “Ts” of the classic “4T” mnemonic for the differential diagnosis of an anterior mediastinal mass have occurred in the lung parenchyma, pleural space, and endobronchially as primary tumors. Finding any of the three lesions – thymoma, teratoma, or B-cell lymphoma – in the chest outside the mediastinum is very unusual, but that possibility exists. Herein, we illustrate examples of this rare phenomenon. PMID:28123839

  13. The Differential Imaging Features of Fat-Containing Tumors in the Peritoneal Cavity and Retroperitoneum: the Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Na Young; Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Jae Joon; Chung, Yong Eun; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Young Nyun [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    There are a variety of fat-containing lesions that can arise in the intraperitoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space. Some of these fat-containing lesions, such as liposarcoma and retroperitoneal teratoma, have to be resected, although resection can be deferred for others, such as adrenal adenoma, myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, ovarian teratoma, and lipoma, until the lesions become large or symptomatic. The third group tumors (i.e., mesenteric panniculitis and pseudolipoma of Glisson's capsule) require medical treatment or no treatment at all. Identifying factors such as whether the fat is macroscopic or microscopic within the lesion, the origin of the lesions, and the presence of combined calcification is important for narrowing the differential diagnosis. The development and widespread use of modern imaging modalities make identification of these factors easier so narrowing the differential diagnosis is possible. At the same time, lesions that do not require immediate treatment are being incidentally found at an increasing rate with these same imaging techniques. Thus, the questions about the treatment methods have become increasingly important. Classifying lesions in terms of the necessity of performing surgical treatment can provide important information to clinicians, and this is the one of a radiologist's key responsibilities.

  14. Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of Contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Patients with HCC after TACE: Diagnostic Accuracy of 3D Quantitative Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapiro, Julius; Wood, Laura D.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Cornish, Toby; Lesage, David; Charu, Vivek; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Wang, Zhijun; Tacher, Vania; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2014-01-01

    standard error [RSEresidual standard error] = 6.38 and 6.33 for quantitative EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver and quantitative ADCapparent diffusion coefficient, respectively), when compared with non-3Dthree-dimensional techniques (RSEresidual standard error = 12.18 for visual assessment). Conclusion This radiologic-pathologic correlation study demonstrates the diagnostic accuracy of 3Dthree-dimensional quantitative MR imaging techniques in identifying pathologically measured tumor necrosis in HCChepatocellular carcinoma lesions treated with TACEtransarterial chemoembolization. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25028783

  15. Aorta and iliac artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.S.T.; Neiman, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The aorta and iliac artery constitute the major blood supply to the limbs, and the atherosclerotic process ranks as the most common disorder in this region. Clinical presentation ranges from acute to chronic. Atherosclerotic disease of the aorta associated with femoropopliteal disease is not uncommon. For simplicity, the aorta and iliac artery are considered as a unit, though isolated lesions of the aorta occur. The primary indication for arteriography is in patients who are candidates for reconstructive surgery or for percutaneous balloon dilatation. While diagnosis by clinical examination or noninvasive tests is not difficult, arteriography remains the essential diagnostic technique, especially when patients become candidates for therapy. Visualization of the aortoiliac system may be accomplished by translumbar aortography, catheter arteriography, or by intravenous digital subtraction angiography

  16. Coarctation of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogova, T.; Janev, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital malformation representing a zone of strong narrowing of the aortic lumen, leading to impaired blood flow. In 90% of cases it affects isthmus vessel - the part between the separation of the left Ater subclavian and ductus arteriosus and it is often combined with other congenital heart defects and occurs more frequently in males. A case of juvenile isthmus type coarctation of the aorta at a young woman suffering from long hard to control hypertension, with intermittent discomfort in precordium and heart murmur is presented. Upon receipt of the patient a conventional radiography of organs in the chest front projection, which establishes a typical disease finding is carried out. After that a noninvasive computer-tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta, with CT Siemens Definition AS with a slice thickness 5 mm, subsequent reconstruction of 0,75 mm and postreconstruction were conducted. CT angiography study demonstrates the pathological constriction, the state of the aorta before and after constriction as well as the rich collateral vasculature of the intercostal and internal thoracic arteries. The available 3D reconstructions and postprocessing have been supported the establishment of optimal preoperative plan. The patient was subjected to surgery with vessel recovery and at the moment the patient is with excellent postoperative results

  17. Association Between Thoracic Aorta Calcium and Thoracic Aorta Geometry in a Cohort of Asymptomatic Participants at Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiem, Damian; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Casciaro, Mariano E; El Batti, Salma; Mousseaux, Elie; Sirieix, Marie-Emmanuelle; Simon, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Thoracic aorta calcium detection is known to improve cardiovascular risk prediction for cardiac and noncardiac events beyond traditional risk factors. We investigated the influence of thoracic aorta morphometry on the presence and extent of aortic calcifications. Nonenhanced computed tomography heart scans were performed in 970 asymptomatic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. An automated algorithm estimated the geometry of the entire thoracic aorta and quantified the aortic calcium Agatston score. A nonparametric model was used to analyze the percentiles of calcium score by age. Logistic regression models were calculated to identify anatomical associations with calcium levels. Calcifications were concentrated in the aortic arch and descending portions. Higher amounts of calcium were associated with an enlarged, unfolded, less tapered and more tortuous aorta. The size of the ascending aorta was not correlated with aortic calcium score, whereas enlargement of the descending aorta had the strongest association: the risk of having a global calcium score > 90th percentile was 3.62 times higher (confidence interval, 2.30-5.91; P < .001) for each 2.5-mm increase in descending aorta diameter. Vessel taper, tortuosity, unfolding and aortic arch and descending volumes were also correlated with higher amounts of calcium. Thoracic aorta calcium was predominantly found at the arch and descending aorta and was positively associated with the size of the descending aorta and the aortic arch, but not with the size of the ascending aorta. These findings suggest that aortic dilatation may have different mechanisms and may consequently require different preventive strategies according to the considered segments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Prothetischer Ersatz der thorakalen Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bernhard; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Brockmann, Gernot; Lange, Rüdiger

    Die Aorta ist das Stammgefäß des arteriellen Körperkreislaufs, von dem aus alle Organe mit Blut versorgt werden. Die Aorta entspringt der linken Herzkammer, beginnend mit dem aufsteigenden Teil (Aorta ascendens). Der Anfangsteil der Aorta ascendens ist natürlicherweise etwas erweitert und wird als Aortenbulbus oder nach seinem Erstbeschreiber als Sinus valsalvae bezeichnet. An dessen Basis liegt die Aortenklappe, die einen Rückfluss von Blut in den linken Ventrikel verhindert. Etwa 1 cm oberhalb der Aortenklappe entspringen die Herzkranzgefäße, die den Herzmuskel mit Blut versorgen. Die Aorta ascendens endet mit Beginn des Aortenbogens, aus dem die 3 Kopfhalsgefäße (Truncus bracheocephalicus, linke Arteria carotis und linke Arteria subclavia) abgehen. Nach Abgang der linken Arteria subclavia zieht die Aorta nach unten. Dieser Abschnitt wird als "Aorta descendens“ bezeichnet, wobei der thorakale Anteil bis zum Zwerchfelldurchtritt reicht.

  19. Regulation of angiogenesis by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in the rat aorta model: distinct temporal patterns of intracellular signaling correlate with induction of angiogenic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Hui; MacIntyre, Angela; Nicosia, Roberto Francesco

    2002-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promote the spontaneous angiogenic response of freshly cut rat aortic rings. When VEGF and Ang-1 were tested in cultures of 14-day-old rings, which are quiescent and unable to spontaneously produce neovessels, only VEGF was capable of inducing an angiogenic response. Ang-1 failed to initiate angiogenesis in this system, but significantly potentiated VEGF-induced neovessel sprouting. Potential differences in cell signaling triggered by VEGF and Ang-1 were evaluated in cultures of quiescent rings. VEGF induced biphasic and prolonged (15 minutes and 4 to 24 hours) phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK and Akt, while the effect of Ang-1 was transient and monophasic (15 minutes). Both VEGF and Ang-1 induced rapid, monophasic (15 minutes) phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. When VEGF and Ang-1 were administered together, the second peak of VEGF-induced p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation was markedly reduced. The effect of the VEGF/Ang-1 combination on AKT phosphorylation was, instead, additive over time, and sustained over a 24-hour period. The VEGF/Ang-1 combination caused an additive effect also on p38 MAPK phosphorylation at 1 hour. Confocal microscopy of VEGF-, Ang-1, or VEGF/Ang-1-stimulated aortic rings double stained at time points of maximal phosphorylation for cell markers and signal transduction proteins demonstrated phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and Akt predominantly in endothelial cells. Experiments with specific inhibitors demonstrated that p44/42 MAPK and Akt, but not p38 MAPK, are necessary for neovessel sprouting. These results identify p44/42 MAPK and Akt as critical intracellular mediators of angiogenesis, whose transient phosphorylation is, however, not sufficient for the initiation of this process. The observation that sustained phosphorylation of these signaling pathways, particularly of Akt, correlates with induction of angiogenesis suggests that the duration of phosphorylation signals

  20. Percutaneous irreversible electroporation for breast tissue and breast cancer: safety, feasibility, skin effects and radiologic-pathologic correlation in an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Shen, Lujun; Zeng, Qi; Wu, Peihong

    2016-08-05

    To study the safety, feasibility and skin effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) for breast tissue and breast cancer in animal models. Eight pigs were used in this study. IRE was performed on the left breasts of the pigs with different skin-electrode distances, and the right breasts were used as controls. The electrodes were placed 1-8 mm away from the skin, with an electrode spacing of 1.5-2 cm. Imaging and pathological examinations were performed at specific time points for follow-up evaluation. Vital signs, skin damage, breast tissue changes and ablation efficacy were also closely observed. Eight rabbit models with or without VX2 breast tumor implantations were used to further assess the damage caused by and the repair of thin skin after IRE treatment for breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and elastosonography were used to investigate ablation efficacy and safety. During IRE, the color of the pig breast skin reversibly changed. When the skin-electrode distance was 3 mm, the breast skin clearly changed, becoming white in the center and purple in the surrounding region during IRE. One small purulent skin lesion was detected several days after IRE. When the skin-electrode distance was 5-8 mm, the breast skin became red during IRE. However, the skin architecture was normal when evaluated using gross pathology and hematoxylin-eosin staining. When the skin-electrode distance was 1 mm, skin atrophy and yellow glabrescence occurred in the rabbit breasts after IRE. When the skin-electrode distance was ≥5 mm, there was no skin damage in the rabbit model regardless of breast cancer implantation. After IRE, complete ablation of the targeted breast tissue or cancer was confirmed, and apoptosis was detected in the target tissue and outermost epidermal layer. In the ablated breasts of the surviving animals, complete mammary regeneration with normal skin and hair was observed. Furthermore, no massive fibrosis or mass formation were detected on ultrasound or through hematoxylin-eosin staining. After IRE, the skin architecture was well preserved when the skin-electrode distance was ≥5 mm. Moreover, breast regeneration occurred without mass formation or obvious fibrosis.

  1. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  2. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  3. Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta in patients with bicuspid aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Petrini

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Intima-media thickness of the descending aorta is not affected by aortic valve morphology (BAV/TAV; age is the main determinant of AoIMT. Genetic markers (SNPs known to influence IMT in the carotid artery seem to correlate to IMT in the descending aorta only in patients with TAV.

  4. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl

    1990-01-01

    3 H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na + -dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na + -independent component. The Na + -dependent component of inositol uptake had a K m of 50 μM and a V max of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca 2+ - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells

  5. Acute spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar beigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • Aortic dissection occurs when the layers of the aorta separate as a result of extra luminal cavity of blood through an intimal tear. Dissection limited to the abdominal aorta is rare. Unfortunately, the appropriate management of dissecting aneurysm of abdominal aorta is not documented yet. A 43 years old man was admitted to Al-zahra hospital in Isfahan with sudden onset of periumbilical abdominal pain. CT scan confirmed infrarenal dissection of abdominal aorta. Performing laparotomy, aorta was repaired using bifurcate collagen-coated Dacron graft. Surgical intervention with synthetic graft is recommended in patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm of infrarenal segments where the extent of dissection is limited and accessible.
    • Keywords: Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aortic aneurysm abdominal surgery.

  6. Radiologic-pathologic analysis of quantitative 3D tumour enhancement on contrast-enhanced MR imaging: a study of ROI placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockalingam, Arun; Duran, Rafael; Sohn, Jae Ho; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Chapiro, Julius; Lee, Howard; Sahu, Sonia; Nguyen, Sonny; Geschwind, Jean-Francois [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lin, MingDe [Philips Research North America, U/S Imaging and Interventions (UII), Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the influence of region-of-interest (ROI) placement on 3D tumour enhancement [Quantitative European Association for the Study of the Liver (qEASL)] in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Phase 1: 40 HCC patients had nine ROIs placed by one reader using systematic techniques (3 ipsilateral to the lesion, 3 contralateral to the lesion, and 3 dispersed throughout the liver) and qEASL variance was measured. Intra-class correlations were computed. Phase 2: 15 HCC patients with histosegmentation were selected. Six ROIs were systematically placed by AC (3 ROIs ipsilateral and 3 ROIs contralateral to the lesion). Three ROIs were placed by 2 radiologists. qEASL values were compared to histopathology by Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and median difference. Phase 1: The dispersed method (abandoned in phase 2) had low consistency and high variance. Phase 2: qEASL correlated strongly with pathology in systematic methods [Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.886 (ipsilateral) and 0.727 (contralateral)] and in clinical methods (0.625 and 0.879). However, ipsilateral placement matched best with pathology (median difference: 5.4 %; correlation: 0.89; regression CI: [0.904, 0.1409]). qEASL is a robust method with comparable values among tested placements. Ipsilateral placement showed high consistency and better pathological correlation. (orig.)

  7. Hemodynamic Modeling of Surgically Repaired Coarctation of the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura J; de Zélicourt, Diane A; Haggerty, Christopher M; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Cross, Russell R; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2011-12-01

    PURPOSE: Late morbidity of surgically repaired coarctation of the aorta includes early cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, shortened life expectancy, abnormal vasomodulator response, hypertension and exercise-induced hypertension in the absence of recurrent coarctation. Observational studies have linked patterns of arch remodeling (Gothic, Crenel, and Romanesque) to late morbidity, with Gothic arches having the highest incidence. We evaluated flow in native and surgically repaired aortic arches to correlate respective hemodynamic indices with incidence of late morbidity. METHODS: Three dimensional reconstructions of each remodeled arch were created from an anatomic stack of magnetic resonance (MR) images. A structured mesh core with a boundary layer was generated. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed assuming peak flow conditions with a uniform velocity profile and unsteady turbulent flow. Wall shear stress (WSS), pressure and velocity data were extracted. RESULTS: The region of maximum WSS was located in the mid-transverse arch for the Crenel, Romanesque and Native arches. Peak WSS was located in the isthmus of the Gothic model. Variations in descending aorta flow patterns were also observed among the models. CONCLUSION: The location of peak WSS is a primary difference among the models tested, and may have clinical relevance. Specifically, the Gothic arch had a unique location of peak WSS with flow disorganization in the descending aorta. Our results suggest that varied patterns and locations of WSS resulting from abnormal arch remodeling may exhibit a primary effect on clinical vascular dysfunction.

  8. Extended replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yutaka; Okada, Kenji; Oka, Takanori; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Omura, Atsushi; Kano, Hiroya; Okita, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We present our experience of total aortic arch replacement. Twenty-nine patients (21 males and 8 females; mean age 63.3 ± 13.3 years) with extended thoracic aortic aneurysms underwent graft replacement. The pathology of the diseased aorta was non-dissecting aneurysm in 11 patients, including one aortitis and aortic dissection in 18 patients (acute type A: one, chronic type A: 11, chronic type B: six). Five patients had Marfan syndrome. In their previous operation, two patients had undergone the Bentall procedure, three had endovascular stenting, one had aortic root replacement with valve sparing and 12 had hemi-arch replacement for acute type A dissection. Approaches to the aneurysm were as follows: posterolateral thoracotomy with rib-cross incision in 16, posterolateral thoracotomy extended to the retroperitoneal abdominal aorta in seven, mid-sternotomy and left pleurotomy in three, anterolateral thoracotomy with partial lower sternotomy in two and clam-shell incision in one patient. Extension of aortic replacement was performed from the aortic root to the descending aorta in 4, from the ascending aorta to the descending aorta in 17 and from the ascending to the abdominal aorta in eight patients. Arterial inflow for cardiopulmonary bypass consisted of the femoral artery in 15 patients, ascending aorta and femoral artery in seven, descending or abdominal aorta in five and ascending aorta in two. Venous drainage site was the femoral vein in 10, pulmonary artery in eight, right atrium in five, femoral artery with right atrium/pulmonary artery in four and pulmonary artery with right atrium in two patients. The operative mortality, 30-day mortality and hospital mortality was one (cardiac arrest due to aneurysm rupture), one (rupture of infected aneurysm) and one (brain contusion), respectively. Late mortality occurred in three patients due to pneumonia, ruptured residual aneurysm and intracranial bleeding. Actuarial survival at 5 years after the operations was 80.6

  9. Propagation of a small disturbance in Aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, M.; Prakash, R.

    1988-01-01

    The object of the present communication is to provide a mathematical model for the propagation of a small disturbance in the aorta. A differential equation governing the growth and decay of the small disturbance has been obtained. It is observed that the compressive pulses may grow into a shock wave. A mathematical model which is based on geometrical and mechanical properties of aorta admits disturbances in the propagating pulses which are not observed in human beings under normal physiological conditions. It is also observed that friction effects are to resist the tendency of shock formation in the model. The application of the results to the human arterial system shows that strong disturbances or shock waves are not expected under normal physiological conditions, while, in the case of a pathologically increased pressure rise at the root of aorta, shocklike transition may develop in the periphery. Some special cases of interest have also been discussed

  10. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram

  11. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  12. Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

  13. Device occlusion of pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta is an infrequent but well-recognized and potentially fatal complication after cardiac surgeries. The complication can develop early, delayed or late, and the presentation is also varied. We are presenting here two cases of pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta following cardiac surgery that were successfully managed by the transcatheter method. The first one occurred following coronary artery bypass surgery and the second one occurred following double-valve replacement surgery. The aortic openings of these aneurysms were occluded with 12 mm and 10 mm atrial septal occluders, respectively, with a good outcome. An immediate postprocedure angiogram showed no residual flow into the sac. Six months of follow-up of both cases also showed excellent results.

  14. Quantitative analysis of calcification of the abdominal aorta by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Kubota, Kazuo; Ito, Kengo; Ono, Shuichi; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1983-01-01

    Of the abdominal aorta, the relationship between the calcification index (C.I.) obtained from CT films and the atheromatous surface involved (S.I.) obtained from autopsy specimens was studied. The relations of C.I. to hypertension and hyperlipidemia were also analyzed. The coefficient of correlation between C.I. and S.I. was 0.83 (p< 0.001). Compared with a non-hypertensive group, the hypertensives showed a higher C.I., and such a difference was great in the male patients in their 50s and females in their 60s and 70s. The male patients with hyperlipidemia did not show definite differences in C.I. from the non-hyperlipidemia group, but the female patients in their 60s and 70s showed significantly higher values. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    •The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging.•Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation.•Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings.•Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging. Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation. Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings. Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation), the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins

  16. Coil embolization of an anastomotic leak after ascending aorta replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Anders; Andersen, Lars Ib; Haahr, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    in the presence of previous surgical repair of the thoracic aorta. The endovascular procedure, however, is almost only possible in the descending thoracic aorta, although advances have also been made in the aortic arch as well as in the ascending aorta with branched stent grafts. We report a case of a surgically...... treated aneurysm in the ascending thoracic aorta complicated with an anastomotic leak. If a short prosthesis (6 cm) had been available, the anastomotic leak would have been treated with endovascular repair. In lack of this prosthesis, we were forced to treat the patient with a method not generally...

  17. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  18. Identifying the principal modes of variation in human thoracic aorta morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Mariano E; Craiem, Damian; Chironi, Gilles; Graf, Sebastian; Macron, Laurent; Mousseaux, Elie; Simon, Alain; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2014-07-01

    Diagnosis and management of thoracic aorta (TA) disease demand the assessment of accurate quantitative information of the aortic anatomy. We investigated the principal modes of variation in aortic 3-dimensional geometry paying particular attention to the curvilinear portion. Images were obtained from extended noncontrast multislice computed tomography scans, originally intended for coronary calcium assessment. The ascending, arch, and descending aortas of 500 asymptomatic patients (57 ± 9 y, 81% male) were segmented using a semiautomated algorithm that sequentially inscribed circles inside the vessel cross-section. Axial planes were used for the descending aorta, whereas oblique reconstructions through a toroid path were required for the arch. Vessel centerline coordinates and the corresponding diameter values were obtained. Twelve size and shape geometric parameters were calculated to perform a principal component analysis. Statistics revealed that the geometric variability of the TA was successfully explained using 3 factors that account for ∼80% of total variability. Averaged aortas were reconstructed varying each factor in 5 intervals. Analyzing the parameter loadings for each principal component, the dominant contributors were interpreted as vessel size (46%), arch unfolding (22%), and arch symmetry (12%). Variables such as age, body size, and risk factors did not substantially modify the correlation coefficients, although some particular differences were observed with sex. We conclude that vessel size, arch unfolding, and symmetry form the basis for characterizing the variability of TA morphology. The numerical data provided in this study as supplementary material can be exploited to accurately reconstruct the curvilinear shape of normal TAs.

  19. Manejo endovascular de la aorta torácica Endovascular treatment of thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En comparación con el tratamiento convencional, la terapia endovascular en aneurisma de aorta torácica, presenta los mejores resultados, por lo que se convierte en el tratamiento de elección para la patología de aorta torácica descendente endovascular, por su baja morbimortalidad perioperatoria. El tratamiento quirúrgico por vía retroperitoneal y/o endovascular para aneurisma de aorta abdominal infrarrenal, resulta ser especialmente seguro en pacientes octogenarios o con alta morbilidad. Esta cohorte institucional presenta resultados perioperatorios y en el seguimiento, similares a los reportados en la literatura mundial.Compared with the conventional treatment, endovascular therapy in thoracic aortic aneurysm shows the best results, being the election treatment for the pathology of the descending thoracic aorta, due to its low peri-operative morbid-mortality. Surgical treatment by retro-peritoneal route and/or endovascular for infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm is especially safe in octogenarian patients or in those with a high mortality rate. This institutional cohort show peri-operative and follow-up results similar to those reported in the world literature.

  20. MR imaging of the toracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbagnati, F.; Castoldi, M.C.; Bianchini, E.

    1988-01-01

    Various pathological conditions of the thoracic aorta were studied by MR Imaging in 31 patients: 23 were aneurysms (branching and non-branching), 2 artero-venous fistulae, 2 aortic prostheses, 2 Marfan's syndromes, 1 coronary sinus aneurysm, and 1 isthmic stenosis. MRI studies were always performed on patients who had been examined by other imaging procedures. A comparative study was carried out on the results of MRI, angiography, computerized tomography, and ultrasounds. The possibility of propedeutic protocol was explored. Our experience, in accordance with the literature on the subject, indicates MRI as the procedure of choice in the study of aneurysms of the toracic aorta. The advantages offered by MRI-the high natural contrast between circulating blood and the supporting structures, the possibility of obtaining multiplanar images as well as data on intraluminal, parietal, and extraparietal conditions-make it a highly competitive procedure if compared to either CT or angiography. While awaiting further evidence, the use of a propedeutic protocol in non-aneurysmatic diseases is still not advisable, due to insufficient patient population, and to the lack of a consistent literature on the subject

  1. Dynamic Morphology of the Aorta. Pre- and postoperative imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prehn, J.

    2009-01-01

    With endovascular treatment of the aorta a folded covered stentgraft is introduced in the aorta via the femoral arteries. Adequate pre-operative planning is necessary to allow for proper stentgraft sizing. Stentgrafts should be adequately oversized to ensure good apposition to the aortic wall and

  2. Chronic posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta 55 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta 55 Years after a blunt trauma - A case report with review of literature. M H Milad, A M Gamal, M M Rab. Abstract. Injuries of thoracic aorta due to blunt trauma carry very high mortality rates and studies estimated that less than 2% of people who sustain it remain ...

  3. Structural Features in Tunica Media of the Aorta in Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalma CSIBI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In blood vessels situated just after the heart, an irregular blood flow occurs due to some specific structural elements of the tunica media. The current paper describes the histological aspects of some post-cardiac arterial sections in lamb. The tissue samples were collected from five 30 days old male lambs (Țurcană breed. Histological specimens from different regions of the aorta were harvested (i.e., the ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic and abdominal regions of the descending aorta. From the specified regions, small pieces (cca. 0.5 cm were fixed in neutral 10% buffered formalin. The tissues were subsequently embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 5 μm, and stained with Goldner’s trichrome and Verhoeff methods. Tissue analysis was performed using an Olympus system for image acquisition and analysis. Histological appearance of the assessed segments of the aorta in lamb is unusual. Major changes occur in tunica media of the aorta. In the ascending aorta, aortic arch and thoracic regions of the aorta, the histological outline is somewhat the same. The internal region of the media possesses the typical lamellar arrangement. Concerning the outer part of tunica media, the smooth muscle has a tendency to form bundles of various sizes. The muscle islands are not present in the media of abdominal region of the aorta, which exhibits the classic pattern of elastic arteries.

  4. AORTA: Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. This extended abstract introduces AORTA, a component that can be integrated into agents’ reasoning mechanism......, allowing them to reason about (and act upon) regulations specified by an organizational model using simple reasoning rules. The added value is that the organizational model is independent of that of the agents, and that the approach is not tied to a specific organizational model....

  5. Can Severe Kyphoscoliosis Lead to Aorta Rupture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotopoulos, Constantinos; Karakasi, Maria Valeria; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a polysystemic disease presenting with a multifaceted clinical picture. Clinical manifestations may present in the skin, as well as in the skeletal and cardiovascular system. The present study aims to describe and examine the case of a 46-year-old woman, who suffered from neurofibromatosis type 1 and died abruptly in the emergency room. The forensic examination attributed her death to traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta resulting from an acute angulation that her vertebral column formed in the thoracic region (severe kyphosis). Outspread cutaneous neurofibromas, severe scoliosis, and osteoporosis (brittle bones) were observed during the autopsy. No atherosclerotic lesions were detected in the aortic lumen. To the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been reported throughout relevant literature.

  6. Measurement of turbulence intensity in the center of the canine ascending aorta with a hot-film anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Kikkawa, S; Yoshikawa, T; Tanishita, K; Sugawara, M

    1983-05-01

    The blood flow velocity near the central axis of the canine ascending aorta was measured with a hot-film anemometer. The cardiac output and the heart rate were controlled at will by means of an extracorporeal circulation and by atrial pacing. The turbulent component of the blood flow velocity was calculated using an ensemble average technique. Ensemble average turbulent intensity was also calculated to show the time course of turbulence in the aorta. The ratio of the mean turbulence intensity to the time mean sectional average velocity in the aorta was constant in most animals regardless of the changes in fluid mechanical parameters. The correlation between the frequency parameter and the relative mean turbulence intensity was weakly positive. The power spectrum of the turbulence was also calculated.

  7. The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10−10 M–10−5 M showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression.

  8. Turner Syndrome in Girls Presenting with Coarctation of the Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhauser, Aaron; South, Sarah T; Meyers, Lindsay; Bleyl, Steven B; Botto, Lorenzo D

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency of Turner syndrome in a population-based, statewide cohort of girls with coarctation of the aorta. The Utah Birth Defects Network was used to ascertain a cohort of girls between 1997 and 2011 with coarctation of the aorta. Livebirths with isolated coarctation of the aorta or transverse arch hypoplasia were included and patients with complex congenital heart disease not usually seen in Turner syndrome were excluded. Of 244 girls with coarctation of the aorta, 77 patients were excluded, leaving a cohort of 167 girls; 86 patients (51%) had chromosomal studies and 21 (12.6%) were diagnosed with Turner syndrome. All patients were diagnosed within the first 4 months of life and 5 (24%) were diagnosed prenatally. Fifteen patients (71%) had Turner syndrome-related findings in addition to coarctation of the aorta. Girls with mosaicism were less likely to have Turner syndrome-associated findings (3/6 mosaic girls compared with 12/17 girls with non-mosaic 45,X). Twelve girls (57%) diagnosed with Turner syndrome also had a bicommissural aortic valve. At least 12.6% of girls born with coarctation of the aorta have karyotype-confirmed Turner syndrome. Such a high frequency, combined with the clinical benefits of an early diagnosis, supports genetic screening for Turner syndrome in girls presenting with coarctation of the aorta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical evaluation of atherosclerosis and mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Atsushi

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the aortic wall atherosclerosis, X-ray CT and ECG gated radionuclide angiography were performed in 25 subjects. They were classified into 17 normotensive group (N) and 8 hypertensive group (HT). The time-activity curve was generated using radionuclide angiography in the portion of the thoracic aorta. The aortic wall distensibility was expressed as 100ΔV/V 0 / PP, where ΔV was difference between maximum and minimum (V 0 ) counts of the aorta, and PP was pulse pressure. The degree of the aortic wall atherosclerosis was evaluated by X-ray CT. The aortic wall CT-score was calculated from the CT-scores measured whithin the region of interest of the other margin of the aorta and of the background by X-ray CT. There was a significant correlation between aortic wall CT-score and systolic blood pressure (r=0.59, p<0.01) or aortic wall distensibility (r=-0.74, p<0.01)), but no correlation existed between aortic wall CT-score and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.11, p:NS). The aortic wall distensibility was higher and the aortic wall CT-score was lower in N-group than in HT-group, whereas there was no difference of the radius of the aorta between both groups. These results suggest that the aortic wall atherosclerosis advanced progressively in hypertensive patients and systolic blood pressure was a good predictor of the degree of the aortic atherosclerosis. (author)

  10. Evaluation of diseases of the aorta with ultrafast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldredge, W.J.; Flicker, S.; Altin, R.S.; Naidech, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrafast CT offers several advantages over standard CT for imaging of various congenital and acquired diseases of the aorta. Scan acquisition rates of 50 msec permit evaluation of the entire aorta following a single peripheral intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium. Pathologic aortic flow patterns may also be defined using an ECG triggered ''flow'' mode, adding another dimension to CT evaluation of the aorta. The papers shows examples of a variety of aortic diseases, including coarctation, Marfan syndrome, atherosclerotic aneurysm, dissection, and postoperative abnormalities. The advantages of the modality are stressed

  11. Unexpected limited chronic dissection of the ascending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Angiolino

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a rare case of a limited chronic dissection of the ascending aorta that was accidentally discovered at operation performed for severe aortic stenosis and moderate to severe dilatation of the ascending aorta. Preoperative investigations such as transoesophageal echocardiography and cardiac catheterization missed the diagnosis of dissection. Intraoperative findings included a 3.5 cm eccentric bulge of the ascending aorta and a 5 mm circular shaped intimal tear comunicating with a limited hematoma or small dissection of the media layer. (The rarety of the report is that the chronic dissection is limited to a small area (approximatively 3.5 × 2.5 cm of the ascending aorta.

  12. Obstructive pneumonia: an indication for surgery in mega aorta syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkat, Maninder S; Bonser, Robert S

    2003-04-01

    A 76-year-old woman with annuloaortic ectasia, aortic regurgitation, and aneurysmal dilatation extending from the root to mid descending aorta presented with symptoms of bronchial compression and obstructive pneumonitis. Despite vigorous antibiotic treatment and physiotherapy, the pneumonitis persisted with clinical and radiologic deterioration. An emergency operation was performed to relieve bronchial compression. The operation comprised homograft aortic root replacement with prosthetic replacement of the arch and descending aorta. Postoperatively the pneumonia rapidly resolved.

  13. Surgical treatment of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the descending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Pavle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term “penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer” (PAU of the aorta describes the condition in which ulceration of an aortic atherosclerotic lesion penetrates the internal elastic lamina into media. PAU is a high-risk lesion due to its deleterious effects on the integrity of aortic wall, with potentially fatal outcome. Case report. A patient with intensive, sharp chest pain irradiating to the back but with no signs of myocardial ischemia on an electrocardiogram was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed no pathological changes of the ascending aorta. However, multislice computed tomography (CT showed an aortic ulcer with varying degree of the subadventitial hemorrhage in the region of the thoracic aorta at the level of Th 8-9. Due to imminent rupture of the penetrating aortic ulcer, the patient was promptly prepared for surgery. A 15 cm long subadventitial hematoma was found intraoperatively in the right posterolateral aspect of the descending aorta, 5 cm above the diaphragm and 7 cm below the origin of the left subclavial artery. The affected segment of the aorta was resected, followed by an inlay aortic reconstruction with a Dacron tube graft of 24 mm. Control CT revealed satisfactory reconstruction of the descending aorta. Conclusion. PAU is a rare, but potentially fatal disease. Open surgery in patients with PAU is an effective treatment strategy, although endovascular treatment options are emerging.

  14. PIV and MRV Measurements in Human Thoracic Aorta Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Ananth; Elkins, Christopher; Draney, Mary; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan

    2004-11-01

    Aortic dissection is a non-traumatic injury to the aorta in which a flap is created inside the aorta by the separation of the inner lining of the vessel wall from its outer layers. It is hypothesized that dissections start as tears in vessels' inner lining and propagate as blood impinges through the tear into the separated part of the vessel wall. No two dissections are alike, but many share common characteristics, one of which is that tear sites occur in similar places in the aorta. In an effort to understand the origins of these tear sites and the propagation of dissections, we are studying blood flow in human aortas. To begin, we are using rigid aorta phantoms based on anatomies of healthy adults extracted from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical scans. Clear polyurethane phantoms are created by casting around water-soluble positive molds manufactured using rapid prototyping. We study steady flows with Reynolds numbers comparable to those present in the aorta during the systolic pulse and physiologically pulsatile flows. The entire three-dimensional flow is measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV), a technique based on MRI principles capable of measuring three-component mean velocities. MRV results are compared to the instantaneous and average two-component velocity fields measured in a few 2D planes with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV results provide validation for the MRV and insight into the instantaneous flow structures that may possibly lead to aortic dissection through fluid structure wall interaction.

  15. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation

  16. Ultra-sonografia da aorta abdominal e de seus ramos em cães Ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its branches in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Kamikawa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O ultra-som bidimensional e o ultra-som Doppler foram utilizados para avaliar a biometria e a hemodinâmica da aorta abdominal e artérias ilíacas externas de 131cães clinicamente normais. Os resultados da avaliação biométrica da aorta abdominal indicaram um diâmetro médio de 0,80cm para o seu segmento diafragmático (AOD; 0,74cm para o seu segmento caudal às artérias renais (AOR e 0,69cm para o segmento cranial à sua bifurcação (AOT. A artéria ilíaca externa direita (AIED apresentou o diâmetro médio de 0,42cm e a artéria ilíaca externa esquerda (AIEE o diâmetro médio de 0,39. O estudo hemodinâmico da aorta abdominal apresentou velocidade de pico sistólico médio de 104,00cm/s para AOR; 99,61cm/s para AOT; 85,47cm/s para AIED e 99,51cm/s para AIEE. Verificaram-se correlações de diferentes intensidades entre os diâmetros vasculares em diferentes pontos de tomadas e os fatores biométricos corpóreos (CRL. Correlações baixas foram observadas quando esses diâmetros foram confrontados com a idade.A duplex ultrasound system incorporating a pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound probe with conventional B-mode real-time imaging was used to evaluate the biometric and the hemodynamic of abdominal aorta and external iliac arteries of a hundred and thirty one normal dogs. Results of biometrics of abdominal aorta, presented a mean diameter of 0.80cm in its diaphragmatic segment (AOD; 0.74cm in its segment caudal to the renal arteries (AOR and 0.69cm in the segment cranial to its termination (AOT. The right-external-iliac artery (AIED presented a mean diameter of 0.42cm and the left-external iliac artery (AIEE a mean diameter of 0.39cm. The hemodynamic study of the abdominal aorta presented a medium systolic peak velocity to AOR of 104cm per sec.; to AOT of 99.61cm per sec.; to AIED of 85.47cm per sec. and to AIEE of 99.51cm per sec. Correlations of different intensities between the vascular diameters have been verified between the

  17. Radiotherapy-induced aortic valve disease associated with porcelain aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Fukui, Kozo; Ichinoseki, Ikkoh; Munakata, Mamoru; Takahashi, Shoichi; Fukuda Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    Mediastinal irradiation has been reported to induce cardiac disease such as pericarditis, valvular dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, accelerated arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries, and also calcifications of the ascending aorta. We herein describe a case of radiotherapy-induced porcelain aorta and aortic valve disease and their surgical treatment. The patient was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) in 1965 (Osserman's type II), and mediastinal irradiation was performed in 1970 for treatment of thymic tumor associated with MG. Thirty years after radiation therapy, complete atrioventricular block and aortic valve disease with severe calcification of the ascending aorta and aortic arch (porcelain aorta) were detected on echo cardiogram and cardiac catheterization. A permanent pacemaker was implanted via the left subclavian vein and aortic valve replacement was performed under extracorporeal circulation established by selective cerebral perfusion and balloon occlusion instead of aortic cross-clamping. As no risk factors of arteriosclerosis such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension were apparent, we concluded that the aortic valve disease and porcelain aorta were primarily induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Aorta Ascending Aneurysm Analysis Using CFD Models towards Possible Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Simão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD can be seen as complementary tool alongside the visualization capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and computed tomography (CT imaging for decision-making. In this research CT images of three cases (i.e., a healthy heart pilot project and two patients with complex aortic disease are used to validate and analyse the corresponding computational results. Three 3D domains of the thoracic aorta were tested under hemodynamic conditions. Under normal conditions, the flow inside the thoracic aorta is more streamlined. In the presence of ascending aortic aneurysm, large areas of blue separation zones (i.e., low velocities are identified, as well as an internal geometry deformation of the aortic wall, respectively. This flow separation is characterized by the reversal of flow and sudden drop of the wall shear stress (WSS in the aorta. Moreover, the aortic aneurysm simulations adversely affect the flow by increasing the pressure drop and flow inefficiency, due to the anatomical configuration of the ascending aorta. Altered hemodynamics led to a vortex formation and locally reversed the flow that eventually induced a low flow velocity and oscillating WSS in the thoracic aorta. Significant changes in the hemodynamic characteristics affect the normal blood circulation with strong turbulence occurrence, damaging the aortic wall, leading ultimately to the need of surgical intervention to avoid fatal events.

  19. Conventional and cine-MRI in patients with aneurysms of the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Fengels, W.; Friedmann, G.; Lemaitre, F.; Schmidt, R.; Lanfermann, H.; Erasmi, H.; Koeln Univ.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 40 patients with aneurysms of the abdominal aorta by MRI. These results were compared with those obtained by real-time sonography (n = 40), angiography (n = 32) and CT (n = 16). In 30 patients the imaging results were compared - as far as possible - with the operative findings. MRI proved more reliable, especially if compared with sonography, in evaluating renal or iliac artery involvement. Mural thrombi were detected more often (93%) by MRI than by CT (85%) or sonography (83%). Cine-MRI showed strong turbulences in 33%. Turbulences did not correlate with the size of the aneurysm. (orig.) [de

  20. Analysis of the thoracic aorta using a semi-automated post processing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entezari, Pegah; Kino, Aya; Honarmand, Amir R.; Galizia, Mauricio S.; Yang, Yan; Collins, Jeremy; Yaghmai, Vahid; Carr, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluates a semi-automated method for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA) measurement using ECG-gated Dual Source CT Angiogram (DSCTA). Methods: This retrospective HIPAA compliant study was approved by our IRB. Transaxial maximum diameters of outer wall to outer wall were studied in fifty patients at seven anatomic locations of the thoracic aorta: annulus, sinus, sinotubular junction (STJ), mid ascending aorta (MAA) at the level of right pulmonary artery, proximal aortic arch (PROX) immediately proximal to innominate artery, distal aortic arch (DIST) immediately distal to left subclavian artery, and descending aorta (DESC) at the level of diaphragm. Measurements were performed using a manual method and semi-automated software. All readers repeated their measurements. Inter-method, intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were evaluated according to intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman plot. The number of cases with manual contouring or center line adjustment for the semi-automated method and also the post-processing time for each method were recorded. Results: The mean difference between semi-automated and manual methods was less than 1.3 mm at all seven points. Strong inter-method, inter-observer and intra-observer agreement was recorded at all levels (ICC ≥ 0.9). The maximum rate of manual adjustment of center line and contour was at the level of annulus. The average time for manual post-processing of the aorta was 19 ± 0.3 min, while it took 8.26 ± 2.1 min to do the measurements with the semi-automated tool (Vitrea version 6.0.0.1 software). The center line was edited manually at all levels, with most corrections at the level of annulus (60%), while the contour was adjusted at all levels with highest and lowest number of corrections at the levels of annulus and DESC (75% and 0.07% of the cases), respectively. Conclusion: Compared to the commonly used manual method, semi-automated measurement of vessel dimensions is

  1. Dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infrarrenal Spontaneous dissection of the infrarenal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio de Camargo Junior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A rotura da camada íntima que marca o início da dissecção aórtica se origina na maioria dos casos na aorta torácica, sendo rara a dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infra-renal. As três principais causas são: iatrogênica, traumática ou espontânea. A dor abdominal e a isquemia de membros são os sintomas mais comuns e um número significativo de pacientes e´ assintomatico. O diagnóstico tem sido feito através de métodos de imagem como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância nuclear magnética e angiografia aliados ao alto índice de suspeição. Relatamos os casos de duas pacientes que apresentaram dissecção de aorta abdominal infrarrenal com quadro de dor abdominal súbita, sem sinais de irritação peritoneal com pulsos presentes e simétricos ao exame físico que deram entrada no pronto socorro do Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro da PUC Campinas e que foram tratadas pela equipe de Cirurgia Vascular. As duas pacientes no momento do exame apresentavam-se hipertensas e ao ultrassom apresentavam alteração da conformidade da aorta abdominal que foram tratada s cirurgicamente. Uma paciente foi tratada cirurgicamente submetida a endarterectomia da placa dissecada da aorta abdominal infrarrenal de 2,2 cm de diâmetro e 2,0 cm de extensão. A outra paciente foi submetida a revascularização da aorta abdominal bi-iliaca com prótese de Dacron 16 × 8 mm por apresentar disseccao da aorta abdominal distal. As duas pacientes apresentaram boa evolução pos-operatoria tendo alta hospitalar em bom estado geral.The rupture of the intimal layer marks the beginning of the aortic dissection, which usually happens in the thoracic aorta. The spontaneous dissection of the infrarenal aorta is rare. The main causes are: iatrogenic, traumatic and spontaneous. Abdominal pain and limb ischemia are the commonest symptoms, and some patients are asymptomatics. The diagnosis is made by ultrasound, computed tomography

  2. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    organization-aware. It is designed such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss how...... the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we describe the AORTA (Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents) architecture for making agents...... the agents can coordinate their organizational tasks using AORTA....

  3. The Largest Reported Dissecting Aneurysm of Ascending Aorta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He presented with dyspnea, chest pain and amazing symptom of superior vena cava syndrome. The patient underwent open heart surgery with resection of ascending aorta aneurysm with classic Bentall operation. The post-operative period was associated with uneventful course and the patient was discharged with good ...

  4. Ischemic colitis complicating reconstruction of the abdominal aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V; Christoffersen, J K; Andersen, J

    1985-01-01

    A review of 23 patients with ischemic colitis after surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta disclosed a pathogenetic heterogeneous finding. Ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, abolished collateral blood supply or nonocclusive low flow state, or both, was a common feature. An incidence...

  5. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    the same time course. Cumulative addition of acetylcholine (10-7- 3 x 10-5 M) caused a marked relaxation that was reverted slightly at high concentrations. The relaxation was the same with rings derived from the upper, middle, and lower part of the thoracic aorta. Two consecutive concentration...

  6. Dr Murray's case of ligation of the abdominal aorta - Somerset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-06

    Apr 6, 1991 ... judgment. ,"A tedious and rather difficult part of the operation suc- ceeded; viz. the making a division in the aortic plexus of nerves, and in the membranous sheath covering the aorta, to get betwixt the vessel and the spine, which I effected partly by the steel end of an elevator cranii, but chiefly by my nails, ...

  7. Re-interventions on the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhoff, Florian S; Carrel, Thierry P

    2017-11-01

    The advent of multi-gene panel genetic testing and the discovery of new syndromic and non-syndromic forms of connective tissue disorders have established thoracic aortic aneurysms as a genetically mediated disease. Surgical results in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) provide an important benchmark for this patient population. Prophylactic aortic root surgery prevents acute dissection and has contributed to the improved survival of MFS patients. In the majority of patients, re-interventions are driven by a history of dissection. Patients undergoing elective root repair have a low risk for re-interventions on the root itself. Experienced centers have results after valve-sparing procedures at 10 years comparable with those seen after a modified Bentall procedure. In patients where only the ascending aorta was replaced during the initial surgery, re-intervention rates are high as the root continues to dilate. The fate of the aortic arch in MFS patients presenting with dissection is strongly correlated with the extent of the initial surgery. Not replacing the entire ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch results in a high rate of re-interventions. Nevertheless, the additional burden of replacing the entire aortic arch during emergent proximal repair is not very well defined and makes comparisons with patients undergoing elective arch replacement difficult. Interestingly, replacing the entire aortic arch during initial surgery for acute dissection does not protect from re-interventions on downstream aortic segments. MFS patients suffering from type B dissection have a high risk for re-interventions ultimately leading up to replacement of the entire thoracoabdominal aorta even if the dissection was deemed uncomplicated by conventional criteria. While current guidelines do not recommend the implantation of stent grafts in MFS patients, implantation of a frozen-elephant-trunk to create a stable proximal landing zone for future endovascular or open procedures has

  8. The risks of aorta impingement from pedicle screw may increase due to aorta movement during posterior instrumentation in Lenke 5C curve: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Xu, Leilei; Qiu, Yong; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhen; Shi, Benglong; Qian, Bang-ping; Zhu, Zezhang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the aorta movement following correction surgery for patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis and to determine the subsequent risk of the aorta impingement for pedicle screw (PS) misplacement. Thirty-six AIS patients with a main thoracolumbar or lumbar curve were included in this study. According to the direction of the main curve, the patients were divided into Group R and Group L, with Group R comprising 16 patients with a right-sided curve and Group L comprising 20 patients with a left-sided curve. All patients underwent CT scans of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine before and after surgery. To identify the relative positions of the aorta to vertebral body, several parameters were measured from the CT images of the middle transverse planes of vertebrae from T11 to L4, including aorta-vertebra angle (α), vertebral rotation angle (β), left safety distance (LSD) and right safety distance (RSD). The risk of the aorta impingement from T11 to L4 was calculated. An intragroup comparison regarding the position of the aorta relative to the vertebral body before and after correction surgery was performed accordingly. After surgery, the aorta moved toward the vertebral body among all levels in both groups. Compared with that in Group L, the aorta in Group R was significantly closer to the entry point at all levels, especially at T11. Before surgery, the aorta in Group R was at a high risk of impingement from left PS placement regardless of the diameters of the simulated screws. While in Group L, the risk of aorta impingement was mainly caused by the right placement of 45 mm PS. After surgery, both groups had an increased risk of aorta impingement from PS insertion, especially at T11. The risk of aorta impingement from PS placement was significantly higher in Group R than in Group L. The risk of aorta impingement increased as the aorta shifted leftward after correction surgery, especially in right-sided Lenke 5C curve. Thus, preoperative risk

  9. Measurement of calcium influx in tethered rings of rabbit aorta under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, M.M.; Ratz, P.H.; Flaim, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) influx in vascular smooth muscle is routinely measured in untethered preparations not under passive stretch, and Ca influx data are correlated with data for steady-state isometric tension obtained under parallel conditions from tethered preparations under passive stretch. The validity of this method was tested by simultaneous measurement of Ca influx and tension in tethered rings of rabbit thoracic aorta. Ca influx ( 45 Ca 3-min pulse) and tension were measured at 3 and 30 min after norepinephrine (NE) or KCl and under control (no agonist) conditions. Active tension was significantly altered by variations in passive tension. Ca influx was unaffected by passive tension under control, NE, or KCl conditions, and results were similar at 3 and 30 min. The results confirm the validity of correlating Ca influx data from untethered rings with steady-state contractile response data obtained from tethered rings under similar experimental conditions

  10. Delayed rupture of thoracic aorta aneurysm following a kick to the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; De Giorgio, Fabio; Partemi, Sara; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Carbone, Arnaldo

    2009-03-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR) because different mechanical forces act on the aorta, at anatomically susceptible sites, including shearing, torsion and stretching, but the origin, transduction and relative importance of these forces remain uncertain. We report a case of a 74-year-old man injured by a kick to the abdomen. After 2 days he felt chest pain paroxysm and weakness in his left leg. The patient was admitted to an emergency care department where he experienced sudden and severe hemodynamic deterioration, dying rapidly. The autopsy, performed 3 days later, showed haemorragic infarction of hypogastric subcutaneous tissues and revealed an extended dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with following haemopericardium. In our case we considered that a low energy compression to the abdomen, in presence of underlying atherosclerosis, caused aortic dissection rather than rupture and then the 48h time span after the traumatic event and the cardiac tamponade was enough to complete the aortic retrograde dissection. We finally emphasise the importance of the careful surveillance of any trauma close to the abdomen in view of initially unpredictable, as well as eventful injuries. The finding of early signs of neointima formation in thoracoabdominal portions of aortic dissection strongly supported our interpretation. The forensic interest of this case is correlated to the voluntary character of the inflicted injury. The culprit was thus charged with manslaughter.

  11. Ascending Aorta Stenting After Off-Pump Aortic Wrapping in Stanford A Retrograde Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verscheure, Dorian; Ramadan, Ramzi; Azmoun, Alexandre; Guihaire, Julien; Angel, Claude; Brenot, Philippe; Deleuze, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    We report 4 cases of off-pump ascending aorta wrapping combined with ascending aorta stenting in retrograde Stanford A acute aortic dissection (SAAD). Since 2008, 18 patients have undergone wrapping of the ascending aorta at our institution. Four patients had a persistent circulating false lumen in the ascending aorta after wrapping, with a threat to the aortic root. We chose an endovascular approach with ascending aorta stenting. Follow-up computed tomography showed a reapplication of the intimal flap in the reinforced aorta. Ascending aorta stenting after aortic wrapping for retrograde SAAD is a safe and efficient technique to prevent proximal progression of the dissection. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipid synthesis in the aorta of chick and other species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The relative rate of fatty acid biosynthesis from labelled acetate in the adipose tissue of chicken is much lower than that in the rat (O'Hea and Leveille, 1968). To determine similar species differences in lipid synthesis in the aortas of cock, rat, rabbit and monkey, thoracic and abdominal segments of fresh aortas were incubated in vitro with (1- 14 C)-acetate for 3 h. Total lipids and their fractions (free and total cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids) were counted for radioactivity. Incorporation of radioactivity into total as well as all classes of lipids was several times greater in chicken than in other species. Significant and consistent incorporation into cholesterol occurred only in chicks. Synthesis into total lipids and triglycerides was greater in the thoracic segment of chicks. These findings (Rao and Rao, 1968) are consistent with the ready susceptibility of chicken to atherosclerosis. (author)

  13. Contractile reaction of isolated frog aorta after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailov, M.C.; Prechter, I.; Greimel, H.; Welscher, U.E.

    1983-01-01

    The action of X-rays (50 kV, filtered by 0.3 mm Al) on helical strip of frog aorta (rana esculenta) has been investigated. The isolated preparations have a stable basal tone and are radio-sensitive to X-rays which induce reversible, dose-dependent, contractile responses. After repeated irradiational tachyphylaxis appears. The threshold doses are about 250 R at 3 to 6 kR/min, antiadrenergic (phentolamine, propranolol), anticholinergic (atropin), antihistaminic (Neo-Bridal) and serotoninergic (Deseril) drugs have no visible influence on the X-ray induced reaction, i.e. these action mechanisms of the irradiation-induced contraction do not seem probable. Theophylline and cAMP inhibit the X-ray contraction probably non-specifically. Indometacin also inhibits the X-ray contraction: this suggests participation of prostaglandin-mechanism on the contraction of frog aorta after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  14. Ultrasonography of abdominal aorta and its branches in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kamikawa, Lilian; Bombonato, Pedro Primo

    2007-01-01

    O ultra-som bidimensional e o ultra-som Doppler foram utilizados para avaliar a biometria e a hemodinâmica da aorta abdominal e artérias ilíacas externas de 131cães clinicamente normais. Os resultados da avaliação biométrica da aorta abdominal indicaram um diâmetro médio de 0,80cm para o seu segmento diafragmático (AOD); 0,74cm para o seu segmento caudal às artérias renais (AOR) e 0,69cm para o segmento cranial à sua bifurcação (AOT). A artéria ilíaca externa direita (AIED) apresentou o diâme...

  15. Mechanics, Mechanobiology, and Modeling of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, J.D.; Holzapfel, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play fundamental roles in the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and their responses to treatment. Advances during the past two decades have increased our understanding of the mechanics and biology of the human abdominal aorta and AAAs, yet there remains a pressing need for considerable new data and resulting patient-specific computational models that can better describe the current status of a lesion and better predict the evolution of lesion geometry, composition, and material properties and thereby improve interventional planning. In this paper, we briefly review data on the structure and function of the human abdominal aorta and aneurysmal wall, past models of the mechanics, and recent growth and remodeling models. We conclude by identifying open problems that we hope will motivate studies to improve our computational modeling and thus general understanding of AAAs. PMID:22189249

  16. Descending thoracic aorta dissection associated with esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of aortic dissection with a malignancy is a rare finding and previous reports are usually those of primary aortic sarcomas. A 45-year-old male presented to us with chest pain and dysphagia for 1 month with a background history of obstructive airway disease and uncontrolled hypertension. In this report we present a case of typical descending aorta dissection with associated esophageal carcinoma.

  17. Intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst adherent to ascending aorta in young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Atipo-Galloye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts arise from an abnormal budding of the ventral diverticulum of the foregut or the thracheobronchial tree during embryogenesis. An intrapericardial location is an extremely rare finding. Symptoms are related to cardiac structure compression, but in most case they remain asymptomatic. We present a case of intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst in a young patient, resected entirely with repair of right lateral proximal ascending aorta with PTFE graft.

  18. CT and MR imaging of the thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Cesare Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time, both CT and MRI are valuable techniques in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nowadays, CT represents the most widely employed technique for the study of the thoracic aorta. The new generation CTs show sensitivities up to 100% and specificities of 98-99%. Sixteen and wider row detectors provide isotropic pixels, mandatory for the ineludible longitudinal reconstruction. The main limits are related to the X-ray dose expoure and the use of iodinated contrast media. MRI has great potential in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nevertheless, if compared to CT, acquisition times remain longer and movement artifact susceptibility higher. The main MRI disadvantages are claustrophobia, presence of ferromagnetic implants, pacemakers, longer acquisition times with respect to CT, inability to use contrast media in cases of renal insufficiency, lower spatial resolution and less availability than CT. CT is preferred in the acute aortic disease. Nevertheless, since it requires iodinated contrast media and X-ray exposure, it may be adequately replaced by MRI in the follow up of aortic diseases. The main limitation of MRI, however, is related to the scarce visibility of stents and calcifications.

  19. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  20. Myoelectric activity of the muscular layer of the abdominal aorta in pigs in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Czerski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 5 pigs weighing 20–30 kg. Bipolar electrodes were surgically implanted into the muscular layer of the vascular smooth muscle cell of the abdominal aorta just below the renal arteries. Myoelectric activity characterized by the appearance of changes of membrane potential was found. Changes of potential could be divided according to the amplitude, duration and frequency into first-, second- and third-order waves. First-order waves appeared with a mean frequency of 128 ± 14/min. The mean wave amplitude was 0.150 ± 0.03 mV, and the mean duration was 0.43 ± 0.05 s. They were closely correlated with the electrocardiogram and blood pressure changes. Second-order waves appeared with a mean frequency of 15.9 ± 4.4/min. They were characterized by a mean duration of 2.69 ± 1.5 s. The mean amplitude of the discharge was 0.205 ± 0.157 mV for the second-order wave, they were correlated with the animal’s respiratory action. Third-order waves appeared with a mean frequency of 4.03 ± 1.07/ min. They were characterized by a mean duration of 11.81 ± 5.3 s. The mean amplitude of the discharge was 0.345 ± 0.232 mV for the third-order wave and they were associated with the autonomic control of the lumen of the blood vessel. For the first time the usefulness of the electromyography method in monitoring changes in the vascular smooth muscle cell of pig abdominal aorta was proved.

  1. Lipoid pneumonia in infants: A radiological-pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.O.; Riff, E.J.; Tufenkeji, H.T.; Moore, C.C.M.; Akhtar, M.

    1991-01-01

    A series of nine infants, 2-8 months of age, with a history of animal or vegetable fat intake within 10 days after birth, is presented. The infants developed respiratory problems and failure to thrive. Plain films and computed tomography showed areas of consolidation in the medial-posterior parts of the lungs. The areas of consolidation showed three types of changes of computed tomography. Attenuation measurements did not reveal fat. To establish the diagnosis, fine needle aspiration biopsy, tru-cut biopsy and/or open lung biopsy was done in eight infants and bronchopulmonary lavage in one patient. The pathological findings were an intense lymphocytic infiltration with scattered granulomas which contained lipid deposit. (orig.)

  2. Osteosarcoma: A clinical radiological pathological study in Mulago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histology showed marked pleomorphic osteoblasts with osteoid formation. Conclusion: Osteosarcoma in Mulago hospital has not changed its clinical radiological and histopathological manifestation over the years. All mixed density lesions located in the metaphysis of long bones at the knee joint in an adolescent with sharp ...

  3. Unusual manifestations of astroblastoma: a radiologic-pathologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, Srinivas; Kleiner, Laurence I.; Mirkin, David L.; Broxson, Emmett

    2009-01-01

    Astroblastoma is a very rare primary glial tumor occurring in children and young adults that is almost exclusively supratentorial in location. We report an extremely unusual presentation of a densely calcified posterior fossa astroblastoma with disseminated spinal and supratentorial metastasis. The mass exhibited neoplastic bone formation, which has not been reported, although calcifications are commonly seen in astroblastomas. A companion case of a low-grade astroblastoma that demonstrated classic histologic features but nonspecific and atypical imaging findings is also included. These cases expand the imaging and pathologic spectrum of this controversial tumor that shows highly variable biologic behavior and is difficult to distinguish from ependymoma. (orig.)

  4. Osteosarcoma: A clinical radiological pathological study in Mulago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    87.5% of the lesions were in the appendicular skeleton while 12.5% were in the axial skeleton. The commonest clinical presentation was pain. The commonest radiological presentation was that of a metadiaphyseal mixed density lesion. The commonest site was the proximal tibia. Histology showed marked pleomorphic ...

  5. Mediastinal germ cell tumors: a radiologic-pathologic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevelegas, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Aristoteles Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Palladas, P. [Dept. of Radiology, G. Papanicolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Scordalaki, A. [Dept. of Pathology, G. Papanicolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2001-10-01

    Germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are histologically identical to those found in the testes and ovaries. Early diagnosis and treatment improve the survival rate. Imaging studies of teratoma demonstrate a rounded, often lobulated heterogeneous mass containing soft tissue elements with fluid and fat attenuation. Calcification is present in 20-43% of cases. Seminomas are large masses of homogeneous soft tissue attenuation. Malignant nonseminomatous germ cell tumors are heterogeneous tumors with irregular borders due to invasion of adjacent structures. CT shows the location and extent of the tumors as well as intrinsic elements including soft tissue, fat, fluid, and calcification. CT is the modality of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of these tumors. MRI reveals masses of heterogeneous signal intensity, is more sensitive in depicting infiltration of the adjacent structures by fat plane obliteration, and is performed as an ancillary study. (orig.)

  6. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gajin Predrag; Tanasković Slobodan; Nenezić Dragoslav; Ilijevski Nenad; Radak Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0%) of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery ...

  7. Demonstration of ascending aorta in hypoplastic left heart syndrome with aortic atresia by balloon occlusion aortography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.N.S.; Leung, M.P.; Lau, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Balloon occlusion angiography in the descending aorta produced clear retrograde visualization of the hypoplastic ascending aorta and related structures in eighteen neonates with aortic atresia. Transient bradycardia was the only complication observed. It is technically simpler than retrograde cannulation of the aorta via an arteriotomy and should be the method of choice when cardiac catheterization is required in patients with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Interest for traumatic thoracic aorta rupture stems from the fact that its number continually increases, and it can be rapidly lethal. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to present early and long term results as well as experiences of our team in surgical treatment of traumatic thoracic aorta rupture. METHOD Our retrospective study includes 12 patients with traumatic thoracic aorta rupture treated between 1985 and 2007. There were 10 male and two female patients of average age 30.75 years (18-74. RESULTS In six cases, primary diagnosis was established during the first seven days days after trauma, while in 6 more than one month later. In 11 cases, classical open surgical procedure was performed, while endovascular treatment was used in one patient. Three (25% patients died, while two (16.6% had paraplegia. Nine patients (75% were treated without complications, and are in good condition after a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years (from one month to 22 years. CONCLUSION Surgical treatment requires spinal cord protection to prevent paraplegia, using cardiopulmonary by-pass (three of our cases or external heparin-bonded shunts (five of our cases. Cardiopulmonary by-pass is followed with lower incidence of paraplegia, however it is not such a good solution for patients with polytrauma because of hemorrhage. The endovascular repair is a safe and feasible procedure in the acute phase, especially because of traumatic shock and polytrauma which contributes to higher mortality rate after open surgery. On the other hand, in chronic postrauamatic aortic rupture, open surgical treatment is connected with a lower mortality rate and good long-term results. There have been no published data about long-term results of endovascular treatment in the chronic phase.

  9. Characterization of fracture toughness exhaustion in pig aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Boby; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Mongrain, Rosaire; Reiter, Steven; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the aorta (SRA) without aneurysm, dissection, inflammation or infection of the aortic wall can be of two types: traumatic and non-traumatic. SRA is most of the time a fatal event. Consequently, it is important to understand the conditions which lead to the aortic rupture, and, in the case of non-traumatic SRA, to predict the temporal likelihood of rupture. The present work incorporates the temporal aspect by examining the effects of fatigue on aortic wall properties, and adopts an energy approach, based on fracture toughness, to evaluate the aorta's resistance to rupture. Fracture toughness characterization is a destructive testing process and as a consequence cannot be implemented as a clinical tool. However, using concepts in damage mechanics, in theory, it should be possible to indirectly assess fracture toughness from other mechanical properties, such as aortic wall stiffness. Tissue samples from non-aneurysmal porcine aortas were fatigued and were subjected to both biaxial and guillotine tests to assess wall stiffness variations and fracture toughness exhaustion, respectively. The experiments reveal that aortic wall stiffness variations and fracture toughness exhaustion decreased as a function of loading cycles and can be modeled with exponential functions. After one million loading cycles, the stiffness ratio between the non-fatigued sample and the fatigued sample, dropped to about 0.85, while the fracture toughness ratio counterpart fell to about 0.80. Consequently, the changes in both stiffness and fracture toughness as a function of applied fatigue cycles can be measured in aortic tissues. Moreover, these results suggest the possibility to use fracture toughness exhaustion curves as a fatigue criterion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computational modeling of blood flow in the aorta--insights into eccentric dilatation of the ascending aorta after surgery for coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopos, Marcela; Poussineau, Nicole; Maday, Yvon; Canniffe, Carla; Celermajer, David S; Bonnet, Damien; Ou, Phalla

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether combining a computational modeling technique with data from patient magnetic resonance imaging studies can detect different fluid dynamics and vascular biomechanical properties of the ascending and horizontal aorta in patients with angulated "gothic" arch geometry compared with those with normal "Romanesque" arch geometry after aortic coarctation repair. Advanced computational fluid dynamics techniques (coupled Navier-Stokes and elastodynamics equations) were used to predict the fluid-wall interactions in large arteries. We modeled the fluid dynamics and shear stress in the ascending and horizontal aorta in cases of "gothic" arch and normal "Romanesque" aortic arch geometry. A total of 30 patients after aortic coarctation repair prospectively underwent 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging angiography of the thoracic aorta. Measurements of the ascending and horizontal aorta were assessed using multiplanar reformatting images. Our computational model demonstrated that wall shear stress is greater in those with an angulated "gothic" aortic arch than in those with a "Romanesque" arch. In particular, wall shear stress affected the anterior and posterior segments of the ascending aorta and the inferior and superior segments of the horizontal aorta (vs the left and right segments). In vivo, a "gothic" arch was associated with dilatation of the ascending and horizontal aorta, which was eccentric rather than concentric (Pgothic" aortic arch after repair of coarctation. This suggests that patients with an angulated "gothic" aortic arch might warrant increased surveillance for aortic complications. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Left Ventricular Myxoma Occluding the Suprarenal Abdominal Aorta in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Takuya; Kasahara, Shingo; Ohtsuki, Shin-ichi; Kuroko, Yosuke; Kotani, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Yoshizumi, Ko; Arai, Sadahiko; Sano, Shunji

    2015-07-01

    Myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults; however, it is extremely rare in infants. Acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta by a cardiac myxoma is also rare. We report the case of an infant with acute occlusion of the suprarenal abdominal aorta by a left ventricular myxoma. The patient underwent successful catheter embolectomy of the abdominal aorta and surgical resection of the cardiac myxoma. This is a very rare case report of the combination of infantile left ventricular myxoma and acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Resistant arterial hypertension and coarctation of the aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rossique-Delmas, Pilar; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2014-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta accounts for around 5 percent of all congenital heart defects. Many of these patients develop arterial hypertension, and occasionally resistant arterial hypertension, despite adequate correction. This may lead to potentially fatal complications such as heart failure, aortic dissection, cerebrovascular events, or myocardial infarction. Therefore, a correct diagnosis must be made and an appropriate treatment started to reduce arterial hypertension, arteriosclerotic vascular disease, as well as the increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Spiral CT angiography of the abdominal aorta and its branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gaa, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Deaconess Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Spiral CT angiography (CTA) was performed on 19 patients for the pre-operative assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms and in 3 post-operative renal artery bypass patients. Spiral CTA performed during intravenous contrast infusion provided a volume of data that was reconstructed at thin increments. Images were edited and reformatted either as surface rendered three-dimensional or maximum intensity projection (MIP) displays. Final images were viewed in a cine-loop presentation of quality comparable to conventional angiograms. The entire aorta can be examined from the coeliac axis to mid-pelvis with only 107 ml of 60% contrast. (orig.)

  14. Penetrating ulcer of descending thoracic aorta: radiological findings and the report of five cases; Ulcera penetrante de aorta toracica descendente. Hallazgos radiologicos. Presentacion de cinco casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, C.; Corchon, C.; Alvarez, B.; Logrono, I. [Hospital de Navarra (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Penetrating ulcer of the aorta is characterized by the ulceration of atheromatous plaque with perforation of the internal elastic lamina, which favors the formation of a hematoma within the tunica media of the aorta. It presents with acute chest pain and may mimic ischemic heart disease or other aortic lesions such as dissection or aneurysm rupture. It is an uncommon but severe disease, the diagnosis of which is based mainly on radiological evidence. We describe the radiological findings observed in five patients with penetrating ulcer of the aorta studies by difference imaging techniques. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Insulin resistance, its association with diastolic left ventricular disease and aorta elasticity in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Shorikov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accepted threshold of insulin resistance value in arterial hypertension (AH is absent, thus it is relevant to determine its degree in patients with AH, and to determine the interaction between the insulin resistance (IR syndrome and the target organs injury. The purpose of our study was to set the threshold of IR in patients with AH, to define association between the IR parameters, presence of diastolic dysfunction and the state of aorta elasticity. Materials and methods. Investigation included 229 patients with AH and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, as well as 108 patients with the isolated AH. There were used clinical, instrumental, biochemical (HOMA-2 model, HOMA-IR indices, statistical methods. Results. The course of the isolated AH and AH with concomitant type 2 DM is associated with IR development, that it is well-proven in the model of HOMA-2 (р < 0.001. In patients with comorbid patho­logy the sensitiveness of peripheral tissues to insulin depends on severity of AH (р < 0.001. Presence of IR in HOMA-IR model was revealed in patients with the isolated AH in 26.6 % of cases. The level of plasma insulin grows substantially, and the tissues sensitiveness to insulin declined at the third type of diastolic dysfunction (р < 0.05. The coefficients of aorta elasticity have a reverse correlation with all parameters of НОМА-2 model determined by the levels of glucose (р < 0.001, insulin (p < 0.05, coefficient НОМА-IR (p < 0.05 and direct association with the degree of peri­pheral tissues sensitivity to insulin (p < 0.01. Conclusions. The threshold of IR by HOMA-2 model in patients was set at the level of 1.87; the increase of aorta inflexibility and diastolic dysfunction severity depend on IR severity.

  16. Ebstein's anomaly with coarctation of the aorta. An unusual association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebaid Munir

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebstein's anomaly with coarctation of the aorta is an extremely unusual condition. In this report, the clinical and surgical features of 3 male patients, aged 7 months, 4 years and 14 years, are discussed. All patients were in situs solitus. The first 2 patients had atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance and progressed to heart failure in the neonatal period. The third had atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial concordance, as well as Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, with frequent episodes of paroxysmal tachycardia. The 3 patients underwent surgery for correction of the coarctation of the aorta. The patient with atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial concordance underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty using a DeVega-like technique. In addition, ablation of 2 anomalous pathways (Kent bundle, which were detected by the electrophysiologic study, was also subsequently performed. The 3 patients showed a good postoperative outcome for 2 years, although, in those with discordance, the surgical procedure did not influence the dysplasia of the tricuspid valve, because this valve showed light to moderate dysfunction.

  17. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelija Zarkovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein, form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development.

  18. Branches of the abdominal aorta in Aotus azarae infulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mendonça Faria

    2016-05-01

    The genus Aotus is found in South America and is known for its nocturnal habit. The morphology of the genus is poorly understood even though it is used in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to identify the collateral branches of the abdominal aorta of two females and one male Aotus azarae infulatus (commonly known as the night monkey. The vessels were observed and stained with Neoprene latex and radiopaque contrast. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde via intramuscular and intracavitary routes, dissected and radiographed. It was observed that the celiac artery was divided into three subjacent branches, the gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries. The left and right renal arteries originated from a common trunk in two animals (animals 1 and 2, while the adrenal artery in one of the animals was derived from the celiac trunk and renal artery (animal 2. In one animal the mesenteric artery flow gave rise to individual cranial rectal, sigmoid and left colic arteries (animal 3. In the three animals the abdominal aorta bifurcated in the final portion of the abdomen, with the external and internal iliac artery on each side, and then the median sacral artery. These anatomical variations need to be identified and reported because these animals are frequently used in clinical and surgical, veterinary practices.

  19. Coarctation of the aorta: Management from infancy to adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Rachel D; Campbell, Michael J; Fleming, Gregory A; Hill, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient’s anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults. PMID:26635924

  20. Aortocaval fistula: an infrequent complication of aneurysm of the abdominal aorta; Fistula aortocava: complicacion infrecuente tras rotura de aneurisma de aorta abdominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpera, R.; Ardoy, F.; Gallego, J. A.

    2002-07-01

    A case is reported of aortocaval fistula (ACF) as an infrequent complication of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA) that debuted clinically with pain in the right lumbar fossa and kidney failure. the diagnosis was made by helicoid computed tomography (HCT) and confirmed surgery. HCT findings consisted of an early accentuation of the inferior vena cava (ICV) in the arterial phase, and visualization of the communication between the aorta and inferior vena cava. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. Heterogeneity of smooth muscle cells in tunica media of aorta in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the tunica media of goat aorta are phenotypically heterogeneous and run in multiple directions. These characteristics probably confer mechanical strength and functional plasticity to the aortic wall. Designers of aortic substitutes should bear this in mind. Keywords: Vascular, Smooth Muscle Cells, Heterogeneity, Aorta ...

  2. Aortography delays surgery of CT proven acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta; Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.; Moreno, R.; Martin, V.; Iniguez, A.; Alvarez, J. (Hospital Universitario de San Carlos, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Radiodiagnostico, Servicio de Cirurgia Vascular, Servicio de Exploracion Cardiopulmonar, and Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos)

    1991-09-01

    A case of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta was diagnosed by dynamic CT. Angiographic confirmation was required, delaying surgical repair and contribution to the fatal outcome. If reliable findings of acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta are shown by CT, we question the usefulness of angiographic confirmation in such cases. (orig.).

  3. Improved protein extraction and protein identification from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human aortas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zongming; Yan, Kun; Rosenberg, Avraham; Jin, Zhicheng; Crain, Barbara; Athas, Grace; Heide, Richard S Vander; Howard, Timothy; Everett, Allen D; Herrington, David; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-04-01

    Evaluate combination of heat and elevated pressure to enhance protein extraction and quality of formalin-fixed (FF), and FF paraffin-embedded (FFPE) aorta for proteomics. Proteins were extracted from fresh frozen aorta at room temperature (RT). FF and FFPE aortas (3 months and 15 years) were extracted at RT, heat alone, or a combination of heat and high pressure. Protein yields were compared, and digested peptides from the extracts were analyzed with MS. Combined heat and elevated pressure increased protein yield from human FF or FFPE aorta compared to matched tissues with heat alone (1.5-fold) or at RT (8.3-fold), resulting in more proteins identified and with more sequence coverage. The length of storage did adversely affect the quality of proteins from FF tissue. For long-term storage, aorta was preserved better with FFPE than FF alone. Periostin and MGF-E8 were demonstrated suitable for MRM assays from FFPE aorta. Combination of heat and high pressure is an effective method to extract proteins from FFPE aorta for downstream proteomics. This method opens the possibility for use of archival and often rare FFPE aortas and possibly other tissues available to proteomics for biomarker discovery and quantification. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. MR imaging of the thoracic aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerhoff, B.A.; Sechtem, U.P.; Schiller, N.B.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Gated MR imaging was used to evaluate the thoracic aorta in 11 with Marfan syndrome, eight patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and 20 healthy subjects. The aortic diameter was measured on transverse and sagittal images at the levels of the sinuses of Valsalva, the caudal portion of the ascending aorta, the prearch region, the middle arch, and the descending aorta. The sinus of Valsalva-prearch region aortic diameter ratio in patients with Marfan syndrome was significantly greater than in the two other groups, indicating the characteristic shape of the Maranoid aorta. MR imaging allows definitive measurements' of aortic dimensions and is a valuable noninvasive method for monitoring the course of aortic enlargement

  5. Automated quantitative 3D analysis of aorta size, morphology, and mural calcification distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugol, Sila, E-mail: sila.kurugol@childrens.harvard.edu; Come, Carolyn E.; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Ross, James C.; Washko, George R.; San Jose Estepar, Raul [Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Kinney, Greg L.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Hokanson, John E. [Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Budoff, Matthew J. [Los Angeles Biomedical Research Center at Harbor and UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a fully automated pipeline to compute aorta morphology and calcification measures in large cohorts of CT scans that can be used to investigate the potential of these measures as imaging biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. Methods: The first step of the automated pipeline is aorta segmentation. The algorithm the authors propose first detects an initial aorta boundary by exploiting cross-sectional circularity of aorta in axial slices and aortic arch in reformatted oblique slices. This boundary is then refined by a 3D level-set segmentation that evolves the boundary to the location of nearby edges. The authors then detect the aortic calcifications with thresholding and filter out the false positive regions due to nearby high intensity structures based on their anatomical location. The authors extract the centerline and oblique cross sections of the segmented aortas and compute the aorta morphology and calcification measures of the first 2500 subjects from COPDGene study. These measures include volume and number of calcified plaques and measures of vessel morphology such as average cross-sectional area, tortuosity, and arch width. Results: The authors computed the agreement between the algorithm and expert segmentations on 45 CT scans and obtained a closest point mean error of 0.62 ± 0.09 mm and a Dice coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.01. The calcification detection algorithm resulted in an improved true positive detection rate of 0.96 compared to previous work. The measurements of aorta size agreed with the measurements reported in previous work. The initial results showed associations of aorta morphology with calcification and with aging. These results may indicate aorta stiffening and unwrapping with calcification and aging. Conclusions: The authors have developed an objective tool to assess aorta morphology and aortic calcium plaques on CT scans that may be used to provide information about the presence of cardiovascular

  6. Chest radiography in acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heystraten, F.M.; Rosenbusch, G.; Kingma, L.M.; Lacquet, L.K.; Boo, T. de; Lemmens, W.A.

    Of 123 patients who had suffered blunt trauma to the chest traumatic aortic rupture was eventually confirmed in 61 and absent in 62 patients. The chest radiographs of these patients were examined for 15 signs reported in the literature as being associated with traumatic aortic rupture. Although many individual signs were significantly more frequent in the aortic rupture group they were not useful in differentiating between patients with and those without rupture of the aorta. By using discriminant analysis combining 2 or 3 signs, patients were classified as having aortic rupture or not. The best discrimination between the two groups was obtained using the combined signs of a widened paratracheal stripe, and opacified pulmonary window, a widened right paraspinal interface and a displaced nasogastric tube.

  7. The AORTA Architecture: Integrating Organizational Reasoning in Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the expected behavior of the agents. Agents need to be able to reason about the regulations, so that they can act within the expected boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we describe the AORTA (Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents) architecture for making agents......Open systems are characterized by a diversity of heterogeneous and autonomous agents that act according to private goals, and with a behavior that is hard to predict. They can be regulated through organizations similar to human organizations, which regulate the agents’ behavior space and describe...... organization-aware. It is designed such that it provides organizational reasoning capabilities to agents implemented in existing agent programming languages without being tied to a specific organizational model. We show how it can be integrated in the Jason agent programming language, and discuss how...

  8. Aneurisma de aorta abdominal infectado por Salmonella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Helena Fernandes de Aguiar Alioti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Os aneurismas de aorta abdominal infecciosos (AAAIs são raros e apresentam uma alta mortalidade devido à septicemia e ao risco de ruptura. A opção terapêutica consagrada consiste na correção aberta com ressecção do aneurisma, debridamento e reconstrução com veia autóloga. Mais recentemente, alguns grupos vêm relatando séries de casos nas quais se realizou tratamento endovascular. Em ambas as opções, a antibioticoterapia adjuvante é imperativa. Relatamos um caso ilustrativo em que o tratamento de escolha foi a cirurgia aberta com reconstrução utilizando-se veia autóloga.

  9. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers.

  10. The AORTA Reasoning Framework - Adding Organizational Reasoning to Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    -aware and autonomous. The reasoning component makes them organization-aware, and their autonomy is intact because the component does not change the existing reasoning mechanisms. As such, it allows the agents to decide whether to adhere to the system’s expectations. The ability to reason about organizations has......Intelligent agents are entities defined by, among other things, autonomy. In systems of many agents, the agents’ individual autonomy can lead to uncertainty since their behavior cannot always be predicted. Usually, this kind of uncertainty is accommodated by imposing an organization upon the system......; an organization that defines expected behavior of the agents and attempts to restrict the agents’ behavior to let it match the expectations. Restrictions can lead to a decrease in autonomy, contradicting one of the pillars of intelligent agents. This thesis presents the AORTA reasoning framework, which...

  11. Effects of thapsigargin in isolated rat thoracic aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, E O; Thastrup, Ole; Christensen, S B

    1988-01-01

    response to Tg was resistent to wash-out in drug-free PSS and was not affected by phentolamine, indomethacin or mepyramine but partly reduced by the calcium-antagonist nitrendipine and eliminated by wash-out in calcium-free PSS. Atropine eliminated the endothelium dependent relaxant effect of carbachol......, but had no effect on the Tg or on the calcium ionophore A 23187 evoked relaxation. Ultraviolet radiation decreased the relaxant effect of Tg and A 23187 without affecting the carbachol induced relaxations. The results showed that vascular endothelium depressed the contractile effect of Tg and that Tg like...... A 23187 had an endothelium dependent relaxant effect on rat aorta different from that of carbachol. The results indicate that Tg in vascular smooth muscle acts by stimulating the transmembranal influx of extracellular calcium....

  12. Arginine restores cholinergic relaxation of hypercholesterolemic rabbit thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J P; Andon, N A; Girerd, X J; Hirsch, A T; Creager, M A

    1991-03-01

    Reduced synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) may explain impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemia. Accordingly, we designed studies to determine if endothelium-dependent relaxation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits may be restored by supplying L-arginine, the precursor of EDRF. Normal or hypercholesterolemic rabbits received intravenous L-arginine (10 mg/kg/min) or vehicle for 70 minutes. Subsequently, animals were killed, thoracic aortas were harvested, and vascular rings were studied in vitro. Rings were contracted by norepinephrine and relaxed by acetylcholine chloride or sodium nitroprusside. Vasorelaxation was quantified by determining the maximal response (expressed as percent relaxation of the contraction) and the ED50 (dose of drug inducing 50% relaxation; expressed as -log M). In vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals receiving vehicle, there was a fivefold rightward shift in sensitivity to acetylcholine compared with normal animals (p = 0.05, n = 5 in each group). In vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals, L-arginine augmented the maximal response to acetylcholine (83 +/- 16% versus 60 +/- 15%, p = 0.04 versus vehicle) and increased the sensitivity to acetylcholine (ED50 value: 6.7 +/- 0.2 versus 6.2 +/- 0.2, p less than 0.05 versus vehicle). Arginine did not affect maximal and EC50 responses to acetylcholine in vessels from normal animals. Arginine did not potentiate endothelium-independent responses in either group. We conclude that the endothelium-dependent relaxation is normalized in hypercholesterolemic rabbit thoracic aorta by in vivo exposure to L-arginine, the precursor for EDRF.

  13. Effect of duration of contrast material injection on peak enhancement times and values of the aorta, main portal vein, and liver at dynamic MDCT with the dose of contrast medium tailored to patient weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erturk, S.M.; Ichikawa, T.; Sou, H.; Tsukamoto, T.; Motosugi, U.; Araki, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of contrast material injection duration on peak enhancement times and attenuation values of the aorta, main portal vein, and liver at MDCT when the dose of contrast material is adjusted to patient weight. Material and methods: Seventy-five patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups, with durations of injection of 25, 30, 35, 40, or 45 s. All patients were injected with 2 ml/kg iodine (300 mg/ml). Attenuation values and peak enhancement times for the aorta, main portal vein, and liver were determined. The relationship between patient weight and enhancement times and values, the differences regarding peak enhancement times, and the relationship between injection duration and enhancement values were investigated using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Spearman rank correlation, respectively. Results: No significant correlations were seen between patient weight and peak enhancement times or values. Mean peak enhancement times for the aorta, main portal vein, and liver were 9-11 s, 18-22 s, and 30-34 s, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlations between injection duration and peak enhancement values were significant and negative. Conclusions: Regardless of patient weight and injection duration, peak enhancement times of aorta, main portal vein and liver were approximately 10, 20, and 30 s, respectively. The enhancement values tended to be higher for shorter injection durations

  14. Ascending aorta dilatation rates in patients with tricuspid and bicuspid aortic stenosis: the COFRASA/GENERAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerneis, Caroline; Pasi, Nicoletta; Arangalage, Dimitri; Nguyen, Virginia; Mathieu, Tiffany; Verdonk, Constance; Codogno, Isabelle; Ou, Phalla; Duval, Xavier; Tubiana, Sarah; Cimadevilla, Claire; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, And David

    2017-07-25

    Ascending aorta (AA) dilatation is common in aortic valve stenosis (AS) but data regarding AA progression, its determinants and impact of valve anatomy [bicuspid (BAV), or tricuspid (TAV)] are scarce. Asymptomatic AS patients enrolled in a prospective cohort (COFRASA/GENERAC) with at least 2 years of follow-up were considered in the present analysis. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and a computed tomography (CT) scan were performed at inclusion and yearly thereafter. We enrolled 195 patients [mean gradient 22 ± 11 mmHg, 42 BAV patients (22%)]. Mean aorta diameters assessed using TTE were 35 ± 4 and 36 ± 5 mm at the sinuses of Valsalva and tubular level, respectively. Ascending aorta diameter was >40 mm in 29% of patients (24% in TAV vs. 52% in BAV, P  0.05). Only four patients presented an AA progression ≥2 mm/year. Correlations between TTE and CT scan were excellent (all r >0.74) and similar results were obtained using CT. During follow-up, two BAV patients underwent a combined AA surgery; no surgery was primarily performed for AA aneurysm and no dissection was observed. In this prospective cohort of AS patients determinants of AA diameters were age, sex, BSA, and valve anatomy but not AS severity. AA progression rates were low and not influenced by AS severity or valve anatomy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Blind source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, July; Perez, Sandra; Montoya, Yonatan; Botina, Deivid; Garzón, Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Blind Source Separation methods (BSS) aim for the decomposition of a given signal in its main components or source signals. Those techniques have been widely used in the literature for the analysis of biomedical images, in order to extract the main components of an organ or tissue under study. The analysis of skin images for the extraction of melanin and hemoglobin is an example of the use of BSS. This paper presents a proof of concept of the use of source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral Images. The images are acquired with an interference filter-based imaging system. The images are processed by means of two algorithms: Independent Components analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization. In both cases, it is possible to obtain maps that quantify the concentration of the main chromophores present in aortic tissue. Also, the algorithms allow for spectral absorbance of the main tissue components. Those spectral signatures were compared against the theoretical ones by using correlation coefficients. Those coefficients report values close to 0.9, which is a good estimator of the method's performance. Also, correlation coefficients lead to the identification of the concentration maps according to the evaluated chromophore. The results suggest that Multi/hyper-spectral systems together with image processing techniques is a potential tool for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue.

  16. Anterior retroperitoneal rami: until now unnamed direct branches of the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyna, R; Kachlik, D; Feyreisl, J; Stingl, J; Baca, V

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to gain a thorough knowledge of the topography and distribution of until now officially unnamed minute direct branches from abdominal aorta, stemming from its ventral and lateral aspects, supplying surrounding tissue, and to comprise it to the existing studies. The study was performed in fixed cadaverous material collected from India ink injections of abdominal aorta samples with large surrounding retroperitoneal tissue. The 25 samples were dissected under magnifying binocular glass, followed by graphic reconstruction; statistical analysis, and the study was preceded with detailed review of branches from abdominal aorta. For systematization of the segmental anatomy of the abdominal aorta and infrarenal segment of inferior vena cava, we defined three levels in this area. The retroperitoneal branches were most frequently situated simultaneously within all three predefined levels according to renal and inferior mesenteric arteries origin. There were 18% of retroperitoneal branches within Level 1, 39% within Level 2 and 43% within Level 3. They were branches not only from the abdominal aorta, but also from the testicular/ovarian artery, common iliac artery and in one case from the right accessory renal artery. Paired arrangement was recorded mainly cranially to the origin of inferior mesenteric artery, unpaired branches were more frequently found caudally. In conclusion, due to the terminological disunity of these arteries in the clinical literature and total absence in the anatomical literature, we propose to denominate them as anterior retroperitoneal branches of abdominal aorta (rami retroperitoneales anteriores aortae abdominalis). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of atherosclerotic disease in thoracic aorta: A 3D, multicontrast vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changwu [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chen, Huijun; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Rui [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei; Du, Fang [Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Li, Cheng, E-mail: cjr.licheng@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhao, Xihai, E-mail: xihaizhao@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of plaque in the thoracic aorta using three dimensional multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Elderly subjects (≥60 years) were recruited in this study. Thoracic aorta was imaged on a 3.0T MR scanner by acquiring multicontrast sequences. The plaque burden was evaluated by measuring lumen area, wall area, wall thickness, and normalized wall index. The presence or absence of plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)/mural thrombus (MT) were identified. The characteristics of atherosclerosis among different thoracic aorta segments (AAO: ascending aorta; AOA: aortic arch, and DOA: descending aorta) were determined. Results: Of 66 recruited subjects (mean age 72.3 ± 6.2 years, 30 males), 55 (83.3%) had plaques in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of plaque in AAO, AOA, and DAO was 5.4%, 72.7%, and 71.2%, respectively. In addition, 21.2% of subjects were found to have lesions with IPH/MT in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of IPH/MT in segment of AAO, AOA and DAO was 0%, 13.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. The aortic wall showed the highest NWI in DAO (34.1% ± 4.8%), followed by AOA (31.2% ± 5%), and AAO (26.8% ± 3.3%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Three dimensional multicontrast MR imaging is capable of characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta. The findings of high prevalence of plaques and the presence of high risk plaques in the thoracic aorta suggest early screening for aortic vulnerable lesions in the elderly.

  18. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D

    2016-04-01

    The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.

  19. Muerte súbita por disección de aorta torácica secundaria a coartación de aorta Sudden death due to thoracic aorta dissection associated with aortic coarctation

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rico; J. Lucena; M. Blanco; R. Marín; E. Barrero; M. Santos

    2008-01-01

    La disección aórtica es un cuadro catastrófico caracterizado porque la sangre penetra y separa los planos laminares de la media, formando un nuevo conducto lleno de sangre dentro de la pared de la aorta (hematoma disecante intramural), que suele romperse y producir una hemorragia masiva. Presentamos el caso de un joven de 22 años, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial sin tratamiento, que fallece súbitamente como consecuencia de una rotura-disección de aorta torácica asociado a coartación...

  20. Mice with diet-induced obesity demonstrate a relative prothrombotic factor profile and a thicker aorta with reduced ex-vivo function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, Aykut G; Unsal, Cengiz; Unsal, Humeyra; Erdogan, Mumin A; Koc, Ece; Ekici, Mehmet; Avci, Hamdi; Balkaya, Muharrem; Belge, Ferda; Tarin, Lokman

    2018-04-01

    : Classical risk factors such as cholesterol and lipoproteins are currently not sufficient to explain all physiopathological processes of obesity-related vascular dysfunction as well as atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the discovery of potential markers involved in vascular dysfunction in the obese state is still needed. Disturbances in hemostatic factors may be involved in the developmental processes associated with obesity-related cardiovascular disorders. We hypothesized that alterations of several hemostatic factors in the obese state could correlate with the function and morphology of the aorta and it could play an important role in the development of vascular dysfunction. To test this, we fed mice with a high-fat diet for 18 weeks and investigated the relationships between selected hemostatic factors (in either plasma or in the liver), metabolic hormones and morphology, and ex-vivo function of the aorta. Here, we show that 18-week exposure to a high-fat diet results in a higher plasma fibrinogen and prolonged prothrombin time in diet-induced obese mice compared to the controls. In addition, liver levels or activities of FII, FX, activated protein C, AT-III, and protein S are significantly different in diet-induced obese mice as compared to the controls. Curiously, FII, FVIII, FX, activated protein C, PTT, and protein S are correlated with both the aorta histology (aortic thickness and diameter) and ex-vivo aortic function. Notably, ex-vivo studies revealed that diet-induced obese mice show a marked attenuation in the functions of the aorta. Taken together, aforementioned hemostatic factors may be considered as critical markers for obesity-related vascular dysfunction and they could play important roles in diagnosing of the dysfunction.

  1. Valve-sparing root and ascending aorta replacement after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Abdelsalam M; Feindel, Christopher M; Ross, Heather; Butany, Jagdish; Yau, Terrence M

    2012-12-01

    A 45-year-old female underwent heart transplantation 17 years ago, with a heart from a 15-year-old donor. Recently, she had developed an aneurysm of the donor aortic root and ascending aorta, with severe aortic insufficiency. Two surgical options were considered; retransplantation versus replacement of the aortic root and ascending aorta. A valve-sparing replacement of the aortic root and ascending aortic aneurysm was performed. The donor aorta showed pathologic changes typical of Marfan syndrome. Nineteen months postoperatively, the patient remains in functional class I, with trivial aortic insufficiency. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Klebsiella pneumoniae Pseudoaneurysm of the Ascending Aorta after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Khalil Forouzannia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nMycotic pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta is rare in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and usually caused by staphylococcus aureus. We describe a patient with a mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta at the proximal vein graft anastomosis site after CABG. Culture from the sinus tract of the sternum and from the aneurysm sac was Klebsiella pneumoniae. Surgical technique was patch repair of aorta under hypothermic circulatory arrest. He is asymptomatic at 24 months follow-up.

  3. [Stanford type B aortic dissection associated with coarctation of the aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaha, Shigenobu; Uezu, Toru; Shimoji, Mitsuyoshi; Akasaki, Mitsuru

    2015-03-01

    We report a rare case of type B aortic dissection associated with coarctation of the aorta. A 35-year-old man had sudden dyspnea and severe back pain. Computed tomography revealed aortic coarctation at the distal aortic arch, and aortic dissection below the coarctation. The diameter of proximal descending aorta was enlarged to 52 mm. We electively performed excision of aortic coarctation and descending aortic graft replacement. Coarctation of the aorta has a poor prognosis, The risk of aortic rupture due to aortic dissection is very high, and the histological abnormality is also pointed out. Therefore we should perform aggressive surgical treatment.

  4. Wave intensity analysis in mice: an ultrasound-based study in the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, N.; Kusmic, C.; Stea, F.; Faita, F.

    2017-03-01

    Wave Intensity Analysis (WIA) can provide parameters representative of the interaction between the vascular network and the heart. It has been already demonstrated that WIA-derived biomarkes have a quantitative physiological meaning. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for performing non-invasive WIA in mice and correlate commonly used cardiac function parameters with WIA-derived indexes. Sixteen wild-type male mice (8 weeks-old) were imaged with high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 2100). Abdominal aorta and common carotid pulse wave velocities (PWVabd, PWVcar) were obtained processing B-Mode and PW-Doppler images and employed to assess WIA. Amplitudes of the first (W1abd, W1car) and the second (W2abd, W2car) local maxima and minimum (Wbabd,Wbcar) were evaluated; areas under the negative part of the curve were also calculated (NAabd, NAcar). Cardiac output (CO), ejection fraction (EF) fractional shortening (FS) and stroke volume (SV) were estimated; strain analysis provided strain and strain rate values for longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions (LS, LSR, RS, RSR, CS, CSR). Isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) was calculated from mitral inflow PW-Doppler images; IVRT values were normalized for cardiac cycle length. W1abd was correlated with LS (R=0.65) and LSR (R=0.59), while W1car was correlated with CO (R=0.58), EF (R=0.72), LS (R=0.65), LSR (R=0.89), CS (R=0.71), CSR (R=0.70). Both W2abd and W2car were not correlated with IVRT. Carotid artery WIA-derived parameters are more representative of cardiac function than those obtained from the abdominal aorta. The described US-based method can provide information about cardiac function and cardio-vascular interaction simply studying a single vascular site.

  5. Surgical outcome of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatou, E; Steinmetz, E; Jazayeri, S; Benhamiche, B; Brenot, R; David, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to point out the results of different techniques of spinal cord protection in surgically-treated patients with traumatic thoracic aorta (TTA). A multicentric study was carried out involving 182 patients with TTA. Four patients died before surgery. Two patients were operated on without any investigation and 2 had no aortic tear at thoracotomy. The remaining 174 patients had aortic isthmus disruption and were included in the study. The mean age was 32.3+/-14.29 years with 126 men (72.4%) and 48 women (27.6%). Road accidents were causal in 163 patients (93.66%); polytraumatism was frequent. A standard chest roentgenogram led to a diagnosis which was confirmed with aortography in 94.8% of cases. Surgical repair of visceral lesions was performed in 52 patients (29.9%) for traumatic spleen, liver, diaphragm, mesentery, and gut. These operations were done before or after aortic operation in 21.3% and 8.6% of cases, respectively. Thirty-three patients (19%) died and 9 (5.2%) had paraplegia. Sixty-nine patients had clamp and sew technique (group 1). Ninety-three patients had different types of extracorporeal circulation (group 2), and 12 patients had Gott shunt (group 3). No difference appeared between the 3 groups according to mortality and paraplegia. But the sex ratio, age, visceral lesions, craniocerebral lesions, the type of aortic repair, and cross-clamp time were discriminative. The univariate analysis point out age, cross-clamp time, hemothorax, and anatomical type of aortic injury as the risk factors of death. This was confirmed by a multivariable test which retained age, cross-clamp time, and hemothorax as risk factors. When not diagnosed in time, TTA is serious and has a bad prognosis. In spite of a high mortality and morbidity, the surgical management has improved. Immediate operation and medullar protection are the stumbling block in this operation. Operation can be delayed in some cases, but one must take care of hemodynamic

  6. Valva aórtica bicúspide: fundamentos teóricos e clínicos para substituição simultânea da aorta ascendente Bicuspid aortic valve: theoretical and clinical aspects of concomitant ascending aorta replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Paes Leme De Sá

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A valva aórtica bicúspide (VAB está associada à ectasia ânulo-aórtica, aneurisma e dissecção da aorta ascendente. A alta incidência desta malformação congênita e doença da aorta sugere íntima relação entre os fenômenos. Anormalidades ocorrendo em diferentes fases da migração das células da crista neural podem ser responsáveis pela ocorrência em anormalidades na valva aórtica, na camada média da aorta ascendente e nos vasos do arco aórtico. Estudos prévios revelam que mesmo indivíduos com VAB normal ou com disfunção leve podem apresentar dilatação da raiz aórtica. Os autores acreditam que somente as alterações hemodinâmicas produzidas por uma VAB sem estenose ou insuficiência parecem ser insuficientes para as graves complicações vasculares observadas nos portadores de VAB. Vários mecanismos têm sido propostos para explicar os achados moleculares e histológicos desta doença. Encontramos a redução da fibrilina-1 na aorta ascendente e artéria pulmonar como possível causa. Histologicamente, a aorta ascendente pode apresentar necrose cística da média e fragmentação elástica, semelhante àquela encontrada em portadores de síndrome de Marfan. Vários autores atualmente recomendam que em se operando um paciente com VAB, especialmente aqueles com insuficiência aórtica, mesmo na presença de uma discreta dilatação (45 mm deve-se substituir a valva aórtica e a aorta ascendente concomitantemente quando a expectativa de vida exceder 10 anos, para se prevenir futuros aneurismas ou rupturas.Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is associated with annuloaortic ectasia, dissection and ascending aortic aneurysm. The high incidence of this congenital malformation and aortic disease suggests a close correlation between the two phenomena. Abnormalities in different phases of cell migration of the neural crest might be responsible for the occurrence of abnormalities in the aortic valve, media layer of the ascending aorta

  7. Sympatholytic properties of several AT(1)-receptor antagonists in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Alexander; Balt, Jippe C.; Pfaffendorf, Martin; van Zwieten, Pieter A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the facilitating effect of angiotensin II on sympathetic neurotransmission to quantitatively compare the sympatho-inhibitory potencies of the selective AT(1)-receptor antagonists losartan, irbesartan and telmisartan in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta. Design To investigate

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of coarctation of the aorta and postoperative interrupted aortic arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakizawa, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Takada, Osamu; Nakayama, Shingo; Ogata, Hiroshi; Zuguchi, Masayuki (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-03-01

    ECG-gated MRI was performed at 1.5 T on 9 patients with coarctation of the aorta and restensis of the aorta after previous aortoplasty for coarctation of the aorta or interrupted aortic arch. The age of the patients ranged from 7 days to 3.3 years. MRI was more useful in assessing the severity of stenosis than echocardiography. Four patients had balloon dilation angioplasty for restenosis of the aorta. MRI was also useful in deciding the appropriate balloon size for angioplasty, and follow up after treatment. However, MRI could not always visualize the whole lesion in one slice, especially when the course of the aortic arch was not on the same plane. (author).

  9. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures, S.

    1984-01-01

    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta: Pushing Care Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, William; Romagnoli, Anna; Glaser, Jacob; Fisher, Andrew D; Pasley, Jason; Scheele, Brian; Hoehn, Melanie; Brenner, Megan

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), used to temporize noncompressible and junctional hemorrhage, may be deployable to the forward environment. Our hypothesis was that nonsurgeon physicians and high-level military medical technicians would be able to learn the theory and insertion of REBOA. US Army Special Operations Command medical personnel without prior endovascular experience were included. All participants received didactic instruction of the Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Course™ together, with individual evaluation of technical skills. A pretest and a posttest were administered to assess comprehension. Four members of US Army Special Operations Command-two nonsurgeon physicians, one physician assistant, and one Special Operations Combat Medic-were included. REBOA procedural times moving from trial 1 to trial 6 decreased significantly from 186 ± 18.7 seconds to 83 ± 10.3 seconds (ρ < .0001). All participants demonstrated safe REBOA insertion and verbalized the indications for REBOA insertion and removal through all trials. All five procedural tasks were performed correctly by each participant. Comprehension and knowledge between the pretest and posttest improved significantly from 67.6 ± 7.3% to 81.3 ± 8.1% (ρ = .039). This study demonstrates that nonsurgeon and nonphysician providers can learn the steps required for REBOA after arterial access is established. Although insertion is relatively straightforward, the inability to gain arterial access percutaneously is prohibitive in providers without a surgical skillset and should be the focus of further training. 2017.

  11. Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm and Coarctation of Aorta in a Woman at Early Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of aorta and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm are frequently missed congenital cardiac defects that their diagnosis might be delayed. To our knowledge, coincidence of these cardiac defects is unusual and has not been reported in the literature before. Here, we present a patient with coarctation of aorta and ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm leading to aorto-right atrial fistula in the early postpartum period and our management of this unusual case.

  12. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, J.G.; Ruediger, H.J.; Gorenflo, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H.; Krissak, R.; Kauczor, H.U.; Ley, S.; Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg; Arnold, R.; Universitaetskinderklinik Freiburg; Boese, J.; Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim; Krug, R.; Fink, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods (≤ 2 %). (orig.)

  13. Elevation of oxidative stress in the aorta of genetically hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mukarram; Yang, Hong; Shi, MingJian; Polley-Mandal, Manorama; Guo, ZhongMao

    2003-07-01

    Hypertension is an age-dependent disorder. Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in aging and age-dependent disorders. The objective of this study is to examine the oxidant and antioxidant status in the aorta of a mouse model with high blood pressure (BPH). Our results showed that the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the aorta of BPH mice was approximately 2.6-fold higher than that of the normal blood pressure (BPN) mice, suggesting an increased in vivo oxidative stress in the arterial wall of BPH mice. In addition, the release of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from the aorta of BPH mice was significantly faster than that of BPN mice. To determine if the increased H2O2 release is related to a down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes in the arterial wall, we measured the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes in mouse aortas. We observed that the activities of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase-1 in BPH mice were similar to BPN mice. On the other hand, the catalase activity in the aorta of BPH mice was significantly reduced while the activities of Mn-SOD and extracellular (EC)-SOD in the aorta of BPH mice were significantly elevated as compared with BPN mice. These results suggest that increase in SOD activity and decrease in catalase activity might be responsible for the increased release of H2O2 in the arterial wall of BPH mice.

  14. Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

  15. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, José Augusto; Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Dinato, Fabrício José; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramirez, Félix José Álvares; Mady, Charles; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2017-01-01

    Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections) by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days). No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  16. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Duncan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. Objective: To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Methods: Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Results: Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days. No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Conclusion: Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  17. The value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta in diagnosing neuroblastoma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz de Oliveira Schiavon

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta, when present at any level or only at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, in diagnosing neuroblastoma on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in children up to 7 years of age. Materials and Methods: Imaging examinations of 66 patients were classified by consensus as for the presence of anterior aorta displacement and were compared with the pathology report. Results: We found anterior abdominal aorta displacement in 26 (39.39% of the 66 patients evaluated. Among those 26 patients, we identified neuroblastoma in 22 (84.62%, nephroblastoma in 3 (11.54%, and Burkitt lymphoma in 1 (3.85%. The positive predictive value was 84.62%, and the specificity was 88.24%. The displacement of the aorta was at the adrenal level, contralateral to the mass, in 14 cases, all of which were attributed to neuroblastoma. Conclusion: When the abdominal aorta is displaced at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, it can be said that the diagnosis is neuroblastoma, whereas abdominal aorta displacement occurring at other abdominal levels has a positive predictive value for neuroblastoma of approximately 85%.

  18. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seehofnerová, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; Haan, Michiel J.W. de; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100 kV. A bolus of 50 ml CM (Iopromide 300 mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6 ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR = 1.8 g/s; Iodine load 15 g) followed by a saline bolus of 40 ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 324 ± 28 HU. Mean attenuation was 350 ± 60 HU at the thoracic aorta and 315 ± 83 HU at the abdominal aorta. A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging

  19. Evaluation of reconstruction parameters of electrical impedance tomography on aorta detection during saline bolus injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thürk Florian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An accurate detection of anatomical structures in electrical impedance tomography (EIT is still at an early stage. Aorta detection in EIT is of special interest, since it would favor non-invasive assessment of hemodynamic processes in the body. Here, diverse EIT reconstruction parameters of the GREIT algorithm were systematically evaluated to detect the aorta after saline bolus injection in apnea. True aorta position and size were taken from computed tomography (CT. A comparison with CT showed that the smallest error for aorta displacement was attained for noise figure nf = 0.7, weighting radius rw = 0.15, and target size ts = 0.01. The spatial extension of the aorta was most precise for nf = 0.7, rw = 0.25, and ts = 0.07. Detection accuracy (F1-score was highest with nf = 0.6, rw = 0.15, and ts = 0.04. This work provides algorithm-related evidence for potentially accurate aorta detection in EIT after injection of a saline bolus.

  20. The value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta in diagnosing neuroblastoma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavon, Jose Luiz de Oliveira; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro; Lederman, Henrique Manoel, E-mail: schiavon00@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Odone Filho, Vicente [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To determine the value of anterior displacement of the abdominal aorta, when present at any level or only at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, in diagnosing neuroblastoma on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in children up to 7 years of age. Materials and Methods: Imaging examinations of 66 patients were classified by consensus as for the presence of anterior aorta displacement and were compared with the pathology report. Results: We found anterior abdominal aorta displacement in 26 (39.39%) of the 66 patients evaluated. Among those 26 patients, we identified neuroblastoma in 22 (84.62%), nephroblastoma in 3 (11.54%), and Burkitt lymphoma in 1 (3.85%). The positive predictive value was 84.62%, and the specificity was 88.24%. The displacement of the aorta was at the adrenal level, contralateral to the mass, in 14 cases, all of which were attributed to neuroblastoma. Conclusion: When the abdominal aorta is displaced at the level of the adrenal gland, contralateral to the mass, it can be said that the diagnosis is neuroblastoma, whereas abdominal aorta displacement occurring at other abdominal levels has a positive predictive value for neuroblastoma of approximately 85%. (author)

  1. Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Kuribayashi, Hideto; Wagberg, Maria; Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of

  2. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-07-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  3. Abdominal aorta coarctation: The first three case reports in our literature

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    Gajin Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5-2.0% of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta or abdominal aorta or both and is often called 'middle aortic syndrome' or 'midaortic dysplastic syndrome'. This represents serious pathological condition and indicates multidisciplinary therapy approach. Outline of Cases. From 1996 to 2007, at the Vascular Surgery Clinic of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases 'Dedinje', Belgrade, three patients were treated due to abdominal aorta coarctation, two females aged 55 and 50 and a 4-year-old child. The patients were treated surgically (by-pass with a prosthetic graft and patch angioplasty and endovascular-percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA with and without a stent. The follow-up period was 3-70 months. In the 50-year-old patient, angiography showed severe narrowing of the suprarenal segment of the abdominal aorta. Thoraco-abdominal bypass with a 16 mm dacronic tubular graft was performed. In the 4-year-old patient angiography also showed a suprarenal aorta narrowing. In the first act patch angioplasty was performed and after PTA of the visceral arteries was done on several occasions. In the 55-year-old patient, after diagnostic angiography, infrarenal aorta coarctation was registered. PTA was performed with stent placement. All patients were asymptomatic on control check-ups. Conclusion. Abdominal coarctation is a pathological disease which is seldom found in vascular surgery. Angiography is of major importance for setting the diagnosis and for the control of the results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment. The combination of surgical and endovascular treatment in our patients showed very good results in the studied period.

  4. Ruptura traumática de la aorta descendente torácica Traumatic ruptura of the descending thoracic aorta

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    Gabriel González Sosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los traumatismos torácicos graves (TT, ya sean abiertos o cerrados, pueden ocurrir secundarios a lesiones por arma de fuego, arma blanca, accidentes de tránsito, caídas de altura o compresiones torácicas por aplastamientos, entre otros y se han transformado en una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad, pero son las lesiones vasculares directamente responsables de un 20 a un 25 % del total de las muertes, causadas por estos traumatismos. La mayoría de los afectados por estas lesiones son personas jóvenes previamente sanas, fundamentalmente del sexo masculino. Se presenta un caso clínico de un paciente de 38 años de edad, con antecedentes de salud previos, que durante una riña, sufrió una herida en la región posterior del hemitórax derecho, por debajo del borde inferior de la escápula, penetrante en la cavidad torácica, ocasionada por un objeto corto punzante de fabricación artesanal, cuyo pedazo quedó dentro de esta cavidad, lo cual provocó una lesión de alrededor de 3 cm de longitud, aproximadamente a nivel de la aorta descendente torácica. El paciente fue intervenido quirúrgicamente de manera urgente, y se logró suturar la lesión vascular con éxito, proceder que casi nunca es posible debido al alto índice de mortalidad de este tipo de lesiones, pues la mayoría de las personas fallecen antes de su llegada a un centro especializado de salud.Severe thoracic traumatisms, either open or close, may occur secondary to injuries caused by firearms, knifes, traffic accidents, falls from height or thoracic compression due to crushing, among others. They have become an important cause of mortality and morbidity but they are vascular injuries directly responsible for 20 to 25 % of the total number of deaths caused by this type of traumatism. Most of the injuries occurred in healthy young people, mainly men. This is the case of a 38 years-old patient with a history of health problems, who in a street fight, suffered an injury

  5. Imaging of Intracellular and Extracellular ROS Levels in Atherosclerotic Mouse Aortas Ex Vivo: Effects of Lipid Lowering by Diet or Atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Matias; Gustafsson Trajkovska, Maria; Perman-Sundelin, Jeanna; Fogelstrand, Per; Adiels, Martin; Johansson, Martin; Mattsson-Hultén, Lillemor; Borén, Jan; Levin, Max

    2015-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mouse aorta increase before or after diet-induced lesion formation. The second objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular ROS correlates to cell composition in atherosclerotic lesions. The third objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular ROS levels within established atherosclerotic lesions can be reduced by lipid lowering by diet or atorvastatin. To address our objectives, we established a new imaging technique to visualize and quantify intracellular and extracellular ROS levels within intact mouse aortas ex vivo. Using this technique, we found that intracellular, but not extracellular, ROS levels increased prior to lesion formation in mouse aortas. Both intracellular and extracellular ROS levels were increased in advanced lesions. Intracellular ROS correlated with lesion content of macrophages. Extracellular ROS correlated with lesion content of smooth muscle cells. The high levels of ROS in advanced lesions were reduced by 5 days high dose atorvastatin treatment but not by lipid lowering by diet. Atorvastatin treatment did not affect lesion inflammation (aortic arch mRNA levels of CXCL 1, ICAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, VCAM, IL-6, and IL-1β) or cellular composition (smooth muscle cell, macrophage, and T-cell content). Aortic levels of intracellular ROS increase prior to lesion formation and may be important in initiation of atherosclerosis. Our results suggest that within lesions, macrophages produce mainly intracellular ROS whereas smooth muscle cells produce extracellular ROS. Short term atorvastatin treatment, but not lipid lowering by diet, decreases ROS levels within established advanced lesions; this may help explain the lesion stabilizing and anti-inflammatory effects of long term statin treatment.

  6. Tratamiento endovascular de las patologías de aorta -Estado del arte-: Parte 1 - Aneurismas de aorta abdominal Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies -State of the art-: Part 1 - Aneurysms of abdominal aorta

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    Carlos E Uribe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, el tratamiento endovascular de las patologías de aorta es una alternativa a la cirugía abierta. Éste ha demostrado ser seguro ya que arroja resultados iguales o superiores que el grupo quirúrgico. En este artículo se presenta el estado actual del tratamiento con endoprótesis de las patologías de aorta, así como las indicaciones, las contraindicaciones y el futuro del tratamiento con este tipo de dispositivos.Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies is actually an alternative to open surgery. It has proven to be safe, showing similar or better results to those achieved by surgery. In this article, treatment of aortic pathologies by means of endoprosthesis is presented, as well as its indications, contraindications and future treatment with this kind of devices.

  7. In vivo assessment of blood flow patterns in abdominal aorta of mice with MRI: implications for AAA localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert C.; Consolini, Michelle A.; Suo, Jin; Willett, Nick J.; Fielden, Sam W.; Giddens, Don P.; Taylor, W. Robert; Oshinski, John N.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) localize in the infrarenal aorta in humans, while they are found in the suprarenal aorta in mouse models. It has been shown previously that humans experience a reversal of flow during early diastole in the infrarenal aorta during each cardiac cycle. This flow reversal causes oscillatory wall shear stress (OWSS) to be present in the infrarenal aorta of humans. OWSS has been linked to a variety of proatherogenic and proinflammatory factors. The presence of reverse flow in the mouse aorta is unknown. In this study we investigated blood flow in mice, using phase-contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) imaging. We measured blood flow in the suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta of 18 wild-type C57BL/6J mice and 15 apolipoprotein E (apoE)−/− mice. Although OWSS was not directly evaluated, results indicate that, unlike humans, there is no reversal of flow in the infrarenal aorta of wild-type or apoE−/− mice. Distensibility of the mouse aortic wall in both the suprarenal and infrarenal segments is higher than reported values for the human aorta. We conclude that normal mice do not experience the reverse flow in the infrarenal aorta that is observed in humans. PMID:19684182

  8. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Meirelles, Thayna; Barberà, Laura; Dantas, Ana P; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 ( Fbn1 ) allele encoding a missense mutation ( Fbn1 C1039G/+ ), the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally, MFS

  9. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Jiménez-Altayó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1 allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+, the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally

  10. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Meirelles, Thayna; Barberà, Laura; Dantas, Ana P.; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1) allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+), the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally, MFS ascending

  11. Anestesia en la coartación de la aorta

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    Lincoln de la Parte Pérez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio retrospectivo de 200 pacientes operados de coartación de la aorta, en el Cardiocentro del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "William Soler", en el período de 1990 a 1995. La ketamina fue el agente más utilizado en la premedicación anestésica de nuestros pacientes (190 pacientes, 95 %. En 150 pacientes se utilizó asociada con la atropina y en 40 se le adicionó además midazolam. En los 10 enfermos restantes se empleó sólo atropina. El fentanyl fue el agente más utilizado en la inducción de la anestesia (123 pacientes, 61,5 % y en el mantenimiento (186 enfermos, 92 % y aportó gran estabilidad hemodinámica. Se empleó vasodilatador en la mayoría de los pacientes (176 pacientes, 88 %, para el control de la presión arterial y dentro de éstos, los más utilizados fueron la nitroglicerina mezclada con regitina en 135 pacientes (67,5 %. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial (76 pacientes, 38 % la acidosis metabólica (24 pacientes, 12 % y las arritmias cardíacas (14 pacientes, 7 %.A retrospective study of 200 patients operated on of aortic coarctation at the Cardiology Center of "William Soler" Pediatric Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 1995 was conducted. Ketamine was the most used agent in the anesthetic premedication of our patients (190 patients, 95 %. It was associated with atropine in 150 patients and midazolan was also added in 40 patients. In the other 10 patients atropine was only used. Fentanyl was the most administered agent in the induction of anesthesia (123 patients, 61.5 % and in the maintenance (186 patients, 92 %. It provided a great hemodynamic stability. Vasodilators were used in most of the patients (176 patients, 88 % to control arterial pressure. The most used were nitroglycerin mixed with regitine (135 patients, 67.5 %. The most frequent complications were arterial hypertension (76 patients, 38 %, metabolic acidosis (24 patients, 12 %, and cardiac arrhytmias (14

  12. Tensile characterisation of the aorta across quasi-static to blast loading strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Danyal; Proud, William; Haller, Antoine; Jouffroy, Apolline

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic tensile failure mechanisms of the aorta during Traumatic Aortic Injury (TAI) are poorly understood. In automotive incidents, where the aorta may be under strains of the order of 100/s, TAI is the second largest cause of mortality. In these studies, the proximal descending aorta is the most common site where rupture is observed. In particular, the transverse direction is most commonly affected due to the circumferential orientation of elastin, and hence the literature generally concentrates upon axial samples. This project extends these dynamic studies to the blast loading regime where strain-rates are of the order of 1000/s. A campaign of uniaxial tensile experiments are conducted at quasi-static, intermediate (drop-weight) and high (tensile Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar) strain rates. In each case, murine and porcine aorta models are considered and the extent of damage assessed post-loading using histology. Experimental data will be compared against current viscoelastic models of the aorta under axial stress. Their applicability across strain rates will be discussed. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, the conditions applied to the samples replicate in vivo conditions, employing a blood simulant-filled tubular specimen surrounded by a physiological solution.

  13. Reduced expression of perlecan in the aorta of secondary hyperparathyroidism model rats with medial calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Maki; Shigematsu, Takashi; Hatamura, Ikuji; Saji, Fumie; Mune, Sachiko; Kunimoto, Ken; Hanba, Yoshiyuki; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi; Negi, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    Vascular calcification is an important complication that worsens the prognosis for dialysis patients, although its detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. We produced a rat model for vascular calcification with hyperphosphatasemia and hyperparathyroidism, performing a 5/6 nephrectomy and providing a high-phosphorus, low-calcium diet for eight weeks. We examined mRNA obtained from the calcified aortae using microarray analysis, and searched for alterations in gene expression specifically in the calcified lesions. Medial calcification was demonstrated in the abdominal aorta of 12 out of 42 hyperparathyroidism rats. In the aortae of hyperparathyroid rats with vascular calcification, the genes for heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, were found to be down-regulated using microarray analysis and real time PCR. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated reduced production of perlecan in the aortae of hyperparathyroid rats. Perlecan is a major component of the vascular wall basement membrane and may play a role in protecting vascular smooth muscle cells from inflammatory cells and various toxins. It has also been reported that heparan sulfate chains may inhibit osteogenesis. Our findings indicate that perlecan may protect vascular smooth muscle cells from various factors that promote vascular calcification. It may be that reduced expression of perlecan in the calcified aortae of hyperparathyroid rats is a risk factor for vascular calcification.

  14. Shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart, Christopher R; McNerny, Bryn E

    2013-01-01

    The dilated aorta in adults with bicuspid aortic valve has been shown to have different shapes, but it is not known if this occurs in children. This observational study was performed to determine if there are different shapes of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve and their association with age, gender, hemodynamic alterations, and degree of aortic enlargement. One hundred and eighty-seven echocardiograms done on pediatric patients (0 – 18 years) for bicuspid aortic valve, during 2008, were reviewed. Aortic valve morphology, shape/size of the aorta, and pertinent hemodynamic alterations were documented. Aortic dilation was felt to be present when at least one aortic segment had a z-score > 2.0; global aortic enlargement was determined by summing the aortic segment z-scores. The aortic shape was assessed by age, gender, valve morphology, and hemodynamic alterations. Aortic dilation was present in 104/187 patients. The aorta had six different shapes designated from S1 through S6. There was no association between the aortic shape and gender, aortic valve morphology, or hemodynamic abnormalities. S3 was the most common after the age of six years and was associated with the most significant degree of global aortic enlargement. The shape of the dilated aorta in children with bicuspid aortic valve does not occur in a uniform manner and multiple shapes are seen. S2 and S3 are most commonly seen. As aortic dilation becomes more significant, a single shape (S3) becomes the dominant pattern

  15. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity; Compliance der morphologisch unauffaelligen Aorta bei Jugendlichen mit Marfan Syndrom: Vergleich von MR-Messungen der aortalen Dehnbarkeit und der Pulswellengeschwindigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, J.G.; Ruediger, H.J.; Gorenflo, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Kardiologie; Krissak, R.; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Ley, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Radiologie; Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Paediatrische Kardiologie; Arnold, R. [Universitaetskinderklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Kardiologie; Universitaetskinderklinik Freiburg (Germany). Paediatrische Kardiologie; Boese, J. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany). Angiography, Fluoroscopic and Radiographic Systems; Krug, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie; Fink, C. [Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Univ. Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity ({chi}{sup 2}-test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased ({chi}{sup 2}-test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods ({<=} 2 %). (orig.)

  16. Geometry is a major determinant of flow reversal in proximal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Mourad Z; Bollache, Emilie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Giron, Alain; De Cesare, Alain; Macron, Laurent; Lefort, Muriel; Redheuil, Alban; Redheuill, Alban; Mousseaux, Elie

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study is to quantify aortic backward flow (BF) using phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC-CMR) and to study its associations with age, indexes of arterial stiffness, and geometry. Although PC-CMR blood flow studies showed a simultaneous presence of BF and forward flow (FF) in the ascending aorta (AA), the relationship between aortic flows and aging as well as arterial stiffness and geometry in healthy volunteers has never been reported. We studied 96 healthy subjects [47 women, 39 ± 15 yr old (19-79 yr)]. Aortic stiffness [arch pulse wave velocity (PWVAO), AA distensibility], geometry (AA diameter and arch length), and parameters related to AA BF and FF (volumes, peaks, and onset times) were estimated from CMR. Applanation tonometry carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWVCF), carotid augmentation index, and time to return of the reflected pressure wave were assessed. Whereas FF parameters remained unchanged, BF onset time shortened significantly (R(2) = 0.18, P 0.30; PWVAO, R(2) > 0.24; and distensibility, R(2) > 0.20, P 0.20, P 0.58; and arch length, R(2) > 0.31, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, aortic diameter was the strongest independent correlate of BF beyond age effect. In conclusion, AA BF estimated using PC-CMR increased significantly in terms of magnitude and volume and appeared earlier with aging and was mostly determined by aortic geometry. Thus BF indexes could be relevant markers of subclinical arterial wall alterations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Elastic properties of the aorta and factors affecting aortic stiffness in patients with

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    Derya Tok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we evaluated aortic stiffnessand echocardiographic and laboratory factors affectingaortic stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome(MetS.Materials and methods: Forty-six patients (25 male,mean age 47.3±6.5 years with the diagnosis of MetS accordingto the Adult Treatment Panel III Final Report criteriawere included. Forty-four age and gender matchedhealthy subjects (18 male, mean age 46.0±6.1 yearswere recruited as the control group. Aortic strain, distensibilityand stiffness index were calculated by M-modeechocardiography and diastolic parameters were measured.Results: Left ventricular mass index (LVMI, decelerationtime (DT, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT wereincreased and mitral E/A ratio was decreased in patientswith MetS compared to controls. In the MetS patients,aortic distensibility was significantly decreased (10.4±3.5cm2.dyn-1.10-6 vs. 12.7±3.4 cm2.dyn-1.10-6, p=0.002,and ASI was significantly increased (6.5±2.0 vs. 3.2±0.8,p<0.001. ASI was positively correlated with triglycerides,fasting glucose, uric acid, hsCRP, LVMI, DT, IVRT andsystolic blood pressure level, and was negatively correlatedwith HDL-cholesterol and mitral E/A ratio. In regressionanalysis, hsCRP (p=0.05 and systolic blood pressurelevel (p<0.001 were independent predictors of ASI.Conclusions: ASI is increased in patients with MetS. Inthese patients; decrease in aortic elasticity properties wasassociated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Highsystolic pressure and hsCRP levels were found to be independentpredictors of ASI.Key words: Metabolic syndrome, Echocardiography,elastic properties of aorta, hsCRP

  18. Dietary fat level affecting histochemical radiosensitivity in dorsal aorta in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; EL-Malkh, N.M.; Ashry, M.A.; Soliman, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work has been conducted to investigate the effect of dietary fat status and/or cumulative whole body gamma radiation exposures up to 15 Gy the histochemical pattern of the dorsal aortas of male albino rats. Experimental animals were fed on either fat-rich or fat-free diet and the observations compared with those fed normal fat diet. The histochemical investigations has been confined to the concentration levels of mucopolysaccharide substance and total lipids. The dorsal aorta normal fat group showed higher content of PAS-positive material in the first two layers of the aorta wall in comparison with decreased amount of collagen fibers was shown in fat-rich group

  19. Two-stage multilevel en bloc spondylectomy with resection and replacement of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gösling, Thomas; Pichlmaier, Maximilian A; Länger, Florian; Krettek, Christian; Hüfner, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of multilevel spondylectomy in which resection and replacement of the adjacent aorta were done. Although spondylectomy is nowadays an established technique, no report on a combined aortic resection and replacement has been reported so far. The case of a 43-year-old man with a primary chondrosarcoma of the thoracic spine is presented. The local pathology necessitated resection of the aorta. We did a two-stage procedure with resection and replacement of the aorta using a heart-lung machine followed by secondary tumor resection and spinal reconstruction. The procedure was successful. A tumor-free margin was achieved. The patient is free of disease 48 months after surgery. En bloc spondylectomy in combination with aortic resection is feasible and might expand the possibility of producing tumor-free margins in special situations.

  20. Effect of high density lipoproteins on permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, A.N.; Popov, V.A.; Nagornev, V.A.; Pleskov, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of high density lipoproteins (HDL) on the permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins (LDL) after intravenous administration of human HDL and human ( 125 I)LDL to normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evaluation of radioactivity in plasma and aorta has shown that the administration of a large dose of HDL decreased the aorta permeability rate for ( 125 I)LDL on an average by 19% in normal rabbits, and by 45% in rabbits with moderate hypercholesterolemia. A historadiographic study showed that HDL also decreased the vessel wall permeability to ( 125 I)LDL in normal and particularly in hypercholesterolemic animals. The suggestion was made that HDL at very high molar concentration can hamper LDL transportation through the intact endothelial layer into the intima due to the ability of HDL to compete with LDL in sites of low affinity on the surface of endothelial cells. (author)

  1. Thrombosis of abdominal aorta during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of testicular seminoma - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrckens Ralf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy of germ cell tumours are inadequately recognized to date. Case Presentation A 49 year old man with advanced seminoma underwent two courses of chemotherapy according to the PEB regimen. Upon restaging, two thrombotic deposits were noted in the descending part of the thoracic aorta and in the infrarenal abdominal aorta, respectively. Although thrombotic plaques caused aortic occlusion of about 30%, no clinical signs of malperfusion of limbs were registered. The patient was placed on anticoagulant therapy. Six months after completion of chemotherapy, thrombotic deposits had completely resolved. In the absence of other predisposing factors, it must be assumed that cisplatin-based chemotherapy represented a strong stimulus for arterial thrombosis in the aorta. Conclusions This is the first case of endo-aortic thrombosis during chemotherapy for testicular germ cell cancer. Providers of chemotherapy must be aware of arterial thrombosis even in young patients with testicular cancer.

  2. Diagnostic and therapy of acute thoracic aortic diseases; Diagnostik und Therapie akuter Erkrankungen der thorakalen Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schotten, Sebastian; Pitton, Michael B. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-09-15

    Acute diseases of the thoracic aorta represent a relatively rare but life threatening spectrum of pathologies. The non-traumatic diseases are usually summarized by the term ''acute aortic syndrome''. A timely diagnosis and initiation of therapy are cornerstones for the patient outcome. CT has become the standard imaging procedure due do its widespread availability and excellent sensitivity. Furthermore, CT is able to discriminate the variants of acute aortic diseases and to detect the wide spectrum of complications. The volumetric CT dataset is also the basis for planning of interventional procedures. Open surgical repair still represents the standard of care for acute pathologies of the ascending aorta while endovascular therapy, due to minimally invasive character and good outcome, has replaced open surgery in most cases of complicated lesions of the descending aorta.

  3. Endovascular Stent for Coarctation of the Aorta in a Child and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Ting Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old, 35-kg boy underwent balloon angioplasty twice, at the ages of 4 years and 10 years, with only limited effect. He was admitted for another cardiac catheterization because of chest pain and breathlessness on exercise. Aortography revealed severe discrete coarctation of the aorta, with the narrowest diameter of 6 mm. The pressures of the ascending aorta and descending aorta were 115/72 mmHg and 93/66 mmHg, respectively. After implantation of a 16-mm-diameter stent, the systolic pressure gradient decreased from 22 mmHg to 0 mmHg. Annual follow-up for 6 years showed normal blood pressure, no exercise intolerance, and no recoarctation.

  4. Presystolic flow in ascending aorta in a case of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Mittal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 65 years old hypertensive presented with effort breathlessness. Echocardiography revealed significant concentric remodeling of left ventricle. (relative wall thickness – 0.86 with significantly impaired relaxation (E/A – 0.54 and Ea/Aa – 0.52. Doppler evaluation of flow in ascending aorta revealed a presystolic flow which coincided with P wave of ECG and A wave of mitral flow. This finding suggests increased stiffness of left ventricle resulting in significant increase in left ventricular pressure during left atrial contraction and presystolic flow in aorta. Our case shows that all cases of grade 1 diastolic dysfunction are not alike. Presystolic flow in ascending aorta suggests greater degree of diastolic dysfunction than what is apparent from conventional criteria.

  5. Coartación de la aorta: una revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    O Ruíz Pérez; LR Méndez Duran

    2015-01-01

    La coartación de la aorta es una patología caracterizada por el estrechamiento de la arteria aorta, con la consecuente obstrucción de su flujo; localizada con mayor frecuencia a nivel de aorta torácica descendente distal al origen de la subclavia izquierda, y en la pared posterior de la arteria. Supone aproximadamente el 5,1% (3-10%) de las cardiopatías congénitas y constituye la octava malformación cardiaca por orden de frecuencia. La presentación clínica de la coartación aórtica es muy vari...

  6. Spectrum analysis of turbulence in the canine ascending aorta measured with a hot-film anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Kikkawa, S; Tanishita, K; Sugawara, M

    1988-01-01

    We measured turbulence velocity in the canine ascending aorta using a hot-film anemometer. Blood flow velocity was measured at various points across the ascending aorta approximately 1.5-2 times the diameter downstream from the aortic valve. The turbulence spectrum was calculated and its characteristics were examined in connection with the mean Reynolds number and/or measuring positions. In the higher wave number range the values of the turbulence spectra were higher at larger mean Reynolds number. In the higher wave number range, the values of the turbulence spectra were higher at points closer to the centerline of the aorta, when the mean Reynolds number was relatively large. The patterns of the turbulence spectra at various points outside the boundary layer on the aortic wall were similar.

  7. New device for saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis without side-clamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappainer Ernesto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Side clamping to perform saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis is a well known cause of cerebral embolization during coronary bypass surgery. Automatic and manual devices have been introduced to avoid aortic clamping and facilitate proximal anastomosis but the manual ones only allow the traditional hand-sewing running suture. Nevertheless, they are not easy to use and very expensive to buy. Methods We developed a simple object that helps to perform a manual proximal anastomosis without the need to clamp the side of the aorta. This device is a steel bar which blocks the aortic hole and simultaneously it provides a slit to receive the needle. Through the slit comes out a thin, sharp, straight, but also well directed and predictable jet of blood which could be easily controlled during the suture. Results The function of the object is quite different from other devices. Nothing is deployed in the aorta. The object is only placed on the aorta with the small appendage slipped into the hole. The main advantage of the device is that while manipulation of the aorta is avoided no foreign bodies are incorporated in the suture and – most importantly – the aortic intima is not touched at all. The main drawback of the device is the blood jet coming from the slit so that the blood pressure has to be lowered by vasodilators during the anastomosis. Moreover, the suture has to change direction and the needle has to enter the aortic wall first to slip out through the slit. Conclusion The object was named "Slit Device" and is not a routine instrument. It would be only an alternative to other anastomotic devices with the same surgical indications. In the case of ascending aortic disease and saphenous vein grafting, the Slit Device avoids aortic clamping thereby preventing atheroembolism and also avoiding the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients with unclampable aorta.

  8. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sagredo

    Full Text Available This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats.

  9. Intraindividual assessment of the thoracic aorta using contrast and non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von; Gruenberg, K.M.; Giesel, F.L.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.; Ley, S.; Henninger, V.; Kauczor, H.U.; Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg; Boeckler, D.; Krummenauer, F.

    2009-01-01

    To avoid intravenous contrast media application, new MRA sequences using inherent blood contrast are available. The clinical use of these non-contrast-enhanced MRA (non-CE-MRA) sequences is still limited for the aorta. Thus, the goal was to compare a standard CE-MRA with a non-CE-MRA for the thoracic aorta. Ethics committee approval and informed consent were obtained. CE-MRA and non-CE-MRA (1.5T) were performed in the same 50 healthy volunteers (mean age: 48). CE-MRA: GRE-Turbo-Flash-3D (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 mm 3 ), 0.15 mmol Gd/kg, TA 22 ± 2sec. Non-CE-MRA: Respiratory-and cardiac-gated, T 2-prepared 3D-trueFISP (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.3 mm 3 ), TA 14 ± 5 min. Assessment included (3 readers, consensus): image quality (sharpness of vessel wall, signal homogeneity, artifacts) at the ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and supra-aortic vessels. The image quality in the ascending aorta was rated 'excellent' in 78 %, 'moderate' in 22 %, 'poor' in 0 % for non-CE-MRA versus 22 %, 50 %, and 28 % for CE-MRA (Cohen's kappa = 29 %, McNemar p < 0.001). In a comparison of non-CE-MRA versus CE-MRA, the aortic arch and descending aorta showed no significant difference (kappa = 58 %/p = 0.250 and kappa = 100 %/p 1.000, respectively). Supra-aortic vessels were rated 'excellent' 45 %/49 %, 'moderate' 30 %/49 % and 'poor' 13 %/2 %, 12 % of supra-aortic vessels were visualized < 1 cm at non-CE-MRA. (orig.)

  10. CFD analysis of multiphase blood flow within aorta and its thoracic branches of patient with coarctation of aorta using multiphase Euler-Euler approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Z; Melka, B; Adamczyk, W; Rojczyk, M; Nowak, A J; Golda, A

    2016-01-01

    In the research a numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the pulsatile blood flow was created and analyzed. A real geometry of aorta and its thoracic branches of 8-year old patient diagnosed with a congenital heart defect - coarctation of aorta was used. The inlet boundary condition were implemented as the User Define Function according to measured values of volumetric blood flow. The blood flow was treated as multiphase: plasma, set as the primary fluid phase, was dominant with volume fraction of 0.585 and morphological elements of blood were treated in Euler-Euler approach as dispersed phases (with 90% Red Blood Cells and White Blood Cells as remaining solid volume fraction). (paper)

  11. Helical CT of traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengozzi, E.; Burzi, M.; Miceli, M.; Lipparini, M.; Sartoni Galloni, S.

    2000-01-01

    Acute thoracic aortic injuries account for up to 10-20% of fatalities in high-speed deceleration road accidents and have an estimated immediate fatality rate of 80-90%. Untreated survivors to acute trauma (10-20%) have a dismal prognosis: 30% of them die within 6 hours, 40-50% die within 24 hours, and 90% within 4 months. It was investigated the diagnostic accuracy of Helical Computed Tomography (Helical CT) in acute traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta, and the role of this technique in the diagnostic management of trauma patients with a strong suspicion of aortic rupture. It was compared retrospectively the chest Helical CT findings of 256 trauma patients examined June 1995 through August 1999. Chest Helical CT examinations were performed according to trauma score, to associated traumatic lesions and to plain chest radiographic findings. All the examinations were performed with no intravenous contrast agent administration and the pitch 2 technique. After a previous baseline study, contrast-enhanced scans were acquired with pitch 1 in 87 patients. Helical CT showed aortic lesions in 9 of 256 patients examined. In all the 9 cases it was found a mediastinal hematoma and all of them had positive plain chest radiographic findings of mediastinal enlargement. Moreover, in 6 cases aortic knob blurring was also evident on plain chest film and in 5 cases depressed left mainstem bronchus and trachea deviation rightwards were observed. All aortic lesions were identified on axial scans and located at the isthmus of level. Aortic rupture was always depicted as pseudo diverticulum of the proximal descending tract and intimal flap. It was also found that periaortic hematoma in 6 cases and intramural hematoma in 1 case. There were non false positive results in the series: 7 patients with Helical CT diagnosis of aortic rupture were submitted to conventional aortography that confirmed both type and extension of the lesions as detected by Helical CT, and all findings were

  12. A case of Behcet's disease with aneurysms of common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Sung Jae

    1984-01-01

    One case of Behcet's disease with multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta is presented with brief review of the literatures. A 26-year-old woman had slowly enlarging pulsatile masses in both sides of neck and recurrent ulcerations in oral cavity and genitalia. One day prior to admission, aphasia, right facial nerve palsy and right hemiplegia suddenly developed. Brain CT showed acute infarction in left basal ganglia. Both Carotid Angiography and abdominal Aortography demonstrated multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta with organizing thrombi and thromboembolism of internal carotid artery

  13. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention in an anomalous single coronary trunk arising anomalously from ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit D; Girish, M P; Bansal, Ankit; Chaturvedi, Vivek; Trehan, Vijay; Tyagi, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male patient presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. Angiography revealed a single coronary trunk arising from the ascending aorta above the coronary sinuses and giving rise to right coronary artery, left circumflex artery and critical stenosis in the left anterior descending artery. This report also highlights the feasibility of performing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this rare anomaly and discusses the important technical considerations to be kept in mind while attempting such a case. This is the first report of such an anomalous origin of a single coronary trunk arising from ascending aorta.

  14. Morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia (experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kaluzhina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system in newborns with chronic hypoxia is affected in 40–70%. Aim. To investigate morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Methods and results. Aortic wall was investigated with modern morphological methods in 34 laboratory animals in order to identify the morphological features of the fetuses and newborns’ vessel affected by this pathogenic factor. It was established that chronic hypoxia leads to endothelial trophics deterioration, its flattening, dystrophic processes with following cells desquamation, density reduction of smooth muscle cells, thickening of the intima-media. Conclusion. It shows alterative-sclerotic changes in aorta in cases with chronic hypoxia influence.

  15. Ruptured penetrating ulcer of the ascending aorta with pulmonary artery compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okiwelu, Ngozichukwuka; Finn, Chris; Vanden Driesen, Rohan; Sanders, Lucas; Joshi, Pragnesh

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary artery involvement has been reported in various degrees of complicated dissection of the ascending aorta. The prognosis remains poor without high-risk surgical intervention, but conservative management can be considered in high-risk cases. We report a case of nonoperative management of an octogenarian who presented with a contained rupture of his proximal ascending aorta, likely from a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. It was complicated by extrinsic compression of the pulmonary trunk and transient pulmonary hypertension without features of acute right heart failure. He remained alive at the one-year follow-up. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Equine pericardial roll graft replacement of infected pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The standard procedure for treating infected aortic aneurysms is to resect the infected aorta, debridement of the surrounding tissue, in situ graft replacement, and omentopexy. However, the question of which graft material is optimal is still a matter of controversy. We recently treated a patient with an infected ascending aortic aneurysm. Because of previous abdominal surgery, the omentum was unavailable. The ascending aorta was replaced in situ with equine pericardial roll grafts. The patient is alive and well 29 months after the operation.

  17. Surgical treatment of a floating thrombus of the ascending aorta causing repeated arterial embolisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsaili, Hicham; Bouaggad, Amal; Alami, Aroussi Aziz; Rama, Akhtar; Leprince, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    Floating thrombus of the ascending aorta is a rare and often ignored cause of peripheral embolic events. We report the observation of a patient presenting recurrent peripheral embolic demonstrations: acute ischemia of the right lower limb complicated of a thigh amputation and transient cerebrovascular accident. The assessment by angioscanner highlighted a 40-mm thrombus of the ascending aorta. The thrombus was removed surgically. This diagnosis should not be ignored in the assessment of an embolic pathology with the risk of severe functional after-effects caused by an important diagnostic delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnosis of a perforating aneurysm of the aorta as late complication of patch aortoplasty by central venous DSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzmann, A.; Kreuzer, E.; Huber, R.M.; Kenn, R.W.; Pfeifer, K.J.

    1988-06-01

    11 years after patch aortoplasty due to coarctation of the aorta a 33 year-old-patient experienced two spontaneous haemoptyses. A centralvenous digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large aneurysm of the proximal descending aorta penetrating the left upper lobe of the lung. The successful emergency surgical treatment consisted of implantation of a dacron-prothesis.

  19. 45Ca2+movements induced by Ca2+chloride in isolated rat aorta under K+-free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Nebel, U.; Wirth, A.; Wilffert, B.

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtained further insight into the mechanisms of this contraction45Ca2+uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing the

  20. CA-45(2+) MOVEMENTS INDUCED BY CA2+ CHLORIDE IN ISOLATED RAT AORTA UNDER K+-FREE CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERMELSKIRCHEN, D; NEBEL, U; WIRTH, A; WILFFERT, B

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtain further insight into the mechanism of this contraction Ca-45(2+) uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing

  1. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, S.L.; Schmitz, J.M.; Willerson, J.T.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 37 0 C for 15 min with 14 C-AA (5 x 10 -5 M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of 14 C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1α/ with lesser amounts of PGE 2 . Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs

  2. Correção endovascular da aorta ascendente associada a implante de stents coronários

    OpenAIRE

    Saadi, Eduardo Keller; Moura, Leandro de; Zago, Alexandre do Canto; Zago, Alcides José

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of ascending aorta pseudoanerysms with coronary stents implantation at the same procedure was feasable, although longer followup is necessary.Tratamento endovascular de pseudoaneurismas da aorta ascendente com o implante de stents coronários no mesmo procedimento foi factível, embora seja necessário um maior seguimento.

  3. A novel measurement technique for the design of fenestrated stent grafts: Comparison with three-dimensional aorta models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Hoon; Kang, Sung-Gwon; Kim, Bong Man

    2013-01-01

    Stent graft placement is an acceptable treatment option for aortic disease, particularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm. At present, the use of stent grafts is expanding beyond current indications for use. Fenestrated stent grafts are used in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose aortic anatomy is unsuitable for repair using standard devices. The success of fenestrated stent graft placement is largely dependent on planning, including obtaining measurements and designing the stent. To demonstrate a measurement technique that may be used for the design of fenestrated stent grafts to repair endovascular aneurysms, and to compare these measurements, obtained using archived two-dimensional patient data, with measurements obtained using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer-assisted design model. Fenestrated stent grafts were designed and fabricated based on computed tomographic angiography images. 3-D models were constructed using modelling software and rapid prototyping technology incorporated with fused deposition modelling. The stent grafts were trunk-type, with four holes for the visceral branches (celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery and left renal artery). Computed tomography scans of 10 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed. Axial, multiplanar reconstruction and curved multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure 11 parameters. Sizing of the fenestrated aortic stent grafts was performed independently by an experienced interventional radiologist, and the results were compared with the same measurements calculated using the 3-D aorta model (generated using Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System software [Materialise NV, Belgium]). Data were reported as the mean of the measurements. Measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). A total of 10 fenestrated stent grafts were fabricated. The proximal landing section above the celiac axis (one

  4. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  5. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd 2+ exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta

  6. Experiencia en el manejo endovascular para el tratamiento de la aorta torácica Experience in endovascular management for thoracic aorta treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: el tratamiento endovascular ofrece la posibilidad de cubrir el origen de la disección y evitar que progrese hasta aneurisma de la aorta, y con ello demuestra una reducción en la mortalidad hasta del 16%. Objetivo: evaluar los resultados quirúrgicos en términos de morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes sometidos a manejo endovascular de las lesiones de la aorta torácica en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia desde 2003 hasta 2005. Diseño-método: estudio longitudinal tipo descriptivo retrospectivo, en el que se evaluaron las historias clínicas de todos los pacientes sometidos a manejo endovascular de patología toracoabdominal; en éste sólo se incluyeron los pacientes con procedimientos de la aorta torácica, desde 2003 hasta 2005. El análisis de los datos se realizó en Stata/SE 8,0. Resultados: se realizaron procedimientos de aorta torácica en 16 pacientes. El 75% de los pacientes eran hombres con edad promedio de 55,9 ± 12,6 años. El 87,5% (14 pacientes presentaban disección aórtica tipo A o B; un paciente transección traumática de la aorta y un paciente aneurisma de aorta torácica descendente. Las disecciones agudas se presentaron en 78,6% (11 pacientes y las crónicas en 21,4% (3 pacientes. El promedio de endoprótesis usadas fue de 2,8 ± 1. La estancia en la unidad de cuidados intensivos fue de 3 ± 2,7 días. El 81,3% de los pacientes no presentaron complicaciones mayores. La mortalidad fue del 18,7% (3 pacientes. A todos se les realizó control post-operatorio con tomografía axial computarizada, con evolución satisfactoria. Conclusión: de acuerdo con los reportes de la literatura con mayor casuística, se considera que el manejo endovascular para el tratamiento de la disección, aneurisma o trauma aórtico es un procedimiento confiable que disminuye la morbi-mortalidad.Antecedents: endovascular treatment has the possibility of covering the dissection origin and to avoid its progression to aortic

  7. Factors influencing the mechanical behaviour of healthy human descending thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, Gustavo V; Atienza, José M; Rojo, Francisco J; Yiqun, Li; Claes, Els; Elices, Manuel; García-Herrera, Claudio M; Goicolea, José M; García-Montero, Carlos; Burgos, Raúl L; Goicolea, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, significant effort has been made to understand the mechanical behaviour of the arterial wall and how it is affected by the different vascular pathologies. However, to be able to interpret the results correctly, it is essential that the influence of other factors, such as aging or anisotropy, be understood. Knowledge of mechanical behaviour of the aorta has been customarily constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy young individuals. In addition, information regarding the point of rupture is also very limited. In this study, the mechanical behaviour of the descending thoracic aorta of 28 organ donors with no apparent disease, whose ages vary from 17 to 60 years, is evaluated. Tensile tests up to rupture are carried out to evaluate the influence of age and wall anisotropy. Results reveal that the tensile strength and stretch at failure of healthy descending aortas show a significant reduction with age, falling abruptly beyond the age of 30. This fact places age as a key factor when mechanical properties of descending aorta are considered

  8. Medical image of the week: atherosclerotic aneurysm of aortic arch and descecnding thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasram M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 94-year-old Spanish-speaking woman presented to the hospital with intermittent episodes of dyspnea and abdominal pain for one week. Her past medical history was notable for 30 pack-year smoking history and hypertension, which was reportedly controlled with medical therapy. Physical exam showed trace peripheral edema bilaterally, intact peripheral pulses, and a mild abdominal bruit. Work up at the emergency department revealed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with troponin T of 0.34 ng/mL but no ST-wave abnormality on electrocardiography. Chest x-ray displayed an incidental thoracic aneurysm (Figure 1. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a continuous aneurysm of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta with diameters measuring 6.8 cm and 6 cm, respectively (Figure 2A and 2B. Eccentric thrombi are noted in the aortic arch and the descending aorta. Interestingly, the distal descending thoracic aorta curves as it transitions to the abdominal aorta, which is evidence of a tortuous descending ...

  9. Coarctatio aortae: 40 års opfølgning efter kirurgisk korrektion - sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høimyr, Hilde; Pedersen, Thais A L; Christensen, Thomas D

    2009-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) was previously considered cured after surgical repair. Among 229 patients operated for CoA in Aarhus between 1965 and 1985, 14 died at surgery and 35 died during 20-40 years of follow-up, mainly due to cardiovascular disease. The mortality among CoA patients was 4...

  10. Aorta cross-section calculation and 3D visualization from CT or MRT data using VRML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Guenther; Modritsch, Robert; Stiegmaier, Wolfgang; Grasser, Simon; Klinger, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Quantification of vessel diameters of artherosclerotic or congenital stenosis is very important for the diagnosis of vascular diseases. The aorta extraction and cross-section calculation is a software-based application that offers a three-dimensional, platform-independent, colorized visualization of the extracted aorta with augmented reality information of MRT or CT datasets. This project is based on different types of specialized image processing algorithms, dynamical particle filtering and complex mathematical equations. From this three-dimensional model a calculation of minimal cross sections is performed. In user specified distances, the aorta is cut in differently defined directions which are created through vectors with varying length. The extracted aorta and the derived minimal cross-sections are then rendered with the marching cube algorithm and represented together in a three-dimensional virtual reality with a very high degree of immersion. The aim of this study was to develop an imaging software that delivers cardiologists the possibility of (i) furnishing fast vascular diagnosis, (ii) getting precise diameter information, (iii) being able to process exact, local stenosis detection (iv) having permanent data storing and easy access to former datasets, and (v) reliable documentation of results in form of tables and graphical printouts.

  11. COMPORTAMIENTO MECANICO DE LA AORTA ASCENDENTE: CARACTERZACION EXPERIMENTAL Y SIMULACION NUMERICA.

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA HERRERA, CLAUDIO; GARCIA HERRERA, CLAUDIO

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza una caracterización experimental y numérica del comportamiento mecánico de la pared de la aorta humana. Se destaca la importancia (le este tema debido al creciente interés cii coiiocer las propiedades y la respuesta mecánica de 193p.

  12. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure

  13. Effect of camelina oil on the structure of aortas in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowska, Marta; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Piersiak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    in tension. Aortic wall elasticity was measured in duplicate. Samples of the aorta were also prepared for histology (total aortic wall thickness, thickness of tunica intima and media, thickness of adventitia) and immunohistochemistry (volume and mean fluorescence intensity of collagens I and III and elastin...

  14. Opioid receptors mediate enhancement of ACh-induced aorta relaxation by chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Li, Hong-Wei; Song, Shi-Jun; Teng, Xu; Ma, Hui-Jie; Guo, Zan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhao-Nian

    2013-06-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of opioid receptors in the vasorelaxation effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) in thoracic aorta rings and the underlying mechanism in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: CIHH treatment group and control group. The rats in CIHH group were exposed to hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 5 000 m altitude) for 28 days, 6 h per day. The rats in control group were kept in the same environment as CIHH rats except no hypoxia exposure. The relaxation of thoracic aorta rings was recorded by organ bath perfusion technique, and expression of opioid receptors was measured by Western blot. Results are shown as follows. (1) The acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of thoracic aorta in CIHH rats was increased obviously in a concentration-dependent manner compared with that in control rats (P ACh-induced relaxation in CIHH rats was abolished by naloxone, a non-specific opioid receptor blocker (P ACh-induced vasorelaxation of thoracic aorta through KATP channel pathways.

  15. Hemolytic anemia caused by aortic flap and inversion of felt strip after ascending aorta replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Takano, Tamaki

    2016-08-02

    Hemolysis related to a kinked prosthetic graft or inner felt strip is a very rare complication after aortic surgery. We describe herein a case of hemolytic anemia that developed due to aortic flap of the dissection and inversion of an inner felt strip that was applied at the proximal anastomosis of a replaced ascending aorta 10 years previously. A 74-year-old woman presented with consistent hemolytic anemia 10 years after replacement of the ascending aorta to treat Stanford type A acute aortic dissection. The cause of hemolysis was attributed to mechanical injury of red blood cells at a site of stenosis caused by aortic flap of the dissection and inversion of the felt strip used for the proximal anastomosis. Repeated resection of the strip and graft replacement of the ascending aorta resolved this problem. We considered that blood flow disrupted by a jet of blood at the site of the proximal inner felt strip was the cause of severe hemolysis, we describe rare hemolytic anemia at the site of aortic flap and inverted felt strip after replacement of the ascending aorta.

  16. Beyond the root: dilatation of the distal aorta in Marfan's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, P. M.; Boersma, E.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Bouma, B. J.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate dilatory changes of the aorta distal to the root in patients with Marfan's syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 268 patients with Marfan's syndrome who were enrolled in the Euro Heart Survey on adult congenital heart disease were analysed. Data used for this study were

  17. Unexpected death caused by rupture of a dilated aorta in an adult male with aortic coarctation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2015-01-01

    arch without dissection combined with aortic coarctation. The patient, a 46-year-old man, was found dead at home. PMCT showed haemopericardium and dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. This appearance led to the mistaken interpretation that the images represented a dissecting aneurysm...

  18. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on contraction and45Ca movements in rat aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Koch, P.; Wilhelm, D.; Nebel, U.; Leidig, A.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1989-01-01

    To study the selectivity of calmodulin antagonists it was assumed that they should inhibit noradrenaline (NA)- and K+-induced contractions similarly without an accompanying inhibition of45Ca uptake. Therefore, in isolated rat aorta the effects of W-7, calmidazolium and trifluoperazine on contraction

  19. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Methods Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Results Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Conclusion Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure. PMID:24676223

  20. Analysis of thoracic aorta hemodynamics using 3D particle tracking velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Diego; Gülan, Utku; Di Stefano, Antonietta; Ponzini, Raffaele; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2014-09-22

    Parallel to the massive use of image-based computational hemodynamics to study the complex flow establishing in the human aorta, the need for suitable experimental techniques and ad hoc cases for the validation and benchmarking of numerical codes has grown more and more. Here we present a study where the 3D pulsatile flow in an anatomically realistic phantom of human ascending aorta is investigated both experimentally and computationally. The experimental study uses 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to characterize the flow field in vitro, while finite volume method is applied to numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the same domain, under the same conditions. Our findings show that there is an excellent agreement between computational and measured flow fields during the forward flow phase, while the agreement is poorer during the reverse flow phase. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that 3D PTV is very suitable for a detailed study of complex unsteady flows as in aorta and for validating computational models of aortic hemodynamics. In a future step, it will be possible to take advantage from the ability of 3D PTV to evaluate velocity fluctuations and, for this reason, to gain further knowledge on the process of transition to turbulence occurring in the thoracic aorta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MDCT angiography of thoracic aorta endovascular stent-grafts: pearls and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Martinez, Santiago; Hurwitz, Lynne M

    2009-02-01

    The objective of our study was to review expected findings and complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair on CT angiography (CTA). Luminal and extraluminal changes to the thoracic aorta occur after endovascular stent-grafting. The radiologist can facilitate appropriate management by detecting and differentiating expected CTA findings from complications.

  2. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at embryonic day 10.5 prior to their appearance in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Although several genes are implicated in the regulation of HSCs, there

  3. Pharmacology of Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Relaxation of Rabbit Aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo

    2001-01-01

    tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), but unaffected by glibenclamid. It is concluded that the acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta is dependent on: the endothelium; the activation of muscarinic receptors; independent of prostanoids; and mediatedn by NO alone. Th eNO released...

  4. Stress Alone or associated with Ethanol Induces Prostanoid Release in Rat Aorta via α2-Adrenoceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima [Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa [Departamento de Análise Clínica - Toxicológica e Ciência de Alimentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - USP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chies, Agnaldo Bruno [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Marília - FAMEMA, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia - Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Stress and ethanol are both, independently, important cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of ethanol consumption and stress exposure, isolated and in association, in male adult rats. Rats were separated into 4 groups: Control, ethanol (20% in drinking water for 6 weeks), stress (immobilization 1h day/5 days a week for 6 weeks) and stress/ethanol. Concentration-responses curves to noradrenaline - in the absence and presence of yohimbine, L-NAME or indomethacin - or to phenylephrine were determined in thoracic aortas with and without endothelium. EC50 and maximum response (n=8-12) were compared using two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni method. Either stress or stress in association with ethanol consumption increased the noradrenaline maximum responses in intact aortas. This hyper-reactivity was eliminated by endothelium removal or by the presence of either indomethacin or yohimbine, but was not altered by the presence of L-NAME. Meanwhile, ethanol consumption did not alter the reactivity to noradrenaline. The phenylephrine responses in aortas both with and without endothelium also remained unaffected regardless of protocol. Chronic stress increased rat aortic responses to noradrenaline. This effect is dependent upon the vascular endothelium and involves the release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids via stimulation of endothelial alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption appeared to neither influence noradrenaline responses in rat thoracic aorta, nor did it modify the increase of such responses observed as a consequence of stress exposure.

  5. Resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de los aneurismas de aorta abdominal infrarrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos M. Tarazona

    2015-01-01

    Conclusiones: La implemetación de la terapia endovascular ha contribuido a aumentar el número de pacientes tratados con aneurisma de aorta abdominal en nuestra institución. El aumento del volumen se tradujo en disminución efectiva de la mortalidad.

  6. Comparison of in vitro flows past a mechanical heart valve in anatomical and axisymmetric aorta models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haya, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2017-06-01

    Flow characteristics past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve were measured under physiological flow conditions in a straight tube with an axisymmetric expansion, similar to vessels used in previous studies, and in an anatomical model of the aorta. We found that anatomical features, including the three-lobed sinus and the aorta's curvature affected significantly the flow characteristics. The turbulent and viscous stresses were presented and discussed as indicators for potential blood damage and thrombosis. Both types of stresses, averaged over the two axial measurement planes, were significantly lower in the anatomical model than in the axisymmetric one. This difference was attributed to the lower height-to-width ratio and more gradual contraction of the anatomical aortic sinus. The curvature of the aorta caused asymmetries in the velocity and stress distributions during forward flow. Secondary flows resulting from the aorta's curvature are thought to have redistributed the fluid stresses transversely, resulting in a more homogeneous stress distribution in the anatomical aortic root than in the axisymmetric root. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of modelling accurately the aortic geometry in experimental and computational studies of prosthetic devices. Moreover, our findings suggest that grafts used for aortic root replacement should approximate as closely as possible the shape of the natural sinuses.

  7. Polyamine concentration is increased in thoracic ascending aorta of patients with bicuspid aortic valve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forte, A.; Grossi, Mario; Bancone, C.; Cipollaro, M.; De Feo, M.; Hellstrand, P.; Persson, L.; Nilsson, B.O.; Della Corte, A.

    Roč. 33, č. 3 ( 2017 ), s. 327-339 ISSN 0910-8327 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Aneurysm * Aortopathy * Bicuspid aortic valve * Ornithine decarboxylase * Polyamines * Thoracic ascending aorta Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.434, year: 2016

  8. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material.

  9. Changes in finger-aorta pressure transfer function during and after exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, Wim J.; Westerhof, Berend E.; Karemaker, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive finger blood pressure has become a surrogate for central blood pressure under widely varying circumstances. We tested the validity of finger-aorta transfer functions (TF) to reconstruct aortic pressure in seven cardiac patients before, during, and after incremental bicycle exercise. The

  10. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder.

  11. Relationship between aneurism of ascending part of aorta and syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osovska N.Yu.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the main reasons for the development of an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and predictors of its complications in patients of all ages. To determine the cause and age-associated risk factors for aneurysms there were examined 154 patients with the presence of the expansion of the root and / or ascending aorta of more than 40 mm, according to echocardiographic examination. Patients were divided into 4 categories by age: 18-29 years, 30-44 years 45-59 years 60-74 years. Instrumental methods of examination: echocardiography, ECG, ECG monitoring and blood pressure, heart rate variability, ultrasound of internal organs were used. Syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia was established according to the criteria of the working group of the British Society of Rheumatology. Joint hypermobility syndrome was determined according to the Brayton criteria. Statistical processing was carried out by methods of variation statistic program StatSoft "Statistica" v.10.0. It was established that in young and middle aged patients the cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta more often is connective tissue dysplasia syndrome. In older patients the main cause of aneurysm of ascending aorta is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased contractile function of the heart.

  12. Detecção de calcificação de aorta abdominal por densitometria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Sampaio Netto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a acurácia da detecção de calcificação da aorta abdominal por meio de densitometria em comparação com a radiografia lateral de coluna. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Casuística de 80 indivíduos, sendo 50 com diagnóstico de calcificação de aorta abdominal e 30 sem calcificação. Densitometria realizada uma única vez em cada participante, com o paciente em decúbito lateral direito. RESULTADOS: Em relação à idade e ao índice de massa corporal tivemos grupos semelhantes, com idade média de 74,56 ± 10,55 anos e 68,40 ± 10,80 anos e índice de massa corporal de 28,94 ± 6,06 kg/m² e 26,84 ± 4,11 kg/m² nos grupos com calcificação de aorta abdominal e sem calcificação de aorta abdominal, respectivamente. A comparação estatística da densitometria com a radiografia mostra que são semelhantes na detecção da calcificação de aorta abdominal, com valores de 100% na especificidade e valor preditivo positivo; sensibilidade de 94%, valor preditivo negativo de 90,9% e acurácia de 96,3%. Equivalência qualitativa no diagnóstico foi demonstrada pelo índice de correlação de kappa de 0,922. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados da radiografia e da densitometria são estatisticamente equivalentes, o que permite sugerir a investigação de calcificação de aorta abdominal pela densitometria para a detecção de calcificação da aorta abdominal.

  13. Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Ko

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids are commonly used as therapeutic agents in many acute and chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. The current study investigated the effects of methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid on aortic distensibility and vascular resistance in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Chronic inflammation was induced by implanting a subcutaneous slow-release ALZET osmotic pump (1 mg kg(-1 day(-1 lipopolysaccharide for either 2 or 4 weeks. Arterial wave transit time (τ was derived to describe the elastic properties of aortas using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. RESULTS: Long-term lipopolysaccharide challenge enhanced the expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs in the aortas. Lipopolysaccharide also upregulated the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase to produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO, which resulted in vasodilation, as evidenced by the fall in total peripheral resistance (Rp . However, lipopolysaccharide challenge did not influence the elastic properties of aortas, as shown by the unaltered τ. The NO-mediated vascular relaxation may counterbalance the AGEs-induced arterial stiffening so that the aortic distensibility remained unaltered. Treating lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats with methylprednisolone prevented peripheral vasodilation because of its ability to increase Rp . However, methylprednisolone produced an increase in aorta stiffness, as manifested by the significant decline in τ. The diminished aortic distensibility by methylprednisolone paralleled a significant reduction in NO plasma levels, in the absence of any significant changes in AGEs content. CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas and elastic arteries in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats, for NO activity may be dominant as a counteraction of AGEs.

  14. Evaluation of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta by contrast enhanced helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Honghan; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Adachi, Itaru; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1997-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated helical CT findings of the abdominal aorta in 85 patients (47 men and 38 women) ranging from 21 to 84 years of age (mean±SD : 58.8±13.6) with nonvascular disease. The degree of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta was assessed by examining the imaging findings of the curvature, double contour (wall thickening), and calcification of the abdominal aorta. Each of the atherosclerosis findings was classified into one of four degree of severity: no atherosclerosis as 0, minimal atherosclerosis as 1, moderate atherosclerosis as 2, and severe atherosclerosis as 3. Findings of abdominal aortic sclerosis were given a score of 9. The mean score of the men was 2.8±1.8 and that of the women was 1.1±1.2. The mean score of patients below age 39 was 0.3±0.7, that of patients between ages 40 and 59 was 1.4±1.5, and that of patients over age 60 was 2.9±1.6. The results showed that atherosclerosis occurred earlier and more frequently, and was more severe, in the men than in the women. There are many nonsymptomatic patients with arteriosclerosis, and they should be carefully managed. Because of high resolusion and fast scanning, helical CT is useful for evaluating the severity of atherosclerosis. Double contour of the abdominal aorta at the later arterial phase of the contrast enhancement was an important finding, suggesting atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta. (author)

  15. Wall Stress and Geometry of the Thoracic Aorta in Patients With Aortic Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barry J; Norman, Paul E; Hoskins, Peter R; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2018-04-01

    Aortic valve disease increases velocity and changes the way blood enters the aorta. Over time, the biomechanical environment can cause aortic remodelling. We hypothesized that aortic geometry and wall stress would be different in patients with aortic valve disease compared with controls. We examined 40 patients with aortic sclerosis (n = 10) or mild (n = 10), moderate (n = 10), and severe (n = 10) aortic stenosis, and also 10 control individuals. The thoracic aorta of each individual was reconstructed into a three-dimensional model from computed tomography. We measured geometric variables and used finite element analysis to compute aortic wall stress. Statistical analyses were performed to test our hypothesis. Aortic wall stress was significantly associated with tortuosity of the descending aorta (r = 0.35, p = 0.01), arch radius (r = 0.49, p < 0.01), ascending aortic diameter (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), and aortic centerline length (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Wall stress was highest in patients with severe stenosis (p = 0.02), although elevations in wall stress were also noted in those with mild stenosis (p = 0.02), and aortic sclerosis (p = 0.02) compared with controls. Similar trends were observed when we corrected for difference in blood pressure. Total centerline tortuosity was higher in patients with severe aortic stenosis than in controls (p = 0.04), as was descending aorta tortuosity (p = 0.04). Aortic geometry is associated with aortic wall stress. Patients with aortic valve disease have higher aortic wall stress than controls, and those with severe aortic stenosis have more tortuous aortas. However, increases in geometric measures and wall stress are not stepwise with increasing disease severity. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  17. Calcifications of the thoracic aorta on extended non-contrast-enhanced cardiac CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Craiem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of calcified atherosclerosis in different vascular beds has been associated with a higher risk of mortality. Thoracic aorta calcium (TAC can be assessed from computed tomography (CT scans, originally aimed at coronary artery calcium (CAC assessment. CAC screening improves cardiovascular risk prediction, beyond standard risk assessment, whereas TAC performance remains controversial. However, the curvilinear portion of the thoracic aorta (TA, that includes the aortic arch, is systematically excluded from TAC analysis. We investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of TAC all along the TA, to see how those segments that remain invisible in standard TA evaluation were affected. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 970 patients (77% men underwent extended non-contrast cardiac CT scans including the aortic arch. An automated algorithm was designed to extract the vessel centerline and to estimate the vessel diameter in perpendicular planes. Then, calcifications were quantified using the Agatston score and associated with the corresponding thoracic aorta segment. The aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, "invisible" in routine CAC screening, appeared as two vulnerable sites concentrating 60% of almost 11000 calcifications. The aortic arch was the most affected segment per cm length. Using the extended measurement method, TAC prevalence doubled from 31% to 64%, meaning that 52% of patients would escape detection with a standard scan. In a stratified analysis for CAC and/or TAC assessment, 111 subjects (46% women were exclusively identified with the enlarged scan. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium screening in the TA revealed that the aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, hidden in standard TA evaluations, concentrated most of the calcifications. Middle-aged women were more prone to have calcifications in those hidden portions and became candidates for reclassification.

  18. Follow-up of aortic dissection: contribution of MR angiography for evaluation of the abdominal aorta and its branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaert, J.; Meyns, B.; Rademakers, F.E.; Bosmans, H.; Verschakelen, J.; Flameng, W.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-echo MR is an established method to evaluate thoracic aortic dissections, but is not well suited to study the abdominal aorta. In this study we evaluated whether MR angiography could provide a complete examination of the abdominal aorta. In 28 patients (40 MR studies) with suspected (n = 6) or known (n = 34) aortic dissection, MR studies were performed. Thoracic aorta was evaluated with spin-echo and gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging. Axial two-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography with thin overlapping slices was used to study the abdominal aorta. Intermediate and high signal intensity on MR angiography was interpreted as patent flow, and low signal was interpreted as thrombus. The presence of an intima flap and the re-entry site could be depicted in all MR studies. Thrombus in the false channel was seen in 8 studies. The origin of the abdominal visceral branches and their relation to the false-true channel could be depicted, except in 4 of 80 renal arteries studied. Extension of the dissection into the coeliac trunk was seen in 2 and in the superior mesenteric artery in 10 studies. Dilatation of the suprarenal abdominal aorta was seen in 20 studies, and of the infrarenal aorta in 9 studies. MR angiography provides valuable information about the abdominal aorta and its branches in patients with aortic dissection. This makes MR imaging appealing as the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic dissection. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Follow-up of aortic dissection: contribution of MR angiography for evaluation of the abdominal aorta and its branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogaert, J. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Meyns, B. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Rademakers, F.E. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verschakelen, J. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Flameng, W. [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, Catholic University Hospitals, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    1997-06-01

    Spin-echo MR is an established method to evaluate thoracic aortic dissections, but is not well suited to study the abdominal aorta. In this study we evaluated whether MR angiography could provide a complete examination of the abdominal aorta. In 28 patients (40 MR studies) with suspected (n = 6) or known (n = 34) aortic dissection, MR studies were performed. Thoracic aorta was evaluated with spin-echo and gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging. Axial two-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography with thin overlapping slices was used to study the abdominal aorta. Intermediate and high signal intensity on MR angiography was interpreted as patent flow, and low signal was interpreted as thrombus. The presence of an intima flap and the re-entry site could be depicted in all MR studies. Thrombus in the false channel was seen in 8 studies. The origin of the abdominal visceral branches and their relation to the false-true channel could be depicted, except in 4 of 80 renal arteries studied. Extension of the dissection into the coeliac trunk was seen in 2 and in the superior mesenteric artery in 10 studies. Dilatation of the suprarenal abdominal aorta was seen in 20 studies, and of the infrarenal aorta in 9 studies. MR angiography provides valuable information about the abdominal aorta and its branches in patients with aortic dissection. This makes MR imaging appealing as the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic dissection. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Murine abdominal aortic aneurysm model by orthotopic allograft transplantation of elastase-treated abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Ren, Jun; Assa, Carmel Rebecca; Morgan, Stephanie; Giles, Jasmine; Han, Qi; Liu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Murine models have proved instrumental in studying various aspects of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), from identification of underlying pathophysiologic changes to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In the current study, we describe a new model in which an elastase-treated donor aorta is transplanted to a recipient mouse and allowed to progress to aneurysm. We hypothesized that by transplanting an elastase-treated abdominal aorta of one genotype to a recipient mouse of a different genotype, one can differentiate pathophysiologic factors that are intrinsic to the aortic wall from those stemming from circulation and other organs. Elastase-treated aorta was transplanted to the infrarenal abdominal aorta of recipient mice by end-to-side microsurgical anastomosis. Heat-inactivated elastase-treated aorta was used as a control. Syngeneic transplants were performed with use of 12-week-old C57BL/6 littermates. Transplant grafts were harvested from recipient mice on day 7 or day 14 after surgery. The aneurysm outcome was measured by aortic expansion, elastin degradation, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and inflammatory cell infiltration and compared with that produced with the established, conventional elastase infusion model. The surgical technique success rate was 75.6%, and the 14-day survival rate was 51.1%. By day 14 after surgery, all of the elastase-treated transplanted abdominal aortas had dilated and progressed to AAAs, defined as 100% or more increase in the maximal external diameter compared with that measured before elastase perfusion, whereas none of the transplanted aortas pretreated with inactive elastase became aneurysmal (percentage increase in maximum aortic diameter: 159.36% ± 23.27%, transplanted elastase, vs 41.46% ± 9.34%, transplanted inactive elastase). Aneurysm parameters, including elastin degradation and infiltration of macrophages and T lymphocytes, were found to be identical to those observed in the conventional elastase

  1. Reconstrução da aorta com conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Salles

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1989 a maio de 1997, 40 pacientes portadores de dissecção aórtica, aneurisma da aorta, coarctação da aorta ou doença oclusiva aorto-ilíaca foram submetidos a reconstrução da aorta utilizando-se conduto de pericárdio bovino corrugado processado em glutaraldeído. A reconstrução total da aorta ascendente com substituição da valva aórtica e reimplante das artérias coronárias foi realizada em 9 pacientes, a simples substituição da aorta ascendente em 6, aorta torácica descendente em 2, arco aórtico em 1, aorta toracoabdominal em 1 e a aorta abdominal foi reconstruída em 21, incluindo pacientes submetidos a reconstrução aorto-ilíaca ou aorto-femoral. A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 8 (20% pacientes e as causas de óbito foram baixo débito cardíaco, recidiva da dissecção aórtica, falência de múltiplos órgãos e sangramento. O seguimento total foi de 128,4 pacientes-anos, com um seguimento médio de 4 anos por paciente. Complicações tardias relacionadas ao conduto vascular foram observadas em 4 pacientes, incluindo obstrução de um dos ramos do tubo bifurcado utilizado para reconstrução aorto-femoral e infecção em 3, resultando em degeneração secundária do conduto e formação de pseudo-aneurisma. Os 4 pacientes foram submetidos a reoperações, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,1% ± 1,6% por paciente/ano. Ocorreram 5 óbitos tardios e as causas foram morte súbita, doença coronariana, pneumonia, septicemia e complicações metabólicas resultantes de diabetes e insuficiência renal crônica, correspondendo a uma incidência de 3,9% ± 1,7% por paciente/ano. A sobrevida atuarial em 9 anos foi 61,5% ± 9,2%, incluindo a mortalidade cirúrgica e a sobrevida atuarial livre de degeneração tissular estrutural primária do conduto biológico foi de 100%. O corrugamento do pericárdio, resultante da incorporação do princípio crimping utilizado nas próteses vasculares sint

  2. Análisis del comportamiento mecánico en una sección de la aorta // Mechanical behavior analysis in an aorta section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González-Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La importancia social de las enfermedades arteriales motiva el interés en desarrollar estudios sobreel comportamiento mecánico de las paredes arteriales que aporten información para la prácticamédica, ya que estas enfermedades están fuertemente relacionadas con factores mecánicos comoson los estados de deformación y tensión. El presente trabajo ofrece una metodología para analizarel comportamiento mecánico de una arteria (la aorta. Dicho análisis parte de una geometría realconstruida a partir de imágenes médicas. En la formulación del modelo de elementos finitos seescogió un material con comportamiento no-lineal, con grandes deformaciones, hiperelástico, nohomogéneoy ortótropico. A la hora de analizar los resultados logrados y compararlos con losresultados obtenidos por otros autores no es posible establecer una comparación debido a losdiferentes métodos de ensayo empleados por distintos autores y la dificultad en laexperimentación en arterias humanas, solo es posible establecer zonas criticas en las cuales sepresente algún tipo de enfermedad arterial.Palabras claves: aorta, modelación, elementos finitos (EF, hiperelásticidad.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe social importance of the arterial illnesses motivates the interest in developing studies on themechanical behavior of the arterial walls. The medical practice has pointed that these illnesses arestrongly related with mechanical factors, such as states of deformation and tension as other relatedparameters. The present work offers a methodology to analyze the mechanical behavior of anartery (the aorta. This analysis uses a real geometry model that has been built based on medicalimages. In the formulation of the finite elements model the material has been considered with ano-linear behavior, with big deformations, hyperplasic, no-homogeneous and orthotropic. It is notpossible to establish comparisons between the

  3. Model-based segmentation and motion analysis of the thoracic aorta from 4D ECG-gated CTA images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesdorf, Andreas; Wörz, Stefan; Müller, Tobias; Weber, Tim Frederik; Heye, Tobias; Hosch, Waldemar; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Rohr, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Pathologies of the thoracic aorta can alter the shape and motion pattern of the aorta throughout the cardiac cycle. For diagnosis and therapy planning, determination of the aortic shape and motion is important. We introduce a new approach for segmentation and motion analysis of the thoracic aorta from 4D ECG-CTA images, which combines spatial and temporal tracking, motion determination by intensity-based matching, and 3D fitting of vessel models. The approach has been successfully applied to 30 clinically relevant 4D CTA image sequences. We have also performed a quantitative evaluation of the segmentation accuracy.

  4. Origem anômala da artéria pulmonar direita em aorta ascendente (hemitruncus Anomalous origin of right pulmonary artery from ascending aorta (hemitruncus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Romero Rivera

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A origem da artéria pulmonar direita em aorta ascendente é uma anomalia congênita rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Descrevemos dois casos desta malformação, um associado à interrupção de arco aórtico tipo B. Em ambos, o diagnóstico foi realizado mediante ecocardiografia bidimensional, com confirmação angiográfica em um. A origem da artéria pulmonar direita era próxima à valva aórtica, anomalia patogeneticamente diferente da origem perto da artéria inominada.The origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta is a rare congenital anomaly, with very few reports in the literature. We describe two cases of this rare malformation, one of them, associated with interruption of the aortic arch (type B. In both cases, the diagnosis was made by two-dimensional echocardiography, with angiographic confirmation in one of them. The origin of the right pulmonary artery was close to the aortic valve, anomaly pathogenetically distinct from the type that arises close to the innominate artery.

  5. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. A review of 49 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, P.; Cook, M.; Vincent, A.; Smith, D.C.

    1987-09-01

    We examined retrospectively the chest radiograph of forty-nine patients with angiographically proven aortic ruptures. The plain film findings found most consistently were a wide mediastinum (69.5%), partial obliteration of the descending aorta (67.3%), left apical cap (65.3%), downward displacement of the left main bronchus (65.3%), tracheal deviation to the right (63.2%), obscuration of the aortic arch (55.1%), right paratracheal stripe thickening (53%) and nasogastric tube deviation to the right (50%). We also examined 113 sequential aortograms performed after thoracic trauma over 3 years, to determine the positive rate in our series; 14 studies were positive for a rate of 12.4%. No single case of proved ruptured aorta with a normal chest radiograph was detected.

  6. Dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infrarrenal

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Junior,Otacílio de; Chrispim,Antonio Cláudio Guedes; Simões,Claudio Roberto Cabrini; Marcondes,Márcia Fayad; Abreu,Guilherme Camargo Gonçalves de; Meirelles,Guilherme Vieira; Moraes,Kelly Cristina de; Freitas,Marcio Villar de; Araújo,Marivan Pedra; Murta,Gustavo Braga

    2012-01-01

    A rotura da camada íntima que marca o início da dissecção aórtica se origina na maioria dos casos na aorta torácica, sendo rara a dissecção espontânea da aorta abdominal infra-renal. As três principais causas são: iatrogênica, traumática ou espontânea. A dor abdominal e a isquemia de membros são os sintomas mais comuns e um número significativo de pacientes e´ assintomatico. O diagnóstico tem sido feito através de métodos de imagem como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonânci...

  7. Fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation of bileaflet mechanical heart valve in an anatomic aorta geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Borazjani, Iman; Dasi, Lakshmi; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2007-11-01

    FSI simulation of a medical quality BMHV implanted in the aortic position is studied. The valve is implanted in an anatomic non-compliant aorta geometry, which is reconstructed from MRI data acquired from a healthy volunteer. A physiological incoming flow waveform is specified at the inlet with the peak systolic Reynolds number equal to 6000. The flow solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear immersed boundary method) of Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007 (JCP) and the FSI problem is solved with strong coupling partitioned approach. Direct numerical simulation is carried out on a grid system consisting of 10M grid nodes. The impact on hemodynamics by valve implantation is studied by considering different valve implantation angles. The calculated numerical results are analyzed in terms of leaflet kinematics and flow physics, and compared with data from our previous work, where the same valve is implanted in a simplified straight aorta geometry.

  8. Vector flow imaging of the ascending aorta. Are systolic backflow and atherosclerosis related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    in relation to atherosclerosis. Thirteen patients with normal aortic valves were included in to the study. TO implemented on a conventional US scanner (ProFocus 2202 UltraView, BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) with a linear array transducer (8670, BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) was used intraoperatively......In the ascending aorta, atherosclerotic plaque formation, which is a risk factor for cerebrovascular events, most often occurs along the inner curvature. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, but the predilection site for the aortic vessel degradation is probably flow dependent. To better...... understand the aortic flow and especially the complex flow patterns, the ascending aorta was scanned intraoperatively in patients undergoing heart surgery using the angle-independent vector velocity ultrasound method Transverse Oscillation (TO). The primary aim of the study was to analyze systolic backflow...

  9. Ruptured tuberculous false aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechchat, Alae; Lekehal, Brahim; Mesnaoui, Abbes; Ammar, Fannid; Bensaid, Younes

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculous false aneurysm of the aorta is rare and has an unpredictable complication of aneurysm rupture. We report a case of a 32-year old woman who was referred to the Department of Vascular Surgery, Avicenne Hospital for severe abdominal pain. Chest x-ray revealed miliary tuberculosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed a false aortic aneurysm involving the juxtarenal aorta. Antituberculous treatment was started because of high presumption of tuberculosis. Five days later, the patient presented with symptoms of aneurysm rupture. She underwent an emergency a surgical resection of the aneurysm with repair of the aortic wall defect by a Dacron Silver patch. The histopathologic examination of the aortic wall showed features of tuberculosis.

  10. Plaque of atherosclerosis in aorta: review on atherogenesis, formation of plaque, clinical significance, methods of imaging and treatment; Placa de aterosclerose em aorta: revisao sobre aterogenese, formacao de placa, significado clinco, metodos de imagens e tratamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Nunes, Colandy G. de Oliveira; Rassi Junior, Luis; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Borges, Moises Marcos, E-mail: rogerinhofurtado@gmail.com [Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDI), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Sara, Leonardo [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    There is a certain consensus in the literature that the earliest stage of atherogenesis is characterized by the accumulation of spongy cells in the region of the intimal artery. Risk factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, male gender and advanced age predispose a person to the formation of plaques in the coronaries and aorta. A greater number of acute coronary events as well as strokes have been observed in people with these risk factors. Strokes are the third cause of death in the USA, with about 40% of the cases being of cryptogenic origin. Since 1989 the atheroma plaques which develop in the thoracic aorta have been considered to be responsible for cerebral and peripheral strokes which were previously considered cryptogenic because imaging techniques such as electrocardiogram transesophageal, computerized tomogram, nuclear magnetic angio-resonance have visualized and characterized the lesions with plaques of arteriosclerosis in the thoracic aorta. The authors of this article made a systematic review in the PUBMED about arteriosclerosis in the aorta and its diagnostic methods. This review includes the physiopathology of the formation of atheroma to the aorta and its consequences, diagnostic methods such as echo transesophageal, computerized tomogram and angio resonance, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method of identification of the lesions. An analysis of the clinical significance of the size, form and location of the atheroma plaques in the thoracic aorta were made based on clinical studies, as well as their treatment with anticoagulants, antiplatelet and drugs to reduce cholesterol. (author)

  11. Coarctation of the Aorta in Infants Under One Year of Age

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-02

    Mar 2, 1974 ... (trisomy 16 - 18). Total. 20. 2. 3. 28. 48. 2. 3. From Table III the residual gradients of 12 out of 13 cases operated on, can be seen. The patient with associated tubular hypoplasia, who had nothing done to the aorta at operation, is excluded. Six (50%) had gradients of 20 mmHg, or more. Only 2 of these had ...

  12. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  13. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  14. Melatonin effect on hypertension and nitric oxide balance in the heart and aorta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecháňová, Olga; Paulis, L.; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Šimko, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. S6 (2006), s. 395-395 ISSN 0263-6352. [Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Hypertension /21./. 15.10.2006-19.10.2006, Fukuoka] Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin * nitric oxide balance * hypertension * SHR and WKY rat * heart and aorta Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  15. Clinical Aspects on Chimney Stent Graft Technique in Endovascular Repair of the Aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    BinJabr, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Open repair of the aorta carries a high risk for morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly population and in patients unfit for major surgery. Endovascular aortic repair is safe, durable and effective when there is adequate proximal and distal sealing zone for the aortic stent graft. Fenestrated and branched stent grafts have made the repair possible for complex but elective cases that do not have an adequate sealing zone. Urgent complex cases and patients with midaortic...

  16. Spironolactone differently influences remodeling of the left ventricle and aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimko, F.; Matúšková, J.; Ľupták, I.; Pinčíková, T.; Krajčírovičová, K.; Štvrtina, S.; Pomšár, J.; Pelouch, V.; Paulis, L.; Pecháňová, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl.2 (2007), S25-S32 ISSN 0862-8408 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/3429/06; VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; -(SK) APVT-51-027404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spironolacton * NO-deficient hypertension * remodeling of LV and aorta Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  17. Effect of Levodropropizine on isolated rabbit aorta contracted with phenylephrine and its Relationship with calcium

    OpenAIRE

    cankara, fatma nihan; çiçek, ekrem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium (Ca+2) channels and levodropropizine, also to compare the potency of diltiazem and levodropropizine on phenylephrine pre-contracted rabbit aortic rings. Mateial-Method: 2-3 mm width rings of thoracic aorta were removed and suspended in 25 ml organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution to reach baseline tension. To investigate contraction inhibiting effect of levodropropizine, Ca+2 free Krebs solution was ...

  18. Levosimendan in a neonate with severe coarctation of aorta and low cardiac output syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Olivier Boegli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful use of levosimendan after failed balloon angioplasty in a critically ill neonate with coarctation of aorta (CoA and severe low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS. Treatment with levosimendan improved left heart function, and decreased lactate and brain natriuretic peptide levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the safe and successful use of levosimendan in the management of LCOS due to severe CoA in a neonate awaiting surgical repair.

  19. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2009-02-01

    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and

  20. Mechanism of vasorelaxation induced by Achillea wilhelmsii in rat isolated thoracic aorta

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    Saeed Niazmand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii is used in Iraninan folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension; also, in previous reports, the hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of this plant have been indicated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of the hydroalcholic extract of A. wilhelmsii and its underlying mechanisms in isolated rat aorta. Materials and Methods: The effect of the hydroalcholic A. wilhelmsii extract was tested on the contractile response of Wistar rat aorta induced by potassium chloride (KCl and phenylephrine (PE using a pressure transducer that is connected to the PowerLab. Results: The cumulative concentrations of A. wilhelmsii (0.5-8 mg/ml induced a vasorelaxation both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by high K + (6 Χ 10−2 M or 10−6 M PE. A. wilhelmsii, at a concentration of 4 mg/ml, reduced Ca 2+ -induced contraction (P < 0.001 vs. control after PE or KCl had generated a stable contraction in the Ca 2+ -free solution. Furthermore, after incubation with diltiazem, the vasorelaxant effect of A. wilhelmsii reduced in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE or KCl (P < 0.001 vs. control. In contrast, A. wilhelmsii-induced relaxation was not affected by glibenclamide, BaCl 2 , ruthenium red, methylene blue, or heparin. Conclusions: The results showed that A. wilhelmsii had a vasorelaxation effect, which was not endothelium-dependent. The relaxation was mediated by inhibition of extracellular Ca 2+ influx through voltage- and receptor-operated Ca 2+ channels (VDDCs and ROCCs in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  1. Aneurisma de aorta com ruptura para esôfago Aortic aneurysm rupture into the esophagus

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    Christiano da Silveira de Barcellos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente portadora de aneurisma de aorta descendente com ruptura para o esôfago que, após aortoplastia com interposição de tubo de dacron e rafia da laceração esofágica, evoluiu com fístula esôfago pleural no terceiro dia pós-operatório. A paciente necessitou de reintervenção e cuidados intensivos, reabilitando-se adequadamente. A propósito deste caso incomum e do aprendizado adquirido no seu manejo, revisamos a literatura a fim de discutir a melhor alternativa de correção desta rara e, freqüentemente, fatal forma de apresentação das doenças da aorta.We present the case of a patient with a descending aorta aneurysm rupture into the esophagus, which, after aortoplasty with Dacron tube interposition and suture of esophageal laceration, developed a pleural-esophagus fistula on the 3rd postoperative day. She needed re-intervention and intensive care, followed by adequate recovery. Considering this unusual case and the knowledge acquired through its management, we reviewed the literature in order to discuss the best alternative for the correction of this rare and often fatal form of presentation of aortic diseases.

  2. Prophylactic temporary abdominal aorta balloon occlusion in women with placenta previa accretism during late gestation.

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    Qiu, Zhongyuan; Hu, Jifen; Wu, Jianbo; Chen, Lihong

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa accretism during cesarean section. Twenty-three consecutive patients, prenatally confirmed with placenta previa accretism were retrospectively analyzed in our center from August 2012 to October 2014. All 23 subjects underwent cesarean section with prophylactic balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta. All of the 23 subjects experienced singleton pregnancies leading to the birth of live infants. Of these subjects, the following problems were diagnosed: placenta accrete (n = 10), placenta increte (n = 10), and placenta precrete (n = 3). Mean intraoperative hemorrhage was 1170.0 mL. Fifteen patients received red blood cell transfusion with a mean transfusion volume of 2.3 units. The incidence of hysterectomy was 21.74% (5/23) with blood loss ranging from 2000 to 5000 mL (mean 3360.0 mL). One complication encountered in this retrospective study was lower extremity arterial thrombosis. Eighteen patients were followed-up by telephone to 14 months following discharge, all babies were noted to be healthy. Prophylactic abdominal aorta balloon occlusion (ABO) was relatively safe in the treatment of patients with placenta previa accretism. This approach could represent a key aspect in a multidisciplinary algorithm in reducing hemorrhage in abnormal placentation.

  3. Increased albumin permeation in eyes, aorta, and kidney of hypertensive rats fed galactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; LaRose, L.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.J.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to determine whether ingestion of galactose increases albumin permeation in the vasculature of hypertensive rats. 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose diets were fed to unilaterally nephrectomized, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g. Hypertension (systolic pressure >175 mmHg) was induced by weekly IM injections of 25 mg/kg DOCA and 1% saline drinking water; 3 months later 125 I-albumin permeation was assessed in whole eyes, aorta and kidneys. 125 I-albumin permeation was significantly increased in all 3 tissues of hypertensive rats (n = 9) vs controls (n = 9): aorta (3.30 +/- 0.19 (SD) vs 2.87 +/- 0.14), eye (3.15 +/- 0.14 vs 2.59 +/- 0.11), and kidney (6.58 +/- 0.63 vs 3.85 +/- 0.50). Albumin permeation was increased still further in hypertensive rats fed the galactose diet (n = 8): aorta (3.75 +/- 0.38), eye (3.82 +/- 0.17), and kidney (10.74 +/- 3.13). Hypertension +/- galactose feeding had no effect on albumin permeation in lung, skin, or brain. These findings indicate that: (1) hypertension increases albumin permeation in vessels affected by diabetic vascular diseases, and 2) hypertension-induced increases in albumin permeation are increased still further by galactose ingestion, presumably mediated by imbalances in polyol/insitol metabolism (analogous to those induced by diabetes) independent of hyperglycemia and/or insulinopenia

  4. Morphological description of collateral branches from the abdominal aorta of lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla

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    Breno Costa Macedo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamandua tetradactyla, Xenarthra, is a native species from South America which, due to the few number of studies on its biology, still has many unknown aspects in its morphology. Taking into account the importance of morphological data for various studies, this paper aimed to elucidate the branching of the abdominal aorta in this species to foster the development of further studies. To do this, 4 specimens were used, 2 male and 2 female, all young, from the Bauxite Mine – Paragominas, Para, Brazil, donated after death due to running over to the Animal Morphology Research Laboratory (LaPMA of Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA. The arterial system was filled with contrasted latex and the animals were fixed in a formaldehyde solution (10%, and then dissected, in order to evidence the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches. The parietal branches consisted of 1 pair of caudal phrenic arteries, 2 pairs of intercostal arteries, and 3 pairs of lumbar arteries. Among the visceral branches, stood out: celiac artery; cranial mesenteric artery; adrenal arteries; renal arteries; caudal mesenteric artery; and external, internal, and median sacral iliac arteries, formed from the final portion of the abdominal aorta. Testicular and ovarian arteries originated from the renal arteries, differing from that described in various species.

  5. Congenital diseases of the thoracic aorta. Role of MRI and MRA

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    Russo, Vincenzo; Renzulli, Matteo; Palombara, Cesare la; Fattori, Rossella

    2006-01-01

    Aortic malformations may be associated with other congenital heart abnormalities or may present independently, as incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. For more than 30 years, conventional imaging techniques for detection and assessment of congenital anomalies of the aorta have been chest X-ray, echocardiography and angiography. In recent times, considerable interest in congenital aortic diseases has been shown, due to technical progresses of noninvasive imaging modalities. Among them, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) almost certainly offers the greatest advantages, especially in young patients in which a radiation exposure must be avoided as much as possible. MRI provides an excellent visualization of vascular structures with a wide field of view, well suited for evaluation of the thoracic aorta malformations. With the implementation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) it is also possible to depict any relationship with supra-aortic or mediastinal vessels. Phase contrast technique allows identification of the hemodynamic significance of the aortic alteration. Some technical considerations, which include fast spin-echo, gradient-echo and, especially, MRA techniques with phase-contrast and contrast enhanced methods, are discussed and applied in the evaluation of congenital thoracic aorta diseases. (orig.)

  6. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of 14C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    14 C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked

  7. Descending aorta-to-femoral artery bypass: preliminary experience with a thoracoscopic technique.

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    Kolvenbach, R; Da Silva, L; Schwierz, E; Deling, O

    2000-04-01

    Descending aorta-to-femoral artery bypass is a durable procedure with excellent long-term patency rates. The operation is usually performed using a lateral thoracotomy combined with retroperitoneal tunneling of the graft. Assuming that a smaller incision would reduce the operative trauma, minimally invasive video endoscopic techniques were used to perform a thoracoscopic bypass operation. In all patients, exposure of the descending aorta was obtained using thoracoscopy. This was accomplished with a maximum of four ports. For placing the conventional side-biting aortic clamp, a 3- to 4-cm incision was necessary. Using this incision as an access port, the proximal anastomosis was sutured endoscopically. Retroperitoneal tunneling was performed using laparoscopically guided balloon dissection. Eleven consecutive patients underwent surgery. In two patients, conversion to a standard thoracotomy was necessary because of extensive intrathoracic adhesions. There were no major complications, except for one hematoma. After a mean follow-up of 9.5 months, all bypass grafts were still patent. Patients could be discharged after a mean postprocedural hospital stay of 7.4 days (range, 5-12). Thoracoscopic descending aorta-to-femoral artery bypass is an operation with excellent patency rates; however, it is a novel technique that still requires further technical improvements. Clinical studies are needed to prove the safety and efficacy of this minimally invasive technique.

  8. Pharmacological studies of tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata in isolated rat aorta.

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    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Liu, Guoyan; Zheng, Jiemin; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2013-08-30

    Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca²⁺ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP₃R), leading to an increase in [Ca²⁺](c), instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system.

  9. Pharmacological Studies of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata in Isolated Rat Aorta

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    Liming Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM. The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca2+ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, leading to an increase in [Ca2+]c, instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system.

  10. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals.

  11. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

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    Mehmet Salih Aydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10, control (n=10 and thymoquinone (TQ treatment group (n=10. Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI. Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model.

  12. Transcriptional and phenotypic changes in aorta and aortic valve with aging and MnSOD deficiency in mice.

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    Roos, Carolyn M; Hagler, Michael; Zhang, Bin; Oehler, Elise A; Arghami, Arman; Miller, Jordan D

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in antioxidant and age-related gene expression in aorta and aortic valve with aging, and test the hypothesis that increased mitochondrial oxidative stress accelerates age-related endothelial and aortic valve dysfunction. Wild-type (MnSOD(+/+)) and manganese SOD heterozygous haploinsufficient (MnSOD(+/-)) mice were studied at 3 and 18 mo of age. In aorta from wild-type mice, antioxidant expression was preserved, although there were age-associated increases in Nox2 expression. Haploinsufficiency of MnSOD did not alter antioxidant expression in aorta, but increased expression of Nox2. When compared with that of aorta, age-associated reductions in antioxidant expression were larger in aortic valves from wild-type and MnSOD haploinsufficient mice, although Nox2 expression was unchanged. Similarly, sirtuin expression was relatively well-preserved in aorta from both genotypes, whereas expression of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT6 were significantly reduced in the aortic valve. Expression of p16(ink4a), a marker of cellular senescence, was profoundly increased in both aorta and aortic valve from MnSOD(+/+) and MnSOD(+/-) mice. Functionally, we observed comparable age-associated reductions in endothelial function in aorta from both MnSOD(+/+) and MnSOD(+/-) mice. Interestingly, inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin or gp91ds-tat improved endothelial function in MnSOD(+/+) mice but significantly impaired endothelial function in MnSOD(+/-) mice at both ages. Aortic valve function was not impaired by aging or MnSOD haploinsufficiency. Changes in antioxidant and sirtuin gene expression with aging differ dramatically between aorta and aortic valve. Furthermore, although MnSOD does not result in overt cardiovascular dysfunction with aging, compensatory transcriptional responses to MnSOD deficiency appear to be tissue specific.

  13. Aorta measurements are heritable and influenced by bicuspid aortic valve

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    Lisa J Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Word Count 266, 1609 charactersObjectives: To determine whether the contributions of genetics and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV independently influence aortic (Ao dimensions.Background: Ao dilation is a risk factor for aneurysm, dissection, and sudden cardiac death. Frequent association of BAV with Ao dilation implicates a common underlying defect possibly due to genetic factors. Methods: Families enriched for BAV underwent standardized transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to BAV status, echocardiographic measures of Ao (annulus to descending Ao, pulmonary artery and mitral valve annulus diameters were obtained. Using variance components analysis, heritability was estimated with and without BAV status. Additionally, bivariate genetic analyses between Ao dimensions and BAV were performed.Results: Our cohort was obtained from 209 families enriched for BAV. After adjusting for age, body surface area and sex, individuals with BAV had a statistically significant increase in all echocardiographic measurements (p < 0.006 except descending Ao and mitral valve annulus. Individuals with BAV were at greater odds of having Ao dilation (OR = 4.44, 95% CI 2.93 – 6.72 than family members without BAV. All echocardiographic measurements exhibited moderate to strong heritability (0.25 to 0.53, and these estimates were not influenced by inclusion of BAV as a covariate. Bivariate genetic analyses supported that the genetic correlation between BAV and echo measures were not significantly different from zero.Conclusions: We show for the first time that echocardiographic measurements of Ao, pulmonary artery and mitral valve annulus diameters are quantitative traits that exhibit significant heritability. In addition, our results suggest the presence of BAV independently influences the proximal Ao and pulmonary artery measures but not those in the descending Ao or mitral valve annulus.

  14. Effects of intraoperative electron irradiation in the dog on cell turnover in intact and surgically-anastomosed aorta and intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Morrow, B.M.; Travis, E.L.; Tepper, J.; Merkel, A.B.; Kranda, K.; Terrill, R.

    1983-01-01

    Adults dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative electron irradiation after division and reanastomosis of aorta or after construction of a blind loop of small intestine having a transverse suture line and an end-to-side anastomosis. Dogs received intraoperative irradiation of both intact and anastomosed aorta or intestine in doses of 0, 2000, 3000, or 4500 rad. Animals were sacrificed at seven days or three months following treatment. At 24 hours prior to sacrifice, dogs received 5 mCi tritiated thymidine intravenously. Irradiated and non-irradiated segments of aorta and small intestine, including intact and anastomotic regions, were analyzed for tritiated thymidine incorporation and were subjected to autoradiography. Incorporation studies showed diminution in tritiated thymidine uptake by irradiated portions of aorta and small intestine, in both intact and anastomotic regions. Autoradiograms revealed that irradiated areas of intact or anastomotic aorta or intestine had diminished labeling of stromal cells, suggesting a lowered cell proliferative capacity of irradiated tissue compared to non-irradiated portions. Inflammatory cells showed similar labeling indices in irradiated and non-irradiated tissues, both intact and surgically-manipulated, suggesting that irradiation does not significantly affect a subsequent local inflammatory response. Radiation-induced decreases in tritiated thymidine incoporation in irradiated aorta and small intestine were generally more marked at seven days than at three months following irradiation, suggesting that radiation-induced depression of cell turnover rates decreases with time

  15. Avaliação do posicionamento da aorta em pacientes com escoliose idiopática do adolescente

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    Guilherme Augusto Foizer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o posicionamento da aorta em pacientes com escoliose. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados exames de imagem em pacientes ambulatoriais com escoliose idiopática do adolescente e em um grupo formado por pacientes hígidos, sendo analisados seis parâmetros: comprimento do corpo vertebral, largura, distância aorta-corpo, diâmetro da aorta, distância aorta-canal e ângulo corpo-aorta. RESULTADOS: As curvas variaram entre T3 e L2 com ângulos de Cobb de 46° e 114°. Pela classificação de Lenke os tipos 1AN e 1BN ocorreram em 20% dos casos, além de 1CN, 3BN, 3C+ com 13,3 % e 1B+, 3C- com 6,7 %. As vértebras próximas ao ápice da curva no grupo escoliose apresentam valores superiores às do grupo controle (em T8 com média de 86,93° no grupo escoliose e média 49,07 no grupo controle (p < 0,0001. CONCLUSÃO: Quanto mais próximo do ápice da deformidade, maior a póstero-lateralização da aorta.

  16. Early impact of aortic wrapping on patients undergoing aortic valve replacement with mild to moderate ascending aorta dilatation

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    Sosnowski Andrzej

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of mild to moderate dilatation of the ascending aorta of less than 5 cm is controversial, particularly when concomitant surgical correction of aortic valve is required. We investigate the impact of a simple method of aorta reduction using Dacron graft wrapping during aortic valve replacement on the rest of the aorta. Methods We studied 14 patients who had ascending aorta dilatation of 4-5 cm before undergoing aortic wrapping during their aortic valve replacement and compared with their post-operative imaging within a month. Results The diameters of the ascending aorta wrapped with the Dacron graft were significantly reduced within 4 weeks after surgery from 44.7 ± 2.6 to 33.6 ± 3.9 mm (p Conclusions Reduction of ascending aortic dilatation by wrapping with a Dacron graft in this preliminary study is associated with favourable early reversed aortic remodelling. This supports the hypothesis that correction of mild-moderate dilatation of the ascending aorta with Dacron wrapping at the time of aortic valve surgery may prevent the progression of the dilatation, although the long-term study on a larger population is needed to confirm its benefits.

  17. Early Cellular Changes in the Ascending Aorta and Myocardium in a Swine Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

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    Rabya Saraf

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with pathological remodeling of the heart and adjacent vessels. The early biochemical and cellular changes underlying the vascular damage are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to establish the nature, extent, and initial timeline of cytochemical derangements underlying reduced ventriculo-arterial compliance in a swine model of metabolic syndrome.Yorkshire swine (n = 8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or a high-cholesterol (HCD for 12 weeks. Myocardial function and blood flow was assessed before harvesting the heart. Immuno-blotting and immuno-histochemical staining were used to assess the cellular changes in the myocardium, ascending aorta and left anterior descending artery (LAD.There was significant increase in body mass index, blood glucose and mean arterial pressures (p = 0.002, p = 0.001 and p = 0.024 respectively in HCD group. At the cellular level there was significant increase in anti-apoptotic factors p-Akt (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002 and Bcl-xL (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01 in the HCD aorta and myocardium, respectively. Pro-fibrotic markers TGF-β (p = 0.01, pSmad1/5 (p = 0.03 and MMP-9 (p = 0.005 were significantly increased in the HCD aorta. The levels of pro-apoptotic p38MAPK, Apaf-1 and cleaved Caspase3 were significantly increased in aorta of HCD (p = 0.03, p = 0.04 and p = 0.007 respectively. Similar changes in coronary arteries were not observed in either group. Functionally, the high cholesterol diet resulted in significant increase in ventricular end systolic pressure and-dp/dt (p = 0.05 and p = 0.007 respectively in the HCD group.Preclinical metabolic syndrome initiates pro-apoptosis and pro-fibrosis pathways in the heart and ascending aorta, while sparing coronary arteries at this early stage of dietary modification.

  18. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

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    Ghareib SA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah A Ghareib,1 Hany M El-Bassossy,1,2 Ahmed A Elberry,3,4 Ahmad Azhar,5 Malcolm L Watson,6 Zainy Mohammed Banjar7 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 5Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg-1, and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3–3 µM on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE. To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 µM, guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 µM, calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM, and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 µM were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6

  19. Tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas toracoabdominais da aorta Surgical treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms

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    Januário M Souza

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram operados, em nosso Serviço, 161 aneurismas da aorta, sendo 99 por dissecção e 62 por outras causas. Em cinco pacientes, os aneurismas eram de localização toracoabdominal, sendo três por degeneração aterosclerótica e dois por dissecção; três pacientes eram do sexo feminino e a idade variou de 31 a 71 anos. Dois pacientes submeteram-se a aneurismectomia previamente (um da aorta ascendente e outro da porção proximal da aorta torácica. Revascularização miocárdica foi feita em um paciente, 40 dias antes da aneurismectomia. A indicação em todos os pacientes foi dor, causada por compressão do aneurisma, sendo que, em dois, havia insuficiência respiratória associada. Todos os pacientes foram operados através de incisão toracoabdominal e abertura do diafragma. A aorta foi substituída por tubo de Dacron, desde sua porção proximal até sua bifurcação, e as artérias viscerais foram implantadas no tubo. Quatro pacientes foram operados com pinçamento da aorta; um paciente necessitou emprego de circulação extracorpórea e parada circulatória, por impossibilidade de pinçamento da aorta junto à artéria subclávia. Todos os pacientes sobreviveram ao ato cirúrgico, ocorrendo dois óbitos no pós-operatório, um subitamente no 12º dia e outro por coma neurológico secundário a parada cardíaca causada por hipoxia.Five patients have been operated on of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. The mean age was 53 years (range 31-71 and three were women. All the patients were symptomatic, three of them had arteriosclerotic aneurysms, and the other two had dissecting aneurysms. Three patients had been operated on previously. The exposure of aneurysm was made through a thoracoabdominal incision, in four patients clamps were placed above and below the aneurysm and it was incised longitudinally. Bypass between left atrium and left femoral artery with hypothermia and circulatory arrest was used in the other patients, since the

  20. Tratamento cirúrgico da coarctação de aorta pela aortoplastia trapezoidal Surgical treatment of coarctation of the aorta using trapezoidal aortoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A aortoplastia trapezoidal é uma variante técnica da anastomose término-terminal que, amparada em elementos da geometria, objetiva aumentar o diâmetro da aorta ao nível da sutura reduzida e, consequentemente, a manutenção de gradientes pressóricos residuais ou recorrentes indesejáveis a curto e a longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Após a ressecção da área coarctada e tecido ductal, são confeccionados em cada coto aórtico 3 trapezóides que, ao serem confrontados, criam linha de sutura com aspecto sinusoidal (zigue-zague. Foram operados por esta técnica 33 pacientes, a maioria homens, com idades variando de 3 meses a 36 anos (m 9,5 ± 9,7. RESULTADOS: Não ocorreu mortalidade imediata ou tardia e o tempo de evolução a longo prazo foi de 1,1 a 7,6 anos (m 3,6 ± 3,4. A maioria dos pacientes ficou assintomática com níveis normais de pressão arterial, possibilitando a descontinuação da terapêutica antihipertensiva (pOBJECTIVE: Trapezoidal aortoplasty is a technical variant of end-to-end anastomosis, which, based on elements of geometry, aims at increasing the diameter of the aorta at the level of the suture, therefore reducing the occurrence of residual or recurrent pressure gradients in the short and long run. METHODS: After resecting the coarcted area and ductal tissue, 3 trapezoids are confected in each aortic stump, which, when confronted, create a suture line with a sinusoidal aspect (zigzag. Thirty-three patients underwent surgery with this technique, 22 (66.7% males, with ages ranging from 3 months to 36 years (mean of 9.84 ± 9.69. RESULTS: No immediate or late deaths occurred. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 7.6 years (mean of 3.6 ± 3.4. Most patients became asymptomatic with normal blood pressure levels, enabling the discontinuation of antihypertensive therapy (P<0.0001. A significant reduction in the pressure gradients was observed on Doppler echocardiography and during cardiac catheterization (P<0.001. The analysis of

  1. Effects of high-salt diet on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and generation of reactive oxygen species in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, T V; Korystova, A F; Kublik, L N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Korystov, Yu N

    2014-04-01

    The dynamics of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the aorta and blood plasma and generation of ROS in the aorta were studied in rats subjected to two high-salt diets (0.4% and 1% NaCl solutions). During high-salt diets, activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the aorta progressively decreased to the minimal during week 1 and remained lower than control level for 1 month. Both diets were followed by a decrease in ROS concentration in the aorta, and this effect was more pronounced when the dosage of salt increased. ROS level in the aorta varied similarly during both diets, but the amplitude of the response was significantly higher in rats receiving 0.4% salt solution. ROS amount in the aorta during high-salt diets differed from the control level and depended from salt dosage and the duration of administration.

  2. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms Rastreamento de aneurismas da aorta abdominal

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    Telmo Pedro Bonamigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms may be useful to decrease mortality related to rupture. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in southern Brazil and to define risk factors associated with high prevalence of this disorder. The screening was conducted using abdominal ultrasound. Three groups were studied: Group 1 - cardiology clinic patients; Group 2 - individuals with severe ischemic disease and previous coronary surgery, or important lesions on cardiac catheterism; Group 3 - individuals without cardiac disease selected from the general population. All individuals were male and older than 54 years of age. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of aneurysm was based on an anteroposterior abdominal aorta diameter of 3 cm, or on an abdominal aorta diameter 0.5 cm greater than that of the supra-renal aorta. RESULTS: A total of 2.281 people were screened for abdominal aortic aneurysms in all groups: Group 1 - 768 individuals, Group 2 - 501 individuals, and Group 3 - 1012 individuals. The prevalence of aneurysms was 4.3%, 6.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Age and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aneurysms, as was the diagnosis of peripheral artery disease. DISCUSSION: We concluded that screening may be an important tool to prevent the mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms surgery. Additionally, the cost of screening can be decreased if only individuals presenting significant risk factors, such as coronary and peripheral artery disease, smokers and relatives of aneurysm patients, are examined.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de aneurisma da aorta abdominal infra-renal é importante pois pode diminuir a mortalidade relacionada à ruptura. Realizamos um estudo para definir a prevalência desses aneurismas em diversos segmentos da população em nossa região do Brasil. O rastreamento foi realizado utilizando-se a ecografia de abdômen. Tr

  3. Effects of Continuous and Accumulated Exercise on Endothelial Function in Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Juliana Edwiges; Taipeiro, Elane de Fátima; Chies, Agnaldo Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The practice of exercise in short bouts repeated throughout the day may be an alternative strategy to lift people out of physical inactivity. to evaluate if accumulated exercise, as occurs in continuous exercise training, improve endothelial function in rat aorta. Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: continuous exercise (CEx, 1 hour on the treadmill) or accumulated exercise (AEx, 4 bouts of 15 minutes / day) for 5 days/week for 8 weeks, or sedentary (SED). During the training period, body weight gain and increase in exercise performance were recorded. On sacrifice day, aorta was dissected into rings (3-5 mm) and mounted on the organ bath. Fitness was significantly greater in CEx and AEx rats as compared with SED animals. In addition, compared with the SED group, CEx animals had a lower body mass gain, and the aorta obtained from these animals had reduced contractile response to norepinephrine and greater acetylcholine-induced relaxation. These results were not observed in ACEx animals. Both CEx and AEx improved fitness, but only CEx led to reduced body weight gain and improved endothelial function. A prática de exercícios em sessões curtas que se repetem ao longo do dia pode ser uma alternativa para tirar as pessoas da inatividade física. Verificar se o exercício acumulado, tal como ocorre com o treinamento com exercício contínuo, melhora a função endotelial na aorta de ratos. Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 3 grupos: treinamento com exercício contínuo (ExC; 1 hora em esteira) ou com exercício acumulado (ExA; 4 sessões de 15 minutos ao longo do dia) por 5 dias/semana, durante 8 semanas, ou grupo sedentário (SED). Durante o treinamento, foram registrados o ganho de peso corporal e desempenho na esteira. No dia do sacrifício, anéis (3-5 mm) da aorta foram obtidos e montados em banho de órgãos. Animais ExC e ExA mostraram aptidão física significativamente maior em comparação com os SED. Paralelamente, em comparação com SED

  4. Cardiovascular effects of herbicides and formulated adjuvants on isolated rat aorta and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yin-Ching; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Hsuan, Shih-Ling; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Wang, Shun-Cheng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2007-06-01

    Various formulations of agricultural chemicals, including solutions, wettable powders, and emulsifiable concentrates, contain adjuvants of solvents and surfactants in addition to active ingredients. Among these formulations, herbicides are among the most commonly used pesticides globally. Some pesticides have been demonstrated to cause severe circulatory failure in poisoned humans. To clarify the potential risk of herbicides and their adjuvants influence on the cardiovascular system, four technical grade (TG) herbicides and their end products (EP), including paraquat, glyphosate, glufosinate, and atrazine, as well as their formulated adjuvants isopropylamine (IPA), polyoxyethylene alkylether sulfate (AES), ethyl acetate (EA), xylene, petrolium-170 (P-170), and solvesso-100 (S-100), were assessed to determine their effects on isolated rat aorta and heart. The results revealed that the vasorelaxation effects of the herbicide EPs exceeded those of TGs, and atrazine produced more significant vasorelaxation in rat aortas than the other herbicides tested. The formulated adjuvants of IPA did not affect the aorta; however, AES, EA, xylene, P-170 and S-100 caused significant vasorelaxation. Herbicide EPs-induced vasorelaxation was generally endothelium-dependent. Furthermore, the TG and EP of paraquat, and the TG of glufosinate and glyphosate were found to have no effect on the isolated heart. However, the normal twitch tensions of the isolated heart were significantly inhibited by EPs of glyphosate and glufosinate, and by TG and EP of atrazine. Although, the adjuvants of IPA appeared unaffected, however, AES, EA, xylene, P-170 and S-100 caused complete inhibition and contraction on the isolated hearts. These results indicated that the adjuvants of herbicides might enhance hypotension and contributed to cardiovascular disorders during intoxication.

  5. Endovascular repair of the ascending aorta: when and how to implement the current technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventza, Ourania; Henry, Matthew J; Cheong, Benjamin Y C; Coselli, Joseph S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine when and how to implement the current endoluminal stent graft technology to treat ascending aortic disease. During a 7-year period (March 2006 through July 2013), 7 consecutive patients (median age, 69 years; range, 61.5 to 80.5 years) with multiple comorbidities underwent endoluminal repair of the ascending aorta. Six had an ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm, and 1 had iatrogenic coarctation. The median number of prior sternotomies was 2 (range, 1 to 4). Technical success was achieved in all but 1 patient, with 1 death (14.3%) at 30 days. The endoluminal technology used included the Gore TAG (W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) thoracic graft (including the new C-TAG) in 6 patients, the Talent stent graft (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA) in 1, an Excluder cuff (W.L. Gore) in 2, and an Amplatzer occluder (AGA Medical Corp, Plymouth, MN) in 1. More than 1 stent was placed in 4 patients. Three patients required innominate artery stenting, and 1 required additional left common carotid artery stenting. One patient (14.3%) required intraoperative conversion to open surgical repair. Median follow-up was 14.4 months (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 5.5 to 22.6 months) with 66.6% overall survival. No aortic-related death was reported during the follow-up period. Stent grafting of the ascending aorta is feasible but limited and is reserved for high-risk individuals. Technical expertise is essential, and follow-up is mandatory. Technical points, tips, and challenges of the current endovascular technology to effectively treat the ascending aorta are described. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of taurine on the reactivity of aortas from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku

    2008-01-30

    The effects of the semi-essential amino acid-like nutrient, taurine, on alterations in the reactivities of aortas from male rats with chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined under in vitro conditions. In the absence of taurine, the contractile responsiveness of endothelium-denuded aortic rings from diabetic rats to norepinephrine, but not KCl, was enhanced compared to controls. This effect of norepinephrine on the diabetic rat aorta appeared to be associated with increased release of intracellular calcium, influx of extracellular calcium and protein kinase C-mediated responses. Incubation of endothelium-denuded aortic rings with 10 mM, but not 5 mM, taurine for 2 h reduced the augmented contractile responses of the tissues from diabetic rats to norepinephrine close to control levels, and this was associated with inhibition of responses linked to the release and influx of calcium, and protein kinase C activation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortas from diabetic rats to acetylcholine was depressed relative to controls. This effect of diabetes was ameliorated close to control levels by incubating the tissues with 10 mM, but not 5 mM, taurine for 2 h. Incubation of nondiabetic rat aortic rings with 45 mM glucose for 3 h caused enhancement of contraction of the vascular smooth muscle to phenylephrine and impairment of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation to acetylcholine, as compared to control responses. Co-incubation of the tissues with 5-10 mM taurine concentration-dependently reduced the alterations in both contractile and relaxant responses caused by high glucose. Overall, the data suggest that taurine ameliorates or prevents vascular reactivity alterations in diabetes. Such an observation provides preliminary evidence for taurine's potential as a therapeutic agent for the prevention or amelioration of vascular disorders in diabetes.

  7. Chronic cadmium treatment promotes oxidative stress and endothelial damage in isolated rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C P Almenara

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in the aorta. However, the mechanisms through which endothelial damage is induced by cadmium have not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this metal in the isolated aorta and the possible role of oxidative stress. Rats received 100 mg.L(-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the drinking water or distilled water alone for four weeks. The pressor effect of cadmium was followed throughout the exposure period by tail plethysmography. At the end of the fourth week, the blood cadmium content was established, and the vascular reactivity of the isolated aorta to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed in the context of endothelium denudation and incubation with L-NAME, apocynin, losartan, enalapril, superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase. We observed an increased response to phenylephrine in cadmium-treated rats. This increase was abolished by catalase and SOD incubation. Apocynin treatment reduced the phenylephrine response in both treatment groups, but its effect was greater in cadmium-treated rats, and NOX2 expression was greater in the cadmium group. These results suggested that cadmium in blood concentrations similar to those found in occupationally exposed populations is able to stimulate NOX2 expression, contributing to oxidative stress and reducing NO bioavailability, despite enhanced eNOS expression. These findings suggest that cadmium exposure promotes endothelial damage that might contribute to inflammation, vascular injury and the

  8. Chronic cadmium treatment promotes oxidative stress and endothelial damage in isolated rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenara, Camila C P; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson B; Vescovi, Marcus V A; Angeli, Jhuli K; Faria, Thaís de O; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in the aorta. However, the mechanisms through which endothelial damage is induced by cadmium have not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this metal in the isolated aorta and the possible role of oxidative stress. Rats received 100 mg.L(-1) cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the drinking water or distilled water alone for four weeks. The pressor effect of cadmium was followed throughout the exposure period by tail plethysmography. At the end of the fourth week, the blood cadmium content was established, and the vascular reactivity of the isolated aorta to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed in the context of endothelium denudation and incubation with L-NAME, apocynin, losartan, enalapril, superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase. We observed an increased response to phenylephrine in cadmium-treated rats. This increase was abolished by catalase and SOD incubation. Apocynin treatment reduced the phenylephrine response in both treatment groups, but its effect was greater in cadmium-treated rats, and NOX2 expression was greater in the cadmium group. These results suggested that cadmium in blood concentrations similar to those found in occupationally exposed populations is able to stimulate NOX2 expression, contributing to oxidative stress and reducing NO bioavailability, despite enhanced eNOS expression. These findings suggest that cadmium exposure promotes endothelial damage that might contribute to inflammation, vascular injury and the development of

  9. Thoracic aortas from multiorgan donors are suitable for obtaining resident angiogenic mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Vaselli, Cristiana; Foroni, Laura; Buzzi, Marina; Storci, Gianluca; Alviano, Francesco; Ricci, Francesca; Bonafè, Massimiliano; Orrico, Catia; Bagnara, Gian Paolo; Stella, Andrea; Conte, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    The clinical use of endothelial progenitor cells is hampered by difficulties in obtaining an adequate number of functional progenitors. This study aimed to establish whether human thoracic aortas harvested from healthy multiorgan donors can be a valuable source of angiogenic progenitors. Immunohistochemical tissue studies showed that two distinct cell populations with putative stem cell capabilities, one composed of CD34+ cells and the other of c-kit+ cells, are present in between the media and adventitia of human thoracic aortas. Ki-67+ cells with high growth potential were located in an area corresponding to the site of CD34+ and c-kit+ cell residence. We thus isolated cells (0.5 approximately 2.0 x 10(4) aortic progenitors per 25 cm2) which, upon culturing, coexpressed molecules of mesenchymal stromal cells (i.e., CD44+, CD90+, CD105+) and showed a transcript expression of stem cell markers (e.g., OCT4, c-kit, BCRP-1, Interleukin-6) and BMI-1. Cell expansion was adequate for use in a clinical setting. A subset of cultured cells acquired the phenotype of endothelial cells in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (e.g., increased expression of KDR and von Willebrand factor positivity), as documented by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. An in vitro angiogenesis test kit revealed that cells were able to form capillary-like structures within 6 hours of seeding. This study demonstrates that thoracic aortas from multiorgan donors yield mesenchymal stromal cells with the ability to differentiate in vitro into endothelial cells. These cells can be used for the creation of an allogenic bank of angiogenic progenitors, thus providing new options for restoring vascularization at ischemic sites. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  10. Anesthesia for cesarean section on a pregnant woman with hypoplasia of the distal aorta. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reis, Leonardo Andrade; dos Reis, Guilherme Frederico Ferreira; Colombano, Rodrigo Dias

    2008-01-01

    Maternal vascular anomalies, potentially severe for the fetus, can jeopardize uterine perfusion, which demands more caution by the anesthesiology team. The objective of this report was to demonstrate the anesthetic conduct for a cesarean section on a pregnant woman with hipoplasia of the distal aorta, just below the renal arteries, with stenosis of the renal artery and absence of the iliac arteries. This is a 30-year old patient, weighing 54 kg, on her second pregnancy, with a history of an uncomplicated cesarean section. During the gestational echocardiography on the 12th week, it was observed an interruption of the distal aorta, just below the renal arteries. The patient was referred for coronary angiography, which demonstrated hypoplasia of the distal aorta, just below the renal arteries, and absence of the iliac arteries. During the clinical investigation, the patient remained asymptomatic, except for hypertension and claudication during great efforts. She underwent continuous epidural anesthesia and the dose of the anesthetic was titrated as needed for the cesarean section. Initially, 50 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine without vasoconstrictor and 10 microg of sufentanil were administered. After 15 minutes, anesthesia was complemented with 25 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine, which was enough to achieve an adequate level of blockade. The cesarean section was performed without intercurrences, and the fetus was born in good clinical conditions. The use of continuous epidural block in fractionated doses demonstrated to be a safe anesthetic technique for this procedure because it reduces the risks of maternal hypotension, inherent to the spinal block, and also minimized the placentary transference of drugs, which is the case with general anesthesia. Titration of drugs through the epidural catheter allowed reaching an adequate anesthetic level for this type of surgery.

  11. Blunt traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta and aortic arch: a clinical multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Victor X; Marini, Milagros; Muñiz, Javier; Gulias, Daniel; Asorey-Veiga, Vanesa; Adrio-Nazar, Belen; Herrera, José M; Pradas-Montilla, Gonzalo; Cuenca, José J

    2013-09-01

    To report the clinical and radiological characteristics, management and outcomes of traumatic ascending aorta and aortic arch injuries. Historic cohort multicentre study including 17 major trauma patients with traumatic aortic injury from January 2000 to January 2011. The most common mechanism of blunt trauma was motor-vehicle crash (47%) followed by motorcycle crash (41%). Patients sustaining traumatic ascending aorta or aortic arch injuries presented a high proportion of myocardial contusion (41%); moderate or greater aortic valve regurgitation (12%); haemopericardium (35%); severe head injuries (65%) and spinal cord injury (23%). The 58.8% of the patients presented a high degree aortic injury (types III and IV). Expected in-hospital mortality was over 50% as defined by mean TRISS 59.7 (SD 38.6) and mean ISS 48.2 (SD 21.6) on admission. Observed in-hospital mortality was 53%. The cause of death was directly related to the ATAI in 45% of cases, head and abdominal injuries being the cause of death in the remaining 55% cases. Long-term survival was 46% at 1 year, 39% at 5 years, and 19% at 10 years. Traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta/arch should be considered in any major thoracic trauma patient presenting cardiac tamponade, aortic valve regurgitation and/or myocardial contusion. These aortic injuries are also associated with a high incidence of neurological injuries, which can be just as lethal as the aortic injury, so treatment priorities should be modulated on an individual basis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    WONG, J.Y.R.; CHEN, Y.S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, S.; JUDSON, J.P.; L., SANTHANA RAJ; ER, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Euphorbia hirta is widely used in traditional remedies and has been used cross-culturally for generations against maladies such as asthma, skin ailments and hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that Euphorbia hirta has antibacterial activity, and have also indicated certain antimolluscidal, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties, the latter of which have been suggested to be more pronounced than those of the rheumatological drug, etanercept. To date, no studies have identified the anatomical effects of this herb on the organs of test animals. This study aimed to identify the effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta. A total of 32 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; three groups were fed with aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta at doses of 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, every alternate day for 50 days, while one group served as a control. The animals were later sacrificed and the liver, kidney and aorta harvested for examination by electron microscopy. The aorta showed no ultrastructural changes across the groups. Renal and hepatic tissue from the treated groups demonstrated dose-dependent injuries, which showed architectural damage beginning in the nuclei and spreading outwards. Taking into consideration the properties of Euphorbia hirta that have been described in previous studies, in addition to the results from the present study, it appears that the herb may exhibit similar effects to those of the quinolone group of antibiotics. Further in-depth investigations are required into the potential effects of Euphorbia hirta, deleterious and otherwise. PMID:24223653

  13. The effects ofEuphorbia hirtaon the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Y R; Chen, Y S; Chakravarthi, S; Judson, J P; L, Santhana Raj; Er, H M

    2013-11-01

    Euphorbia hirta is widely used in traditional remedies and has been used cross-culturally for generations against maladies such as asthma, skin ailments and hypertension. Previous studies have demonstrated that Euphorbia hirta has antibacterial activity, and have also indicated certain antimolluscidal, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory properties, the latter of which have been suggested to be more pronounced than those of the rheumatological drug, etanercept. To date, no studies have identified the anatomical effects of this herb on the organs of test animals. This study aimed to identify the effects of Euphorbia hirta on the ultrastructure of the murine liver, kidney and aorta. A total of 32 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; three groups were fed with aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta at doses of 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, every alternate day for 50 days, while one group served as a control. The animals were later sacrificed and the liver, kidney and aorta harvested for examination by electron microscopy. The aorta showed no ultrastructural changes across the groups. Renal and hepatic tissue from the treated groups demonstrated dose-dependent injuries, which showed architectural damage beginning in the nuclei and spreading outwards. Taking into consideration the properties of Euphorbia hirta that have been described in previous studies, in addition to the results from the present study, it appears that the herb may exhibit similar effects to those of the quinolone group of antibiotics. Further in-depth investigations are required into the potential effects of Euphorbia hirta , deleterious and otherwise.

  14. Atypical aortic dissection (intramural hematoma) of aorta: diagnosis of electron beam computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jinglin; Dai Ruping; He Sha; Jing Baolian; Bai Hua

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of electron beam computer tomography (EBCT) in diagnosis of atypical aortic dissection. Methods: Between May 1994 and April 2000, 236 patients with aortic dissection were scanned by electron beam CT (EBCT) from 15000 cases. Out of which, 25 patients (female 4, male 21) were atypical dissection. All patients complained of acute chest pain. Contrast-enhanced EBCT was carried out by Imatron 150-X P system. Continues volume scanning mode (CVS) was performed to obtain 140 slice from aortic arch to iliac bifurcation with slice thickness of 3 mm. Results: The EBCT angiographic (EBCTA) direct features of atypical dissection were as follows: (1) continuous low density crescentic or circle areas along the wall of aorta (25 cases) with CT value of 50-87 HU, 5-23 mm in aortic wall thickness and 16.3 cm in length; (2) displacement of intimal calcification (5 cases); (3) the change of aortic wall thickness with follow up (6/6). The indirect features included: (1) aortic atherosclerotic ulcers (7 cases); (2) atherosclerotic plaque and calcification on the aortic wall (12 cases). According to above features, EBCT can confirm the diagnosis of atypical aortic dissection when the patient has acute chest pain. Among the 25 cases, ascending aorta (Stanford A type) and descending aorta (Stanford B type) were involved in 6 and 19, respectively. In the follow up study with EBCT, intramural hematoma was completely absent in 6 patients after 3 months to 1 year. Conclusion: For the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain, EBCT can confirm the diagnosis of atypical aortic dissection. EBCT is a noninvasive and safe method and it is useful for the follow up study

  15. Iterative Otsu's method for OCT improved delineation in the aorta wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Daniel; Real, Eusebio; Val-Bernal, José F.; Revuelta, José M.; Pontón, Alejandro; Calvo Díez, Marta; Mayorga, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2015-07-01

    Degradation of human ascending thoracic aorta has been visualized with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the vessel wall exhibit structural degradation in the media layer of the artery, being this disorder the final trigger of the pathology. The degeneration in the vessel wall appears as low-reflectivity areas due to different optical properties of acidic polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides in contrast with typical ordered structure of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen fibers. An OCT dimension indicator of wall degradation can be generated upon the spatial quantification of the extension of degraded areas in a similar way as conventional histopathology. This proposed OCT marker can offer in the future a real-time clinical perception of the vessel status to help cardiovascular surgeons in vessel repair interventions. However, the delineation of degraded areas on the B-scan image from OCT is sometimes difficult due to presence of speckle noise, variable signal to noise ratio (SNR) conditions on the measurement process, etc. Degraded areas can be delimited by basic thresholding techniques taking advantage of disorders evidences in B-scan images, but this delineation is not optimum in the aorta samples and requires complex additional processing stages. This work proposes an optimized delineation of degraded areas within the aorta wall, robust to noisy environments, based on the iterative application of Otsu's thresholding method. Results improve the delineation of wall anomalies compared with the simple application of the algorithm. Achievements could be also transferred to other clinical scenarios: carotid arteries, aorto-iliac or ilio-femoral sections, intracranial, etc.

  16. Dacron graft as replacement to dissected aorta: A three-dimensional fluid-structure-interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayendiran, R; Nour, B M; Ruimi, A

    2018-02-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a serious medical condition characterized by a tear in the intima, the inner layer of the aortic walls. In such occurrence, blood is being diverted to the media (middle) layer and may result in patient death if not quickly attended. In the case where the diseased portion of the aorta needs to be replaced, one common surgical technique is to use a graft made of Dacron, a synthetic fabric. We investigate the response of a composite human aortic segment-Dacron graft structure subjected to blood flow using the three-dimensional fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) capability in Abaqus. We obtain stress and strain profiles in each of the three layers of the aortic walls as well as in the Dacron graft. Results are compared when elastic and hyperelastic models are used and when isotropy vs. anisotropy is assumed. The more complex case (hyperelastic-anisotropy) is represented by the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model which also accounts for the orientation of the fibers present in the tissues. The fluid flow is taken as Newtonian, incompressible, pulsatile and turbulent. The simulation show that for all the cases, the von Mises stress distribution at aorta-Dacron interface is well below the ultimate strength of the aorta. No significant change in radial displacement at the interface of the two materials due to blood flow is observed. Computation cost is also addressed and results show that the hyperelastic-anisotropic model takes about three times longer to run than the elastic isotropic case. Trade-off between accuracy and computational cost has to be weighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical simulation of left ventricular assist device implantations: comparing the ascending and the descending aorta cannulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Jean; Malossi, A Cristiano I; Lesinigo, Matteo; Deparis, Simone; Quarteroni, Alfio; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2013-10-01

    In this work we present numerical simulations of continuous flow left ventricle assist device implantation with the aim of comparing difference in flow rates and pressure patterns depending on the location of the anastomosis and the rotational speed of the device. Despite the fact that the descending aorta anastomosis approach is less invasive, since it does not require a sternotomy and a cardiopulmonary bypass, its benefits are still controversial. Moreover, the device rotational speed should be correctly chosen to avoid anomalous flow rates and pressure distribution in specific location of the cardiovascular tree. With the aim of assessing the differences between these two approaches and device rotational speed in terms of flow rate and pressure waveforms, we set up numerical simulations of network of one-dimensional models where we account for the presence of an outflow cannula anastomosed to different locations of the aorta. Then, we use the resulting network to compare the results of the two different cannulations for several stages of heart failure and different rotational speed of the device. The inflow boundary data for the heart and the cannulas are obtained from a lumped parameters model of the entire circulatory system with an assist device, which is validated with clinical data. The results show that ascending and descending aorta cannulations lead to similar waveforms and mean flow rate in all the considered cases. Moreover, regardless of the anastomosis region, the rotational speed of the device has an important impact on wave profiles; this effect is more pronounced at high RPM. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coartación de la aorta: una revisión sistemática

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    O Ruíz Pérez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La coartación de la aorta es una patología caracterizada por el estrechamiento de la arteria aorta, con la consecuente obstrucción de su flujo; localizada con mayor frecuencia a nivel de aorta torácica descendente distal al origen de la subclavia izquierda, y en la pared posterior de la arteria. Supone aproximadamente el 5,1% (3-10% de las cardiopatías congénitas y constituye la octava malformación cardiaca por orden de frecuencia. La presentación clínica de la coartación aórtica es muy variada y depende de la severidad de la lesión y de su posible asociación con otras anomalías cardiacas. Se resalta la tipo infantil y tipo adulto, siendo la primera la que reviste mayor morbimortalidad. La ecocardiografía bidimensional y la ecocardiografía doppler son el método diagnóstico fundamental para la coartación aórtica. La angiorresonancia magnética (angio-RM contrastada, permite hacer una evaluación detallada de la aorta mediante una reconstrucción tridimensional que muestra claramente sus defectos. Por su parte, la TAC multicorte permite la visualización tridimensional del arco desde múltiples planos, pero como inconveniente tiene la emisión de radiación. El cateterismo cardiaco, constituye más que un medio diagnóstico, uno terapéutico en el cual, no sólo se demuestra la localización y extensión de la zona coartada, la presencia de lesiones asociadas y/o de circulación colateral, sino que permite la obtención de un conocimiento fiable de la severidad y repercusión hemodinámica de la misma. El tratamiento de esta patología, puede ser inicialmente médico, pero de forma definitiva por cateterismo cardíaco intervencionista y con menor frecuencia corrección quirúrgica.

  19. Two Successful Term Pregnancies with a Large Descending Aorta Aneurysm: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Salehpour

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aortic aneurysm is a rare but potentially lethal complication during pregnancy. In this article we described a 30-year-old woman with a large size descending aorta aneurysm (11 cm in length and 5.6 cm in its greatest diameter, who had two term uncomplicated pregnancies. The patient received prophylactic ß-blocker drug during her second pregnancy. Both pregnancies were terminated by caesarean section without any serious complications. Postpartum period was recovered successfully, but a noticeable increase in aneurysm’s length was detected in the period between two pregnancies.

  20. One-stage repair of tetralogy of Fallot with coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Zeena; Radhakrishnan, Sitaraman; Goel, Apporva; Sharma, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    We describe the rare case of a 10-month-old girl who had coarctation of the aorta in association with tetralogy of Fallot. The surgical management and postoperative course is described. This case highlights the rare association of coarctation with tetralogy of Fallot, with a large intracardiac right-to-left shunt. Although an exception to the rule, it challenges the reduced fetal blood flow theory and the smooth muscle cell migration theory as embryological explanations for the development of coarctation. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta following botulinum toxin injection to the esophagus

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    Timothy P. Shiraev, MB, BS (Hons, BSc (Hons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aortic pseudoaneurysms are uncommon and are usually secondary to penetrating trauma. We describe the presentation and management of an elderly woman who suffered a pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta several days after receiving botulinum toxin injection to the esophagus. Urgent thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed, and long-term antibiotic therapy was commenced. Despite a slow initial clinical recovery, she returned to an independent lifestyle, with radiographic resolution of the pseudoaneurysm seen at follow-up. This case illustrates that endovascular aortic repair is a suitable and safe treatment option for this unusual presentation.

  2. A new method for protection from shower embolism during TEVAR on a shaggy aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Shuto, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Takeshi; Hongo, Tetsuo; Shuto, Rieko; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    The case of a patient with a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by a shaggy aorta, in whom embolism was prevented by a graft used in debranching and placement of an extracorporeal shunt during thoracic endovascular aortic repair, called the "block and trap method", is presented. Two-staged operations were performed using Y graft replacement, debranching bypass, and thoracic endovascular aortic repair during which a temporary shunt line with a blood filter was made involving the femoral artery and vein. The method of trapping emboli in a filter in an external shunt appears effective.

  3. Primary-care management of patients with coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital cardiac defect that results in a variable degree of obstruction to the left side of the heart. It can present with either acute shock in the neonatal period as a critical lesion or it can appear more insidiously with hypertension or other findings later in life. This article summarises aspects of outpatient care of patients with this lesion, including clinical history and physical examination, ancillary testing, and issues associated with long-term follow-up and management. Increasing knowledge and experience with this group of patients have allowed for a higher level of evidence-based care over the long term.

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of embolism and thrombosis of abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kentaro; Obara, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-07-01

    Although acute aortic occlusion (AAO) and acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) are relatively rare condition, it is very important to know clinical features and managements for these because a delay in diagnosis and appropriate interventions results in high morbidity and mortality. AAO can result from aortic saddle embolus, acute thrombosis of an atherosclerotic aorta, and so on. Superior mesenteric artery embolism and thrombosis are main cause of AMI. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these diseases. The latest information in this article may help readers to promptly make the diagnosis and effectively manage it in a timely manner.

  5. L-arginine induces relaxation of rat aorta possibly through non-endothelial nitric oxide formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Moritoki, H.; Ueda, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Hisayama, T.; Takeuchi, S.

    1991-01-01

    1. The relaxation of rings of rat thoracic aorta induced by L-arginine and its derivatives was investigated. 2. L-Arginine (0.3-100 microM), but not D-arginine, induced relaxation of the arteries, which was detectable after 2 h and maximal after 4-6 h on its repeated application; it was endothelium-independent. 3. L-Arginine methyl ester, N alpha-benzoyl L-arginine and L-homo-arginine had essentially similar effects to those of L-arginine. 4. NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 microM...

  6. Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Coarctation of the Aorta: A Hybrid Approach to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    McLennan, Daniel; Caputo, Massimo; Taliotis, Demetris

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid surgery is becoming more popular in the treatment of children with congenital heart disease, particularly small infants and neonates. We report a case of a patient with aortic stenosis (AS) and coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Case: a 1-month-old baby presented with severe AS and CoA. The decision was made to perform a hybrid surgical procedure. The patient underwent a lateral thoracotomy for repair of the CoA and carotid cutdown for aortic balloon valvuloplasty (AoVP).

  7. [Hybrid treatment of patients with aneurysms and dissections of the aortic arch and descending portion of the thoracic aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomin, V V; Gordeev, M L; Zverev, D A; Shloĭdo, E A; Uspenskiĭ, V E; Zvereva, E D; Bondarenko, P B; Puzdriak, P D

    The authors share herein their experience with hybrid surgical treatment of 21 patients presenting with lesions of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. Aortic pathology included dissection of the thoracoabdominal aorta (n=15), a sacciform aneurysm of the aortic arch (n=5), and a spindle-shaped aneurysm of the distal portions of the aortic arch (n=1). The first stage consisted of the following operations: transposition of the left subclavian artery into the left common carotid artery (n=9; 42.8%), partial debranching (n=11; 52.5%), and total debranching (n=1; 4.7%). The second stage consisted in implantation of a stent graft: to the thoracic aorta in 18 (85.8%) cases, and to the thoracic and abdominal portions of the aorta in 3 (14.2%) cases. The most significant complications of the immediate postoperative period included acute cerebral circulation impairment (n=1) and local dissection of the ascending aorta (n=1). Type I endoleaks were observed in 4 (19%) patients, type II endoleaks in 1 (4.7%), and type III endoleaks in 1 (4.7%). The mean duration of the follow up after discharge from hospital amounted to 11.6±7.9 months. In 4 patients after 6 months the findings of the control MSCT angiography showed no significant changes of the endoleaks. 1-year patency of the shunted branches of the aortic arch amounted to 95.2%. The cumulative survival rate amounted to 95.2%.

  8. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F F; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H; Ferramola, Mariana L; Oliveros, Liliana B; Gimenez, María S

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+), respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd(2+), in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd(2+) exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd(2+) did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. © 2013.

  9. Vasodilator Activity of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Pectis brevipedunculata and Its Main Constituent Citral in Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Zapata-Sudo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata (EOPB, a Brazilian ornamental aromatic grass, is characterized by its high content of citral (81.9%: neral 32.7% and geranial 49.2%, limonene (4.7% and α-pinene (3.4%. Vasodilation induced by EOPB and isolated citral was investigated in pre-contracted vascular smooth muscle, using thoracic aorta from Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats which was prepared for isometric tension recording. EOPB promoted intense relaxation of endothelium-intact and denuded aortic rings with the concentration to induce 50% of the maximal relaxation (IC50 of 0.044% ± 0.006% and 0.093% ± 0.015% (p 0.05. In endothelium-intact aorta, EOPB-induced vasorelaxation was significantly reduced by L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The vasodilator activity of citral was increased in the KCl-contracted aorta and citral attenuated the contracture elicited by Ca2+ in depolarized aorta. EOPB and citral elicited vasorelaxation on thoracic aorta by affecting the NO/cyclic GMP pathway and the calcium influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, respectively.

  10. Customized CT angiogram planning for intraoperative transesophageal echography-guided endovascular exclusion of thoracic aorta penetrating ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Lupia, Mario; Grego, Franco; Antonello, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The technique is demonstrated in a 78-year-old man; the preoperative CT angiogram showed a descending thoracic aorta ulcer of 5.9 cm in maximum diameter and 3.8 cm longitudinal extension. A ZTEG-2P-36-127-PF (Cook Medical) single tubular endograft was planned to be deployed. From the preoperative CT angiogram we planned to land 4.7 cm above the midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and 8.0 cm below. In the operating room, under radioscopic vision the centre of the transesophageal echography probe was used as marker to identify the correspondent midline of the descending thoracic aorta ulcer and a centimeter-sized pigtail catheter in the aorta was used to calculate the desired length above and below the ulcer midline. The endograft was introduced and placed in the desired position compared to the transesophageal echography probe and the catheter; under transesophageal echography vision the graft was finally deployed. The CT angiogram at 1 month showed the correct endograft position, descending thoracic aorta ulcer exclusion with no signs of endoleak. In selected cases, this method allows planning in advance safe stent graft positioning and deployment totally assisted by transesophageal echography, with no risk of periprocedural contrast-related renal failure and reduced radiation exposure for the patient and operators. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta in warmblood horses, Friesian horses, and Friesians with aortic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, Veronique; Famaey, Nele; Smoljkic, Marija; Claeys, Erik; van Loon, Gunther; Ducatelle, Richard; Ploeg, Margreet; Delesalle, Catherine; Gröne, Andrea; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen

    2015-11-18

    Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation are rare conditions in horses. It mainly affects Friesian horses. Intrinsic differences in biomechanical properties of the aortic wall might predispose this breed. The biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta were characterized in warmblood horses, unaffected Friesian horses and Friesians with aortic rupture in an attempt to unravel the underlying pathogenesis of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. Samples of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum (LA), mid thoracic aorta (T1) and distal thoracic aorta (T2) were obtained from Friesian horses with aortic rupture (A), nonaffected Friesian (NA) and warmblood horses (WB). The biomechanical properties of these samples were determined using uniaxial tensile and rupture assays. The percentages of collagen and elastin (mg/mg dry weight) were quantified. Data revealed no significant biomechanical nor biochemical differences among the different groups of horses. The distal thoracic aorta displayed an increased stiffness associated with a higher collagen percentage in this area and a higher load-bearing capacity compared to the more proximal segments. Our findings match reported findings in other animal species. Study results did not provide evidence that the predisposition of the Friesian horse breed for aortic rupture can be attributed to altered biomechanical properties of the aortic wall.

  12. Tubo valvulado ápico-aórtico na calcificação da valva aórtica e aorta ascendente Apico-aortic valved conduct for surgical treatment of aortic valve and ascending aorta calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alberto Dallan

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available É descrito método para correção cirúrgica da estenose aórtica adquirida, conseqüente a calcificação da valva aórtica e da aorta ascendente. Foi empregado tubo de Dacron preparado especialmente para o caso, valvulado com prótese biológica número 21, interposto entre o ápice do ventrículo esquerdo e a aorta torácica descendente. Esse conduto permitiu ao fluxo sangüíneo proveniente do ventrículo esquerdo (VE ultrapassar a obstrução de sua via de saída, sendo ajetado diretamente na aorta descendente. O gradiente pressórico através da valva aórtica reduziu-se de 75 mmHg para 35 mm Hg e o gradiente registrado entre o VE e o conduto valvulado foi de 13 mmHg. A paciente teve boa evolução hospitalar, permanecendo assintomática decorridos quatro meses da operação.A method of surgical correction for patients with acquired aortic stenosis involving calcification of the aortic valve and the ascending aorta has been described. A prosthesis to a 21 mm biological valved conduit, interposed between the left ventricular apex and descending thoracic aorta, permits the left ventricle to bypass the obstruction and eject directly into the aorta. The pressure gradient across the aortic valve was decreased from 75 to 31 mmHg, with a 13 mmHg gradient between the left ventricle and the valved conduit. The patients remains assymptomatic four mounths after the operation, without fatigue or shortness of breath.

  13. Biventricular MR volumetric analysis and MR flow quantification in the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk for quantification of valvular regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rominger, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To test the value of biventricular volumetric analysis and the combination of biventricular volumetric analysis with flow quantification in the ascending aorta (Ao) and pulmonary trunk (Pu) for quantification of regurgitation volume and cardiac function in valvular regurgitation (VR) according to location and presence of single or multivalvular disease. Materials and Methods: In 106 patients, the stroke volumes were assessed by measuring the biventricular volumes and the forward-stroke volumes in the great and small circulation by measuring the flow in the Ao and Pu. Valve regurgitation volumes and quotients were calculated for single and multivalvular disease and correlated with semiquantitative 2D-echocardiography (grade I-IV). For the assessment of the cardiac function in VR, the volumetric parameters of ejection fraction and end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes were determined. Results: The detection rate was 49% for left ventricular (LV) VR and 42% for right ventricular (RV) VR. Low LV VR and RV VR usually could not be detected quantitatively, with the detection rate improving with echocardiographically higher insufficiency grades. Quantitative MRI could detect a higher grade solitary aortic valve insufficiency (≥2) in 11 of 12 patients and higher grade mitral valve insufficiency in 4 of 10 patients. A significant increase in RV and LV ventricular EDV and ESV was seen more often with increased MR regurgitation volumes. Aortic stenosis did not interfere with flow measurements in the Ao. Conclusions: Biventricular volumetry combined with flow measurements in Ao and Pu is a robust, applicable and simple method to assess higher grade regurgitation volumes and the cardiac function in single and multivalvular regurgitation at different locations. It is an important application for the diagnosis of VR by MRI [de

  14. Modeling of coarctation of aorta in human fetuses using 3D/4D fetal echocardiography and computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Jingying; Liu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shuping; He, Yihua

    2017-12-01

    We sought to develop a hemodynamic model of aortic and ductal arches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D/4D spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) fetal echocardiography and to investigate the hemodynamics of coarctation of aorta (CoA) in human fetuses using this approach. We obtained 3D/4D STIC fetal echocardiographic images of the aortic and ductal arches (DA) in five normal fetuses. Based on these images, we simulated the hemodynamics in the two arches using CFD. Subsequently, we reduced the dimensions of aortic isthmus from 100% to 85%, 70%, 55%, 40%, and 25% of the original dimension digitally. Numerical simulation was repeated in each condition, and flow profile, velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) were compared with those of the baseline normal aortic and ductal arches. With the progressive narrowing in the aortic isthmus, there were alterations in the flow profile, velocity, pressure, and WSS. The downstream vortexes disappeared, and the double helix profile became single helix. When the aortic isthmus reduced by 55% in dimension, there was an exponential increase in velocity and WSS and decrease in pressure. The aortic and ductal arch geometry and flow lead to the alterations in flow profile, velocity, pressure, and WSS in the aortic isthmus in normal and CoA models, which are conductive of ductal issue migration into these areas. A 55% reduction in the dimension of aortic isthmus is associated with exponential change in velocity, pressure, and WSS, a probable threshold for hemodynamically significant CoA. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. MRI-based computational fluid dynamics for diagnosis and treatment prediction: clinical validation study in patients with coarctation of aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubergrits, Leonid; Riesenkampff, Eugenie; Yevtushenko, Pavlo; Schaller, Jens; Kertzscher, Ulrich; Hennemuth, Anja; Berger, Felix; Schubert, Stephan; Kuehne, Titus

    2015-04-01

    To reduce the need for diagnostic catheterization and optimize treatment in a variety of congenital heart diseases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is proposed. However, data about the accuracy of CFD in a clinical context are still sparse. To fill this gap, this study compares MRI-based CFD to catheterization in the coarctation of aorta (CoA) setting. Thirteen patients with CoA were investigated by routine MRI prior to catheterization. 3D whole-heart MRI was used to reconstruct geometries and 4D flow-sensitive phase-contrast MRI was used to acquire flows. Peak systolic flows were simulated using the program FLUENT. Peak systolic pressure drops in CoA measured by catheterization and CFD correlated significantly for both pre- and posttreatment measurements (pre: r = 0.98, p = 0.00; post: r = 0.87, p = 0.00). The pretreatment bias was -0.5 ± 3.33 mmHg (95% confidence interval -2.55 to 1.47 mmHg). CFD predicted a reduction of the peak systolic pressure drop after treatment that ranged from 17.6 ± 5.56 mmHg to 6.7 ± 5.58 mmHg. The posttreatment bias was 3.0 ± 2.91 mmHg (95% CI -1.74 to 5.43 mmHg). Peak systolic pressure drops can be reliably calculated using MRI-based CFD in a clinical setting. Therefore, CFD might be an attractive noninvasive alternative to diagnostic catheterization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Geometric Deformations of the Thoracic Aorta and Supra-Aortic Arch Branch Vessels Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Brant W; Suh, Ga-Young; Hirotsu, Kelsey; Zhu, David; Lee, Jason T; Dake, Michael D; Fleischmann, Dominik; Cheng, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    To utilize 3-D modeling techniques to better characterize geometric deformations of the supra-aortic arch branch vessels and descending thoracic aorta after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Eighteen patients underwent endovascular repair of either type B aortic dissection (n = 10) or thoracic aortic aneurysm (n = 8). Computed tomography angiography was obtained pre- and postprocedure, and 3-D geometric models of the aorta and supra-aortic branch vessels were constructed. Branch angle of the supra-aortic branch vessels and curvature metrics of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and stented thoracic aortic lumen were calculated both at pre- and postintervention. The left common carotid artery branch angle was lower than the left subclavian artery angles preintervention ( P Supra-aortic branch vessel angulation remains relatively static when proximal landing zones are distal to the left common carotid artery.

  17. Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention through a Severely Bent Artificial Ascending Aorta Using the DIO Thrombus Aspiration Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Fujikake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man was admitted to our institute because of chest pain. He had undergone replacement of the ascending aorta due to aortic dissection 9 years previously. We made a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, and coronary artery angiography was performed. Although the right coronary artery was successfully cannulated, a severe bend of the artificial aorta made it very difficult to advance the catheter into the left coronary artery. Ultimately, a DIO thrombus aspiration catheter was used to enter the left coronary artery, and a stent was implanted successfully. The DIO catheter is very useful when the selection of a guiding catheter is complicated, such as in the case of severe vessel tortuosity or a bend of the ascending aorta.

  18. Oxidative Stress in Human Aorta of Patients with Advanced Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Márcio Luís; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Kalil, Antonio Nocchi; Aerts, Newton

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress seems to be a role in the atherosclerosis process, but research in human beings is scarce. To evaluate the role of oxidative stress on human aortas of patients submitted to surgical treatment for advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease. Twenty-six patients were divided into three groups: control group (n=10) formed by cadaveric organ donors; severe aortoiliac stenosis group (patients with severe aortoiliac stenosis; n=9); and total aortoiliac occlusion group (patients with chronic total aortoiliac occlusion; n=7). We evaluated the reactive oxygen species concentration, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as nitrite levels in samples of aortas harvested during aortofemoral bypass for treatment of advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease. We observed a higher level of reactive oxygen species in total aortoiliac occlusion group (48.3±9.56 pmol/mg protein) when compared to severe aortoiliac stenosis (33.5±7.4 pmol/mg protein) and control (4.91±0.8 pmol/mg protein) groups (Pcontrol group (3.81±1.7 versus 1.05±0.31 µmol/min.mg protein; Pcontrol cases (Pbe due to a compensative phenomenon to reactive oxygen species production mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. This preliminary study offers us a more comprehensive knowledge about the role of oxidative stress in advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease in human beings.

  19. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxant activity of Trachyspermum ammi essential oil on rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargazi Zadeh, G; Panahi, N

    2017-01-01

    Several pharmacological activities of the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi seeds (TAEO) have been previously studied. These include antitussive, antihypertensive, and antispasmodic effects. However, its action on isolated aorta has not yet been studied. This study was aimed to investigate the vasorelaxant activity of TAEO and characterize its mechanism of action. Extraction of TAEO was performed using Clevenger-type apparatus with the final content of 4.5% (v/w). To evaluate some probable mechanisms of action of TAEO, the action isometric tension was then measured in the aortic rings from Wistar rats which were precontracted with phenylephrine (PHE) (1 µM) or KCl (60 mM). The major constituents of TAEO included Thymol (38.1%), gamma-terpinene (33.3%), and p-cymene (23.1%), as was analyzed by GC-MS. The cumulative concentrations of TAEO reduced precontraction caused by PHE and KCl (p < 0.05) significantly, which was dose dependent. The vasorelaxation caused by TAEO was not influenced in the presence of methylene blue and L-NAME in the endothelium-intact and denuded aorta ring. The inhibitory effect of TAEO on the aortic rings precontracted with KCl and PHE was considerably reduced by nifedipine. These findings hypothesized that the vasorelaxation caused by TAEO is completely endothelium independent and the extracellular Ca 2+ influx was also inhibited by TAEO.

  20. Measurement of hemodynamic changes with the axial flow blood pump installed in descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yano, Tetsuya; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    We have developed various axial flow blood pumps to realize the concept of the Valvo pump, and we have studied hemodynamic changes under cardiac assistance using an axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart. In this study, we measured hemodynamic changes of not only systemic circulation but also cerebral circulation and coronary circulation under cardiac support using our latest axial flow blood pump placed in the descending aorta in an acute animal experiment. The axial flow blood pump was installed at the thoracic descending aorta through a left thoracotomy of a goat (43.8 kg, female). When the pump was on, the aortic pressure and aortic flow downstream of the pump increased with preservation of pulsatilities. The pressure drop upstream of the pump caused reduction of afterload pressure, and it may lead to reduction of left ventricular wall stress. However, cerebral blood flow and coronary blood flow were decreased when the pump was on. The axial flow blood pump enables more effective blood perfusion into systemic circulation, but it has the potential risk of blood perfusion disturbance into cerebral circulation and coronary circulation. The results indicate that the position before the coronary ostia might be suitable for implantation of the axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart to avoid blood perfusion disturbances.

  1. Origin Level of the Ventral Branches of the Abdominal Aorta in the Rabbit and European Hare

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    Maženský D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the level of origin of the branches originating from the ventral surface of the abdominal aorta in the rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found variable levels of the origin of the celiac, cranial mesenteric and caudal mesenteric arteries in both species. In the rabbit, the celiac artery originated in the majority of cases at the cranial end of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the middle part of the vertebral body of the same vertebra. The cranial mesenteric artery in the rabbit originated predominantly at the level of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. In the rabbit, the caudal mesenteric artery originated mainly at the level of the sixth lumbar vertebra and in the hare, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. We concluded that there were higher variabilities of the origins of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta in domesticated rabbit in comparison with the European hare.

  2. Endothelium and NOTCH specify and amplify aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Brandon K; Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Poulos, Michael G; Moon, Randall T; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Bernstein, Irwin D

    2015-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first emerge during embryonic development within vessels such as the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, suggesting that signals from the vascular microenvironment are critical for HSC development. Here, we demonstrated that AGM-derived endothelial cells (ECs) engineered to constitutively express AKT (AGM AKT-ECs) can provide an in vitro niche that recapitulates embryonic HSC specification and amplification. Specifically, nonengrafting embryonic precursors, including the VE-cadherin-expressing population that lacks hematopoietic surface markers, cocultured with AGM AKT-ECs specified into long-term, adult-engrafting HSCs, establishing that a vascular niche is sufficient to induce the endothelial-to-HSC transition in vitro. Subsequent to hematopoietic induction, coculture with AGM AKT-ECs also substantially increased the numbers of HSCs derived from VE-cadherin⁺CD45⁺ AGM hematopoietic cells, consistent with a role in supporting further HSC maturation and self-renewal. We also identified conditions that included NOTCH activation with an immobilized NOTCH ligand that were sufficient to amplify AGM-derived HSCs following their specification in the absence of AGM AKT-ECs. Together, these studies begin to define the critical niche components and resident signals required for HSC induction and self-renewal ex vivo, and thus provide insight for development of defined in vitro systems targeted toward HSC generation for therapeutic applications.

  3. Cilostazol inhibits accumulation of triglyceride in aorta and platelet aggregation in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

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    Hideki Ito

    Full Text Available Cilostazol is clinically used for the treatment of ischemic symptoms in patients with chronic peripheral arterial obstruction and for the secondary prevention of brain infarction. Recently, it has been reported that cilostazol has preventive effects on atherogenesis and decreased serum triglyceride in rodent models. There are, however, few reports on the evaluation of cilostazol using atherosclerotic rabbits, which have similar lipid metabolism to humans, and are used for investigating the lipid content in aorta and platelet aggregation under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of cilostazol on the atherosclerosis and platelet aggregation in rabbits fed a normal diet or a cholesterol-containing diet supplemented with or without cilostazol. We evaluated the effects of cilostazol on the atherogenesis by measuring serum and aortic lipid content, and the lesion area after a 10-week treatment and the effect on platelet aggregation after 1- and 10-week treatment. From the lipid analyses, cilostazol significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids in serum, and moreover, the triglyceride content in the atherosclerotic aorta. Cilostazol significantly reduced the intimal atherosclerotic area. Platelet aggregation was enhanced in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Cilostazol significantly inhibited the platelet aggregation in rabbits fed both a normal diet and a high cholesterol diet. Cilostazol showed anti-atherosclerotic and anti-platelet effects in cholesterol-fed rabbits possibly due to the improvement of lipid metabolism and the attenuation of platelet activation. The results suggest that cilostazol is useful for prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic diseases with the lipid abnormalities.

  4. Fluid Structure Interaction simulation of heart prosthesis in patient-specific left-ventricle/aorta anatomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2009-11-01

    In order to test and optimize heart valve prosthesis and enable virtual implantation of other biomedical devices it is essential to develop and validate high-resolution FSI-CFD codes for carrying out simulations in patient-specific geometries. We have developed a powerful numerical methodology for carrying out FSI simulations of cardiovascular flows based on the CURVIB approach (Borazjani, L. Ge, and F. Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational physics, vol. 227, pp. 7587-7620 2008). We have extended our FSI method to overset grids to handle efficiently more complicated geometries e.g. simulating an MHV implanted in an anatomically realistic aorta and left-ventricle. A compliant, anatomic left-ventricle is modeled using prescribed motion in one domain. The mechanical heart valve is placed inside the second domain i.e. the body-fitted curvilinear mesh of the anatomic aorta. The simulations of an MHV with a left-ventricle model underscore the importance of inflow conditions and ventricular compliance for such simulations and demonstrate the potential of our method as a powerful tool for patient-specific simulations.

  5. Medical image of the week: tortuosity of thoracic aorta mimicking a lung mass

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    Park JS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. An 83-year-old female presented with epigastric discomfort and nausea for 1 month. Her past medical history included hypertension and osteoarthritis. Her vital signs at were unremarkable. Her electrocardiogram revealed only atrial premature beats. Laboratory examination, including complete blood count, liver function test, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolytes were normal. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed minimal changes of reflux esophagitis, erosive gastritis, and extrinsic compression of lower esophagus. Her chest x-ray (Figure 1 showed a 5x4 cm sized round retrocardiac mass with sharp margin. Chest CT was ordered to evaluate the lung mass and it revealed that acutely angulated lower thoracic aorta which crossed from left to right above the left diaphragm (Figure 2. After treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and a gastrointestinal pro-motility agent, her symptoms gradually decreased. Follow-up CT after 2 years shows saccular dilatation of the transverse area of thoracic aorta (Figure 2D, however, she has no specific symptoms. …

  6. Aorta: a management layer for mobile peer-to-peer massive multiplayer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Stefan; Hoerning, Henrik; Brunnert, Andreas; Hoerning, Reidar

    2005-03-01

    The development of massive multiplayer games (MMPGs) for personal computers is based on a wide range of frameworks and technologies. In contrast, MMPG development for cell phones lacks the availability of framework support. We present Aorta as a multi-purpose lightweight MIDP 2.0 framework to support the transparent and equal API usage of peer-to-peer communication via http, IP and Bluetooth. Special experiments, such as load-tests on Nokia 6600s, have been carried out with Bluetooth support in using a server-as-client architecture to create ad-hoc networks by using piconet functionalities. Additionally, scatternet functionalities, which will be supported in upcoming devices, have been tested in a simulated environment on more than 12 cell phones. The core of the Aorta framework is the Etherlobby, which manages connections, peers, the game lobby, game policies and much more. The framework itself was developed to enable the fast development of mobile games, regardless of the distance between users, which might be within the schoolyard or much further away. The earliest market-ready application shown here is a multimedia game for cell phones utilizing all of the frameworks features. This game, called Micromonster, acts as platform for developer tests, as well as providing valuable information about interface usability and user acceptance.

  7. Thickening of the pulmonary artery wall in acute intramural hematoma of the ascending aorta

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    Lardani Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of pulmonary artery obstruction in the course of acute aortic dissection is an unusual complication. The mechanism implicated is the rupture of the outer layer of the aorta and the subsequent hemorrhage into the adventitia of the pulmonary artery that causes its wall thickening and, at times, produces extrinsic obstruction of the vessel. There are no reports of this complication in acute intramural hematoma. Case presentation An 87-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital in shock after having had severe chest pain followed by syncope. An urgent transesophageal echocardiogram revealed the presence of acute intramural hematoma, no evidence of aortic dissection, severe pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade, and periaortic hematoma that involved the pulmonary artery generating circumferential wall thickening of its trunk and right branch with no evidence of flow obstruction. Urgent surgery was performed but the patient died in the operating room. The post mortem examination, in the operating room, confirmed that there was an extensive hematoma around the aorta and beneath the adventitial layer of the pulmonary artery, with no evidence of flow obstruction. Conclusion This is the first time that this rare complication is reported in the scenario of acute intramural hematoma and with the transesophageal echocardiogram as the diagnostic tool.

  8. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the structural characteristics of the tunica media of the mid-thoracic aorta, distant to the lesion, in warmblood and Friesian horses with and without thoracic aortic rupture. In unaffected Friesian horses, the thickness of the tunica media, as well as the percentage area comprised of collagen type I, were significantly higher compared with the warmblood horses, supporting the hypothesis of a primary collagen disorder in the Friesian horse breed. However, in the tunica media of the affected Friesian horses there was no significant wall thickening. Moreover, the percentage area comprised of elastin was significantly lower, while the percentage area comprised of smooth muscle was higher, compared with unaffected Friesian and warmblood horses. These lesions are suggestive of an additional mild elastin deficiency with compensatory smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in affected Friesians. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Mild coarctation of the aorta: to touch or not to touch the patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Randles, Amanda; Rikhtegar Nezami, Farhad; Partida, Ramon; Nakamura, Kenta; Staziaki, Pedro V.; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Bhatt, Ami; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is an aortic obstruction. A peak-to-peak trans-coarctation pressure gradient (PKdP) of greater than 20 mmHg warns severe COA and the need for interventional/surgical repair. The optimal method and timing of intervention remain uncertain especially for mild COA (PKdP treatment strategies for mild COA may need to be redefined as transcatheter interventions emerge, benefits of such interventions are unclear. We investigated the effects of transcatheter interventions on the aorta and left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics in 11 patients with mild COA using a developed computational fluid dynamics and lumped parameter modeling framework along with particle image velocimetry and clinical measurements. Such interventions can improve aortic hemodynamics to some extent (e.g., time-averaged wall shear stress and kinetic energy were reduced by about 20%). However there is no concomitant effect on the LV hemodynamics (e.g., stroke work and LV pressure were reduced by only less than 4%). Our computational approach can effectively predict clinical conditions. Herein one must question intervention for mild COA, as it has limited utility in reducing myocardial strain.

  10. Dilation of the ascending aorta in Turner syndrome - a prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

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    Pedersen Erik M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of aortic dissection is 100-fold increased in Turner syndrome (TS. Unfortunately, risk stratification is inadequate due to a lack of insight into the natural course of the syndrome-associated aortopathy. Therefore, this study aimed to prospectively assess aortic dimensions in TS. Methods Eighty adult TS patients were examined twice with a mean follow-up of 2.4 ± 0.4 years, and 67 healthy age and gender-matched controls were examined once. Aortic dimensions were measured at nine predefined positions using 3D, non-contrast and free-breathing cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Transthoracic echocardiography and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were also performed. Results At baseline, aortic diameters (body surface area indexed were larger at all positions in TS. Aortic dilation was more prevalent at all positions excluding the distal transverse aortic arch. Aortic diameter increased in the aortic sinus, at the sinotubular junction and in the mid-ascending aorta with growth rates of 0.1 - 0.4 mm/year. Aortic diameters at all other positions were unchanged. The bicuspid aortic valve conferred higher aortic sinus growth rates (p Conclusion A general aortopathy is present in TS with enlargement of the ascending aorta, which is accelerated in the presence of a bicuspid aortic valve.

  11. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  12. Analysis of blood flow dynamics in the abdominal aorta based on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Koumei; Tsubota, Kenichi; Ryu, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Images of the abdominal aorta including peri-renal artery by PCMRA (phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography) were analyzed to calculate WSS (wall shear stress) and its OSI (oscillatory shear index) in order to visually elucidate the cause of aneurysm formation. PCMRA was conducted for acquisitions of vascular morphology in one cardiac cycle of a healthy male 30s with cardiac gating, and of blood flow rates from 3 directions. Images were median-filtered to reduce noises and regions of interest of rectangular parallelepiped were defined to involve the aorta. WSS, the parameter representing the intensity of friction stress to the vessel wall of blood flow, and OSI, the degree of oscillatory WSS change, were calculated firstly by the reported Snake model for the vessel morphology and then by applying its local information to blood flow rate information from 3 directions. Color-displayed images revealed that both WSS and OS were high at the highest incidental region of aortic aneurysm formation around the peri-renal artery. The finding was in good agreement with the result of computed bio-dynamic simulation that the strong WSS by elevated swirling of blood flow is generated at the region. Thus WSS and OS can be significant factors of aneurismal formation, which should be further confirmed from aspects of increased case number and precision. (T.T.)

  13. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, İrfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (POSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (Pmodel.

  14. Gia/Mthl5 is an aorta specific GPCR required for Drosophila heart tube morphology and normal pericardial cell positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghna V; Zhu, Jun-Yi; Jiang, Zhiping; Richman, Adam; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Han, Zhe

    2016-06-01

    G-protein signaling is known to be required for cell-cell contacts during the development of the Drosophila dorsal vessel. However, the identity of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that regulates this signaling pathway activity is unknown. Here we describe the identification of a novel cardiac specific GPCR, called Gia, for "GPCR in aorta". Gia is the only heart-specific GPCR identified in Drosophila to date and it is specifically expressed in cardioblasts that fuse at the dorsal midline to become the aorta. Gia is the only Drosophila gene so far identified for which expression is entirely restricted to cells of the aorta. Deletion of Gia led to a broken-hearted phenotype, characterized by pericardial cells dissociated from cardioblasts and abnormal distribution of cell junction proteins. Both phenotypes were similar to those observed in mutants of the heterotrimeric cardiac G proteins. Lack of Gia also led to defects in the alignment and fusion of cardioblasts in the aorta. Gia forms a protein complex with G-αo47A, the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric cardiac G proteins and interacts genetically with G-αo47A during cardiac morphogenesis. Our study identified Gia as an essential aorta-specific GPCR that functions upstream of cardiac heterotrimeric G proteins and is required for morphological integrity of the aorta during heart tube formation. These studies lead to a redefinition of the bro phenotype, to encompass morphological integrity of the heart tube as well as cardioblast-pericardial cell spatial interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thoracic aorta calcification but not inflammation is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk: results of the CAMONA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Lam, Marnix G.E.; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Thomassen, Anders [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); Vach, Werner [University Medical Center Freiburg, Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Olsen, Michael H. [Odense University Hospital, The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Preventive Clinic, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Individualized Medicine in Arterial Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Narula, Jagat [Mount Sinai Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul F. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark)

    2017-02-15

    Arterial inflammation and vascular calcification are regarded as early prognostic markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study we investigated the relationship between CVD risk and arterial inflammation ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging), vascular calcification metabolism (Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging), and vascular calcium burden (CT imaging) of the thoracic aorta in a population at low CVD risk. Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and {sup 18}F-FDG and Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for development of CVD, based on the Framingham risk score (FRS), was estimated. CVD risk was compared across quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, Na{sup 18}F uptake, and calcium burden on CT. A total of 139 subjects (52 % men, mean age 49 years, age range 21 - 75 years, median FRS 6 %) were evaluated. CVD risk was, on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with thoracic aorta Na{sup 18}F uptake in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of the distribution (15.5 % vs. 4.2 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with a thoracic aorta calcium burden on CT in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest two quartiles of the distribution (18.0 % vs. 4.9 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was similar in subjects in all quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Our findings indicate that an unfavourable CVD risk profile is associated with marked increases in vascular calcification metabolism and vascular calcium burden of the thoracic aorta, but not with arterial inflammation. (orig.)

  16. Activation of nicotinic receptors can contribute to endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qian; Leung, Susan W S; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2012-06-01

    Acetylcholine causes endothelium-dependent relaxations in the rat aorta. Both muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in endothelial cells. It is generally accepted that mAChRs are responsible for the endothelium-dependent relaxations evoked by acetylcholine. The present study was designed to investigate whether nAChRs can also be involved in such responses evoked by the cholinergic transmitter. Rings with or without endothelium of aortae of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats were suspended in organ chambers for the measurement of isometric tension. In WKY aortae the muscarinic antagonist atropine abolished the relaxations to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine, confirming that mAChRs are responsible mainly for the response under control conditions. In SHR aortae, atropine caused only partial inhibition of the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine; the remaining decreases in tension were inhibited by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, which did not significantly affect the response in the absence of atropine in either SHR or WKY preparations. Thus, when mAChRs are inhibited, nAChRs mediate relaxation to the cholinergic transmitter in the SHR but not the WKY aorta. Nicotine, a direct agonist of the nicotinic receptor, induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in both SHR and WKY rats via the activation of α7-nAChRs, but not by mecamylamine-sensitive nicotinic receptors (α3 subtype). The acetylcholine-induced, atropine-insensitive relaxations and those to nicotine both involve the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway. The present study demonstrates that the activation of nAChRs can contribute to acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aortae of hypertensive animals and suggests that these receptors may contribute to the endothelium-dependent regulation of vascular tone.

  17. Anomalous left-to-right shunting communication between the ascending aorta and right pulmonary artery in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollan, Katherine; Salinardi, Brenda; Bulmer, Barret J; Sisson, D David

    2011-06-01

    Anomalies of conotruncal septation are rare in dogs and uncommon in humans. Congenital conotruncal defects most commonly reported in veterinary medicine include aorto-pulmonary window and persistent truncus arteriosus. We report a case of an anomalous vessel connecting the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery causing left-to-right shunting, left-sided volume overload, and pulmonary overcirculation. Transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography assisted in the diagnosis and facilitated the surgical correction of the anomalous vessel. The authors hypothesize this defect represents an unusual anomalous vessel connecting the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissection of the aorta, a rare combination of coarctation, a bicuspid aortic valve, and hypertension in a young patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Aldousari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is an uncommon but very lethal disease. Majority of cases are found in elderly patients with a history of hypertension. Young patients usually have other risk factors such as vasculitis, Marfan syndrome, unrecognized coarctation of the aorta, and a bicuspid aortic valve. We present a case of a young patient who presented with epigastric pain mimicking peptic ulcer disease that was later on proved to be type B dissection of the aorta. The patient had a unique combination of hypertension, a bicuspid aortic valve, and postductal coarctation.

  19. Meat product based on porcine hearts and aortas ameliorates serum lipid profile and inflammation in hyperlipidemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernukha, I. M.; Kotenkova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The biological effect of porcine hearts and aortas in a hyperlipidemic rat model was confirmed. Porcine heart and aorta mixture in a 3:1 ratio was blended, canned and sterilized at 115°C and 0.23 Mpa for 40 min. Administration of experimental meat product to the animal model decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and cholesterol low density lipoproteins by 31.8% (Panimals. The granulocyte/leucocyte ratio was also reduced by an average of 38.6% (Ppeople with lipid disorders or atherosclerosis.

  20. Late In-Stent Restenosis of the Abdominal Aorta in a Patient with Takayasu's Arteritis and Related Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yutani, Chikao; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Takamiya, Makoto; Imakita, Masami; Ando, Motomi

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an in-stent restenosis of the infrarenal aorta in a patient with Takayasu's arteritis in a nonactive state. A 10-mm-diameter Wallstent had been deployed 42 months previously. The stented restenosed segment was replaced by a surgical graft. Histopathological examination of the excised aortic segment showed a thin layer of fibrocellular neointima and massive organized and calcified thrombus. To our knowledge, this is the first histopathological report of a late in-stent restenosis of the abdominal aorta in Takayasu's arteritis. RID='''' ID='''' Correspondence to: H. Ishibashi-Ueda, M.D

  1. A successful retrograde re-entry at aorta using the Outback LTD catheter for a bilateral common iliac artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Ahn, Ji-Hun; Kim, Do-Hoi

    2013-05-01

    The Outback LTD re-entry catheter system has become a valuable tool for peripheral intervention and it has been widely used for variable peripheral chronic total occlusion (CTO). However, its use in the setting of the aorta was restricted because of concerns of bleeding risks resulting from re-entry puncture or ballooning. This report presents a case of successful re-entry using the Outback LTD Re-Entry Catheter (Cordis, Bridgewater, New Jersy) at the aorta in a patient with bilateral common iliac artery occlusion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Frozen Elephant Trunk: A technique which can be offered in complex pathology to fix the whole aorta in one setting

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    Kratimenos Theodoros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of treating complex aortic pathology with the use of the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique in a patient with chronic type B aortic dissecting aneurysm associated with arch and ascending aorta dilatation, proximal aortic disease and coronary disease. The case was further complicated due to the involvement of the abdominal vessels and preexisting femoral to femoral crossover bypass. In addition the patient had a tracheostomy for laryngeal cancer. We emphasize the role of the Frozen Elephant Trunk to fix the whole aorta in one setting with special attention given to the changes taking place in vascular perfusion following correction and reconstitution of the true lumen.

  3. Frozen Elephant Trunk: a technique which can be offered in complex pathology to fix the whole aorta in one setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Anagnostakou, Vania; Kratimenos, Theodoros; Ashrafian, Hutan; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-05-08

    We report a case of treating complex aortic pathology with the use of the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique in a patient with chronic type B aortic dissecting aneurysm associated with arch and ascending aorta dilatation, proximal aortic disease and coronary disease. The case was further complicated due to the involvement of the abdominal vessels and preexisting femoral to femoral crossover bypass. In addition the patient had a tracheostomy for laryngeal cancer.We emphasize the role of the Frozen Elephant Trunk to fix the whole aorta in one setting with special attention given to the changes taking place in vascular perfusion following correction and reconstitution of the true lumen.

  4. Smooth Muscle Cells Derived From Second Heart Field and Cardiac Neural Crest Reside in Spatially Distinct Domains in the Media of the Ascending Aorta-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hisashi; Rateri, Debra L; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Majesky, Mark W; Daugherty, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the proximal thoracic aorta are embryonically derived from the second heart field (SHF) and cardiac neural crest (CNC). However, distributions of these embryonic origins are not fully defined. The regional distribution of SMCs of different origins is speculated to cause region-specific aortopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of SMCs of SHF and CNC origins in the proximal thoracic aorta. Mice with repressed LacZ in the ROSA26 locus were bred to those expressing Cre controlled by either the Wnt1 or Mef2c (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c) promoter to trace CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs, respectively. Thoracic aortas were harvested, and activity of β-galactosidase was determined. Aortas from Wnt1- Cre mice had β-galactosidase-positive areas throughout the region from the proximal ascending aorta to just distal of the subclavian arterial branch. Unexpectedly, β-galactosidase-positive areas in Mef2c- Cre mice extended from the aortic root throughout the ascending aorta. This distribution occurred independent of sex and aging. Cross and sagittal aortic sections demonstrated that CNC-derived cells populated the inner medial aspect of the anterior region of the ascending aorta and transmurally in the media of the posterior region. Interestingly, outer medial cells throughout anterior and posterior ascending aortas were derived from the SHF. β-Galactosidase-positive medial cells of both origins colocalized with an SMC marker, α-actin. Both CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs populate the media throughout the ascending aorta. The outer medial cells of the ascending aorta form a sleeve populated by SHF-derived SMCs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The relationship between the parameters (Heart rate, Ejection fraction and BMI) and the maximum enhancement time of ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Ill; June, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyeong Rae

    2007-01-01

    In this study, Bolus Tracking method was used to investigate the parameters affecting the time when contrast media is reached at 100 HU (T 100 ) and studied the relationship between parameters and T 100 because the time which is reached at aorta through antecubital vein after injecting contrast media is different from person to person. Using 64 MDCT, Cadiac CT, the data were obtained from 100 patients (male: 50, female: 50, age distribution: 21⁓81, average age: 57.5) during July and September, 2007 by injecting the contrast media at 4 ml∙sec -1 through their antecubital vein except having difficulties in stopping their breath and having arrhythmia. Using Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 Siemens, patients’ height and weight were measured to know their mean Heart rate and BMI. Ejection Fraction was measured using Argus Program at Wizard Workstation. Variances of each parameter were analyzed depending on T 100 ’s variation with multiple comparison and the correlation of Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI were analyzed, as well. According to T 100 ’s variation caused by Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI variations, the higher patients’ Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the faster T 100 ’s variations caused by Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were. The lower their Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the slower T 100 ’s variations were, but T 100 ’s variations caused by BMI were not affected. In the correlation between T 100 and parameters, Heart Rate (p⁄0.01) and Ejection Fraction (p⁄0.05) were significant, but BMI was not significant (p¤0.05). In the Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI depending on Fast (17 sec and less), Medium (18⁓21 sec), Slow (22 sec and over) Heart Rate was significant at Fast and Slow and Ejection Fraction was significant Fast and Slow as well as Medium and Slow (p⁄0.05), but BMI was not statistically significant. Of the parameters (Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI) which would affect T 100 , Heart

  6. Análisis del comportamiento del material de la arteria aorta ascendente para su modelación// Behavior analysis of the ascending aorta artery material for modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Otero‐Martínez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Existen un gran número de enfermedades cardiovasculares que afectan a la población a nivel mundial. Estas están determinadas por las modificaciones que ocurren en los parámetros hemodinámicos y en el comportamiento de las paredes arteriales. Por esta razón se hace necesario el estudio del comportamiento del material de la pared arterial de manera que puedan ser definidas las características que la conforman. La aorta como arteria elástica posee propiedades específicas que le permiten realizar su función. A medida que pasan los años algunas de estas propiedades se pierden debido al cambio ocurrido en cada uno de sus componentes. Por tanto es de vital importancia conocer la composición estructural de la aorta y cómo influye la pérdida de las propiedades de sus componentes en el cambio de comportamiento que tendrá lugar en esta arteria.Palabras claves: tejido arterial, modelo constitutivo, elasticidad, arteria aorta, características arteriales_______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThere are several cardiovascular diseases affecting world population. These are determined by hemodynamic parameters changes and arterial wall behavior. A study of arterial wall tissue behavior comes to order to define its characteristics, as special elastic properties allow aorta to fulfill its function. Some of the inherent characteristics of arteries are undermine by changes on the arterial wall tissue behavior, mainly caused by the ageing. Accordingly, it is of paramount importance to get to know the aorta wall tissue structure and its significance on the future changes of the behavior of this artery.Key words: arterial tissue engineering, constitutive modelling, elasticity, aortic wall, characteristics of arteries

  7. Hydroxytyrosol and its complex forms (secoiridoids) modulate aorta and heart proteome in healthy rats: Potential cardio-protective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Úrsula; Rubió, Laura; López de Las Hazas, Maria-Carmen; Herrero, Pol; Nadal, Pedro; Canela, Núria; Pedret, Anna; Motilva, Maria-José; Solà, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in virgin olive oil (VOO) in both free and complex forms (secoiridoids; SEC). Proteomics of cardiovascular tissues such as aorta or heart represents a promising tool to uncover the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in healthy animals. Twelve female Wistar rats were separated into three groups: a standard diet and two diets supplemented in phenolic compounds (HT and SEC) adjusted to 5 mg/kg/day during 21 days. Proteomic analyses of aorta and heart tissues were performed by nano-LC and MS. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to generate interaction networks. HT or SEC modulated aorta and heart proteome compared to the standard diet. The top-scored networks were related to Cardiovascular System. HT and SEC downregulated proteins related to proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and occlusion of blood vessels in aorta and proteins related to heart failure in heart tissue. SEC showed higher fold change values compared to HT, attributed to higher concentration of HT detected in heart tissue. Changes at proteomic level in cardiovascular tissues may partially account for the underlying mechanisms of VOO phenols cardiovascular protection being the SEC effects higher than free HT. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Aorta macrophage inflammatory and epigenetic changes in a murine model of obstructive sleep apnea: Potential role of CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Rene; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Almendros, Isaac; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Khalyfa, Ahamed A; Qiao, Zhuanghong; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2017-02-27

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 8-10% of the population, is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), and causally associates with cardiovascular morbidities. In CIH-exposed mice, closely mimicking the chronicity of human OSA, increased accumulation and proliferation of pro-inflammatory metabolic M1-like macrophages highly expressing CD36, emerged in aorta. Transcriptomic and MeDIP-seq approaches identified activation of pro-atherogenic pathways involving a complex interplay of histone modifications in functionally-relevant biological pathways, such as inflammation and oxidative stress in aorta macrophages. Discontinuation of CIH did not elicit significant improvements in aorta wall macrophage phenotype. However, CIH-induced aorta changes were absent in CD36 knockout mice, Our results provide mechanistic insights showing that CIH exposures during sleep in absence of concurrent pro-atherogenic settings (i.e., genetic propensity or dietary manipulation) lead to the recruitment of CD36(+) high macrophages to the aortic wall and trigger atherogenesis. Furthermore, long-term CIH-induced changes may not be reversible with usual OSA treatment.

  9. Orientation, anisotropy, clustering and volume fraction of smooth muscle cells within the wall of porcine abdominal aorta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonar, Z.; Kochová, P.; Janáček, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 145-156 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110502 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NR8863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : aorta * stereology * histology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  10. Two-dimensional echocardiographic and RI angiographic features of aneurysm of the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, S.; Satomi, G. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Heart Inst. and Hospital)

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of two-dimensional echocardiography with that of other methods in the detection and localization of aneurysm involving the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. Two-dimensional echocardiography, RI angiography, CT scan and aortography were performed in 19 patients (12 patients with Marfan's syndrome, 4 with aortitis syndrome and 3 with postoperative perivalvular aneurysm). Eight of 12 patients with Marfan's syndrome had dissection in the ascending aorta which was confirmed at surgery or autopsy. The following observations were obtained. 1) Dissection of the ascending aorta was clearly demonstrated on the two-dimensional echocardiogram in 7 patients by recording the intinal tear and flap, and in these cases the short axis two-dimensional echocardiogram of the ascending aorta was more useful in identifying the site and extent of dissection. 2) In patients with postoperative perivalvular aneurysms, RI angiography proved to be a more useful and sensitive technique in differentiating a leakage into the aneurysm from clots in the aneurysm. 3) CT scanning proved to be an insensitive technique to detect dissection of the ascending aneurysm and to differentiate a leakage from clots in the perivalvular aneurysm. From these observations, we concluded that two-dimensional echocardiography and RI angiography proved to be sensitive techniques in detecting dissection of the ascending aneurysm and evaluating a postoperative aneurysm in patients with annuloaortic ectasia.

  11. Two-dimensional echocardiographic and RI angiographic features of aneurysm of the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Suzuki, Shin; Satomi, Gengi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of two-dimensional echocardiography with that of other methods in the detection and localization of aneurysm involving the ascending aorta in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. Two-dimensional echocardiography, RI angiography, CT scan and aortography were performed in 19 patients (12 patients with Marfan's syndrome, 4 with aortitis syndrome and 3 with postoperative perivalvular aneurysm). Eight of 12 patients with Marfan's syndrome had dissection in the ascending aorta which was confirmed at surgery or autopsy. The following observations were obtained. 1) Dissection of the ascending aorta was clearly demonstrated on the two-dimensional echocardiogram in 7 patients by recording the intinal tear and flap, and in these cases the short axis two-dimensional echocardiogram of the ascending aorta was more useful in identifying the site and extent of dissection. 2) In patients with postoperative perivalvular aneurysms, RI angiography proved to be a more useful and sensitive technique in differentiating a leakage into the aneurysm from clots in the aneurysm. 3) CT scanning proved to be an insensitive technique to detect dissection of the ascending aneurysm and to differentiate a leakage from clots in the perivalvular aneurysm. From these observations, we concluded that two-dimensional echocardiography and RI angiography proved to be sensitive techniques in detecting dissection of the ascending aneurysm and evaluating a postoperative aneurysm in patients with annuloaortic ectasia. (author)

  12. Biophysical properties of the normal-sized aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome: evaluation with MR flow mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, M.; de Roos, A.; Mulder, B. J.; Verbeeten, B.; Timmermans, J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Spaan, J. A.; van der Wall, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) flow mapping in the assessment of aortic biophysical properties in patients with Marfan syndrome and to detect differences in biophysical properties in the normal-sized aorta distal to the aortic root between these patients and

  13. Role NO in realization of disorders of reactivity of an aorta after affecting an low intensive ionizing radiation: age aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'eva, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    The ionizing radiation in a dose 1 Gy mediates depressing of vasodilatation functions of an endothelium against the background of discriminated variations of neurohumoral regulations of reactivity of an aorta for young and old rats. The radiation-induced modification of physiological function of endothelial NO executes the key role in these age variations. (authors)

  14. Prosthetic Subclavian-Aortic Bypass as a Safe Surgical Technique for the Coarctation of the Aorta in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Refatllari

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Coarctation of the aorta in adults is treated with optimal early results at our surgical centre. Subclavian-aortic bypass grafting requires less aortic dissection, can be performed with a partially occluding clamp, and does not compromise the spinal cord vascularization.

  15. Hybrid aortic repair with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castro-Madrazo, José Antonio; Rivas-Domínguez, Margarita; Fernández-Prendes, Carlota; Zanabili Al-Sibbai, Amer; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition. Hybrid repair has been described for the treatment of complex aortic pathology such as thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) and type A and B dissections, although open and total endovascular repair are also possible. Open surgery is still associated with substantial perioperative morbi-mortality rates, thus less invasive techniques such as endovascular repair and hybrid procedures can achieve good results in centers with experience. We present the case of a patient with a chronic type B dissection and TAAA degeneration that was treated in a single stage hybrid procedure with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from the ascending aorta and TEVAR. At three-year follow up, the patient is free of intervention-related complications.

  16. Effect of noise on the development of induced sclerotic processes in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, G; Ivanovich, E; Kazakova, B; Goranova, L

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of 95 and 85 dB noise on the aortic wall of white rats fed for a period of 6 weeks an atherogenic diet (cholesterol + cholic acid + vitamin D2). Noise alone did not cause significant changes in the metabolism and structure of the aorta. The atherogenic diet alone caused segmental enlargement of the intercellular substance, disorganization of tissue elements, and destruction of smooth-muscle cells with marked activation of anaerobic processes, an increase in collagen content and a decrease in globular proteins and elastin. Simultaneous action of noise and of the atherogenic diet produced more pronounced biochemical and morphological alterations in the aortic wall than the diet alone. Noise not only contributes to the development of sclerotic processes but causes also complicated lesions of the aortic wall.

  17. MRI Artifacts of a Metallic Stent Derived From a Human Aorta Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M. E.; Flores, P.; Marrufo, O.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proved to be a useful technique to get images of the whole body. However, the presence of ferromagnetic material can cause susceptibility artifacts, which result from microscopic gradients that occur near the boundaries between areas displaying different magnetic susceptibility. These gradients cause dephasing of spins and frequency shifts in the surrounding tissues. Intravoxel dephasing and spatial mis-registration can degrade image quality. An aorta with a metallic stent was preserved in formaldehyde at 10% inside acrylic cylinders and used to obtain MR images. We tested pulsed spin echo and gradient echo sequences to improve image quality. All experiments were performed on a 7T/21 cm Varian system (Varian, Inc, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with Direct Drive technology and a 16-rung birdcage coil transceiver. The presence of metallic stents produces a lack of signal that might give falsely reassuring appearances within the vessel lumen.

  18. Effect of camelina oil on the structure of aortas in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowska, Marta; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Piersiak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    ovariectomy. Forty Wistar female rats (220-240 g) were used in the experiment: 10 animals underwent a sham ovary repositioning operation (SHO), and 30 were ovariectomized (OVX). After 7 days of convalescence, the SHO rats and OVX1 rats were given physiological saline intragastrically for 6 weeks, while...... the treated rats received camelina oil at doses of 5 g/kg/b.w. (OVX2) or 9 g/kg/b.w. (OVX3) once a day. The rats were euthanized 7 weeks after the surgery, and the aorta, before the right and left common iliac arteries, was removed, cut into 5 mm pieces and exposed to a series of step-wise increases...... with oils rich in omega-3 PUFA may prevent negative changes in the structure and function of vessels....

  19. Automated Detection of Healthy and Diseased Aortae from Images Obtained by Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gayhart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We developed the next stage of our computer assisted diagnosis (CAD system to aid radiologists in evaluating CT images for aortic disease by removing innocuous images and highlighting signs of aortic disease. Materials and Methods. Segmented data of patient’s contrast-enhanced CT scan was analyzed for aortic dissection and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU. Aortic dissection was detected by checking for an abnormal shape of the aorta using edge oriented methods. PAU was recognized through abnormally high intensities with interest point operators. Results. The aortic dissection detection process had a sensitivity of 0.8218 and a specificity of 0.9907. The PAU detection process scored a sensitivity of 0.7587 and a specificity of 0.9700. Conclusion. The aortic dissection detection process and the PAU detection process were successful in removing innocuous images, but additional methods are necessary for improving recognition of images with aortic disease.

  20. Controversias en el manejo actual de la coartación de la aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Vanegas, Edgardo; Marín, María M.; Santacruz, David

    2013-01-01

    La coartación de la aorta fue descrita clásicamente como una simple estrechez del istmo aórtico que podría ser "curada" por medio de cirugía. En la actualidad se sabe que es la manifestación clínica de una vasculopatía arterial más amplia, en donde la afección del arco aórtico puede ser variable. La corrección quirúrgica ha demostrado ser un tratamiento efectivo para el manejo de la coartación aórtica nativa y permanece como el de elección en neonatos. De otra parte, la angioplastia con balón...

  1. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krassowska, Anna; Gordon-Keylock, Sabrina; Samuel, Kay; Gilchrist, Derek; Dzierzak, Elaine; Oostendorp, Robert; Forrester, Lesley M.; Ansell, John D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance

  2. Acinar Cell Cyst adenoma (Acinar Cystic Transformation) of the Pancreas: the Radiologic-Pathologic Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Algin, Oktay; Gundogdu, Haldun; Ugras, Serdar

    2011-01-01

    Acinar cystic transformation of the pancreas is also known as acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC), and this is an extremely rare benign lesion that was first described in April 2002. We report here on a case of a previously asymptomatic patient with pancreatic ACC and this was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report concerning the CT or MRI features of ACC in the medical literature. We present here the CT, MRI and pathological findings of pancreatic ACC

  3. Calcium antagonism and the vasorelaxation of the rat aorta induced by rotundifolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The vasorelaxing activity of rotundifolone (ROT, a major constituent (63.5% of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, was tested in male Wistar rats (300-350 g. In isolated rat aortic rings, increasing ROT concentrations (0.3, 1, 10, 100, 300, and 500 µg/ml inhibited the contractile effects of 1 µM phenylephrine and of 80 or 30 mM KCl (IC50 values, reported as means ± SEM = 184 ± 6, 185 ± 3 and 188 ± 19 µg/ml, N = 6, respectively. In aortic rings pre-contracted with 1 µM phenylephrine, the smooth muscle-relaxant activity of ROT was inhibited by removal of the vascular endothelium (IC50 value = 235 ± 7 µg/ml, N = 6. Furthermore, ROT inhibited (pD2 = 6.04, N = 6 the CaCl2-induced contraction in depolarizing medium in a concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free solution, ROT inhibited 1 µM phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine (20 mM. In conclusion, in the present study we have shown that ROT produces an endothelium-independent vasorelaxing effect in the rat aorta. The results further indicated that in the rat aorta ROT is able to induce vasorelaxation, at least in part, by inhibiting both: a voltage-dependent Ca² channels, and b intracellular Ca2+ release selectively due to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate activation. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ROT-induced relaxation.

  4. Transport of 125I-albumin across normal and deendothelialized rabbit thoracic aorta in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.; Lees, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Transmural concentration profiles of 125 I-albumin in vivo were measured across the normal and balloon catheter-deendothelialized rabbit descending thoracic aorta as a function of time following intravenous injection. A tracer was injected 5 or 60 minutes after deendothelialization, and the animals were sacrificed after circulation times of 10, 30 or 60 minutes. The aorta was immediately excised and frozen flat between glass slides. Samples were serially sectioned parallel to the intimal surface in a refrigerated microtome, washed with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and counted. Relative tissue concentration profiles of TCA-precipitable radioactivity from the media of control animals showed entry from both luminal and adventitial sides, as previously found with conscious normal rabbits, but spatial gradients at both luminal and medial-adventitial borders were less steep. Relative concentration levels in ballooned animals were 10- to 40-fold higher than in controls, and the profiles were flatter. Uptake rates at equivalent circulation times were greater in experiments initiated 60 minutes, as compared with 5 minutes, after deendothelialization, suggesting that progressive medial edema may have occurred following balloon injury. These results show that the intact endothelium is the dominant mass transfer resistance for 125 I-albumin transport across the aortic wall. The data also suggest that the incomplete monolayer of platelets adherent to the subendothelium after balloon deendothelialization is not a substantial resistance to transport, as compared to that of the media, and that convection plays a more important role than diffusion for 125 I-albumin transport across the deendothelialized aortic wall

  5. Topiramate ameliorates abdominal aorta cross-clamping induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine C; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Gokce, Mehmet F

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver occurs after a prolonged period of ischemia followed by restoration of hepatic blood perfusion. During the surgery of abdominal aorta, I/R injury causes damage to lower extremities and many organs, especially liver. The antioxidant and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) suppression effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies. We evaluated the potential protective effect of TPM on cellular damage in liver tissue during I/R injury. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, I/R, and I/R plus TPM (I/R + TPM) groups. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group. After laparotomy, cross-ligation of infrarenal abdominal aorta was applied for 2 h in I/R groups that was followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TPM (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated to the animals in the I/R + TPM group for seven consecutive days before I/R procedure. The I/R group's TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher than those of the control (P = 0.010; P = 0.002) and I/R + TPM groups (P = 0.010; P = 0.002, respectively). Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels of I/R group were higher than the control (P = 0.015) and I/R + TPM groups. I/R caused serious histopathological damage to liver tissue; however, TPM led to very low histopathological changes. Our data demonstrated that TPM treatment prominently decreases the severity of liver I/R injury. TPM pretreatment may have preventive effects on liver injury via I/R during intra-abdominal surgery.

  6. Vasorelaxant effect of essential oil isolated from Nigella sativa L. seeds in rat aorta: Proposed mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui-Tangi, Khadija; Israili, Zafar Hasan; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds (Nigella oil) was investigated for its vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta. Nigella oil at concentrations of 10-100 μg/mL elicited a dose-dependent relaxation of the aorta, which was pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 10(-6) M) or KCl (100mM). In the presence of Nigella oil (75 μg/mL, the dose response curves to increasing concentrations of NA (10(-9) M to 10(-4)M) or KCl (10mM-100mM) were displaced downwards, indicating inhibition of the vasoconstrictive effect. This relaxation effect was independent of the presence of endothelium. In addition, the vasodilatory activity of the Nigella oil was not affected by pre-treatment of the rings with N(G)-nitro-L-Arginine (an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase; 0.1mM), suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect is not mediated by nitric oxide. Furthermore, pre-treatment of the rings with Nigella oil (75 μg/mL suppressed the tension increment produced by increasing external calcium concentration (0.25 mM to 1.5mM). Tin conclusion, the essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds produces smooth muscle relaxation, which is independent of endothelium and is not mediated by nitric oxide. The results also suggest that the vasorelaxing effect of the oil results from the blockade of both voltage-sensitive and receptor-operated calcium channels, and this may have therapeutic significance, in that Nigella oil may be useful as an antihypertensive agent in humans.

  7. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  8. Sulforaphane reduces advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Ojima, A; Nishino, Y; Yamagishi, S-I

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor RAGE interaction evokes oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions, thereby being involved in endothelial cell (EC) damage in diabetes. Sulforaphane is generated from glucoraphanin, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, by myrosinase. Sulforaphane has been reported to protect against oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. However, effects of sulforaphane on AGEs-induced vascular damage remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and AGEs-injected rat aorta. Sulforaphane treatment for 4 or 24 h dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 (VCAM-1) gene expression in HUVECs. AGEs significantly stimulated MCP-1 production by, and THP-1 cell adhesion to, HUVECs, both of which were prevented by 1.6 μM sulforaphane. Sulforaphane significantly suppressed oxidative stress generation and NADPH oxidase activation evoked by AGEs in HUVECs. Furthermore, aortic RAGE, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in AGEs-injected rats were increased, which were suppressed by simultaneous infusion of sulforaphane. The present study demonstrated for the first time that sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed HUVECs and AGEs-infused rat aorta partly by suppressing RAGE expression through its anti-oxidative properties. Inhibition of the AGEs-RAGE axis by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of aortic valve dysfunction and ascending aorta dimensions according to bicuspid aortic valve morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hong Ju [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Kim, Jun Suk [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sung Min [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To characterize aortic valve dysfunction and ascending aorta dimensions according to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) morphology using computed tomography (CT) and surgical findings. We retrospectively enrolled 209 patients with BAVs who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CT. BAVs were classified as anterior-posterior (BAV-AP) or lateral (BAV-LA) orientation of the cusps and divided according to the presence (raphe+) or absence (raphe-) of a raphe. Ascending aortic dimensions were measured by CT at four levels. BAV-AP was present in 129 patients (61.7 %) and raphe+ in 120 (57.4 %). Sixty-nine patients (33.0 %) had aortic regurgitation (AR), 70 (33.5 %) had aortic stenosis (AS), and 58 (27.8 %) had combined AS and AR. AR was more common in patients with BAV-AP and raphe+; AS was more common with BAV-LA and raphe-.Annulus/body surface area and tubular portion/body surface area diameters in patients with BAV-AP (17.1 ± 2.3 mm/m{sup 2} and 24.2 ± 5.3 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively) and raphe+ (17.3 ± 2.2 mm/m{sup 2} and 24.2 ± 5.5 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively) were significantly different from those with BAV-LA (15.8 ± 1.9 mm/m{sup 2} and 26.4 ± 5.5 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively) and raphe- (15.7 ± 1.9 mm/m{sup 2} and 26.2 ± 5.4 mm/m{sup 2}, respectively). The morphological characteristics of BAV might be associated with the type of valvular dysfunction, and degree and location of an ascending aorta dilatation. (orig.)

  10. Surgical management of lung cancer invading the aorta or the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misthos, P; Papagiannakis, G; Kokotsakis, J; Lazopoulos, G; Skouteli, E; Lioulias, A

    2007-05-01

    Invasion of mediastinal structures (T4) is considered as an absolute contraindication to surgical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The authors studied the role of surgical treatment in case of direct aortic and superior venous caval involvement. From 1995 to 2000, 13 patients with left lung NSCLC invading descending aorta and 9 patients with right upper lobe NSCLC and superior vena cava (SVC) invasion were subjected to thoracotomy for lung resection. Surgery was indicated in case of absence of intraluminal extension. All patients were cN2 negative. The pathology results and 5-year survival were recorded and analyzed. In three cases (23%) the tumor was adhered to the parietal pleura overlying descending aorta, which was resected en block with tumor-associated lung parenchyma. Aortic adventitia invasion by tumor led to local resection of adventitia (<1cm(2)) in nine patients (69%). Invasion deeper than adventitia was encountered in one case (8%), which was managed with aortic partial occlusion, resection of aortic wall and repair of the defect with Gore graft patch. In three patients (33%) the SVC wall was involved by the tumor 1-3cm in length and 2-4mm of the circumference. The defect was repaired with direct suturing. In five patients (56%) the area of SVC wall that was invaded was 3cmx2cm. The defect was repaired with Dacron patch. In 1 patient (11%) an arterial 14 graft was end-to-end interposed. All resections were radical (R0). Neither associated postoperative complications nor operative mortality was recorded. Five-year survival was 30.7% for the cases with aortic invasion and 11% for the ones with SVC involvement. Radical surgical resection of lung tumors with localized aortic invasion can be considered after exclusion of N2 involvement.

  11. Anomalous Origin of One Pulmonary Artery From the Ascending Aorta: From Diagnosis to Treatment in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Valdano; Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Morais, Humberto; Magalhães, Manuel P; Pedro, Albino; Miguel, Gade; Nunes, Maria A S; Gamboa, Sebastiana; Júnior, António P F

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery is a rare congenital heart disease in which one pulmonary artery branch originates from the ascending aorta. To describe the experience of a cardiothoracic center in an African country to repair anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery in the context of Portugal-Angola collaboration. Between March 2011 and March 2015, four consecutive patients with anomalous origin of pulmonary artery branch underwent surgical correction. The mean age was 1.6 months. The mean weight was 4 kg. All had right pulmonary artery branch originating from the ascending aorta. All patients underwent direct implantation of right pulmonary branch to main pulmonary artery. Two patents had patent ductus arteriosus and one had atrial septal defect. Two patients had pulmonary hypertension. There was no registration of death. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 75.5 ± 4.5 minutes, mean aortic cross-clamping time was 40 ± 5.6 minutes, and mean duration of the postoperative intensive care unit stay was 6.8 ± 5.7 days. At discharge, one patient had residual gradient of 25 mm Hg, the remainder had no significant gradient. The mean follow-up time was 11 months (5-28 months). One week after discharge, one patient presented operative wound dehiscence. At the last follow-up, all patients were alive, and no significant residual gradient or stenosis at site of anastomosis was observed. No reintervention was required. Anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery is a rare but potentially treatable lesion if operated early in life. Direct implantation was a good technique with good short-term results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Early and late results of graft replacement for dissecting aneurysm of thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Akiko; Miyahara, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Inoue, Takeshi; Oka, Takanori; Minami, Hitoshi; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    When treating dissecting aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta surgically in patients with Marfan syndrome, we have usually performed graft replacement- including the entire thoracoabdominal aorta and reconstruction of all visceral branches, even if dilatation is mild in some segments-to avoid further aortic operations in the follow-up period. From October 1999 through July 2011, 20 consecutive patients with Marfan syndrome underwent repair of dissecting aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta (median age, 45 years; range, 19-65 years). All patients underwent surgical intervention with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage and distal aortic and selective organ perfusion. Deep hypothermia was used in 13 patients for spinal cord protection. No in-hospital mortality was observed. One patient had temporary spinal cord ischemia but was fully recovered by discharge. Other complications included exploration for bleeding (n=1), prolonged ventilation (n=1), and graft infection (n=1). At a mean follow-up of 54 months (range, 9-129 months), 1 patient had died of interstitial pneumonia at 38 months postoperatively. Survival at 8% years was 91.2±9.0%. Two patients required additional aortic procedures (total arch replacement and aortic valve-sparing surgery). Actuarial rate of freedom from aortic operations at 8 years was 83.9%±10.5%, but no patient needed required repeated thoracotomy for an aortic procedure. Neither false nor patch aneurysms were observed using computed tomography (CT) during follow-up surveillance. Graft replacement for dissecting aneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta in Marfan syndrome offers good early and long-term results. We believe total aortic replacement including the entire thoracoabdominal aorta and reconstruction of all visceral arteries should be recommended for selected patients with Marfan syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray dose-equivalent CT for assessing calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Michael; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Leschka, Sebastian; Warschkow, René; Wildermuth, Simon; Hechelhammer, Lukas; Bauer, Ralf W

    2017-12-01

    To determine the value of ultralow-dose chest CT for estimating the calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta using tin-filter CT and compare its diagnostic accuracy with chest direct radiography. A total of 106 patients from a prospective, IRB-approved single-centre study were included and underwent standard dose chest CT (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) by clinical indication followed by ultralow-dose CT with 100 kV and spectral shaping by a tin filter (0.13 ± 0.01 mSv) to achieve chest X-ray equivalent dose in the same session. Two independent radiologists reviewed the CT images, rated image quality and estimated presence and extent of calcification of aortic valve, ascending aorta and aortic arch. Conventional radiographs were also reviewed for presence of aortic calcifications. The sensitivity of ultralow-dose CT for the detection of calcifications of the aortic valve, ascending aorta and aortic arch was 93.5, 96.2 and 96.2%, respectively, compared with standard dose CT. The sensitivity for the detection of thoracic aortic calcification was significantly lower on chest X-ray (52.3%) compared with ultralow-dose CT (p < 0.001). A reliable estimation of calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta can be achieved with modern tin-filter CT at dose values comparable to chest direct radiography. Advances in knowledge: Our findings suggest that ultralow-dose CT is an excellent tool for assessing the calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta with higher diagnostic accuracy than conventional chest radiography and importantly without the additional cost of increased radiation dose.

  14. UDP-induced relaxation is enhanced in aorta from female obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shota; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ando, Makoto; Iguchi, Maika; Watanabe, Shun; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2018-03-01

    Uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) plays an important role in controlling vascular tone; however, UDP-mediated response in metabolic syndromes, including obesity and type 2 diabetes in females, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated UDP-mediated response in the aorta of female obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. In OLETF rat aortas precontracted by phenylephrine (PE) (vs. LETO), (1) UDP-induced relaxation was increased, whereas acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was decreased; (2) no UDP- or ACh-induced relaxations were observed in endothelial denudation, whereas UDP-induced small contraction was observed; and (3) N G -nitro-L-arginine [L-NNA, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor] eliminated UDP-induced relaxation and small contraction, whereas caused contrasting responses by ACh, including slight relaxations (LETO) and contractions (OLETF). Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, eliminated the difference in UDP- and ACh-induced relaxations between the groups by increased UDP-induced relaxation in the LETO group and increased ACh-induced relaxation in the OLETF group. MRS2578, a P2Y 6 receptor antagonist, eliminated the difference in UDP-induced relaxations between the groups by decreasing UDP-induced relaxation in the OLETF group. MRS2578 had no effect on UDP-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded aortas. Therefore, these findings demonstrate opposite trends of relaxations by UDP and ACh in OLETF and LETO rat aortas. These differences may be attributed to the imbalance between NO and vasoconstrictor prostanoids upon stimulations. Increased UDP-induced relaxation in OLETF rat aorta may be caused by the activation of endothelial MRS2578-sensitive P2Y 6 receptor.

  15. Is the thoracic aorta a safe site for the proximal anastomosis for bypassing the mesenteric arteries in patients with chronic mesenteric ischaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, James; Kokotsakis, John; Velissarios, Konstantinos; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2017-05-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiovascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the thoracic aorta is a safe site for the proximal anastomosis when bypassing the mesenteric arteries in patients with chronic mesenteric ischaemia. Five articles reported the use of the thoracic aorta as the site of proximal anastomosis in 35 patients with chronic mesenteric ischaemia. All of these studies were retrospective case reports or case series. The ascending aorta was the site for the proximal anastomosis in 7 patients with the descending thoracic aorta being used in the other 28 patients. The ascending aorta was used when there was disease of the descending thoracic aorta. Out of the 35 patients there was only 1 perioperative death (3%). Rates of graft patency and freedom from recurrent symptoms were excellent. The published literature supports the use of the thoracic aorta as an option for the site of the proximal anastomosis when bypass from elsewhere is not possible. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Onze anos de experiência com emprego do anel intraluminal para tratamento das doenças da aorta

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    BERNARDES Rodrigo de Castro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico das doenças da aorta é geralmente acompanhado de altas taxas de morbimortalidade. O paciente que tem média de idade avançada geralmente é apresentado ao cirurgião em estado grave, com má condição nutricional, muitas vezes com alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas causados pela própria doença aguda. A correção convencional exige técnicas coadjuvantes complexas e agressivas como a circulação extracorpórea prolongada, hipotermia profunda, parada circulatória total além de prolongados tempos de pinçamento de aorta. Na tentativa de reduzir a agressão cirúrgica no paciente já intensamente debilitado pela própria doença, desenvolvemos, em 1988, um anel intraluminal (1, 2 que tem medidas projetadas e experimentadas para facilitar a sua manipulação e anastomose, proporcionando uma diminuição acentuada no tempo de operação, tempo de CEC, tempo de pinçamento de aorta, excluindo muitas vezes a circulação extracorpórea e a hipotermia, obtendo uma anastomose fácil, rápida, segura e hemostática. Entre março de 1988 e janeiro de 1999, 432 pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de dissecções ou aneurismas da aorta em nosso Serviço. Em 328 pacientes empregamos o anel intraluminal como técnica de anastomose. Usamos 489 anéis. Cento e vinte e cinco pacientes eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo A, 29 eram portadores de dissecção aguda de aorta do tipo B, 81 de aneurisma de aorta ascendente, 8 de aneurisma de arco aórtico, 28 pacientes eram portadores de aneurisma de aorta torácica descendente, 17 eram portadores de aneurisma toracoabdominal e 40 pacientes de aneurisma de aorta abdominal infra-renal. A mortalidade global foi de 13,41%. O seguimento ambulatorial destes pacientes variou de 11 anos a 25 dias. A curva actuarial de sobrevivência em 11 anos mostra 67,3%. Em nenhum caso observamos as complicações descritas na literatura, como embolia, formação de

  17. The study of the necessity of preoperative radionuclide dynamic renal imaging in the patients with dissecting aneurysm of aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Wang Jincheng; Gui Haimin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the necessity of radionuclide dynamic renal imaging before the operation for the patients with dissecting aneurysm of aorta. Methods: Twenty-five normal subjects (male: female = 16:9, average age 48.32 ± 10.09) and 54 patients with dissecting aneurysm of aorta (male:female 44:10, average age 54.39 ± 11.55) were included in this study. Twenty-four of them belonged to Debackey I and 30 belonged to Debackey III. They were divided into 3 groups according to the situation of renal function and all of the study groups underwent renal scintigraphy. During the study, time of peak (T p ), half clearing time (T 1/2 ), clear rate of 20 min (CR 20min ) were measured. Results: Renal scintigraphy of 25 normal subjects showed: 1) both kidneys appeared 2 min later than abdominal aorta developed; 2) both kidneys were in the normal position, and with normal shape and size; 3) T p : (2.89 ± 0.76) min, T 1/2 :(7.24 ± 1.64) min, CR 20min : (69.87 ± 5.45)%. The scintigraphic results of the 54 patients with dissecting aneurysm of aorta showed: 1) Group 1, both renal developing time and renal function of both kidneys were in the normal range; 2) Group 2, the sizes of two kidneys were obviously different, renal developing time of the abnormal kidney was extended, and the renal function of two kidneys were different from each other; 3) Group 3, the renal developing time and renal function of both kidneys were abnormal, and were significantly different from that in the control group and group 1. Conclusions: The renal artery is easy to be involved leading to low perfusion and renal insufficiency in the case of dissecting aneurysm of aorta belonging to either Debackey I or III. Renal scintigraphy is more sensitive in renal perfusion and function estimation than other noninvasive examinations, and it could demonstrate early involvement of renal vessels and renal function, this situation is of close relationship with the selection of the operation program and the

  18. Alterations in Caveolin-1 Expression and Receptor-Operated Ca2+ Entry in the Aortas of Rats with Pulmonary Hypertension

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    Yun-Ping Mu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Alterations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i underlie the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is the primary functional protein associated with caveolae, which are invaginations in the plasma membrane, and is a regulator of [Ca2+]i signaling. Caveolae and Cav-1 increase the activity of store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCC in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs, and these enhancing effects were more pronounced in rats with pulmonary hypertension (PH. Classical transient receptor potential (TRPC proteins are highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, and these proteins form functional receptor-operated Ca2+ channels (ROCC and SOCC in PASMCs. Previous studies suggested that functional and structural changes in aortas might occur during the pathological process of PH. Our data demonstrated that Cav-1 and TRPC were also abundant in the aorta smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs of PH rats. However, previous PH research primarily focused on Ca2+ channels in pulmonary arteries, but not functional changes in Ca2+ channels in aortas. The contribution of Cav-1 of AoSMCs to alterations of Ca2+ signaling in aortic functions during the pathological process of PH has not been fully characterized. Therefore, this study investigated alterations in Cav-1 expression and the relationship of these changes to Ca2+ channels in AoSMCs of PH rats. Methods: The present study examined physiological caveolae and Cav-1 expression and characterized the function of altered Cav-1 expression in rat aortas with PH. Results: The appearance of caveolae with Cav-1 expression increased significantly in the aortas of rats with PH, but TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression was not altered. In vitro experiments demonstrated that caveolae contributed to phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG-induced aortic vasoreactivity, but KCl and cyclopiazonic acid had no effect, which suggests the vital

  19. Anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Stefano Favale1, Anish Bhuva4, Pietro Scicchitano1, Vito Caragnano1, Cristina Lavopa2, Giovanni De Pergola3, Giuseppe Loverro21Department of Cardiology; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 3Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari, DETO, Italy; 4University College of London, London, UKBackground: Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS. Methods: Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25. Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1 oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2 hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3 polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment. Results: Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01, increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001, total testosterone (p < 0.001, and androstenedione (p < 0.001 levels, and lower

  20. Oxidative Stress in Human Aorta of Patients with Advanced Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease

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    Márcio Luís Lucas

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Oxidative stress seems to be a role in the atherosclerosis process, but research in human beings is scarce. Objective: To evaluate the role of oxidative stress on human aortas of patients submitted to surgical treatment for advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease. Methods: Twenty-six patients were divided into three groups: control group (n=10 formed by cadaveric organ donors; severe aortoiliac stenosis group (patients with severe aortoiliac stenosis; n=9; and total aortoiliac occlusion group (patients with chronic total aortoiliac occlusion; n=7. We evaluated the reactive oxygen species concentration, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as nitrite levels in samples of aortas harvested during aortofemoral bypass for treatment of advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease. Results: We observed a higher level of reactive oxygen species in total aortoiliac occlusion group (48.3±9.56 pmol/mg protein when compared to severe aortoiliac stenosis (33.5±7.4 pmol/mg protein and control (4.91±0.8 pmol/mg protein groups (P<0.05. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity was also higher in total aortoiliac occlusion group when compared to the control group (3.81±1.7 versus 1.05±0.31 µmol/min.mg protein; P<0.05. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly higher in the severe aortoiliac stenosis and total aortoiliac occlusion groups when compared to the control cases (P<0.05. Nitrite concentration was smaller in the severe aortoiliac stenosis group in comparing to the other groups. Conclusion: Our results indicated an increase of reactive oxygen species levels and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase activity in human aortic samples of patients with advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease. The increase of antioxidant enzymes activities may be due to a compensative phenomenon to reactive oxygen species

  1. [Early postoperative complications in patients with aneurysm of the abdominal aorta treated with vascular prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska-Gaweł, Anna

    2004-07-01

    Type and frequency of early postoperative complications were analyzed in a group of 226 patients (190 men and 36 women) at the age of 45 to 83 (mean age 65.3 +/- 8.2) who were operated as planned due to aneurysm of abdominal part of aorta. Patients were divided into two groups (I and II) depending on method of analgesia. Group I which constituted 173 patients operated at associated general and extrameningeal analgesia and group II constituted 53 patients operated at general analgesia. The division into groups was unintentional and was due to the fact that general analgesia was carried out in patients with contraindication of extrameningeal catheter use or technical troubles with its appliance. Patients of both groups were divided into groups (A and B) depending on type of complication or cause of death (A--cardiogenic, B--extracardiac). The followed up group is characterized by increased incidence in men than in women (5:1), the age of both sexes is not significantly different respectively men and women 65.5 and 65.2 years. In most cases, patients suffered from arterial hypertension (20.4%), ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction (21.2%) and chronic obstructive lung disease (12%). Early postoperative complications without lethal outcome occurred in 76 patients (33.6%), in 7.5% they included cardiogenic complications, while in 26% extracardiac complications, among which acute ischaemia of lower extremities (8.8%) and postoperative pulmonary complications (5.7%) were the most dominating. The observed group is characterized by relatively high postoperative mortality (9.3%). 4% of patients died due to cardiogenic reasons, while 5.3% of patients died due to extracardiac reasons. The most common cause of death in the last group was infection and embolism of mesentery (3.6%). Strong relation between preoperative loading, operation time, time of aorta occlusion, type of grafted prosthesis and frequency as well as type of postoperative complications was confirmed

  2. Ateromatosis de la aorta abdominal y su relación con el estilo de vida

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    Annia Esther Vives Iglesias

    Full Text Available Introducción: el estilo de vida es la manera personal de vivir. Las decisiones que se tomen al trabajar, alimentarse, afrontar las situaciones difíciles, realizar ejercicios físicos, entre otras, lo van a conformar y afectarán de forma positiva o negativa el estado de salud del individuo. Objetivo: identificar la presencia de ateromatosis de la aorta abdominal en dos grupos de pacientes con estilos de vida diferentes. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de tipo comparativa entre dos grupos de pacientes con estilos de vida diferentes, uno saludable (115 pacientes y otro grupo con estilo de vida no saludable (254 pacientes, lo cual fue determinado mediante una encuesta. A todos los pacientes involucrados en el estudio se les realizó ultrasonido abdominal para dar salida a los objetivos del mismo junto a los resultados de la encuesta. Resultados: hubo un predominio del sexo femenino en las edades de 40 a 61 años en ambos grupos. Los pacientes que exhibían un estilo de vida no saludable, con una dieta predominantemente omnívora y con una actividad física sedentaria presentaron ateromatosis de la aorta abdominal en un 99 %. En el grupo de estudio que tenía un estilo de vida saludable, solo se encontraron placas de ateroma en dos pacientes, lo que equivale a un 1,7 %. Las principales enfermedades crónicas asociadas fueron la diabetes mellitus y la hipertensión arterial, y los factores de riesgo como el hábito de fumar, las hiperlipidemias, así como la esteatosis hepática y pancreática, predominaron en el grupo con un estilo de vida no saludable. Conclusión: los hábitos que determinan un estilo de vida no saludable van a determinar que se desarrollen factores de riesgo y enfermedades en el individuo.

  3. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

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    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYSIS ON THE PROTEIN-PEPTIDE PROFILE OF Bos taurus AND Sus scrofa HEART AND AORTA TISSUES

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    I. M. Chernukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of autolytic processes impact on the protein-peptide profile of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa cardiac muscle and aorta. The results of tissue-specific protein identification are also presented as well as the effect of autolysis. Apolipoprotein A-1 involved in the formation of high-density lipoproteins, peroxiredoxin-1 involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, galectin-1 induced apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, as well as number of heat shock proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa were identified in Sus scrofa aorta tissue. It was discovered that functional proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa are retained during the freezing process, but destroyed under the action of autolytic enzymes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16–16–10073.

  5. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of an Acute Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta Complicated by a Distal Low-Flow Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruninx, Guy; Wery, Didier; Dubois, Eric; El Nakadi, Badih; Dueren, Eric van; Verhelst, Guy; Delcour, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who suffered major trauma following a motorcycle accident that resulted in multiple fractures, bilateral hemopneumothorax, pulmonary contusions, and an isthmic rupture of the aorta with a pseudoaneurysm compressing the descending aorta. This compression was responsible for distal hypotension and low flow, leading to acute renal insufficiency and massive rhabdomyolysis. Due to the critical clinical status of the patient, which prevented any type of open thoracic surgery, endovascular treatment was performed. An initial stent-graft permitted alleviation of the compression and the re-establishment of normal hemodynamic conditions, but its low position did not allow sufficient coverage of the rupture. A second stent-graft permitted total exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm while preserving the patency of the left subclavian artery

  6. Surgical clipping of flow related giant unruptured anterior spinal artery aneurysm secondary to co-arctation of aorta: Management challenges and lessons learnt

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    Jeena Joseph

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: ASAA remains an extremely rare cause of compressive myelopathy. Its association with co-arctation of aorta increases treatment related mortality. Posterolateral approach provides a good exposure of the aneurysm for surgical clipping with minimal retraction of the cord.

  7. Consensus statement on surgical pathology of the aorta from the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology: I. Inflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, James R.; Bruneval, Patrick; Angelini, Annalisa; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Basso, Cristina; Batoroeva, Lubov; Buja, L. Maximilian; Butany, Jagdish; d'Amati, Giulia; Fallon, John T.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Gouveia, Rosa H.; Halushka, Marc K.; Kelly, Karen L.; Kholova, Ivana; Leone, Ornella; Litovsky, Silvio H.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.; Miller, Dylan V.; Mitchell, Richard N.; Preston, Stephen D.; Pucci, Angela; Radio, Stanley J.; Rodriguez, E. Rene; Sheppard, Mary N.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Tan, Carmela D.; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard C.; Veinot, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta include routine atherosclerosis, aortitis, periaortitis, and atherosclerosis with excessive inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. The nomenclature and histologic features of these disorders are reviewed and discussed. In addition,

  8. Outcome of Pregnancies After Balloon Occlusion of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta During Caesarean in 230 Patients With Placenta Praevia Accreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qinghua, E-mail: qh-wu77@163.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Departments of Prenatal Diagnosis, and Obstetrics, Obstetric Critical Treatment Center of Henan Province (China); Liu, Zhuan, E-mail: liuchuan2015ck@163.com; Zhao, Xianlan, E-mail: zxl121292014@163.com; Liu, Cai, E-mail: liucai2015ck@163.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Obstetric Critical Treatment Center of Henan Province, Department of Obstetrics (China); Wang, Yanli, E-mail: wangyanli2015yfy@163.com; Chu, Qinjun, E-mail: chuqinjun2015@163.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Anesthesiology (China); Wang, Xiaojuan, E-mail: wangxiaojun2015ck@163.com; Chen, Zhimin, E-mail: chenzhimin2015ck@163.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Obstetric Critical Treatment Center of Henan Province, Department of Obstetrics (China)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo explore the efficacy and safety of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta during caesarean for the management of patients with placenta praevia accreta.MethodsTwo hundred and sixty-eight cases of placenta praevia accreta from January 2012 to June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Group A included two hundred and thirty patients who underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section. Group B included thirty-eight patients who underwent caesarean without endovascular intervention. The parameters including operating room time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion volume, PT (prothrombin time) during operation, days in the intensive care unit, and total hospital days were compared between the two groups.ResultsThe operating room time, estimated blood loss, PT, the incidence of hysterectomy, blood transfusion volume, postpartum haemorrhage, and days in intensive care unit were lower in group A than in group B, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the Apgar scores of the neonates and the incidences of thrombosis in lower limbs between the two groups (P > 0.05). No patient in the group with prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was performed hysterectomy, while three patients in group B were performed hysterectomy because of uncontrollable haemorrhage.ConclusionsThe results indicate that prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section is safe and effective to control intraoperative blood loss and greatly decreases the risk of hysterectomy in patients with placenta praevia accreta.

  9. Analysis of Systolic Backflow and Secondary Helical Blood Flow in the Ascending Aorta Using Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution, and associated with gender, age, aortic diameter, atherosclerotic plaques, left ventricular ejection fraction and previous myocardial infarctions. Secondary flow was present for all patients. The duration and rotational frequency (p ... that backflow is injurious and that secondary flow is a normal flow phenomenon. The study also shows that transverse oscillation can provide new information on blood flow in the ascending aorta....

  10. Dilatation of the ascending aorta is associated with presence of aortic regurgitation in patients after repair of tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas, Karen Gomes; Keedy, Alexander; Naeger, David M.; Kallianos, Kimberly; Foster, Elyse; Liu, Jing; Saloner, David; Hope, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between aortic morphology and elasticity with aortic regurgitation in surgically corrected of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients. We retrospectively identified 72 consecutive patients with surgically corrected TOF and 27 healthy controls who underwent cardiac MRI evaluation. Velocity-encoded cine MRI was used to quantify degree of aortic regurgitation (AR) in TOF patients. Ascending aorta diameters were measured at standard levels on MRA images. Aortic pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was quantified with MRI. Morphological and functional MRI variables were compared between groups of TOF patients with and without clinically relevant AR and controls. The association between aortic morphology and elasticity with the presence of AR was evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The majority of TOF patients had only trace AR. Nine TOF patients (12 %) had an AR fraction higher than 15 %. Indexed aorta diameter at the sinotubular junction (p = 0.007), at the RPA level (p = 0.006), and low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p = 0.015) showed the strongest associations with the presence of at least mild AR, which persisted after controlling for age and gender. Increased ascending aorta dimension is associated with AR in patients after repair of TOF. LVEF was also low in the group of patients with relevant AR compared to those without, suggesting even mild to moderate AR may contribute to LV dysfunction in these patients. Enlarged ascending aorta may be an indication for precise quantification of regurgitant fraction with MRI, since symptomatic patients may need aortic valve repair when moderate regurgitation is present. PMID:27240599

  11. Large right ventricular sinusoids in an infant with aorta-left ventricular tunnel and proximal right coronary artery atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Spinner, Joseph A; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2018-04-16

    We report a 1-month-old infant diagnosed with an aorta-left ventricular tunnel, ventricular septal defect, and right coronary atresia with right ventricular sinusoids. The patient's anatomy and physiology did not indicate right-ventricular-dependent coronary circulation, and therefore right ventricular decompression could be performed without compromising coronary perfusion during surgical correction. A detailed understanding of the coronary anatomy is critical in managing this defect when coronary anomalies are present.

  12. Outcome of Pregnancies After Balloon Occlusion of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta During Caesarean in 230 Patients With Placenta Praevia Accreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qinghua; Liu, Zhuan; Zhao, Xianlan; Liu, Cai; Wang, Yanli; Chu, Qinjun; Wang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo explore the efficacy and safety of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta during caesarean for the management of patients with placenta praevia accreta.MethodsTwo hundred and sixty-eight cases of placenta praevia accreta from January 2012 to June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Group A included two hundred and thirty patients who underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section. Group B included thirty-eight patients who underwent caesarean without endovascular intervention. The parameters including operating room time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion volume, PT (prothrombin time) during operation, days in the intensive care unit, and total hospital days were compared between the two groups.ResultsThe operating room time, estimated blood loss, PT, the incidence of hysterectomy, blood transfusion volume, postpartum haemorrhage, and days in intensive care unit were lower in group A than in group B, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the Apgar scores of the neonates and the incidences of thrombosis in lower limbs between the two groups (P > 0.05). No patient in the group with prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was performed hysterectomy, while three patients in group B were performed hysterectomy because of uncontrollable haemorrhage.ConclusionsThe results indicate that prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section is safe and effective to control intraoperative blood loss and greatly decreases the risk of hysterectomy in patients with placenta praevia accreta.

  13. Spice up the hypertension diet - curcumin and piperine prevent remodeling of aorta in experimental L-NAME induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janega Pavol

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase of blood pressure is accompanied by functional and morphological changes in the vascular wall. The presented study explored the effects of curcuma and black pepper compounds on increased blood pressure and remodeling of aorta in the rat model of experimental NO-deficient hypertension. Methods Wistar rats were administered for 6 weeks clear water or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day dissolved in water, piperine (20 mg/kg/day, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day or their combination in corn oil by oral gavage. The systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. Histological slices of thoracic aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH, orcein, picrosirius red and van Gieson staining and with antibodies against smooth muscle cells actin. Microscopic pictures were digitally processed and morphometrically evaluated. Results The increase of blood pressure caused by L-NAME was partially prevented by piperine and curcumin, but the effect of their combination was less significant. Animals with hypertension had increased wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta, accompanied by relative increase of PTAH positive myofibrils and decrease of elastin, collagen and actin content. Piperine was able to decrease the content of myofibrils and slightly increase actin, while curcumin also prevented elastin decrease. The combination of spices had similar effects on aortic morphology as curcumin itself. Conclusions Administration of piperine or curcumin, less their combination, is able to partially prevent the increase of blood pressure caused by chronic L-NAME administration. The spices modify the remodeling of the wall of the aorta induced by hypertension. Our results show that independent administration of curcumin is more effective in preventing negative changes in blood vessel morphology accompanying hypertensive disease.

  14. The combined impact of mechanical factors on the wall stress of the human ascending aorta - a finite elements study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonek, Tomasz; Zak, Malgorzata; Burzynska, Karolina; Rylski, Bartosz; Gozdzik, Anna; Kustrzycki, Wojciech; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Jasinski, Marek; Filipiak, Jaroslaw

    2017-12-20

    Biomechanical factors influence stress in the aortic wall. The aim of this study was to assess how the diameter and shape of the vessel, blood pressure and longitudinal systolic aortic stretching (SAS) caused by the contraction of the myocardium influence stress in the aortic wall. Three computational models of the non-dilated aorta and aneurysms of the ascending aorta and aortic root were created. Then, finite elements analyses were carried out. The models were subjected to blood pressure (120 mmHg and 160 mmHg) and longitudinal systolic aortic stretching (0 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm). The influence of wall elasticity was examined too. Blood pressure had a smaller impact on the stress than the SAS. An increase in blood pressure from120 mmHg to 160 mmHg increased the peak wall stress (PWS) on average by 0.1 MPa in all models. A 5 mm SAS caused a 0.1–0. 2 MPa increase in PWS in all the models. The increase in PWS caused by a 10mm and 15mmSAS was 0.2 MPa and 0. 4 MPa in the non-dilated aorta, 0.2–0.3 MPa and 0.3–0.5 MPa in the aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and 0.1–0.2 MPa and 0.2–0.3 MPa in the aortic root aneurysm model, respectively. The loss of elasticity of the aneurysmal wall resulted in an increase of PWS by 0.1–0.2 MPa. Aortic geometry, wall stiffness, blood pressure and SAS have an impact on PWS. However, SAS had the biggest impact on wall stress. The results of this study may be useful in future patient-specific computational models used to assess the risk of aortic complications.

  15. Aorta-LITA Bypass Grafting with Saphenous Vein in a Patient Undergoing Coronary Artery Surgery with Subclavian Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çağlı

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal thoracic artery (ITA is the primary graft for coronary artery bypass grafting and can not be used if there is subclavian artery stenosis (SAS. Aorto-axillary, carotid-subclavian bypass and also angioplasty with stenting or other interventional treatments are acceptable procedures for SAS treatment. Aorta-ITA bypass with saphenous vein can be alternative and simple technique for SAS to save Winslow pathway for patients with peripheral artery disease.

  16. Endothelium protectant and contractile effects of the antivaricose principle escin in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Omar F; Vidrio, Horacio

    2007-07-01

    The triterpene saponin escin is the active component of the extract of seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Escin is also used experimentally to increase membrane permeability in isolated cells. Since endothelial dysfunction is postulated to be involved in venous insufficiency, the possible endothelium-protectant effect of escin was explored in rat aortic rings, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Escin enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine when such relaxation had been reduced by exposure to the superoxide ion generator pyrogallol. This effect was attributed to enhanced nitric oxide production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase, a calcium-dependent enzyme, activated by the increased endothelial cell permeability to calcium induced by escin. Another effect of escin thought to contribute to its therapeutic activity is its ability to produce venous contraction. The compound was found to induce concentration-related contraction also in rat aortic rings. This response was partially inhibited by removal of the endothelium or by preincubation with indomethacin, and was completely abolished by incubation in a calcium-free perfusion fluid. Contraction was considered to be due mainly to the aforementioned effect on calcium permeability, with some mediation by release of endothelial vasoconstrictor prostanoids. It was concluded that, in rat aorta, escin possesses an endothelium-protectant action and a direct contractile effect. The former could contribute to its beneficial effect in the treatment of venous insufficiency, while the latter could constitute a limiting side effect.

  17. Modelling atherosclerosis by proteomics: Molecular changes in the ascending aortas of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Jüllig, Mia; Middleditch, Martin J; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-09-01

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is commonly used as a model to study the vascular effects of hypercholesterolemia and resulting atherosclerotic lesions. Here we undertook a proteomic case-control investigation of ascending aortas from male New Zealand White rabbits after 10 weeks on a high-cholesterol (2% w/w) diet (HCD, n = 5) or control diet (n = 5), in order to determine the changes in response to the HCD. Histology confirmed intimal thickening in the HCD group consistent with atherosclerosis, and LC-MS/MS analysis of individually-obtained ascending aortic extracts labelled with isobaric (iTRAQ) tags enabled the identification and quantitation of 453 unique proteins above the 1% false discovery rate threshold. Of 67 proteins showing significant differences in relative abundance (p atherosclerosis. This and additional novel observations merit further investigation as these perturbations may play important and as yet undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in rabbits as well as humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MDCT of the abdominal aorta: basics, technical improvements, and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, C.; Fraioli, F.; Danti, M.; Napoli, A.; Votta, V.; Lanciotti, K.; Bertoletti, L.; Passariello, R. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy)

    2003-11-01

    The recent introduction into clinical practice of multidetector-row spiral CT (MDCT) [1] with simultaneous acquisition of multiple channels has had a substantial effect on CT angiography allowing the acquisition of large volumes at high resolution, with excellent visualization of small branches also, including distal collaterals of the celiac trunk and superior and inferior mesenteric arteries (Fig. 1 a, b). Other advantages of multidetector-row over single-slice spiral CT include better separation of different vascular phases of enhancement, more efficient use of contrast material administered intravenously, and comparable, if not better, image quality. For example, the entire abdomen can now be (a) routinely imaged in its entirety with thin sections in a single short breath-hold, (b) repeatedly scanned during early arterial, late arterial, and venous phases, and (c) examined with high-quality multiplanar reconstructions, which are easily generated immediately. In this article we focus on and review the major aspects, advantages, and clinical applications of MDCT in the evaluation of the abdominal aorta. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of a Polyester-Covered Nitinol Stent in the Canine Aorta and Iliac Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Flavio; Ball-Kell, Susan M.; Young, Kate; Li Ruizong

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the patency and healing characteristics of a woven polyester fabric-covered stent in the canine model.Methods: Twenty-four self-expanding covered stents were placed in the infrarenal aorta and bilateral common iliac arteries of eight dogs and evaluated at 1 (n = 2), 3 (n = 2), and 6 (n = 4) months. Stent assessment was done using angiography prior to euthanasia, and light and scanning electron microscopy.Results: Angiographically, just prior to euthanasia, 8 of 8 aortic and 14 of 16 iliac endovascular covered stents were patent. Histologically, the stented regions showed complete endothelialization 6 months after graft implantation. A neointima had formed inside the stented vessel regions resulting in complete encasement of the fabric-covered stent by 3 months after graft implantation. Medial compression with smooth muscle cell atrophy was present in all stented regions. Explanted stent wires, examined by scanning electron microscopy, showed pitting but no cracks or breakage.Conclusion: The covered stent demonstrated predictable healing and is effective in preventing stenosis in vessels 10.0 mm or greater in diameter but does not completely preclude stenosis in vessels 6.0 mm or less in diameter

  20. External heating of stents by radio waves: pilot studies in rabbit aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Adam B; Robinson, Keith; Chronos, Nicolas A F; Daum, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the feasibility of radio frequency energy delivered by a prototype radio frequency generator inductive heating device (REVAX) positioned external to the body, for transient heating of stents after arterial implant. Twenty-one New Zealand White rabbits underwent stenting of their infrarenal aorta. Nine rabbits were stented and immediately placed in the REVAX for external stent heating with internal temperature probes in place. Twelve rabbits were stented and 3 days later either heated or placed in the generator as a sham for 20 min. The animals were terminated 28 days later. The REVAX was able to heat the aortic stents in a controlled fashion; in Phase II experiments, the stent temperature was raised to 42 degrees C for 20 min. In Phase I mild necrosis was noted at the stent struts. In Phase II, necrosis and mineralization of the media was seen at the stent struts, and evidence of neointimal suppression was observed. This study demonstrated that external heating of stents in a blood vessel in a live animal via radio frequency energy is feasible. Further studies will be needed to assess whether any specific heating regimen might inhibit fibrocellular neointimal hyperplasia.

  1. [A TUBERCULOUS PSEUDO-ANEURYSM OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA COMPLICATED BY MILIARY TUBERCULOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutake, Toyoshi; Hashizume, Kouji; Kinoshita, Naoe; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Ehara, Naomi; Nakano, Reiji; Yoshida, Shintaro; Fukushima, Kiyoyasu; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2015-04-01

    A 66-year-old man was transferred to our hospital on November 2010 owing to a diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis. Treatment was initially started with INH, RFP, PZA, and EB. However, PZA and EB were discontinued because of their adverse effects. Subsequently, chest radiographic and laboratory findings gradually improved. However, the patient experienced lumbago, which exacerbated towards the end of March 2011. An abdominal CT scan showed an abdominal mass at the L3-L5 level between the abdominal aorta and lumbar vertebra. On the basis of the findings of abdominal ultrasonography, MRI, and PET-CT, infectious abdominal aortic aneurysm was highly suspected. Therefore, vascular graft replacement surgery was performed at the beginning of May 2011. The result of histopathological analysis showed the presence of acid-fast bacteria in the aneurysm and the lymph nodes around it, revealing that the aneurysm was due to systemic miliary tuberculosis. After the surgery, the patient was administered LVFX in addition to INH and RFP for 18 months and showed no recurrence.

  2. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  3. Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic plaque on aortas in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, Miriam; Mas, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax with concomitant antiplatelet effects. Previous studies have shown that policosanol prevents lipofundin-induced atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits and rats, including foam cell formation, as well as the development of foam cells in carrageenan-induced granulomas in rats. Policosanol also inhibits smooth muscle cells proliferation induced on rabbit cuffed artery and on forceps-induced arterial wall damage. Furthermore, policosanol administered long term lowered serum cholesterol and prevented the development of atherosclerotic lesions in Macaca arctoides monkeys. The present study was undertaken to determine whether policosanol could change some characteristic features of atherosclerotic lesions, such as macrophage number and immunohistochemical localization of apoA-1 and apoB in aortas of M. arctoides monkeys. Fourteen adult male monkeys weighing 6-10 kg and receiving a low fat, protein-rich diet were randomly distributed in three groups: control group (six monkeys) and two other groups (four monkeys/group) treated with policosanol (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 54 weeks. Samples of arteries were examined by light microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies were used to evaluate the presence of macrophage, apoA-1 and apoB. Policosanol reduced the presence of macrophages and the occurrence of apoB, whereas increased apoA-1 localization in aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with control monkeys. These results suggest the policosanol potential benefit on plaque composition and stability and could explain the protective effects of policosanol on atherosclerosis development.

  4. Tratamiento endovascular de los aneurismas ateroscleróticos de aorta torácica descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velázquez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El abordaje del aneurisma degenerativo de la aorta torácica descendente debe basarse en el conocimiento de su historia natural. Este diagnóstico, cada vez más frecuente, no precisa de tratamiento en su fase asintomática hasta que el aneurisma no alcanza un diámetro que preconiza un riesgo de complicación considerable. El abordaje endovascular permite reducir la morbimortalidad en población añosa y con enfermedad respiratoria asociada. En jóvenes sin comorbilidad, la cirugía convencional debería ser todavía el patrón oro por su menor tasa de complicaciones a medio-largo plazo. A pesar de ello, la técnica se extenderá ampliamente por su mayor aceptación en los pacientes. La correcta indicación y realización de derivaciones a los troncos supraaórticos, así como el buen manejo del drenaje del líquido cefalorraquídeo, permitirán mejorar las zonas de sellado y reducir al mínimo las complicaciones neurológicas de la técnica endovascular.

  5. ROTURA DE ANEURISMA DE AORTA ABDOMINAL: SU IMPORTANCIA COMO DIAGNOSTICO DIFERENCIAL EN ABDOMEN AGUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Orellana-Villazón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El aneurisma aórtico abdominal (AAA roto es una forma de presentación poco frecuente de los AAA. Presentamos un caso de rotura de aneurisma de aorta abdominal (AAAr de un paciente varón de 76 años de edad que ingresa al servicio de emergencias del Hospital Elizabeth Setón por presentar dolor abdominal punzante en región lumbar derecha de inicio súbito e intensidad creciente, llegando a perder el conocimiento. La impresión diagnóstica inicial incluye cólico ureteral e hipertensión arterial; sin embargo después realizar una ecografía abdominal y posteriormente una tomografía abdominal se concluye con el diagnostico de AAAr. El paciente es sometido a cirugía de emergencia, y después de permanecer tres días en terapia intensiva y tres días en sala, es dado de alta. Consideramos importante informar este caso clínico por la frecuencia con que se le confunde con patologías renales o abdomen agudo, pese a la sintomatología característica que presenta, que en muchos casos lleva a un diagnostico retrasado y posteriormente a la muerte.

  6. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  7. Aortoenteric Fistula as a Complication of Open Reconstruction and Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tagowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to present a review of imaging characteristics of secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF. Mechanical injury, infection, and adherence of a bowel segment to the aorta or aortic graft are major etiologic factors of AEF after open aortic repair. The pathogenesis of AEF formation after endovascular abdominal aortic repair is related to mechanical failure of the stent-graft, to stent graft infection, and to persistent pressurization of the aneurysmal sac. The major clinical manifestations of AEF comprise haematemesis, melaena, abdominal pain, sepsis, and fever. CT is the initial diagnostic modality of choice in a stable patient. However, the majority of reported CT appearances are not specific. In case of equivocal CT scans and clinical suspicion of AEF, scintigraphy, 67Ga citrate scans or 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy in evaluation of AEF is low; nevertheless it allows to evaluate other than AEF etiologies of gastrointestinal bleeding. Without adequate therapy, AEF is lethal. Conventional surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The endovascular repair may be an option in hemodynamically unstable and high-risk surgical patients. We also illustrate an example of a secondary AEF with highly specific albeit rare radiologic picture from our institution.

  8. Optical pathology study of human abdominal aorta tissues using confocal micro resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Boydston-White, Susie; Wang, Wubao; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Weisberg, Arel; Tomaselli, Vincent P.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-03-01

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic technique has a high potential for label-free and in-situ detection of biomedical lesions in vivo. This study evaluates the ability of RR spectroscopy method as an optical histopathology tool to detect the atherosclerotic plaque states of abdominal aorta in vitro. This part demonstrates the RR spectral molecular fingerprint features from different sites of the atherosclerotic abdominal aortic wall tissues. Total 57 sites of five pieces aortic samples in intimal and adventitial wall from an autopsy specimen were examined using confocal micro Raman system of WITec 300R with excitation wavelength of 532nm. The preliminary RR spectral biomarkers of molecular fingerprints indicated that typical calcified atherosclerotic plaque (RR peak at 964cm-1) tissue; fibrolipid plaque (RR peaks at 1007, 1161, 1517 and 2888cm-1) tissue, lipid pool with the fatty precipitation cholesterol) with collagen type I (RR peaks at 864, 1452, 1658, 2888 and 2948cm-1) in the soft tissue were observed and investigated.

  9. Right sided arcus aorta as a cause of dyspnea and chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkaya Sevket

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right sided arcus aorta (RSAA is a rare condition that is usually asymptomatic. Patients may present with exertional dyspnea and chronic cough. A recent article suggested that RSAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of asthma, especially in patients with intractable exertional dyspnea. We aimed to present the clinical, radiologic and spirometric features of thirteen patients with RSAA observed in four years at the Rize Education and Research Hospital and Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital. Methods The characteristics of patients with RSAA, including age, gender, symptoms, radiologic and spirometric findings, were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of thirteen patients were diagnosed with RSAA. Their ages ranged from 17 to 86 years and the male to female ratio was 11:2. Seven of the patients (54% were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea, dysphagia and chronic cough. Five patients had received treatment for asthma with bronchodilators. Spirometry showed intrathoracic tracheal obstruction in five patients. Conclusions The RSAA anomaly occurs more frequently than might be estimated from the number of patients who are detected. Patients with intractable exertional dyspnea and chronic cough should be evaluated for the RSAA anomaly by thoracic CT.

  10. Evaluation of the Vasoplegic impact of Papaverine in the rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, C.; Callskan, A.; Karahan, O.; Demirtas, S.; Yazici, S.; Guclu, O.; Mavitas, B.; Donmez, S.; Peker, R. O.; Yildirim, Y.; Gokalp, O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the degree of vasoplegic affinity of papaverine to rat thoracic aortas following constriction caused by adrenalin, serotonin and potassium chloride in an in-vitro model. Methods: The in vitro vasoplegic efficacy of papaverine against adrenalin (10-5 M), serotonin (5HT) (10-4 M), and KCl (60 mM) was assessed, using a rat aortic vasospasm model in an organ bath. First, aortic rings were constricted with a submaximal dose of vasoconstrictor agents. The samples were then incubated with papaverine (3x10-4 M) for 20 minutes, followed by readministration of the same vasoconstrictor agents. The first vasospastic response (before papaverine incubation) and the new vasoconstrictor responses (after papaverine incubation) of the vessels were then compared. Results: The vasoplegic effect of vasoconstrictor agents in decreasing order was observed as adrenalin>KCl>5HT. This different affinity for the vasoplegic effect is considered to be a temporary impact of the drugs and the maximal inhibition of vasoconstriction was detected for the adrenalin receptor. Conclusion: The relevance of the macromolecules is responsible for the permanent efficacy of the drugs. Different degrees of vasoconstriction were also obtained after papaverine administration, which suggests that different responses can occur as a result of different stimulation of receptor modulators. (author)

  11. "I Can't Walk!" Acute Thrombosis of Descending Aorta Causing Paraplegia

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    Matthew L Mitchell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with acute, bilateral lower extremity weakness and loss of sensation, as well as absent pulses bilaterally. Computed tomography angiography showed complete occlusion of the aorta below the inferior mesenteric artery, extending to the iliac bifurcations. Echocardiographic findings showed severe systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction of 15% and cryptic cardiogenic shock in spite of stable vital signs. Prior to early operative intervention, an early goal-oriented hemodynamic strategy of shock management resulted in the resolution of motor and sensory deficits. After definitive surgical intervention, the patient was discharged neurologically intact. Acute aortic occlusion is frequently accompanied by myocardial dysfunction, which can be from mild to severe. The most severe form can even occur with normalvital signs or occult cardiogenic shock. Early detection and goal-directed preoperative hemodynamic optimization, along with surgical intervention in the ED, is required to optimize outcomes. [West JEmerg Med. 2013;14(5:424–427.

  12. Right Axillary Artery Cannulation for Surgical Management of the Hostile Ascending Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Lazopoulos, George; Milonakis, Michael; Athanasiadis, George; Romana, Konstantina; Skouteli, Elian; Bastounis, Elias

    2005-01-01

    Extensive aortic disease, such as atherosclerosis with aneurysms or dissections that involve the ascending aorta, can complicate the choice of a cannulation site for cardiopulmonary bypass. To date, the standard peripheral arterial cannulation site has been the common femoral artery; however, this approach carries the risk of atheroembolism due to retrograde aortic perfusion, or it is undesirable because of severe iliofemoral disease. Arterial perfusion through the axillary artery provides sufficient antegrade aortic flow, is more likely to perfuse the true lumen in the event of dissection, and is associated with fewer atheroembolic complications. From September 2000 through March 2004, 27 patients underwent right axillary artery cannulation for acute ascending aortic dissection (n = 16), ascending aortic aneurysm (n = 9), or coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 2). Direct artery cannulation was performed in the first 4 patients, and the last 23 patients were cannulated through a longitudinal arteriotomy via an 8-mm woven Dacron graft. Seventeen patients underwent hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade cerebral perfusion. Two patients died intraoperatively: one due to low cardiac output and one due to diffuse bleeding. One patient suffered mild right-arm paresthesia postoperatively, but recovered completely. Axillary artery cannulation was successful in all patients; it provided sufficient arterial flow, and there were no intraoperative problems with perfusion. In the presence of extensive aortic or iliofemoral disease, arterial perfusion through the axillary artery is a safe and effective means of providing sufficient arterial inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass. In this regard, it is an excellent alternative to standard femoral artery cannulation. PMID:16107111

  13. Direct emergence of the dorsospinal artery from the aorta and spinal cord blood supply. Case reports and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siclari, Francesca; Fasel, Jean H.D.; Gailloud, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Direct emergence of a dorsospinal artery from the aorta is a rare anatomic variant, of which a total of seven cases have been reported. This report offers an additional angiographic observation and reviews the literature. Two observations of common intercostal trunks documented during spinal angiography are described. In the first observation, the common intercostal trunk provided complete blood supply to two adjacent vertebral levels (T11 and T12). In other words, the trunk included an intercostal branch and a dorsospinal branch for each level. In the second observation, the common intercostal trunk provided an intercostal branch for each level (T9 and T10), but only one dorsospinal branch (T10). An isolated dorsospinal artery (DA) originated separately from the aorta at the T9 level, and provided a significant contribution to the anterior spinal axis. The two reported cases illustrate the concept of ''complete'' versus ''incomplete'' common intercostal trunks. In instances where an incomplete trunk is documented, a separate DA originating directly from the aorta must be looked for. A review of the literature indicates a tendency for isolated DAs to participate in the blood supply to the spinal cord. (orig.)

  14. Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tim F. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ganten, Maria-Katharina [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.ganten@dkfz.de; Boeckler, Dittmar [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: dittmar.boeckler@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Geisbuesch, Philipp [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.geisbuesch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: h.vontengg@dkfz.de

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 {+-} 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 {+-} 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

  15. Losartan Attenuates Degradation of Aorta and Lung Tissue Micromechanics in a Mouse Model of Severe Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Jye; Galatioto, Josephine; Rao, Satish; Ramirez, Francesco; Costa, Kevin D

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disease of the connective tissue due to mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). This study aimed at characterizing microelastic properties of the ascending aortic wall and lung parenchyma tissues from wild type (WT) and age-matched Fbn1 hypomorphic mice (Fbn1(mgR/mgR) mice) to identify tissue-specific biomechanical effects of aging and disease in MFS. Atomic force microscopy was used to indent lung parenchyma and aortic wall tissues, using Hybrid Eshelby Decomposition analysis to extract layer-specific properties of the intima and media. The intima stiffened with age and was not different between WT and Fbn1(mgR/mgR) tissues, whereas the media layer of MFS aortas showed progressive structural and mechanical degradation with a modulus that was 50% softer than WT by 3.5 months of age. Similarly, MFS mice displayed progressive structural and mechanical deterioration of lung tissue, which was over 85% softer than WT by 3.5 months of age. Chronic treatment with the angiotensin type I receptor antagonist, losartan, attenuated the aorta and lung tissue degradation, resulting in structural and mechanical properties not significantly different from age-matched WT controls. By revealing micromechanical softening of elastin-rich aorta and lung tissues with disease progression in fibrillin-1 deficient mice, our findings support the use of losartan as a prophylactic treatment that may abrogate the life-threatening symptoms of MFS.

  16. The Effect of Concomitant Ethanol and Opium Consumption on Lipid Profiles and Atherosclerosis in Golden Syrian Hamster's Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Poormorteza, Moein; Noori-Sorkhani, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Abbasi-Oshaghi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world and is normally argued as the third cause of all mortalities. Opium and alcohol every day consumption can cause people to have many health problems. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol and opium consumption on lipid profiles and atherosclerosis in aorta. Twenty four male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 6): Control, addicted (40 mg/kg), alcohol (6.0 g/kg) and combination of opium and alcohol. All of the hamsters were scarified and their livers were removed immediately and fixed in formalin solution 10%. The plasma levels of the lipid profiles were measured enzymatically. Aorta sections were examined by a pathologist. The amount of the total cholesterol significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group. Serum triglyceride significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group but it was not significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) markedly increased in the combination group (P opium plus alcohol has harmful effects on lipid profile; however, it had no effect on aorta histology that was maybe due to the short period of the treatment.

  17. Experimental investigation of the flow field past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in pulsatile flow within an anatomical aorta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2011-11-01

    A bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) has been mounted at the inlet of an anatomical model of the human aorta, and placed within a mock circulation loop that simulates physiological flow conditions. The working fluid matches the refractive index of silicone, from which the aorta model and other parts of the test section are made, and the viscosity of blood. Flow characteristics past the BMHV are measured using stereoscopic and planar particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry. In contrast to previous experiments, in which heart valves have been tested in simplified aortic geometries, this arrangement permits the study of the dependence of flow past the valve upon recirculation in the sinuses of Valsalva, the flow rate through the coronary arteries, and the aorta curvature. The effect of valve orientation will also be investigated with the objective to determine a hemodynamically optimal configuration with potential benefits to implantation procedures. The measured viscous shear stress distribution will be analyzed towards predicting the initiation of thrombosis in patients and identifying regions of stagnation, which could facilitate thrombus attachment.

  18. Coil embolization of a false aneurysm with aorto-cutaneous fistula after prosthetic graft replacement of the ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Bruno; Camilleri, Lionel; Gabrillargues, Jean; Macheda, Bruno; Kubota, Hiroshi; Ravel, Anne; Riberolles, Charles de; Boyer, Louis

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To report palliative embolization of a false aneurysm over the distal suture line of an ascending aorta graft replacement. Material and Method: A 78-year-old male patient was admitted for increasing bleeding of a chronic Manubrium ulceration, 20 months after coronary artery bypass complicated by perioperative ascending aorta dissection requiring prosthetic graft replacement. One month later, he underwent epiploplasty for a mediastinitis followed by long-term antibiotic therapy. Five months later, he presented with a Manubrium ulceration of the sternotomy. Spiral computerized tomography (CT) and aortography revealed a 20 mm anterior peri-prosthetic false aneurysm with a wide neck. Advanced age, active mediastinitis and patient's objection led us to perform percutaneous occlusion according to the Moret remodeling technique while protecting the coils release with balloon catheter inflation. Results: No post-operative complication was observed and at 1-year follow-up the patient was doing well with no recurrent bleeding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spiral CT controls confirmed coils stability without any internal flow. Conclusion: Percutaneous coils embolization of a large false aneurysm in the ascending aorta can be a palliative treatment in a surgically unsuited patient

  19. Registro Alemán de la Disección Aguda de Aorta Tipo A (GERAADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Weigang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La disección aguda de aorta tipo A es una enfermedad grave de obligado tratamiento quirúrgico. El tratamiento quirúrgico tiene morbimortalidad elevada. No hay acuerdo general acerca de la mejor forma de tratamiento. Para obtener información que permita definir las mejores estrategias operatorias y de manejo global, el Grupo de Trabajo de Cirugía de la Aorta y Cirugía Vascular Intervencionista de la Sociedad Alemana de Cirugía Torácica y Cardiovascular (GSTCVS creó el Registro Alemán de la Disección Aguda Tipo A (GERAADA. Desde 2006, 44 centros han incluido 1.610 casos, con información completa en 1.558. La mortalidad a 30 días ha sido del 16% y la tasa de accidentes neurológicos del 10%. Tras la experiencia inicial con el registro, se desea desarrollar un Registro Europeo de las Enfermedades de la Aorta (European Registry for aortic Diseases [EuRADa] bajo los auspicios del vascular domain de la european association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS.

  20. Dilatation of the initially non-aneurysmal ascending aorta after replacement of a bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Guangpu; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Xu; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Peide

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the aortic diameter after isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a bicuspid (BAV) or tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and an initially normal ascending aorta. Methods Patients with an ascending aortic diameter of < 45 mm who had undergone isolated AVR were studied. Ultrasonic cardiographic measurements of the ascending aortic diameter made pre- and postoperatively and follow-up data concerning adverse aortic events and death were analyzed. Results A total of 613 patients were included in this retrospective study; of these, 211 had a BAV and 402 had a TAV. In both groups, the ascending aorta significantly expanded but was non-aneurysmal during follow-up; however, the difference between the two groups was not significant. Cox regression analysis showed no significant effect associated with the presence of a BAV on adverse aortic events or death. Conclusion Dilatation of the ascending aorta was observed after AVR in both groups, but was not more pronounced in patients with a BAV. Long-term follow-up for ascending aortic aneurysm is necessary after AVR in both patients with a BAV and those with a TAV. PMID:27484890

  1. Lipolysis of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is altered in male patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Hosni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the lipid metabolism may play a role in the genesis of abdominal aorta aneurysm. The present study examined the intravascular catabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that carry the dietary lipids absorbed by the intestine in the circulation in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thirteen male patients (72 ± 5 years with abdominal aorta aneurysm with normal plasma lipid profile and 13 healthy male control subjects (73 ± 5 years participated in the study. The method of chylomicron-like emulsions was used to evaluate this metabolism. The emulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl oleate and ³H-triolein was injected intravenously in both groups. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 60 min to determine the decay curves. The fractional clearance rate (FCR of the radioactive labels was calculated by compartmental analysis. The FCR of the emulsion with ³H-triolein was smaller in the aortic aneurysm patients than in controls (0.025 ± 0.017 vs 0.039 ± 0.019 min-1; P < 0.05, but the FCR of14C-cholesteryl oleate of both groups did not differ. In conclusion, as indicated by the triglyceride FCR, chylomicron lipolysis is diminished in male patients with aortic aneurysm, whereas the remnant removal which is traced by the cholesteryl oleate FCR is not altered. The results suggest that defects in the chylomicron metabolism may represent a risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  2. Gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional breath-hold MR angiography of the thoracic aorta; Angiografia con Risonanza Magnetica tridimensionale nell'apnea con infusione rapida di mezzo di contrasto paramagnetico nello studio dell'aorta toracica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, E.; Giordano, A.V.; Cerone, G.; Splendiani, A.; Michelini, O; Masciocchi, C. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1999-11-01

    In this paper it is investigated the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA in the assessment of thoracic aortic diseases. Thirty-eight patients with diagnosed or suspected conditions of thoracic aorta were examined with contrast-enhanced MRA. All the examinations were performed with a 1.5 T superconductive magnet acquiring breath-hold 3D fast Gradient-Echo (GE) sequences (TR=5.9 ms; TE=1.2 ms; FA=45 degrees; FOV=48 cm; thickness=2-2.5 mm; locs=30-32; TA=22-24s; MA=512) on the coronal plane. The contrast agent was injected bolus after a bolus-test to evaluate circulation time. In the experts opinion contrast-enhanced three dimensional MR angiography should be the screening technique of choice in the evaluation of thoracic aorta thanks to its low invasiveness, short acquisition time, large field of view and morphologica resolution ECG gating is not needed. Limitations are found in the study of wall and periaortic region which are better evaluated with conventional MR imaging. [Italian] Scopo di questo lavoro e' stato verificare le potenzialita' della tecnica di angiografia con Risonanza Magnetica tridimensionale (angio-RM tridimensionale) nell'apnea con bolo di mdc paramagnetico nello studio delle malattie dell'aorta toracica. Sono stati sottoposti ad angio-RM con mdc trentotto pazienti con diagnosi o sospetta malattia dell'aorta toracica. E' stato utilizzato un magnete superconduttivo operante a 1,5 tesla (GE) impiegando una sequenza 3D Fast Gradient-Echo (TR=5,9 ms; TE=1,2 ms; FA=45 degrees; FOV=48 cm; thickness=2-2.5 mm; locs=30-32; TA=22-24s; matrice=512) acquista in apnea sul piano coronale. Il mdc e' stato somministrato a bolo con ritardo calcolato sulla base del bolo-test che ha sempre preceduto l'acquisizione volumetrica. La valutazione con angio-RM tridimensionale con bolo di mdc rappresenta a nostro avviso la tecnica di scelta nello studio dell'aorta toracica in ragione della scarsa invasivita

  3. Tratamiento de aorta abdominal e ilíacas con técnica endovascular: Experiencia quirúrgica Treatment of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries with endovascular technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: desde 1991 la técnica endovascular se ha aplicado con éxito en el manejo de los aneurismas de aorta infrarrenal, y se ha perfeccionado de manera tal que rápidamente se ha convertido en una alternativa para pacientes de alto riesgo para la cirugía convencional. Objetivo: describir los resultados institucionales en el manejo de las patologías de aorta abdominal e ilíacas mediante técnica endovascular desde 2003 a 2005. Diseño-Método: estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo, en el que se analizaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes sometidos a procedimiento endovascular de aorta abdominal e ilíacas. El análisis se realizó en Stata 8,0 S/E. Resultados: a 9 pacientes se les realizó exclusivamente manejo de lesiones en aorta abdominal e ilíacas. Todos los pacientes del estudio fueron hombres con edad media de 68,9 + 8,1 años. Los diagnósticos fueron aneurisma de aorta infrarrenal en 6 pacientes y aneurismas anastomóticos en los 3 restantes. Se evidenció requerimiento de endoprótesis en promedio de 1,9 + 0,8. Se realizó puente femoro-femoral como procedimiento simultáneo en 4 de los 9 pacientes. El 77,8% de los pacientes no tuvo complicaciones. La mortalidad por el procedimiento alcanzó el 22% (2 pacientes, si bien cabe anotar que las complicaciones se presentaron sólo en esos dos pacientes. Conclusiones: la exclusión de aneurismas de aorta y de ilíacas con endoprótesis modulares, se está implementando ampliamente como una opción válida de tratamiento, con resultados excelentes que evitan los riesgos de la intervención convencional y la morbilidad asociada.Antecedents: since 1991 endovascular technique has been successfully used in the management of infra-renal aortic aneurysms and it has been improved in such a way that it has quickly turned into an alternative for patients considered having high risk for conventional surgery. Objective: describe the institutional results in the management of

  4. Aneurismas e dissecções da aorta: progresso nos resultados imediatos do tratamento cirúrgico

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    FONTES Ronaldo D.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Após 1989, introduzimos algumas alterações no tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas e dissecções da aorta, em nosso Serviço, entre elas maior rapidez no diagnóstico, uso de parada circulatória, hipotermia profunda, parada circulatória total, monitorização hemodinâmica, controle dos distúrbios de coagulação, controle da pressão liquórica, implantação das artérias intercostais. Entre janeiro de 1980 e julho de 1994, 520 pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico de aneurismas ou dissecções da aorta, de forma consecutiva e não selecionados. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o diagnóstico: ? Aneurisma de aorta ascendente (AAAS ? Aneurisma de arco aórtico (AAAO ? Dissecção aguda da aorta tipos I e II (DAAO I e II Nos três grupos, a mortalidade foi significativamente inferior para pacientes operados no período após 1989. Variáveis preditivas de mortalidade para AAAS foram: complicações pulmonares (p = 0,0210, renais (p = 0,0310, neurológicas (p < 0,0001. Para DAAO I e II, a hipertensão arterial (p < 0,0001, complicações cardíacas (p < 0,0001, neurológicas (p < 0,0001, renais (p < 0,0001 e a rotura (p < 0,0001 foram preditivas de óbito, e para AAAO foram as variáveis: idade (p = 0,0001 e complicações renais (p = 0,0015. Os autores concluem que as modificações introduzidas no método de tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas e dissecções da aorta contribuíram significativamente para a melhora dos resultados.

  5. A correlative study of aortic valve rotation angle and thoracic aortic sizes using ECG gated CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, Farhood, E-mail: fsaremi@usc.edu; Cen, Steven; Tayari, Nazila; Alizadeh, Houman; Emami, Amir; Lin, Leah; Fleischman, Fernando

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Various degrees of aortic valve rotation may be seen in individuals with no history of congenital cardiovascular malformations, but its association with aortic sizes has not been studied. Methods: Gated computed tomographic (CT angiograms in 217 patients were studied (66.7 ± 15; 22–97 years old)). Aortic diameters were determined at 5 anatomic locations. The length of the aorta from sinus to left subclavian artery was measured. The angle of valve rotation was recorded by measuring the angle between a line connecting the midpoint of the non-coronary sinus to the anterior commissure and another line along the interatrial septum. Rotation angles were correlated with aortic measurements. Patients were separated into two groups based on aortic sizes and into three groups based on age. The threshold for aortic dilatation was set at maximum ascending aorta diameter ≥40 mm (≥21 mm body surface area [BSA] indexed). Results: No significant difference in rotation angles was seen between the three age groups or between genders. Rotation angles were significantly correlated with maximal, average, and BSA adjustment of the aortic root and ascending aortic measurements. The aortic root angles were significantly different between the dilated versus nondilated aortas. There was no significant association between the rotation angles and age, length of ascending aorta, or diameters of descending aorta. Multivariate adaptive regression splines showed 25° of aortic root rotation as the diagnostic cut off for ascending aorta dilation. Above the 25° rotation, every 10° of increasing rotation was associated with a 3.78 ± 0.87 mm increase in aortic diameter (p < 0.01) and a 1.73 ± 0.25 times increased risk for having a dilated aorta (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Rotation angles of the aortic valve may be an independent non-invasive imaging marker for dilatation of the ascending aorta. Patients with increased rotation angle of the aortic valve may have higher risk for

  6. Early Results of Endovascular Treatment of the Thoracic Aorta Using the Valiant Endograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Matt; Ivaz, Stella; Cheshire, Nicholas; Fattori, Rosella; Rousseau, Herve; Heijmen, Robin; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Thony, Frederic; Horne, Gillian; Morgan, Robert; Loftus, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta has been adopted as the first-line therapy for much pathology. Initial results from the early-generation endografts have highlighted the potential of this technique. Newer-generation endografts have now been introduced into clinical practice and careful assessment of their performance should be mandatory. This study describes the initial experience with the Valiant endograft and makes comparisons with similar series documenting previous-generation endografts. Data were retrospectively collected on 180 patients treated with the Valiant endograft at seven European centers between March 2005 and October 2006. The patient cohort consisted of 66 patients with thoracic aneurysms, 22 with thoracoabdominal aneurysms, 19 with an acute aortic syndrome, 52 with aneurysmal degeneration of a chronic dissection, and 21 patients with traumatic aortic transection. The overall 30-day mortality for the series was 7.2%, with a stroke rate of 3.8% and a paraplegia rate of 3.3%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that mortality differed significantly between different indications; thoracic aneurysms (6.1%), thoracoabdominal aneurysms (27.3%), acute aortic syndrome (10.5%), chronic dissections (1.9%), and acute transections (0%). Adjunctive surgical procedures were required in 63 patients, and 51% of patients had grafts deployed proximal to the left subclavian artery. Comparison with a series of earlier-generation grafts demonstrated a significant increase in complexity of procedure as assessed by graft implantation site, number of grafts and patient comorbidity. The data demonstrate acceptable results for a new-generation endograft in series of patients with diverse thoracic aortic pathology. Comparison of clinical outcomes between different endografts poses considerable challenges due to differing case complexity

  7. Role of endothelium in angiotensin II formation by the rat aorta and mesenteric arterial bed

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    R. Leite

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the angiotensin II (Ang II-generating system by analyzing the vasoconstrictor effect of Ang II, angiotensin I (Ang I, and tetradecapeptide (TDP renin substrate in the absence and presence of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system in isolated rat aortic rings and mesenteric arterial beds with and without functional endothelium. Ang II, Ang I, and TDP elicited a dose-dependent vasoconstrictor effect in both vascular preparations that was completely blocked by the Ang II receptor antagonist saralasin (50 nM. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor captopril (36 µM completely inhibited the vasoconstrictor effect elicited by Ang I and TDP in aortic rings without affecting that of Ang II. In contrast, captopril (36 µM significantly reduced (80-90% the response to bolus injection of Ang I, without affecting those to Ang II and TDP in mesenteric arteries. Mechanical removal of the endothelium greatly potentiated (70-95% the vasoconstrictor response to Ang II, Ang I, and TDP in aortic rings while these responses were unaffected by the removal of the endothelium of mesenteric arteries with sodium deoxycholate infusion. In addition, endothelium disruption did not change the pattern of response elicited by these peptides in the presence of captopril. These findings indicate that the endothelium may not be essential for Ang II formation in rat mesenteric arteries and aorta, but it may modulate the response to Ang II. Although Ang II formation from Ang I is essentially dependent on ACE in both vessels, our results suggest the existence of an alternative pathway in the mesenteric arterial bed that may play an important role in Ang II generation from TDP in resistance but not in large vessels during ACE inhibition

  8. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in trauma patients in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norii, Tatsuya; Miyata, Shin; Terasaka, Yusuke; Guliani, Sundeep; Lu, Stephen W; Crandall, Cameron

    2017-05-01

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has received increasing attention for critically uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. However, the efficacy of REBOA in patients in youth is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and characteristics of patients of age ≤18 years with severe traumatic injury who received REBOA. We retrospectively analyzed observational cohort data from the Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) from 2004 to 2015. All patients ≤18 years old who underwent REBOA were included. Clinical characteristics and mortalities were analyzed and compared among patients ≤15 years old (young children) and 16-18 years old (adolescents). Of the 236,698 patients in the JTDB (2004-2015), 22,907 patients were 18 years old or younger. A total of 3,440 patients without survival data were excluded. Of the remaining 19,467, 54 (0.3%) patients underwent REBOA, among which 15 (27.8%) were young children. Both young children and adolescents who underwent REBOA were seriously injured (median Injury Severity Score [ISS], 41 and 38, respectively). Also, 53.3% of young children and 38.5% of adolescents survived to discharge after undergoing REBOA. In a cohort of young trauma patients from the JTDB who underwent REBOA to control hemorrhage, we found that both young children and adolescents who underwent REBOA were seriously injured and had an equivalent survival rate compared to the reported survival rate from studies in adults. REBOA treatment may be a reasonable option in severely injured young patients in the appropriate clinical settings. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. Epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.

  9. Depolarization-stimulated 42K+ efflux in rat aorta is calcium- and cellular volume-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magliola, L.; Jones, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors controlling membrane permeability to potassium of smooth muscle cells from rat aorta stimulated by depolarization. The increase 42 K+ efflux (change in the rate constant) induced by depolarization (application of high concentrations of potassium chloride) was inhibited significantly by the calcium antagonists diltiazem and nisoldipine. Parallel inhibitory effects on contraction were observed. Diltiazem also inhibited potassium-stimulated 36 Cl- efflux. The addition of 25-150 mM KCl to normal physiologic solution stimulated 42 K+ efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. Diltiazem suppressed potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux approximately 90% at 25 mM KCl and approximately 40% at 150 mM KCl. The ability of nisoldipine to inhibit 42 K+ efflux also diminished as the potassium chloride concentration was elevated. The component of efflux that was resistant to calcium antagonists probably resulted from a decrease in the electrochemical gradient for potassium. Cellular water did not change during potassium addition. Substitution of 80 and 150 mM KCl for sodium chloride produced cellular swelling and enhanced potassium-stimulated 42 K+ efflux compared with potassium chloride addition. The addition of sucrose to prevent cellular swelling reduced efflux response to potassium substitution toward that of potassium addition. A hypoosmolar physiologic solution produced an increase in the 42 K+ efflux and a contracture that were both prevented by the addition of sucrose. We concluded that the depolarization-mediated 42 K+ efflux has three components: one is calcium dependent; a second is dependent on cellular volume; and a third is resistant to inhibition by calcium antagonists

  10. Aortic root replacement after previous surgical intervention on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E W Matthias; Radu, N Costin; Mekontso-Dessap, Armand; Hillion, Marie-Line; Loisance, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Aortic root replacement after a previous operation on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta remains a major challenge. Records of 56 consecutive patients (44 men; mean age, 56.4 +/- 13.6 years) undergoing reoperative aortic root replacement between June 1994 and June 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation was performed 9.4 +/- 6.7 years after the last cardiac operation. Indications for reoperation were true aneurysm (n = 14 [25%]), false aneurysm (n = 10 [18%]), dissection or redissection (n = 9 [16%]), structural or nonstructural valve dysfunction (n = 10 [18%]), prosthetic valve-graft infection (n = 12 [21%]), and miscellaneous (n = 1 [2%]). Procedures performed were aortic root replacement (n = 47 [84%]), aortic root replacement plus mitral valve procedure (n = 5 [9%]), and aortic root replacement plus arch replacement (n = 4 [7%]). In 14 (25%) patients coronary artery bypass grafting had to be performed unexpectedly during the same procedure or immediately after the procedure to re-establish coronary perfusion. Hospital mortality reached 17.9% (n = 10). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the need for unplanned perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting as the sole independent risk factor for hospital death (P = .005). Actuarial survival was 83.8% +/- 4.9% at 1 month, 73.0% +/- 6.3% at 1 year, and 65.7% +/- 9.0% at 5 years after the operation. One patient had recurrence of endocarditis 6.7 months after the operation and required repeated homograft aortic root replacement. Reoperative aortic root replacement remains associated with a high postoperative mortality. The need to perform unplanned coronary artery bypass grafting during reoperative aortic root replacement is a major risk factor for hospital death. The optimal technique for coronary reconstruction in this setting remains to be debated.

  11. Surgical treatment of Marfan patients with aneurysms and dissection of the proximal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingke, D; Dresler, C; Pethig, K; Heinemann, M; Borst, H G

    1998-02-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed early and late results of surgical treatment for 79 Marfan patients with aneurysms and dissection of the proximal aorta. From September 1979 to February 1996, 79 patients with Marfan syndrome underwent aortic root replacement using composite grafts (n=68, Bentall-technique 63, button-technique 5), and ascending aortic replacement with a valve-sparing procedure (n=11). There were 12 patients (15.2%) who simultaneously received partial or total arch replacement. 55 patients (69.6%) were male, and 24 female (30.4%). The average age was 33.8 years. Forty-one patient (51.9%) had non-dissecting aneurysms while the remaining 38 patients suffered from either acute (24.0%) or chronic aortic dissection (24.0%). The aortic valve was involved in 97.5% of all cases. The total early mortality (valve-sparing operation and in those with chronic aortic dissection. The follow-up rate was 98.7%. During a mean follow-up of 68+/-25 months 10 patients (13.3%) died and cardiac complications were a common cause of the late deaths. There was no late mortality in the valve-sparing operations during a mean follow-up period of 8+/-6 months, however, 1 required valve replacement. 19 (25.3%) of the 75 patients surviving late have undergone 25 secondary operations on the cardiovascular system. Reoperations at aortic sites distant from the original were much more frequent after primary repair for acute and chronic dissection when compared to non-dissecting aneurysms (pMarfan-patients with non-dissecting and dissecting aneurysms of the aortic root. Our early experience in 11 patients with valve-sparing procedures indicated that this,variant may be the better choice in selected patients.

  12. Evaluation of different techniques for repair of co-arctation of aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi AA

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is on different surgical techniques for repair of Co-arctation of aort and their effect for correction of systemic hypertension and lower extremity hypotension. In addition to these, the clinical and paraclinical data were noticed. 50 pt were operated in "SHARIATI" hospital during 1370-1377 with diagnosis of Co-arctation of aorta (30 men, mean age 19.4 years, 20 women, mean age 16.6 years. In addition to older age of our patients which results in more post-op sequela, there was suprrisingly a long-lag between onset of symptoms, diagnosis and operation (mean 4.36 years. 62% of Co-arctation were juxtaductal and the remainder were non-classical forms. 52% of our patients had co-existing cardiac disease which were very high in comparison with other studies (12%. This is due to older age of our patients and more valvular heart diseases. Among complicated cases of co-arctation, 71.9% were in men and 28.1% in women and this difference is due to high incidence of bicuspid aortic valve in men. The mean angiographic gradient were 57.5 mmHg which increases with age. CXR was abnormal in 91.7% and ECG in 74.2% of patients. The different applied surgical techniques include ee-A=26%, TIG=40%, TBG=18%, DPR=14%, FSCR=2%. There is no significant difference regarding post-op complications, BP in post-op period, and increase in pedal pulses, except in TBG group which HTN was more common. Two early deaths occurred which were in DRP group.

  13. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics.

  14. Vitamin E improved redox homeostasis in heart and aorta of hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on the oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defense enzymes in the heart and aorta of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Methods. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1 (Euthyroid received tap water, Group 2 (Hypothyroid received 0.05 % of PTU in dissolved in their drinking water, Group 3 (PTU+Vit E hypothyroid rats treated with vitamin E, and Group 4 (Euthyroid+Vit E. Vitamin E was injected daily (20 mg/kg to groups 3 and 4 via daily gavage for 6 weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, total thiol levels, and the activities of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were evaluated in the aortic and cardiac tissues. Results. A significant decrease of thyroxine (T4 serum levels confirmed hypothyroidism in rats, which received PTU. The MDA level increased and total thiol level decreased in the hypothyroid group compared to control group (p<0.001. Th e activities of SOD and CAT significantly decreased in the hypothyroid rats in comparison to the control. Vitamin E treatment resulted in increased levels of total thiol, SOD, and CAT within aortic and cardiac tissues and decreased levels of MDA in comparison with the hypothyroid group (p<0.01−p<0.001. Conclusions. PTU-induced hypothyroidism resulted in oxidative stress. Chronic administration of vitamin E to hypothyroid rats decreased the oxidative stress markers in the aortic and cardiac tissues.

  15. Increased wall stress of saccular versus fusiform aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Derek P; Xu, Chun; Pouch, Alison M; Chandran, Krishnan B; Desjardins, Benoit; Gorman, Joseph H; Fairman, Ron M; Gorman, Robert C; Jackson, Benjamin M

    2011-11-01

    Repair of fusiform descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAs) is indicated when aneurysmal diameter exceeds a certain threshold; however, diameter-related indications for repair of saccular DTA are less well established. Human subjects with fusiform (n = 17) and saccular (n = 17) DTAs who underwent computed tomographic angiography were identified. Patients with aneurysms related to connective tissue disease were excluded. The thoracic aorta was segmented, reconstructed, and triangulated to create a mesh. Finite element analysis was performed using a pressure load of 120 mm Hg and a uniform aortic wall thickness of 3.2 mm to compare the pressure-induced wall stress of fusiform and saccular DTAs. The mean maximum diameter of the fusiform DTAs (6.0 ± 1.5 cm) was significantly greater (p = 0.006) than that of the saccular DTAs (4.4 ± 1.8 cm). However, mean peak wall stress of the fusiform DTAs (0.33 ± 0.15 MPa) was equivalent to that of the saccular DTAs (0.30 ± 0.14 MPa), as found by using an equivalence threshold of 0.15 MPa. The mean normalized wall stress (peak wall stress divided by maximum aneurysm radius) of the saccular DTAs was greater than that of the fusiform DTAs (0.16 ± 0.09 MPa/cm vs. 0.11 ± 0.03 MPa/cm, p = 0.035). The normalized wall stress for saccular DTA is greater than that for fusiform DTA, indicating that geometric factors such as aneurysm shape influence wall stress. These results suggest that saccular aneurysms may be more prone to rupture than fusiform aneurysms of similar diameter, provide a theoretical rationale for the repair of saccular DTAs at a smaller diameter, and suggest investigation of the role of biomechanical modeling in surgical decision making is warranted. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A hidden structural vulnerability in the thrombospondin-2 deficient aorta increases the propensity to intramural delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, C; Kristofik, N J; Bersi, M R; Kyriakides, T R; Humphrey, J D

    2017-07-01

    Mice lacking thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) represent an animal model of impaired collagen fibrillogenesis. Collagen constitutes ~1/3 of the wall of the normal murine descending thoracic aorta (DTA) and is thought to confer mechanical strength at high pressures. Microstructural analysis of the DTA from TSP2-null mice revealed irregular and disorganized collagen fibrils in the adventitia and at the interface between the media and adventitia. Yet, biaxial mechanical tests performed under physiologic loading conditions showed that most mechanical metrics, including stress and stiffness, were not different between mutant and control DTAs at 20- and 40-weeks of age, thus suggesting that the absence of TSP2 is well compensated under normal conditions. A detailed bilayered analysis of the wall mechanics predicted, however, that the adventitia of TSP2-null DTAs fails to engage at high pressures, which could render the media vulnerable to mechanical damage. Failure tests confirmed that the pressure at which the DTA ruptures is significantly lower in 20-week-old TSP2-null mice compared to age-matched controls (640±37 vs. 1120±45mmHg). Moreover, half of the 20-week-old and all 40-week-old mutant DTAs failed by delamination, not rupture. This delamination occurred at the interface between the media and the adventitia, with separation planes often observed at ~45 degrees with respect to the circumferential/axial directions. Combined with the observed microstructural anomalies, our theoretical-experimental biomechanical results suggest that TSP2-null DTAs are more susceptible to material failure when exposed to high pressures and this vulnerability may result from a reduced resistance to shear loading at the medial/adventitial border. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Doppler velocimetry of the aorta in materno-fetal blood incompatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Y; Vetter, K; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1989-01-01

    The underlying pathogenesis of erythroblastosis fetalis is hemolysis of fetal red blood cells mediated by maternal antibodies. The resulting destruction of erythrocytes leads to progressive fetal anemia, and a hypervolemic condition develops in the fetus. The amount of maternal antibodies, real-time ultrasound, amniocentesis and/or cordocentesis can all be used to evaluate the degree of fetal anemia. The work presented here attempts to show that Doppler ultrasound can be used to detect the hypervolemic condition of anemic fetuses. One hundred fifty Doppler examinations were carried out on the aorta in 37 fetuses to evaluate the blood flow velocities and compare these with the fetal hematocrit. For the Doppler analysis, along with bidimensional echography, a Kranzbühler duplex scanner was used. In addition to the usual indices, the ratio of the median velocity to the maximum systolic velocity and an index of resistance using the maximum velocities 1/2 and 2/3 of the way through the cardiac cycle were calculated. Our examinations showed a significant increase in the temporal average of spatial average velocities (TASAV) and in the temporal average of maximum velocities (TAMV or M). The appearance of a spectral window was characteristic and a dicrotism in the curve was often observed. Much experience with the Doppler technique as well as a knowledge of factors influencing the blood flow velocity (caffeine, theine, nicotine, beta-sympathicomimetics) are necessary before attempting an interpretation of Doppler ultrasound results. Although the use of Doppler ultrasound does not yet permit a reduction in the number of invasive examinations, it does allow an improvement in the quality of surveillance of the fetal condition.

  18. The prevalence of turner syndrome in girls presenting with coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sze Choong; Burgess, Trent; Cheung, Michael; Zacharin, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Turner syndrome in girls presenting with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). A total of 132 girls with known structural CoA was identified. Those girls who had no previous karyotype analysis performed were asked to participate in a research study in which a banded karyotype with 50-cell count was performed. Of 132 girls with CoA, 55 (41.7%) had karyotype analysis within 6 months of cardiac diagnosis. Three girls underwent karyotyping later because of clinical concerns. Of the 74 girls with CoA who had not had a karyotype, 38 (51.4%) consented to the study. Results were available for 37 girls. All were 46,XX. Five patients with Turner syndrome were identified in the 95 girls with CoA who had karyotype analysis (4 from early karyotype and 1 diagnosed later), which translated into a minimum prevalence of 5.3% of Turner syndrome in this group of girls with CoA. In addition, one infant with a 20-cell 46,XX karyotype had features of Turner syndrome. Our study demonstrated for the first time in a large cohort that 5.3% of girls presenting with CoA are found to have Turner syndrome when karyotyping is performed. Given the spectrum of preventable and treatable health problems after the diagnosis of Turner syndrome, we believe that all girls with CoA should have a karyotype analysis, ideally with at least 50-cell count, at the time of diagnosis of CoA. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrafast contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the aorta and renal arteries in apnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hany, T.F.; Pfammatter, T.; Schmidt, M.; Leung, D.A.; Debatin, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of ultrafast, gadolinium-enhanced, three-dimensional breathhold magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the assessment of the aorta and renal arteries in comparison to conventional arteriography (CA). Patients and methods: 49 patients (31 m, 18 f) were evaluated with both CA and 3D MRA. The 3D MRA data set consisted of 44 continuous sections, acquired in apnoea (23-28 s) using the following parameters: T R /T E 3.9/1.5 ms, flip angle 40 , 3/4 k-space acquisition. 0.3 mmol/kg BW gadolinium-DTPA were administered intravenously in a bolus, using an automated injector. A test bolus method was used for timing of the bolus and beginning of the data acquisition. Intraarterial CA was used as the gold standard in 47 patients; in two patients the intraoperative findings were employed as the standard of reference. CA and MRA were interpreted separately by two different radiologists, who were blinded to the results of the other examine. Results: All 11 accessory renal arteries were visualised on MRA. MRA-based assessment of renal artery stenosis was identical with CA in 31 of 41 (75%) stenoses. Sensitivity and specificity values for assessment of renal arterial disease were 84,4% and 96,1%, for haemodynamically significant lesions they amounted to 90% and 98,9%, respectively. Conclusion: The presented ultrafast contrast-enhanced 3D MRA technique allows for the reliable assessment of aortic and renal arterial morphology and pathology. (orig.) [de

  20. Correlation between Rotator Cuff Tears and Systemic Atherosclerotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Donovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of aortic arch calcification, a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, with rotator cuff tendinosis and tears given the hypothesis that decreased tendon vascularity is a contributing factor in the etiology of tendon degeneration. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients ages 50 to 90 years who had a shoulder MRI and a chest radiograph performed within 6 months of each other. Chest radiographs and shoulder MRIs from 120 patients were reviewed by two sets of observers blinded to the others' conclusions. Rotator cuff disease was classified as tendinosis, partial thickness tear, and full thickness tear. The presence or absence of aortic arch calcification was graded and compared with the MRI appearance of the rotator cuff. The tendon tear grading was positively correlated with patient age. However, the tendon tear grading on MRI was not significantly correlated with the aorta calcification scores on chest radiographs. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between aorta calcification severity and tendon tear grading. In conclusion, rotator cuff tears did not significantly correlate with aortic calcification severity. This suggests that tendon ischemia may not be associated with the degree of macrovascular disease.

  1. The mechanical properties of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of Python regius correlate with blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Wang, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Pythons are unique amongst snakes in having different pressures in the aortas and pulmonary arteries because of intraventricular pressure separation. In this study, we investigate whether this correlates with different blood vessel strength in the ball python Python regius. We excised segments from the left, right, and dorsal aortas, and from the two pulmonary arteries. These were subjected to tensile testing. We show that the aortic vessel wall is significantly stronger than the pulmonary artery wall in P. regius. Gross morphological characteristics (vessel wall thickness and correlated absolute amount of collagen content) are likely the most influential factors. Collagen fiber thickness and orientation are likely to have an effect, though the effect of collagen fiber type and cross-links between fibers will need further study. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tratamiento endovascular de urgencia con endoprótesis de aneurisma roto disecado de aorta torácica: A propósito de un caso Emergency endovascular treatment with endoprosthesis of ruptured dissected aneurysm of thoracic aorta: Report of one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lugo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aneurismas de aorta torácica son menos comunes que los aneurismas de aorta abdominal y pueden encontrarse en aorta ascendente, arco aórtico, aorta descendente o en una combinación de estos segmentos. De estos aneurismas el 30% al 40% se originan en la aorta torácica descendente. En los aneurismas de aorta torácica existe una debilidad estructural de la pared de la aorta, que conlleva una dilatación arterial progresiva con eventual ruptura o disección. Aproximadamente, 50% de los aneurismas de aorta torácica son ateroscleróticos y ocurren como resultado de remodelado arterial y dilatación o a raíz de un metabolismo anormal del colágeno. La mayoría de los aneurismas de aorta torácica se descubren por casualidad durante la evaluación de otros problemas médicos. La meta del tratamiento de los aneurismas de aorta torácica, es prevenir la muerte debido a su ruptura. El riesgo de ruptura de los no tratados oscila entre 46% a 74% y la tasa de mortalidad por su ruptura es extremadamente alta. Los aneurismas de gran tamaño, en especial aquellos mayores de 6 cm, son más susceptibles de rupturas que los aneurismas de menor tamaño. El tratamiento endovascular, inicialmente desarrollado para los aneurismas de aorta abdominal, se introdujo en 1992 como una alternativa menos invasiva al tratamiento de cirugía abierta para los aneurismas de la aorta torácica descendente. En la actualidad, el injerto de stent endovascular en la aorta descendente o endoprótesis, recibe mayor atención como alternativa al reparo quirúrgico de los aneurismas de aorta torácica.Thoracic aortic aneurysms are less common than abdominal aortic aneurysms and can be found in ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta or in a combination of these segments. 30% to 40% of these aneurysms are originated in thoracic descending aorta. In thoracic aortic aneurysms there exists a structural wall weakness that leads to a progressive arterial dilation with eventual

  3. Tratamiento endovascular del aneurisma de aorta descendente en el adolescente con síndrome de Marfan: Reporte de un caso Endovascular treatment of an aneurysm of the descending aorta in an adolescent with Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G Barrera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se expone el caso de un adolescente de 14 años de edad, con síndrome de Marfan y antecedente de tres cirugías cardiovasculares previas: valvuloplastia aórtica y mitral a los cinco años y valvuloplastia aórtica y reconstrucción de la aorta torácica con tubo de pericardio bovino a sus diez años. En primer tiempo quirúrgico se realizó reemplazo valvular aórtico por válvula mecánica y valvuloplastia mitral y tricuspidea, y en segundo tiempo quirúrgico, durante la misma hospitalización, exclusión endovascular de aneurisma de aorta descendente asintomático sin complicaciones. Antes del egreso se diagnosticó una endofuga tipo II que se manejó con observación clínica. Luego de un año del procedimiento, los controles clínico y tomográfico son satisfactorios.We describe the case of a 14-year-old adolescent with Marfan syndrome and a history of three previous cardiovascular surgeries: aortic and mitral valve replacement at the age of 5 and aortic valve replacement and reconstruction of the thoracic aorta with a tube of bovine pericardium at the age of ten. In the first surgical procedure the aortic valve was replaced by a mechanical valve, and mitral and tricuspid valvuloplasty was performed. In a second surgical procedure during the same hospitalization, endovascular exclusion of the asymptomatic descending aortic aneurysm was realized without complications. Before discharge, a type II endoleak was diagnosed and managed through clinical observation. After a year of the procedure, clinical and tomographic controls are satisfactory.

  4. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Padilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac. Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II type 2 receptor (AT2R-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT2R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca2+-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT2R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ entry.

  5. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E.; Compton, Gregory; Humpl, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children: diagnosis using ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter as determined by multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro-Dominguez, Pablo; Manson, David E. [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Compton, Gregory [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Epworth Hospital, Epworth Medical Imaging, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Humpl, Tilman [University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    The ratio of the transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) to ascending aorta as determined at multi-detector CT is a tool that can be used to assess the pulmonary arterial size in cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. To establish a ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter using multi-detector CT imaging suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We hypothesize that a defined ratio of MPA to ascending aorta is identifiable on multi-detector CT and that higher ratios can be used to reliably diagnose the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. We calculated the multi-detector CT ratio of MPA to ascending aorta diameter in 44 children with documented pulmonary arterial hypertension by right heart catheterization and in 44 age- and gender-matched control children with no predisposing factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension. We compared this multi-detector-CT-determined ratio with the MPA pressure in the study group, as well as with the ratio of MPA to ascending aorta in the control group. A threshold ratio value was calculated to accurately identify children with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Children with documented primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have a significantly higher ratio of MPA to ascending aorta (1.46) than children without pulmonary arterial hypertension (1.11). A ratio of 1.3 carries a positive likelihood of 34 and a positive predictive value of 97% for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The pulmonary arteries were larger in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in a control group of normal children. A CT-measured ratio of MPA to ascending aorta of 1.3 should raise the suspicion of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. (orig.)

  7. Follow-up of patients with previous treatment for coarctation of the thoracic aorta: comparison between contrast-enhanced MR angiography and fast spin-echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogaert, J.; Kuzo, R.; Dymarkowski, S.; Janssen, L.; Celis, I. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Budts, W. [Dept. of Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Gewillig, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    Regular follow-up is required in patients with previous intervention for coarctation of the aorta to detect recoarctation or aneurysm formation. In this study we describe the findings encountered on routine follow-up exams and we compare the use of contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (CE MRA) with fast spin-echo MRI (FSE) to study the thoracic aorta after previous intervention. In 51 consecutive patients previously treated for aortic coarctation, 74 MR studies of the thoracic aorta were performed during a 2-year period using CE MRA and FSE MRI. The thoracic aorta was evaluated for abnormalities of course, caliber, shape, and pathology of side branches. The CE MRA and FSE MRI studies were evaluated side by side by consensus of two reviewers evaluating which MR technique depicted the abnormalities of the thoracic aorta the best. Of 74 exams, six clinically important abnormalities were found: four aneurysms and two restenoses. Two small pseudoaneurysms were missed on the FSE studies. Contrast-enhanced MRA was judged to visualize aortic abnormalities better than FSE (47 of 74 MR studies) especially for the transverse aortic arch, coarctation site, left subclavian artery, and aortic arch configuration. For the ascending aorta and distal descending aorta, CE MRA and FSE performed equally well. Aortic diameters measured at four levels in the first 18 MRI studies showed no significant differences in diameter when measured by FSE or CE MRA (p = not significant). Clinically important abnormalities, such as aneurysm formation and restenosis, can be present years after treatment for aortic coarctation. In the regular follow-up of these patients, CE MRA may provide additional diagnostic information compared with FSE and should be included as part of the routine exam. (orig.)

  8. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  9. Vasodilatory effect of asafoetida essential oil on rat aorta rings: The role of nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Hassan; Sharifi, Mozhdeh; Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Hafizibarjin, Zeynab

    2017-12-01

    Asafoetida is an oleo-gum resin mainly obtained from Ferula assa-foetida L. species in the apiaceae family. Previous studies have shown that it has antispasmodic effects on rat's and pig's ileums. The main goals of this study were to assess the vasodilatory effect of asafoetida essential oil (AEO) on the contractile response of rat's aorta rings and to find the role of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, and calcium channels. Thoracic aorta rings were stretched under a steady-state tension of 1 g in an organ bath apparatus for 1 h and then precontracted by KCl (80 mM) in the presence and absence of AEO. L-NAME (blocker of nitric oxide synthase) and indomethacin (blocker of cyclooxygenase) were used to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin in the vasodilatory effect of AEO. Also, the effect of AEO on the influx of calcium through the cell membrane calcium channels was determined. Data showed that AEO had vasodilatory effects on aorta rings with both intact (IC 50  = 1.6 µl/l) or denuded endothelium (IC 50  = 19.2 µl/l) with a significantly higher potency in intact endothelium rings. The vasodilatory effects of AEO were reduced, but not completely inhibited, in the presence of L-NAME or indomethacin. Adding AEO to the free-calcium medium also significantly reduced the CaCl 2 -induced contractions. The results indicated that AEO has a potent vasodilatory effect that is endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent. Also, it reduced the influx of calcium into the cell through plasma membrane calcium channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cine MRI of the ascending aorta in the elderly with respect to the flow signal void and aortic valve morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, M; Kyomasu, Y; Suzuki, Y; Mashima, Y; Tanno, M; Endo, K; Yamada, H

    1990-11-01

    Cine flow MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla system to observe signal intensity of blood flow within the ascending aorta in the elderly who had no aortic stenosis and to determine frequency of the flow signal void. Coronal and sagittal imaging planes of the ascending aorta were obtained in 27 aged patients with no known cardiac diseases (14 men and 13 women, mean age of 76) and 7 young volunteers (7 men, mean age of 24), utilizing ECG-gating. GRASS (gradient-recalled acquisition in steady state), and a flow compensation sequence. The young volunteers presented little or no signal void within the ascending aorta. In 26 (96%) of the 27 aged patients, on the other hand, signal void was demonstrated in the blood flow distal to the aortic valve during systole. The maximum length of the signal void that was measured at 318-632 msec after the R wave of ECG ranged from 33 to 97 mm. Conventional and Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate motion and morphology of the aortic valve in 19 of the 27 aged patients. Eighteen of these 19 subjects had aortic signal void on cine MRI. Echocardiography showed sclerotic changes of the aortic valve (i.e., increased echogenicity of the cusps and/or commissure fusion) in 10 (53%) of the 19 subjects. The mean maximum length of the signal void in the 10 patients with aortic valve sclerosis was significantly greater than that in the 9 patients with echocardiographically normal valve (68 vs. 45 mm, p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Quantitative X-ray CT analysis of calcification of the abdominal aorta and its relationship to obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagawa, Toshio; Hiraiwa, Yoshio; Mizuno, Seio; Kusunoki, Norio; Nitta, Yu; Matsubara, Takao; Iwainaka, Yoichi; Konishi, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of abdominal aorta calcification by X-ray CT is useful method for non-invasive diagnosis of atherosclerosis. We recently examined the relationship between the X-ray CT measurement of abdominal aorta calcification and the degree of obesity. For this purpose, the body mass index (BMI) and the subcutaneous fat thickness (determined by X-ray CT at the umbilical level) were analyzed in relation to the abdominal aorta calcification index (ACI) in 845 patients (453 males and 392 females aged 40-79 years). Patients with BMI under 20 were classified as 'lean', those with BMI between 20-26 as 'normal' and those with BMI over 26 as 'obese'. 1. Among males, the ACI was highest in lean individuals and lowest in obese individuals. The difference in ACI between lean and obese males was significant in the middle aged group (40-65 years). Among females, no relationship was observed between the degree of obesity and ACI. 2. Among males, ACI was higher in individuals with low subcutaneous fat thickness and lower in individuals with greater subcutaneous fat thickness. The difference was significant in the middle aged group. Among females, no relationship was observed between the two parameters. 3. When the visceral fat to subcutaneous fat ratio (V/S) in 85 males and females aged 60-69 years was analyzed in relation to ACI, ACI tended to decrease as the V/S increased, in both males and females. 4. Relationships between BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness, between BMI and lipids and between lipids and ACI were also analyzed. (author)

  12. Score Correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2010), s. 793-798 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : score function * correlation * rank correlation coefficient * heavy tails Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  13. Non-Anastomotic Rupture of a Woven Dacron Graft in the Descending Thoracic Aorta Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic structural failure of a Dacron graft resulting from the loss of structural integrity of the graft fabric can cause late graft complications. Late non-anastomotic rupture has traditionally been treated surgically via open thoracotomy. We report a case of the successful use of thoracic endovascular repair to treat a Dacron graft rupture in the descending aorta. The rupture occurred 20 years after the graft had been placed. Two stent grafts were placed at the proximal portion of the surgical graft, covering almost its entire length.

  14. Differential effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the rat heart and aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatto V.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart induces myocardial hypertrophy. There are several experimental data suggesting that this hypertrophy may also depend, at least partially, on the increase of local production of angiotensin II secondary to the activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. In this study we investigated the effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE in the heart and also in the aorta and plasma. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 305 g were treated with a dose of (±-isoproterenol (0.3 mg kg-1 day-1, N = 8 sufficient to produce cardiac hypertrophy without deleterious effects on the pumping capacity of the heart. Control rats (N = 7 were treated with vehicle (corn oil. The animals were killed one week later. ACE activity was determined in vitro in the four cardiac chambers, aorta and plasma by a fluorimetric assay. A significant hypertrophy was observed in both ventricular chambers. ACE activity in the atria remained constant after isoproterenol treatment. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 of ACE activity in the right ventricle (6.9 ± 0.9 to 8.2 ± 0.6 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 and in the left ventricle (6.4 ± 1.1 to 8.9 ± 0.8 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1. In the aorta, however, ACE activity decreased (P<0.01 after isoproterenol (41 ± 3 to 27 ± 2 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 while it remained unchanged in the plasma. These data suggest that ACE expression in the heart can be increased by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors. However, this effect is not observed on other local renin-angiotensin systems, such as the aorta. Our data also suggest that the increased sympathetic discharge and the elevated plasma concentration of catecholamines may contribute to the upregulation of ACE expression in the heart after myocardial infarction and heart failure.

  15. HYSTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES ON AORTA OF CIRRHOSIS MALE RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS INDUCTED BY ESCHERICIA COLI O55 : B5

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    Tony Hartono

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The background of this study is to visualize histopathological changes on aorta of cirrhosis rats (Rattus norvegicus induced by endotoxin E. coli O55 : B5 This study was a laboratory experimental using complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used as experimental model of cirrhosis by bile duct ligation (BDL technique. Three weeks after BDL, all cirrhosis experimental models were induced with a single intra venous injection of Eschericia coli endotoxin (3mg/kg b.b in 1 ml sterile saline, except those of five control rats that induced with sterile saline at the same volume only. Aortas of control rats group were excised at 6 hours after induction with sterile saline, whereas the other four groups were done at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after induction with endotoxin. The quantity of endothelial cell, discontinuity increment and the thickness of internal elastic lamina layer were observed to know histopathological changes on aorta. Histopathological changes were observed using a light mycroscope, dyscontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina were measured by reticular micrometer. The quantity of endothelial cell on control and observation interval of 6 and 12 hours as significant difference (P<0.05, which are bigger than that of 18 and 24 hours. Rats in the control group have the biggest quantity comparing to the other treatments. Discontinuity and thickness of internal elastic lamina layer had significant difference (P<0.05 on control, observation on 6 and 12 hours compared to observation on 18 and 24 hours after being induced with endotoxine. The highest discontinuity and the thinnest elastic lamina internal were obtained within observation on 24 hours. VCAM-1 expression on control group differ from observation on 6 and 12hours but all of them have significant difference to observation on 18 and 24 hours (P<0,05. The decrease of endothelial cell number is caused by

  16. Long-term event-free survival with an embolised prosthetic valve leaflet in the thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Edwin BC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a patient who underwent a redo surgery for a leaflet escape from a Bjork-Shiley tilting disc mitral prosthesis inserted 18 years previously. The escaped disc remained lodged in the thoracic aorta without any complication. She ultimately died of terminal heart failure 13 years after the second operation. We believe this to be the longest survival with a dislodged leaflet from a mechanical valve. Removal of dislodged disc is recommended in literature but there may be a place for watchful observation in exceptional cases with no haemodynamic compromise.

  17. Anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta: successful surgical correction in an infant with fallot's tetralogy

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    Amaral Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 40-day-old female patient with a history of breathlessness since birth who was referred to our hospital for surgical correction of common arterial trunk. The invasive investigation disclosed a Fallot¢s tetralogy anatomy associated with an anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta. Immediately after diagnosis, the patient underwent a successful total surgical correction of the defect, including simultaneous anastomosis of the left pulmonary artery to the pulmonary trunk.

  18. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G.; Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  19. Pencegahan hipertensi dan penebalan dinding aorta dengan pemberian kecambah kacang hijau (Phaseolus radiatus (L pada tikus putih Sprague Dawley

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    Novian Swasono Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes with high-fat food consumption is one of the factors the risks of cardiovascular diseases like of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. A healthy diet and a balanced diet and consume foods that contain lots of antioxidants is one of the effective ways to prevent hyperlipidemia. Mung bean sprouts have properties that neutralize free radicals cause Hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases because it is an antioxidant compound. Objective: The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of mung bean sprouts (Phaseolus radiatus (L to blood pressure and histopathology aorta of Sprague-Dawley male rats. Method: The type of study was experimental research using pre-post test controlled group design for blood pressure variable and post test only controlled group design histopathology aorta. The thirty-five of Sprague-Dawley male rats was eight weeks divided into 5 groups. The first group was given standard diet, group 2 was given a hight fat diet, the third group was given a high-fat diet and mung bean sprout 0,67 gram, group 4 was given a high-fat diet and mung bean 1,34 gram, and group 5 was given a high-fat diet and vitamin E doses of 23 IU. Results: Result of this study showed that after 4 weeks of treatment, increased in blood pressure systole in the given of  high fat diet higher than group who were given a high fat diet and mung bean sprout and also on group who were given high fat diet and vitamin E, but there is no difference effect a decrease in blood pressure between the provision of mung bean sprouts and vitamin E (p>0,05. Statistical analysis to thick the wall the aorta show the similarity meaningful in all the treatment group, it can be said that overall thick the wall the aorta in this research is not different. Conclusion: A dose of mung bean sprout 0,67 g is optimal doses in preventing a rise in blood pressure and prevent alterations histopathology Sprague-Dawley male rats.

  20. Arched abdominal aorta and altered course of right ovarian vessels in a female cadaver: Clinical significance and embryological explanation

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    Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the vascular origin of ovarian artery have been reported in the past. However, the reports on altered course of ovarian artery are very few. In the present paper, we discuss about multiple variations observed in formalin fixed female cadaver. The right ovarian artery was 22 cm long and ran unusually behind the inferior vena cava (IVC. The right ovarian vein drained in to right renal vein at right angle instead of draining into IVC directly. In addition, to these variations, the cadaver had arched abdominal aorta and retro-aortic left renal vein.

  1. Emergency treatment of acute rupture of the descending thoracic aorta using endovascular stent-grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Philippe; Rollet, Gilles; Vidal, Vincent; Collart, Frédéric; Bartoli, Jean-Michel; Piquet, Philippe

    2006-11-01

    Open surgical management of acute rupture of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Endovascular stent-grafts (ESGs) could provide a less invasive treatment alternative to conventional open surgery. The purpose of this report detailing our experience using ESG for treatment of acute rupture of the DTA is to determine the indications for endovascular repair. From June 2000 to April 2005, 17 patients presenting rupture of the DTA were treated using commercially available ESGs at our institution. There were two women and 15 men, with a mean age of 41.9 +/- 20.5 years. The cause of aortic rupture was traumatic in 13 cases and nontraumatic in four. Treatment was undertaken immediately in 10 cases and delayed in seven (range 5-68 days, mean 23.5). In one patient, the proximal neck landing zone was prepared prior to endovascular repair. No patients died during the postoperative period. The technical success rate was 84%. One patient developed a proximal type 1 endoleak at the end of the procedure. Three complications, i.e., two iliac dissections and one femoral artery rupture, occurred during the procedure. No paraplegia was observed. Mean follow-up was 13.3 months (range 1-41). One patient treated for traumatic rupture was lost from follow-up 21 months after initial treatment. No procedure-related complication was observed in this traumatic rupture group. Control computed tomographic scan at 13 months following the procedure demonstrated no evidence of periprosthetic leak or false aneurysm. In the nontraumatic rupture group, two patients died of aortic rupture and one treated for aortobronchial fistula developed recurrent hemoptysis 23 months after initial treatment and required placement of two additional ESGs. The immediate outcome of covered stent-graft placement for management of acute aortic rupture of the DTA is good. However, long-term surveillance is mandatory, especially in patients treated for nontraumatic aortic

  2. Bringing Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) Closer to the Point of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasley, Jason D; Teeter, William A; Gamble, William B; Wasick, Philip; Romagnoli, Anna N; Pasley, Amelia M; Scalea, Thomas M; Brenner, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    The management of noncompressible torso hemorrhage remains a significant issue at the point of injury. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been used in the hospital to control bleeding and bridge patients to definitive surgery. Smaller delivery systems and wirefree devices may be used more easily at the point of injury by nonphysician providers. We investigated whether independent duty military medical technicians (IDMTs) could learn and perform REBOA correctly and rapidly as assessed by simulation. US Air Force IDMTs without prior endovascular experience were included. All participants received didactic instruction and evaluation of technical skills. Procedural times and pretest/posttest examinations were administered after completion of all trials. The Likert scale was used to subjectively assess confidence before and after instruction. Eleven IDMTs were enrolled. There was a significant decrease in procedural times from trials 1 to 6. Overall procedural time (± standard deviation) decreased from 147.7 ± 27.4 seconds to 64 ± 8.9 seconds (ρ < .001). There was a mean improvement of 83.7 ± 24.6 seconds from the first to sixth trial (ρ < .001). All participants demonstrated correct placement of the sheath, measurement and placement of the catheter, and inflation of the balloon throughout all trials (100%). There was significant improvement in comprehension and knowledge between the pretest and posttest; average performance improved significantly from 36.4.6% ± 12.3% to 71.1% ± 8.5% (ρ < .001). Subjectively, all 11 participants noted significant improvement in confidence from 1.2 to 4.1 out of 5 on the Likert scale (ρ < .001). Technology for aortic occlusion has advanced to provide smaller, wirefree devices, making field deployment more feasible. IDMTs can learn the steps required for REBOA and perform the procedure accurately and rapidly, as assessed by simulation. Arterial access is a challenge in the ability to perform

  3. Vorticity dynamics of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in an axisymmetric aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi, L. P.; Ge, L.; Simon, H. A.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Yoganathan, A. P.

    2007-06-01

    We present comprehensive particle image velocimetry measurements and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of physiological, pulsatile flow through a clinical quality bileaflet mechanical heart valve mounted in an idealized axisymmetric aorta geometry with a sudden expansion modeling the aortic sinus region. Instantaneous and ensemble-averaged velocity measurements as well as the associated statistics of leaflet kinematics are reported and analyzed in tandem to elucidate the structure of the velocity and vorticity fields of the ensuing flow-structure interaction. The measurements reveal that during the first half of the acceleration phase, the flow is laminar and repeatable from cycle to cycle. The valve housing shear layer rolls up into the sinus and begins to extract vorticity of opposite sign from the sinus wall. A start-up vortical structure is shed from the leaflets and is advected downstream as the leaflet shear layers become wavy and oscillatory. In the second half of flow acceleration the leaflet shear layers become unstable and break down into two von Karman-like vortex streets. The onset of vortex shedding from the valve leaflets is responsible for the growth of significant cycle-to-cycle vorticity oscillations. At peak flow, the housing and leaflet shear layers undergo secondary instabilities and break down rapidly into a chaotic, turbulent-like state with multiple small-scale vortical structures emerging in the flow. During the deceleration and closing phases all large-scale coherent flow features disappear and a chaotic small-scale vorticity field emerges, which persists even after the valve has closed. Probability density functions of the leaflet position during opening and closing phases show that the leaflet position fluctuates from cycle to cycle with larger fluctuations evident during valve closure. The DNS is carried out by prescribing the leaflet kinematics from the experimental data. The computed instantaneous vorticity fields are in very good

  4. Controversias en el manejo actual de la coartación de la aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Vanegas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La coartación de la aorta fue descrita clásicamente como una simple estrechez del istmo aórtico que podría ser "curada" por medio de cirugía. En la actualidad se sabe que es la manifestación clínica de una vasculopatía arterial más amplia, en donde la afección del arco aórtico puede ser variable. La corrección quirúrgica ha demostrado ser un tratamiento efectivo para el manejo de la coartación aórtica nativa y permanece como el de elección en neonatos. De otra parte, la angioplastia con balón es el tratamiento de elección en niños con recoartación, cuyos resultados en la reducción aguda del gradiente aórtico posterior al manejo de la coartación nativa, son similares a los obtenidos con cirugía. La implantación de prótesis endovasculares (stents ha mostrado excelentes resultados a corto plazo tanto en niños mayores como en adultos con coartación nativa. En pacientes con coartación recurrente considerados de alto riesgo quirúrgico, la angioplastia con balón y la implantación de stent ofrecen una estrategia de manejo menos invasiva e igual de efectiva. Se prefiere el uso de stents sobre la angioplastia con balón en adultos y niños mayores con coartación recurrente, ya que el riesgo de recoartación y formación de aneurismas parece ser menor. No se cuenta con suficiente información acerca de los desenlaces a largo plazo posteriores al tratamiento percutáneo de la coartación aórtica. Este artículo revisa las controversias existentes en cuanto al manejo actual de esta condición.

  5. Controversias en el manejo actual de la coartación de la aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Vanegas, MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La coartación de la aorta fue descrita clásicamente como una simple estrechez del istmo aórtico que podría ser “curada” por medio de cirugía. En la actualidad se sabe que es la manifestación clínica de una vasculopatía arterial más amplia, en donde la afección del arco aórtico puede ser variable. La corrección quirúrgica ha demostrado ser un tratamiento efectivo para el manejo de la coartación aórtica nativa y permanece como el de elección en neonatos. De otra parte, la angioplastia con balón es el tratamiento de elección en niños con recoartación, cuyos resultados en la reducción aguda del gradiente aórtico posterior al manejo de la coartación nativa, son similares a los obtenidos con cirugía. La implantación de prótesis endovasculares (stents ha mostrado excelentes resultados a corto plazo tanto en niños mayores como en adultos con coartación nativa. En pacientes con coartación recurrente considerados de alto riesgo quirúrgico, la angioplastia con balón y la implantación de stent ofrecen una estrategia de manejo menos invasiva e igual de efectiva. Se prefiere el uso de stents sobre la angioplastia con balón en adultos y niños mayores con coartación recurrente, ya que el riesgo de recoartación y formación de aneurismas parece ser menor. No se cuenta con suficiente información acerca de los desenlaces a largo plazo posteriores al tratamiento percutáneo de la coartación aórtica. Este artículo revisa las controversias existentes en cuanto al manejo actual de esta condición.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia Up-Regulates the Expression of Intermedin and Its Receptor Components in the Aorta of Rats via Inducing the Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingtao; Shi, Di; Feng, Jiayue; Su, Yanling; Long, Yang; He, Sen; Wang, Si; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Xiangxun; Chen, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia can cause damage to the artery. Intermedin (IMD) is a novel member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide family. This study aims to investigate the aortic expression of IMD and its receptors in hypercholesterolemia without atherosclerosis. Male Wistar rats were fed with high cholesterol diet, with or without simvastatin and vitamin C. Both the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plasma and aorta were determined as the oxidative stress biomarkers. The plasma IMD was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Within the aorta, the mRNA expression of IMD along with its receptor components was determined, and the corresponding protein level of the CRLR/RAMPs was also assessed. The hypercholesterolemia rats without atherosclerotic lesion manifested a higher level of MDA and SOD and the plasma IMD elevated. Increased expression of IMD and all its receptor components (CRLR, RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3) were displayed within the aorta. The simvastatin indirectly attenuated oxidative stress by improving lipid profiles, while the vitamin C directly reduced oxidative stress without interfering with the serum lipids. Both simvastatin and vitamin C ameliorated the aortic injury, decreased the plasma IMD level, and recovered the expression of IMD and its receptors within the aorta. The up-regulated expression of IMD is observed within the aorta of the hypercholesterolemia rats. In addition, the oxidative stress participates in the up-regulation. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  7. Abdominal aorta: characterisation of blood flow and measurement of its regional distribution by cine magnetic resonance phase-shift velocity mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanuma, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Saitama Medical School (Japan); Mohiaddin, R.H. [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Hasegawa, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Saitama Medical School (Japan); Heshiki, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Saitama Medical School (Japan); Longmore, D.B. [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-01

    Magnetic resonance phase-shift-induced velocity mapping is a powerful technique for measuring in vivo blood velocity and flow non-invasively. Using this method we examined dimensions, distensibility, blood flow and its regional distribution in the abdominal aorta in 10 normal volunteers. Data were acquired at three levels of the descending aorta. Thirty percent reduction in diastolic cross sectional area was observed in the caudal direction between these levels. Total blood flow (ml/min) in the abdominal aorta at the three sites was 4094{+-}1600, 2339{+-}910 and 1602{+-}549 respectively. Flows in the coeliac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries were also calculated. The net flow in the abdominal aorta above the coeliac trunk was persistently forward, while there was considerable backflow (13% of total instantaneous flow) below the renal arteries during early diastole. Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive technique for quantitative assessment of blood flow in the abdominal aorta and its main branches. (orig.)

  8. Ascending Aorta to Hepatic and Mesenteric Artery Bypassing, in Patients with Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia and Extensive Aortic Disease-A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, James; Kokotsakis, John; Tsipas, Pantelis; Papapavlou, Prodromos; Velissarios, Konstantinos; Kratimenos, Theodoros; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2017-02-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder caused by severe stenosis of the mesenteric arterial supply that results in postprandial pain and weight loss. Treatment options are surgical or endovascular. Surgical bypass can be performed in an antegrade fashion from the supraceliac abdominal aorta (AA) or the distal descending thoracic aorta or in a retrograde fashion from the infrarenal aorta or the common iliac artery. However, in some patients with disease of the descending thoracic aorta or the AA, another site for the proximal anastomosis needs to be found. In this article, we report the case of a 69-year-old man with a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and CMI in whom we performed bypass grafts to the hepatic and superior mesenteric arteries using the ascending aorta as the site for the proximal anastomoses via a median sternolaparotomy. In addition, we performed a literature review of all similar cases and provide an analysis of this technique and an assessment of the success rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exogenous BMP7 in aortae of rats with chronic uremia ameliorates expression of profibrotic genes, but does not reverse established vascular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Lerche Mace, Maria; Nordholm, Anders

    2018-01-01

    in the expression of profibrotic genes. The total Ca-content of the aorta was however unchanged both in the abdominal