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Sample records for aomori prefecture japan

  1. Radon concentration in dwellings in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Kondo, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe

    2002-01-01

    To obtain an average dose from 222 Rn to the people in Aomori Prefecture where the first Japan's nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction, we surveyed 222 Rn concentrations in 109 dwellings in the Prefecture from 1992 to 1996. The outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were also measured in gardens of 15 dwellings. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with passive 222 Rn detectors which used a polycarbonate film for counting α-ray and could separate concentrations of 222 Rn from 220 Rn. Counting efficiencies of the detectors were calibrated with a standard 222 Rn chamber in the Environmental Measurement Laboratory in USA and in the National Radiological Protection Board in UK. Geometric means of 222 Rn concentration were 13 and 4.4 Bq x m -3 in the dwellings and outdoor, respectively. These values were consistent to nationwide survey results in Japan. The 222 Rn concentrations in the dwellings depended on their age. The concentrations were higher in recent dwellings than in older ones. The radiation dose from 222 Rn was estimated, taking into account the occupancy factor for inside and outside of dwellings. The annual dose was 0.32 mSv x y -1 , and 99% of the dose came from the exposure to 222 Rn inside the dwelling. (author)

  2. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  3. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic intestinal parasites in private household dogs of the Hachinohe area in Aomori prefecture, Japan in 1997, 2002 and 2007.

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    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2009-12-01

    An epidemiological study on canine intestinal parasites was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence among private household dogs from the Hachinohe region of Aomori prefecture, Japan, in 1997, 2002 and 2007, using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The risk of zoonotic transmission from household dogs to humans was also discussed. All intestinal parasites detected in the present study (Giardia intestinalis, Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Strongyloides stercoralis) showed no changes in prevalence over the past 10 years based on analysis considering canine epidemiological profiles. In particular, prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in dogs under 1 year old, derived from pet shops/breeding kennels and kept indoors was unchanged, remaining at a high level of >15.0% at each time point. Toxocara canis also showed no changes in the group of dogs under 1 year old, bred by private owners and kept outdoors, and the prevalence was >10.0% every year. The present results indicate that the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and other intestinal parasites in private household dogs has not always decreased, and the potential for direct parasitic zoonotic transmission from dogs to humans may be relatively high level, than from the environment (indoors and outdoors). We recommend careful surveillance of intestinal parasites and aggressive use of anthelminthic in private household dogs under considering the epidemiological factors.

  4. Radiation measurement of apples produced in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarusawa, Kohetsu; Kudo, Kohsei; Yamadera, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The activities of seven kinds of apples produced in Aomori prefecture were measured with a high pure Ge detector set in a 15 cm-thick lead shield. The activities of 40 K were detected in all samples, but an artificial radioactive nuclide was not detected. The slices of an apple were contacted to an imaging plate for 15 days in a 15 cm-thick lead shield and cross sectional activity distributions were measured. By using the distribution map, the activities of skin, flesh and lead portion of an apple 'Ohrin' were calculated to 0.041, 0.032 and 0.046 Bq/g, respectively. This measuring system will be used for the activity estimations of the farm products, specially apples, because of that many atomic institutions are in operation and in the planning stage on Aomori prefecture. (author)

  5. Distribution of background radiation and radioactive materials in Aomori Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Inaba, Jiro [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now being constructed in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture and large amounts of Pu and U will be treated in the plant. Therefore, we made a plan for getting background levels of Pu, U and other related radionuclides in soil samples around the plant beginning with plowed fields, then rice fields, orchards, forests and un-cultivated fields, ie a different field type, year by year. This is the first report of results for plowed fields. The soil samples were collected at 13 plowed fields in Rokkasho and three control sites in Tohoku Town, Hachinohe City and Hirosaki City. Five core samples of 75 mm{phi}, down to approximately 1 m deep, were taken in each field in 2001. Three to five layers were distinguished by a visual inspection, and the same layers from each of the five cores were combined. When depth profiles of layers for some cores were different from those of others, those cores were separately treated. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb in the sample were measured with {gamma}-ray spectrometers using Ge detectors. Pu, U and Th in the soil samples were analyzed with a ICP-MS. Since fields under yam (Dioscorea babatus) cultivation are dug up to approximately 1 m deep at harvesting, depth profiles of fallout radionuclides were heavily disturbed for most fields in Rokkasho. The mean and standard deviation of inventory of Pu ({sup 239+240}Pu) in three fields where have not cultivated yam in Rokkasho was 120 {+-} 50 Bq m{sup -2}. The mean inventory was similar to that in Hachinohe City. However, the inventory was approximately a half of that in Hirosaki City. The Pu concentrations very well correlated with {sup 137}Cs (r=0.97), and the ratio of Pu/{sup 137}Cs was 0.037 {+-} 0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. This showed that the movements of Pu and {sup 137}Cs in soil were similar in spite of heavy soil disturbance, and the ratio could be used for distinguishing the plant

  6. Production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori prefecture: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    We have collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides which will be released from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Published data concerning production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori Prefecture were collected and compiled. We tried to estimate market dilution coefficient, which is the ratio of local products to total consumption by people in a target area, for the livestock products from the compiled data under some assumptions. Production weight per unit field area (production density) and consumption rates of grass and feed by the domestic animals were also estimated by using the collected data. Estimated means of the market dilution coefficients for livestock products and production density of grass were lower than those used in the environmental assessment for a reprocessing plant now under construction in Rokkasho Village. Consumption rates of grass and feed by milk cows and beef cattle were higher than those used in the assessment. Since we assumed that milk cows and beef cattle of Aomori Prefecture consume only grass and feed produced in Aomori Prefecture, the rates may be overestimated. Further study is required to clarify this point. We collected 52 reports in the literature related to transfer reduction of radionuclides to livestock products and decontamination of the radionuclides. (author)

  7. Background internal dose rates of earthworm and arthropod species in the forests of Aomori, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihito Ohtsuka; Yuichi Takaku; Shun'ichi Hisamatsu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we measured the concentrations of several natural radionuclides in samples of one earthworm species and 11 arthropod species collected from four coniferous forests in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, and we assessed the background internal radiation dose rate for each species. Dose rates were calculated by using the radionuclide concentrations in the samples and dose conversion coefficients obtained from the literature. The mean internal dose rate in the earthworm species was 0.28 μGy h -1 , and the mean internal dose rates in the arthropod species ranged between 0.036 and 0.69 μGy h -1 . (author)

  8. 14C specific activity of farm products and marine products collected from the Rokkasho area in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Takeshi; Honda, Kazuya

    1996-01-01

    We investigated 14 C specific activity of farm products and marine products which were collected from the Rokkasho area in Aomori prefecture from 1988 to 1990. The measured 14 C specific activity of farm products was almost equal to one another with the averaged 14 C specific activity of 0.261 [Bq/g·C]. On the other hand, 14 C specific activity of marine products was slightly lower than those of farm products. Especially that of squid was the lowest among studied marine products. This may be due to the low 14 C specific activity of the sea water surrounding squid. (author)

  9. Epidemiological survey for visna-maedi among sheep in northern prefectures of Japan

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    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected from the northern Prefectures of Hokkaido, Iwate and Aomori in Japan, were examined for the presence of antibodies against visna-maedi virus using the agar gel immunodiffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Three animals (1.12%, out of 267 samples tested, were found to be seropositive to the visna-maedi antigens in both tests. Levels of infection were found in flocks from Hokkaido and Iwate Prefectures, but not in the Aomori Prefecture. Nucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction on serum samples did not give positive results. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infection could not be related to losses in sheep production or to reduced survival rates. The very limited visna-maedi distribution indicates a highly favourable condition for the application of eradication strategies in this area.

  10. Influence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on environmental radioactivity in Aomori Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, S; Igarashi, K; Kimura, H

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive nuclides with a short half-life, such as (131)I and (134)Cs, were detected in environmental samples collected in Aomori Prefecture after the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. In addition, the observed (137)Cs concentration was increased over the background level. The gaseous (131)I concentration in air observed in April was higher than that observed in March immediately after the accident. Using a backward trajectory analysis, the authors found that the air mass had passed the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant when the gaseous (131)I concentration in air was increasing. Maximum (131)I and radioactive Cs concentrations in daily fallout samples collected in Aomori city were observed on 28 April, when (131)I was also detected in air. (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentration ratios in pine needles and pasture grass were nearly equal to 1, which indicates that the source of these radionuclides was the nuclear power plant accident. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide among medical college students in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Nrio; Hashimoto,Kojiro; Tanaka,Osamu; Nakamura,Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori,Norio

    2014-01-01

    Kojiro Hashimoto,1 Norio Sugawara,2 Osamu Tanaka,2 Kazuhiko Nakamura,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan; 2Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, Japan Background: Suicide is a grave public health issue that is responsible for a high mortality rate among individuals aged 15–44 years. Attitudes toward suicide among medical staff members have been associated with appropriat...

  12. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Savini, Giovanni; Orusa, Riccardo; Osawa, Takeshi; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-01-01

    Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR) and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) using serum neutralisation (SN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73%) out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69%) out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively). Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23%) and Aomori (14.28%). Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  13. Short communication. Prevalence of antibodies against Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncitial virus and bovine Herpesvirus type 1 in sheep from Northern Prefectures of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovine sera collected in the Prefectures of Hokkaido, Aomori and Iwate in the Northern Japan were examined for the presence of antibodies against Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: IBR and Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 using serum neutralisation (SN and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests. Twenty-three animals (11.73% out of the 196 tested were sero-positive to PIV3. Sixteen animals (8.69% out of the 184 tested reacted to RSV. No animals were positive to IBR antigen. Sero-conversions to PIV3 were detected in Hokkaido and Iwate (14.92% and 8.82%, respectively. Antibodies against RSV were detected in Hokkaido (9.23% and Aomori (14.28%. Although no diagnostic measures were in place, the infections did not appear to be related to any reduction in sheep productivity.

  14. Epidemiological Survey of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Tottori Prefecture, Japan

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    Kenji Wada-Isoe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD in Japan is unknown. An epidemiological survey study of FTLD was undertaken in Tottori Prefecture, a district in the western region of Japan. Methods: Hospitals in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed by a two-step questionnaire in 2010, and the prevalence of FTLD per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated using the actual number of patients and inhabitants in Tottori Prefecture on the prevalence day of October 1, 2010. Results: In this survey, 66 patients were diagnosed with FTLD. The subtypes of FTLD were as follows: 62 cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 3 cases of progressive nonfluent aphasia, and 1 case of semantic dementia. Among the FTD cases, 5 cases were FTD with motor neuron disease and 1 case was FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. The prevalence of FTD in the total population of Tottori Prefecture was 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on these results, the prevalence of FTLD in Japan in 2008 was estimated to be 9.5 per 100,000 individuals. Conclusions: Our epidemiological survey results suggest that there are at least 12,000 FTLD patients in Japan, indicating that FTLD is not a rare disease.

  15. Current Status of Infant Mental Health in Day-Care Centres in Japan: An Investigation of Okinawa and Aomori Prefectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Wake, Norie; Naka, Kuoichi; Todoriki, Hidemi; Ishizu, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Grasping both the extent and the actual situation of psychosomatic disorders, neurotic habits and developmental disorders of infancy and childhood is vital for their prevention and for taking appropriate measures to deal with the current situation. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of infant mental health in Japanese…

  16. Networking possibilities for waste recycling in Miyagi prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, M; Qin, C Y; Ohtani, H; Iwasaki, R; Shigeno, Y; Yu, J S; Nakazawa, S

    2007-01-01

    Successful case studies for waste recycling in Japan have not been evaluated. The evaluation of economic efficiency and environmental effects were lacking at the time the actual network was established. A waste/resource input/output (I/O) coincidence retrieval system called ZENESYS was developed to examine the usefulness of a waste-exchange network in a nonmanufacturing district. We analyzed data from the Miyagi prefecture, a region without heavy industry. The data were collected from 77 companies using a questionnaire and interviews. A total of 33 possible waste exchange links arose after analysis using ZENESYS. However, these were frail networks that relied heavily on the construction industry. Two waste recycling technologies were selected from the ZENESYS database: reclaiming fuel from waste plastic and making construction materials from bottom ash. Evaluation of the environmental effects and economics of these two technologies showed they were both suitable for the environment, but no profit was made from reclaiming fuel from waste plastics. We concluded that in an area with no heavy industry, it may be difficult to adopt recycling technologies that have high environmental and economic performance. Materials are difficult to circulate among manufacturing industries even if a waste-exchange network exists, and resources are consumed during transportation and recycling.

  17. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamia, Kazuyuki; Shimo, Michikuni; Oka, Mitsuaki; Ejiri, Kazutaka; Sugino, Masato; Minato, Susumu; Hosoda, Masahiro; Yamada, Junya; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    We have measured environmental radiation dose rates in several Prefectures, such as Ai chi Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture, and Mie Prefecture, in central Japan. Recently, we measured the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures that are also located in central Japan with a car-borne survey system. At the time of measurement, Kyoto Prefecture (area: 4,613 km 2 ) had a total of 36 districts, and Shiga Prefecture (area: 3,387 km 2 ) a total of 26. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and secondary cosmic ray dose rates were measured by a 2 inches ψ x 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation counter and a handy-type altimeter (GPS eTrex Legend by Gamin), respectively. The following factors were taken into consideration the shielding effect of the car body, the effect of the road pavement, radon progeny borne by precipitation, and increases in tunnels and near the walls. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were estimated to be 51.7 ± 6.0 n Gy/h (district average: 52.4 ± 4.7 n Gy/h), 52.2 ± 10.5 n Gy/h (district average: 51.9 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. Secondary cosmic ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 30.0 ± 0.6 n Gy/h (district average: 29.9 ±0.3 n Gy/h), 30.1 ± 0.3 n Gy/h (district average: 30.0 ± 0.2 n Gy/h), respectively. The environmental radiation dose rates due to the sum dose rates of terrestrial gamma ray and secondary cosmic ray in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 81.7 ± 6.2 n Gy/h (district average: 82.3 ± 4.8 n Gy/h), 82.3 ± 10.6 n Gy/h (district average: 82.0 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. We confirmed that the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures mainly depended on the change of the terrestrial gamma ray dose rates, since the secondary cosmic ray dose rates had little change. Therefore, radiation dose-rate maps of the terrestrial gamma rays as well as maps of the environmental radiation dose-rate were drawn. (author)

  18. Neoergasilus japonicus, a parasitic copepod from redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii in Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    長澤, 和也; 上野, 大輔

    2015-01-01

    The ergasilid copepod Neoergasilus japonicus (Harada, 1930) is described using a gravid female from the dorsal fin of a redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848), in Haebaru Reservoir, Okinawa-jima Island, Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan. The morphology of the first and fourth thoracic legs is reported in detail.

  19. The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

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    Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objective Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p valuepediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians, the trends worsened after 2004 both in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0012) and others (p valuepediatricians, the distribution worsened in others (p value = 0.0343), but not in predominantly urban prefectures (p value = 0.0584). Conclusion The intra-prefectural distribution of physicians worsened after the launch of the new training program, which may reflect the impact of the new postgraduate program. In pediatrics, changes in the Gini trend differed significantly before and after the launch of the new training program in others, but not in predominantly urban prefectures. Further observation is needed to explore how this difference in trends affects the health status of the child

  20. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895

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    Fukui Hiromichi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report, published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS and geo-statistical techniques. Results Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical, that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. Conclusion In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

  1. [Current status of bacteriological studies at prefectural and municipal public health institutes in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Hiroto; Seto, Kazuko; Kawase, Jun; Arikawa, Kentaro; Funatogawa, Keiji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kubota, Hiroaki; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Prefectural and municipal public health institutes are located in prefectures and ordinance-designated cities in Japan, and play a vital role in the regional surveillance of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses. These institutes, in close cooperation with national institutes such as the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Health Sciences, construct the national surveillance network for infectious diseases and their causative agents. Bacteriological examinations and studies on a variety of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses are core activities of prefectural and municipal public health institutes, through which novel and important bacteriological findings have been acquired. In this article, we report the latest findings regarding bacteriological examinations/studies and interesting cases at these institutes, especially concerning foodborne illnesses, tuberculosis, and antimicrobial resistances.

  2. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  3. Monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Dactylogyridae), gill parasites of tilapias, from Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Maneepitaksanti, Worawit; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Three species of the monogenean genus Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (C. sclerosus Paperna & Thurston, 1969, C. halli (Price & Kirk, 1967) and C. tilapiae Paperna, 1960) are reported for the first time from Japan based on specimens from the gills of tilapias (Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Mozambique tilapia O. mossambicus) in Okinawa Prefecture. These host species are of African origin, and the monogeneans found are definitely alien parasites that were introduced along with th...

  4. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bixia; Qiu, Zhenmian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and ...

  5. Flora and vegetation in Mikazukiike-Awara moor in northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    井田, 秀行; 湯本, 茂; 湯本, 静江

    2003-01-01

    Flora and vegetation were investigated in Mikazukiike-Awara moor in northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan. The vegetation was chiefly characterized by the Sphagnum-sedge community. We recorded 242 species of vascular plants and 4 sphagnum species in this area. Population of some Liliaceae and Orchidaceae species have decreased over the past 12 years. It may be caused by drought associated with human impacts. Additionally, conservation of peripheral environments (e.g. secondary beech fores...

  6. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 1B/O:8 from Apodemus mice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Shimonagane, Ai; Inoue, Kai; Hayashidani, Hideki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Fujita, Hiromi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 15.7% (88/560) of wild rodents captured in 15 prefectures in Japan. Prevalences by rodent species were 18.0% (70/388) in Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus), 20% (14/71) in small Japanese field mice (Apodemus argenteus), and 11% (4/38) in gray red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), suggesting that these rodent species are important reservoirs of Y. enterocolitica. Although most of the isolates were identified as biotype 1A, the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 was detected in one of the A. speciosus and in three of the A. argenteus captured in Aomori Prefecture. It is suggested that Apodemus mice may be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica, and that there are foci of the pathogenic bioserotype 1B/O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, because human sporadic cases by the serotype have been reported in this prefecture.

  7. A new species of the genus Pontogeneia (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Matsukawa-ura Inlet, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirayama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    A new species of the genus Pontogeneia taken from a shallow inlet of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, is described and figured. The new species is closely related to P. intermedia from Japan Sea and California but is distinguished from it by a slightly dilated propod of gnathopod 1, the presence of

  8. Peptic Ulcers in Fukushima Prefecture Related to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Accident.

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    Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Ejiri, Yutaka; Ishihata, Ryoichi; Irisawa, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yuta; Saito, Hironobu; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Konno, Naoki; Waragai, Yuichi; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Sato, Yuki; Ohira, Hiromasa; Obara, Katsutoshi

    2018-04-01

    Objective Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011, many residents of Fukushima Prefecture were affected by a radiation accident in addition to suffering loss or damage from the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual condition of patients with peptic ulcers related to the disaster. Methods Patients with peptic ulcers at six hospitals in three different regions of Fukushima Prefecture during the two months following the disaster and the corresponding period of the year before and the year after the disaster were enrolled in this study. Changes by period and region in the number of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations and the number of peptic ulcer patients were evaluated as the primary endpoints. Changes in the frequencies of hemorrhagic ulcers were evaluated by period and by region as secondary endpoints. Results The numbers of EGDs and peptic ulcer cases compared to the previous year decreased in 2011 and then increased in 2012. However, the ratio of hemorrhagic ulcers to peptic ulcers was higher in 2011 (51.9%) than in 2010 (38.1%) and 2012 (31.1%), and the 2011 hemorrhagic ulcer ratio was the highest at 63.6% in the coastal area. Regarding bleeding cases during 2011, the rate at 1 month after the disaster (64.1%) was higher than the rate at 2 months after the disaster (40.5%) (p=0.033). Conclusion The number of patients with peptic ulcers did not increase immediately following the disaster in Fukushima Prefecture. However, the rate of bleeding patients increased soon after the disaster, especially in the coastal area.

  9. The size distribution of 210Po in the atmosphere around Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikawa, N.; Matsuoka, N.; Takashima, Y.; Syojo, N.; Imamura, H.; Fujisaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of 210 Po in particulate matters in the atmosphere were measured around the active volcano, Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. The samples were collected eight times at four sampling points for the period from June 1994 to January 1996. The highest concentration of 210 Po was 2940 μBq/m 3 at Akamizu located 2 km away from the crater of Mt. Sakurajima. The 210 Po concentrations decreased with the increase of distance form Mt. Sakurajima. The size distribution curves of 210 Po in the particulate matters showed that 210 Po is usually condensed to fine particles smaller than 2 μm in diameter. In addition, it was suggested that the 210 Po concentration in particulate matters collected at Akamizu was affected by the wind direction over Mt. Sakurajima. (author)

  10. Radioactivity measurement of tsunami sediments due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Chihiro; Joe, Seongjin

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami sediments and their directly under soils from 25 tsunami flooded areas in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake were analyzed quantitatively for radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations. It was found that the radiocesium released in the reactor accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant stayed for at least 6 months in the tsunami sediments layer of a few centimeter thickness. On the other hand, from the results of the radiocesium extraction test using the tsunami sediments and 3 kinds of inorganic solvents, it was also found that the radiocesium in the tsunami sediments passed ca. 6 months after fall was hardly eluted with rain water (pH 5.6 ∼ 7.0) and combined strongly with clay minerals in the tsunami sediments. (K. Kato)

  11. Incidence of Legionella and heterotrophic bacteria in household rainwater tanks in Azumino, Nagano prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many administrative agencies in Japan are encouraging installation of household rainwater-storage tanks for more effective use of natural rainwater. Water samples were collected periodically from 43 rainwater tanks from 40 households and tested for the presence of Legionella species and the extent of heterotrophic bacteria in Azumino city, Nagano prefecture, Japan. PCR assays indicated the presence of Legionella spp. in 12 (30%) of the 43 tank water samples. Attempts were made to identify correlations between PCR positive samples, topography, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), atmospheric temperature and the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria. Between June and October, 2012, the numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in rainwater tanks and the values of COD positively correlated with the presence of Legionella species. In most of the Legionella-positive cases, heterotrophic bacterial cell counts were >10(4) CFU/mL. Moreover, Legionella species were less frequently detected when the COD value was >5 mg KMnO(4)/L. Therefore, at least in Azumino, Japan between June and October 2012, both heterotrophic bacterial counts and COD values may be considered index parameters for the presence of Legionella cells in rainwater tanks. Much more accumulation of such data is needed to verify the accuracy of these findings. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  13. [Vaccination coverage of foreign children and their parents' views on immunization services in Gunma Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, Satoshi; Negishi, Yoshio; Sato, Yumi; Kashiwase, Mariko; Kawashima, Saeko; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate vaccination coverage among foreign children living in an urban area of Gunma Prefecture, Japan and to examine their parents' views concerning the local immunization services. A total of 321 foreign children aged 6 to 18 years in five international schools participated in school health examinations and provided vaccination information. Among the parents, 304 completed a questionnaire on their views about the immunization services. Another questionnaire survey was conducted in nursery schools for parents of 4629 Japanese children aged 0 to 6 years. Of the total, 3811 (82.3%) responded, and 2911 questionnaires answered by the parents who had children aged 3 years and older were eligible for the analysis. The study found a vaccination coverage of 86.2% for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis (DTP), 86.5% for poliovirus vaccine, and 87.7% for BCG among the foreign children. Of their parents, 84% were born in Brazil. One third of the foreign children vaccinated for DTP, poliovirus and/or BCG had received each vaccine in Japan, while the others children had been vaccinated in their home countries. Among 162 parents with children immunized in Japan, 77% received the necessary information about immunization services from the local municipal office, and 80% had no major problems. However, 15% felt the language barrier. Among the Japanese children, non-vaccination rates for DTP, poliovirus vaccine, and BCG were 18.5%, 9.9%, and 3.5%, respectively. Of the Japanese parents, 85% knew immunization schedules from the municipal office, and 51% asked for night-time and holiday vaccination sites. These results suggest that vaccination coverage for DTP, poliovirus vaccine or BCG is relatively high among foreign children living in Japan. To promote higher rates of vaccination for those residents, however, accessibility of the municipal consultation services in foreign languages should be im-proved.

  14. Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesugi, Kengo; Ichio, Takako; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-07-01

    To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates. The major causes of visual impairment during the ten-year period were glaucoma (23.3%), diabetic retinopathy (17.3%), retinitis pigmentosa (12.2%), macular degeneration (9.0%), chorioretinal degeneration or high myopia (7.4%), optic atrophy (5.8%), stroke or brain tumor (5.4%) and cataracts (3.7%). The incidence of glaucoma was significantly higher throughout the period (2004-2013), and that of diabetic retinopathy was lower between 2007 and 2013. The incidence of retinitis pigmentosa did not change significantly during the 10-year period. The incidence of macular degeneration tended to increase between 2004 and 2007, but it decreased significantly between 2007 and 2013. The results indicate that in Japan, the rates of the major causes of visual impairment altered in the most recent 10-year period reflecting the recent changes in the social background and advances in ocular and systemic treatment.

  15. Supports for libraries'restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake : Challenges we address at Miyagi Prefectural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shinichiro

    This article overviews the situations of damage and reconstruction of mainly public libraries in Miyagi Prefecture about 9 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Serious damage of library buildings was due not only to the tsunami or seismic sea wave but to violent shaking, the latter less reported by the media. We at the Miyagi Prefectural Library implemented reconstruction assistance for regional public libraries in both direct and indirect ways. Among them, we report in detail on the support we offered until the Minami-sanriku Town Library reopened its service. We highlight a prefectural library's role, acting between supporters and those supportees, to consider the necessity of middle organizations. We clarify what challenges we face and examine how best to provide assistance in case of large-scale disasters.

  16. Prefecture-level economic conditions and risk of suicide in Japan: a repeated cross-sectional analysis 1975-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-12-01

    Geographical inequalities in suicide have risen dramatically across 47 prefectures in Japan since 1995. We sought to examine temporal changes in the associations between prefecture-level economic conditions and completed suicide during the recent 35 years, controlling for individual composition in each prefecture. Based on quinquennial vital statistics and census data from 1975 to 2010, we analysed the entire population aged 25-64 years. The total number of suicides was 87 553 men and 34 559 women. As indicators of prefecture-level economic conditions, we used average yearly income, average savings and income inequality (measured by Gini coefficients for yearly income). For each sex, we estimated odds ratios and 95% credible intervals for suicide using multilevel logistic regression models, with cells at level 1, years at level 2 and prefectures at level 3. Even after adjusting for individual age, occupation and time trends, low average savings at prefecture level were associated with a higher risk of suicide among men (odds ratio in low vs. high savings: 1.13, 95% credible interval: 1.05-1.21), whereas no clear patterns were observed with other economic indicators. When we further examined the associations in year-specific models by conducting a two-level analysis, both average yearly income and average savings were inversely associated with suicide risk in recent years. No clear association was found between income inequality and suicide risk for either sex. The present findings suggest that low area socioeconomic status may be driving the growing geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan, primarily among men. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Transplant Procurement Management Model Training: Marked Improvement in the Mindset of In-Hospital Procurement Coordinators at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, M; Yoshinaga, K; Imamura, Y; Hayashi, T; Osako, T; Takahashi, K; Kaneko, M; Fujisawa, M; Kamidono, S

    2016-09-01

    The organ donation rate in Japan is much lower than that in other developed countries for several reasons. An advanced educational program for in-hospital procurement coordinators is a possible solution for this. We introduced a Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) educational program at Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Ten healthcare professionals at Hyogo Prefecture participated in the Advanced International TPM course to educate themselves on TPM and held 2 TPM Model Organ Procurement Training Workshops at Hyogo Prefecture for in-hospital procurement coordinators. Furthermore, we held 2 workshops outside Hyogo Prefecture and at the same time undertook a pre-workshop questionnaire survey to evaluate the ability and motivation with respect to organ donation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the workshops, we conducted post-workshop and 3-months-after workshop questionnaire surveys. The results of the pre-workshop survey revealed that in-hospital procurement coordinators lacked the knowledge regarding the entire organ donation process, the current status of organ donation in Japan, and the definition of brain death. Moreover, they did not completely understand the meaning of "organ donation." The results of the post-workshop questionnaire survey showed that the educational program was effective to improve the knowledge and skills of organ donation and motivated behavioral changes among the participants. The survey results showed that our TPM model educational program offered sufficient knowledge and skills to increase organ donation at Hyogo Prefecture. We will continue this program and make an effort to further contribute to the Japanese organ donation activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor Temperature and Humidity in Temporary Housing built at Miyako City in Iwate Prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Nobuto; IWAFUNE, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Indoor temperature and humidity were observed for almost two years, from March 2012, in tempo rary housing built at Miyako City in Iwate Prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Average diurnal variations in temperature and humidity were compared between different types of vacanttemporary housing and were examined in temporary housing an elderly person lives. Indoor daytime temperatures in temporary housing of light-gauge steel structure with exposed and non-insulated iron beams ...

  19. Deposition in Chiba prefecture, Japan, of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Isao; Watanabe, Yoshito; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    Radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1NPP) accident in deposition samples has been monitored at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, located about 220 km south-southwest of the F-1NPP. Sampling was carried out from 15 March 2011, two to three times a day for 10 d and then once a day until 22 April 2011. Gamma-ray spectrometry of fallout deposition samples revealed the presence of (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs. The largest deposition was observed during 7:00-16:00 on 21 March. The estimated total deposition densities at NIRS were 1.40 × 10(5) Bq m(-2) for (131)I, 4.12 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (132)Te, 1.45 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (134)Cs, and 1.48 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs (corrected to 11 March 2011). The obtained densities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also supported by the accumulated amount of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil near the deposition sampling site. For the vertical profile of those radionuclides in soil at NIRS, about 94% of the total deposition was distributed in the top 10 mm depth on 26 April 2011.

  20. Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus: Identification, occurrence and genetic diversity in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun

    2016-07-01

    A high prevalence of nuclear polyhedrosis has been observed in larval outbreaks of Lymantria mathura in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, the virus responsible has not been identified. Here the virus was designated Lymantria mathura nucleopolyhedrovirus (LymaNPV), based on partial sequence results of the lef-8, lef-9, and polh genes and transmission electron microscopic observations. Diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting of the partial polh gene and a subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicated that LymaNPV was an exclusive causative agent for the nuclear polyhedrosis of the L. mathura larvae. LymaNPV was also detected from a very small fraction of L. dispar larvae that co-occurred with L. mathura larvae where the prevalence of LymaNPV-caused disease was high. A bioassay using LymaNPV against L. dispar larvae produced infection with the inoculated virus. This finding was consistent with the results of the field sample analysis. LymaNPV contained six genome types in the L. mathura populations sampled, as determined by RFLP of LymaNPV genomic DNA and southern blot hybridization analyses. None of the genome types was unique to any sampling site, indicating that some flow had occurred among sites. However, genome-type composition seemed to differ among sites. This study provides basic information about the interaction between L. mathura and LymaNPV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixia Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and the related attitudes of consumers towards wild plants was documented. A questionnaire survey found that a majority of the respondents held positive attitude towards edible wild plants as being healthy, safe food, part of traditional dietary culture. Increasing demand of edible wild plants from urban residents aroused conflicts with local residents’ interest given that around 86% of the forested hills are private in Noto Region. Non timber forest products (NTFP extraction can be seen as a tool for creating socioeconomic relationships that are dependent on healthy, biodiverse ecosystems. It was suggested that Japanese Agricultural Cooperatives (JA and Forestry Cooperatives (FCA could be involved with GIAHS process. As important traditional dietary and ecological system, edible wild plants should be a part of GIAHS project for rural revitalization.

  2. Assessment of landslide distribution map reliability in Niigata prefecture - Japan using frequency ratio approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardianto, Trias; Saputra, Aditya; Gomez, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has evolved rapidly over the few last decades thanks to the availability of large databases. Landslide research used to be focused on discreet events but the usage of large inventory dataset has become a central pillar of landslide susceptibility, hazard, and risk assessment. Indeed, extracting meaningful information from the large database is now at the forth of geoscientific research, following the big-data research trend. Indeed, the more comprehensive information of the past landslide available in a particular area is, the better the produced map will be, in order to support the effective decision making, planning, and engineering practice. The landslide inventory data which is freely accessible online gives an opportunity for many researchers and decision makers to prevent casualties and economic loss caused by future landslides. This data is advantageous especially for areas with poor landslide historical data. Since the construction criteria of landslide inventory map and its quality evaluation remain poorly defined, the assessment of open source landslide inventory map reliability is required. The present contribution aims to assess the reliability of open-source landslide inventory data based on the particular topographical setting of the observed area in Niigata prefecture, Japan. Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and statistical approach are applied to analyze the data. Frequency ratio method is utilized to model and assess the landslide map. The outcomes of the generated model showed unsatisfactory results with AUC value of 0.603 indicate the low prediction accuracy and unreliability of the model.

  3. Radon and thoron concentrations in offices and dwellings of the Gunma prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, M.; Tokonami, S.; Zhuo, W.

    2005-01-01

    A one year survey of indoor radon and thoron concentrations was carried out in offices and dwellings of the Gunma prefecture, Japan. A passive integrating radon and thoron discriminative monitor was used in the survey. The annual mean radon concentration was 22±14 Bq x m -3 , and ranged from 12 to 93 Bq x m -3 among the 56 surveyed rooms. Radon concentration in offices was generally higher than that in the dwellings, with the arithmetic averages of 29 and 17 Bq x m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations were generally lower in the traditional Japanese wooden houses than those houses built with other building materials. Seasonal variation of indoor radon was also observed in this survey. Compared to summer and autumn, radon concentrations were generally higher in spring and winter. The mean value of thoron to radon ratio was estimated to be 1.3, higher values were observed in the dwellings than in the offices. The annual effective dose from the exposure to indoor radon was estimated to be 0.47 mSv after taking the occupancy factors of offices and dwellings into account. (author)

  4. The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) in Fukushima Prefecture-A progress report on the enrollment stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Wakaki, Yu; Sato, Akiko; Hanzawa, Haruko; Yokoyama, Tadahiko; Sato, Testushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2017-08-09

    The Japan Environment and Children's Study is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study that is being conducted at 15 regional centers throughout Japan. The recruitment of subjects in the study area within Fukushima Prefecture, which includes Fukushima City, Minami Soma City and Futaba County, was begun on January 31, 2011 with the cooperation of the obstetrics and gynecology departments of local medical institutions. On March 11, soon after the start of recruitment, the Tohoku region was hit by an unprecedented disaster in the shape of the Great East Japan Earthquake, which was closely followed by the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result of the disaster, the study area in Fukushima Prefecture was expanded on October 1, 2012 to include 59 municipalities across Fukushima Prefecture. Three points are seen as particularly important: 1) Radiation risk communication, 2) The motto is "Be attentive. Be supportive.", and 3) Establishing cooperating partnerships. With the cooperation of all concerned, the recruitment period ended on March 31, 2014. The tentative total number of the participants enrolled at the Fukushima Regional Center was 34,666 (13,134 pregnant mothers, 8,695 fathers and 12,837 children born before November 30, 2014 as of June 2016).

  5. Incidence of Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Females After the Great East Japan Earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kasumi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Iwama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Zen; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and domestic violence (DV) against pregnant females after the disaster in Miyagi Prefecture, an area damaged by the earthquake and tsunami. We analyzed 7600 pregnant females from June to December 2011. The incidence of physical and mental DV and the proportions in the inland, north coastal, and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and nationwide were calculated, and a chi-square test was conducted for comparison. The risk factors for DV were estimated with multivariate logistic regression analyses on a prefecture-wide basis. The incidence levels for physical DV were found to be 5.9% in the north coastal area, which was significantly higher than in the inland area (1.3%, P=0.0007) and nationwide (1.5%, P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of mental DV between the 3 areas in Miyagi Prefecture (inland 15.2%, north coast 15.7%, and south coast 18.8%) or nationwide (13.8%). Experiencing disease or injury in someone close and changes in the family structure were significantly associated with mental DV in Miyagi Prefecture. Continuous monitoring and support for pregnant females may be necessary to address this issue in disaster-affected areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:216-226).

  6. A correlation between increases in suicide rates and increases in male unemployment rates in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ken; Tanii, Hisashi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Abe, Shuntaro; Nishimura, Yukika; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Nata, Masayuki; Okazaki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The number of suicides in Japan has increased from approximately 22,000 per year in 1988-1997 to over 30,000 per year since then. It has also increased in Mie prefecture during that period. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between annual suicide rates in Mie prefecture, Japan from 1996-2002 and the annual unemployment rate in Japan from 1996-2002 among males. Among the results, annual suicide rates in total correlated with the unemployment rate in Japan, but the relation was not statistically significant: r(7)=0.76, r(2)(7)=0.58, p=0.05 (y=3.54x+6.37); the rates in males, however, correlated significantly with the unemployment rate in Japan: r(7)=0.85, r(2)(7)=0.73, p=0.01 (y=5.72x+4.49). In addition, we found that annual suicide rates in total correlated significantly with the male unemployment rates. When a patient is unemployed and in a bad situation, the medical staff and the family should be aware of the correspondence between suicide rates and unemployment.

  7. Pregnancy and birth survey after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Ota, Misao; Ohtsuru, Akira; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Hata, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kouta; Nakai, Akihito; Sato, Mieko; Matsui, Shiro; Nakano, Kyoko; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a powerful tsunami hit the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in Fukushima Prefecture. The objective of this report is to describe some results of a questionnaire-based pregnancy and birth survey conducted by the Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Questionnaires were sent to women who received maternal and child health handbooks from municipal officers in Fukushima Prefecture between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2011, with the aim of reaching those who were pregnant at the time of the disaster. Mailing began 18 January 2012. Data were analyzed separately for six geographic areas in Fukushima Prefecture. The total number of women meeting survey criteria was 15,972. The number of responses received to date is 9,298 (58.2%). Data from 8602 respondents were analyzed after excluding 634 invalid responses and 5 induced and 57 spontaneous abortions (less than 22 gestational weeks). The incidences of stillbirth (over 22 completed gestational weeks), preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomalies were 0.25%, 4.4%, 8.7% and 2.72%, respectively. These incidences are similar to recent averages elsewhere in Japan. Considering the pregnancy and birth survey data in aggregate, our disaster seemed to provoke no significant adverse outcomes over the whole of Fukushima prefecture. But post-disaster prenatal care and support intended for patients' safety and security should be coupled with ongoing surveillance and rigorous data analysis.

  8. Prevalence of Legionella species isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Jun-Ichi; Isobe, Junko; Norimoto, Shiho; Kimata, Keiko; Mitsui, Chieko; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we analyzed the genetic diversity among Legionella pneumophila isolates from shower water as well as the genetic relationship between isolates from shower water and from stock strains previously analyzed from sputum specimens. The isolates were characterized using serogrouping, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequence-based typing. Legionella spp. were isolated from 31/91 (34.1%) samples derived from 17/37 (45.9%) bath facilities. Isolates from shower water and bath water in each public bath facility were serologically or genetically different, indicating that we need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath and shower water to identify public bath facilities as sources of legionellosis. The 61 L. pneumophila isolates from shower water were classified into 39 sequence types (STs) (index of discrimination = 0.974), including 19 new STs. Among the 39 STs, 12 STs match clinical isolates in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections database. Notably, ST505 L. pneumophila SG 1, a strain frequently isolated from patients with legionellosis and from bath water in this area, was isolated from shower water. Pathogenic L. pneumophila strains including ST505 strain were widely distributed in shower water in public bath facilities, with genetic diversity showing several different origins. This study highlights the need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath water and shower water to identify public bath facilities as infection sources in legionellosis cases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life cycle assessment of woody biomass energy utilization: Case study in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Okuda, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a woody biomass utilization system that would result in increased net energy production through wood pellet production, along with energy recovery processes as they relate to household energy demand. The direct environmental load of the system, including wood pellet production and utilization processes, was evaluated. Furthermore, the indirect load, including the economic impact of converting the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system into a woody biomass-based system, on the entire society was also evaluated. Gifu Prefecture in Japan was selected for a case study, which included a comparative evaluation of the environmental load and costs both with and without coordination with the wood pellet production process and the waste-to-energy of municipal solid waste process, using the life cycle assessment methodology. If the release of greenhouse gases from the combustion of wood pellets is included in calculations, then burning wood pellets results in unfavorable environmental consequences. However, when the reduced indirect environmental load due to the utilization of wood pellets versus petroleum is included in calculations, then favorable environmental consequences result, with a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by 14,060 ton-CO 2eq . -- Highlights: ► We evaluate economic and environmental impact of woody biomass utilization in household. ► Wood pellet utilization for house heating is advantageous to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ► Reduction effect of greenhouse gas will be canceled out if carbon neutrality were considered. ► Net greenhouse gas emissions considering conversion of an ordinal energy system will be minus. ► Wood pellet utilization is advantageous not only in global warming but also for resource conservation.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Distribution of Aeromonas species in environmental water used in daily life in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Hirai, Itaru; Sano, Kouichi

    2016-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas is known to causes diseases such as food poisoning, sepsis, and wound infection. However, the mode of Aeromonas transmission from environment to humans is not clearly understood. To evaluate the health risks of Aeromonas spp. in environmental freshwater, the number, proportion and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas species were investigated in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Environmental freshwater samples were collected from three dams, two springs and three private wells. Aeromonas strains were identified by the biochemical method and the viable count was calculated. The production of extracellular enzymes and the virulence genes were investigated for possessing putative virulence factors using representative isolates. At least seven species of already-known Aeromonas isolates as well as unidentified Aeromonas spp. with/without arginin dehydrolase (ADH) exist in water at these sites. Aeromonas spp. was found to exist at over 1000 CFU/100 ml in one spring and two wells. A. veronii biovar sobria and A. jandaei were the predominant species in dams, and A. hydrophila and/or A. eucrenophila were predominant in wells. Almost all the sampled Aeromonas species produced protease, gelatinase, lipase, esterase and DNase, but A. caviae, A. caviae-like bacteria, and A. eucrenophila had low hemolytic activity. Most sampled A. hydrophila strains possessed both aerolysin gene (aer) and hemolysin gene (hlyA), but A. caviae and A. eucrenophila strains did not possess either gene. Since these results indicated that several Aeromonas species having potential pathogenicity exist in environmental water in Okinawa, surveys are recommended as a public health measure.

  12. Effective educational practice of river learning by using of Hiikawa-river of elementary school, Shimane prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoyuki, U.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of field learning has been increasing at elementary school and junior high school in Japan. However, In Japan, it is little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school science lesson. This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I think that this cause is that there are few suitable places for educational tool to observe geological field near the school. Children learn about "Function of running water" in Grade 5 of elementary school in Japan. Therefore, In this study, We remark the river called "Hiikawa-river" which flow in Izumo city, Shimane prefecture as the science teaching materials. Hiikawa is the river which flowing through the granitic rock district. Therefore We can observe granitic rock from in the upper stream, midstream, to the down stream. That is, we can observe the function of running water and diameter (size) of granitic boulders. It is mean that Hiikawa is the one of good educational tool for Children to learn the function of running water. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is relatively popular in Shimane prefecture. I think that teacher has to learning experience at field, because teacher should settle confidence to guide to the student at the field. That is, if it is not, you can not teach children with truly important of curriculum view point of natural and field science. In this research, we introduce practice of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by using of Hiikawa as educational tool which children learn about the function of running water in grade 5, elementary school. In addition, we hope that this study contribute to teachers teaching method and to children natural science literacy.

  13. Neogene echinoid fossils from the northern part of Ibaraki Prefecture, Northeastern Kanto, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Yoshibumi

    2004-01-01

    Neogene echinoid fossils occurred from the northern part of Ibaraki Prefecture are identified, as a whole, as 39 species of 11 families and 15 genera. They are as following; Shizasteridae gen. et sp. ...

  14. Time variation of concentrations of radioactive cesium-134, 137 and iodine-129 in the Ohori River, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Nao; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed for the long term in Ohori River, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. In this presentation, we report time variation of concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 129 I in the suspended soils (SS) and dissolved matter (DM) from the flow of the river were measured. The concentrations of radioactive cesium 134 and 137 in SS were gradually decreasing in long term observation and rising on the rainy day. The DM/SS ratios of 137 Cs were almost constant over time. In the DM, the 129 I data showed strong correlation with cesium data. (author)

  15. K-Ar age for alunite-bearing rock from the Iwato gold deposit, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Yukio; Shibata, Ken

    1984-01-01

    K-Ar age determination was made on a whole rock sample of the alunite-bearing silicified rock from the Iwato gold deposit, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan. The sample is from one of the Nansatsu-type gold deposits, whose mineralization is characterized by the occurrence of leaching-type massive silicified rocks with gold dissemination. The result, 4.15 +- 0.78 Ma, is interpreted to be the age of the mineralization at the Iwato gold deposit. It also suggests that the Nansatsu-type deposits were formed in close association with andesitic volcanism in the early Pliocene age. (author)

  16. Historical extreme wave and landslide deposits on the Shirasuka coastal lowlands, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ed; Riedesel, Svenja; Fujiwara, Osamu; Walstra, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Schmidt, Sabine; Brill, Dominik; Roberts, Helen; Duller, Geoff; Brückner, Hulmut; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa

    2017-04-01

    Future megathrust earthquakes and consequential tsunamis pose exceptional hazards to densely populated and highly industrialised coastlines facing the Nankai-Suruga Trough, south central Japan. Geological investigations of coastal sedimentary sequences play a key role in understanding megathrust behaviour and developing seismic and tsunami hazard assessments. In this study, we revisit a previously published palaeoseismic site at Shirasuka, located on the Enshu-nada coastline of Shizuoka Prefecture, seeking both to provide further information on past earthquakes and tsunamis and to explore the prospects and limitations of geological data with respect to assessing seismic and tsunami hazards. At Shirasuka, six closely-spaced vibrocores reveal four sand layers interbedded with organic muds. Photographs, X-ray CT scans and grain size analysis reveal a variety of sedimentary structures within these layers, including abrupt contacts, massive sands, rip-up clasts, internal mud drapes and cross bedding. Microfossil assemblages (diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs) and optically stimulated luminescence overdispersion values of single grain feldspars highlight varying sediment sources and transport mechanisms. We suggest that the uppermost sand layer records a landslide from the landward margin of the site, while the remaining three sand layers reflect at least four extreme wave events, some of which are overprinted. We refine the published chronology using AMS radiocarbon, radionuclide and infrared stimulated luminescence approaches. Our Bayesian age models suggest that the oldest two sand layers relate to historically documented tsunamis in AD 1361 and 1498. The second youngest sand layer provides ages consistent with tsunamis in AD 1605 and 1707 and potentially also storm surges in 1680 and/or 1699. The modelled age of the landslide sand layer is consistent with the AD 1944 earthquake. The presence of a fresh scarp in US military aerial photographs from 1947 and

  17. Overland flow connectivity in a forest plantation before and after tree thinning (Tochigi Prefecture, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Sun, Xinchao; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow connectivity is a key factor to understand the redistribution dynamics of sediments, nutrients, radiotracers, etc., in the different compartments at channel, hillslope and catchment scales. Human organization of landscape elements has a significant control on runoff and soil redistribution processes. Construction of trails, forest roads and firewalls influence runoff connectivity (RC) in forested catchments. In this study we simulated RC in two forested catchments, called K2 (19.3 ha) and K3 (13.6 ha), located on the Mount Karasawa, in the Tochigi Prefecture in central Japan. Forest plantation includes Japanese cypress and cedar and covers 59% of the total area. Native broad-leaved trees (28%) and mixed forest occupy the rest of the study area. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three temporal scenarios: i) Sc-2011, before tree thinning (TT); ii) Sc-2012 after TT in most part of the forest plantation in K2 (32% of the total area); and iii) Sc-2013 after TT in some areas of the K3 catchment, affecting 38% of the total area. The study areas were defined from the coalescence point (139⁰ 36' 04" E, 36⁰ 22' 03" N) of both catchments upslope. Elevation ranges from 75 to 287 m a.s.l. and the mean slope steepness is of 67 and 65% in K2 and K3. Three different high resolution DEM-LiDAR maps at 0.5 x 0.5 m of cell size were used to run the IC model in each scenario. The permanent streams in the study area have a total length of 2123 m. The mean C-RUSLE factor was of 0.0225 in Sc-2011 and 21% and 25% higher in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013. The total length of the landscape linear elements incremented from 2482 m in Sc-2011 to 3151 m in Sc-2012 and Sc-2013 due to the construction of new skid trails in K2. The mean RC in the study area was of -4.536 in Sc-2011 and increased 7.4% and 8.9% in the Sc-2012 and Sc-2013, respectively, due to the tree thinning operations and the construction of new skid trails

  18. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on health, medical care and public health systems in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Nohara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Great East Japan Earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in global history. The damage was spread over a wide area, with the worst-hit areas being Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. In this paper we report on the damage and the impact of the damage to describe the health consequences among disaster victims in Iwate Prefecture.Context: In Iwate Prefecture the tsunami claimed 4659 lives, with 1633 people missing. In addition to electricity, water and gas being cut off following the disaster, communication functions were paralysed and there was a lack of gasoline.Action: Medical and public health teams from Iwate Prefecture and around the country, including many different specialists, engaged in a variety of public health activities mainly at evacuation centres, including medical and mental health care and activities to prevent infectious diseases.Outcome: Given the many fatalities, there were relatively few patients who required medical treatment for major injuries. However, there were significant medical needs in the subacute and chronic phases of care in evacuation centres, with great demand for medical treatment and public health assistance, measures to counteract infection and mental health care.Discussion: By referring to past experiences of national and international large-scale disasters, it was possible to respond effectively to the health-related challenges. However, there are still challenges concerning how to share information and coordinate overall activities among multiple public health response teams. Further examination will be required to ensure better preparedness in response to future disasters.

  19. Geological field study for science education on Elementary and Junior high school student, in Shimane prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of learning at field has been increasing in the elementary and the junior high school in Japan. And, an environmental education is one of the important subjects even in the school education, too. It was important, as for science education, understanding with actual feeling and learning were specified as for the Teaching outlines (the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) of the new science textbook of the elementary and the junior high school as well. However, It is a little actual situation that there is in an opportunity for the field learning enforced in the school lesson by the investigation of JST (Japan Science and Tecnology Agency). This tendency is strong as much as school of the city and that circumference. I have this cause think that there are a few suitable places for learning to observe geological and biological field near school. In addition, below two is pointed out as a big problem to obstruct the execution of field learning. 1) A natural experience isn't being done sufficient as much as a teacher can teach to the student. 2) It doesn't have the confidence that a teacher teaches a student geology and biology at the field. I introduce the practical example of geological field learning at the public elementary school of the Shimane prefecture by this research. Though it is the place where nature is comparatively rich even in Japan, it can't be said that field learning is popular in Shimane prefecture. A school teacher has to learning experience at field, and he must settle confidence to guide a student at the field. A specialist in the university and the museum must support continuous learning for that to the school teacher.

  20. Rationale, design, and profile of the Three-Prefecture Cohort in Japan: A 15-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Sado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We reutilized the existing Three-Prefecture Cohort to evaluate the relationship between lifestyle factors and the incidence or mortality from non-communicable diseases. Methods: This study was a prospective population-based observation conducted from the 1980s to 2000 in three prefectures (Miyagi, Aichi, and Osaka in Japan. The study subjects were residents aged ≥40 years who received a questionnaire. The follow-up period was 15 years from the baseline survey in each study area. A self-administered questionnaire, which included items on participants' demographic factors and lifestyle characteristics, was administered. Vital status and date of death were collected from residence certificates by the local government, and cause of death was identified using vital statistics. Cancer incidence and the date of diagnosis were collected from local cancer registry data. Results: A total of 46,421 men and 54,189 women were eligible for our analysis. The person-years of follow-up for cancer incidence were 464,664 and 567,271 for men and women, respectively, and those for death were 527,940 and 648,601 for men and women, respectively. There were 8479 cancer incidences (5106 men and 3373 women and 20,240 total deaths (11,156 men and 9084 women. The stomach was the most common cancer incidence site for both men (25.6% and women (18.6%. The leading cause of death was cancer among men (35.0% and cardiovascular disease among women (41.0%. Conclusions: The Three-Prefecture Cohort Study enabled us to reveal the association of multiphasic lifestyle factors with cancer incidence and mortality. The study will also allow us to conduct a pooled analysis in combination with other large-scale cohorts.

  1. Fuel-based inventory of NOx and SO2 emissions from motor vehicles in the Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrohim, Agus; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to attain the 2010 target of reducing national greenhouse gases by 6% to the 1990 level, with reference to the Kyoto Protocol, the Government of Japan has planned and implemented some measures, as well as related policies. This paper discusses the possible impact of these measures on the nitrogen-oxide and sulfur-dioxide emissions from road vehicles in the Hiroshima Prefecture (ca. 3 million population). The number of road vehicles based on vehicle and fuel types in the Hiroshima Prefecture for 1990-2000 are presented, as well as projections for the years 2005 and 2010 using the Gompertz model. Three scenarios were developed to assess the emissions, referring to the possible achievement of related measures and policies as well as new vehicle technologies. Prediction results show that nitrogen-oxide emissions may be decreased from 14.7 kton in 1990 to 9.3 kton in 2010 if Japanese energy-policy and new vehicle developments are successfully implemented. If they are less successfully implemented, the emissions will decrease slightly to 14 kton, in which the decrease of emissions was mostly from gasoline vehicle. The emission of sulfur dioxide was projected to decrease from 1.2 kton in 1990 to within the range 0.45-0.49 kton by 2010, as a result of measures to reduce sulfur content in diesel oil

  2. Questionnaire-based analysis of the current level of asthma control and management in Niigata Prefecture, Japan: Changes from 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hasegawa

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that antiinflammatory agents, including inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists, contributed to improved asthma control, whereas oral theophylline is characteristically used in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. However, not all asthma-related problems, such as satisfaction in daily life, improved and self-evaluation of asthma control by patients may play a key role in improving their satisfaction in daily life.

  3. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53–5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55–2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed. - Highlights: • Evaluation of cost and effectiveness of decontaminating Fukushima Prefecture. • Reductions in external exposure under various decontamination scenarios were similar. • Decontamination costs for the basic scenario were estimated at JPY2.53–5.12 trillion.

  4. Social factors of mental disorder and suicide in Japan-for understanding circumstance of suicides in each prefecture-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hideyuki; Fujimoto, Atsuko; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira; Yano, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there have been over 30000 suicides annually in Japan. This is one of the most serious problems for Japanese society. Because mental disorder is closely associated with suicide, factors related to the increase in mental disorders and suicides should be clarified. In this study, various data regarding social factors were evaluated to assess the correlation of the number of patients with mental disorders and suicides among the 47 prefectures of Japan. Various data regarding social factors, such as income, savings, or rate of divorce, were obtained from the database of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Among the factors, the annual income and the amount of savings were significantly correlated with the number of patients with mental disorder. On the other hand, while the annual income did not have a significant correlation with suicides, the amount of savings had a significant correlation with suicides. In conclusion, the annual income and amount of savings may both be one of the important factors involved in mental disorders, and the savings may also be a factor affecting suicides. These analyses are valuable in helping to clarify the causes of mental disease, and can hopefully contribute to the health and welfare of Japanese.

  5. The 2011 Great East Japan earthquake: a report of a regional hospital in Fukushima Prefecture coping with the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Atsushi

    2012-05-01

    A catastrophic undersea megathrust earthquake of magnitude 9.0 off the coast of Japan occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami waves, and the tsunami precipitated Fukushima nuclear accidents. After the terrible earthquake, many people fled from the nuclear accident and arrived at places far from the nuclear power plant. In this article, I present a story of one measure devised to deal with the problem of the Fukushima nuclear accident at a regional hospital of Fukushima prefecture, Aizu General Hospital, which is located far from the Fukushima nuclear plant. In addition, I briefly report the current situation of Fukushima prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. In our hospital, the countermeasure headquarters was established to supply medical care for those who had been injured by tsunami waves and the Fukushima nuclear accident. Especially, the screening for radioactive exposure using a dosimeter to take decontamination measures for cases of external exposure was extremely important task. Nevertheless, because the accurate knowledge related to radioactive contamination didn't provide, most medical staff fell into confusion. Fukushima prefecture has been 'shrinking' since the nuclear accident. However, today, although some hot spots remain in residential areas, the radioactive contamination is decreasing little by little. Many people in Fukushima Prefecture advance as one, facing forward. Recently, decontamination projects started. Efforts must be continued over a long period. © 2012 The Author. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  6. Development on nuclear fuel cycle business in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Kogo

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (JNF) develops five businesses on nuclear fuel cycle such as uranium concentration, storage and administration of high level radioactive wastes, disposition of low level radioactive wastes, used fuel reprocessing, MOX fuel, at Rokkasho-mura in Aomori prefecture. Here were introduced on outline, construction and operation in reprocessing and MOX fuel works, outline, present state and future subjects on technical development of uranium concentration, outline and safety of disposition center on low level radioactive wastes, and storage and administration of high level radioactive wastes. (G.K.)

  7. Comparative Study of the Subsurface Thermal Structure in Northern Honshu, Japan, Based on Normalized Temperature Data and Solute Geothermometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Suzuki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To promote geothermal development in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, this study compiled a database of the geothermal resources of the prefecture, which included chemical data for 786 hot springs, temperature data for 26 natural springs, and subsurface temperature data for 35 wells. A map of the activity index distribution for the entire prefecture was also developed using the Aomori Prefecture Geothermal Resource database, and its efficiency was discussed by comparison with the distribution of Quaternary volcanoes and the temperature distribution map calculated using quartz and Na-K solute geothermometers. The activity index distribution map for the entire prefecture showed a good fit with both the distribution map of a region with a sharp eastern edge of low-velocity zones in the mantle wedge and the volcanic front, as well as the temperature distribution map calculated using the quartz and Na-K geothermometers. This reflected the effectiveness of the developed map, which indicated the Hakkoda-san and Hiuchi-dake areas as promising for geothermal development. Given that the activity index distribution map is easy to use, it could become a method of assessment, in conjunction with temperature distribution maps calculated using solute geothermometers, for detecting promising areas in the early stages of geothermal exploration.

  8. Combined effects of working hours, income, and leisure time on suicide in all 47 prefectures of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akito; Sakano, Noriko; Miyatake, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an ecological study that evaluated the combined effects of working hours, income, and leisure time on suicide in all 47 prefectures of Japan. In men, the age-adjusted rate of suicide (per 100,000 population) was significantly correlated with working hours (r=0.587, pincome (r=-0.517, p=0.0002) and times for the leisure activities of self-education (r=-0.447, p=0.0016) and hobbies (r=-0.511, p=0.0002). In addition, a stepwise multiple regression analysis identified time for leisure social activities as a determining factor in suicide rate, even after adjusting for working hours and income. However, the impact of time for leisure social activities on suicide rate was smaller than that of working hours and income. In contrast, none of these factors affected suicide rate in women. These results suggest that increasing leisure time may be useful for preventing suicide among men in Japan.

  9. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914–1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to promoting the successful participation required to achieve rabies elimination. PMID:28333929

  10. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Aiko; Tojinbara, Kageaki; Kadowaki, Hazumu; Hampson, Katie; Yamada, Akio; Makita, Kohei

    2017-03-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases) during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases) than the first (879 cases), but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42). The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP) and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928), and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed to promoting the successful participation required to achieve rabies elimination.

  11. Regional differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan: application of relative survival models with funnel plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2009-07-01

    We used new methods to examine differences in population-based cancer survival between six prefectures in Japan, after adjustment for age and stage at diagnosis. We applied regression models for relative survival to data from population-based cancer registries covering each prefecture for patients diagnosed with stomach, lung, or breast cancer during 1993-1996. Funnel plots were used to display the excess hazard ratio (EHR) for each prefecture, defined as the excess hazard of death from each cancer within 5 years of diagnosis relative to the mean excess hazard (in excess of national background mortality by age and sex) in all six prefectures combined. The contribution of age and stage to the EHR in each prefecture was assessed from differences in deviance-based R(2) between the various models. No significant differences were seen between prefectures in 5-year survival from breast cancer. For cancers of the stomach and lung, EHR in Osaka prefecture were above the upper 95% control limits. For stomach cancer, the age- and stage-adjusted EHR in Osaka were 1.29 for men and 1.43 for women, compared with Fukui and Yamagata. Differences in the stage at diagnosis of stomach cancer appeared to explain most of this excess hazard (61.3% for men, 56.8% for women), whereas differences in age at diagnosis explained very little (0.8%, 1.3%). This approach offers the potential to quantify the impact of differences in stage at diagnosis on time trends and regional differences in cancer survival. It underlines the utility of population-based cancer registries for improving cancer control.

  12. Transport of HLW and spent fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Mitsuo.

    1995-01-01

    In Japan, transport of HLW started in spring, 1995 when vitrified waste was returned to Japan from Europe. Domestic transport of spent fuel has been carried out since 1978 from domestic nuclear power plant to the reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, amounting to some 720 tons by the end of 1994. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction in Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture and the transport thereto of high burn-up spent fuel is scheduled to start in 1997. A 150-ton wharf crane and a dedicated transport vehicle were completed in 1994 for unloading and overland transport of HLW casks, and specifically designed casks and an exclusive-use vessel are being prepared for domestic transport of high burn-up spent fuel

  13. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tochigi prefecture, a local region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Iwai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Takako; Kiritani, Reiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Funatogawa, Keiji

    2017-05-25

    Foreign-born patients with tuberculosis (TB) may introduce globally disseminated isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into large cities in Japan. The risk of dissemination of these isolates into local regions, however, has not been determined. This study analyzed the molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from TB patients living in a local region of Japan. Whole genome sequences of 169 M. tuberculosis isolates, obtained from 148 Japanese-born and 21 foreign-born patients living in Tochigi, Japan, were analyzed using the Comprehensive analysis server for the Mycobacterium t u b erculosis complex (CASTB). The 169 isolates were clustered into four clades; Lineage 2 (111 isolates 65.7%), Lineage 4 (43 isolates, 25.4%), Lineage 1 (13 isolates, 7.7%), and Lineage 3 (2 isolates, 1.2%). Of the 111 isolates belonging to Lineage 2, 79 (71.2%) were of the atypical Beijing sub-genotype. Of the 13 Lineage 1 isolates, nine (69.2%) were from foreign-born patients. The isolates belonging to Lineage 4 were further clustered into three clades, two containing isolates shared by both Japanese- and foreign-born patients. The two isolates belonging to Lineage 3 were obtained from foreign-born patients. The genotypic diversity of M. tuberculosis in a local region of Japan is increased primarily by the presence of isolates obtained from foreign-born patients.

  14. Estimation of Regional-Scale Actual Evapotranspiration in Okayama prefecture in Japan using Complementary Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroizumi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Miura, T.

    2008-12-01

    It is important to estimate accurately a water balance in watershed for proposing a reuse of water resources and a proper settlement of water utilization. Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important factor of water balance. Therefore, it is needed to estimate accurately the actual ET. The objective of this study is to estimate accurately monthly actual ET in Yoshii, Asahi, and Takahashi River watersheds in Okayama prefecture from 1999 to 2000. The monthly actual ET was calculated by a Morton and a modified Brutsaert and Stricker (B&S) method, using Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition Systems (AMeDAS) in the basin. The actual ET was estimated using land covers which were classified in 11 categories. The land covers includes the effects of albedo. The actual ET was related to the elevation at each AMeDAS station. Using this relationship, the actual ET at the 1 or 5 km grid-interval mesh in the basin was calculated, and finally, the distribution of actual ET was mapped. The monthly ET estimated by the modified B&S method were smaller than that by Morton method which showed a same tendency as the Penman potential ET (PET). The annual values of Morton"fs ET, modified B&S"fs ET, and PET were estimated as 796, 645, and 800 mm, respectively. The ET by the modified B&S was larger in hilly and mountainous areas than in settlement or city. In general, it was a reasonable result because city or settlement areas were covered with concrete and asphalt and the ET was controlled.

  15. On southern Hyogo-prefecture earthquake and some related activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper consists of three parts. At first the reporter discusses on the earthquake event on January 17, 1995, and then on the summary of the report of examining the adequacy of the guideline of seismic design of nuclear power plants in Japan by the task group, Nuclear Safety Commission. And also on the activity of 'the sub-committee on the research of seismic safety' for the future research subjects during 1996-2000 F.Y. (author)

  16. Assessing the Mental Health Impact of the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Radiation Disaster on Elementary and Middle School Children in the Fukushima Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Mark

    2017-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off of Japan's Pacific coast, which was followed by huge tsunamis that destroyed many coastal cities in the area. Due to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, malfunctions occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant, resulting in the release of radioactive material in the region. While recent studies have investigated the effects of these events on the mental health of adults in the region, no studies have yet been performed investigating similar effects among children. This study aims to fill that gap by: 1) assessing the mental health of elementary and middle school children living within the Fukushima prefecture of Japan, and 2) identifying risk and protective factors that are associated with the children's mental health scores. These factors were quantified using an original demographics survey, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the latter two of which have been previously validated in a Japanese setting. The surveys were distributed to approximately 3,650 elementary and middle school students during the months of February and March, 2012. The data suggests that those children who had been relocated to the city of Koriyama had significantly higher SDQ scores than those children who were native to Koriyama (p natural disasters, younger children and those with parents suffering from trauma-related distress are particularly vulnerable to the onset of pediatric mental disturbances.

  17. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4-C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300-16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900-29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First fossil occurrence of a filefish (Tetraodontiformes; Monacanthidae) in Asia, from the Middle Miocene in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Yusuke; Koike, Hakuichi; Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    2014-04-10

    A new fossil filefish, Aluterus shigensis sp. nov., with a close resemblance to the extant Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck), is described from the Middle Miocene Bessho Formation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. It is characterized by: 21 total vertebrae; very slender and long first dorsal spine with tiny anterior barbs; thin and lancet-shaped basal pterygiophore of the spiny dorsal fin, with its ventral margin separated from the skull; proximal tip of moderately slender first pterygiophore of the soft dorsal fin not reaching far ventrally; soft dorsal-fin base longer than anal-fin base; caudal peduncle having nearly equal depth and length; and tiny, fine scales with slender, straight spinules. The occurrence of this fossil filefish from the Bessho Formation is consistent with the influence of warm water currents suggested by other fossils, but it is inconsistent with the deep-water sedimentary environment of this Formation. This is the first fossil occurrence of a filefish in Asia; previously described fossil filefishes are known from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Italy, the Pliocene of Greece, and the Miocene and Pliocene of North America. These fossil records suggest that the genus Aluterus had already been derived and was widely distributed during the Middle Miocene with taxa closely resembling Recent species.

  19. Earthquake Preparedness Among Japanese Hemodialysis Patients in Prefectures Heavily Damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors related to earthquake preparedness in Japanese hemodialysis patients. We focused on three aspects of the related factors: health condition factors, social factors, and the experience of disasters. A mail survey of all the members of the Japan Association of Kidney Disease Patients in three Japanese prefectures (N = 4085) was conducted in March, 2013. We obtained 1841 valid responses for analysis. The health factors covered were: activities of daily living (ADL), mental distress, primary renal diseases, and the duration of dialysis. The social factors were: socioeconomic status, family structure, informational social support, and the provision of information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities. The results show that the average percentage of participants that had met each criterion of earthquake preparedness in 2013 was 53%. Hemodialysis patients without disabled ADL, without mental distress, and requiring longer periods of dialysis, were likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. Hemodialysis patients who had received informational social support from family or friends, had lived with spouse and children in comparison to living alone, and had obtained information regarding earthquake preparedness from dialysis facilities, were also likely to meet more of the earthquake preparedness criteria. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  20. Construction and evaluation of two computational models for predicting the incidence of influenza in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Hu, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Wen-Chang; Cai, Lin; Cai, Guo-Xi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2017-08-03

    It remains challenging to forecast local, seasonal outbreaks of influenza. The goal of this study was to construct a computational model for predicting influenza incidence. We built two computational models including an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and a hybrid model integrating ARDL with a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN), to assess meteorological factors associated with temporal trends in influenza incidence. The modelling and forecasting performance of these two models were compared using observations collected between 2006 and 2015 in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. In both the training and forecasting stages, the hybrid model showed lower error rates, including a lower residual mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) than the ARDL model. The lag of log-incidence, weekly average barometric pressure, and weekly average of air temperature were 4, 1, and 3, respectively in the ARDL model. The ARDL-GRNN hybrid model can serve as a tool to better understand the characteristics of influenza epidemic, and facilitate their prevention and control.

  1. Effect of age and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-05-25

    To reveal the effect of age and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding age, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants aged 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression showed that the degree of anxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation exposure. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies.

  2. Impact of a low severity fire on soil organic carbon and nitrogen characteristics in Japanese cedar soil Yamagata Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Slash and burn practices are widely used around the globe with different degrees of success which are mostly related to the impact of fire on the soil properties. In Japan slash and burn practises, known as Yakihata, have a long history and are still used in Yamagata Prefecture today. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a low severity controlled fire on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest soil (Cambisol) which is the dominant species among plantations in Japan. We measured organic carbon and nitrogen content as well as changes in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope composition in a steep west facing slope under heavy precipitation ( 2600 mm/a) and heavy snowfall ( 3-4 m/a). The results show that Ctotal and Ntotal values as well as the isotopes ratios of C and N change with decreasing elevation in the forest as well as in the burned site being consistent with leaching and erosion. The accumulation of Ctotal and Ntotal at the bottom of the slopes was remarkably higher at the slash and burned site than in the control forest site. After slash and burn δ15N isotopes in the slope in general became significantly lighter than in the control forest while the δ13C did not show any significant difference between the two sites except at the bottom of the slopes where δ13C was heavier in the forest. The reason for these changes in nitrogen and carbon isotopes appears to be related to the physical changes in soil horizon sequence of the original forest soil layer. Keywords: high precipitation, Japanese cedar forest soil, low severity fire, stable isotopes, steep slopes

  3. Incidence and index of severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome in a 26 year period in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suyama, Kazuhide; Maeda, Ryo; Yugeta, Eichi; Takano, Kei; Suzuki, Shigeo; Sakuma, Hiroko; Nemoto, Kenji; Sato, Tomoko; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2014-02-01

    There have been a number of reports on large outbreaks of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), but there have been no long-term studies of sporadic HUS in Japan. This study therefore investigated the epidemiology and prognosis of HUS in Fukushima Prefecture over a 26 year period. The medical records of 26 patients with HUS between 1987 and 2012 were collected. These children were divided into two groups: those with HUS following an episode of gastroenteritis, often with bloody diarrhea (D + HUS; n = 24) and those with HUS not associated with prodromal diarrhea (D-HUS; n = 2). The D + HUS group was further subdivided into group A (11 patients requiring dialysis) and group B (13 patients not requiring dialysis). The epidemiological and clinical data, as well as prognosis, were retrospectively investigated for each group. Approximately 90% of HUS patients belonged to the D + HUS group. In this group, the mean number of patients per year from 1987 to 1999, and from 2000 to 2012 was 0.92 ± 0.95, and 1.08 ± 0.86, respectively. On admission, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine and serum fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) levels in group A were all higher than in group B. Serum albumin level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in group A were lower than in group B. At 6 months after the onset of HUS in the D + HUS group, renal function was normal. The frequency of HUS was constant from 1987 to 2012 in Fukushima. and serum LDH, ALT, BUN, creatinine, and FDP levels as well as eGFR might be risk factors for dialysis in D + HUS children. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Application of passive type radon detectors to find fissures in banks caused by the southern Hyogo prefectural earthquake in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, J.; Yamasaki, K.; Tsujimoto, T.; Morishima, H.; Shimo, M.; Murakami, A.; Hasegawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    Innumerable fissures were formed widely in Hanshin area in Japan by the former southern Hyogo prefectural earthquake occurred on Jan.17, 1995. In this study, as a preliminary investigation, we applied passive type radon detector Pico-Rad (U.S. Packard Instrument Co. Ltd.) with hemispheric plastic cover over them around the fissure along on the bank of two reservoirs to examine whether there is possibility to find fissures using the characteristics of 222 Rn migration. One of the reservoir, Taniyamakami-ike, is located at the north of the Awaji-shima island at a distance of about 4 km from the seismic center of this earthquake. On the whole, 222 Rn exhalation rates were high on a line of 2 m below the edge of the bank and got lower in proportion to the distance from this line. Those top of the bank had middle values among the lines. The mean 222 Rn exhalation rate was 4.7 mBq m -2 s -1 , and in these data we found some singularly high 222 Rn points. The other reservoir named Hosho-ike is located at northwestern Nagaokakyo city of Kyoto prefecture and the Komyoji active faulting runs from north to south parallel with the bank about 120 m to the west. In this bank, a fissure about 50 m in length and 0.1 m in width was taken shape. 222 Rn exhalation rates were relatively high on the top of the bank compared with on the slope of the bank. The mean 222 Rn exhalation rate of 5 points which were measured on the fissure was 16 mBq m -2 s -1 , and that which were measured on about 1 m to the east from the fissure was 4.9 mBq m -2 s -1 and in case about 1 m to the west was 4.2 mBq m -2 s -1 . From these results we concluded that there is a possibility to find fissures inside the bank using the characteristics of 222 Rn migration. Our future objective is to find fissures inside banks non-destructively. (author)

  5. The rise and fall of rabies in Japan: A quantitative history of rabies epidemics in Osaka Prefecture, 1914-1933.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Kurosawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0, the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated. A total of 4,632 animal rabies cases were reported, mainly in dogs (99.0%, 4,584 cases during two epidemics from 1914 to 1921, and 1922 to 1933 respectively. The second epidemic was larger (3,705 cases than the first (879 cases, but had a lower R0 (1.50 versus 2.42. The first epidemic was controlled through capture of stray dogs and tethering of pet dogs. Dog mass vaccination began in 1923, with campaigns to capture stray dogs. Rabies in Osaka Prefecture was finally eliminated in 1933. A total of 3,805 rabid dog-bite injuries, and 75 human deaths were reported. The relatively low incidence of human rabies, high ratio of post-exposure vaccines (PEP and bite injuries by rabid dogs (minimum 6.2 to maximum 73.6, between 1924 and 1928, and a decline in the proportion of bite victims that developed hydrophobia over time (slope = -0.29, se = 3, p < 0.001, indicated that increased awareness and use of PEP might have prevented disease. Although significantly more dog rabies cases were detected at higher human population densities (slope = 0.66, se = 0.03, p < 0.01, there were fewer dog rabies cases detected per capita (slope = -0.34, se = 0.03, p < 0.01. We suggest that the combination of mass vaccination and restriction of dog movement enabled by strong legislation was key to eliminate rabies. Moreover, the prominent role of the media in both reporting rabies cases and efforts to control the disease likely contributed

  6. Cross-prefecture expansion of regional banks in Japan and its effects on lending-based income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumine Kondo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether Japanese regional banks entering the banking market in other prefectures, including neighboring prefectures, can increase their lending-based income. To stimulate local economies and support local small- and medium-sized enterprises, the current Japanese Government’s policies for regional banks require these banks to engage in region-based relationship banking practices. In this study, three lending-based income measures were used as dependent variables, and estimation was made using panel data from Japanese regional banks. As a result, it was determined that regional banks that enter markets in other prefectures experience positive effects in all three lending-based income measures. Moreover, it was determined that regional banks whose headquarters are located in non-urban areas derive greater benefit from their loan businesses upon entry into other prefectures, including neighboring prefectures, where economic activity is more vibrant than regional banks whose headquarters are located in urban areas.

  7. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prefectural difference in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage incidence in Japan analyzed with publically accessible diagnosis procedure combination data: possibilities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Fukuhara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Annually reported, publically accessible Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC data from the Japanese government is a part of the total DPC database of the Japanese medical reimbursement system for hospitalization. Although medical issues can be evaluated with these data promptly, the applicability of these data in epidemiological analyses has not been assessed. METHODS: We performed analyses using only statistical indices reported on the a government website. As a preliminary step, the prefectural consistency of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH was examined with prefectural mortality over 20 years. Then the prefectural incidence of sICH for four years was calculated, utilizing publically accessible DPC data. To determine its reliability, the consistency was examined, and correlations were analyzed with three prefectural factors expected to have an effect: the elderly rate, mortality due to sICH, and the non-DPC bed rate. In addition, a comparison model between prefectures with this method was developed by analyzing other prefecture-specific factors. RESULTS: Prefectural mortality due to sICH and prefectural sICH incidence in the DPC database were both consistent over the years. Prefectural sICH incidence had a constant positive correlation with the elderly rate, a partial correlation with mortality due to sICH, but no correlation with the non-DPC bed rate, which is one of the major biases when utilizing the DPC database. In the comparison model, the factors of low income and alcohol consumption showed increased sICH incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Although careful attention to its limitations is required, publically accessible DPC data will provide insights into epidemiological issues.

  9. Effect of spring water on the radon concentration in the air at Masutomi spa in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Masayo; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of 222 Rn existing in air have been studied by using a convenient and highly sensitive Pico-rad detector system at Masutomi spa in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The measurements in air were carried out indoors and outdoors during the winter of 2000 and the summers of 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of 222 Rn in spring water in this region were measured by the liquid scintillation method. The concentrations of natural radionuclides contained in soils surrounding spa areas were also examined by means of the γ-ray energy spectrometry technique using a Ge diode detector to investigate the correlation between the radionuclides contents and 222 Rn concentrations in air at each point of interest. The atmospheric 222 Rn concentrations in these areas were high, ranging from 5 Bq/m 3 to 2676 Bq/m 3 . The radon concentration at each hotel was high in the order of the bath room, the dressing room, the lobby, and the outdoor area near the hotel, with averages and standard deviations of the concentration of 441 ± 79 Bq/m 3 , 351 ± 283 Bq/m 3 , 121 ± 5 Bq/m 3 , and 23 ± 1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The source of 222 Rn in the air in the bath room is more likely to be the spring water than the soil. The spring water plays carries the radon to the atmosphere. Our measurements indicated that the 222 Rn concentration in the air was affected by the 222 Rn concentration in spring water rather than that in soil. (author)

  10. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  11. Pregnant Women's Awareness of Social Capital in the Great East Japan Earthquake-Affected Areas of Miyagi Prefecture: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Sakurai, Kasumi; Mizuno, Satoshi; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Watanabe, Zen; Iwama, Noriyuki; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Sugawara, Junichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to clarify the correlation between the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and pregnant women's awareness of social capital 3 to 9 months after the tsunami disaster. We analyzed data on responses to a questionnaire by 7451 pregnant women in their second to third trimesters. The proportions of social capital-related items were calculated in the north and south coastal areas of Miyagi Prefecture and were compared with national samples. The factors associated with social capital were estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression analyses. The proportion of women feeling that they had helpful neighbors was higher (69.0% vs 56.7%, P=0.0005), the proportion of women regarding their communities as safe and secure was lower (51.7% vs 62.4%, P=0.002), and the proportion of women feeling that most people were trustworthy was lower (23.7% vs 32.9%, P=0.006) in the north coastal area than nationwide. Such differences were not observed in the less severely affected south coastal area. Age of 35 years or older, extended family, college or university graduation, and being multiparous were associated with the feeling of having helpful neighbors. The current status of pregnant women's awareness of social capital in disaster-affected areas was revealed. Continuous monitoring and support may be necessary to address this issue.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:355-364).

  12. [A quantitative analysis of information-seeking behaviors regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among South American Spanish-speaking migrants in Aichi Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Michiko; Ichikawa, Seiichi; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors associated with information-seeking behaviors regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among South American Spanish-speaking migrants living in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The survey targeted South American Spanish-speaking migrants aged 18 years and older currently residing in Aichi Prefecture who had lived in Japan for at least three months and who had previously seen a doctor in Japan. The questionnaire was written in Spanish and the survey was conducted from April to July, 2010. Wilson's information behavior model was used to study information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among 245 respondents who completed the questionnaires (response rate: 58.9%). Experience seeking medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area was set as the dependent variable and a chi-square test was conducted to examine relationships with language support needs, recognition of and access to medical institutions with Spanish language support, living situation in Japan, and Japanese language skills. Among the 245 respondents, 106 were male (43.3%) and 139 were female (56.7%). The average age was 39.6±11.2 years old and 84.5% were Peruvian. The average length of residency in Japan was 11.0±5.7 years, and 34.3% of respondents had lived in Aichi for 5-9 years. A total of 165 respondents (67.3%) had searched for medical institutions with Spanish language support, while 80 (32.7%) had not. Information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support was associated with having previously experienced a need for Spanish language support when seeing doctors in Japan, finding and attending medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area, length of residency in Japan, Japanese language skills, and the language used in daily life. Experience in requiring Spanish support when sick or injured in Japan motivated respondents to

  13. Influence of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on the birth weight of newborns in Fukushima Prefecture: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shun; Kyozuka, Hyo; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Hata, Kennichi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster occurred on 11 March 2011. We investigated the incidence of SGA (small for gestational age) in the Fukushima Prefecture in newborns delivered by women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters and identified any risk factors for SGA. Subjects were women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters. Questionnaires were sent to the women who lived in the Hamadori area (seaside and near to the nuclear power plant) at the time of the disasters as well as to a control group of women who lived outside the Hamadori area. The incidence of SGA was compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for SGA. In total, 325(5.6%) women had infants with SGA. Neither area nor the trimester of pregnancy at the time of the disasters influenced the incidence of SGA. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) was higher in the SGA group. PIH was found to be an independent risk factor for SGA. We found no evidence that the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster increased the incidence of SGA in the Fukushima Prefecture.

  14. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.).

  15. Relationships between mental health distress and work-related factors among prefectural public servants two months after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Maiko; Suzuki, Yuriko; Obara, Akiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    In times of disaster, public servants face multiple burdens as they engage in a demanding and stressful disaster-response work while managing their own needs caused by the disaster. We investigated the effects of work-related factors on the mental health of prefectural public servants working in the area devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify some ideas for organizational work modifications to protect their mental health. Two months after the earthquake, Miyagi prefecture conducted a self-administered health survey of prefectural public servants and obtained 4,331 (82.8%) valid responses. We investigated relationships between mental health distress (defined as K6 ≥ 13) and work-related variables (i.e., job type, overwork, and working environment) stratified by level of earthquake damage experienced. The proportion of participants with mental health distress was 3.0% in the group that experienced less damage and 5.9% in the group that experienced severe damage. In the group that experienced less damage, working >100 h of overtime per month (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 10.96; 95% CI, 6.63-18.09) increased the risk of mental health distress. In the group that experienced severe damage, handling residents' complaints (adjusted OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.55-14.82) and poor workplace communication (adjusted OR, 9.14; 95% CI, 3.34-24.97) increased the risk, whereas involvement in disaster-related work (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.86) decreased the risk. Workers who have experienced less disaster-related damage might benefit from working fewer overtime hours, and those who have experienced severe damage might benefit from avoiding contact with residents and engaging in disaster-related work. Facilitating workplace communication appeared important for both groups of workers.

  16. A survey of medical exposure during X-ray diagnosis in Aomori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon, Masanori; Fukushi, Shouji; Oota, Fumio; Kawamura, Kouji; Shinohe, Tetsuo; Suwa, Kouki; Fujii, Kiyosuke; Yamagami, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to survey medical exposure doses in Aomori Prefecture and compare them with guidance levels for X-ray diagnosis. A questionnaire survey on X-ray diagnosis was conducted at the main medical institutions in the prefecture. The questionnaire asked about technical conditions, and replies were obtained from 72.2% of the 79 institutions. The medical exposure doses (entrance surface doses) were calculated from the results of the questionnaires by the modified numerical dose determination (NDD) method. The distribution of the entrance surface doses at each site was calculated as the 1st quartile, median, 3rd quartile, average, standard deviation, maximum value and minimum value, by the quartile method. The distribution of exposed doses at each site showed a similar pattern with that of the national distribution. Some institutions used higher doses than the Japanese proposed guidance levels and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidance levels. Re-assessment of radiographic conditions and photosensitive materials is needed to reduce exposure doses. (K.H.)

  17. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident on Assisted Reproductive Technology in Fukushima Prefecture: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masako; Fujimori, Keiya; Yasumura, Seiji; Nakai, Akihito

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2.0%) and 102 (1.9%) women conceived with in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), respectively. The proportion of women who conceived with IVF-ET decreased during the 2 months immediately after the disaster, but returned to pre-disaster levels 3 months after the disaster. In the case of women who conceived without IVF-ET, the incidences of preterm birth and low birth weight increased after the disaster. In contrast, women who conceived with IVF-ET did not differ significantly in obstetric outcomes before and after the disaster but had a higher incidence of cesarean section and low birth weight compared to those conceived without IVF-ET, regardless of the study period. The influence of the disaster on woman who conceived using ART procedures was minimal.

  18. Two novel Lipomycetaceous yeast species, Lipomyces okinawensis sp. nov. and Lipomyces yamanashiensis f.a., sp. nov., isolated from soil in the Okinawa and Yamanashi prefectures, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yanagiba, Mana; Naganuma, Takafumi

    2017-08-01

    Four novel Lipomyces strains were isolated from soil collected in the Okinawa and Yamanashi prefectures, Japan. Based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics, along with sequence typing using the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including 5.8S rRNA, and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α), the four strains were shown to represent two novel species of the genus Lipomyces, described as Lipomyces okinawensis sp. nov. (type strain No.3-a(35)T=NBRC 110620T=CBS 14747T) and Lipomyces yamanashiensis f.a., sp. nov. (type strain No.313T=NBRC 110621T=CBS 14748T).

  19. Background radiation dose and leukemia mortality in north Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1978-01-01

    In 7 prefectures in north Japan where natural environment as well as socioeconomic status are similar, the relation of natural background dose rate and death rate caused by leukemia was examined. More than 2500 deaths were recorded in the last 10 years which distributed normally throughout the entire area with a mean of 3.68 and a SD of 1.14 per 10 5 per year. There are no significant, differences in the observed values of each prefecture in spite of having different population. Natural background radiation dose rate has also a normal distribution with a mean of 8.98 μR/h and a SD of 2.12. The highest dose rate in Niigata (10.44) was significantly higher than the lowest value in Aomori (6.48) whereas the death rates caused by leukemia were not different between the both prefectures. The null hypothesis that a positive regression exists between dose rate and death rate even in the smallest dose range was not supported in north Japan. Leukemogenic effect of background radiation, if any, seems to be within a practical threshold. (auth.)

  20. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matayoshi, Masanao; Kitano, Takashi; Sasaki, Tetsu; Nakamura, Masaji

    2015-06-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan.

  1. Dominant incidence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis clones in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Tamaru

    Full Text Available Infection and transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-Mtb and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis (XDR-Mtb is a serious health problem. We analyzed a total of 1,110 Mtb isolates in Osaka Prefecture and neighboring areas from April 2000 to March 2009. A total of 89 MDR-Mtb were identified, 36 (48.5% of which were determined to be XDR-Mtb. Among the 89 MDR-Mtb isolates, 24 (27.0% phylogenetically distributed into six clusters based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-various number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing. Among these six clusters, the MIRU-VNTR patterns of four (OM-V02, OM-V03, OM-V04, and OM-V06 were only found for MDR-Mtb. Further analysis revealed that all isolates belonging to OM-V02 and OM-V03, and two isolates from OM-V04 were clonal. Importantly such genotypes were not observed for drug-sensitive isolates. These suggest that few but transmissible clones can transmit after acquiring multidrug resistance and colonize even in a country with a developed, well-organized healthcare system.

  2. Parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide among medical college students in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kojiro Hashimoto,1 Norio Sugawara,2 Osamu Tanaka,2 Kazuhiko Nakamura,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan; 2Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, Japan Background: Suicide is a grave public health issue that is responsible for a high mortality rate among individuals aged 15–44 years. Attitudes toward suicide among medical staff members have been associated with appropriate therapeutic responses to suicidal individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of parental rearing on attitudes toward suicide among Japanese medical college students. Methods: We examined the association between parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide in 160 medical college students in Japan. The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess the attitudes and behaviors of parents. The attitudes toward suicide were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Attitudes Toward Suicide questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 25.2±4.0 years old. The majority of the participants in our study agreed that anyone could commit suicide (88.8% and that suicide is preventable (86.3%. After adjusting for age and sex, multivariate regression analysis revealed that maternal care approached a statistically significant association with the “right to suicide” attitude. Under the same conditions, maternal care was shown to be significantly associated with the “common occurrence” attitude. No other significant relationships were observed between parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide.Conclusion: This study suggests that a higher level of maternal care ensures that children think that suicide occurs less commonly. The promotion of best practices for suicide prevention among medical students is needed. Child rearing support might be associated with suicide prevention.Keywords: attitudes toward suicide, Japanese, medical college

  3. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  4. Effect of tree thinning and litter removal on the radiocesium (Cs-134, 137) discharge rates in the Kawauchi forest plantation (Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Junko; Kato, Hiroaki; Hisadome, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    On 11 March 2011 a 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami occurred in central-eastern Japan triggering, one day after, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Despite the bulk of radionuclides (ca. 80%) were transported offshore and out over the Pacific Ocean, significant wet and dry deposits of those radionuclides occurred mainly in the Fukushima Prefecture and in a minor way in the Miyagi, Tochigi, Gunma and Ibaraki Prefectures. As a consequence and among other radionuclides, a total of 511,000 TBq of I-131, 13,500 TBq of Cs-134 and 13,600 TBq of Cs-137 were released into the atmosphere and the ocean, contaminating cultivated soils, rivers, settlements and forested areas. This accident caused severe environmental and economic damages. Several decontamination practices have done, including tree thinning and litter removal within the forests and tree plantations. In this study we analysed the effect of eight different management practices on the radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) discharge rates during 20 months (May'2013 - Dec'2014) in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation (stand age of 57 years), located in a hillslope near the Kawauchi village, Fukushima Prefecture, northern Japan. This study area (37⁰ 20' 04" N, 140⁰ 53' 13.5" E) is located 16 km southwestern from the DNPP and within the evacuation area. The soils are Andosols. Ten runoff plots (5 x 2 meters) were installed and measurements started on May 2013. Two plots remained without any treatment as control plots and the other eight plots represented the following management practices: Mng1) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng2) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng3) Litter removal + clear-cutting (no sheet); Mng4) Litter removal; Mng5) Thinning (logged area); Mng6) Thinning (under remnant trees); Mng7) Litter removal + thinning (logged area); Mng8) Litter removal + thinning (under remnant trees). Each plot had a gauging station and sediment samples

  5. Educational Activity for the Radiation Emergency System in the Northern Part of Japan: Meeting Report on "The 3rd Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists in 2016".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuya, Yusuke; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Kimura, Takaaki; Mori, Ryosuke; Yamada, Ryota; Saga, Ryo; Fujishima, Yohei; Date, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    In the northern part of Japan, close cooperation is essential in preparing for any possible emergency response to radiation accidents because several facilities, such as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant and the Vitrified Waste Storage Center, exist in Rokkasho Village (Aomori Prefecture). After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, special attention should be given to the relationship between radiation and human health, as well as establishing a system for managing with a radiation emergency. In the area of Hokkaido and Aomori prefectures in Japan, since 2008 an exchange meeting between Hokkaido University and Hirosaki University has been held every year to have opportunities to discuss radiation effects on human health and to collect the latest news on monitoring environmental radiation. This meeting was elevated to an international meeting in 2014 titled "Educational Symposium on Radiation and Health (ESRAH) by Young Scientists". The 3rd ESRAH meeting took place in 2016, with the theme "Investigating Radiation Impact on the Environmental and Health". Here we report the meeting findings on the continuing educational efforts after the Fukushima incident, what was accomplished in terms of building a community educational approaches, and future goals.

  6. Web-based recruiting for a survey on knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer prevention among young women living in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Etsuko; Motoki, Yoko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Wark, John D; Garland, Suzanne M

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality among young women have been increasing in Japan. To develop effective measures to combat this, we assessed the feasibility of using a social networking site (SNS) to recruit a representative sample of young women to conduct a knowledge and attitude study about CC prevention via an internet-based questionnaire. From July 2012 to March 2013, advertising banners targeting women aged 16 to 35 years in Kanagawa Prefecture were placed on Facebook in a similar manner as an Australian (AUS) study conducted in 16- to 25-year-olds in 2010 and on a homepage to advertise our CC advocacy activities. Eligible participants were emailed instructions for accessing our secure Web site where they completed an online survey including demographics, awareness, and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and CC. Data for the study population were compared with the general Japanese population and the AUS study. Among 394 women who expressed interest, 243 (62%) completed the survey, with 52% completing it via Facebook. Women aged 26 to 35 years, living in Yokohama City, with an education beyond high school, were overrepresented. Participants had high awareness and knowledge of HPV and CC, comparable with the AUS study participants. However, the self-reported HPV vaccination rate (22% among participants aged 16-25 years) and the recognition rate of the link between smoking and CC (31%) were significantly lower than in the AUS study (58% and 43%, respectively) (P women into health surveys, which can effectively be performed online. A nationwide survey using SNSs would be an appropriate next step to better understand the current lack of uptake of the national HPV vaccine program by young women in Japan.

  7. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife

  8. Long-Term Survey of Cadmium and Lead Contamination in Japanese Black Bears Captured in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidney samples of 242 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) captured from 1999 to 2014 from two local populations in Japan. The median concentration of cadmium was 0.54 (mean: 0.80) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and 7.7 (mean: 11.8) mg/kg-w.w. in kidney. The median concentration of lead was 0.24 (mean: 0.40) and 0.21 (mean: 0.32) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and kidney, respectively. Bears in the Kita-ou local population had higher concentrations of cadmium and lead than those in the Kitakami Highlands local population. No chronological change was observed in cadmium levels in tissues, but the percentage of bears whose lead levels exceeded 0.5 mg/kg-w.w. has been decreasing in recent years. Countermeasures against lead poisoning in wildlife, which were instituted in 2002, may have contributed to the decrease in lead contamination of the Japanese black bear.

  9. Processing insect abundance: trading and fishing of zazamushi in Central Japan (Nagano Prefecture, Honshū Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Césard, Nicolas; Komatsu, Seiji; Iwata, Akihisa

    2015-11-11

    This article presents the links between technique, commerce and consumption in fishing for zazamushi, a mixture of aquatic insect larvae sold as food souvenirs in Japan. Since zazamushi are mainly collected for economic reasons, we suggest that demand for them has incited technical development among collectors in order to fish more insects. Several fishermen and traders were interviewed in semi-directed interviews about their practices and knowledge. To understand the passage from a faunal composition to a commercial composition, our research follows a fishing session closely, as well as the selection of insects that follows it. The insects collected were separated from inanimate matter, then identified, counted and weighed at each stage of the process. Our results suggest that the current technique corresponds to an evolution in subsistence and recreational collecting towards a more systematic fishing of the insects, the aim of which is commercial. In their response to trade issues, the collectors have moved away from the banks to fish the insects in the river current, thus increasing the amount of one species captured compared to another. Although the technique is efficient (and similar to other harvesting techniques), it requires the thorough sorting of organic debris and insects (in our example, the catch contains approximately 78 % of inanimate matter and 22 % of insects, of which 3.29 % are retained for consumption, i.e., less than 2 out of 100 insects). The selection of insects to be consumed takes place mainly during cleaning. This stage depends on traders and reflects the different compositions sold as souvenirs. Our research shows that the consumption of insects is not explained just by ecological factors that are favourable or unfavourable, but also by technological and economic factors related to their commerce. It suggests that the traders have gradually established the insects that are currently sold as zazamushi and that this commercial development

  10. Onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted by Nippon Medical School in Miyagi prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akira; Igarashi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Kim, Shiei; Tsujii, Atsuko; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    This report describes our onsite medical rounds and fact-finding activities conducted in the acute phase and medical relief work conducted in the subacute phase in Miyagi prefecture following the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami that occurred off northeastern Honshu on March 11, 2011. As part of the All-Japan Hospital Association medical team deployed to the disaster area, a Nippon Medical School team conducted fact-finding and onsite medical rounds and evaluated basic life and medical needs in the affected areas of Shiogama and Tagajo. We performed triage for more than 2,000 casualties, but in our medical rounds of hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes, we found no severely injured person but did find 1 case of hyperglycemia. We conducted medical rounds at evacuation shelters in Kesennuma City during the subacute phase of the disaster, from March 17 through June 1, as part of the Tokyo Medical Association medical teams deployed. Sixty-seven staff members (17 teams), including 46 physicians, 11 nurses, 3 pharmacists, and 1 clinical psychotherapist, joined this mission. Most patients complained of a worsening of symptoms of preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, respiratory problems, and diabetes, rather than of medical problems specifically related to the tsunami. In the acute phase of the disaster, the information infrastructure was decimated and we could not obtain enough information about conditions in the affected areas, such as how many persons were severely injured, how severely lifeline services had been damaged, and what was lacking. To start obtaining this information, we conducted medical rounds. This proved to be a good decision, as we found many injured persons in evacuation shelters without medication, communication devices, or transportation. Also, basic necessities for life, such as water and food, were lacking. We were able to evaluate these basic needs and inform local disaster headquarters of them. In Kesennuma City, we

  11. Experimental practice using 3D scanning for understanding the structure of a stone chamber from the Kofun period, Japan – A case study of the Shobuzako Kofun, Okayama prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yamaguchi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Shobuzako Kofun, located in Okayama prefecture (western Japan, is a key-hole tomb set on a low rolling hill dating to the 5th century AD. Its stone chamber and burial goods are in very good condition because the stone chamber has not been looted. In this presentation, we will indicate a case study of the experimental use of 3D measuring techniques for recording and understanding the structure of a stone chamber, as well as the layout of burial goods’ layers in the Shobuzako Kofun. We will show some of the benefits and problems of 3D measuring techniques, and the basic remarks for using this method.

  12. Seasonal variations of {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kato, Tomomi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Horikawa, Keiji [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem {sup 14}C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric {sup 14}C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of {sup 14}C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem {sup 14}C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO{sub 2}. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different {sup 14}C concentrations and δ{sup 13}C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO{sub 2}, and flow paths. Further, the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The {sup 14}C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: {sup 14}C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in {sup 14}C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using {sup 14}C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  13. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  14. Estimation and Simulation of Inter-station Green's Functions in the Beppu-Bay Area, Oita Prefecture, Southwest Japan: the Effect of Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term observations of ambient noise (microseisms) were performed from August 2014 to February 2017 in the Beppu-Bay area, Oita prefecture, to investigate S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary basin (Hayashida et al., 2015SSJ; Yoshimi and Hayashida, 2017WCEE). The observation array consists of 12 broadband stations with an average spacing of 12 km. We applied the seismic interferometry technique to the ambient noise data and derived nine-component ambient noise cross-correlation functions (Z-R, Z-T, Z-Z, R-R, R-T, R-Z, T-R, T-T, and T-Z components) between 66 pairs of stations (distance of 6.4 km to 65.2 km). We assumed the stacked cross-correlation functions as "observed Green's functions" between two stations and estimated group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz (Hayashida et al., 2017AGU-JpGU). Theoretical Green's functions for all stations pairs were also calculated using the finite difference method (HOT-FDM, Nakamura et al., 2012BSSA), with an existing three-dimensional basin structure model (J-SHIS V2) with land and seafloor topography and a seawater layer (Okunaka et al., 2016JpGU) and a newly constructed basin structure model of the target area (Yoshimi et al., 2017AGU). The comparisons between observed and simulated Green's functions generally show good agreements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz. On the other hand, both observed and simulated Green's functions for some station pairs whose traverse lines run across the deeper part of the sedimentary basin (> 2000 m) show prominent later phases that might be generated and propagated inside the basin. This indicates that the understanding of the phase generation and propagation processes can be a key factor to validate the basin structure model and we investigated the characteristics of the later phases, such as its particle motions and arrival times, using observed and simulated Green's functions in detail. Acknowledgements

  15. Flood Hazard Assessment of the coastal lowland in the Kujukuri Plain of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Huali; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Ito, Yuka; Sawamukai, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Floods, the most common natural disaster in the world, cause serious loss of life and economic damage. Flood is one of the disasters in the coastal lowland along the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Many natural and human activities have changed the surface environment of the Plain. These include agricultural development, urban and industrial development, change of the drainage patterns of the land surface, deposition and/or erosion of the river valleys, and so on. In addition, wide spread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by the abstraction of natural gas dissolved in groundwater. The locations of the groundwater extraction include nearby the coast, and it may increase the flood risk. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to develop hazard maps for protecting surface environment and land-use planning. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides methodology and techniques for analyzing complex decision problems, which often involve incommensurable data or criteria. Also, Geographical Information System (GIS) is the powerful tool since it manages large amount of spatial data involved in MCDA. The purpose of this study is to present a flood hazard model using MCDA techniques with GIS support in a region where primary data are scare. The model incorporates six parameters: river system, topography, land-use, flood control project, passing flood from coast, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 meter resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30,000 scale river watershed map, and precipitation data from precipitation observation stations around the study area. River system map was created by merging the river order, the line density, and the river sink point density layers. Land-use data were derived from Landsat-TM images. A final hazard map for 2004, as an example, was

  16. Developing a long-term local society design methodology towards a low-carbon economy: An application to Shiga Prefecture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gomi, Kei; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2007-01-01

    To tackle global climate stabilization concretely, we have developed a method formulating long-term scenarios towards a low-carbon economy at local level. As a result of the pioneering application of this method to Shiga Prefecture, we have found the following: (i) it is possible to design scenarios for moving towards a low-carbon economy in which CO 2 emission is lowered by 30-50% from the 1990 level by 2030, while the prefecture's gross production continues to grow by 1.6% annually; (ii) in order to halve the emission by 2030, socio-economic structural changes as well as technological measures are essential; and (iii) innovative measures at the prefectural level, such as land planning, renewable energy promotion and lifestyle change, play an increasingly important role as the target reduction rate gets higher

  17. The low level of understanding of depression among patients treated with antidepressants: a survey of 424 outpatients in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudo S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuhei Kudo,1 Tetsu Tomita,1 Norio Sugawara,1,2 Yasushi Sato,1 Masamichi Ishioka,3 Koji Tsuruga,4 Taku Nakagami,5 Kazuhiko Nakamura,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 2Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hirosaki Aiseikai Hospital, Hirosaki, 4Department of Psychiatry, Aomori Prefectural Tsukushigaoka Hospital, Aomori, 5Department of Neuropsychiatry, Odate City General Hospital, Odate, Japan Background: We used self-administered questionnaires to investigate the level of understanding of depression among outpatients who were administered antidepressants. Methods: A total of 424 outpatients were enrolled in this study. We used an original self-administered questionnaire that consisted of eight categories: (A depressive symptoms, (B the course of depression, (C the cause of depression, (D the treatment plan, (E the duration of taking antidepressants, (F how to discontinue antidepressants, (G the side effects of the antidepressants, and (H psychotherapy. Each category consisted of the following two questions: “Have you received an explanation from the doctor in charge?” and “How much do you understand about it?” The level of understanding was rated on a scale of 0–10 (11 anchor points. The Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Japanese version, Global Assessment of Functioning, and Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale were administered, and clinical characteristics were investigated. Results: The percentages of participants who received explanations were as follows: 61.8% for (A, 49.2% for (B, 50.8% for (C, 57.2% for (D, 46.3% for (E, 28.5% for (F, 50.6% for (G, and 36.1% for (H. The level of understanding in participants who received explanations from their physicians was significantly higher compared with patients who did not receive explanations for all evaluated categories. Patient

  18. Rural-Urban Disparity in Emergency Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jun; Kishi, Mikio; Kumagai, Naoto; Yamazaki, Toru; Sakata, Kenji; Higuma, Takumi; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi; Dohi, Kaoru; Tanigawa, Takashi; Hanada, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Mashio; Sokejima, Shigeru; Takayama, Morimasa; Higaki, Jitsuo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Okumura, Ken; Ito, Masaaki

    2018-03-27

    There are few reports examining regional differences between rural prefectures and metropolitan areas in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Japan.Methods and Results:In the Rural AMI registry, a prospective, multi-prefectural registry of AMI in 4 rural prefectures (Ishikawa, Aomori, Ehime and Mie), a total of 1,695 consecutive AMI patients were registered in 2013. Among them, 1,313 patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 24 h of onset were enrolled in this study (Rural group), and compared with the cohort data from the Tokyo CCU Network registry for AMI in the same period (Metropolitan group, 2,075 patients). The prevalence of direct ambulance transport to PCI-capable facilities in the Rural group was significantly lower than that in the Metropolitan group (43.8% vs. 60.3%, PRural group. Multivariate analysis revealed that direct ambulance transport was the strongest predictor for PPCI in a timely fashion (odds ratio=4.13, Prural areas were less likely to be transported directly to PCI-capable facilities, resulting in time delay to PPCI compared with those in metropolitan areas.

  19. Occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and development of a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine ephemeral fever virus gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tsuyoshi; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Ikemiyagi, Kazufumi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Moemi; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    In September 2012, several cows and a calf showed decreased activity, anorexia and fever on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF). We isolated BEF virus (BEFV) from one of the affected cows and then determined the complete genome sequence of the G gene, which encodes a class I transmembrane glycoprotein of BEFV. The BEFV isolate in this case, ON-3/E/12, was sorted into the same cluster as other BEFV isolates in Japan, Taiwan and China obtained in 1996-2004 and was most closely related to a 2002 Chinese isolate, JT02L, according to the phylogenetic analysis of the complete G gene. Since inactivated vaccines for BEF available in Japan are considered effective against the ON-3/E/12 isolate as well as other isolates in East Asia from 1996-2004, annual vaccination should be conducted to prevent BEF in Okinawa. Additionally, in this study, we developed an RT-PCR assay to detect the BEFV gene in Japan and neighboring countries. Our assay was able to amplify target sequences in all of the tested BEFV isolates, including 18 isolates in Japan and another isolate in Australia. The assay was found to be useful also for testing RNA samples extracted from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per tube. We believe that our assay would be an important tool for the screening of BEFV infection and the diagnosis of BEF.

  20. [A 10-year community intervention for disability prevention and changes in physical, nutritional, psychological and social functions among community-dwelling older adults in Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Amano, Hidenori; Fukaya, Taro; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Hoshikawa, Natsumi; Tsuchiya, Yumiko; Shinkai, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    We reported previously that a 10-year community intervention for disability prevention successfully extended healthy life expectancy at 70 years and decreased the enrollment rate of the Long-Term Care Insurance in Kusatsu, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. In order to clarify functional factors that contributed to healthy aging, this study examined changes in physical, nutritional, psychological and social functions in older adults who participated in annual health checkups over the period. Data sources were participants in annual health checkups conducted from 2002 to 2012 and respondents to biannual monitoring surveys conducted from 2003 to 2011. The target population was all older adults aged 70 years and over living in Kusatsu. The average participation rate over the period was 34.7% for the annual health checkups and 95.0% for the monitoring surveys. First, we examined the representativeness of the participants in annual health checkups by comparing them with the responders to monitoring surveys in terms of their higher-level functional capacity, as measured by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) (Analysis 1). Second, we examined changes in the physical (4 measures), nutritional (3 measures), and psychological and social (4 measures) functions of participants in annual health checkups over the period. In this analysis, we standardized the data for each year on 11 measures to a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.0 using the 2002 data as the standard, and conducted statistical tests for the slopes of the linear approximate equation (intercept=0) (Analysis 2). In Analysis 1, the TMIG-IC scores for participants in the annual health checkups were significantly higher in both sexes than were those for responders to the monitoring surveys. However, there were no significant year×group interactions in the scores. The difference in scores between the two groups was small for participants in their seventies, but large for

  1. A case study of liquefaction risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer using CPT and electric resistivity data in the Hinode area, Itako City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinguuji, Motoharu; Toprak, Selcuk

    2017-12-01

    The Hinode area of Itako City in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, suffered some of the most severe liquefaction damage of any areas in the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011. This liquefaction damage has been investigated by Itako City, as well as by universities and research institutes in Japan. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has carried out numerous investigations along the Tone River, and in particular, intensive surveys were done in the Hinode area. We have conducted a risk analysis based on the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer measured using cone penetration testing (CPT) data and electric resistivity data obtained in the Hinode area. The distribution of the risk estimated from CPT at 143 points, and that obtained from analysis of the resistivity survey data, agreed with the distribution of actual damage. We also carried out conventional risk analyses method using the liquefaction resistance factor (FL) and liquefaction potential index (PL) methods with CPT data. The results show high PL values over the entire area, but their distribution did not agree well with actual damage in some parts of the study area. Because the analysis of the thickness and depth of the liquefaction layer, using geophysical prospecting methods, can cover a widespread area, this method will be very useful in investigating liquefaction risk, especially for gas and water pipelines.

  2. Web survey-based selection of controls for epidemiological analyses of a multi-prefectural outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in Japan associated with consumption of self-grilled beef hanging tender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Y; Ohshima, N; Odaira, F; Nakamura, N; Ichikawa, H; Matsuno, K; Shuri, J; Toyozawa, T; Terajima, J; Watanabe, H; Nakashima, K; Sunagawa, T; Taniguchi, K; Okabe, N

    2018-03-01

    An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case-control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12-48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case-control study by local public health centres, but our matched case-control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.

  3. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illness caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus by using population-based telephone survey data, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 2005 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kunihiro; Kasuga, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Emiko; Inagaki, Shunichi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Komatsu, Mayumi; Toyofuku, Hajime; Angulo, Frederick J; Scallan, Elaine; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2011-10-01

    Most cases of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease are not ascertained by public health surveillance because the ill person does not always seek medical care and submit a stool sample for testing, and the laboratory does not always test for or identify the causative organism. We estimated the total burden of acute gastroenteritis in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, using data from two 2-week cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. To estimate the number of acute gastroenteritis illnesses caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Miyagi Prefecture, we determined the number of cases for each pathogen from active laboratory-based surveillance during 2005 to 2006 and adjusted for seeking of medical care and submission of stool specimens by using data from the population-based telephone surveys. Monte Carlo simulation was used to incorporate uncertainty. The prevalence of acute gastroenteritis in the preceding 4 weeks was 3.3% (70 of 2,126) and 3.5% (74 of 2,121) in the winter and summer months, yielding an estimated 44,200 episodes of acute gastroenteritis each year in this region. Among people with acute gastroenteritis, the physician consultation rate was 32.0%, and 10.9% of persons who sought care submitted a stool sample. The estimated numbers of Campylobacter-, Salmonella-, and V. parahaemolyticus -associated episodes of acute gastroenteritis were 1,512, 209, and 100 per 100,000 population per year, respectively, in this region. These estimates are significantly higher than the number of reported cases in surveillance in this region. Cases ascertained from active surveillance were also underrepresented in the present passive surveillance, suggesting that complementary surveillance systems, such as laboratory-based active surveillance in sentinel sites, are needed to monitor food safety in Japan.

  5. Public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Masae

    1991-01-01

    Public or social risk perception is composed of individual risk perceptions. But public or social risk perception should be understood as a product of social dynamism, not the sum of individual risk perceptions. After the Chernobyl accident Japanese antinuclear movements expanded nationwide. In particular, there was a strong upsurge of criticism of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Complex (NFCC) project in the siting area at Rokkasho-mura, and even in other places. The movement against the NFCC project peaked with the election of an anti-nuclear candidate in the 1989 election to the Upper House of the Japanese parliament. The result of this election, and others in the same area, reflected nuclear risk perceptions in the siting prefecture (local authority district) of Aomori. This paper examines the public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan. The anti-NFCC movement now has a core of regional support. Given a triggering event, the anti-NFCC movement could revive rapidly and the movement could spread nationwide. (author)

  6. The Follow-up IAEA International Mission on Remediation of Large Contaminated Areas Off-Site the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Tokyo and Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, 14-21 October 2013. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In October 2011, the IAEA conducted an International Mission to Japan to support the remediation of large contaminated areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In response to the request made by the Government of Japan, in October 2013, the IAEA organized a follow-up International Mission on remediation of large contaminated areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPP (hereinafter referred to as the 'Follow-up Mission' or the 'Mission') with the main purpose of evaluating the progress of the on-going remediation works achieved since the previous mission in October 2011. The Follow-up Mission Team involved 13 international experts. Additionally, 3 experts of the Working Group 5 (Subgroup 5.2, Remediation) in charge of preparing the IAEA Report on TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Accident accompanied the Mission as observers to obtain first-hand information for the report. The Follow-up Mission had the following three objectives: 1. To provide assistance to Japan in assessing the progress made with the remediation of the Special Decontamination Area (not included in the previous mission of 2011) and the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas; 2. To review remediation strategies, plans and works, in view of the advice provided by the previous mission on remediation of large contaminated off-site areas; and 3. To share its findings with the international community as lessons learned. The Mission was conducted through the assessment of information provided to the Team and by means of professional and open discussions with the relevant institutions in Japan, including national, prefectural and local institutions. The Japanese authorities provided comprehensive information on their remediation programme. The Mission Team visited the affected areas, including several sites where activities on remediation were conducted. The Team also visited some temporary storage sites for radioactive waste and soil generated in the remediation activities, as well as a

  7. Changes in Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight in Women who Delivered at Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital in Tamba, Japan during 27 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Houu; Tanimura, Kenji; Nakashima, Yuki; Maruo, Motoyoshi; Sakai, Keiichiro; Ueda, Yasuo; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-12-03

    Two independent guidelines on appropriate weight gain for Japanese pregnant women have been established in 1997 and 2006. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the amount of gestational weight gain in pregnant women, the birth weight of their neonates, and the incidence of complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome in women who delivered at Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital. Between 1988 and 2014, 6367 women delivered live singleton neonates at full term. The study period was divided into period I (1988-1996), period II (1997-2005), and period III (2006-2014). Changes in weight gain and birth weight were assessed. Complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome were compared among the periods. Weight gain had been decreased in periods I and II, and weight gain was increased in period III. There was no difference in birth weights between the periods. The incidences of pregnancy-induced hypertension in periods II and III were higher than that in period I (pwomen.

  8. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008–2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Methods Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. Results There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had “uncertain” as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Conclusions Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures. PMID:27252738

  9. Differences in monthly variation, cause, and place of injury between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures: 6-year survey (2008-2013) in Kyoto prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mikami, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takumi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nagae, Masateru; Oka, Yoshinobu; Sawada, Koshiro; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures reportedly differ by age and regionality. We investigated differences in monthly variations of the occurrence of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures as well as place and cause of injury in the Kyoto prefecture over a 6-year period. Fracture type (neck or trochanteric fracture), age, sex, place of injury, and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥ 65 years with hip fractures that occurred between 2008 and 2013 who were treated in 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 in an urban area and 8 in a rural area). The proportion of sick beds in the participating hospitals was 24.7% (4,151/16,781). Monthly variations in the number of patients were investigated in urban and rural areas in addition to the entire Kyoto prefecture. Place of injury was classified as indoors or outdoors, and cause of injury was categorized as simple fall, accident, or uncertain. There were 2,826 patients with neck fractures (mean age, 82.1 years) and 3,305 patients with trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). There were similarities in the monthly variation of the number of fractures in addition to the place and cause of injury between neck and trochanteric fractures. Indoors (approximately 74%) and simple falls (approximately 78%) were the primary place and cause of injury, respectively. The place of injury was not significantly different by fracture type with each age group. Significantly more patients with neck fracture had "uncertain" as the cause of injury than trochanteric fracture in all age groups. Based on the results of the present study, the injury pattern might not have a great effect on the susceptibility difference between neck and trochanteric fractures.

  10. Attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1–3 Norio Yasui-Furukori,2,3 Manabu Yamazaki,4 Kazutaka Shimoda,3,5 Takao Mori,4 Takuro Sugai,3,6 Hiroshi Matsuda,4 Yutaro Suzuki,3,6 Yoshitake Minami,4 Yuji Ozeki,3,5 Kurefu Okamoto,4 Toyoaki Sagae,7 Toshiyuki Someya3,6 1Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Japanese Society of Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology, 4Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association, Tokyo, 5Department of Psychiatry, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, 6Department of Psychiatry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 7Department of Health and Nutrition, Yamagata Prefectural Yonezawa University of Nutrition Sciences, Yonezawa, Japan Background: Metabolic syndrome is a growing concern among patients with schizophrenia because metabolic abnormalities are widely regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The current study assessed attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A brief questionnaire was constructed to investigate patient recognition of the following broad areas: dietary habits, lifestyle, self-monitoring, knowledge, and medical practice. Between January 2012 and June 2013, questionnaires were sent to patients associated with 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association. All of the participants (n=22,072; inpatients =15,170, outpatients =6,902 were diagnosed with schizophrenia based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, or the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision. Results: Approximately 55.0% (8,069/14,669 of inpatients and 44.8% of outpatients (2,978/6,649 reported that they did not exercise at all. Although 60.9% (4,116/6,760 of outpatients reported that they felt obese, only 35.6% (5

  11. Postsecondary Educational Decision-Making among First-Generation College-Bound Students in Okinawa Prefecture, with Consideration of the Population Problem in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaki, Yuki

    2010-01-01

    In correspondence to an overall decline in the Japanese population, the number of young students in Japan has been dramatically decreasing to the extent that the Japanese government has predicted a situation in which as of 2009 admissions places in Japanese universities will be equal to the number of applicants. Currently, approximately fifty…

  12. Current status of sea transport of nuclear fuel materials and LLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    Along with the basic policy of the nuclear fuel cycle of Japan, many fuel cycle facilities have been already constructed in Rokkasho-Mura, Aomori prefecture, such as the uranium enrichment plant, the low level waste disposal center and the receiving pool of the spent nuclear fuels for reprocessing. These facilities belong to the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited. (JNFL). Domestic sea transport of the spent nuclear fuels (SF) has been carried out since 1977 to the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, and the first sea transport of the SF to the fuel cycle facility in Rokkasho-Mura was done in Oct, 1998 using a new exclusive ship 'Rokuei-Maru'. Sea transport of the low level radioactive wastes (LLW) has been carried out since 1992 to the Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center, and about 130,000 LLW drams were transported from the nuclear power plant sites. These sea transport have demonstrated the safety of the transport of the nuclear fuel cycle materials. It is hoped that the safe sea transport of the nuclear fuel materials will contribute to the more progress of the nuclear fuel cycle activities of Japan. (author)

  13. Radioactive Cs accumulations in wildlife (some species of birds and mammals). Collected from eastern part of Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Izumi; Nomura, Azumi; Masukawa, Takeshi; Ozaki, Hirokazu; Watai, Chie; Hayashidani, Hideki; Gomi, Takashi; Yoshida, Makoto; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive Cs ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) concentrations were measured in various organs and tissues of wild animals (Four species of mammals and 3 species of birds) collected from eastern part of Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture, during 2011 to 2013. Muscular concentrations of radioactive Cs were higher than the other organs and tissues such as liver and kidney. However, the tissues which has important role such as brain and reproductive gland showed comparative concentrations of radioactive Cs. Decreasing trends of radioactive Cs in body of wildlife were observed from in April of 2011 to end of 2013. In the other hand, species inhabiting in forest tended to keep relatively high levels of radioactive Cs. Concentrations of radioactive Cs in great cover of birds were higher than those in other parts of feather such as breast feathers. Clearly high concentrations were observed in vane of feather when comparing with those of shaft. These findings suggest that feather samples of birds are effective parts as indicator of exterior pollution of their habitat and also suggest that air pollution of radioactive Cs still continued during on 2012 and 2013. Relative higher concentrations of radioactive Cs were detected in the body of piglets than those of mother of Japanese wild boar and comparative concentrations were observed in the egg albumen and yolk of spot-billed duck. These were suggested that radioactive Cs can transfer to fetus and eggs from mother's body and pollution may continue through generations. Therefore, the continual monitoring using wildlife is require strongly for evaluation of ecological risks and human health. (author)

  14. Relative and combined performance of mammography and ultrasonography for breast cancer screening in the general population. A pilot study in Tochigi prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Satoshi; Ando, Jiro; Tsukioka, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer screening by mammography is thought to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality while ultrasonography is not accepted as a population screening modality, although the latter has been suggested to be useful in detection of cancer in the dense breast, relatively more typical for a younger woman. Mammography with medio-lateral oblique view was offered on trial in 1999-2000 for 3453 female residents in Tochigi prefecture who also underwent clinical breast examination and ultrasonography. The municipalities that provided cancer screening were informed of the final diagnosis for women with positive findings in the screening trial by doctors who performed the diagnostic evaluation. Linkage was also made between the list of participants in the trial and registrations at Tochigi Cancer Registry for breast cancer cases diagnosed during 1999-2001. Thirteen cases with breast cancer were identified during a 2-year follow-up period: 10 were diagnosed subsequent to positive finding in the trial; two were negative in the trial and diagnosed 23 and 24 months after, respectively; and one had a positive finding at the trial but was undiagnosed at first and then diagnosed 18 months after the trial. Among the 11 cases judged as positive in the trial, four were judged only by mammography while three were judged only by ultrasonography. Those mammography alone-detected cases were relatively young, at 36, 40, 47 and 54 years of age, respectively, while the ultrasonography alone-detected cases were aged 50, 55 and 68, respectively. Combined screening with mammography and ultrasonography may be feasible. A larger study is required to evaluate relative performance of mammography and ultrasonography in detail by characteristics of examinees and their breasts. (author)

  15. The Prevention Disaster Program of Flood in 2013 for the 4th Grade Students of Kawatanaka Primary School, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan and Underflow Channels Revealed in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Sanae; Murata, Mamoru

    2017-12-01

    The Typhoon No. 18 caused flood on September 15, 2013 in the Kawata River basin, Yoshinogawa City, Tokushima Prefecture. The Kawata River is a raised river bed of 36.7 m with banks to 40.5 m above sea level. The heavy rain did not destroy the banks but made the river level 39.4 m high and then pressed the underflow channel. As the Kawatanaka primary school is located at 36.2 m height, it was not submerged although the underflow channel overbanked the adjacent playground. An educational program on the prevention and reduction for natural disaster, which consists of science, social studies and presentation, was conducted to 18 students of the 4th grade in the period of integrated study in the Kawatanaka primary school from September 17, 2013. On the first day, flow current markings from 625 holes, 30 cm to 1 mm in diameter, on the playground were observed. The flow currents showed direction from SE to NW. On the basis of their observations on the flow currents that water runs from high to low, the students considered the phenomena as a result of tilting of the ground. They conducted activity as their homework to confirm their hypothesis to know if there is any tilt in the ground. They took plastic bottle filled with water and reviled that the ground had 1 to 2 degrees’ tilt to the NW during the experiment. On the bases of the difference between E to W flow of the Kawata River and their SE to NW estimated current flow on the playground and the fact that the bank of the river was not destroyed, the students suggested that the heavy rain had pressed the underflow channels. The suggested channels were found on the playground, where new school buildings were constructed in 2016, by one of the students who studied the program in 2013.

  16. Relationship between quality of life and restless legs syndrome among a community-dwelling population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazutoshi Kubo,1 Norio Sugawara,1,2 Ayako Kaneda,1 Ippei Takahashi,3 Kazuhiko Nakamura,1 Shigeyuki Nakaji,3 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 2Department of Psychiatry, Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, 3Department of Social Medicine, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan Objectives: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor disturbance that causes the production of impulses and dysesthesia and makes the patients feel as though they must move their lower extremities. Because the symptoms of RLS in the lower limbs tend to develop at night, RLS could cause sleep disorders. We investigated an association between the symptoms of RLS and the health-related quality of life among community-dwelling individuals in Japan. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, we enrolled 985 volunteers who participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project in 2013. The symptoms of RLS were evaluated by the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. The assessments included an interview to obtain sociodemographic data, the second version of the Short Form Health Survey, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the symptoms of RLS and subscores of the Short Form Health Survey, Version 2. Results: The overall prevalence of RLS in our participants was 1.0%. We found a significant and negative association between symptoms of RLS and physical functioning, role – physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, and the physical composite summary score. Conclusion: After adjusting for confounders such as age, sex, and comorbidity, the burden of RLS appears to be mainly a physical problem. Impaired health-related quality of life among community individuals with RLS emphasizes the importance of

  17. Radiology diagnostic devices under emergency electric power at disaster base hospitals during the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake: results of a survey of all disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maezawa, Shota; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Matsumura, Takashi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the management of emergency electric power and the operation of radiology diagnostic devices after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Timing of electricity restoration, actual emergency electric power generation, and whether radiology diagnostic devices were operational and the reason if not were investigated through a questionnaire submitted to all 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture in February and March 2013. Commercial electricity supply resumed within 3 days after the earthquake at 13 of 14 hospitals. Actual emergency electric power generation was lower than pre-disaster estimates at most of the hospitals. Only 4 of 11 hospitals were able to generate 60% of the power normally consumed. Under emergency electric power, conventional X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scanners worked in 9 of 14 (64%) and 8 of 14 (57%) hospitals, respectively. The main reason conventional X-ray and CT scanners did not operate was that hospitals had not planned to use these devices under emergency electric power. Only 2 of the 14 hospitals had a pre-disaster plan to allocate emergency electric power, and all devices operated at these 2 hospitals. Pre-disaster plans to allocate emergency electric power are required for disaster base hospitals to effectively operate radiology diagnostic devices after a disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:548-552).

  18. Growth and (137)Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw; Aye, Yi Swe; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different (137)Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of (137)Cs concentration and higher (137)Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different (137)Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna>turnip>mustard>radish. TF values of (137)Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher (137)Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher (137)Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher (137)Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth and {sup 137}Cs uptake of four Brassica species influenced by inoculation with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus in three contaminated farmlands in Fukushima prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aung, Han Phyo [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Djedidi, Salem; Oo, Aung Zaw [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Aye, Yi Swe [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hitoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, 321-8505 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea, E-mail: skimura@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The effectiveness of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus pumilus regarding growth promotion and radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) uptake was evaluated in four Brassica species grown on different {sup 137}Cs contaminated farmlands at Fukushima prefecture in Japan from June to August 2012. B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance growth in any of the plants, although it resulted in a significant increase of {sup 137}Cs concentration and higher {sup 137}Cs transfer from the soil to plants. The Brassica species exhibited different {sup 137}Cs uptake abilities in the order Komatsuna > turnip > mustard > radish. TF values of {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.018 to 0.069 for all vegetables. Komatsuna possessed the largest root surface area and root volume, and showed a higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue and higher {sup 137}Cs TF values (0.060) than the other vegetables. Higher {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants was prominent in soil with a high amount of organic matter and an Al-vermiculite clay mineral type. - Highlights: • PGPR inoculation did not enhance plant biomass of tested plants. • PGPR inoculation resulted in higher {sup 137}Cs concentration in plants. • Komatsuna that had larger root volume showed higher {sup 137}Cs TF from soil to plants. • Soil with high SOM and Al-vermiculite caused larger {sup 137}Cs transfer to plants.

  20. Reliability of telecommunications systems following a major disaster: survey of secondary and tertiary emergency institutions in Miyagi Prefecture during the acute phase of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Dai; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ochi, Sae; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    Telecommunication systems are important for sharing information among health institutions to successfully provide medical response following disasters. The aim of this study was to clarify the problems associated with telecommunication systems in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011). All 72 of the secondary and tertiary emergency hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture were surveyed to evaluate the telecommunication systems in use during the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, including satellite mobile phones, multi-channel access (MCA) wireless systems, mobile phones, Personal Handy-phone Systems (PHS), fixed-line phones, and the Internet. Hospitals were asked whether the telecommunication systems functioned correctly during the first four days after the earthquake, and, if not, to identify the cause of the malfunction. Each telecommunication system was considered to function correctly if the hospital staff could communicate at least once in every three calls. Valid responses were received from 53 hospitals (73.6%). Satellite mobile phones functioned correctly at the highest proportion of the equipped hospitals, 71.4%, even on Day 0. The MCA wireless system functioned correctly at the second highest proportion of the equipped hospitals. The systems functioned correctly at 72.0% on Day 0 and at 64.0% during Day 1 through Day 3. The main cause of malfunction of the MCA wireless systems was damage to the base station or communication lines (66.7%). Ordinary (personal or general communication systems) mobile phones did not function correctly at any hospital until Day 2, and PHS, fixed-line phones, and the Internet did not function correctly at any area hospitals that were severely damaged by the tsunami. Even in mildly damaged areas, these systems functioned correctly at telecommunications systems do not function.

  1. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oikawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011 after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density values

  2. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M.

    2013-07-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density) values of 25

  3. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M. [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan). Head Office

    2013-07-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. {sup 90}Sr, {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No {sup 131}I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of {sup 90}Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the {sup 90}Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of {sup 90}Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high {sup 137}Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were

  4. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Hotel Industry in Pacific Tohoku Prefectures ---From Spatio-Temporal Dependence of Hotel Availability---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A.

    This paper investigates the impact of the Great Japan Earthquake(and subsequent tsunami turmoil) on socio-economic activities by using data on hotel opportunities collected from an electronic hotel booking service. A method to estimate both primary and secondary regional effects of a natural disaster on human behavior is proposed. It is confirmed that temporal variation in the regional share of available hotels before and after a natural disaster may be an indicator to measure the socio-economic impact at each district.

  5. Concentration of 99Tc in edible seaweed (Konbu) in the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now performing uranium testing. We surveyed the distribution of background environmental radiation and radioactive materials around the plant before its full operation and studied causes of their fluctuation. The 99 Tc concentrations of edible seaweed (Konbu) collected in the northern part of Japan are reported here. Since the plant will release small amounts of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater near the plant might possibly increase in the future. Seaweeds are important food items in Japan, and concentrate some radionuclides in seawater. Therefore, the 99 Tc concentrations in edible seaweeds before the full plant's operation are important to investigate the effect of the plant on the local environmental radioactivity. However, there are few reports of concentrations in edible seaweeds in the world, including those of Japan. Because concentrations of this nuclide in a general environmental sample are extremely low, it is difficult to determine them using conventional radioanalytical techniques. In this study, Tc in a sample was simply and rapidly separated from matrix elements by a solid phase chromatographic resin and an anion exchange resin, successively. The nuclide was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Radioactivity of 137 Cs in the sample was also measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. In 2004, fishing industry cooperative associations of Aomori, Iwate and Hokkaido provided 15 edible seaweed (Konbu) samples, 11 Laminaria japonica and one each of L. ochotensis, L. angustata L. diabolica and L. longissima. Concentrations of 99 Tc in L. japonica ranged from 3.9 to 74 mBq kg -1 -dry, and mean value was 31 mBq kg -1 -dry. Concentrations in other edible seaweeds in Hokkaido were 3.4 - 6.2 mBq kg -1 -dry, except for L. longissima, which was lower than the detection limit (2.4 mBq kg -1 -dry

  6. Extent of flood damage increased cerebrovascular disease incidences in Iwate prefecture after the great East Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omama, Shinichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported on increases in the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases after huge earthquakes. An increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011. To assess whether tsunami damage or the earthquake was responsible for this trend, we assessed the relative impact of earthquake magnitude and flood damage on cerebrovascular disease. A total of 12 coastal municipalities facing the epicenter were divided into 4 flood severity groups according to the percentage of people living in the flooded areas (earthquake severity group. Odds ratios (ORs) of disease incidence and the adjusted ORs for seismic intensity (using the Mantel-Haenszel method) between the higher (≥40%) and the lower flooded area (Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011 increased because of tsunami damage and not because of the earthquake magnitude. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Present state of Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency held the annual report meeting on April 8, 1981. The main contents were the plan of research and development of nuclear ships hereafter, the present state of the repair works for the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', the progress of the selection of the new home port and others. In the last year, the function of research was given to the Agency by the revision of the related law. The full-scale repair works for Mutsu were started in August, 1980, and various equipments and shields in the containment vessel and the upper shields of the containment vessel have been removed. Subsequently, new shields are being installed. According to the report by the committee of nuclear ship research and development, the development of Mutsu, which is valuable as the experimental ship, is continued. Moreover, it is proposed to do the research and development of an improved marine nuclear plant for the purposes of securing the economic efficiency, the proving of the reliability of nuclear merchant ships, and the establishment of safety. As the home port for Mutsu, the new port will be constructed on the open sea side in Aomori Prefecture, and as a candidate, Sekine beach in Mutsu City was named. Till the completion of the new home port, Mutsu will be berthed in Ominato home port. The conditions for entering and berthing in Ominato port will be decided later. (Kako, I.)

  8. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Changes in radiological imaging frequencies in children before and after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Hayashida, Naomi; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Ohtsuru, Akira; Ohba, Takashi; Hasegawa, Arifumi; Sato, Hisashi; Shishido, Fumio; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yusa, Takeshi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-10-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised concerns about radiation exposure, including medical radiation exposure such as X-ray and CT, in residents of Fukushima. We compared the numbers and the ratio of outpatients less than 10 years old who underwent imaging examinations [e.g., CT, X-ray, MRI, ultrasonography (US), etc.] at Fukushima Medical University hospital in Fukushima, Japan before (April 1, 2008-March 31, 2011) and after (April 1, 2011-March 31, 2014) the accident. The number of outpatients less than 10 years old decreased after the accident. The number of outpatients less than 10 years old who underwent CT and X-ray examinations also significantly decreased after the accident (p Fukushima. We should continue to communicate with patients and their families to ensure that they understand the risks and benefits of radiological imaging in order to overcome their concerns about the nuclear disaster.

  10. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-03-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  11. Change in and long-term investigation of neuro-otologic disorders in disaster-stricken Fukushima prefecture: retrospective cohort study before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hasegawa

    Full Text Available On March 11, 2011, Japan's northeast Pacific coast was hit by a gigantic earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture is situated approximately 44 km north of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Soma General Hospital is the only hospital in Soma City that provides full-time otolaryngological medical care. We investigated the changes in new patients from one year before to three years after the disaster. We investigated 18,167 new patients treated at our department during the four years from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2014. Of the new patients, we categorized the diagnoses into Meniere's disease, acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, sudden deafness, tinnitus, and facial palsy as neuro-otologic symptoms. We also investigated the changes in the numbers of patients whom we examined at that time concerning other otolaryngological disorders, including epistaxis, infectious diseases of the laryngopharynx, and allergic rhinitis. The total number of new patients did not change remarkably on a year-to-year basis. Conversely, cases of vertigo, Meniere's disease, and acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss increased in number immediately after the disaster, reaching a plateau in the second year and slightly decreasing in the third year. Specifically, 4.8% of patients suffering from these neuro-otologic diseases had complications from depression and other mental diseases. With regard to new patients in our department, there was no apparent increase in the number of patients suffering from diseases other than neuro-otologic diseases, including epistaxis, and allergic rhinitis. Patients suffering from vertigo and/or dizziness increased during the first few years after the disaster. These results are attributed to the continuing stress and tension of the inhabitants. This investigation of those living in the disaster area highlights the need for long-term support.

  12. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2 and subunit-5 (ND5 genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φST = −0.00335, p > 0.05, corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01. Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  13. Estimation of Effective Dose from External Exposure in The Six Prefectures adjacent to Fukushima Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyatake Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused a release of radionuclides. Radionuclides were deposited on the ground not only in Fukushima prefecture but also in nearby prefectures. Since the accident, measurement of radiation in environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides has been performed by many organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously and over wide areas. In our study, using the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the six prefectures adjacent to Fukushima prefecture. Since car-borne survey was started a few months later after the accident, measured air dose rate in this method is mainly contributed by 137Cs and 134Cs whose half-lives are relatively long. Therefore, based on air dose rate of 137Cs and 134Cs and the ratio of deposition density of short-half-life nuclides to that of 137Cs and 134Cs, we also estimated effective dose contributed from not only 137Cs and 134Cs but also other short-half-life nuclides. We compared the effective dose estimated by the method above with that of UNSCEAR and measured data using personal dosimeters in some areas.

  14. Estimation of Effective Dose from External Exposure in The Six Prefectures adjacent to Fukushima Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Hirokazu; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused a release of radionuclides. Radionuclides were deposited on the ground not only in Fukushima prefecture but also in nearby prefectures. Since the accident, measurement of radiation in environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides has been performed by many organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously and over wide areas. In our study, using the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the six prefectures adjacent to Fukushima prefecture. Since car-borne survey was started a few months later after the accident, measured air dose rate in this method is mainly contributed by 137Cs and 134Cs whose half-lives are relatively long. Therefore, based on air dose rate of 137Cs and 134Cs and the ratio of deposition density of short-half-life nuclides to that of 137Cs and 134Cs, we also estimated effective dose contributed from not only 137Cs and 134Cs but also other short-half-life nuclides. We compared the effective dose estimated by the method above with that of UNSCEAR and measured data using personal dosimeters in some areas.

  15. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  16. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity – Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid–solid partition coefficient (K D ) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way. - Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations were assessed by using high performance well-type Ge

  17. Iodine intake by adult residents of a farming area in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and the accuracy of estimated iodine intake calculated using the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Haruo; Chiba, Keiko; Watanabe, Takao; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Seki, Takako

    2016-11-01

    Iodine intake by adults in farming districts in Northeastern Japan was evaluated by two methods: (1) government-approved food composition tables based calculation and (2) instrumental measurement. The correlation between these two values and a regression model for the calibration of calculated values was presented. Iodine intake was calculated, using the values in the Japan Standard Tables of Food Composition (FCT), through the analysis of duplicate samples of complete 24-h food consumption for 90 adult subjects. In cases where the value for iodine content was not available in the FCT, it was assumed to be zero for that food item (calculated values). Iodine content was also measured by ICP-MS (measured values). Calculated and measured values rendered geometric means (GM) of 336 and 279 μg/day, respectively. There was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference between calculated and measured values. The correlation coefficient was 0.646 (p value from calculated value. A survey of the literature suggests that the values in this study were similar to values that have been reported to date for Japan, and higher than those for other countries in Asia. Iodine intake of Japanese adults was 336 μg/day (GM, calculated) and 279 μg/day (GM, measured). Both values correlated so well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.646, that a regression model (Y = 130.8 + 1.9479X, where X and Y are measured and calculated values, respectively) could be used to calibrate calculated values.

  18. Prevalence of major depressive disorder among hemodialysis patients compared with healthy people in Japan using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetsu Tomita,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Norio Sugawara,1,2 Kohei Ogasawara,3 Koki Katagai,3 Hisao Saito,4 Kaori Sawada,5 Ippei Takahashi,5 Kazuhiko Nakamura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan; 2Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, Japan; 3School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan; 4Department of Urology, Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute, Hirosaki, Japan; 5Department of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Background: We investigated the prevalence of depression in hemodialysis (HD patients using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID and compared the rates with those of community dwelling people in Japan.Patients and methods: A total of 99 patients undergoing HD were recruited. Blood sampling was performed no later than 2 weeks prior to assessment. As a reference group for SCID and CES-D evaluation, 404 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who had participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included in this study. The SCID and the CES-D scale were administered to all participants to diagnose their depression. Participants who met the criteria of a major depressive episode according to the SCID were classified as SCID depression and the participants whose CES-D score was 16 or higher were classified as CES-D depression.Results: Ninety-nine HD patients completed the evaluation and data collection. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or CES-D scores between HD patients and controls. There were 12 cases of SCID depression in HD patients and four cases in controls. There was a significant difference between HD patients and controls in the prevalence of SCID depression. There were no significant differences between the two groups

  19. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  20. Plutonium isotopes concentration in seawater and bottom sediment off the Pacific coast of Aomori sea area during 1991-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, Shinji, E-mail: oikawa@kaiseiken.or.j [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Head Office, Research and Survey Group, Towa-Edogawabashi Bldg. 7F., 347 Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0801 (Japan); Watabe, Teruhisa [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Head Office, Research and Survey Group, Towa-Edogawabashi Bldg. 7F., 347 Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0801 (Japan); Inatomi, Naohiko [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Central Laboratory, 300 Iwawada, Onjuku-machi, Isumi-gun, Chiba 299-5105 (Japan); Isoyama, Naohiko; Misonoo, Jun; Suzuki, Chiyoshi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Morizono, Shigemitsu; Fujii, Seiji [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Head Office, Research and Survey Group, Towa-Edogawabashi Bldg. 7F., 347 Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0801 (Japan); Hara, Takeya [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Central Laboratory, 300 Iwawada, Onjuku-machi, Isumi-gun, Chiba 299-5105 (Japan); Kido, Katsutoshi [Marine Ecology Research Institute, Head Office, Research and Survey Group, Towa-Edogawabashi Bldg. 7F., 347 Yamabuki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0801 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    A radioactivity survey was launched in 1991 to determine the background levels of {sup 239+240}Pu in the marine environment off a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant before full operation of the facility. Particular attention was focused on the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in seawater and bottom sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The concentration of {sup 239+240}Pu was almost uniform in surface water, decreasing slowly over time. Conversely, the {sup 239+240}Pu concentration varied markedly in the bottom water and was dependent upon the sampling point, with higher concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu observed in the bottom water sample at sampling points having greater depth. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in the seawater and sediment samples was higher than that of global fallout Pu, and comparable with the data in the other sea area around Japan which has likely been affected by close-in fallout Pu originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in bottom sediment samples decreased with sea depth. The land-originated Pu is not considered as the reason of the increasing {sup 239+240}Pu concentration and also decreasing the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio with sea depth, and further study is required to clarify it. - Research highlights: {yields} A radioactivity survey on Pu isotopes was carried out in the coastal sea adjacent the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Aomori, Japan during 1991-2005. {yields} The {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations were uniform in surface water from one sampling point to another and decreased with a half-life of 17.8 y on the average. {yields} The time dependent decrease of {sup 239+240}Pu concentration in bottom water became more gradual with the increase of the depth. {yields} The {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations were relatively low in sediments at the shallow sampling points, but higher at the deeper points, without time dependent changes. {yields} The higher

  1. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  2. Study design and patient recruitment for the Japan Polyp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Sano,1,2 Takahiro Fujii,3,4 Takahisa Matsuda,3 Yasushi Oda,5,6 Shin'ei Kudo,7 Masahiro Igarashi,8 Hiroyasu Iishi,9 Kazuhiro Kaneko,1,10 Kinichi Hotta,3,11,12 Nozomu Kobayashi,3,13 Yuichiro Yamaguchi,12 Kiyonori Kobayashi,8 Hideki Ishikawa,14 Yoshitaka Murakami,15 Tadakazu Shimoda,16 Takahiro Fujimori,17 Yoichi Ajioka,18 Hirokazu Taniguchi,16 Hiroaki Ikematsu,1,3 Kazuo Konishi,10 Yutaka Saito,3 Shigeaki Yoshida1,19 1Department of Gastroenterology, Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, 2Gastrointestinal Center and Institute of Minimally Invasive Endoscopic Care (iMEC, Sano Hospital, Kobe, 3Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, 4Takahiro Fujii Clinic, Tokyo, 5Hattori GI Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Clinic, Kumamoto, 6Oda GI Endoscopy and Gastroenterology Clinic, Kumamoto, 7Digestive Disease Center, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, 8Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Sagamihara, 9Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka, 10Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 11Department of Gastroenterology, Saku Central Hospital, Saku, 12Division of Endoscopy, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Mishima, 13Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya, 14Department of Molecular-Targeting Cancer Prevention, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 15Department of Medical Statistics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, 16Pathology and Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, 17Department of Surgical and Molecular Pathology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, 18Division of Molecular and Diagnostic Pathology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 19Aomori Prefectural Hospital, Aomori

  3. The way that Ibaraki Prefecture has tackled atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hirokatsu; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuji, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    First, the development of the district centering around Tokai Village is mentioned, where at present Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Power Co. and others are located. Ibaraki Prefecture investigated the effects that atomic energy facilities exerted economically and socially to the district. As to the social environment investigation related to atomic energy facilities, its purpose, the objects of investigation, the contents and the method of investigation are reported. As to the progress of the development and utilization of atomic energy in Ibaraki Prefecture, 23 establishments are located in the district. Also there are 16 power reactors and research reactors, one fuel reprocessing plant, 4 nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, 86 nuclear fuel using facilities and 28 radioisotope using facilities. Their situations are reported. As to the atomic energy administration of Ibaraki Prefecture, the safety administration and the countermeasures for surrounding areas are explained. The effects exerted to the society and the economy of the district are reported. The results of the investigation of the conscience concerning atomic energy of residents are shown about energy and atomic energy, atomic energy administration, and the relation of atomic energy facilities with the district. (K.I.)

  4. Decontamination measures for Fukushima prefecture. Fukushima prefecture measures for promoting decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kouzou

    2013-01-01

    For Fukushima prefecture having suffered from significant damage associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear power plant accident, the decontamination work is the most urgent issue. The paper reports the present situation of the remediation acts of Fukushima Government done since the accident, particular emphasis on the removal of radioactive substances due to cesium 137 in the residential area. Government supports to promote the decontamination work and its operators, and encourages employers and employees in their efforts, to set up temporary storages of the produced radioactive wastes, to cultivate and improve technical supports for decontamination work and strengthen understanding and support of the local resident, thus providing the training course for the site supervisors, the person engaged in the work and management. (S. Ohno)

  5. IAEA International Peer Review Mission on Mid-and-Long-Term Roadmap Towards the Decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-4, Tokyo and Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, 15-22 April 2013. Mission Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Following the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) on 11 March 2011, the ''Mid-and-Long-Term Roadmap towards the Decommissioning of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-4'' was adopted by the Government of Japan and TEPCO Council on Mid-to-Long-Term Response for Decommissioning in December 2011 and revised in July 2012. The Roadmap, which is scheduled for an additional update in June 2013, describes the main steps and activities to be implemented for the decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS through the combined efforts of the Government of Japan and TEPCO. Within the framework of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the Government of Japan invited the IAEA to conduct an independent peer review of the Roadmap with two main objectives: - To improve the decommissioning planning and the implementation of pre-decommissioning activities at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi NPS; and - To share with the international community the good practices and lessons learned by the review. The review has been organized in two steps, and the IAEA conducted the first part in Japan from 15 to 22 April 2013. The objective of the first mission was to undertake an initial review of the Roadmap, including assessments of decommissioning strategy, planning and timing of decommissioning phases and a review of several specific short-term issues and recent challenges. Specifically, it covered the assessment of current reactor conditions, assessment of management of radioactive releases and associated doses, control of radioactive exposure of employees and decontamination within the site for improvement of working environment, structural integrity of reactor buildings and other constructions. The incidents recently experienced at the site, related with failures of the power supply and leakages of water from the underground reservoirs, were also included in the review of the specific short-term issues. The Government of Japan and TEPCO have

  6. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to 131 I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. (orig.)

  7. An epidemiological analysis of drunk driving accidents in Kagawa Prefecture - comparison of 1997-2000 and 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Inoue, Ken; Sakuta, Akira; Seki, Nobuhiko; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Eguchi, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we examined the number of drunk driving accidents and drunk driving accident toll in 1997-2000 and 2003-2006 for Kagawa Prefecture, which had Japan's highest number of traffic accident fatalities per 100,000 population.

  8. [The evolution of pharmaceutical schools in Toyama Prefecture since the Meiji era.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kiyonobu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to generalize the evolution of pharmaceutical schools in Toyama since the Meiji Era. The copy of a petition drafted by pill peddlers of Toyama in 1873 suggests that there were expectations that a "Semi (chemicals)" school was going to be established; however, this was not realized. In 1877, the Ishikawa Prefectural Government established a small-scale pharmaceutical school associated with the public hospitals of Kanazawa, Toyama and Kukui. In 1883, Toyama Prefecture became isolated from Ishikawa Prefecture, and the above-mentioned pharmaceutical school continued operations until 1887, when the government closed it due to financial problems. Persuaded through a lecture given by Dr. Keizo Tampa, a professor of Tokyo University, volunteers in Toyama Prefecture established an independent pharmaceutical school in 1894. However, student enrollment was too low to maintain operation, and the administration started planning to relocate the school to the city of Toyama. This was realized in 1897. In 1900, a massive fire burnt down much of the city, severely damaging the school building and much of the equipment inside. Restoration would be costly. As a solution to the problem, the administration of the school was transferred from Toyama City to Toyama Prefecture. With money from the prefecture, the school facilities were repaired and teaching staff recruited. In 1909, the school ranking was promoted to college status, and it became one of the first academic institutions to issue a pharmacist licence to graduates without requiring them to take the national examination (i.e., with the exception of medical colleges). Subsequently, in 1920, the administration of the college was transferred from the Toyama Prefectural Government to Japan's Central Government, at which time the facilities were improved and a wider range of education subjects were introduced.The college was again relocated to the city suburbs, where the facilities included the

  9. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  10. [Effects of quantity of Japanese cedar pollen, air pollution and urbanization on allergic rhinitis morbidity in Ibaraki prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Wu; Tamura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Yukio; Endo, Tomohiko; Watari, Chisato; Arai, Takashi; Murakami, Masataka

    2002-07-01

    It has been reported that morbidity from allergic rhinitis in the National Health Insurance records in Ibaraki Prefecture for May correlated with the quantity of Japan cedar pollen scattered in each year. The purpose of the present investigation was to clarify the Japanese cedar pollinosis contribution to morbidity, and also clarifying the influence of air pollution and medical resources on the crisis and symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The charts in four otolaryngology facilities were used for analyzing the Japan cedar pollinosis content with reference to the allergic rhinitis during the pollen season. The age-adjusted morbidity of allergic rhinitis was annually compared employing data of National Health Insurance records for medical examinations made in May during the period between 1988 and 1996 in Ibaraki Prefecture. The quantity of Japanese cedar pollen was measured at seven area points in Ibaraki Prefecture during the three-year period from 1994 to 1996, and was compared with the degree of Japan cedar wood occupation in each municipality. Traffic volume according to municipalities in Ibaraki Prefecture was taken as a surrogate indicator of air pollution. The area otolaryngology facilities and doctors were taken as medical resources. Values were thus compared with allergic rhinitis morbidity. Sixty to eighty percent of the allergic rhinitis patients examined in May were found to be suffering from pollinosis. The quantities of Japanese cedar pollen scatter at the seven points in Ibaraki Prefecture varied in concert every year, the quantities correlating well with the area of Japanese cedar woods stands in each municipality in some but not in other years. The morbidity in the records of allergic rhinitis according to municipalities correlated negatively with the proportion of the population occupied in farming (r = -0.38) and with the area of Japanese cedar woods in each municipality (r = -0.40). The traffic volume calculated according to municipalities in

  11. Current status of radiotherapy in Kumamoto Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Noriharu

    1987-01-01

    As of December 1985, Kumamoto Prefecture had 14 facilities for radiotherapy, and 8 of them had capabilities of intracavitary radiotherapy. However, the computers for radiotherapy were installed in only 14 %, the simulators were installed in 36 %, and radiotherapy by radiologist was carried out in 64 % of these facilities. In Kumamoto, 1120 patients were treated by external radiotherapy and 83 patients by intracavitary radiotherapy per year. Two-hundred and thirty-one cases of them were lung cancer, 142 uterine cervical carcinoma, 92 esophageal cancer, and 79 breast cancer. The radiotherapeutic rate of patients which were estimated as neoplasms was only 23 % for all sites, but it was 77 % for the larynx, 65 % for the esophagus, 61 % for the uterus, and 42 % for the lung. The results of this study suggest that radiotherapists must make an effort to carry out more precise radiotherapy and also to extend the indication of radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Table of written agreements on securing safety of nuclear power plants (Saga, Shimane, Fukushima, Ehime, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Fukui and Shizuoka prefectures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A table collecting the written agreements concluded between local city, town and village offices, prefectural governments and the local nuclear enterprises on securing nuclear power safety is given, which was prepared by the study committee on local development and finance problems in Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. The prefectures, with each of which the agreement was concluded are Saga, Shimane, Fukushima, Ehime, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Fukui and Shizuoka. The local nuclear enterprises are Kyushu, Chugoku, Tokyo, Shikoku, Tohoku, Chubu and Kansai Electric Power Companies, Japan Atomic Power Company, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, etc. The contents of the agreements are as follows: radioactive waste and material control, understanding in advance of plans, environmental radioactivity measurement, presentation of measured results, hazard countermeasures, communication in normal plant operation and others, on the spot inspection, damage compensation, etc. (J.P.N.)

  13. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2008-01-01

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

  14. Discovery of Natural Infection by Metagonimus hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in Japanese Water Shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUDO, Noboru; SHIGETA, Kai; MATSUMOTO, Koji; OYAMADA, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT ABSTRACT. A total of 611 preserved adult Metagonimus spp. specimens recovered from 32 of 53 Japanese water shrews (Chimarrogale platycephala) that had previously been collected in Aomori Prefecture between June 1994 and August 1996, were examined in this study. Morphological examination revealed that 603 of these flukes were identical to M. hakubaensis Shimazu, 1999, and that the others were M. takahashii Suzuki, 1930 (n=4), M. otsurui Saito et Shimizu, 1968 (n=2), and M. miyatai Saito et al., 1997 (n=2). Each of the 32 Japanese water shrews infected with M. hakubaensis contained between 1 and 83 flukes. This is the first record of the natural final host for M. hakubaensis, since this fluke species was described. PMID:25131808

  15. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  16. General remarks. Regional revitalization in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on the efforts of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, this paper introduces the movement of decommissioning and decontamination, as well as the efforts for regional revitalization. After the accident, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan performed information collection / analysis / evaluation, held a variety of symposiums, listened to the opinions of experts and knowledgeable persons in and out of Japan, discussed the measures for the accident, and expressed its opinions. The investigation committee academically summarized a wide variety of information about the accident, and published a report. In its accident investigation report, it analyzed the underlying factors of the accident, and proposed recommendations of 50 items. It has continued for an additional contribution to complete the decommissioning project. It is disseminating accurate and easy-to-understand information as the standpoints of residents as well as a nuclear expert. It dispatches specialists to 'Decontamination Information Plaza' to continuously carry out the decontamination advisory job. As part of regional revitalization, it has been implementing a support, such as the provision of counselling and accurate information for the decision-making on the returning-home of refugees. Its contents are as follows; (1) provision of information on the decontamination situation of each site, (2) consultation about the health effects of radiation, and (3) dispatch cooperation of lecturers for education of the staff of municipalities. (A.O.)

  17. Successful Treatment of a Case of Necrotizing Fasciitis due to Vibrio vulnificus in a Cold Climate in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Chiho; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Aida, Yoshihisa; Ito, Katsunori; Ishizawa, Yoshiya; Saitoh, Kyoji; Kasai, Tomonori; Ohnishi, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus infection often occurs in warm regions, frequently leading to necrotizing fasciitis, sepsis, and death. We herein report a rare case presenting in a cold climate region in northern Japan, Aomori district, of a V. vulnificus infection complicated by necrotizing fasciitis and septic shock. The patient's prior history of injury and typical clinical course were helpful clues to the diagnosis of V. vulnificus infection, and early initiation of antimicrobial treatment saved his life. V. vulnificus infection should be considered even in cold regions, particularly if patients have risk factors.

  18. Detection of Histamine in Fish and Fishery Products in Osaka Prefecture (Fiscal 2015 Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Takatori, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Sachiko; Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, You; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Histamine food poisoning is caused by ingestion of spoiled fish containing high levels of histamine. This paper reports cases in which histamine was detected in Osaka prefecture in fiscal year 2015 in a survey of fish and fishery products on the market and the food poisoning. A suspected case of histamine food poisoning was also evaluated to investigate the cause and minimize further problems. Histamine in food was separated on SPE cartridge columns, and analyzed after derivatization with fluorescamine by means of HPLC-FL. Histamine was detected in some fishery products on the market and in food that had caused poisoning. The samples in which histamine was detected were semi-dried whole round herring (Urumeiwashi-maruboshi), mackerel (Saba) and sardine dumpling (Iwashi-tsumire). These foods were the main causes of histamine food poisoning according to the report of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Government of Japan.

  19. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study.

  20. Trends in forensic autopsy in Chiba prefecture over the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Go; Ishihara, Kenji; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Torimitsu, Suguru; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-09-01

    The death investigation system in Japan is in the midst of a great transformation. As part of efforts to revise this system, in this study we analyzed the reasons the police refer unnatural death cases for forensic autopsy and, from an understanding of the trends of such referrals, we discuss the future direction of handling unnatural deaths in our country. For 1618 forensic autopsy cases handled by the First Investigation Division of Chiba Prefectural Police that were referred to our institution for forensic autopsy between 2003 and 2012, we tallied the number of autopsies by sex, age group, and reason for forensic autopsy for each year and investigated trends in the referrals over time. The results revealed that the number of autopsies increased annually from 2003 to 2012, with a marked increase from 2010. The number of autopsies increased particularly for cases of suspected criminal deaths, where it was unclear to the police before the forensic autopsy whether or not the death resulted from a criminal act. Our findings suggest that the number of forensic autopsies will continue to increase into the future in Chiba prefecture, and is a trend that is inevitable if we are to prevent criminal death cases from being overlooked. Although referrals for forensic autopsy in Japan are made only when criminal activity is suspected, the original purpose of death investigations is not only to avoid overlooking crimes, but also to flag public health issues. Therefore, together with the police, we need to review the original purpose and conduct more in-depth discussions about when referrals are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early detection and response for measles and rubella cases through the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System in Ibaraki Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Kurita, Junko; Takagi, Takeshi; Nagata, Noriko; Nagasu, Natsuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Ibaraki Prefecture, all (nursery) schools have joined the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System (hereafter denoted as (N)SASSy), which is operated by the Japan School Health Association to monitor the prevalence of infectious diseases, the early detection and response for outbreaks, and prevention of large outbreaks. Prefectural government officers also utilize it as a control measure for infectious diseases. In particular, when cases of measles or rubella are registered, (N)SASSy sends e-mails automatically to prefectural government officers to activate control measures. This paper summarizes administrative responses by prefectural government officers for measles or rubella cases using (N)SASSy and discusses the future challenges.Methods We summarized registration, detection, and first response data for measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy and compared the number of detected and reported cases enforced by the Infectious Diseases Control Law from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014.Results The public health center questioned hospitals/clinics and (nursery) schools about all registered measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy on the same day to check the entered information. In the past 2 years, there were 5 measles and 56 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 measles and 19 rubella cases in 2014 registered with (N)SASSy. All cases were checked and investigated by the public health center. Of all cases detected by (N)SASSy, 7 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 rubella case in 2014 were reported based on the law. No measles cases were reported in the 2 years. The results of investigations and laboratory tests were given as feedback to the (nursery) schools. If the case did not case definition determined by the law, we changed the status in (N)SASSy to suspected or discarded cases.Conclusion Since (N)SASSy assists prefectural government officers with earlier detection of and response for infectious diseases, it definitely contributes to infection control

  2. Japan's Four Major Smart Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    A brief overview is given of initiatives, developments, projects, investment, incentives and business opportunities for Dutch companies in Japan with regard to smart cities. The four major smart cities are Yokohama City, Toyota City, Keihanna City (Kyoto Prefecture's Kansai Science Park), and Kitakyushu City.

  3. A Fossil Leaf Mine of Nepticulidae(Lepidoptera)from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroko, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A mine of Stigmella (Nepticulidae) on a fossil leaf of Betula grossa or an allied species was discovered in the Upper Miocene strata of the Kabutoiwa Plant Bed, located on the boundary of Nagano and Gumma Prefectures. This is the first record of a fossil mine in Japan. Key words : Nepticulidae, Stigmella, fossil mine, Kabutoiwa, plant bed.

  4. Development of Education in Japan, 1974-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Tokyo (Japan).

    Organization and recent trends in education in Japan are discussed. Part one of the report describes administration, structure, and curriculum. The central education authority is the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. Matters of policy and finances are administered by boards of education on prefectural and municipal levels. Elementary and…

  5. Comparative Assessment of Women Farmers' Status in Japan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research compared the status of Japanese and Nigerian women farmers. The study was conducted in Sera Chuo, Hiroshima and Ohnan Chuo, Shimane prefecture, Chugoku region of Japan and Southwestern part of Nigeria covering three locations (Omi-Adio, Ijaye and Kila) within the suburban area of Ibadan ...

  6. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  7. Radiation Exposure from CT Examinations in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tsushima, Yoshito; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Takei, Hiroyuki; Otake, Hidenori; Endo, Keigo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Computed tomography (CT) is the largest source of medical radiation exposure to the general population, and is considered a potential source of increased cancer risk. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation of CT use in Japan, and to investigate variations in radiation exposure in CT studies among institutions and scanners. Methods Data-sheets were sent to all 126 hospitals and randomly selected 14 (15%) of 94 clinics in Gunma prefecture which had CT scan...

  8. The relationship between suicide and five climate issues in a large-scale and long-term study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Nishimura, Y; Fujita, Y; Ono, Y; Fukunaga, T

    2012-08-01

    Suicide rates in Japan were high in 1998 and have remained high since then. Many researchers have discussed the current state of suicide in Japan and the world; however, there are various opinions about the relationship between suicide and climate. In the present study, we report on long-term data of suicide and examine five climatic issues in Japan as a whole and in 10 selected prefectures: the five with the highest suicide rates in 2006 (Akita, Iwate, Shimane, Yamagata and Miyazaki Prefectures) and the five with the lowest (Nara, Tokushima, Okayama, Kanagawa and Kyoto Prefectures). Annual age-adjusted suicide rates were found to have a significant inverse correlation with annual mean air temperature in the five prefectures with the highest suicide rates and in the three prefectures with the lowest suicide rates among women. Annual age-adjusted suicide rates were significantly correlated with annual mean relative humidity in the three prefectures with the highest suicide rates among women and with the annual total sunshine duration in the three prefectures with the highest suicide rates among women. It is important that these associations between suicide and climatic factors be discussed further from various viewpoints, including those of many researchers and relevant organizations.

  9. Regional disparities in compliance with tobacco control policy in Japan: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tanihara, Shinichi; Takao, Soshi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-09-01

    The slow progress of tobacco control policy in Japan reflects the tension among the interests of the Finance Ministry (which remains the majority shareholder of Japan Tobacco, Inc), the Health Ministry, tobacco growers and consumers. We sought to examine regional disparities in compliance with national tobacco control legislation (the 2003 Health Promotion Law). Specifically, we sought to examine whether prefecture-level compliance with legislation was correlated with decreases in smoking prevalence, and decreases in lung cancer mortality rates. We also examined whether prefectural involvement in growing tobacco was associated with lower compliance with the law. From 2001 to 2007, higher prefectural compliance with tobacco control laws was associated with decreased prevalence of smoking. Decreased tobacco consumption was in turn associated with declining lung cancer mortality. Prefectures involved in growing tobacco exhibited lower levels of compliance with national tobacco control laws. The same prefectures also exhibited the worst improvement in smoking prevalence. This study in Japan suggests that tobacco control policies are being unevenly implemented across prefectures, and that measures to counteract the influence of local tobacco culture are required to reduce the disparities in regional tobacco control outcomes in that country.

  10. The Role of Toyama Prefectural Archives : Comprehensive Conservation and Use of Administrative Information in the Prefectural Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    Toyama Prefectural Archives which was opened in April, 1987 is a facility to conserve and utilize record information concerning prefectural administration comprehensively. The chapter 2 describes request for its establishment, the plan, the construction and details to the opening. The chapter 3 explains functions of archives, that is information disclosing function in relation to Information Disclosure Act, organization methods such as classification to conserve and utilize historical archival records, the management system to conserve and utilize current archival records. The chapter 4 deals with record management system which supports the Archives. The chapter 5 is concerned with future subjects such as office automation for clerical works of record management.

  11. Cs-134 and Cs-137 radioactivity in river waters in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma Prefectures in August 2012 after the Fukuhsima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S.; Ochiai, S.; Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224(Japan); Kanamori, M. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 921-1192 (Japan); Tomihara, S. [Environmental Aquarium Aquamarine Fukushima, 50 Tatsumi, Onahama, Iwaki, Fukushima 971-8101(Japan); Suzuki, K. [Gunma Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, 13 Shikishima, Maebashi, Gunma 371-1036 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    About 15 PBq from both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) because of venting operations and hydrogen explosions. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan reported total surface deposition of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in Japan. To estimate short-term and long-term impacts of the radiation dose in Japan, it is important to understand the dynamics of radionuclides, especially those of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, on river watershed environments. This study investigated {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in river systems in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma prefectures, Japan. The secondary radioactive dispersion of radiocesium from the contaminated watershed to the river waters is reported for research areas with widely various radiocesium deposition on ground surfaces at 18 months after the accident. Field experiments were conducted at a fixed station in four rivers (the Uta, Niida, Natsui, and Same Rivers) in Fukushima Prefecture, and the Kuji River, and Naka River in Ibaraki Prefecture in August 2012. The Abukuma River was set up one site at the upper, two sites in the middle reach in Fukushima Prefecture and at one site in the lower area in Miyagi Prefecture. The Tone River system has three stations at the upper river area in Gunma Prefecture and one site at the lower reach in Ibaraki Prefecture. Surface deposition results reveals significant external radioactivity in a zone extending northwest from the NPP. However, a mountainous area in Gunma Prefecture, located about 220 km from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP south of Fukushima Prefecture, shows similar accumulation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. The 20 L of surface river waters were collected at the station using buckets. The radioactivity of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the river waters was measured with gamma-ray spectrometry using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP)/Cs compound method with a low background Ge

  12. A review of the broodstock management and larviculture of the Pacific northern bluefin tuna in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Masuma, Shukei; Takebe, Takayuki; Sakakura, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed research on the broodstock management and larviculture of the Pacific northern bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Japan has been at the forefront of PBT research since 1970 due to the participation by federal and prefectural governments and universities in a national project aimed to optimize productivity of the sea around Japan. In 1979, scientists at Kinki University succeeded in the first spontaneous spawning in captivity by the broodstock of 5 year-old PBT. Succes...

  13. Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted.

  14. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  15. Individual income, income distribution, and self rated health in Japan: cross sectional analysis of nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yano, Eiji

    2002-01-05

    To assess the effects on self rated health of individual income and income distribution in Japan. Cross sectional analysis. Data collected on household income, self rated health, and other sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level from comprehensive survey of the living conditions of people on health and welfare in a nationally representative sample from each prefecture. Prefectures in Japan. 80 899 people aged >15 years with full records in survey. Dichotomous variable for self rated health of each respondent (0 if excellent, very good or good; 1 if fair or poor). Inequality in income at the prefecture level measured by the Gini coefficient was comparable with that in other industrialised countries. Unadjusted odds ratios show a 14% increased risk (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.27) in reporting poor or fair health for individuals living in prefectures with higher inequality in income. After adjustment, individual income was more strongly associated with self rated health than income inequality. Additional inclusion of regional effects showed that median income at the prefecture level was inversely related to self rated health. Individual income, probably relative to the median prefecture income, has a stronger association with self rated health than income inequality at the prefecture level.

  16. Inequality in Japan (1892-1941): physical stature, income, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassino, Jean-Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between physical stature, per capita income, health, and regional inequality in Japan at the prefecture-level for the period 1892-1941. The analysis shows that inequality in income and access to health services explains differences in average height of the population across the 47 Japanese prefectures during this period and that variation in income contributed to changes in height during the 1930s. Annual regional time series of height indicate that Japan experienced a regional convergence in biological welfare before 1914, and that a divergence occurred during the interwar period; personal inequality followed a similar pattern.

  17. Determination of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium in seaweed samples on the coast in Niigata Prefecture by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Nobuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan); Kano, Naoki [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan)], E-mail: kano@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp; Imaizumi, Hiroshi [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-nocho 8050, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs), Th and U in seaweeds of various species and in ambient surface seawater were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The seaweeds and the seawater samples were collected at 10 different coastal areas of Niigata Prefecture in Japan twice a year (spring and autumn) in 2004 and 2005. Results showed that concentration of REEs in seaweed species from Niigata Prefecture were about 10{sup 3} times higher than those in seawater, and the enrichment factors of REEs were larger in heavy REE than light REE. A significant concentration difference of REEs, Th and U was found among species even in the same phylum. Undaria pinnatifida had the highest concentration of U. Considering that U. pinnatifida has low concentrations of REEs among typical brown algae, different REEs and U uptake mechanisms are suggested. The concentration of REEs, Th and U did not vary remarkably between sampling points and/or seasons.

  18. The Archives of Prefectures: from dematerialization to document management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annantonia Martorano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This item analyses the key role that IT management of document workflow plays in the implementation of the administrative functions of the Prefectures. After presenting the history and the organization of the Prefecture, which is the most important decentralized office of the Ministry of the Interior, the dissertation analyses the effectiveness and economy of its administrative actions, now characterized by the wide use of IT tools and aiming at the complete dematerialization of its documents, with the complete abandonment of the paper form. This process, now irreversible, uses the methods of traditional archival discipline and it is strengthened by new technological devises, for a proper processing and storage of the digital or paper documents.

  19. Fact sheet on thyroid test in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Fukushima Prefecture chose about 360,000 people who were 18 years old or younger at the time of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi NPS on March 11, 2011, and started thyroid test as part of the prefectural health survey on October 9, 2011. The survey is entrusted to Fukushima Medical University of Medicine from Fukushima Prefecture. This fact sheet summarizes the current state of thyroid test in Fukushima Prefecture. A considerable amount of data and related information have been accumulated in the seventh year from the beginning. However, especially the information disclosed in English by people concerned combined the results of the second round, which was not analyzed properly, with those of the first round. This fact gives a suspicion of intention to deny the possibility of radiation influence in such a way as to make it invisible even if there was the influence. This study firstly prepared an English fact sheet to convey the actual situation in English. However, since some official information/views were contained in papers only available in English, this study also prepared the Japanese version for enabling to grasp the current situation. The Japanese version is supplemented with explanation rather than the Japanese translation of the English version, in order to make it easier to understand. The future of thyroid test is a topic that is causing controversy. Now that the transparency, scientific fairness, and the data integrity of Fukushima Medical University are suspected, it is extremely important that an independent analysis in the true sense is to be performed by qualified experts based on the latest evidence. (A.O.)

  20. Evaluation of environmental radiation dose in Ibaraki Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Ryoji

    1977-01-01

    In Ibaraki Prefecture, there is Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Committee in order to ensure the safety around nuclear power facilities. Environmental radioactivity data are collected every three months, and the grasp of the present situation, the clarification of causes, the evaluation of dose and the publication of results are made. Two instances in particular are described: of contamination paddies due to 14 C contained in drainage; contamination of rivers due to U contained in drainage. (Mori, K.)

  1. Fukushima after the Great East Japan Earthquake: lessons for developing responsive and resilient health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Shingo; Ahmed, Shahira; Goto, Rei; Inui, Thomas S; Atun, Rifat; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-06-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear-reactor meltdowns, produced one of the most severe disasters in the history of Japan. The adverse impact of this 'triple disaster' on the health of local populations and the health system was substantial. In this study we examine population-level health indicator changes that accompanied the disaster, and discuss options for re-designing Fukushima's health system, and by extension that of Japan, to enhance its responsiveness and resilience to current and future shocks. We used country-level (Japan-average) or prefecture-level data (2005-2014) available from the portal site of Official Statistics of Japan for Fukushima, Miyagi, and Iwate, the prefectures that were most affected by the disaster, to compare trends before (2005-2010) and after (2011-2014) the 'disaster'. We made time-trend line plots to describe changes over time in age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates in each prefecture. All three prefectures, and in particular Fukushima, had lower socio-economic indicators, an older population, lower productivity and gross domestic product per capita, and less higher-level industry than the Japan average. All three prefectures were 'medically underserved', with fewer physicians, nurses, ambulance calls and clinics per 100 000 residents than the Japan average. Even before the disaster, age-adjusted all-cause mortality in Fukushima was in general higher than the national rates. After the triple disaster we found that the mortality rate due to myocardial infarction increased substantially in Fukushima while it decreased nationwide. Compared to Japan average, spikes in mortality due to lung disease (all three prefectures), stroke (Iwate and Miyagi), and all-cause mortality (Miyagi and Fukushima) were also observed post-disaster. The cause-specific mortality rate from cancer followed similar trends in all three prefectures to those in Japan as a whole. Although we found a sharp

  2. Public acceptance activities by the Rokkasho project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushida, Yasunori

    1993-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, incorporated by mainly ten Japanese utilities, engages in constructing and operating nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing, uranium enrichment and low level radioactive waste disposal at Rokkasho village in Aomori prefecture, 600 kilometers north of Tokyo, where is the most northern part of Honshu island. This presentation deals with the situation concerning the Rokkasho project and our public acceptance activities. The expansion of anti nuclear movement was spread not only Aomori prefecture but also all over Japan, affected strongly by the Chernobyl accident. In 1988,16 anti-nuclear groups including labor-union organized a committee for the purpose of a campaign to collect signatures for opposing nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Those groups brought in a lawsuit against the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, for stopping the construction of enrichment plant. Facing furious anti nuclear fuel cycle movements in Aomori prefecture, the Federation of Electric Power Companies decided to re strengthen the public acceptance activities and established the Nuclear Fuel Joint head office together with Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co.and Japan Nuclear Fuel Industry Co. To this new organization many excellent members were dispatched from all electric power companies. The target area for public acceptance activities expanded from the surrounding area to all area of Aomori prefecture. The first policy of public acceptance activities is 'Appealing by face to face' which means the direct personal contact with people being anxious about nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The second main policy is 'Seeing the plant itself is better than persuading orally.' Survey conducted by a newspaper company in respect with the public acceptance of Rokkasho project in July 1989 July 1992 showed a favorable change of the public acceptance. However, one also has to recognize that most of people still have anxiety about the nuclear fuel cycle facilities and we shall

  3. Long-lived radioiodine in Japanese environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.; Watanabe, M.; Kurihara, K.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of long-lived radioiodine, 129 I (half-life 1.57 x 10 7 y) in the Japanese environment has been studied by measuring thyroids of humans and animals. The collected samples thyroids of (1) humans in Ibaraki Prefecture, in Kanto district, the central part of Japan, (2) cattle in Aomori Prefecture, north part of Japan, and (3) wild deer in Chiba Prefecture, in Kanto district. The measured mean isotopic ratio 129 I/ 127 I for thyroids of cattle in Aomori Prefecture is 3.5 ± 1.8 x 10 -9 . A higher value of 14 ± 5 x 10 -9 has been obtained for thyroids of wild deer in Kanto district. On the other hand, the measured ratio for human thyroids in Kanto district is 1 ± 0.2 x 10 -9 . This value is significantly lower than that of cattle thyroids in Aomori and also those reported for human thyroids in Europe and USA. The higher mean ratio for cattle thyroid in Kanto district is possibly explained by the influence of nuclear reprocessing plant. Lower mean ratio for human thyroid might be due to higher dietary intake of algae. (author)

  4. Investigation of scientific literacy on understanding of ionizing radiations in elementary and junior high school students in Kagoshima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutoku, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Recently in Japan, many investigations to grasp the ways of thinking in the national layers for energy, environment and radiation applications have been carried out. In the investigations for radiation applications, there is a pointing out that the age which the knowledge on radiations and their related matters is formed is predominantly in elementary school years. Therefore, in order to find out the future way of proceeding with the education of nuclear power and radiations in the curriculums of elementary and junior high schools, the questionnaire survey on radiations and their related matters was carried out for the public elementary and junior high school students in Kagoshima prefecture. The results of the questionnaire survey are summarized in the present paper. (K. Kato)

  5. A survey of radioactive levels of agricultural products in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki

    1997-01-01

    Past atmospheric nuclear testing which have been conducted frequently, have caused environmental pollution due to the diffusion of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and from the radioactive fallout. The environmental pollution from nuclear testing into the atmosphere has resulted in the radioactive contamination in agricultural products and has continued for a long time. The radioactive contamination of agricultural products occurs through air, water and soil which were contaminated by radioactive fallout. In this paper, for the purpose of analyzing the extent of the radioactive contamination levels in the agricultural products of Saitama Prefecture, spinach, green soybeans, dried shiitake and welsh onion, were selected among products, as the amount of the harvest is abundant in all of Japan. Radioactivity concentration was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. The radioactivity concentrations of artificial radioactive nuclides, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), were detected in the range which is considered to be the result of radioactive fallout. Moreover, in order to examine the effect on radioactivity concentrations in agricultural products by culinary processing, the raw agricultural products were boiled, and their radioactivity concentrations were compared with the raw produce. The radioactivity concentrations in the boiled were lower than those in the raw produce. (author)

  6. Social impacts induced by radiation risk in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    An accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant induced by an earthquake of M9.0 and subsequent tsunami gave various kinds of impacts around the plant. After reviewing arguments of local governments for low dose radiation risk, this paper analyzed social impacts by the risk in terms of a gap of emergency response between national and local governments, corruption of communities in various levels induced by plural statements for risk levels in low level radiation, and economic impacts for agricultural crops made in Fukushima prefecture. Afterwards, clues for improving the situation were discussed, which include understanding of characteristics of public perception, attitudes of experts and interactive risk communication. (author)

  7. Identification and complete genome analysis of novel picornavirus in bovine in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We identified novel viruses in feces from cattle with diarrhea collected in 2009 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, by using a metagenomics approach and determined the (near) complete sequences of the virus. Sequence analyses revealed that they had a standard picornavirus genome organization, i.e. 5...

  8. Contamination of River Water by Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Kazuo; Tsuji, Hidetaka; Rai, Shiba Kumar; Yamamoto, Akio; Masuda, Kuniyoshi; Endo, Takuro; Hotta, Hak; Kawamura, Takashi; Uga, Shoji

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, only a few rivers have been inspected for Cryptosporidium parvum contamination, and the methods used had low sensitivity. In 1998 and 1999, we used a method with higher sensitivity to examine all large rivers used as sources of water supply in one prefecture (which we divided into four areas) in western Japan for Cryptosporidium oocysts. One sample was collected at each of 156 sites along 18 rivers, and samples were tested for Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunomagnetic separation. Sa...

  9. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2005-07-01

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture.

  10. ROAD SLOPE HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF HIDA REGION IN GIFU PREFECTURE, JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Yusuke; Machida, Hiroki; Moriguchi, Shuji; Hara, Takashi; Sawada, Kazuhide; Yashima, Atsushi

    The road slope hazard, which is the occurrence rate of rock falls along the major road, in Hida region, consists of Takayama, Furukawa and Gero areas, is evaluated in this paper. This rock fall rate is estimated in two folds. First, the relative rate of lock falls is estimated by the Logit regression analysis based on the inventory data of slops along the major roads in the region which includes about 3000 slopes. The inventory data include topological, geological and geotechnical characteristics of each slope evaluated by the experts in 1996. The slopes are also classified into three categories by the experts as "measures required', "continuous observation" and "no measures required". Based on this classification, the logit regression analyses are carried out to rank the hazard of the slopes by their attributed characteristics as the explanatory variables. Once relative rate of lock falls are estimated for each slope, this rate is calibrated to the absolute rate by using the actual rock fall event records between 2004 and 2008. By these two folds estimation procedure, the absolute rate of rock fall for each slope along the roads are finally esti-mated. This study is a part of the infrastructure asset management strategy decision making program based on risk, and the information gained in this study is combined with other evaluation data for damage to propose the strategy for repair and maintenance plan of the road slopes in this region.

  11. Nitrate pollution and surface water chemistry in Shimabara, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K.; Amano, H.

    2017-12-01

    Shimabara city has been experiencing serious nitrate pollution in groundwater. To evaluate nitrate pollution and water chemistry in surface water, water samples were collected at 42 sampling points in 15 rivers in Shimabara including a part of Unzen city from January to February 2017. Firstly, spatial distribution of water chemistry was assessed by describing stiff and piper-trilinear diagrams using major ions concentrations. Most of the samples showed Ca-HCO3 or Ca-(NO3+SO4) water types. It corresponds to groundwater chemistry. Some samples were classified into characteristic water types such as Na-Cl, (Na+K)-HCO3, and Ca-Cl. These results indicate sea water mixing and anthropogenic pollution. At the upstream of Nishi-river, although water chemistry showed Ca-HCO3, ions concentrations were higher than that of the other rivers. It indicates that this site was affected by the peripheral anthropogenic activities. Secondly, nitrate-pollution assessment was performed by using NO3-, NO2-, coprostanol (5β(H)-Cholestan-3β-ol), and cholestanol (5α(H)-Cholestan-3β-ol). NO2-N was detected at the 2 sampling points and exceeded drinking standard 0.9 mg L-1 for bottle-fed infants (WHO, 2011). NO3-N + NO2-N concentrations exceeded Japanese drinking standard 10 mg L-1 at 18 sampling points. The highest concentration was 27.5 mg L-1. Higher NO3-N levels were observed in the rivers in the northern parts of the study area. Coprostanol has been used as a fecal contamination indicator, since it can be found in only feces of higher animals. Coprostanol concentrations at 8 sampling points exceeded 700 ng L-1 (Australian drinking water standard). Coprostanol has a potential to distinguish the nitrate pollution sources between chemical fertilizer or livestock wastes, since water samples with similar NO3-N + NO2-N concentration showed distinct coprostanol concentration. The sterols ratio (5β/ (5β+5α)) exceeded 0.5 at 18 sampling points. This reveals that fecal pollution has occurred.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of a sutra container excavated at the Minagi Daibutsuyama site, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Toshio; Tsukamoto, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    The historical age of a sutra container (Kyozutsu) excavated at the Minagi Daibutsuyama site was estimated by the AMS method. Radiocarbon ages for samples of the charred sutra kept in the container range from 950 to 1000 BP, corresponding to the first half of the 11th or the middle of the 12th century in the calibrated ages. The radiocarbon ages of wood charcoal blocks excavated around the container range from 1000 to 1100 BP, corresponding to calibrated ages from the 10th to the early 11th century. Since the radiocarbon age of wood charcoal can be decades older than the age of production as a result of the old wood effect, the historical age of the sutra container formation is estimated at the first half of the 11th century

  13. Chemistry of neutral and acid production fluids from the Onikobe geothermal field, Miyagi prefecture, Honshu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nakanishi, S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation has shown that production fluids at Onikobe vary widely in chemical composition and concentration but have certain characteristics in common. These characteristics include a rather narrow range of reservoir temperatures from 230 to 255 deg. C measured temperatures; 225 to 280 deg. C calculated from enthalpy assuming no excess steam; 241 to 270 deg. C calculated from the quartz saturation geothermometer and 253 to 280 deg. C calculated from the most reasonable Na/K geothermometer. The agreement between enthalpy derived and other temperatures suggests that there is little excess steam as does inlet vapour fraction (IVF) values, which are less than 0.1 for almost all samples. The largest variations in concentration are in pH and acid sensitive constituents including Fe, Mg, Ca which are dissolved from reservoir rocks and casings by low pH waters and other constituents with volatility depending on pH (NH 4 , HBO 3 ). The pH varies from 2.8 to 8 and Fe varies from 0.01 to 371 ppm. The variation of other acid sensitive constituents, although not as large, is also significant. The source of the acid is not yet understood. The large 'chloride excess' and the strong correlation of low pH with high chloride indicate that the acid enters the water as HCl, but some SO 4 acidity could have been removed by reaction with plagioclase to form anhydrite. There is a consistent increase in salinity with time along with indications that the waters are gas depleted. These observations are interpreted as showing that injected waters enriched in salts and depleted in gases are contributing to production waters. The acid reservoir seems to be limited to moderate depths in the middle of the drilled area. Drilling either to the NW where wells 134, 135 and 128 (before its casing leak) produced neutral waters or to the S where well 129 produces neutral waters would seem to be the best strategy. The relative homogeneity of the neutral waters suggests that there is a large reservoir of these fluids. (author)

  14. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood

  15. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3-4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m(2) vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (-0.218 and -0.082 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6-11 and 6-10 years of age, respectively. These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of

  16. AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN JAPAN - A MODEL FOR COOPERATIVIZATION OF AGRICULTURE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Japan's agriculture provides only a part from the population's needs, in caloric terms Japan must impute 60% of foods. Arable land are few, but are worked very performant, rice being the main crop together with cotton, citrus, sugarcane, wheat, potato, soybean, sugar beet, other vegetables. Widely is practiced sericulture and fisheries, Japan being one of the leading producers of silk from the world and having over 600 ports specialized for fishing. Japanese agriculture has remained behind the industry and services, this trend being manifested after the very high economic growth from 1960-1970. The main focus of the movements from the Japanese cooperative system is represented by the creation of large specialized farms through the replacing of the traditional ones. The most important task of agricultural cooperatives from Japan is meeting the consumption needs of its members. Integrated leadership of Japanese cooperatives of farmers act at all levels, primary, at prefecture level and at national level. Contractual relationships play a decisive role in the integration of Japanese farmers. In Japan there are about 840 agricultural cooperatives very well organized with a balanced planning and efficiently conducted, agricultural cooperative MIKABI being the most developed, mainly focused on the production of mandarins. In Japan there are three large distribution centers of agricultural products, 29 distribution markets controlled by the prefecture and 1,000 local markets. Organization of cooperatives is the pyramid system on three levels: local, prefecture and national (National Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives.

  17. Environmental radiation monitoring around waste are disposal site in Tottori prefecture for fiscal year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document is the compilation of environment monitoring around waste uranium are disposal site, near Ningyo-toge mine in Tottori prefecture. This result have been to reported to Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The objects for monitoring were river water, drinking water, river sediments, paddy field sediments, air, rice, vegetables, and fruits. (author)

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring around waste ore disposal site in Tottori prefecture: fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the compilation of environmental monitoring around waste uranium ore disposal site, near Ningyo-toge mine in Tottori prefecture. The results have been reported to Okayama and Tottori prefectures. The objects for monitoring were river water, drinking water, river sediments, paddy field sediments, air, rice, vegetables, and fruits. (A. Yamamoto)

  19. On an outline of investigation results of earthquake damage estimation for Akita prefecture; Akitaken jishin higai sotei chosa kekka no gaiyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports an outline of investigation results of earthquake damage estimation carried out in Akita Prefecture. The basic policy for this investigation consists of the following: (1) an indication on existence of a blank area in the Akita off-coast earthquake shall be viewed so importantly that a fault model is set to estimate damages; (2) because most of the earthquakes in history of Akita Prefecture are inland earthquakes with magnitude of about M=7, four earthquakes in the past shall be adopted as the set model; and (3) the central Sea of Japan earthquake in 1983 was an earthquake occurred in the Sea of Japan side and caused a great deal of damages to Akita Prefecture, and its epicenter model and damages were investigated in detail, hence these data shall be utilized in verifying the procedure and method for estimating damages studied in the present investigation. This paper reports finally estimated human damages. With an assumed earthquake as strong as the Tencho earthquake in the year of 830, more than 1000 deaths will occur in the city of Akita; with an earthquake in the scale of the Noshiro earthquake in 1694, more than 50 deaths will be counted in the city of Noshiro; one as strong as the Rikuu earthquake in 1896 will cause about 300 deaths in the cities of Yokote and Omagari, respectively; one with the scale of the 1914 Goushu earthquake will result in about 300 people to be killed in the city of Omagari and about 200 people in the city of Yuzawa; and an earthquake estimated to occur in the blank area off the Akita coast will force 33% of the residents of the Kisakata town to be evacuated from their homes. 1 fig.

  20. Risk communication practice after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident. Interactive explanatory meeting on radiation and its health effects in Ibaraki prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayame, Junko; Sugiyama, Kenji; Takashita, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ryuuichi

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of radioactive material were released into the environment during the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company (hereinafter referred to as Fukushima nuclear accident) in March, 2011. The radiation dose rose in a large area of plural prefectures including Fukushima prefecture, and many people had anxiety about radiation and its health effects on their bodies. In such a situation, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) received a lot of inquiries and lecture requests about radiation from local residents in Japan. R and D Institutes/Centers of JAEA had explanatory meetings and lectures on radiation and its health effects in response to those requests. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (hereinafter referred to as NCL) of JAEA has held the explanatory meetings in Ibaraki prefecture since May 2011 in order to transmit factual information and reduce the excessive anxiety about radiation risk, based on our experience of risk communication practice and research activities over 10 years. Applying to our past risk communication process to the explanatory meetings, we built a process of interactivity between participants and our staff for the meetings. We incorporated the participants' needs into the meetings, and, as far as possible, we had interactive two-way communication so that the meetings were not one-way and persuasive but promote mutual understanding. According to the opinions and the results of questionnaire survey that were received from the participants, it became evident that the interactive explanatory meetings were effective in reducing participants' anxiety. This report explains the risk communication process for carrying out the explanatory meeting, and shows the activities of the meetings, questions and opinions from the participants, and questionnaire results that NCL implemented. (author)

  1. On the torbernite from Kakinoki Mine, Hyogo Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiji, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Upon visiting Kakinoki Mine, Hyogo Prefecture, in August, 1980, the author collected the green-colored mineral in square plate form adhering on the surfaces of waste ore. It was discovered that this was torbernite, the first uranium-containing mineral discovered in the area. Its deposit classified as hydatogenetic deposit, since the Kakinoki Mine being an abandoned copper mine. Torbernite exists only in blackish pelite (waste ore), and adheres on the surface and the cleavage, either as small platy crystals or their aggregate. In the blackish pelite, numerous quartz veins were observed, where torbernite occasionally appeared. The torbernite adhering on the surface and cleavage was grass-green and translucent, and the one in the quartz veins was emerald-green and transparent or translucent. The detection of torbernite in the waste ore suggests the potentiality of finding uranium in the Kakinoki Mine. (J.P.N.)

  2. Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

  3. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    and activities in Japan. One concrete example was the earthquake relief Japan received from alumni in 2011. The exchanges have also already inspired an explicit focus on private sector and middle income countries in the Japanese Development Cooperation Charter announced in February 2015.......Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...

  4. Water pollution control technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This work is a compilation by members of the Committee for Studying Transfer of Environmental Technology on the expertise and technology developed by the members for controlling water pollution in Japan, together with consideration of issues concerning the transfer of environmental technologies to developing countries. The committee is composed of representatives for the Environment Agency, Japan, Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka Municipal Government, and 25 companies such as manufacturers of environmental equipment. The document contains a total of 93 short papers grouped into sections on: industrial wastewater treatment; sewage treatment; right soil treatment; sludge treatment; and miscellaneous. One paper by the Kausai Electric Power Co., Inc., discusses waste water treatment systems in oil-fired thermal power plants; another describes an internally circulating fluidized bed boiler for cocombusting coal with industrial wastes.

  5. Concentrations of tritium in atmospheric moisture and precipitation of Mt. Hakkoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideki; Kon, Takezumi; Sasaki, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is now under construction in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture. The 3 H will be one of the major radionuclides released from the plant. To grasp the behavior of 3 H in the environment in Aomori Prefecture, we surveyed 3 H concentrations in the atmospheric moisture and the precipitation samples at Mt. Hakkoda. Additional atmospheric moisture samples were collected at Rokkasho Village and Aomori City. The relatively high 3 H concentration in the atmospheric moisture and the precipitation samples at Mt. Hakkoda were observed from spring to summer. The 3 H concentrations in the precipitation were similar to those in the atmospheric moisture. The temporal variation patterns of 3 H concentrations in the atmospheric moisture were similar in relatively wide region that covers from Mt. Hakkoda to Aomori City and Rokkasho Village. The 3 H concentration in atmospheric moisture at the top of Mt. Hakkoda positively correlated with the ozone concentration. It suggested that 3 H originated from the stratosphere, and showed that ozone might be used as an indictor of background 3 H. (author)

  6. Status of the activities for disseminating the knowledge concerning radiation at Osaka Prefecture University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, S.

    2007-01-01

    Research facilities for using radioisotopes and accelerators are installed in Radiation Research Center, Organization of University-Industry-Government (U-I-G) Cooperation, Osaka Prefecture University. These facilities were first built in 1959 in Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture and were then succeeded to Osaka Prefecture University in 1990 along with advanced radiation technologies. Until now, they have been used by many users in universities, research institutes and companies for about 50 years. In this period one of the important activities is the dissemination of the knowledge concerning radiation for the people in the society, especially for young people. The status of the activity is reported. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  8. Public Acceptance Activities Concerning Nuclear Fuel Cycle Project in Amour Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizuki, Harumi; Manager, Deputy

    1993-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, a campaign against the use of nuclear power was staged throughout the prefecture. However, after a series of elections, including the Amour Prefecture elections held in February 1991, opposition against the use of nuclear power has gradually diminished. According to an opinion poll conducted by a local paper prior to the Upper House elections of July last year, over 60% of Amour residents approved of the construction of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. In July last year, the project management organization was incorporated and the head office moved to Amour Prefecture. Prompted by this, the company, intends to show Amour residents that it is committed to living in harmony with the prefecture

  9. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010?2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic t...

  10. Isotopic and chemical features of hot springs in Akita Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    All over the Akita Prefecture, many hot springs are located. Most of them are of meteoric water, fossil sea water and volcanic gas origins. In the Ohdate-Kazuno area, moderate temperature hot springs of meteoric water origin are found, which may exist as rather shallow formation water in the Green Tuff formations. On the contrary, high temperature geothermal waters of meteoric origin, which are used for power generation, are obtained in two volcanic area of Hachimantai and Oyasu. Those geothermal waters are expected to come up through vertical fissures from depth deeper than 2 km. The difference of these two manners of meteoric water circulation should be necessarily explained to understand the relationship of shallow and deep geothermal systems. About some hot springs of fossil sea water origin, the relationships of δ D and Cl - don't agree to the mixing relation of sea water and meteoric water. This may be explained by two different processes, one of which is mixing of sea water with saline meteoric water (Cl - ca. 12 g/kg). The other is modification of δD by hydrogen isotopic exchange with hydrous minerals underground, or by exchange with atmospheric vapor during a relic lake before burying. (author)

  11. [Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Jun; Shiobara, Yasumasa; Inui, Masami; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshinori; Takayama, Yoko; Kikuno, Ritsuko; Okuda, Shunji; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Sasahara, Takeshi

    2006-11-01

    Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C. tetani in topsoil samples collected from private gardens, public road shoulders, a university campus, mountains, and fields in Sagamihara. C. tetani occurred in 8 of 35 soil samples (22.9%) and tetanus toxin in 7 of the 8 C. tetani-positive samples (87.5%). Contamination was clearly higher in soils from mountains near Tsukui-gun (Kanagawa Prefecture), Minamitsuru-gun, and Uenohara and Koshu cities (Yamanashi Prefecture) than in other regions. These findings suggest that tetanus toxin-producing strains of C. tetani tend to inhabit the topsoil of western Sagaminaha region, as a geographical feature.

  12. Estimates of HIV prevalence in a highly endemic area of China: Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Jiangping; Fan, Lu; Song, Duan; Tian, Shuming; Yang, Yuecheng; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin; Sun, Xinhua; Zhang, Sanguo; Kulczycki, Andrzej; Vermund, Sten H

    2008-12-01

    Dehong Prefecture in Yunnan Province, China, borders Myanmar. Its proximity to the 'Golden Triangle', one of the world's largest illicit drug production and distribution centre, contributes to drug trafficking and ready availability of heroin. Dehong's 1.1 million people confront a serious HIV problem fuelled by injection drug use. The aim of this study is to improve the 2005 estimates of the true status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Dehong Prefecture. We estimated the HIV prevalence by synthesizing the results from several data sources (HIV/AIDS case reports, surveys, surveillance activities and epidemiological studies). We applied three different statistical procedures for estimations: (i) The Workbook method, adapted to meet the estimation needs in Dehong Prefecture; (ii) An estimate based on antenatal clinical data; and (iii) a dynamic model based on the local epidemic pattern. We estimated that the population prevalence for HIV infections in Dehong Prefecture is 1.3% (likely range from low/high of three estimates: 0.9-1.7%) such that 13 500 people were living with HIV/AIDS in Dehong Prefecture (likely range: 8,200-18,300) in 2005. Infections remain concentrated among injection drug users, female sex workers and their clients with an uneven geographical distribution of estimated cases. More reliable estimates of HIV prevalence can be made by synthesizing multiple data sources using several procedures. Current HIV prevention, care and treatment challenges are judged substantial in Dehong Prefecture, regardless of what modelling strategy is used.

  13. Social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005: a census-based longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of the countercyclical association between economic contraction and suicide, less is known about the levels of and changes in inequalities in suicide. The authors examined social and geographical inequalities in suicide in Japan from 1975 through 2005.Based on quinquennial vital statistics and census data, the authors analyzed the entire population aged 25-64 years. The total number of suicides was 75,840 men and 30,487 women. For each sex, the authors estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% credible intervals (CIs for suicide using multilevel logistic regression models with "cells" (cross-tabulated by age and occupation at level 1, seven different years at level 2, and 47 prefectures at level 3. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographical inequalities in suicide.Adjusting for age and time-trends, the lowest odds for suicide was observed among production process and related workers (the reference group in both sexes. The highest OR for men was 2.52 (95% CI: 2.43, 2.61 among service workers, whereas the highest OR for women was 9.24 (95% CI: 7.03, 12.13 among security workers. The degree of occupational inequalities increased among men with a striking change in the pattern. Among women, we observed a steady decline in suicide risk across all occupations, except for administrative and managerial workers and transport and communication workers. After adjusting for individual age, occupation, and time-trends, prefecture-specific ORs ranged from 0.76 (Nara Prefecture to 1.36 (Akita Prefecture for men and from 0.79 (Kanagawa Prefecture to 1.22 (Akita Prefecture for women. Geographical inequalities have increased primarily among men since 1995.The present findings demonstrate a striking temporal change in the pattern of social inequalities in suicide among men. Further, geographical inequalities in suicide have considerably increased across 47 prefectures, primarily among men, since 1995.

  14. Temporal and spatial variations of radioactive cesium levels in Northeast Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi

    2016-10-01

    Radioactive emissions into the environment from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident led to global contamination. Radionuclides such as 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs were further transported to North America and Europe. Thus, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident is a global concern for both human health and the ecosystem because a number of countries ban or impose restrictions the import of Japanese products. In the present study, three-year (May 2011 to May 2014) fluctuations and accumulations of Cs, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in two salmonid fish, white-spotted char and masu salmon were examined in Northeast Japan. The total Cs, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs levels in the fish gradually decreased throughout the three-year studied period after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident; however, higher levels (more than 100 Bq kg -1 ) were still detected in the Fukushima prefecture and neighboring prefectures in Japan 3 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Spatial radiocesium levels gradually decreased with increasing distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (Fukushima prefecture). The radiocesium levels facing the Pacific Ocean area were generally higher than those facing the Sea of Japan area. These results suggest that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are still widely distributed and remain in the natural environment in Northeast Japan.

  15. Alterations in physique among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Sato, Yuki; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    Data for earthquake-related alterations in physique among young children in developed countries is lacking. The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe damage in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures in northeastern Japan. We retrospectively obtained anthropometric measurements in nursery school from 40,046 (cohort 1, historical control) and 53,492 (cohort 2) children aged 3.5-4.5 years without overweight in October 2008, and in October 2010, respectively. At the time of the earthquake in March, 2011, children in cohort 1 had already graduated from nursery school; however, children in cohort 2 were still enrolled in nursery school at this time. We compared the onset of overweight at 1 year after the baseline between children enrolled in their school located in one of the three target prefectures versus those in other prefectures using a logistic regression model, with adjustment for sex, age, history of disease, and obesity index at baseline. Overweight was defined as an obesity index of >+15%, which was calculated as (weight minus sex- and height-specific standard weight)/sex- and height-specific standard weight. The odds ratio (OR) for the onset of overweight in the three target prefectures was significant in cohort 2 (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.55) but not in cohort 1. When the two cohort were pooled (n = 93,538), the OR of the interaction term for school location × cohort was significant (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.23). Incident overweight in young children was significantly more common in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake than in other prefectures after the disaster. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Depression symptoms among Chinese students in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, S; Murase, S; Kitabatake, M

    1996-05-01

    The mental health of foreigners in Japan, which shows a prominent increase in number recently was studied. A major group of these foreigners are Korean and Chinese, as their countries and Japan historically had a close relationship. The Chinese population has shown large increases, quadrupling over a period of 10 years. This population is characterized by purpose of residence; with most of them visiting Japan to study. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) self rating scale, we examined depression symptoms among two groups of Chinese students studying in Japan; 71 students of Mie university (MU) and 90 students of Japanese language schools (JLS) in Mie prefecture. BDI examination revealed that 28.9% (mild; 22.2%, moderate; 3.3%, severe; 3.3%) of Chinese JLS students and 23.9% (mild; 22.5%, severe; 1.4%) of Chinese MU students were depressed. Chinese JLS students showed significantly higher total BDI scores than Chinese MU students (p < 0.05). BDI scores of item D (lack of satisfaction), J (crying spells) and S (weight loss) were also significantly elevated in Chinese JLS students (D: p < 0.01, J: p < 0.05, S: p < 0.01). These results suggest that Chinese JLS students experience more stress than Chinese MU students.

  17. Retrospective analysis of mortality and Candida isolates of 75 patients with candidemia: a single hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Kumiko Kudo,1 Motoki Ohnishi31Department of Pharmacy, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 3General Medicine, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, JapanAbstract: The mortality rate for candidemia is approximately 30%–60%. However, prognostic factors in patients with candidemia have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors for candidemia using the mortality rate and Candida isolates of patients with candidemia. Seventy-five patients with candidemia were analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013. The main outcome of this study was the 30-day mortality rate after the diagnosis of candidemia. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II score was measured in 34 patients (45.3%. Odds ratios (ORs for death due to candidemia were analyzed using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Twenty (26.6% patients died within 30 days of being diagnosed with candidemia. Non-survivors had a significantly higher APACHE II score (n=7, mean; 18.9±4.5 than that of survivors (n=27, mean; 14.0±5.0. Advanced age (OR =1.1, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.23, P=0.04 was a significant risk factor for a high mortality rate, whereas removal of a central venous catheter (OR =0.03, 95% confidence interval =0.002–0.3, P=0.01 was associated with a lower mortality rate. Seventy-six Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures: Candida albicans 28 (36.8%, Candida parapsilosis 23 (30.2%, Candida guilliermondii 16 (21.0%, Candida glabrata four (5.2%, Candida tropicalis two (2.6%, and Candida spp. three (3.9% that could not be identified. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species in younger patients (<65 years, whereas C. albicans was the most frequently isolated in elderly patients (≥65 years

  18. Tritium concentrations of environmental waters in Aichi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Chaya, Kunio

    1992-01-01

    Tritium concentrations of environmental waters in Aichi Prefecture were determined from 1973 to 1989. They are rain water, river waters and sea waters. In 1970's, tritium concentrations of environmental waters were more than the natural levels under the influence of the atmospheric nuclear tests. However, atmospheric nuclear tests have not been carried out after Oct. 1980 and the tritium concentrations are going to return to the natural levels. Annual means of tritium concentration in 1989 were as follows: 0.67 Bq/l for rain water, 1.1 Bq/l for Kiso river and Shonai river, 0.85 Bq/l for Yahagi river, 0.70 Bq/l for Toyo river, and 0.41 Bq/l for surface sea water. Also tritium concentration of sea bottom water was 0.50±0.28 Bq/l and rather constant yearly. Among environmental waters, only rain water was previously having seasonal variation of tritium concentration and it was showing 'spring peak' when the troposphere and the stratosphere were mixed actively. At present, tritium concentration of rain water has a little seasonal variation, and is slightly lower in summer under the influence of the atmosphere coming over from the ocean. With regard to the direct influence of rain water to river waters, it was found by means of time series analysis that Kiso river was the least affected of river waters and Yahagi river was the most. The apparent residence time, in which rain water stayed in the underground before it flowed out as river water, was presumed to be 4.9 years for Kiso river, 3.6 years for Yahagi river, 2.0 years for Toyo river, respectively. (author)

  19. Surveillance of radioactivity in imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kosako, Maki; Tomita, Banichi [Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    To assess the effects of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, the authors examined imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture from 1988 to 1999 for residual radioactivity. The concentration of both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs was determined with an NaI(Tl) detector in 940 samples, including cereals and processed cereals (23%), vegetables and processed vegetables (19%), fruits and processed fruits (17%), including wines (6%), cheese and dairy products (12%), drinking water (11%), confections (6%), and other foods (12%). The countries of origin were Italy (35%), France (2%), Germany (5%), Denmark (4%), the Netherlands (4%), other European Countries (21%), the United States (5%), and other Countries (5%). None of the imported foods tested contained a total residual {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity exceeding 370 Bq/Kg, the preliminary limit set by the government, but 1.3% of the imported foods contained more than 5 Bq/Kg, the lower limit of detection. Both the numbers and rates of imported foods containing radioactivity have clearly been decreasing since the accident, but it was noteworthy that raspberry juice produced in the Netherlands in 1998, 12 years after the accident, contained the highest level of residual radioactivity in this survey (94 Bq/Kg). If it were processed to enriched juice and jam, its radioactivity might exceed the preliminary limit. Since processed and enriched fruits are not currently included among inspected foods, fruits in them whose radioactivity exceeds the limit can be marketed, and thus the present inspection system should be assessed. The preliminary radioactivity limit was determined based on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant, and it will be necessary to set new preliminary limits if a new, unexpected nuclear accident occurs. This surveillance data is expected to served as reference data. (K.H.)

  20. Surveillance of radioactivity in imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kosako, Maki; Tomita, Banichi

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effects of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, the authors examined imported foods marketed in Aichi Prefecture from 1988 to 1999 for residual radioactivity. The concentration of both 134 Cs and 137 Cs was determined with an NaI(Tl) detector in 940 samples, including cereals and processed cereals (23%), vegetables and processed vegetables (19%), fruits and processed fruits (17%), including wines (6%), cheese and dairy products (12%), drinking water (11%), confections (6%), and other foods (12%). The countries of origin were Italy (35%), France (2%), Germany (5%), Denmark (4%), the Netherlands (4%), other European Countries (21%), the United States (5%), and other Countries (5%). None of the imported foods tested contained a total residual 134 Cs and 137 Cs radioactivity exceeding 370 Bq/Kg, the preliminary limit set by the government, but 1.3% of the imported foods contained more than 5 Bq/Kg, the lower limit of detection. Both the numbers and rates of imported foods containing radioactivity have clearly been decreasing since the accident, but it was noteworthy that raspberry juice produced in the Netherlands in 1998, 12 years after the accident, contained the highest level of residual radioactivity in this survey (94 Bq/Kg). If it were processed to enriched juice and jam, its radioactivity might exceed the preliminary limit. Since processed and enriched fruits are not currently included among inspected foods, fruits in them whose radioactivity exceeds the limit can be marketed, and thus the present inspection system should be assessed. The preliminary radioactivity limit was determined based on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant, and it will be necessary to set new preliminary limits if a new, unexpected nuclear accident occurs. This surveillance data is expected to served as reference data. (K.H.)

  1. Pin Worm Survey on Infant School Children in Gunma Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 久美子; 阿部, 美幸; 伊藤, 恵美; 金田, 聡子; 関口, 直美; 深町, 容子; 松渕, ユカ子; 柳, 博美; 鈴木, 守

    1991-01-01

    Pin worms (Enterobius vermicularis) are the commonest intestinal parasite in Japan. Examination of this worm infection is usually made by microscopic observation on the swab taken on a scothch tape. We conducted a survey of pin worm infection among infant school children of 4-6 years old. Suitable days for swab examination were studied by comparing the detection rate according to the consecutive days tested. Results were summarized as follows: 1. Three hundred sixteen children (172 boys and 1...

  2. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  3. Catheter replacement structure in home medical care settings and regional characteristics in Tokyo and three adjoining prefectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takuma; Yoshie, Satoru; Tsuchiya, Rumiko; Kawagoe, Shohei; Hirahara, Satoshi; Iijima, Katsuya; Akahoshi, Toru; Tsuji, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the association between the structure of catheter replacement services in home medical care settings and regional characteristics. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was carried out from August to September 2013. Participants were physicians from 5338 clinics that provided medical care services at home, and nurses from 1619 home-visit nursing stations in Tokyo and three adjoining prefectures. The questionnaire covered catheter replacement (gastrostomy tubes, nasogastric tubes, tracheal cannulas) during home medical care, and the professions of those who replaced urethral catheters for male and female patients. Regions were divided into two groups (higher- and lower-density regions) based on the number of clinics, number of home-visit nursing stations and the ratio of the population aged ≥65 years. The rates of respondents that reported catheter replacement was usually executed, and those who reported catheters were replaced by "physicians in principle" were compared between the groups. Responses were received from 842 clinics (16.3%) and 499 home-visit nursing stations (31.4%). In the higher-density regions, the rate of physicians who reported urethral catheters for male patients were replaced by "physicians in principle" was significantly higher than in the lower-density regions (P home medical care settings, urethral catheters for male patients are replaced by nurses in regions where physician resources are limited. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 628-636. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  5. Internal radiation exposure dose in Iwaki city, Fukushima prefecture after the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1-86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01-0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01-0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks.

  6. Actual status and future outlook of Fukushima prefecture for accepting power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Origasa, Yoshiro

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental attitude of Fukushima prefecture to wrestle with nuclear power generation is explained after having described the details of inviting nuclear power plants. The prefecture intends to promote the nuclear power development in cooperation with the government, related cities, towns and villages, and electric power companies, and to develop the Futaba area, the coastal region of Pacific Ocean belonging to the low-developed area, by turning it to the base of nuclear power generation. The prefecture has improved its organization to strengthen to nuclear power administration. The prefecture also has concluded the convention on the security for nuclear power plants with Tokyo Electric Power Co. It takes care of the propagation of knowledge concerning nuclear energy and is endeavoring to provide the accurate and impartial information. The problem in promoting nuclear power generation is nothing but to obtain the consensus of inhabitants for the location of nuclear power plants. Problems on warm water discharge, employment, and of enterprises in the area inroad are to be considered on the basis of the coexistence and coprosperity of local community and power stations. The prefecture needs more powerful public relations on nuclear power, security, and fulfillment of the policy for environmental preservation, and enforcement of environmental assessment, by the government. It also demands that the enterprises complete the system that they can have their own function of the environment control. The abundant related reference are added at the end. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Thyroid cancer among 18 years and under residents at the nuclear accident in Fukushima. An analysis of data released in the 23rd Prefectural Oversight Committee Meeting for Fukushima Health Management Survey on June 6, 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    This paper statistically analyzed the results of thyroid screening examination of Fukushima 'Citizens' health survey' (full-scale test), which was published by Fukushima Prefecture on June 6, 2016. Standard annual thyroid incidence was set at 5 people in 1 million people at the age between 0 to 19 years based on the announcement of the Japan National Cancer Center (3 people at the prior survey). Increase in the incidence ratio due to false 'screening effect' or 'overdiagnosis' would hardly have happened in the screening of the full-scale test. Districts with significantly higher incidence were So-so district, Nakadori North District (including Fukushima City), Nakadori Central District, Koriyama City, Iwaki City, and Fukushima Prefecture southeast. The comparison chart of age distribution at the time of Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents compiled by Williams (2015) was cited as the evidence that disease cases of thyroid cancer were different between Chernobyl and Fukushima, but this interpretation was wrong. Although increase in childhood thyroid cancer caused by the Chernobyl accident was identified internationally, confirmation has been procrastinating in Fukushima Prefecture. In the future, it should be stressed to grasp the thyroid cancer cases of citizens of 19 years old or older at the time of the accident, cases of other malignant tumors, and cases of non-cancerous diseases. (A.O.)

  8. Off-site nuclear emergency exercises in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiji, U.; Kiyoshi, T.; Masao, O.; Shigeru, F.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear emergency planning and preparedness in Japan have been organized by both national and local governments based on the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act. Off-site nuclear emergency exercises are classified into two types: national-government level exercises and local-government level exercises. National-government level exercises are carried out once a year by the competent national authorities. Among these authorities, the Science and Technology Agency (STA) fills a leading position in the Japanese nuclear emergency planning and preparedness. Local-government level exercises are carried out once a year or once in a few years by the local governments of the prefectures where nuclear facilities are located. Most of the off-site nuclear emergency exercises in Japan are performed by local-governments. The aim of these exercises is to reinforce the skills of the emergency staff. The national government (STA etc.) provides advices and assistance including financial support to the local-governments. Emergency exercises with the participation of residents have been carried out in some local-governments. As an example of local-government level exercises, an experience in Shizuoka prefecture (central part of Japan) is presented

  9. Community-based prevention of stroke: nutritional improvement in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Y; Horie, R

    1994-01-01

    (1) To demonstrate the importance of nutrition, especially sodium restriction and increased potassium and protein intakes, in the prevention of hypertension and stroke in a pilot study involving senior citizens. (2) To design a population-based intervention in the Shimane Prefecture of Japan concerning dietary factors such as low sodium and high potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and dietary fibre in the prevention of stroke. The intervention study was carried out at a senior citizens' residence and included general health education along with a reduction of dietary salt intake and increases in vegetable and protein, especially from seafood. Sixty-three healthy senior citizens (average age: 74.8 +/- 7.7 years) had their daily meals modified to a low sodium/potassium ratio for four weeks without their knowledge by the use of a potassium chloride substitute for salt, soy sauce and bean paste, which contains much less sodium and more potassium. Monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate used for cooking was changed to monopotassium L-glutamate monohydrate. Blood pressure was measured with the patient in the sitting position. Daily dietary sodium and potassium intakes were assessed by flame photometry from 24-hour urine specimens. Extensive intervention programs were introduced into the Shimane Prefecture, which has a population of 750,000, through health education classes for housewives, home visits by health nurses and an educational TV program for dietary improvement. The mortality from stroke was monitored for 10 years and compared with the average in Japan. The blood pressure lowering effect of reducing the dietary sodium/potassium ratio was confirmed through a pilot intervention study at the senior citizens' residence. The mortality rates for stroke in the middle-aged population from the Shimane Prefecture during the 10 years after the introduction of dietary improvement had a steeper decline in hemorrhagic, ischemic and all strokes than the average for Japan.

  10. [Epidemiological surveillance for viral pollution of rivers in Toyama Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Masae; Yoshida, Hiromu; Matsuura, Kumiko

    2007-03-01

    Virus pollution of three rivers in Toyama Prefecture was surveyed over a long period in order to predict and to prevent water-born infection. Water samples were collected from three rivers (Itachi, Sembo, Oyabe), then concentrated and inoculated into cultured cells to isolate viruses. The survey at Itachi River was carried out 4 times: in 1979-1981, 1983-1985, 1993-1995, and 2002-2003. The surveys at Sembo and Oyabe Rivers were carried out twice (together with the 3rd and 4th surveys of Itachi River). 1) Various species of enteric viruses, i.e., poliovirus, human enteroviruses B (HEV-B), and reovirus were isolated from Itachi River. Since polioviruses were isolated at the same time as the oral vaccination of babies, these isolates appeared to be derived from vaccine strains. Consistently, isolates in the 3rd and the 4th surveys had only 0-2 base differences in the 480 or 474 nucleotide sequences of the VP3-VP1 region, compared with vaccine strains. The poliovirus detection rates, defined as the ratios of times viruses were detected to the total investigation times, were 33.3%, 41.7%, 2.1% and 0% for the Itachi River from the 1st to 4th surveys, respectively. The lowering between the 2nd and the 3rd surveys was significant (PRivers were similar to those from Itachi River. The detection rates of poliovirus and reovirus in the river water during 2002 to 2003 were lower than during 1979 to 1981. This may be due to the improvement of sewerage system or sewerage and the increase in use of paper diapers for babies. The reason that the detection rate of HEV-B did not similarly decrease, and the fact that various types of HEV-B were isolated every year seemed to reflect the epidemic status of HEV-B among inhabitants. Thus, while virus pollution of river water has generally decreased, there is still a possibility of outbreak of water-born infections, since rivers continue to be contaminated with various species of viruses.

  11. [Two woman medical doctors of the Meiji era who came from the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group", Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Masakazu

    2010-09-01

    There is a historical group of samurai buildings called the "Preservative District of Johnai Suwakohji Important Traditional Buildings Group" in Kanegasaki Town, Iwate Prefecture. Two woman medical doctors (Misaho Aizawa and Mie Shiga, came from this district at the end of the Meiji Era (1910-1911). Misaho Aizawa was born in a minister's family in 1885 and studied at the Women's School of Dohshisha. After graduation she studied abroad at the Women's Medical College of Philadelphia and graduated from the college in 1910. Immediately after graduation she came back to Japan and got a medical license in Japan. She married a minister and was employed by the Red Cross Clinic in Fukuoka Prefecture. Mie Shiga was born in a samurai-family in 1880 and worked her way through various medical schools in Tokyo. After three failures to pass the national medical examination she received a medical license in 1911. In 1913 she opened her clinic of internal medicine & pediatrics in Utsunomiya. She made an effort to diagnose correctly and won patients' confidence. These two women had neither communication nor common points due to the differences of their family environment and their age. However, they were brought up by fathers who were enthusiastic for education and they made an effort to become woman doctors. Although women's social situation and the female compulsory education rate were low, and women's medical education was poor in the Meiji Era, Misaho Aizawa was able to enter the medical route under the influence of Christianity, and Mie Shiga through the assistance of her family and her samurai spirit.

  12. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Human Rotavirus G8P[8] Outbreak Strain, Japan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Ono, Mayumi; Ohara, Toshio; Fujibayashi, Shinsuke; Tahara, Yasuo; Kubo, Noriaki; Nakata, Shuji; Higashidate, Yoshihito; Fujii, Yoshiki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Yoto, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    During March-July 2014, rotavirus G8P[8] emerged as the predominant cause of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Clinical characteristics were similar for infections caused by G8 and non-G8 strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest the strains were generated by multiple reassortment events between DS-1-like P[8] strains and bovine strains from Asia.

  13. Food-borne botulism in Japan in March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Yoshika; Asakura, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Masaru; Okada, Yumiko; Ueda, Yutaka; Hanabara, Yutaro; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Iwaki, Masaaki; Kato, Haru; Shibayama, Keigo; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2014-07-01

    In March 2012, two patients were transported urgently to the hospital in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, because of symptoms suggestive of botulism. Botulinum neurotoxin type A was detected in the clinical specimens and the food consumed by the two patients (vacuum packed adzuki-batto, a sweet adzuki bean soup containing noodles). We were able to make a prompt diagnosis of food botulism associated with the consumption of adzuki-batto, from which the causative pathogen Clostridium botulinum Ab was cultured. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  15. [Epidemic of infectious disease with echovirus type 16--epidemic in Tono area, Gifu Prefecture in 1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, C; Watanabe, Y

    1990-07-01

    During the period from May to August, 1984, an epidemic of infectious disease with echovirus type 16 occurred in Tono area of southeast in Gifu prefecture. This virus caused children to have different clinical symptoms, one was a exanthem disease and another was aseptic meningitis. These cases confirmed by virological and serological methods were 48 cases, that is, patients with aseptic meningitis were 24 cases and patients with exanthem disease were 24 cases. By serological examination of antibody against echovirus type 16, it was confirmed that this virus type invaded Gifu Prefecture before 1984.

  16. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1985-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  17. Policy of Ibaraki Prefecture utilizing the industrial use of neutron to regional promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imase, Hajime; Ohashi, Yuji; Morii, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    The science frontier 21 conception of Ibaraki Prefecture is described, that is, a pilot center of the research and development on the atomic science region was constructed in Tokai-mura area which was developed to a large frontier industrial region. The two neutron beam lines of Ibaraki Prefecture's own have been consolidated and are promoting the industrial applications of neutron beams. The new neutron diffraction facilities (Ibaraki biological crystal diffractometer (iBIX), Ibaraki materials design diffractometer (iMATERIA)) are illustrated in detail, which are expected to the materials appreciation and the creation of medicine. (M.H.)

  18. Study on tsunami damage mechanism in Fukushima Prefecture focusing on the generation of bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Shohei; Sato, Shinji; Yamanaka, Yusuke; Sanuki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Destruction mechanisms of coastal structures due to the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami were investigated on the basis of field surveys in Fukushima Prefecture. Severe destruction appeared to be developed by the action of breaking bores. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the angle of the tsunami front was an essential parameter for the generation of breaking bores. Larger wave force was observed as the angle of the tsunami front became steeper. Numerical simulation revealed that such a steep tsunami was developed in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture, where the reflection of the preceding tsunami by coastal cliff enhanced the steepness of the largest tsunami. (author)

  19. Survey of advanced radiation technologies used at designated cancer care hospitals in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Naoto; Tsujino, Kayoko; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Ishikura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Our survey assessed the use of advanced radiotherapy technologies at the designated cancer care hospitals in Japan, and we identified several issues to be addressed. We collected the data of 397 designated cancer care hospitals, including information on staffing in the department of radiation oncology (e.g. radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists), the number of linear accelerators and the implementation of advanced radiotherapy technologies from the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services of the National Cancer Center, Japan. Only 53% prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 16% regional designated cancer care hospitals have implemented intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, and 62% prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 23% regional designated cancer care hospitals use intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Seventy-four percent prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 40% regional designated cancer care hospitals employ stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer. Our multivariate analysis of prefectural designated cancer care hospitals which satisfy the institute's qualifications for advanced technologies revealed the number of radiation oncologists (P=0.01) and that of radiation therapists (P=0.003) were significantly correlated with the implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and the number of radiation oncologists (P=0.02) was correlated with the implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy. There was a trend to correlate the number of medical physicists with the implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy (P=0.07). Only 175 (51%) regional designated cancer care hospitals satisfy the institute's qualification of stereotactic body radiotherapy and 76 (22%) satisfy that of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Seventeen percent prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 13% regional designated cancer care hospitals

  20. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of irradiated nuclear fuel from Japan to Europe in Japanese territorial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, T.; Inada, T.; Narahara, S.; Cheshire, R.D.; Lee, G.

    1993-01-01

    About 90 % of nuclear fuel irradiated in Japanese nuclear power stations is transported to UK and France for reprocessing. Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd (PNTL), a subsidiary of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), owns and operates its own fleet of 5 purpose built ships specially designed for the transport of flasks containing irradiated fuel from Japan to Europe. These vessels sail to Japan on 8 to 10 voyages per year from the BNFL's Marine Terminal at Barrow in UK via Cherbourg Port in France. On arrival in Japan empty flasks are delivered to Japanese nuclear power stations, and full flasks are collected for the return journey to Europe. Whilst the probability of a serious flask incident involving the release of radioactivity is very small, it is nevertheless important to plan for such an emergency. In the case of an incident BNFL will provide an emergency response. If an incident occurs in Japanese territorial waters, the initial response will be provided by Nuclear Services Company (NSC), who are based in Japan (the head office in Tokyo, Tokai Office in Ibaraki Prefecture and Tsuruga Office in Fukui Prefecture) and contracted to BNFL to provide a similar response to that available from UK. This paper describes the communication links which have been established between UK and Japan and the internal communication within Japan. It also describes the emergency equipent held in Japan, the training of teams and the results of exercises jointly carried out with BNFL. (J.P.N.)

  1. Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  2. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  3. Nuclear catastrophe in Japan. Health consequences resulting from Fukushima; Atomkatastrophe in Japan. Gesundheitliche Folgen von Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulitz, Henrik; Eisenberg, Winfrid; Thiel, Reinhold

    2013-03-06

    On 11 March 2011, a nuclear catastrophe occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in the wake of an earthquake and due to serious safety deficiencies. This resulted in a massive and prolonged release of radioactive fission and decay products. Approximately 20% of the radioactive substances released into the atmosphere have led to the contamination of the landmass of Japan with 17,000 becquerels per square meter of cesium-137 and a comparable quantity of cesium-134. The initial health consequences of the nuclear catastrophe are already now, after only two years, scientifically verifiable. Similar to the case of Chernobyl, a decline in the birth rate was documented nine months after the nuclear catastrophe. Throughout Japan, the total drop in number of births in December 2011 was 4362, with the Fukushima Prefecture registering a decline of 209 births. Japan also experienced a rise in infant mortality, with 75 more children dying in their first year of life than expected statistically. In the Fukushima Prefecture alone, some 55,592 children were diagnosed with thyroid gland nodules or cysts. In contrast to cysts and nodules found in adults, these findings in children must be classified as precancerous. There were also the first documented cases in Fukushima of thyroid cancer in children. The present document undertakes three assessments of the expected incidence of cancer resulting from external exposure to radiation. These are based on publications in scientific journals on soil contamination in 47 prefectures in Japan, the average total soil contamination, and, in the third case, on local dose rate measurements in the fall of 2012. Taking into consideration the shielding effect of buildings, the medical organization IPPNW has calculated the collective lifetime doses for individuals at 94,749 manSv, 206,516 manSv, and 118,171 manSv, respectively. In accordance with the risk factors set by the European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) for death

  4. Ecological study of solar radiation and cancer mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2004-11-01

    Geographic observation of the increased mortality of some cancers at higher latitudes has led to a hypothesis that vitamin D produced after exposure to solar radiation has anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it is unclear whether such association would be observed in countries like Japan, where fish consumption, and therefore dietary vitamin D intake, is high. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between averaged annual solar radiation levels for the period from 1961 through 1990 and cancer mortality in the year 2000 in 47 prefectures in Japan, with adjustments for regional per capita income and dietary factors. A moderate, inverse correlation with solar radiation was observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, and gallbladder and bile ducts in both sexes (correlation coefficient, ranging from -0.6 to -0.3). The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased exposure to solar radiation reduces the risk of cancers of the digestive organs.

  5. Diagnostic reference level of computed tomography (CT) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takei, Hiroyuki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Otake, Hidenori; Endo, Keigo

    2012-08-01

    Optimisation of computed tomography (CT) parameters is important in avoiding excess radiation exposure. The aim of this study is to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRL) of CT in Japan by using dose-length product (DLP). Datasheets were sent to all hospitals/clinics which had CT scanner(s) in Gunma prefecture. Data were obtained for all patients who underwent CT during a single month (June 2010), and the distributions of DLP were evaluated for eight anatomical regions and five patient age groups. The DRL was defined as the 25th and 75th percentiles of DLP. Datasheets were collected from 80 of 192 hospitals/clinics (26 090 patients). DLP for head CT of paediatric patients tended to be higher in Japan compared with DRLs of paediatric head CTs reported from the EU or Syria. Although this study was performed with limited samples, DLP for adult patients were at comparable levels for all anatomical regions.

  6. Shiga Toxin (Verotoxin)-Producing Escherichia coli in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terajima, Jun; Iyoda, Sunao; Ohnishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Haruo

    2014-10-01

    A series of outbreaks of infection with Shiga toxin (verocytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 occurred in Japan in 1996, the largest outbreak occurring in primary schools in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, where more than 7,500 cases were reported. Although the reason for the sudden increase in the number of reports of EHEC isolates in 1996 is not known, the number of reports has grown to more than 3,000 cases per year since 1996, from an average of 105 reports each year during the previous 5-year period (1991-1995). Despite control measures instituted since 1996, including designating Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection as a notifiable disease, and nationwide surveillance effectively monitoring the disease, the number of reports remains high, around 3,800 cases per year. Serogroup O157 predominates over other EHEC serogroups, but isolation frequency of non-O157 EHEC has gone up slightly over the past few years. Non-O157 EHEC has recently caused outbreaks where consumption of a raw beef dish was the source of the infection, and some fatal cases occurred. Laboratory surveillance comprised prefectural and municipal public health institutes, and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases has contributed to finding not only multiprefectural outbreaks but recognizing sporadic cases that could have been missed as an outbreak without the aid of molecular subtyping of EHEC isolates. This short overview presents recent information on the surveillance of EHEC infections in Japan.

  7. Dose reconstruction for birds species exposed to ionizing radiations highlights risk for species reproducing in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam-Guillermin, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Sternalski, A.; Bonzom, J.M.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Giraudeau, M. [Arizona state university (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS) in Japan following the earthquake in March 2011 led to a massive release of radioactive isotopes into the environment. The atmospheric releases have created a footprint of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial ecosystems around the site, with a hot spot area that extends up to 80-km northwest. Despite some data are available on medium and biota contamination, there is still a lack of knowledge on possible ecological consequences due to the complexity of the exposure situation. Few papers were published using data observed in situ, reporting a reduction of bird and invertebrate abundance (Moeller et al., 2012, 2013) and morphological effects in butterflies (Hiyama et al., 2012). But as for any contaminant, the biological effects are dependent on the dose received, and an accurate dose estimation is needed to be able to correctly predict ecological risk. An early study has published preliminary radiological dose reconstruction from Fukushima wildlife signaling potential ecological consequences, but without using any quantitative data relating to biological samples (Garnier-Laplace et al., 2011). In this general framework, the work presented here aims at refining the first assessment conducted to evaluate possible consequences of the FDNPS radioactive releases, focusing on some bird species, studied in Fukushima but also in Chernobyl. Public data available on bird and soil contamination were used to check the bird contamination model used, showing that radioactive contamination predictions were within the range of variation of measured data. This model was then applied to estimate doses in bird species living in the Fukushima prefecture and known to reproduce during the period just after the nuclear power plant accident, based on ecological maps established for Japan. The influence of life stages and species ecological characteristics was taken into account on the dose estimates. The heterogeneity of

  8. Radiation exposure from CT examinations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yoshito; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Takei, Hiroyuki; Otake, Hidenori; Endo, Keigo

    2010-11-02

    Computed tomography (CT) is the largest source of medical radiation exposure to the general population, and is considered a potential source of increased cancer risk. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation of CT use in Japan, and to investigate variations in radiation exposure in CT studies among institutions and scanners. Data-sheets were sent to all 126 hospitals and randomly selected 14 (15%) of 94 clinics in Gunma prefecture which had CT scanner(s). Data for patients undergoing CT during a single month (June 2008) were obtained, along with CT scan protocols for each institution surveyed. Age and sex specific patterns of CT examination, the variation in radiation exposure from CT examinations, and factors which were responsible for the variation in radiation exposure were determined. An estimated 235.4 patients per 1,000 population undergo CT examinations each year, and 50% of the patients were scanned in two or more anatomical locations in one CT session. There was a large variation in effective dose among hospitals surveyed, particularly in lower abdominal CT (range, 2.6-19.0 mSv). CT examinations of the chest and upper abdomen contributed to approximately 73.2% of the collective dose from all CT examinations. It was estimated that in Japan, approximately 29.9 million patients undergo CT annually, and the estimated annual collective effective dose in Japan was 277.4 *103 Sv person. The annual effective dose per capita for Japan was estimated to be 2.20 mSv. There was a very large variation in radiation exposure from CT among institutions surveyed. CT examinations of the chest and upper abdomen were the predominant contributors to the collective dose.

  9. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area. Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human society associated with groundwater flow. Groundwater flow systems for many domestic areas including Tono Mine, Kamaishi Mine and Horonobe district have been studied, but deep groundwater flow circumstances, and mixing between deep groundwater and shallow groundwater flow system are not well understood. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started to investigate a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture, where the topographic and geological features are relatively simple for mathematical modeling, and hydraulic data as well as data from river and well water are available. Hydro-chemical conditions of the regional groundwater were discussed based on temperature, chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and the isotopic age of radioactive carbon for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs in the Yoro river basin. It was found that the groundwater system in this basin consists of types of water: Ca-HCO 3 type water, Na-HCO 3 type water and NaCl type water. The Ca-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated several thousand years or after, the Na-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated under cold climates several to twenty thousand years ago. The NaCl type water is fossil brine water formed twenty thousand years ago. It was also observed that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled at the surface originates from GL-200m to -400m. This observation indicates that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled through the Ca-HCO 3 type water area with the both waters partially mixed. (author)

  10. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decomposing Cost Efficiency in Regional Long-term Care Provision in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries face a growing need for long-term care provision because of population ageing. Japan is one such example, given its population's longevity and low birth rate. In this study, we examine the efficiency of Japan's regional long-term care system in FY2010 by performing a data envelopment analysis, a non-parametric frontier approach, on prefectural data and separating cost efficiency into technical, allocative, and price efficiencies under different average unit costs across regions. In doing so, we elucidate the structure of cost inefficiency by incorporating a method for restricting weight flexibility to avoid unrealistic concerns arising from zero optimal weight. The results indicate that technical inefficiency accounts for the highest share of losses, followed by price inefficiency and allocation inefficiency. Moreover, the majority of technical inefficiency losses stem from labor costs, particularly those for professional caregivers providing institutional services. We show that the largest share of allocative inefficiency losses can also be traced to labor costs for professional caregivers providing institutional services, while the labor provision of in-home care services shows an efficiency gain. However, although none of the prefectures gains efficiency by increasing the number of professional caregivers for institutional services, quite a few prefectures would gain allocative efficiency by increasing capital inputs for institutional services. These results indicate that preferred policies for promoting efficiency might vary from region to region, and thus, policy implications should be drawn with care. PMID:26493427

  12. JAPAN'S TECHNOLOGY TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiwara, Taiji

    1994-01-01

    Japan's technology balance of trade has improved over the last twenty years. The position of Japan is examined through (1) comparison with other OECD countries, (2) the historical change in Japan's technology trade at the industry level, (3) Toshiba's technology trade as a typical case. The conclusion is that Japan is still behind the frontier of innovation.

  13. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  14. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant reported to have elevated levels of radiation. The IAEA dispatched the mission to Japan on 7 October following a request from the country's Government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several Ministries and institutions. ''The meetings held and visits made by the team over the last eight days gave us a first-hand appreciation of the extraordinary efforts and dedication on the part of Japanese people in their effort to remediate the areas affected by elevated levels of radiation in the Fukushima Prefecture,'' says Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. ''As Japan continues its current remediation efforts, it is our belief that this work will bring relief to the populations who are affected by the consequences of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.'' In a Preliminary Summary Report delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of conclusions including, though not limited to, the following: - Japan developed an efficient program for remediation - allocating the necessary legal, financial and technological resources to bring relief to the people affected by the accident, with priority being given to children. The Team was impressed with the strong commitment to the remediation effort from all institutions and parties involved, including the public; - Japan has also taken practical measures to inform the public and involve residents and local institutions in the process of defining its remediation strategy; - Japan is advised to avoid

  15. Construction and evaluation of two computational models for predicting the incidence of influenza in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    He, Fei; Hu, Zhi-jian; Zhang, Wen-chang; Cai, Lin; Cai, Guo-xi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    It remains challenging to forecast local, seasonal outbreaks of influenza. The goal of this study was to construct a computational model for predicting influenza incidence. We built two computational models including an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and a hybrid model integrating ARDL with a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN), to assess meteorological factors associated with temporal trends in influenza incidence. The modelling and forecasting performance of these two ...

  16. Ibaraki prefecture's neutron beam lines in J-PARC and outline of industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The outlines of J-PARC and Ibaraki Prefecture's two neutron facilities for the structural analysis of materials and living materials in J-PARC/MLF (Materials and Life Science Facility) are described. The status of the industrial use of these facilities is also mentioned. The building of J-PARC/MLF was completed and about ten sets of neutron apparatuses have been in preparation. The round-table conference of MLF users started in the beginning of September and is in progress toward the public use scheduled in December, 2008. The detailed design of these two neutron facilities for industrial use was completed and its greater part has been produced. The uses of Ibaraki Prefecture's beam lines will produce the materials with highly additional values and with highly reliable structures by the measurement of residual stresses, etc. Furthermore, these uses may be connected to the development of medicine for incurable diseases. (M.H.)

  17. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent

    2011-01-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m 2 in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m 2 , March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  18. Heat-Related Mortality in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima Disaster: An Analysis of Potential Influence of Reduced Electricity Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonhee; Gasparrini, Antonio; Honda, Yasushi; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background: In March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated several power stations and caused severe electricity shortages. This accident was followed by the implementation of policies to reduce summer electricity consumption in the affected areas, for example, by limiting air-conditioning (AC) use. This provided a natural experimental scenario to investigate if these policies were associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. Objectives: We examined whether the reduced electricity consumption in warm season modified heat-related mortality from 2008 to 2012. Methods: We conducted prefecture-specific interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses to compare temperature–mortality associations before and after the earthquake, and used meta-analysis to generate combined effect estimates for the most affected and less affected areas (prefectures with >10% or ≤10% reductions in electricity consumption, respectively). We then examined whether the temperature–mortality association in Tokyo, one of the most affected areas, was modified by the percent reduction in electricity consumption relative to expected consumption for comparable days before the earthquake. Results: Contrary to expectations, we estimated a 5–9% reduction in all-cause heat-related mortality after the earthquake in the 15 prefectures with the greatest reduction in electricity consumption, and little change in the other prefectures. However, the percent reduction in observed vs. expected daily electricity consumption after the earthquake did not significantly modify daily heat-related mortality in Tokyo. Conclusions: In the prefectures with the greatest reductions in electricity consumption, heat-related mortality decreased rather than increased following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Additional research is needed to determine whether this finding holds for other populations and regions, and to clarify its implications for policies to reduce the consequences of climate change on

  19. Heat-Related Mortality in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima Disaster: An Analysis of Potential Influence of Reduced Electricity Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonhee; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-07-06

    In March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated several power stations and caused severe electricity shortages. This accident was followed by the implementation of policies to reduce summer electricity consumption in the affected areas, for example, by limiting air-conditioning (AC) use. This provided a natural experimental scenario to investigate if these policies were associated with an increase in heat-related mortality. We examined whether the reduced electricity consumption in warm season modified heat-related mortality from 2008 to 2012. We conducted prefecture-specific interrupted time-series (ITS) analyses to compare temperature-mortality associations before and after the earthquake, and used meta-analysis to generate combined effect estimates for the most affected and less affected areas (prefectures with >10% or ≤10% reductions in electricity consumption, respectively). We then examined whether the temperature-mortality association in Tokyo, one of the most affected areas, was modified by the percent reduction in electricity consumption relative to expected consumption for comparable days before the earthquake. Contrary to expectations, we estimated a 5-9% reduction in all-cause heat-related mortality after the earthquake in the 15 prefectures with the greatest reduction in electricity consumption, and little change in the other prefectures. However, the percent reduction in observed vs. expected daily electricity consumption after the earthquake did not significantly modify daily heat-related mortality in Tokyo. In the prefectures with the greatest reductions in electricity consumption, heat-related mortality decreased rather than increased following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Additional research is needed to determine whether this finding holds for other populations and regions, and to clarify its implications for policies to reduce the consequences of climate change on health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP493.

  20. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  1. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Karasuda, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  2. Curriculum Structure at Super Science High School (SSH) : In Case of Kumamoto Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    中山, 玄三; ナカヤマ, ゲンゾウ; Nakayama, Genzo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, two cases of curriculum structure at super science high school in Kumamoto prefecture were characterized from three viewpoints, that is, (1) target, such as for excellence, for interested students, or for all, (2) development of school-based subjects with special emphasis on doing science, and (3) interrelationships among science subjects and school-based subjects. The structure of SSH curriculum were then compared with the one of model curriculum that had been drafted by Nakay...

  3. The way of the report in the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Nearly four years pass from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Fukushima has a big influence of the nuclear plant accident, and more than 120,000 citizens of the prefecture are still forced to refuge. The citizens of Fukushima feel that the present conditions do not come outside a prefecture and have dissatisfaction for media. A gap occurs in what media convey and thinking that inhabitants want you to tell. One of the causes is a news value point of reference. The other is that the news is carried out in a viewpoint of Tokyo. Is there not the cancellation method? I consider it from the viewpoint of a reporter living in Fukushima city. (author)

  4. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert E.; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  5. On seismic intensities of questionnaires for 1996 earthquake near Akita-Miyagi prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M.; Sasaki, N. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Nakamura, M. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The earthquake occurred in 1996 near the border of Akita and Miyagi Prefectures was a seismic activity in mountainous area with low population density. However, since a necessity was felt to make a seismic intensity survey, a questionnaire investigation was carried out. The investigation placed a focus on the following points: (1) to learn seismic intensity distribution in the vicinity of the epicenter by using replies to the questionnaire and (2) to learn what evacuation activities the residents have taken to avoid disasters from the earthquake, which is an inland local earthquake occurred first since the Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake in 1995. Because the main shock has occurred in the Akita prefecture side, the shocks were concentrated at Akinomiya, Takamatsu, Sugawa and Koyasu areas where the intensities were 4.0 to 4.5 in most cases. The largest aftershocks were concentrated to the Miyagi prefecture side, with an intensity of 6.0 felt most, followed by 5.5. The questionnaire on evacuation actions revealed a result of about 37% of the reply saying, ``I have jumped out of my house before I knew what has happened`` and ``I remember nothing about what I did because I was acting totally instinctively``. The answers show how intense the experience was. This result indicates how to make the unconscious actions turned into conscious actions is an important issue in preventing disasters. 11 figs.

  6. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  7. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  8. Revising the distribution of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (Perciformes, Oxudercidae, in Japan with the discovery of an isolated population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunobu Murase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five specimens of a threatened goby, Apocryptodon punctatus (21.2–40.1 mm in standard length, were collected at a mudflat site of Kushima City, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, southern Japan over two seasons, autumn (September 2015 and spring (April 2016. A review of distributional records of A. punctatus revealed that this population represents the southernmost record of the species in Japanese waters, and is isolated ca. 200 km south-southwest from the nearest point of the main range of the species along the Pacific coast of Japan. Publicising this population will help conserve it and its vulnerable habitat.

  9. Radiation-related anxiety among public health nurses in the Fukushima Prefecture after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Goto, Aya; Kumagai, Atsushi; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Ohtsuru, Akira; Hayashida, Naomi; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-10-24

    In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) play important roles in managing the health of local residents, especially after a disaster. In this study, we assessed radiation anxiety and the stress processing capacity of PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). We conducted a questionnaire survey among the PHNs (n=430) in July of 2015 via postal mail. The questions included demographic factors (sex, age and employment position), knowledge about radiation, degree of anxiety about radiation at the time of the FDNPS accident (and at present), by asking them to answer questions about radiation and the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13). We classified the low and high levels of anxiety by asking them to answer questions about radiation, and compared the anxiety-negative (-) group with the anxiety-positive (+) group. Of the PHNs, 269 (62.6%) were classified in the anxiety (-) group and 161 (37.4%) were in the anxiety (+) group. When the multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted, the PHNs at the time of the accident (OR: 2.37, p=0.007), current general anxieties about radiation (OR: 3.56, pradiation (OR: 2.11, p=0.006) and knowledge of the childhood thyroid cancer increase after the Chernobyl accident (OR: 1.69, p=0.035) were significantly associated with anxiety after the FDNPS accident. The mean SOC-13 was 43.0±7.7, with no significant difference between the anxiety (-) group and anxiety (+) group (p=0.47). Our study suggested that anxiety about radiation was associated with materials and knowledge about radiation in the PHNs in the Fukushima Prefecture 4 years after the FDNPS accident. It is important for PHNs to obtain knowledge and teaching materials about radiation, and radiation education programmes for PHNs must be established in areas that have nuclear facilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  10. Immediate effects of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on depressive symptoms among mothers with infants: a prefectural-wide cross-sectional study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fujimori, Kenya

    2015-03-26

    Mothers of young children are at high-risk for developing adverse mental health effects following a nuclear accident. Using the Japanese pregnancy registration system, the prefecture of Fukushima launched a population-based survey of women who were pregnant at the time of the Fukushima nuclear accident in order to assess their and their newborns' health. In this paper, we focus on the results of a screen for depressive symptoms among new mothers and its association with geographical region and interruption of obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident, which occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. The survey targeted women who lived in Fukushima prefecture and who had registered their pregnancies between August 1, 2010 and July 31, 2011. Among the 16,001 women targeted, 9,321 returned the questionnaires (response proportion = 58.3%) and data from 8,196 women with singleton live births were analyzed. The main outcome measure was a standard two-item depression screen. Regional radiation levels were determined from the prefecture's periodical reports, and interruption in obstetrical care after the Fukushima nuclear accident was determined from mothers' individual responses to the questionnaire. Among the 8,196 women, 2,262 (28%) screened positive for depressive symptoms. After adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, both mothers in Soso, the region in which the nuclear power plant is located, and mothers that had changed obstetrical care facilities were significantly more likely to screen positive for depression. In contrast, mothers in Iwaki and Aizu, regions with relatively low radiation levels, were significantly less likely to screen positive for depression. Our findings suggest that improving mental health support for mothers with infants should be a high priority in the acute phase of nuclear disaster response. We further recommend that in the strategic provisioning of parental support, close attention should

  11. Environmental Education from a Kindergarten to a University student, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2013-12-01

    Importance of the environmental and disaster prevention education on the basis of science is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. This research reports the present situation and the practice example of environmental education of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the environmental education in a class of Shimane University. In addition, I explain the actual situation of the environmental education for student from kindergarten to junior high school in Shimane Prefecture. I point out that 'Consciousness (In)', 'knowledge (About)', and 'action (For)' are important three factors based on my practice of the environmental education (e.g. UNESCO-Finland, 1974). That is 'consciousness (In)' means education in (or through) the environment. 'knowledge (About)' means education about environment. 'Action (FOR)' means education for environment. According to the present condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them. condition of the environmental education of a Japan, I arranged and redefined such three factors. That is three factors consist of two axis that are 'me' and 'others'. And National exists between them.

  12. Outbreak of central nervous system disease associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Japan during the summer of 2000: detection and molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Chikahira, Masatsugu; Yoshida, Shigeru; Ebira, Hitomi; Hasegawa, Ayako; Totsuka, Atsuko; Nishio, Osamu

    2002-01-01

    Few outbreaks of the serious enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which affect the central nervous system (CNS), had been reported in Japan before 2000. During June through August 2000, a patient died of pulmonary edema caused by brainstem encephalitis accompanied by EV71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and many patients complicated by serious CNS disease, including paralysis, were hospitalized in a restricted area in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan (K-area). During the same period, endemics of HFMD were reported in other areas in Hyogo Prefecture, where EV71 was isolated from HFMD patients, but few patients developed aseptic meningitis. The isolations of EV71 from K-area patients were difficult with the use of Vero cells, so the strains were isolated by use of GL37 cells; Vero cells, however, could isolate EV71 strains from other areas in Hyogo Prefecture. We sequenced VP4 coding regions of these EV71 isolates and found that the isolates from K-area had the same sequence, which, except for one isolate, was different from the sequences of EV71 strains isolated from other areas of Hyogo Prefecture. Although these results were not enough to state that EV71 from K-area was a virulent strain, it seemed reasonable to conclude that serious CNS diseases in K-area were caused by EV71 because it was the only infectious agent detected in the inpatients of K-area.

  13. June 1964 Niigata, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 7.4 earthquake killed 26 and destroyed 3,018 houses and moderately or severely damaged 9,750 in Niigata prefecture.

  14. Assessment of efficacy of a live oral poliovirus vaccine for virulent Sabin-like poliovirus 1 strains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, M; Nakayama, T; Matsuura, K; Hasegawa, S; Ando, S; Obara, M; Nagai, Y; Yoshida, H; Horie, H

    2006-01-01

    Virulent Sabin-like poliovirus (VSLP) was isolated from river and sewage waters between October 1993 and September 1995 in Toyama Prefecture, Japan (Yoshida et al., Lancet 356, 1461-1463, 2000). In this study, to assess the possibility of an epidemic of poliomyelitis caused by a VSLP in Japan under the current vaccination policy of administration of live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), we determined titers of serum neutralizing antibodies to poliovirus 1 (PV-1) strains Sabin (vaccine strain), Mahoney (wild-type strain) and G4-12 (VSLP) in various groups of residents of Toyama Prefecture, Japan. The seropositivity and geometric mean neutralizing antibody titers against these strains in the individuals who obtained two doses of OPV were 99.1%, 94.5% and 95.5%, respectively, and 564, 186 and 194, respectively. Although the antibody titers to G4-12 were lower compared with those to Sabin, these results indicate that the OPV vaccination policy in Japan has been effective in preventing poliomyelitis caused by VSLPs. These results also suggest that (i) an epidemic of poliomyelitis caused by a VSLP has not occurred in Japan due to herd immunity, and (ii) the possibility of reemergence of VSLPs will be prevented if sufficient herd immunity is acquired immediately after completion of the OPV vaccination in accordance with the poliomyelitis eradication program.

  15. Trend analysis of cancer incidence in Japan using data from selected population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanoda, Kota; Ajiki, Wakiko; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Akiko; Fujita, Manabu; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ioka, Akiko; Soda, Midori; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2012-02-01

    Population-based cancer registries are operated by over 80% of prefectures in Japan. However, only a limited proportion of the registries can provide long-term incidence data. Here, we aimed to establish a method for monitoring cancer incidence trends in Japan using data from selected prefectures. Based on the availability of long-term (≥ 20 years) high-quality data, we collected incidence data from five prefectures (Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, Osaka, and Nagasaki), which included an annual average of 54,539 primary cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 2004. Cancer mortality data for 1995-2004 were obtained from the vital statistics. Representativeness and homogeneity of the trends were examined by funnel plot analysis of log-linear regression coefficients calculated for the most recent 10 years of data (1995-2004) of age-standardized rates (ASR). The ASR of incidence for five prefectures in total (5-pref total) showed a significant decrease, with an annual percent change (APC) of -1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.4: -0.6) for males and -0.4 (95% CI -0.8: -0.1) for females. Excluding data from Osaka (4-pref total) reversed the decreasing trend; the corresponding APC was +0.4 (95% CI -0.2: +1.0) for males and +0.7 (95% CI +0.5: +0.9) for females. The APCs for the ASR of mortality for the 4-pref total (males, -1.5; females, -1.3) were more representative of nationwide data (males, -1.4 [95% CI -1.7: -1.2]; females, -1.1 [95% CI -1.4: -0.9]) than those for the 5-pref total (males, -1.7; females, -1.4). We conclude that using data from Miyagi, Yamagata, Fukui, and Nagasaki prefectures, with continuous monitoring of the representativeness of the data, is a provisionally relevant way to evaluate cancer incidence trends in Japan. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Development of the 'Beta-Boy' radiation counter for public acceptance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kitada, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., which was established on July 1st, 1992 largely financed by Japan's electric power companies is presently developing four projects in the village of Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, roughly 700 km north of Tokyo: a uranium enrichment plant, which began operation in March, 1992; a reprocessing plant to begin construction in March, 1993; a high level radioactive waste storage facility for waste returned from overseas reprocessing, construction of which began in May, 1992; and a low level radioactive waste disposal center for waste generated in nuclear power plants, which began operation in December, 1992. Approval for the location of these facilities was obtained from the authorities in Aomori Prefecture and Rokkasho Village in 1985. However, following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the nuclear fuel cycle project in Rokkasho as well as other nuclear facilities throughout the country were faced with very active opposition from the antinuclear movement. Through our efforts to obtain public acceptance by arranging site tours, lectures, public debates and so on, we realized that many of the people of Aomori Prefecture had doubts about the nuclear fuel cycle, and that more than 80% of those people held concerns about radiation. We also found that through the demonstration of measuring atmospheric radiation levels using a large conventional portable GM survey meter of the type used in nuclear facilities, we were able to obtain considerable understanding of the nature of radiation at our lectures. Realizing therefore the need to increase this effect, we decided to develop a simple radiation counter, which all the participants at our lectures could operate themselves to measure radiation. I will now explain the characteristics of 'Beta-Boy', new radiation counter, and the method to explain radiation by using 'Beta-Boy' in our public acceptance activities

  17. Role of the Vision Van, a mobile ophthalmic outpatient clinic, in the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenya Yuki,1 Toru Nakazawa,2 Daijiro Kurosaka,3 Tsunehiko Yoshida,4–6 Eduardo C Alfonso,7 Richard K Lee,7 Shigeru Takano,8 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan; 4The House of Representatives of Japan, Tokyo, Japan; 5Nagoya University Hospital, Aichi, Japan; 6Aichi Medical University Hospital, Aichi, Japan; 7Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 8Japan Ophthalmological Association, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 triggered powerful tsunami waves off the northeastern Pacific coast of Japan that destroyed almost all of the built-up areas along the coast. The study reported here examined the role played by the Vision Van, a mobile outpatient ophthalmological clinic, in providing eye care to disaster evacuees. Methods: This was a retrospective case-series study of 2,070 victims (male: 732, female: 1,338 who visited the Vision Van. The subjects' medical records were examined retrospectively and analyzed in terms of age, sex, and date of visit to the Vision Van. Information regarding each patient's chief complaint, diagnosis, medication(s prescribed, and eyeglasses and contact lenses provided, was also examined. Results: The Vision Van was used to conduct medical examinations on 39 days between April 23 and June 29, 2011. The average number of subjects visiting the Vision Van each day was 53±31 (range: 7–135, with examinations carried out in Miyagi Prefecture and Iwate Prefecture. The most frequent complaint was a need for eye drops (871/2,070 [42.1%]. The second and third most frequent complaints, respectively, were the need for contact lenses (294/2,070 [14.2%] and eyeglasses (280/2,070 [13.5%]. The most frequent ocular disease diagnosis

  18. [Questionnaire survey on medical care for male urethritis in community clinics in Shiga prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroto; Araki, Isao; Kageyama, Susumu; Baba, Masato; Nakano, Etsuji; Okada, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    Six regional medical associations in Shiga prefecture agreed to cooperate in an investigation of medical care for male gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. In June 2011, we sent a questionnaire to 372 medical offices in Shiga prefecture, and analyzed replies of respondents. Ten urologists and 175 non-urologists responded to the survey (response rate 49.7%). Among 185 physicians, 52 (10 urologists and 42 nonurologists) have treated male patients with gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. More than 20% (42/175) of non-urological clinics are involved in the medical management. At initial diagnosis for sexually transmitted male urethritis, all urologists select the nucleic acid amplification method (100%), whereas many non-urologists do not (35%). For the treatment of chlamydial urethritis, non-urologists select levofloxacin (LVFX, 52.8%) rather than azithromycin (AZM, 22.0%), whereas urologists use AZM (78.0%) mostly but do not use LVFX (0%) (p = 0.023). For the treatment of gonococcal urethritis, non-urologists prefer oral new quinolones (53.1%) compared to urologists (25.0%) (p = 0. 74). For cure judgment of gonoccocal and chlamydial urethritis, many non-urologists rely on the improvement of subjective symptoms (50 and 47%), but urologists do not (10 and 0%) (p = 0.022 and 0.026, respectively). As for recognition of the clinical guideline for sexually transmitted disease, most urologists (90%) know it, but few non-urologists (13%) do (p urethritis in Shiga prefecture. It is important to standardize the medical care for sexually transmitted male urethritis by familiarizing non-urological practitioners with the clinical guideline.

  19. Contribution of soil sciences for recovering from damages by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Eitaro; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nanzyo, Masami

    2014-01-01

    This symposium was held in September 2013, under the joint hosting of Science Council of Japan, Agricultural Academy of Japan, and Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, as one of the programs of the Nagoya convention of Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. The theme was the contribution of soil science to the restoration from the Great East Japan Earthquake and the issues involved in this. As the restoration from the tsunami, the following two topics were presented: 'Situation of Miyagi Prefecture and challenge of soil science', and 'Technological measures for the resumption of farming in tsunami-hit areas in Soma City, Fukushima Prefecture.' As the restoration from the radiation damage caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident, the following four topics were presented: 'Cooperation between villagers and scholars at Iitate Village; efforts for survey and decontamination with the hands of villagers,' 'Cesium fixation related to on-site soil,' 'Concentration and separation of cesium,' and 'Volume reduction of contaminated soil.' This paper summarizes these six topics of lectures, keynote comments by other specialists and relevant persons, and the atmosphere of the convention on the day. (A.O)

  20. Investigating the health care delivery system in Japan and reviewing the local public hospital reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xing Zhang, Tatsuo Oyama National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Japan's health care system is considered one of the best health care systems in the world. Hospitals are one of the most important health care resources in Japan. As such, we investigate Japanese hospitals from various viewpoints, including their roles, ownership, regional distribution, and characteristics with respect to the number of beds, staff, doctors, and financial performance. Applying a multivariate analysis and regression model techniques, we show the functional differences between urban populated prefectures and remote ones; the equality gap among all prefectures with respect to the distribution of the number of beds, staff, and doctors; and managerial differences between private and public hospitals. We also review and evaluate the local public hospital reform executed in 2007 from various financial aspects related to the expenditure and revenue structure by comparing public and private hospitals. We show that the 2007 reform contributed to improving the financial situation of local public hospitals. Strategic differences between public and private hospitals with respect to their management and strategy to improve their financial situation are also quantitatively analyzed in detail. Finally, the remaining problems and the future strategy to further improve the Japanese health care system are described. Keywords: health care system, health care resource, public hospital, multivariate regression model, financial performance

  1. Molecular Epidemiological Study of Mumps Epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuba, Yumani; Kyan, Hisako; Arakaki, Eri; Takara, Taketoshi; Kato, Takashi; Okano, Sho; Oshiro, Yuko; Kudaka, Jun; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2017-05-24

    Although major mumps epidemics occurred every 4-5 years in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan, no laboratory diagnoses were conducted. A mumps epidemic started in Okinawa in October 2014, and we collected clinical samples from 31 patients in 4 areas (Hokubu, Nanbu, Miyako, and Yaeyama) from July to December 2015, for virus isolation and RT-PCR, whose positive ratios were 52% and 87%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all isolates were classified into genotype G, and with one exception, consisted of 2 subgenotypes, Ge (55.6%) and Gw (40.7%), which have been prominent in Japan recently. One isolate was classified in another lineage, which was detected in Japan for the first time, and was similar to a Hong Kong isolate from 2014. Remarkably, the geographic distributions of the 2 major lineages were separated. The Ge viruses were isolated from the main island of Okinawa and the Yaeyama Islands, whereas the Gw isolates were mainly detected from the Miyako Islands. These results suggest that the Ge and Gw mumps viruses mainly caused the mumps epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, and that they spread independently in separate regions. This is the first report describing the molecular epidemiology of mumps epidemics in Okinawa Prefecture.

  2. The efficient enhancement of solar energy utilization in Lasithi prefecture, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, G.; Moustakas, K.; Koroneos, C.; Loizidou, M.; Tzempelikos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a study on maximizing the use of solar energy in the Prefecture of Lasithi on the island of Crete in southern Greece, followed by an investigation of the possible replacement of diesel and heavy fuel oil. While renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and geothermal energy are abundant on the Greek Islands, their use is limited. This presentation emphasized that solar energy could play a key role in meeting Greece's objective of satisfying 8.6 per cent of its electricity needs using renewable sources by 2010. An optimization methodology was applied to the prefecture in order to exploit the island's solar energy and to satisfy part of its energy needs. In 2001, the population of Lasithi was 76,318. From 1997 to 2002, the total energy consumption in Lasithi increased by an average of 6.4 per cent. The technologies that were considered for the exploitation of solar energy were thermal solar systems (solar radiation into water heating); photovoltaics solar systems (solar radiation into electricity); and, inverted absorber solar stills (solar radiation into drinkable water). A mathematical model was developed to optimize each energy scenario. The basis for analysis was the total amount of diesel, heavy fuel oil and electricity consumed in Lasithi from 1997 to 2002 in correlation with the solar exploitation potential in the prefecture. This paper also presented a review of photovoltaic systems (PV modules, batteries, power conditioning, generators, and pumps), solar air heating systems on buildings and solar water heating systems. It was noted that the extent to which the energy demands will be satisfied by the use of these systems will depend on both financial and environmental criteria. It was determined that for heating and domestic use, the energy from solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar stills and concentrators could meet 97.3 per cent of the energy needs for the prefecture. The remaining energy could be supplied by liquid fuels and the

  3. [Structure and characteristics of technical support that psychiatric social workers of prefectural governments provide for municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The support to municipalities by prefectural governments has become necessary in the fields of mental health and welfare. Therefore, psychiatric social workers (PSW) ordered from the prefectural governor has been providing technical support (TS) that promote community activities of the municipality and improve staff support for persons with mental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify empirical structure and characteristics of TS that PSW provide for municipality staff.Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven certified PSW randomly selected from the membership list of the National Psychiatric Social Worker Organization. Inclusion criteria required participants to have more than 10 years of experience at the prefectural government and experience providing TS in the last five years. Interviews focused on two situations: a casework and a project related to mental health. Interview data were analyzed using a qualitative content method, setting a framework for the consultation process.Results The analysis included five categories and 15 subcategories [ ], which consisted of 37 concepts. In category with municipalities consisted of [complementary relationship] and [partnership]. The category included two subcategories, [analyze/judgment from the conditions spread in front of] and [analyze/judgment be the accumulated skills and knowledge in person]. In category support policy>, six policies were considered as important, including [problem solving and promoting action], [fostering person centered care perspective], [promoting the understanding of residents], [provide psychological support to the staff], [clarify responsibility as the municipal officials], and [coordinate to improve the environment]. Category support techniques> consisted of both [support indirectly] and [support cooperatively]. The last category, support> included three subcategories, [lead to the maintenance and improvement of the system], [have the

  4. [Investigation on the hosts with natural Paragonimus infection and species identification in Jinhua Prefecture of Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hong-Qiang; Hu, Ye; Jin, Yao-Jian; Yu, Xin-Tu; Wang, Lan; He, Xu-Ying; Tu, Ping-Guang

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the natural hosts infected with Paragonimus sp. and identify the species of the parasite in selected counties/districts of Jinhua prefecture in Zhejiang Province. Three townships/towns were randomly sampled from each of the 9 counties/districts in Jinhua as pilot spots for the survey. Fresh-water snails were collected from the fields for examining cercariae. Crabs were collected and detected for metacercariae by routine technique and the metacercariae were fed to dogs purchased in areas free from paragonimiasis. Fecal materials of dogs and cats around the villages and streams where crabs were found infected were collected for examining eggs. The artificially infected dogs were sacrificed 55 d after infection to receive adult worms. The size of cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms was measured. After the DNA of the adult worm was extracted, PCR was used to amplify the COI gene and ITS2 gene of the mitochondria from the worms. Homology with relative strains/isolates was analyzed and phylogenetic tree constructed. The survey demonstrated that the snail Semisulcospira libertina and the crab Sinopotamon chekiangense served as the first and second intermediate hosts respectively. Natural infection was found in Wucheng District with an infection rate of 0.2% (2/1,088) in snails and 76.7% (46/60) in crabs in Shafan township, and an infection index (II) of 2.0 in crabs, 0.1% (1/1,683) in snails and 53.0% (46/60) in crabs with an II of 0.9 in Langya town. The infection rate was 0 (0/575) in snails and 30.0% (18/60) in crabs with an II of 0.1 in Baimu township of Wuyi County. Paragonimus eggs were detected in feces of stray cats with a positive rate of 8.3% (1/12) in Shafan and 0.6% (1/17) in Langya. The size and morphology of the cercariae, metacercariae, eggs and adult worms were similar to those of Paragonimus westermani. The sequences of the COI and ITS2 genes were with 390 bp and 363 bp respectively, indicating a homology of 88.2%-98.2% and 86

  5. Changes in Rotavirus Genotypes before and after Vaccine Introduction: a Multicenter, Prospective Observational Study in Three Areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takaaki; Kamiya, Hajime; Asada, Kazutoyo; Suga, Shigeru; Ido, Masaru; Umemoto, Masakazu; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Ito, Hiroaki; Kuroki, Haruo; Nakano, Takashi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2017-07-24

    In Japan, monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus (RV) vaccines were approved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. To monitor changes in the RV genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, we performed a prospective observational study among children (< 5 years) with gastroenteritis who tested RV-positive on antigen rapid tests. Stool samples were collected from 3 different sites in Japan: Tsu City, Mie Prefecture; Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture; and Isumi City, Chiba Prefecture. RV genotypes were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In Tsu City, G3P[8] was dominant (61.0-77.1%) before vaccine introduction, but decreased after introduction. Meanwhile, in an inverse proportion to the decrease in G3P[8], G1P[8] increased until the 2013/14 season, when a sudden predominance of G2P[4] (100%) occurred. A similar trend was observed in Kurashiki City in terms of the extent of reduction in G3P[8] and the emergence of G2P[4]. In Isumi City, G1P[8] was dominant (70.3%) before vaccine introduction, and G9P[8] became predominant (83.3%) in the 2013/14 season. To determine whether the genotype changes are attributable to vaccines or natural epidemiological changes, ongoing continuous monitoring of the RV genotypes is required.

  6. Environmental background 14C levels in Japan in 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Tetsuo; Arai, Kiyohiko; Kashida, Yoshihiko; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2002-01-01

    For assessment of radiation doses due to 14 C released from nuclear facilities, it is necessary to know the background level of environmental 14 C originated from the natural cosmic-ray production and the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The authors selected grapes as an indicator of 14 C levels in the environment including atmosphere, and determined the specific activities of 14 C in ethanol extracted from wine made from grapes cultivated in several prefectures or unknown places in Japan in each year from 1990 to 2000. The specific activities of 14 C were almost uniform all over Japan in each year, though they showed the weak tendency to slightly decrease with increasing population densities in the prefecture where the wine grapes were cultivated. It is considered that this small regional variation in the specific activities of 14 C arose from Suess effect, because population densities can be regarded as an index of the amount of CO 2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The specific activities of 14 C gradually decreased in the 1990s. That is, they were 260 mBq/gC in 1990, and became 244 mBq/gC in 2000. This 14 C level in 2000 was still about 7% higher than the pre-bomb level. The decrease in 14 C originated from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-time was shorter than that in the Europe, Canada and the South Pacific. This difference in the decreasing rate between Japan and other countries may be explained by a fact that the amount of CO 2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion continued to increase in Japan in this period. The specific activities of 14 C in wine ethanol determined in this study showed good agreement with those in atmospheric CO 2 predicted by a mathematical model. They were also in the same levels as the 14 C specific activities in atmospheric CO 2 , tree leaves, grass and plant food in Japan and other countries, which were

  7. Mental health and psychosocial support after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yutaka; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake, Keio University School of Medicine has, at the request of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, provided mental health and psychosocial support to those living in Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture. This report covers the types of support provided in Soma City and discusses previous studies that were used as the model for current support practice and the results gained from actual performance. Also included is a summary of the objectives that were or were not achieved for medical support compared with recommendations from previous studies. Furthermore, future directions for medical support are also discussed.

  8. A new species of seagrass-boring Limnoria (Limnoriidae, Isopoda, Crustacea) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroki; Watabe, Hikari; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2017-02-15

    The marine seagrass-boring isopod, Limnoria rhombipunctata sp. nov. (Limnoriidae) is described from the rhizome of Phyllospadix iwatensis seagrass, in shallow coastal waters off Chiba Prefecture, Japan. L. rhombipunctata sp. nov. is distinguished from other Limnoria species by the unique carinae of pleonite 5 and pleotelson, two branched lacinia mobilis of the right mandible, 3 flagellar articles of antenna 1, and triangular epipod of the maxilliped. Specimens of L. magadanensis, a species similar to L. rhombipunctata sp. nov., are re-examined and compared with L. rhombipunctata sp. nov.

  9. Isotopic investigations for the origin of relic from the Matsusaki site, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano-Ohta, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano-o@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kubota, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Ando, A. [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Honzan, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University, San30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, T.; Fukutani, S. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nakata, E. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Abiko-shi, Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Nakano, T. [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Honzan, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Mahara, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We measured the environmental radioactivity and isotope ratio, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio, {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U, {delta}{sup 13}C, and {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra activity ratio, of adhesion that adhered to a wooden tubing vessel obtained from the Matsusaki site, one of the salt-production sites where Moshio is manufactured, in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The environmental radioactivity and isotope ratio verified that the adhesion originated from the seaweed and/or sea grass.

  10. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on obesity of children in Japan (2008-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008-2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the BMI z-score and obesity rates in disaster-affected areas were higher than in other areas, although this was not observed for the other cohorts; (2) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the influence of the accident persisted even after 3 years; and (3) the differences in the BMI z-score and obesity rate before and after the accident were greater for Fukushima Prefecture than for the other affected areas (Iwate and Miyagi prefectures). I infer that health-conscious parents, whose children had lower BMIs, may have moved from Fukushima, thereby increasing the BMI z-score of the child population living in Fukushima by around 0.05 for the cohort aged 5-7 years. The enforced reduction in physical activity increased the BMI z-score of children living in Fukushima by around 0.19 for that cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan: knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki

    This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia.

  12. Wheelchair-accessible dental offices in Nagasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, H; Saito, T; Tsunomachi, M; Doutsu, T

    2010-09-01

    To determine the proportion of dental offices in Nagasaki, Japan, that are wheelchair accessible and to identify factors related to the adoption of barrier-free designs within the study area. All 703 dental offices managed by members of the Nagasaki Prefecture Dental Association were studied. We evaluated the accessibility of the offices to wheelchair users and compared the percentage and adjusted odds ratio of the accessible dental offices according to dental office characteristics. Of the respondents, 62% deemed their offices accessible. The percentage and adjusted odds ratio of accessible offices were significantly higher for offices offering more specialties, providing more frequent home visits, and with younger head dentists. According to the self-reported results from dentists, more than one third of the dental offices in Nagasaki were not easily accessible by mobility-impaired persons. Dentists should the understand architectural and perceptual barriers faced by handicapped persons and the aged and consider barrier-free office designs for all patients.

  13. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists.

  14. Summary of intensive monitoring for radionuclides in fishery products after Fukushima accident and comparison to the results of long term monitoring program in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Ken; Morita, Takami; Shigenobu, Yuya; Takagi, Kaori; Miki, Shizuho; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Ambe, Daisuke; Ono, Tsuneo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Monitoring of artificial radionuclides in fishery products started in late 1950's and has over half a century history in Japan. Fisheries Agency (FA), Fisheries Research Agency (FRA) and prefectural organizations have been conducting the monitoring. The intensive monitoring of radioactive material in fishery products started in the late of March 2011 immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident for the coastal area faced to the Pacific Ocean in the eastern area of Japan and for the offshore area. The purpose of this monitoring is to avoid the distribution of fishery products containing radioactive cesium in concentration over the Japanese standard limit (Cs-134+Cs-137: 100 Bq/kg). Japanese monitoring data are opened to public on the FA's and FRA's web page. In this study, we resume the results of intensive monitoring started in 2011 and show the temporal change of concentration of radioactive cesium in fishery product. In Fukushima Prefecture, the ratio of samples exceeding the Japanese standard limit shows a steadily decreasing trend from 53% at Mar.- Jun. 2011 to below 3% at Jul. - Sep. 2013. In other prefectures, the ratio was 6.5% at Mar.- Jun. 2011 and fell gradually, and it has been below to 1% at Jul. - Sep. 2013. In presentation, we show the results of monitoring conducted in the coastal area and deeper water around Japan from long gamma ray measurements with ashed samples by high purified germanium gamma spectrometry. (authors)

  15. Plan of disaster prevention in district of Shizuoka Prefecture countermeasures to nuclear power. 1984 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Based on the basic act for disaster countermeasures, this plan aimes at establishing the necessary system concerning the countermeasures for preventing the disaster due to the release of a large quantity of radioactive substances from the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., determining the measures to be taken for disaster prevention, and striving for the safety of inhabitants by executing the deskworks and services of the disaster prevention related to nuclear power synthetically and purposefully. The general matters concerning the disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture are determined in the ''Plan of disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture (General countermeasures)'', but in view of the peculiarity of nuclear power disaster, the peculiar matters are to be determined in this plan. The general rules on the works of respective disaster prevention organizations, the countermeasures for preventing nuclear power disaster, the emergency countermeasures to nuclear power disaster, the countermeasures to Tokai earthquakes and the countermeasures for restoration after nuclear power disaster are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  16. Retrospect and prospect of “Traffic Safety Education” in Kagawa Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ihara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain why we have conducted “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture during the past ten years so as to clarify the important factors for preventing painful traffic accidents in advance. To meet this aim, we firstly clarify the reason why we eventually decided to conduct “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture. In other words, the organization of powerful actors and/or leaders to cope with traffic accidents plays a very important role in “Traffic Safety Education.” Then, we specifically describe the essential parts of our “Traffic Safety Education”. In this respect, we have decided to select the following two aims: to reduce the number of traffic accidents, and to improve traffic manners, respectively. Thirdly, we evaluate various measures, such as teaching materials, teaching methods, and other activities of our “Traffic Safety Education” in detail. Lastly, we summarize the remaining tasks, which have been revealed so far, together with some concluding remarks.

  17. Network organization in research and medicare of refractory cancers in Chiba prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) specified for Chiba Cancer Center (CCC) to be one of base hospitals for cooperative medicare of cancers in Japanese prefectures in 2006. Even before and after that, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and CCC had worked together without the official agreement, but they made the arrangement with the organization in the title to cooperate and promote the research and medicare of refractory cancers in Chiba Prefecture on October 27, 2009. This paper is a record of the 1st joint symposium (Mar. 13, 2010) of the two facilities, open to the public, describing the mutual introduction of them, genome studies, and treatment of refractory cancers of brain, lungs and pancreas conducted hitherto. Documents actually concerns: the introduction of NIRS including its division of the Res. Center for Charged Particle Therapy with Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), its Hospital, Molecular Imaging Center, Res. Center for Radiation Protection and for Radiation Emergency Medicine, and Fundamental Technology Center; introduction of CCC including its routine clinical practice, palliative medicare, basic and clinical researches, and works as the base hospital; NIRS basic researches for the heavy ion therapy (approach from the genomic science and development of risk assessment with use of genome information); treatment outcome of glioblastoma (GBM) by intensity modified radiotherapy (IMRT) in CCC; NIRS heavy ion (C ion) therapy for malignant glioma; and surgical outcomes of lung and pancreatic cancers in CCC and heavy ion therapy for the cancers in NIRS. (T.T.)

  18. A survey on the public opinion regarding nuclear power and energy issues in Fukui prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko; Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    To 2000 people who were randomly sampled from the basic register of residents in Fukui prefecture, we conducted a questionnaire survey asking their interest in, knowledge of and attitude toward nuclear power, to analyze which perceptions and opinions they had and factors influencing them. The ratios of respondents in Fukui prefecture who think nuclear power is safe, necessary, and should be developed more, are higher than those of surveyed residents who live in other regions where nuclear power plants had been in operation. Differences in gender and age are nearly the same as those found in the nation-wide surveys has shown. The respondents in 'Tsuruga' region, one of the centers of nuclear power research and development, are more acceptive and affirmative to the nuclear power than those in other regions, although they have less knowledge and credibility for nuclear power safety measures, such as regulation and monitoring by government, countermeasure of earthquake, training of workers and so on. We analyzed the perception of risk and the sense of security for nuclear power, and the opinions for necessity and development of nuclear power, using a regression model. According to the estimated 'Tsuruga' model, risk perception of Tsuruga respondents does not affect their opinion if nuclear power should be developed. No influence of the risk perception on their opinion for nuclear power suggest a possibility that residents have strong trust in nuclear power technology and electric power companies based on their long term experience. (author)

  19. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Lou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0=2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  20. Nuclear accident-derived (3)H in river water of Fukushima Prefecture during 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Ochiai, Shinya; Akata, Naofumi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-08-01

    During 2011-2014, we measured (3)H concentrations in river water samples collected during base flow conditions and during several flood events from two small rivers in a mountainous area in Fukushima Prefecture, which received deposition of (137)Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. (3)H concentrations above background levels were found in water samples collected during both base flow conditions and flood events in 2011. The (3)H concentrations during flood events were generally higher than those during base flow conditions. The (3)H concentrations in both rivers during base flow conditions and flood events decreased with time after the accident and reached almost background levels in 2013. We also measured (3)H concentrations in freshwater samples from 16 other rivers and one dam in eastern Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 during base flow conditions. The measured (3)H concentrations were higher than the background level in 2012 and decreased with time. The (137)Cs inventory in the catchment area at each sampling point was estimated from air-borne monitoring results in the literature and compared with the (3)H concentrations. We found surprisingly good correlations between (137)Cs inventories in the catchment areas and (3)H concentrations in the water samples. Further studies will be necessary to clarify the reason for the good correlation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CERN CERTIFICATE REQUIRED FOR AN APPLICATION FOR A FRENCH RESIDENCE PERMIT ISSUED BY A PREFECTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    All non-French nationals who reside in France for more than three consecutive months or who, in the case of intermittent periods of residence, are effectively present in France for more than three months in any six-month period must obtain a residence or stay permit (titre de séjour). If members of the CERN personnel and members of their families fulfil those conditions inter alia, they normally receive a legitimation document, which is valid as a residence or stay permit, from the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Carte spéciale FI or AT, Carte d'assimilé à un membre de mission diplomatique). However, members of the personnel with permanent resident status (résident permanent) are not, by virtue of that status, entitled to a legitimation document and must obtain a residence permit issued by a Prefecture. For the latter purpose, with the agreement of the Prefecture de l'Ain, CERN (i.e. the Personnel Records Office, Human Resources Division, office 33/1-...

  2. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  3. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R 0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  4. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Ryohei; Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami

    1998-03-01

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  5. Trends in life expectancy with care needs based on long-term care insurance data in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Rumi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Masayuki; Kato, Masahiro; Noda, Tatsuya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Masato; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Using a previously developed method for calculating expected years of life with care needs based on data from the Japanese long-term care insurance system, we examined recent trends in expected years of life with care needs by age group and prefecture. Information on care needs was available from the long-term care insurance system of Japan. Expected years of life with care needs by age group and prefecture in 2005-2009 were calculated. Expected years of life with care needs at age 65 increased from 1.43 years in 2005 to 1.62 years in 2009 for men, and from 2.99 to 3.44 years for women. As a proportion of total life expectancy, these values show an increase from 7.9% to 8.6% in men and from 12.9% to 14.4% in women. Expected years with care needs did not increase in the age groups of 65 to 69 and 70 to 74 years but markedly increased in the age group of 85 years or older. Expected years with care needs increased in every prefecture during the period studied. The difference in 2005 between the 25th and 75th percentiles in prefectural distributions was 0.16 years for men and 0.35 years for women. The difference remained nearly constant between 2005 and 2009. Expected number of years of life with care needs increased among Japanese from 2005 to 2009, and there was a wide range in distribution among prefectures. Further studies on coverage of care needs under the long-term insurance program are necessary.

  6. Breast cancer screening and the changing population pyramid of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ken; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Satoki; Nogi, Hiroko; Kato, Kumiko; Toriumi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Akinori; Kamio, Makiko; Mimoto, Rei; Takeyama, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer has been the most prevalent cancer in Japan since the 1990s. The mortality from breast cancer is increasing in Japan, whereas in other industrialized countries it has been decreasing since 1990. On the other hand, Japan faces unparalleled growth in its aging population. The aim of this study was to report the mammography screening among Japanese women and the related upcoming changes in the population pyramid of Japan. The reference data for our study were obtained from the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Japanese Cancer Society, and the National Institute of Population and Social Security. The survey data were obtained from breast cancer and mammography screenings in the Tokyo Prefecture in 2008. The following parameters were analyzed: annual breast cancer incidence, current screening rates, average life-span, and predicted demographic statistics. Our results showed that breast cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing annually in Japan. The average age of breast cancer patients increased to 58.40 years in 2010. The incidence of breast cancer in women aged 65 years and older increased from 25.3 to 32.9 % in the last 10 years and is expected to continue to increase in the future. The check-up rate was 16.0-20.0 % for women aged 65-74 years and 43.0-46.0 % for women aged 40-54 years. According to our questionnaire survey, concerns about breast cancer and mammography screening were high in the young and low in the elderly women. The Japanese population aged 65 years and older was 30,740 (24.1 %) in 2012 and is estimated to increase by 40 % over the next 20 years despite Japan's declining population size. Breast cancer incidence has increased in Japan, even among patients aged 65 years and older. Breast cancer has become increasingly prevalent in older Japanese women. As the population pyramid of Japan changes, women aged 65

  7. Epidemiological evaluation of cats rescued at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Miharu, Fukushima, after the Great East Japan Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aki; Martinez-Lopez, Beatriz; Kass, Philip

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this research were to report characteristics of rescued cats at a secondary emergency animal shelter in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, and evaluate how adoptability, stress level, upper respiratory infection (URI) syndrome incidence, and URI pathogen prevalence were associated with the cat's shelter intake source and shelter characteristics. All cats admitted to the Miharu shelter, Fukushima Prefecture from 2012 to 2014 were included in the study. The results demonstrate that in situ corticosteroid and antibiotic use were associated with cats subsequently developing upper respiratory infections (URI). Disease and cat behavior were unassociated with adoption. Cats in group housing had lower stress metrics than cats individually housed. Prevalences of URI pathogens exceeded 80%, but symptomatic cats were uncommon. Environmental enrichment and stress reduction strategies are important in controlling URI and reducing the need for corticosteroids and antibiotics in shelters. Preemptive protocols are important in preventing shelter admission of cats during disasters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Two new species of the Pterostichus macrogenys species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae discovered in shallow subterranean habitats in northern Honshu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kôji Sasakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow subterranean environments have recently received attention as a habitat for Carabidae beetles, and many new species have been discovered using collection techniques devised for this habitat. We report the discovery of two new species of the macrogenys species group of the Pterostichus subgenus Nialoe Tanaka, 1958, collected by subterranean baited traps in northern Honshu, Japan. Pterostichus shinbodakensis Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from Mt. Shinbodake, Niigata Prefecture, and P. tateishiyamanus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from the southeastern foot of Mt. Tateishiyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Comparative male genital morphology shows that among the known species, the two new species are most closely related to P. falcispinus Sasakawa, 2005 and P. chokaisanus Sasakawa, 2009, respectively. In addition, sympatric occurrence of P. shinbodakensis with a smaller, unidentified species of the species group was also confirmed. The implications of these results for future studies of the macrogenys species group, as well as those of Nialoe, are discussed.

  9. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. Methods A cross...

  10. JAPAN: Super-Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Excavation for the Japanese Super- KAMIOKANDE 50,000-ton water Cherenkov imaging detector was completed at the end of June. The goals include a search for nucleon decay up to a lifetime of 10 33-34 years, high-statistics studies of solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and detection of any nearby supernova explosions. The project was approved in 1991, with the official 'groundbreaking' in December of that year about 1,000 m underground in the Kamioka mine in Gifu Prefecture, about 250 km west of Tokyo

  11. Palynofloras from the upper Barremian-Aptian Nishihiro Formation (Outer Zone of southwest Japan) and the appearance of angiosperms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Julien; Yamada, Toshihiro; Nishida, Harufumi

    2014-03-01

    Palynomorphs are reported for the first time from the Nishihiro Formation (Wakayama Prefecture, Outer Zone of southwest Japan). The Nishihiro Formation consists of brackish to shallow marine deposits, dated as late Barremian to Aptian from geological correlations. Spores prevail in the assemblage, representing Filicopsida (mainly Cyatheaceae and Anemiaceae), Marchantiopsida and Lycopsida. The pollen assemblage is dominated by Coniferales, whereas Gnetales and Bennettitales/Cycadales are only rarely observed. Moreover, we report angiosperm pollen grains of the genus Retimonocolpites for the first time in the Early Cretaceous sediments of Japan. Pollen grains of the Retimonocolpites Group are typical of early angiosperms and commonly found in assemblages from the early to mid-Cretaceous of all paleofloristic provinces. Until this paper, the oldest angiosperm fossils in Japan were represented by a single seed and a wood reported from the Albian of Hokkaido. The oldest reliable angiosperm pollen grains were reported in Hokkaido from the Cenomanian, and in Honshu from the Coniacian. Thus, Retimonocolpites pollen grains reported in the present study represent the oldest record of angiosperms in Japan. They indicate an appearance of the angiosperms in Japan older than thought until now, which is consistent with that proposed elsewhere in eastern Asia.

  12. Technology Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shoji; Stern, Sam

    1993-01-01

    Describes the history, current status, and future direction of technology education in Japan, including the process of curriculum transition, secondary and postsecondary structure, and lack of resources. (SK)

  13. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kiyomitsu

    1994-01-01

    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan

  14. Zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models: Estimating the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masaki; Nohara, Katsuhito

    2018-04-01

    This study proposes an estimation approach to panel count data, truncated at zero, in order to apply a contingent behavior travel cost method to revealed and stated preference data collected via a web-based survey. We develop zero-truncated panel Poisson mixture models by focusing on respondents who visited a site. In addition, we introduce an inverse Gaussian distribution to unobserved individual heterogeneity as an alternative to a popular gamma distribution, making it possible to capture effectively the long tail typically observed in trip data. We apply the proposed method to estimate the impact on tourism benefits in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant No. 1 accident. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical report on lung cancer irradiated in three hospital in Gunma Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Mikio; Saito, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    The data on 158 cases of lung cancer treated with radiotherapy at three hospitals (Hospital of School of Med., Gunma Univ., National Takasaki Hospital and Gunma Cancer Center Hospital) were analized. 1. Seventy one cases (44.9%) of all patients were more than 70 years old. As the histological type, epidermoid carcinoma was recognized in 44% of male patients, and adenocarcinoma in 51.5% of female. The number of patients with epidermoid carcinoma tended to increase with age. 2. Gunma Cancer Center was different from other hospitals in that half of the female patients (6/12) were stage I, adenocarcinoma. 3. The dwelling area of patients in Gunma Cancer Center Hospital distributed over towns and counties at the east district in Gunma prefecture, whereas in other hospitals concentrated in Maebashi and Takasaki cities. (author)

  16. Radiocarbon-dating of earthenware of the Earliest Jomon period from Obihiro city, in Hokkaido prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated radiocarbon dating of earthenware of the Earliest Jomon period from Obihiro City, in Hokkaido Prefecture. The authors investigated radiocarbon age differences among charred woods and charred residues on the surface of potteries. Results of radiocarbon dates of URAHORO-type pottery adhesions showed ca. 7560-7987 14 C BP, and that of charcoals were ca. 7180 14 C BP and 7285 14 C BP. The age of charred residues on the inside surface of potteries show 300-800 yrs older than the 14 C age of the charred woods, which corresponded to the actual age of the archaeological site, respectively. It becomes a cause to have cooked the salmon by earthenware and I think that the marine reservoir effect occurred. (author)

  17. Studies on the Neogene Tertiary strata distributed in the central part of Tottori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitani, Akihiko; Yoshizawa, Junko.

    1978-01-01

    The Neogene Tertiary strata, distributed in the central part of Tottori Prefecture, are volcano-stratigraphically classified, as shown in Figure 3. The Miocene strata are divided into Ojika formation and Mitoku formation in ascending order. Ojika formation, composed of plagio-rhyolitic pyroclastics and lavas, abuts against the basement rocks. Furthermore, some breaccias derived from the talus basal conglomerate beds are found in Ojika formation. Mitoku formation abuts both against the basement rocks and Ojika formation, and sometimes overlaps on the basement rocks. From the investigation into the Miocene strata, it is clarified that the depression took place prior to the volcanic activities at the earliest stage of the present Miocene sedimentary basin. (author)

  18. Medical genetics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, M

    1995-01-01

    In Japan genetic diseases are getting more popular in medicine, because of increased awareness of the role of genetic determinants of diseases. Care for patients with inherited disease is one of the current big problems. In this review, programs developed to support Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients are described as an example of medical services available for genetic diseases in Japan.

  19. Reform: Learning from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examining differences between education in the United States and in Japan means analyzing cultural dissimilarities. An overview of Japan's educational makeup, curriculum, and graduation rates provides background in comparing educational systems for future reforms. This paper examines Japanese school structures, government support, institutional…

  20. Renewable energies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosello-Garcia, M.

    2003-04-01

    Dependent upon its energy supplies, the Japan aims to develop its renewable energies production. This evolution will also agrees the engagements of the Kyoto protocol to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. To reach in 2010 7% of the energy consumption by a ''clean energy'', the Japan supports and finances many research projects on the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  1. [Administrative-based outreach activities in Gunma Prefecture: preventative crisis intervention via a "compulsory transfer center"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashina, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Part of the Gunma Mental Health Center (a mental health welfare center), the Gunma Psychiatric Emergency Information Center (IC) is a de facto compulsory transfer center that centrally handles the compulsory transfer to medical examinations and hospitals of people with psychiatric issues who are detained by the police within Gunma Prefecture and conducts outreach activities for people with various social difficulties. The dichotomy in compulsory transfer is the conflict between the medical benefit to the patient and the demand for safety by the family and local residents. A triage system focusing on both the degree of risk to others and the necessity of treatment was thus implemented by Gunma Prefecture in the late 1990s, with the IC established as a compulsory transfer center. IC outreach activities commenced due to requests from healthcare centers and local authorities. For those patients deemed by the IC as requiring treatment, voluntary psychiatric examination is promoted where possible. However, the potential for and methods of crisis intervention through involuntary treatment via compulsory transfer are also explained to patients, families and local residents. Support for relapse prevention can also be provided following involuntary hospitalization via compulsory transfer. In this way, the IC, which is in charge of compulsory transfer and conducts outreach activities in cooperation with healthcare centers and local authorities, considers the demand for safety by the local community while respecting the medical benefit to the patient. Furthermore, as the IC is an administrative body rather than a hospital, a treatment contract with the patient is not always necessary and involvement can continue even in the face of patient resistance. We present herein the case of a patient who, together with his family, strongly rejected medical and welfare involvement. The changing situation surrounding the patient and family was appropriately handled through continued

  2. Report on Disaster Medical Operations with Acupuncture/Massage Therapy after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan with the consequent tsunami. Department of Traditional Asian Medicine, Tohoku University, started providing medical assistance to the disaster-stricken regions mainly employing traditional Asian therapies. We visited seven evacuation centers in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefecture and provided acupuncture/massage therapy. While massage therapy was performed manually, filiform needles and press tack needles were used to administer acupuncture. In total, 553 people were treated (mean age, 54.0 years; 206 men, 347 women. Assessment by interview showed that the most common complaint was shoulder/back stiffness. The rate of therapy satisfaction was 92.3%. Many people answered that they experienced not only physical but also psychological relief. At the time of the disaster, acupuncture/massage therapy, which has both mental and physical soothing effects, may be a therapeutic approach that can be effectively used in combination with Western medical practices.

  3. Sleep duration among children 8 months after the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate relationships between disaster damage conditions and sleep duration among children who survived the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami. METHODS: The subjects comprised 12,524 children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15, a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, and a sleep questionnaire were distributed to them. A questionnaire regarding disaster damage conditions of the children's homes was distributed to their teachers. Of 12,524, an effective response was obtained from 11,692 (93.3%. RESULTS: Relationships between sleep duration and traumatic symptoms were displayed low correlations. Children with house damage and/or evacuation experiences slept for a significantly shorter time than children without these experiences. CONCLUSION: It is critical not only to examine traumatic symptoms in children but also to collect sleep duration and disaster damage conditions following natural disasters.

  4. Japan's Evolving Nested Municipal Hierarchy: The Race for Local Power in the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In agreement with Nested City theory, this paper illustrates how Japan's municipal hierarchy has evolved and remained embedded within that nation's particular historical-political-economic context. It chronicles how municipalities have attained status based upon the role they have played in the country's political, economic, and military history, and, more recently, their population size. It then shows how during the post-war period, the tiers within this urban stratification system were expanded and institutionalized by national laws governing municipalities. Drawing upon more than 100 interviews with local government officials in nine prefectures, it then reveals how a shift in national policy toward decentralization in the late-1990s sparked a race for higher municipal status in Japan's national hierarchy, during the 2000s, and thereby, local power.

  5. [History of ignorance of methylmercury toxicity and intoxication in Japan in relation to Minamata disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The first reports of methylmercury intoxication appeared in 1865 and 1866. These reports had sensational effects in European countries, and were introduced not only in journals but also in newspapers. These two reports were referable in Japan at the latest in 1927. The formation of organic mercury in the production of acetoaldehyde was also referable in 1906 in Japan. In 1931 (one year before the start of acetoaldehyde production in Minamata) these important reports cited above were referable in Kumamoto University, and there were warnings about the toxicity of organic mercury and environmental pollution prior to the start of acetoaldehyde production. However, not only the plant, authorities (Ministry of Welfare), and Kumamoto Prefectural Office, but also the scientists completely ignored these reports. Waste was dumped into the environment without any treatment. Serious pollution of the environment by organic mercury started, which resulted in the outbreak of Minamata disease (=methylmercury intoxication).

  6. Four Sporadic Pediatric Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infection in a Rural Area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kisei; Yasuda, Ryu; Terakawa, Runa; Koike, Yumi; Takeuchi, Koichi; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Horiuchi, Ayaka; Kubota, Noriko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-24

    In the spring of 2015, we experienced a cluster of 4 sporadic cases of yersiniosis in children in Nagano prefecture, a rural area of Japan. Two patients developed appendicitis-like episodes; one had acute gastroenteritis, and the other had bacteremia associated with liver abscess. The causative agent of these infections was Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:8. None of the patients had an underlying illness, and all have recovered completely. The patients were neither socially nor geographically related to each other. These 4 consecutive cases suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:8 has spread substantially in the middle part of Japan, and that this virulent strain might be more common than previously reported in our country.

  7. Investigating the health care delivery system in Japan and reviewing the local public hospital reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Oyama, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Japan's health care system is considered one of the best health care systems in the world. Hospitals are one of the most important health care resources in Japan. As such, we investigate Japanese hospitals from various viewpoints, including their roles, ownership, regional distribution, and characteristics with respect to the number of beds, staff, doctors, and financial performance. Applying a multivariate analysis and regression model techniques, we show the functional differences between urban populated prefectures and remote ones; the equality gap among all prefectures with respect to the distribution of the number of beds, staff, and doctors; and managerial differences between private and public hospitals. We also review and evaluate the local public hospital reform executed in 2007 from various financial aspects related to the expenditure and revenue structure by comparing public and private hospitals. We show that the 2007 reform contributed to improving the financial situation of local public hospitals. Strategic differences between public and private hospitals with respect to their management and strategy to improve their financial situation are also quantitatively analyzed in detail. Finally, the remaining problems and the future strategy to further improve the Japanese health care system are described.

  8. Community and Citizenship in Post-Disaster Japan: The Roles of Schools and Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Parmenter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2011, a triple earthquake-tsunami-nuclear disaster rocked northeasternJapan. In this article, the impact of these three disasters on schools,teachers and children will be analysed, with a particular focus on the role ofteachers in saving lives and leading communities, and the role of schools assites and agents of community and citizenship in the disaster situation. Thearticle is structured around four themes, namely, the role of school leadersand teachers, the role of schools as sites of community, changing mediarepresentations of children and communities in the wider national context,and the birth of global citizenship as a meaningful concept. Primary datafrom visits to schools in Miyagi Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture inJapan in July 2011 and December 2011 are combined with analysis ofsecondary sources written in Japanese to paint a clear picture of thedifferent roles served by teachers and schools at different points in timeduring and after the disasters. This provides insights not only into postdisastercommunities, but also into the role of teachers and function ofschools as agents and sites of community and citizenship in Japanesesociety.

  9. Bathymetry Mapping Using Hyperspectral Data: a Case Study of Yamada Bay, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, E.; Kakuta, S.; Takeda, T.

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to examine if the inversion method using hyperspectral data is applicable in Japan. Nowadays, overseas researchers are mainly applied an inversion method for accurately estimating water depth. It is able to gain not only water depth, but also benthic spectral reflection and inherent optical properties (IOPs) at the same time, based on physics-based radiative transfer theory for hyperspectral data. It is highly significant to understand the possibility to develop the application in future for coastal zone of main island, which is a common water quality in Japan, but there is not any case study applied this method in Japan. The study site of Yamada bay in Iwate Prefecture is located in northeast of Japan. An existed analytical model was optimized for mapping water depth in Yamada bay using airborne hyperspectral image and ground survey data which were simultaneously acquired in December, 2015. The retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) is basically qualitatively appropriate result. However, when compared with all ground survey points, the retrieved water depth showed low correlation, even though ground points which are selected sand bottom indicates high relationship. Overall, we could understand the inversion method is applicable in Japan. However, it needs to challenge to improve solving error-caused problems.

  10. BATHYMETRY MAPPING USING HYPERSPECTRAL DATA: A CASE STUDY OF YAMADA BAY, NORTHEAST JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ariyasu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine if the inversion method using hyperspectral data is applicable in Japan. Nowadays, overseas researchers are mainly applied an inversion method for accurately estimating water depth. It is able to gain not only water depth, but also benthic spectral reflection and inherent optical properties (IOPs at the same time, based on physics-based radiative transfer theory for hyperspectral data. It is highly significant to understand the possibility to develop the application in future for coastal zone of main island, which is a common water quality in Japan, but there is not any case study applied this method in Japan. The study site of Yamada bay in Iwate Prefecture is located in northeast of Japan. An existed analytical model was optimized for mapping water depth in Yamada bay using airborne hyperspectral image and ground survey data which were simultaneously acquired in December, 2015. The retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs is basically qualitatively appropriate result. However, when compared with all ground survey points, the retrieved water depth showed low correlation, even though ground points which are selected sand bottom indicates high relationship. Overall, we could understand the inversion method is applicable in Japan. However, it needs to challenge to improve solving error-caused problems.

  11. Trends in the prevalence of low birth weight in Okinawa, Japan: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, T; Binns, C

    2009-02-01

    To review the trends in low birth weight (LBW) in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss the public health implications of the trend. The statistical records of Japan and the Okinawa prefecture were reviewed to observe secular trends of LBW incidence rate and other health indicators. Literature researches were undertaken of English and Japanese language publications to complete the review. The LBW rate in Japan declined until the 1970s, reaching a low point for the whole country in 1978-1979 when it was 5.2% (7.2% in Okinawa). In Okinawa the proportion of LBW declined from 8.1% in 1973 to 7.2 in 1978. Since 1980 the LBW rate has steadily increased to its current level of 9.3% in Japan and 10.9% in Okinawa. During this period, the prematurity rate has not increased and other indicators of child health have continued to improve. Japan is unique among developed countries in that the LBW rate has almost doubled in the past three decades and the rate in Okinawa is 20% greater than the mainland. The health costs of this trend include the neonatal care of LBW infants and the increased risk of chronic disease in later life.

  12. Political and environmental attitude toward participatory energy and environmental governance: A survey in post-Fukushima Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident triggered citizen dialogue on energy and environmental management in Japan. However, an international survey has shown that the willingness of Japanese citizens to participate in political and social activities has declined since the Fukushima accident. Employing an internet-based survey in four urban or nuclear power plant-hosting prefectures in Japan, this study examines the willingness to participate in random sampling deliberation on post-disaster energy and environmental policy. It focuses on the effects of political, environmental, and social attitudes towards willingness to participate in citizen dialogue. The survey shows around 40% of respondents may participate in energy and environmental deliberation. Statistical analysis reveals that environmental consciousness raises the propensity to participate in deliberation, while political obedience and social hesitation decreases the will to participate. The effect of environmental attitudes is larger than that of political and social attitudes. The survey also finds that governmental response to deliberation, i.e., information generation and disclosure based on requests from citizen dialogue, encourages participation in deliberation in a conservative prefecture, when citizen dialogue is held at the national level. Random sampling deliberation opens a new mode of environmental governance regardless of local political and social characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological analysis of childhood cancer in Japan based on population-based cancer registries, 1993-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yuko; Fujii, Makoto; Hara, Junichi; Soda, Midori

    2017-07-01

    There are few recent data on trends in childhood cancer incidence using population-based cancer registries in Japan. This study comprised 6110 reported cases of patients aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed as having primary cancer between 1993 and 2009. We chose cancer registries of seven prefectures, according to the international cancer registry standard of fewer than 10% death certificate only cases among cancer registries in Japan. We analyzed population-based cancer registration data in the seven prefectures between 1993 and 2009. We calculated childhood cancer incidence, age-specific incidence, crude incidence rate, age-adjusted incidence rate, confidence intervals and annual change for each prefecture and classified the data into 12 diagnostic groups, according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC). According to sex-specific incidence, males accounted for slightly more cases than females. Children 0-3 years old accounted for 41.1% of patients. Leukemia accounted for 36.0% of cancers, followed by central nervous system tumors with 15.0%, according to the ICCC. The crude incidence rate did not change substantially, remaining at an average 8-11 per 100 000 population. In addition, the age-adjusted incidence rate remained constant with an average 2 per 100 000 population. Using population-based cancer registry data, age-specific incidence and 12 diagnostic groups according to the ICCC showed characteristics of childhood cancers. The incidence rate of childhood cancers has been nearly stable in Japan over the past 15 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Urban versus rural differences in the occurrence of hip fractures in Japan’s Kyoto prefecture during 2008–2010: a comparison of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the differences in the characteristics of femoral neck and trochanteric fractures between urban and rural areas of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Methods Fracture type (neck vs. trochanteric), age, sex, place where fracture occurred (indoors vs. outdoors), and cause of injury were surveyed among patients aged ≥65 years who sustained hip fractures between 2008 and 2010 and who were treated at 1 of 13 participating hospitals (5 urban, 8 rural). The ratio of sick beds to total number of beds at the participating hospitals was 19.6% (2,188/11,158) in the urban area and 34.9% (1,963/5,623) in the rural area. We also investigated the incidence of hip fracture in Tango medical district as a representative rural area. Results There were 1,346 neck (mean age, 82.4 years) and 1,606 trochanteric fractures (mean age, 85.0 years). The ratio of neck to trochanteric fractures was higher in the urban area than in the rural area in all age groups (65–74, 75–84, and ≥ 85 years). There were no apparent differences in place or cause of injury. The incidence of hip fracture in the women of Tango medical district was lower than the national average. Conclusions There was a difference in the ratio of neck to trochanteric fractures between urban and rural areas. This difference is estimated to be caused by the high and low incidence of neck fracture in urban and rural areas, respectively. PMID:24156244

  15. Nuclear energetics of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    2001-01-01

    Data on the current state and development of the nuclear energetics of Japan are reviewed. Preference of the strategy of tolerant development of the nuclear energetics of Japan including creation of the power nuclear energetics with the closed nuclear fuel cycle is noted. Realization and development of the program for the creating fast breeder reactor will provide to achieve total independence from import of any types of energy carriers including the fuel for nuclear fuel cycle. Scientific elaborations in Japan are conjectured the correlation of different types of fuel (oxide, metal, nitride), energy carriers (sodium, heavy metals, gas and water) and reactor power (large NPP, middle and small power plants) [ru

  16. Microelectronics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  17. Environmental radiation status in Nagareyama city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiizumi, Sadao; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Nagareyama city is located in the northwestern part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. The city is located ∼200 km south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As of April 1, 2012, the population of the city was 166,493 and its area was 35.28 km 2 . Responding to many requests from the citizens, the local government has performed official surveys of environmental radiation status after the disaster. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two primary measured quantities were (1) the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all school yards, public parks and at representative locations as selected by the local government, and (2) the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of the drinking water and of local food items. These data have been reported on the city's website, in addition to being reported three times per month in the public relations magazine of the local government. This presentation provides the background status and technical information on the related activities. In addition, this presentation documents the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June of 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to September of 2011), data were collected from 40 locations. The highest value of the measured ambient radiation dose was 0.58 μSv h -1 , obtained at the elevation of 1 m above the ground, and the lowest value was 0.17 μSv h -1 . The average level of ambient radiation was ∼0.32 μSv h -1 , and those measured values included the natural background dose rate that was detected by the energy compensation type surveymeters. In the latest period of surveillance, the ambient radiation levels were measured around school yards. The peak value of ambient radiation level was 0.36 μSv h -1 , the minimal value was 0.08 μSv h -1 , and the average over all locations

  18. Environmental radiation status in Kashiwa city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Seiichi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Kashiwa city is located in the northwest part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. It is about 200 km to the south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The population of the city was 404,252 as of April 1, 2012, and its area is 114.9 km 2 . The local government has officially surveyed the environmental radiation status after the disaster in response to numerous requests from its citizens. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two main goals of the surveillance are (1) to measure the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all the school yards, public parks, and representative measuring points selected by the local government, and (2) to measure the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of drinking water and local food items. These data have been reported on the city website as well as in a bi-monthly report in the public relations magazine of the local government. This report presents the background status and technical information on the related activities, and the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June, 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to August, 2011) at a total of 210 survey points, the highest value of the ambient radiation dose was 0.65 μSv h -1 at the height of 1 m from the ground, the lowest was 0.08 μSv h -1 , and the average was 0.25 μSv h -1 . These values include the natural background dose rate detected by the survey meters. In the 4th period, the latest data around school yards were 0.30 at maximum, 0.04 at minimum, and 0.12 μSv h -1 on average. The ambient dose at 41 of 61 school yards and 47 of 635 parks has been reduced under the decontamination project by the local government, so far. The net dose reduction rate, without the natural background dose, was from 30%-80% in the school yards and the parks. Decontamination activity

  19. Environmental radiation status in Nagareyama city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiizumi, Sadao; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Nagareyama city is located in the northwestern part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. The city is located ∼200 km south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. As of April 1, 2012, the population of the city was 166,493 and its area was 35.28 km 2 . Responding to many requests from the citizens, the local government has performed official surveys of environmental radiation status after the disaster. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two primary measured quantities were (1) the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all school yards, public parks and at representative locations as selected by the local government, and (2) the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of the drinking water and of local food items. These data have been reported on the city's website, in addition to being reported three times per month in the public relations magazine of the local government. This presentation provides the background status and technical information on the related activities. In addition, this presentation documents the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June of 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to September of 2011), data were collected from 40 locations. The highest value of the measured ambient radiation dose was 0.58 μSv h -1 , obtained at the elevation of 1 m above the ground, and the lowest value was 0.17 μSv h -1 . The average level of ambient radiation was ∼0.32 μSv h -1 , and those measured values included the natural background dose rate that was detected by the energy compensation type survey-meters. In the latest period of surveillance, the ambient radiation levels were measured around school yards. The peak value of ambient radiation level was 0.36 μSv h -1 , the minimal value was 0.08 μSv h -1 , and the average over all

  20. Environmental radiation status in Kashiwa city (Chiba prefecture) after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Seiichi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Kashiwa city is located in the northwest part of Chiba prefecture in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. It is about 200 km to the south of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The population of the city was 404,252 as of April 1, 2012, and its area is 114.9 km 2 . The local government has officially surveyed the environmental radiation status after the disaster in response to numerous requests from its citizens. The radiation surveillance in this area has been conducted by the radiation protection specialists. The two main goals of the surveillance are (1) to measure the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) at all the school yards, public parks, and representative measuring points selected by the local government, and (2) to measure the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of drinking water and local food items. These data have been reported on the city website as well as in a bi-monthly report in the public relations magazine of the local government. This report presents the background status and technical information on the related activities, and the measured environmental radiation data. The ambient radiation dose in the city has been surveyed since June, 2011. In the 1st period of the surveillance (from May to August, 2011) at a total of 210 survey points, the highest value of the ambient radiation dose was 0.65 μSv h -1 at the height of 1 m from the ground, the lowest was 0.08 μSv h -1 , and the average was 0.25 μSv h -1 . These values include the natural background dose rate detected by the survey-meters. In the 4th period, the latest data around school yards were 0.30 at maximum, 0.04 at minimum, and 0.12 μSv h -1 on average. The ambient dose at 41 of 61 school yards and 47 of 635 parks has been reduced under the decontamination project by the local government, so far. The net dose reduction rate, without the natural background dose, was from 30%-80% in the school yards and the parks. Decontamination activity

  1. Lithological effects in soil formation and soil slips on weathering-limited slopes underlain by granitic bedrocks in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Wakatsuki, Tsuyoshi; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2008-01-01

    Soil slips occur every few years due to heavy rains on biotite granite (Gb) and hornblende biotite granite (Ghb) slopes in the Taga Mountains, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The occurrence density of soil slips per unit area is 2.7 times greater in the Gb slopes than that in Ghb slopes. We examined the chemical, mineral, physical, and mechanical properties of two soil profiles on soil-slip scars in these slopes to study the effect of bedrock mineral composition on the density of soil slips. For a...

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding cattery cats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoichi; Itoh, Naoyuki; Kimura, Yuya; Kanai, Kazutaka

    2016-10-01

    To address the lack of up-to-date published data, the present study assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding catteries in Japan. Fresh faecal samples were randomly collected from 342 cats (aged 1 month to 12 years) in seven breeding catteries in Japan, located in prefectures of Nagano (n = 2), Saitama (n = 1), Aichi (n = 2), Gifu (n = 1) and Miyagi (n = 1), on a single occasion. The samples were tested for the presence of Giardia species copro-antigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Other intestinal parasites were identified microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The total prevalence of intestinal parasites was 20.8%; only two genera of protozoa (Giardia species: 18.7% and Cystoisospora species: 5.0%) were detected. Coinfections of both protozoans were recorded in 2.9% of cats. In contrast, no helminths were detected. The presence of total infection, Giardia species, Cystoisospora species and multiple infections in cats intestinal parasites. Giardia species infection was present in samples from all breeding catteries, except for one facility. Cystoisospora species and coinfections were shown in four and two breeding catteries, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was markedly variable among the breeding catteries. The present study demonstrates the significance of Giardia species and Cystoisospora species infections in breeding cattery cats. Additionally, it is suggested that environmental contamination is the most important factor influencing the prevalence of protozoal infections in breeding catteries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Breast cancer screening in Japan. Present status and recent movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tokiko

    2004-01-01

    As the incidence of breast cancer and deaths from breast cancer have been increasing, the Ministry of Public Welfare and Labor has been promoting breast cancer screening. Mammography screening began in fiscal year 2000 for those women 50 years of age or over, but attendance has not been increasing. This year (2004), the Ministry determined that mammography would be applicable to those 40 years of age or over and that screening with palpation alone would be abolished. To determine the effectiveness of the measures, mammography equipment, technologists, and readers were calculated. If the attendance were 50% of the 35,497 thousand women in this biennial screening, 40 persons would be examined by one apparatus per day, and, as there are 200 working days in a year, 1,109 apparatus would be needed. In the same way, if a technologist can examine 5,000 women, and a doctor can read 10,000 cases a year, both are apparently deficient in some prefectures. The standards of quality control for digital mammography have been determined by the Japan Radiological Society, and a ''step phantom for mammography'' has been developed. Qualitative evaluation of hard-copy clinical images has also started. All of the standards are presented in ''Mammography Guidelines, Second Edition,'' published by Igakushoin, Tokyo, Japan, 2004. (author)

  4. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2009-01-01

    This article computes the energy productivity changes of regions in Japan using total-factor frameworks based on data envelopment analysis (DEA). Since the traditional DEA-Malmquist index cannot analyze changes in single-factor productivity changes under the total-factor framework, we apply a new index proposed by Hu and Chang [2009. Total-factor energy productivity growth of regions in China. Energy Policy, submitted for publication]: a total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) that integrates the concept of the total-factor energy efficiency index into the Malmquist productivity index (MPI). Moreover, we separate TFEPI into change in relative energy efficiency, or the 'catching up effect,' and shift in the technology of energy use, or the 'innovation effect.' The data from 47 prefectures during the period of 1993-2003 are used to compute the TFEPI and its components for 4 kinds of energy. The TFEPI of electric power for commercial and industrial use changes -0.6% annually, which can be separated into a total-factor energy efficiency change of 0.2% and a technical change of -0.8%. The TFEPI for coal deteriorates by 1.0%/year, which is mostly caused by a decrease in relative energy efficiency change. We define and identify 'innovators' who cause the frontier to shift. Most regions identified as frontier shifters are located outside of Japan's four major industrial areas.

  5. Space communications in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  6. Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  7. Transfer pathways of radiocesium to edible wild plants (Sansai) collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Ohno, T. [Gakushuin University (Japan); Sato, M. [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Center (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Large quantities of radionuclides were released from the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 and farmlands and forests in Fukushima Prefecture were contaminated.The most significant radionuclides related to the contamination of vegetation are {sup 134}Cs (half-life: 2 y) and {sup 137}Cs (half-life: 30 y).Concentrations of radiocesium in vegetables and rice decreased over time to values markedly lower than the guideline (100 Bq/kg). However, radiocesium concentrations in some edible wild plants and mushrooms have still shown very high level. Therefore, it is important to identify plants which accumulate cesium and to clarify the transfer mechanism of radiocesium. In this study, we analyzed both radiocesium and stable cesium in edible wild plants (Sansai) collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture. Possible mechanisms of high radiocesium transfer into the plants in forest ecosystems were considered. Wild plants were collected from forests in Iitate-mura, Fukushima Prefecture, in 2012 and 2013. We have focused on Koshiabura (Acanthopanaxsciadophylloides) a plant related to Araliaceae and collected their leaves from four different trees in May and July 2013.Radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) concentrations were measured with a Ge-detector. For elemental analysis, the samples were freeze-dried and milled with a mixer. Powdered samples (0.1 g) were digested in teflon vessels with an acid mixture (HNO{sub 3}, HF and HClO{sub 4}) on a hot plate. After digestion, each sample was evaporated to dryness. Then, the sample residue was dissolved in 2% HNO{sub 3}. The concentrations of major and minor elements were determined by ICP-MS. Leaves of Koshiabura showed very high radiocesium concentrations up to 60,000 Bq/kg on a dry weight basis, or 10,000 Bq/kg on a wet weight basis.Root uptake and translocation of radiocesium from other parts of the plants to the leaves were expected to occur. Koshiabura plants tend to be shallowly

  8. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Murakami, Michio; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-03-14

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 ( n = 677-779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents' accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.

  9. Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hasegawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 (n = 677–779 each year on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents’ accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.

  10. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  11. VSATs in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Akira

    1993-08-01

    In Japan, VSAT private domestic communications satellites, JCSAT and SuperBird, carrying Ku-band transponders, were launched in 1989. To expedite a wider use of these VSAT systems, regulations were amended in June 1989 to permit simplified licensing procedures for the VSATs which conformed to technical standards. This contribution describes the usage of VSAT systems in Japan along with the licensing procedures and the technical standards.

  12. Japan's nuclear power tightrope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that early in February, just as Japan's nuclear energy program was regaining a degree of popular support after three years of growing opposition, an aging pressurized-water reactor at Mihama in western Japan sprang a leak in its primary cooling system. The event occasioned Japan's first nontest use of an emergency core-cooling system. It also elicited a forecast of renewed public skepticism about nuclear power form the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Government body responsible for promoting and regulating Japan's ambitious nuclear power program. Public backing for this form of energy has always been a delicate flower in Japan, where virtually every school child visits the atomic bomb museums at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Yet the country, which imports 80 percent of its energy and just about all its oil, is behind only the United States, France, and the Soviet Union in installed nuclear capacity. In fiscal 1989, which started in April, Japan's 39 nuclear power stations accounted for 25.5 percent of electricity generated - the largest contribution - followed b coal and natural gas. Twelve more plants are under construction

  13. Industrial lasers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  14. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication.

  16. Tritium surveillance around nuclear facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Kasida, Y.

    1978-01-01

    In order to measure the tritium levels in the environmental water around the nuclear facilities, the tritium surveillance program began in 1967 locally at Tsuruga and Mihama districts. Nowadays it has been expanded to the ten commercial nuclear power stations and three nuclear facilities. For samples whose tritium concentration is believed less than about 100 pCi/l, they were electrolytically enriched, and then counted by the liquid scintillation counter. Some of samples believed higher than 100 pCi/l were analysed without any enrichment by the low background liquid scintillation counters, Aloka LB 600 or Aloka LB 1. The results of each station are listed in Table. The sampling points corresponding to each results are shown in Figure. Tritium from the effluent was not reflected in all the land water and the tap water around the nuclear power stations and the nuclear facilities. Tritium concentration in rivers, streams, and reservoirs (pools) decreased exponentially from about 600 pCi/l in 1967 to about 150 pCi/l in 1972 at Tsuruga and Mihama, and 360 pCi/l in 1968 to 120 pCi/l in 1973 at Genkai, with the half life of about 2.5 years in both cases. After around 1972, tritium levels of river system in all districts of Japan kept nearly constant up to the end of 1975 and they were in the range from 100 to 300 pCi/l corresponding to the districts. Thereafter, it seems to start to decrease again in 1976. Sea water sampled at the intake of the station or on the seashore far from the outlet was regarded not to be influenced by the effluent from the nuclear reactors or facilities. Tritium concentration in these coastal waters decreased from 100 - 300 pCi/l in 1971 to 30 - 40 pCi/l in 1972 in Fukushima, Ibaraki and Fukui prefectures. (author)

  17. Allele frequencies of 18 autosomal STR loci in the Uyghur population living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhenghui; Mo, Xiaoting; Ma, Wenhua; Zhang, Hantao; Lin, Ziqing; Ye, Jian

    2018-03-10

    There is currently no large population data-based data set in Kashgar Prefecture Uyghur. The allele frequencies of 18 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the DNATyper™ 19 kit were evaluated in 2600 Uyghur individuals living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China. The values of combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined probability of exclusion (CPE) of all 18 autosomal STR loci were 0.99999999999999999998235 and 0.99999998670, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Uyghur population has a closer relationship with the Xinjiang-Kazakh, Inner Mongolia-Mongolian, and other three Uyghur populations. In addition, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Uyghur population is an admixture of Eastern Asian and European populations.

  18. The Growth Path of Agricultural Labor Productivity in China: A Latent Growth Curve Model at the Prefectural Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the shrinking proportion of agriculture output and the growing mobility of the labor force in China, how agricultural labor productivity develops has become an increasingly attractive topic for researchers and policy makers. This study aims to depict the development trajectory of agricultural labor productivity in China after its WTO entry. Based on a balanced panel data containing 287 Chinese prefectures from 2000 to 2013, this study applies the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM and finds that the agricultural labor productivity follows a piecewise growth path with two breaking points in the years of 2004 and 2009. This may stem from some exogenous stimulus, such as supporting policies launched in the breaking years. Further statistical analysis shows an expanding gap of agricultural labor productivity among different Chinese prefectures.

  19. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus—the ‘D-shuttle’ project—

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Antonietti, H; Arkoun, G; Blanchard, M; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Bernard, E; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Ayrault, D; Anzai, S; Avenoso, C; Bernardini, L; Berthet, E; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M

    2016-01-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter ‘D-shuttle’ for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries. (paper)

  20. Summed Probability Distribution of 14C Dates Suggests Regional Divergences in the Population Dynamics of the Jomon Period in Eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Enrico R; Habu, Junko; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Madella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of summed probability distribution (SPD) of calibrated 14C dates have opened new possibilities for studying prehistoric demography. The degree of correlation between climate change and population dynamics can now be accurately quantified, and divergences in the demographic history of distinct geographic areas can be statistically assessed. Here we contribute to this research agenda by reconstructing the prehistoric population change of Jomon hunter-gatherers between 7,000 and 3,000 cal BP. We collected 1,433 14C dates from three different regions in Eastern Japan (Kanto, Aomori and Hokkaido) and established that the observed fluctuations in the SPDs were statistically significant. We also introduced a new non-parametric permutation test for comparing multiple sets of SPDs that highlights point of divergences in the population history of different geographic regions. Our analyses indicate a general rise-and-fall pattern shared by the three regions but also some key regional differences during the 6th millennium cal BP. The results confirm some of the patterns suggested by previous archaeological studies based on house and site counts but offer statistical significance and an absolute chronological framework that will enable future studies aiming to establish potential correlation with climatic changes.

  1. Summed Probability Distribution of 14C Dates Suggests Regional Divergences in the Population Dynamics of the Jomon Period in Eastern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico R Crema

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of summed probability distribution (SPD of calibrated 14C dates have opened new possibilities for studying prehistoric demography. The degree of correlation between climate change and population dynamics can now be accurately quantified, and divergences in the demographic history of distinct geographic areas can be statistically assessed. Here we contribute to this research agenda by reconstructing the prehistoric population change of Jomon hunter-gatherers between 7,000 and 3,000 cal BP. We collected 1,433 14C dates from three different regions in Eastern Japan (Kanto, Aomori and Hokkaido and established that the observed fluctuations in the SPDs were statistically significant. We also introduced a new non-parametric permutation test for comparing multiple sets of SPDs that highlights point of divergences in the population history of different geographic regions. Our analyses indicate a general rise-and-fall pattern shared by the three regions but also some key regional differences during the 6th millennium cal BP. The results confirm some of the patterns suggested by previous archaeological studies based on house and site counts but offer statistical significance and an absolute chronological framework that will enable future studies aiming to establish potential correlation with climatic changes.

  2. National survey on school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme in Japan: regional spread conditions from preschool to junior high school in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Karin; Kimoto, Kazunari; Taura, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Aims We surveyed the state of implementation of the school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing programme (S-FMR) in schools in Japan from March 2010. Methods Questionnaires on the implementation status of S-FMR in each type of school (including preschool and kindergarten) were sent by post to the oral health administration departments of all 47 prefectures and 89 cities (18 ordinance-designated cities, 23 special wards, 41 core cities and seven public health centres in ordinance-designated cities) with public health centres. Results The S-FMR implementation rate was low, at only 11% of all schools in Japan and only 6% of all participating school children aged 4–14 years. In many regions, the S-FMR was implemented more widely and received higher participation from children in either elementary schools and junior high schools or preschools and kindergartens. Conclusions Inter-prefectural disparities were seen in S-FMR implementation, as some prefectures and cities did not include topical fluoride application in their health promotion plans, and some local public bodies did not include targets for fluoride mouth-rinsing. To reduce this disparity in Japan where systemic fluoride application is not performed, each local public body must consider implementing the S-FMR as a public health measure. We propose using the results of this survey as basic data for formulating S-FMR goals (numerical targets) and adopting S-FMR as a concrete measure in the second Healthy Japan 21, to be launched in the fiscal year for 2013, and within the basic matters of the Act Concerning the Promotion of Dental and Oral Health. PMID:24256345

  3. Foreign Visitor's Evaluation of Lasithi prefecture and Spinalonga as a Tourism destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nicolaides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A tourism environment which is educational and exciting, safe, clean, relatively cheap to access and where transportation is readily available, contributes immensely to a tourist’s travel satisfaction. Given these factors, this study seeks to interrogate two aspects of relevance, namely the relative importance of the items that define the tourism environment, and how foreign visitors evaluate tourism to Lasithi prefecture and Spinalonga island in Crete. It is abundantly clear from the research conducted that what tourists prize the most is a safe environment which is easily accessible, and cheap to visit. Competition among tourist destinations is today more severe than ever before, due to the large increase in international tourists globally. Spinalonga island, like every destination has an image which must be transmitted to the potential market so as to obtain a competitive position. Consequently, the destination marketers need to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their tourism area so as to make it more marketable. They must position Spinalonga island in such a way as to make it recognisable as an important and interesting place to visit while in Crete. How tourists evaluate a destination subjectively and a quantitative analysis on the evaluation system of the tourism environment are thus also considered. Effective strategic destination image management is critical for attracting tourists and other resources that are capable of creating value-add for a destination.

  4. Radiation education by means of the measurement of natural environmental radiation in Tono region, Gifu prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Haruo; Yoshida, Yasuo [Plasma Research Committee of Toki, Gifu (Japan); Uda, Tatsuhiko; Obayashi, Haruo

    1999-09-01

    The Tono region is placed in the south-east of Gifu prefecture. In this region, there is a plan of construction of the Research and Education Park. As the center facility of the park, the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has started their research activities. The Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city has been organized by the board of education of Toki-city for about 20 years. The committee is mainly composed of science teachers of elementary school, junior high school and high school in the area. The committee has measured continuously the natural environmental background radiations in cooperation with NIFS. Its activities started before constructing the NIFS laboratory buildings. Now, the new measuring points in Tajimi-city and Mizunami-city are added to the points in Toki-city area, therefore, some teachers join as the new members of the committee. In this conference, we present. (1) Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city; its history, organization and activities. (2) Obtained data of the natural environmental radiation in Toki-city. (3) Example lecture taken in natural radiation, its results and the farther issues. (author)

  5. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M.; Munaka, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ueoka, H.; Ohtaki, M. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  6. Study of radiation-induced tumors in the Ohita Prefectural Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshihisa; Shikuwa, Saburo

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological study on radiation induced tumor was carried out in the Ohita Prefectural Hospital in 1989. Radiation induced tumors were chosen among 62,831 surgical or biopsy specimens examined since 1968 to 1988. These tumors were defined as following conditions such as having a history of radiation therapy, occurring in the same field of irradiation, and having a latent period over five years. Total of eleven malignant tumors were selected with the average age of 64.2 years old, and the average latency of 16.4 years. All of them were female and seven cases belonged to A-1 group according to the reliability classification. The first tumor was all malignant and consisted of 9 uterus cancers and one rectal cancer. The second tumor included three rectal cancers, three vaginal cancers, two ureto-bladder cancers, one uterine body cancer, and one lymphangiosarcoma. Histological study showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in two rectal cancers in which this type was unusual as rectal cancer. Others were common histological types identical to the location. Delayed effects of irradiation was confirmed in a background of some tumors. For instance, marked fibrosis, atypical fibroblast, and thickening of blood vessel were nominated. Total amount of irradiation ranged form 24 to 92 grey, and the year of irradiation concentrated in 1969 to 1973 (75%) and the year of discovery concentrated in 1983 to 1988 (75%). This study suggested the necessity of further investigation in other medical institutions and accumulation of the tumors. (author)

  7. Detection of Legionella spp. from Domestic Water in the Prefecture of Arta, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Dimitriadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the isolation of Legionella spp. from domestic water supply networks in the Prefecture of Arta. A total of 100 water samples, from 25 houses, were collected. Half of the samples concerned the cold water and half the hot water supply. Purpose was to detect colonization of the water networks with Legionella spp. >500 cfu/L by using the method of filtration (ISO 11731. Out of 100 samples, 6 samples from 3 houses were positive for Legionella spp. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2–14 was isolated in 5 of 6 samples, whereas in the sixth sample Legionella anisa was identified. Only three of the samples had residual chloride over 0.2 mg/L, rate which is necessary for potable water, according to the Greek hygienic practice. Concerning the temperature of hot water, the mean temperature of the negative for Legionella samples was higher compared to the mean temperature of the positive for Legionella samples (49.9°C versus 45.5°C. It is estimated that there is risk of infection through the use of showers. The low concentration of chloride and the temperature, which was found within the limits favorable to developing Legionella spp. (20–45°C, provide fertile ground for proliferation of the bacteria.

  8. Radiation education by means of the measurement of natural environmental radiation in Tono region, Gifu prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Haruo; Yoshida, Yasuo; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Obayashi, Haruo

    1999-01-01

    The Tono region is placed in the south-east of Gifu prefecture. In this region, there is a plan of construction of the Research and Education Park. As the center facility of the park, the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has started their research activities. The Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city has been organized by the board of education of Toki-city for about 20 years. The committee is mainly composed of science teachers of elementary school, junior high school and high school in the area. The committee has measured continuously the natural environmental background radiations in cooperation with NIFS. Its activities started before constructing the NIFS laboratory buildings. Now, the new measuring points in Tajimi-city and Mizunami-city are added to the points in Toki-city area, therefore, some teachers join as the new members of the committee. In this conference, we present. (1) Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city; its history, organization and activities. (2) Obtained data of the natural environmental radiation in Toki-city. (3) Example lecture taken in natural radiation, its results and the farther issues. (author)

  9. [Retinitis pigmentosa and color vision deficiency in Kamigoto island, Nagasaki Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S

    1997-08-01

    I studied two genetic diseases, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and color vision anomaly, in Kamigoto, one of the off-shore islands in Nagasaki Prefecture. The Prevalance of RP patients in this island was estimated to be one in 473 persons. Among the RP patients observed, familial cases whose disorders are transmitted through successive generations comprised 25.7%. Although it seems that the inheritance mode of RP in these familial cases is autosomal dominant, an autosomal recessive fashion showing quasi-dominance cannot be ruled out, because inbreeding frequently occurs on this island. There were at least two types of RP, one with late onset (40 years of age or later) and the other with early onset, and patients with the latter RP tended to have a poor prognosis. Only a few RP patients had posterior subcapsular cataract, and none had pseudexfoliation in spite of advanced age. Color vision anomalies were found in 3.86% of high-school boys and in 0.41% of girls in this island, and they included protanopia (4.2%), protanomaly (10.4%), deuteranopia (37.5%), and deuteranomaly (47.9%). The prevalence in boys was comparable to that in the general Japanese population, but the prevalence in girls was higher in Kamigoto than in other districts. It is most likely that the unique findings regarding the two disorders reflect geographical and/or social features in Kamigoto island.

  10. Measurement of radioactive contamination and decontamination on wooden exteriors and garden trees in Northern Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Keisuke; Kayama, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and decontamination of surface of trees and surrounding wooden structures contaminated by radioactive substance were studied in the gardens and public parks of Northern Fukushima Prefecture which experienced radioactive contamination due to the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The counts per minute (CPM) above the centre surface of wooden garden tables in open air were 1.5 times higher than those of garden benches and 9 times higher than that of a garden bench in the square gazebo. Decontamination of wooden garden benches by high-pressure washing was more effective than planing. The counts per minute (CPM) above the soil around garden trees increased by 1.2 times after high-pressure washing. Radioactivity counting rate did not decrease when the leaves fallen from zelocova trees were removed; however, they decreased by about half when soil cover was installed at the base of the trees. Clearly, the upper surfaces of garden trees and wooden surrounding structures were strongly contaminated by radioactive substances, and they should be decontaminated by high-pressure washing before removing the surface soil. (author)

  11. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected. PMID:26239643

  12. On results of aseismatic safety examination for atomic energy facilities based on Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission received the report on the results of examination from the ad hoc examination committee. There was no particular effect to atomic energy facilities in the Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, however, from the viewpoint of perfecting the safety confirmation for atomic energy facilities, the Nuclear Safety Commission set up the aseismatic safety examination committee to investigate the validity of the guidelines related to aseismatic design used for safety examination. The basic plan of the investigation, the outline of the guidelines related to aseismatic design, the state of Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake and the obtained knowledge and the investigation of the validity of the guidelines related to aseismatic design based on the state of Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake are reported. The extraction of the items to be investigated, the evaluation of earthquakes and earthquake motion, vertical earthquake force and active faults, and the way of thinking on right under type earthquakes in the guideline for aseismatic design examination are reported. It was confirmed that the validity of guidelines is not impaired by the earthquake. (K.I.)

  13. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  14. Design of the Nationwide Nursery School Survey on Child Health Throughout the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsubara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted severe damage on the Pacific coastal areas of northeast Japan. Although possible health impacts on aged or handicapped populations have been highlighted, little is known about how the serious disaster affected preschool children’s health. We conducted a nationwide nursery school survey to investigate preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster. Methods: The survey was conducted from September to December 2012. We mailed three kinds of questionnaires to nursery schools in all 47 prefectures in Japan. Questionnaire “A” addressed nursery school information, and questionnaires “B1” and “B2” addressed individuals’ data. Our targets were children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005 (those who did not experience the disaster during their preschool days and children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007 (those who experienced the disaster during their preschool days. The questionnaire inquired about disaster experiences, anthropometric measurements, and presence of diseases. Results: In total, 3624 nursery schools from all 47 prefectures participated in the survey. We established two nationwide retrospective cohorts of preschool children; 53 747 children who were born from April 2, 2004, to April 1, 2005, and 69 004 children who were born from April 2, 2006, to April 1, 2007. Among the latter cohort, 1003 were reported to have specific personal experiences with the disaster. Conclusions: With the large dataset, we expect to yield comprehensive study results about preschool children’s physical development and health status throughout the disaster.

  15. Discrimination of wine from grape cultivated in Japan, imported wine, and others by multi-elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Akamatsu, Fumikazu; Kamada, Aya; Koyama, Kazuya; Okuda, Masaki; Fukuda, Hisashi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2018-04-01

    Differences in mineral concentrations were examined among three types of wine in the Japanese market place: Japan wine, imported wine, and domestically produced wine mainly from foreign ingredients (DWF), where Japan wine has been recently defined by the National Tax Agency as domestically produced wine from grapes cultivated in Japan. The main objective of this study was to examine the possibility of controlling the authenticity of Japan wine. The concentrations of 18 minerals (Li, B, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, and Pb) in 214 wine samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In general, Japan wine had a higher concentration of potassium and lower concentrations of eight elements (Li, B, Na, Si, S, Co, Sr, and Pb) as compared with the other two groups of wine. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models based on concentrations of the 18 minerals facilitated the identification of three wine groups: Japan wine, imported wine, and DWF with a 91.1% classification score and 87.9% prediction score. In addition, an LDA model for discrimination of wine from four domestic geographic origins (Yamanashi, Nagano, Hokkaido, and Yamagata Prefectures) using 18 elements gave a classification score of 93.1% and a prediction score of 76.4%. In summary, we have shown that an LDA model based on mineral concentrations is useful for distinguishing Japan wine from other wine groups, and can contribute to classification of the four main domestic wine-producing regions of Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the epidemiology of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis between Japan and the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shouichi; Watts, Richard A; Kobayashi, Shigeto; Suzuki, Kazuo; Jayne, David R W; Scott, David G I; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Nunoi, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    The epidemiological manifestations of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) differ geographically. However, there have been no prospective studies comparing the incidence of AAV between Japan and Europe over the same time period using the same case definitions. The incidence of AAV was determined by a population-based method in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan, and Norfolk, U.K., between 2005 and 2009. Patients with AAV were defined and classified according to the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) algorithm. The number of incident cases of AAV in Japan and the U.K. were 86 and 50, respectively, and the average annual incidence over the 5-year period was 22.6/million (95% CI 19.1, 26.2) and 21.8/million (95% CI 12.6, 30.9) in Japan and the U.K., respectively. The average age was higher in patients in Japan than in patients in the U.K. [mean (median), 69.7 (72) vs. 60.5 (61) years]. Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) was the predominant subtype in Japan (83%), while granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) was more frequent in the U.K. (66%). As for the pattern of ANCA positivity, >80% of Japanese patients were pANCA/MPO positive, whereas two-thirds of U.K. patients were cANCA/PR3 positive. Renal involvement in MPA was very common in both countries, but was much less common in granulomatosis with polyangiitis in Japan compared with the U.K. There was no major difference in AAV incidence between Japan and the U.K., but this prospective study found MPA and MPO-ANCA to be more common in Japan and granulomatosis with polyangiitis and PR3-ANCA to be more common in the U.K., in line with earlier reports.

  17. Dynamic Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes are a series of earthquakes occurred in the Kumamoto Prefecture in Kyushu Region of Japan, including a magnitude 7.0 mainshock which struck at 01:25 JST on April 16, 2016 beneath Kumamoto City, at a depth of about 10 km, and a foreshock earthquake with a magnitude 6.2 at 21:26 JST on April 14, 2016, at a depth of about 11 km. This series earthquake killed at least 50 people and injured about 3,000 others in total. Severe damage occurred in Kumamoto and Oita Prefectures, with numerous structures collapsing and catching fire. More than 44,000 people were evacuated from their homes due to the disaster. Kumamoto Prefecture lies at the southern end of the Japan Median Tectonic Line, Japan's longest, where a system of active faults forks in two directions at the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. Specifically, the series of quakes ruptured the 81-km-long Hinagu Fault and 64-km-long Futagawa Fault to its north, as well as lesser but discernable interaction with the farther flung Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone. A 27-km section of the Futagawa Fault Zone slid 3.5 meters. The earthquakes are occurring along the Beppu-Shimabara graben, with epicenters moving from west to east over time. In this study, we analyze the dynamic rupture process of this earthquake. Our analyzing procedure is as follows, 1) Obtain the spatial-temporal stress distribution on the fault surface from the kinematic source model inverted from strong motion data (Zhang & Zhen, the abstract of this meeting, No. EGU2017ASC20162770). Estimate the strength excess (yielding stress) and the frictional stress level for each subfault; 2) Estimate the critical slip-weakening distance Dc for each subfault assuming a simple slip-weakening law and according to the method of Mikumo et al. (2003); 3) Reconstruct the dynamic source rupture process using those dynamic source parameters with the slip-weakening friction law; and 4) Simultaneously, simulate the near source ground motions based on the

  18. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  19. Yoga Therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Keishin

    2017-11-01

    This perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in

  20. The internationalization of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity

  1. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake, tsunami, nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2013-01-01

    The title subject is described mainly from the pediatric aspect. Shortly after the Quake (Mar. 11, 2011), Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) and Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT) started on their disaster emergent activity with various personnel and students of Fukushima Medical University (FMU). The Power Plant Accident broke out on the next day, and FMU was the base in charge of multiple managements of radiological medicare as well as the ordinary emergent one. Number of children emergently admitted in or requiring the general pediatric consultation was rather small, and problems of insufficient pediatric articles were virtually solved within 2 weeks. Pediatric support by FMU was done from April to May end for children in evacuation places. At 3 months after the disaster, the birth number markedly decreased near the Plant, and pediatric in- and out-patient number also diminished in the whole Fukushima prefecture, suggesting that many at pregnancy or having infants had evacuated out of the prefecture probably because of their concern of possible radiation health hazard. In consideration of epidemiology of A-bomb survivors and of victims in Chernobyl Accident, so much increased prevalence of pediatric thyroid cancer is conceived to be hardly observed after Fukushima Accident. The project of Fukushima Health Management Survey involves fundamental and detailed examinations. The former subject is to all of prefectural residents who lived at the time of the Quake and the latter, to all children's thyroid with the age <18 y by ultrasonographic follow-up, to all residents dwelled in the evacuation areas by the detailed physical and mental/life-style examinations and to pregnant women by questionnaire and follow-up. Residents' concern is mostly toward the health of infants who are sensitive to radiation. (T.T.)

  2. Proposal of great eastern Japan earthquake. Message from Fukushima Medical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Described are what Fukushima Medical University (FMU) faced and how FMU responded at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant (FDPP) Accident by hydrogen explosions (Mar. 12 and 14, 2011) following the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Mar. 11). The Accident accompanying the forced evacuation of resident in the area 20 km afar from FDPP brought about the concern, fear and anger, different from those in the neighboring Miyagi Prefecture; and strong psychosomatic stress; as well as the significant alteration of composition of generation in population and in sickness proportion in the whole Prefecture. Under these circumstances, FMU decided to hold information in common and make a service window single, to give the top leadership with rough-and-ready practice and a flexible policy, which all were the president's responsibility for making staff work relieved and united. For holding information in common, frequent meetings of the whole FMU personnel were held (42 times from Mar. 11 to Nov.) and of managing staff (81 times until Nov.). During the period, FMU took measures to meet with the situation of patient receiving and transporting, measures against rumor, and cooperation with related medical institutions. Medicare support included the acute phase medicare, and planning and practice of healthcare management for >30 years onward in the Prefecture. The author summarizes 9 lessons proposed from the Disaster to be considered hereafter, like the system perfection at an emergency, more education about radiation for the resident and medicare staff, measures for aging of engineers and scientists related to atomic energy, and so on. As well, 6 lessons are summarized for the next generation using old aphorism and recent commentary in media. The people should follow the excellent leader at crisis; but it's the problem whether there is such a leader on site or in administration at the very time. (T.T.)

  3. Characteristics of Physician Outflow from Disaster Areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available The shortage of physicians after a major disaster is a crucial issue. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of physicians who left affected areas following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011.Using data from a physician census conducted in 2010 (pre-disaster and 2012 (post-disaster, we evaluated changes in the number of physicians in affected areas. We then calculated the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model to evaluate the association between physician characteristics and outflow. We also conducted stratified analyses based on physician characteristics.The number of physicians decreased in Fukushima Prefecture (-5.3% and increased in Miyagi Prefecture (2.8%. The decrease in Fukushima and increase in Miyagi were evident even after taking the prefecture's population change into account (change in physician to population ratios: -1.9% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared with physicians who lived in areas >100 km from the nuclear power plant, physicians living 20-50 km and 50-100 km were, respectively, 3.9 times (95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.7 and 2.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8 more likely to migrate to distant areas. In the stratified analysis, younger physicians and those earlier in their careers had higher odds ratios for outflow than other physicians (P for interaction = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively.The risk of outflow was greater among younger and early-career physicians in areas around the power plant. Political support may be necessary to recruit and retain such physicians, who will be responsible for future community health in the disaster area.

  4. Use of rice seedlings to estimate uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Suzuki, Yasukazu; Ohno, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The uptake of radiocesium to plants from the soil is affected by many environmental factors, and it is difficult to determine the contribution of uptake among these factors. In addition, these environmental factors should be investigated independently for each field. The aim of this study was to develop a practical and simple method for the estimate of uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants. Rice seedlings were used to estimate the root uptake of radiocesium from seven different soils. To confirm that the seedlings were the effective indicator, the concentration of 137 Cs in the seedlings was compared with that in brown rice and sunflower. The seedlings were cultivated for a week from germination in a phytotron and the concentrations of 137 Cs in the seedlings above ground were determined. To obtain brown rice and sunflower, rice and sunflower were cultivated either in a pot (1/5000 a Wagner pot, 4000 cm 3 ) placed in a glasshouse or in a paddy field in Fukushima prefecture for two to four months. The concentration of 137 Cs in the rice seedlings ranged from 150 to 1900 Bq kg -1 , and that in brown rice and sunflower ranged from 2 to 880 Bq kg -1 and from 580 to 3900 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the measured concentration of 137 Cs in rice seedlings and the measured concentration of 137 Cs in brown rice and sunflower was 1.0 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.09, respectively). This suggests that the use of rice seedlings in this experiment over a period of two weeks provides an effective indicator for the uptake of 137 Cs from soil to plants over a longer period of time. (author)

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pprevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan.

  6. Forecasting the regional distribution and sufficiency of physicians in Japan with a coupled system dynamics-geographic information system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Kensuke; Ohba, Hisateru; Suzuki, Teppei; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    In Japan, the shortage of physicians has been recognized as a major medical issue. In our previous study, we reported that the absolute shortage will be resolved in the long term, but maldistribution among specialties will persist. To address regional shortage, several Japanese medical schools increased existing quota and established "regional quotas." This study aims to assist policy makers in designing effective policies; we built a model for forecasting physician numbers by region to evaluate future physician supply-demand balances. For our case study, we selected Hokkaido Prefecture in Japan, a region displaying disparities in healthcare services availability between urban and rural areas. We combined a system dynamics (SD) model with geographic information system (GIS) technology to analyze the dynamic change in spatial distribution of indicators. For Hokkaido overall and for each secondary medical service area (SMSA) within the prefecture, we analyzed the total number of practicing physicians. For evaluating absolute shortage and maldistribution, we calculated sufficiency levels and Gini coefficient. Our study covered the period 2010-2030 in 5-year increments. According to our forecast, physician shortage in Hokkaido Prefecture will largely be resolved by 2020. Based on current policies, we forecast that four SMSAs in Hokkaido will continue to experience physician shortages past that date, but only one SMSA would still be understaffed in 2030. The results show the possibility that diminishing imbalances between SMSAs would not necessarily mean that regional maldistribution would be eliminated, as seen from the sufficiency levels of the various SMSAs. Urgent steps should be taken to place doctors in areas where our forecasting model predicts that physician shortages could occur in the future.

  7. Strategic International Cooperation of Fukui Prefectural Government in Human Resources Development for Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Japan's new 'Basic Energy Plan': • Nuclear Energy is an important ”base load power supply”. • Restart NPPs that adhere to the world’s strictest regulation standards. • Reduce dependence on nuclear power as much as possible. • Ascertain the scale of steady supply, cost reduction, global warming, ensuring safety. • Decide the best mix of energy sources as soon as possible

  8. The relationship between life expectancy and indexes of socioeconomy and nutrition at the prefectural level

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Junke; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that Japanese people have the longest life expectancy in the world at present. Variouspoints of view which focus on causal contexts are reported. The present study used a database at theprefectural level in Japan, which included Japanese life expectancy at birth, employment types of thehousehold, medical resources, medical expenses, and nutrition indexes in 2000. The purpose of the studywas to clarify the major related factors on Japanese life expectancy. The results suggest ...

  9. Increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that control of cardiovascular risk factors deteriorates among residents after a natural disaster. This study assessed the hypothesis that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This longitudinal study examined subjects aged 40-90 years using data collected from 26,163 participants (11,628 men and 14,535 women) sourced from general health checkups conducted in twelve communities, including the evacuation zone specified by the government, between 2008 and 2010. The study obtained 12-lead ECG tracings and conducted follow-up examinations from June 2011 to the end of March 2013. A total of 12,410 participants (5704 men and 6706 women, follow-up proportion: 47%) received follow-up examinations after the earthquake, with an average follow-up of 1.4 years. The prevalence of AF increased among participants after the earthquake (before: 1.9% vs. after: 2.4%, Pearthquake, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 3.07 (1.55-6.08) and 1.87 (1.19-2.94), respectively. The prevalence of AF increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake, with excess alcohol intake and obesity associated with an increased risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  11. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  12. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  13. Biomagnetism in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, M; Mori, H; Kuriki, S; Uchikawa, Y; Chiyotani, K; Nemoto, I

    1987-01-01

    The study of biomagnetic fields originating in a biological body is called biomagnetism. Among various fields of biomagnetism, this paper reviews the research and clinical works in magnetocardiogram, neuromagnetism, magneto-oculogram, magnetopneumogram and magnetic measurement for cell motility carried out in Japan.

  14. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  15. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  16. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  17. Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  18. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  19. Japan Report, No. 184.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-10

    Text] No Progress in "Agricultural" Issue [Moderator] On 7 and 8 July, a 2-day conference of Japanese-U.S. business- men was held at the Ritz ... Carlton Hotel in Chicago; among those attending from Japan was Yoshihiro Inayama, chairman of the Keidanren [federation of economic organizations

  20. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  1. Dutch surgery in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, Thomas M.; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of

  2. Educational Technology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This overview of the current state of educational technology in Japan includes discussions of professional associations; academic and popular journals; diffusion of media and the budget in elementary and secondary schools; recent trends in government policies; educational technology research; a literature review; and suggestions of future trends.…

  3. Higher Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    Describes and quantifies Japan's present state of development of higher education noting the predominance of private establishments, variety of courses available, wide social base from which students are drawn, highly competitive nature of the entry procedures, and the many challenges including the linked problems of management and finance.…

  4. Private Universities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akira, Ninomiya

    The historical development of private universities in Japan is traced, with special attention to the Imperial Ordinance of University of 1918, and postwar developments. The present state of private universities is examined, considering especially their role in national education, finances and financial support, and public support of the…

  5. Roles of National and Local Governments and the Dietetic Association in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters: Systems and Experiences in Japan and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    In the first half of this symposium, the disaster response system in Japan will be introduced. The ultimate aim of nutrition assistance is to keep people in disaster areas healthy. This is a task for the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the health departments of prefectural governments. Our first speaker, Dr. Yasuhiro Kanatani, National Institute of Public Health, will briefly overview the disaster response system in Japan and its related laws. He will also mention how the Ministry responded to the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the second presentation, I will play one chapter of DVD that we released in last September. In that chapter, Ms. Makiko Sawaguchi, a registered dietitian working for a public health center in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, talks about her experience in supporting disaster victims. As an employee of Iwate Prefectural Government, she helped affected municipal governments and coordinated outside support. One type of outside support was registered dietitians dispatched by the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA). Dr. Nobuyo Tsuboyama-Kasaoka will report what those dietitians did in the affected areas. She will also explain the aim and training of the JDA-Disaster Assistance Team. Provision of food is essential in nutrition assistance. This is a task for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Our fourth speaker, Mr. Kunihiro Doi, analyzed the government procurement data and will discuss the limitations of government emergency food supplies and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake. As for the systems and experiences in the US, we invited Ms. Toni Abernathy from the Office of Emergency Management, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), United States Department of Agriculture.

  6. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  7. Longitudinal changes in body mass index of children affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Yokomichi, H; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Kato, N; Chida, S; Ono, A; Hosoya, M; Tanaka, S; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S; Yamagata, Z

    2017-04-01

    The evacuation and disruption in housing caused by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and following nuclear radiation may have influenced child health in many respects. However, studies regarding longitudinal childhood growth are limited. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the influence of the earthquake on longitudinal changes in body mass index in preschool children. Participants were children from nursery schools who cooperated with the study in the Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures. The exposed group consisted of children who experienced the earthquake during their preschool-age period (4-5 years old). The historical control group included children who were born 2 years earlier than the exposed children in the same prefectures. Trajectories regarding body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were compared between the two groups using multilevel analysis. Differences in the changes in BMI between before and after the earthquake, and proportion of overweight/obesity was compared between the two groups. We also conducted subgroup analysis by defining children with specific personal disaster experiences within the exposed group. A total of 9722 children were included in the study. Children in the exposed group had higher body mass indices and a higher proportion of overweight after the earthquake than the control group. These differences were more obvious when confined to exposed children with specific personal disaster experiences. Children's growth and development-related health issues such as increased BMI after natural disasters should evoke great attention.

  8. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  10. First report of Cheiloneurus exitiosus (Perkins, 1906) and Helegonatopus dimorphus (Hoffer, 1954) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Japan, with remarks on their abundance in rice paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Toshiharu; Handa, Hironobu; Higashiura, Yoshimitsu; Japoshvili, George

    2016-01-01

    Encyrtid secondary parasitoids of Delphacidae have not been recorded in Japan. However, they may play an important role in the rice ecosystem because they can reduce the number of Dryinidae, the natural enemies of rice planthoppers. We found two encyrtid species, Cheiloneurus exitiosus (Perkins, 1906) and Helegonatopus dimorphus (Hoffer, 1954), from rice paddies and the surrounding environment. Haplogonatopus oratorius (Westwood, 1833) and Anteon sp. were newly recognized as hosts of He. dimorphus. Parasitism of C. exitiosus was rare, but He. dimorphus was common in Kumamoto Prefecture. The sex ratio (male proportion) and clutch size of He. dimorphus was estimated as 0.19 and 4.95, respectively.

  11. Characterization of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in Okinawa, Japan: a retrospective analysis of a large cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Yukiko; Fukushima, Takuya; Nomura, Shogo; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Nakachi, Sawako; Morichika, Kazuho; Tedokon, Iori; Tamaki, Keita; Shimabukuro, Natsuki; Taira, Naoya; Miyagi, Takashi; Karimata, Kaori; Ohama, Masayo; Yamanoha, Atsushi; Tamaki, Kazumitsu; Hayashi, Masaki; Arakaki, Hitoshi; Uchihara, Jun-Nosuke; Ohshiro, Kazuiku; Asakura, Yoshitaka; Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Karube, Kennosuke; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2016-10-01

    Okinawa Prefecture, located in the subtropics, is an area of endemic adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) in Japan. We retrospectively analyzed 659 patients with aggressive ATL in seven institutions in Okinawa between 2002 and 2011. The median patient age was 68 years. More patients were aged ≥90 years (2.6 %), in this study, than in a nationwide survey (Okinawa, the proportion of patients aged ≥90 years with clinical features of aggressive ATL is higher, outcomes are poorer, and the disease is associated with a higher prevalence of strongyloidiasis.

  12. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  13. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  14. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...... values. How are the new requirements and the renewed focus on moral education met in schools and by educators? This volume will describe the history of moral education in Japan, analyse the recent changes of the curriculum, analyse the practices in selected schools via fieldwork and case-studies and take...

  15. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59-9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95-6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31-2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05-2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17-2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06-3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25-0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40-0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood.

  16. Nuclear situation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  17. Structure analysis of designated hospitals for cancer control in Japan from JASTRO census survey database 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nishio, Masamichi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Hatano, Kazuo; Ogino, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The structures of 288 hospitals designated for cancer control and approved by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in February 2006 were analyzed from radiotherapy aspects according to the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) 2005 census survey data. The data were compiled from 266 hospitals. Overall 78,086 new patients were treated at these designated hospitals, which accounts for just a half the total number of patients in Japan. The structure of radiotherapy (RT) must be essential for cancer management, and our study showed the designated hospitals are insufficient in the RT requirement. No RT equipment is installed in 14 hospitals. Of 266, 109 hospitals treated less than 200 new patients, and 25 hospitals less than 100 in 2005. The data analysis revealed that academic hospitals, JACC hospitals and others are reasonable in terms of structures and capacity of radiotherapy. Moreover, both academic and JACC hospitals play similar roles to designated prefectural hospitals in cancer management by radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Measuring the economic effects of Japan's Mikawa Port: Pre- and-post disaster assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Yuzuru

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the economic effects of Japan's Mikawa Port on Aichi Prefecture before and after a natural disaster interrupts its operations for one year. Using a regional input-output model, backward and forward linkage impacts are calculated along the waterfront where the auto industry is concentrated. In addition, economic damage from natural disasters is estimated. We assess the economic implications on the hinterland of Mikawa Port. Density functions of the backward and forward linkage impacts are derived. A production stoppage along the waterfront of Mikawa Port generates large indirect negative effects on the regional economy. Results found that density functions of the total impacts are decreasing function of distance but that several sectors are characterized by non-decreasing functions.

  19. TEAM TEACHING IN JAPAN FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF THE ALTs, THE JTEs, AND THE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ann Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study explores team teaching in Japan from the perspectives of JTEs (Japanese English Teachers, ALTs (Assistant Language Teachers, and students. Special focus is attributed to teachers and students’ perceptions of ALT and JTE roles. To determine the perspectives of all three participants, 112 students, 4 JTES and 2 ALTs from a Japanese high school in Chiba Prefecture were surveyed. Fieldwork was conducted over a ten-day period at the research site in 2009 to collect data in the form of questionnaires, interviews, and class observations. The findings indicate more of a mismatch between students’ perceptions of their teachers’ roles than between teachers. The results also reveal the students prefer a combination of both teachers and find team-taught classes more beneficial to developing their English skills.

  20. Nuclear risk reduction study. The effect of sea salt aerosols in the Japan sea coast facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    All of 15 nuclear power plants in Fukui Prefecture are located in the Japan Sea Coast. Corrosion is strongly influenced by material and environmental factors. We installed the salt damage experimental yard at Awara sea coast in March, 2006. We are doing the open air test, sheltered test without filter and with filter. The carbon steel standard specimen were exposed under three kinds of test conditions mentioned above. The corrosivity of the open air test specimens was higher than it of Miyako Island, Okinawa. The corrosivity of carbon steel of winter was higher than it of summer. The measurement of chloride deposition rate was done by the dry gauze method. The correlation between chloride deposition rate and the average velocity of the wind was found. The correlation between chloride deposition rate and the average rainfall was a little complicate. It means the chloride deposition rate has maximum value at a certain rainfall amount. No other clear relation was found. (author)

  1. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Snowboarding and ski boarding injuries in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injury patterns and incidence of snowboarding and ski boarding injuries with that of alpine skiing in 2000 to 2005, as there are few previous studies comparing these 3 sports, especially in Asia. The injury patterns are different among the 3 snow sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were alpine skiers (1240 cases), snowboarders (2220 cases), and ski boarders (132 cases) who were injured in 2 ski resorts located in Niigata prefecture in Japan and visited the authors' clinics in these ski resorts between 2000 and 2005. On visiting the clinics, patients completed a questionnaire reviewing the circumstances surrounding the injury event, and physicians documented the diagnosis. The injury rate, which was based on all purchased lift tickets, in snowboarding decreased gradually, although it was still 2 times higher than that of alpine skiing. Snowboarding and ski boarding had a higher fracture and dislocation rate. Both sports also had a 4 times higher rate of injuries because of jumping. The characteristics of ski boarding were a lower head and neck injury rate and collision injury rate than those of the other 2 snow sports, as well as a 2 times higher rate of fractures compared with alpine skiing injuries and a 1.4 times higher incidence than that of snowboarding injuries. Of the fractures caused by ski boarding accidents, 39.6% affected the lower leg bones. Injury prevention strategies should focus on jumps for snowboarders and ski boarders.

  4. A new perspective on radiation risk communication in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The March 11, 2011 cascading disasters of the historic earthquake, unprecedented tsunami, and subsequent radioactive substances release from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant have shocked the world. But the specter of radiation exposure has complicated the earthquake and tsunami disaster aid activities. Herein is a personal commentary on the current status of the risk communication activities within the disaster populations in Fukushima prefecture. A literature review of the current scientific literature was performed focusing on risk communication within the Fukushima region during the disaster recovery phase. I have limited my commentary to only the 5 most relevant of the publications which focus exclusively on the issue of risk communication and the problems which have generated the urgency to improve risk communication. There were several themes which were consistently identified across the articles and echo some of the personal observations of the many types of responses which victims are now demonstrating: fear, anger, distrust, denial, confusion, uncertainty, ambivalence, and hyperbole stood out regarding their varied responses to the current radiological situation and, regarding the government role in risk communication, corruption and lack of transparency. Two recommendations for helping to address these issues in risk communication are the inclusion of a community intermediary and great use of community engagement in the disaster recovery process. Improved risk communication, perhaps using established guidelines and including both community intermediaries and improved community engagement, may prove useful within the radiation affected populations of Japan. (author)

  5. The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tatsuo; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Ito, Kenta; Takahashi, Jun; Miyata, Satoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    While previous studies reported a short-term increase in individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) after great earthquakes, mid-term occurrences of all types of CVDs after great earthquakes are unknown. We addressed this important issue in our experience with the Great East Japan Earthquake (11 March 2011). We retrospectively examined the impact of the Earthquake on the occurrences of CVDs and pneumonia by comparing the ambulance records made by doctors in our Miyagi Prefecture, the centre of the disaster area, during the periods of 2008-11 (n = 124,152). The weekly occurrences of CVDs, including heart failure (HF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke, cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA), and pneumonia were all significantly increased after the Earthquake compared with the previous 3 years. The occurrences of ACS and CPA showed the rapid increase followed by a sharp decline, whereas those of HF and pneumonia showed a prolonged increase for more than 6 weeks and those of stroke and CPA showed a second peak after the largest aftershock (7 April 2011). Furthermore, the occurrence of CPA was increased in the first 24 h after the Earthquake, followed by other diseases later on. These increases were independent of age, sex, or residence area (seacoast vs. inland). These results indicate that the occurrences of all types of CVDs and pneumonia were increased in somewhat different time courses after the Earthquake, including the first observation of the marked and prolonged increase in HF, emphasizing the importance of intensive medical management of all types of CVDs after great earthquakes.

  6. [Clinical analysis on an outbreak of SRSV-gastroenteritis with 644 patients emerged in Shizuoka Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N; Sugieda, M; Miyamoto, H

    1999-04-01

    Small round structured viruses (SRSV) are the major cause of acute non-bacterial enterogastritis and have a characteristic of breaking out with mass victims as food poisoning. The outbreak usually occurs among school children from school lunches in Japan. A case in adults is relatively rare. The SRSV food poisoning with 644 adult victims carried through lunch box broke out, which may be the biggest number in adult cases in the world. This is the report describing its outlines, analytical result of clinical symptoms and fecal microbial examination. The average latent period was 37 hours, the time was mostly (47%) between 24-36 hours. The most emerged symptom was diarrhea and followed nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting and high fever. The older patients showed a higher rate of diarrhea and fewer one of nausea and fever. 15 patients complained of eye symptom. This number should not be neglected. It may be a characteristic of the disease. SRSV detection test with PT-PCR method of feces was done on 36 patients and 24 patients were positive. The most sensitive primer was Yuri/nested/22F/R. In Japan, lunch-service has become a industry advancing monopolization and wide areazation. SRSV make easily contamination to food, therefore if mass victim food-poisoning occurs, this should be considered initially.

  7. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (pOkinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new high resolution glacial flood history from Japan based on the Lake Suigetsu sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlolaut, Gordon; Brauer, Achim; Lamb, Henry F.; Marshall, Michael H.; Staff, Richard A.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Nakagawa, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    High precipitation events leading to natural disasters such as floods and landslides are a rather common occurrence in Japan since the country receives heavy rains as a result of the summer monsoon rainy season and of typhoons frequently making landfall on Japan. In order to study the natural variability of such precipitation events, Lake Suigetsu provides an ideal and currently unique archive. The lake is situated in central western Japan in Fukui prefecture and its sediment record spans over ≈150 ka, from which the last ≈50 ka contain seasonal laminations. Runoff events due to heavy rains are readily distinguishable as distinct detrital layers. Here we will present data from a 14 ka time slice between 52 and 38 ka BP. The varve quality in this interval is particularly good, allowing a seasonal discrimination of flood events and the construction of a high resolution flood history using thin section microscopy. Our initial results show pronounced centennial-scale variations of the flood frequency, with variable periodicities which we hypothesise to be driven by solar variations.

  9. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Decrease of per capita natural radiation dose in Japan in the last three decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Abe, Siro; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1981-01-01

    The long term variation of the mean dose due to natural radiation in Japan received by an individual person was investigated. The mean exposure rate in each prefecture obtained by in-situ measurements was adopted as a basis of the radiation level. Population data were taken from both the resident registration and the census taking into account the essential difference of their meanings. It was revealed that the per capita dose due to outdoor natural radiation in Japan has been decreasing in the last approximate 30 yr. It will be due to the population movement from countrysides towards urban areas. That is because countrysides generally consist of stable mountainlands where granitic rocks distribute though urban areas generally consist of alluvial plains where volcanic ash or humus dominates. Although the contribution of low radiation level (below 9.0 μR/h) areas to the nation-wide collective dose still remains under 50%, its relative importance has certainly been increasing in the last three decades. It is expected that human population will be the dominating factor which eventually controls the mean dose due to natural radiation in Japan. (author)

  11. Sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren: a population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated the relationship of sleep duration to overweight and obesity, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been limited in Japan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. The study subjects were all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2008. Information concerning each subject's sex, age, and lifestyle was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of his or her height and weight were carried out. Childhood overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 3,433 children were analyzed. In logistic regression analysis, a statistically significant dose-response relationship was observed between sleep duration and overweight among boys (p for trend = 0.014) but not among girls (p for trend = 0.149). Short sleep duration was associated with childhood overweight, and the sex difference in the association was observed. These findings suggested that it is important to consider sleep duration as part of any program to prevent overweight among elementary schoolchildren, especially among boys.

  12. Guide to the effective use of cogeneration and fuel cell (Akita Prefecture); Cogeneration nenryo denchi katsuyo guide (Akitaken)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    General cogeneration and fuel cells are separately described in this guidebook. There is a view that a fuel cell is a highly efficient energy system in which both electric power and heat are effectively utilized, and it regards the fuel cell as representative of one of the utilization modes of cogeneration. Following this view, a fuel cell is given a position in parallel with general cogeneration. This guidebook expects that it will be read at private businesses and factories and various public departments within the prefecture where the introduction and utilization of general cogeneration and fuel cells are under study, and describes the procedures to follow when using the energy systems and names the offices to which the readers should refer as need arises. It also expects that people at large in the prefecture who are interested in general cogeneration and fuel cells will be among the readers, and various information is stated for them outlining the energy systems, explaining their merits, and mentioning cases of their application in the past. (NEDO)

  13. Field report-Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Etsuji

    2011-01-01

    Although the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. was foreseen to be an end with bringing the reactor a stable cooling condition and mitigating the release of radioactive materials, there would be various uncertainties and risks. The public was turned to 'nuclear power phase-out ' or 'nuclear power reduced' and Fukushima prefecture launched a restoration vision not dependent on nuclear power. In July editors joined the visit on Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was organized by Energy and Environmental Email Forum. This feature consisted of six articles based on interviews with respective mayor and discussion meeting of participants. Nuclear world would be responsible for the cooperation and support of Fukushima moving toward restoration with the same stance. Development of renewable energy utilizing damaged fields might be promoted. Respective district was tried to restore based on the trademark of 'Iidate-village in the world' or introduction of central facilities of decommission technology or medical care against radiation hazards. Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was 14.8 m above sea level, was not damaged so much by the tsunami of 13 m high and after the disaster many residents in a neighboring area came to the nuclear power plant office for the refuge. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Yokokura, T.; Kiguchi, T.; Yokota, T.; Matsushima, J. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. [Analysis on HIV-1 genetics and threshold of drug resistance in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanling; Wang, Jibao; Xing, Hui; Chen, Min; Yao, Shitang; Chen, Huichao; Yang, Jin; Li, Yanling; Duan, Song; Jia, Manhong

    2015-06-01

    To study the HIV-1 genotypes and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2013. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS), 54 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals, aged between 16 and 25 years, were collected in Dehong prefecture from January to August 2013. Genotyping of partial pol gene was performed by using reverse transcriptional PCR. HIV-1 genotype. Prevalent levels of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission were analyzed. Forty-eight plasma samples were successfully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, 45.8% were Chinese and the rest 54.2% were all Burmese. Based on pol sequences, identified HIV genotypes included subtype C (41.7%), URF (31.3%), CRF01_AE (12.5%), CRF07_BC (10.4%), CRF08_BC (2.1%) and subtype B (2.1%), C subtype appeared dominated in Chinese while URF was dominated in Burmese. One drug resistant mutation to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was detected in one sequence from Burmese. Based on the statistical method of HIVDR-TS, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was adjusted as scientific management for people living with HIV/AIDS should be strictly followed. Meanwhile, relevant surveillance, including drug resistance surveillance should also be performed among cross-border migrant population.

  16. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  17. Risk of social isolation among Great East Japan Earthquake survivors living in tsunami-affected Ishinomaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Machiko; Matsumoto, Shoko; Yamaoka, Kazue; Muto, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami affected approximately 53 000 people in the city of Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture. Approximately 30 000 people were relocated to temporary/rental housing. The remainder re-inhabited tsunami-affected houses, and their conditions were not known. As social isolation could affect physical and psychological health, we investigated the risk of social isolation among the survivors who returned to their homes. The surveyors went door-to-door to the tsunami-affected houses and interviewed each household between October 2011 and March 2012. The participants' risk of social isolation was assessed using 3 factors: whether they have (1) friends to talk with about their problems, (2) close neighbors, and (3) social/family interactions. We analyzed the groups at risk of social isolation and identified the related factors. The elderly (older than age 65 years) were more likely to have close neighbors and social/family interactions, as compared with younger persons. Persons living alone were less likely to have social/family interactions. Non-elderly men who were living alone were the highest proportion of people without social/family interactions. Our findings suggested that men, particularly those younger than age 65 years and living alone, were at high risk of social isolation and may need attention.

  18. INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THE TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE (THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE) CONDUCTED IN FUKUSHIMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ohno, Kikuo; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    On March 11(th) 2011, the Tohoku region of Japan was struck by catastrophic disasters. Thousands of people were killed due to a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. Furthermore, a serious nuclear crisis occurred in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the disasters, and an emergency evacuation was ordered to people living near the nuclear power plants. There was a lot of anxiety regarding lost families as well as the influences of radioactivity on the health of people and their children. Based on these urgent and uncertain situations, a number of research projects were developed at many institutes both inside and outside Fukushima. We herein report the investigative research projects related to the Tohoku Earthquake (The Great East Japan Earthquake) conducted after the disasters. The research projects were reviewed by the Institutional Review Board in Fukushima Medical University during the two years following the disasters. The research projects conducted in universities other than Fukushima Medical University were also examined using questionnaire analysis. Among the research projects conducted in Fukushima Medical University (n=424), 7% (n=32) were disaster-related investigative research. The mean duration planned to pursue the projects was 25.5 months. Among these projects, those focusing on the health of Fukushima citizens were most common (n=9), followed by the influence of chronic exposure of radiation on chronic inflammatory disorders (n=6), and the mental health of Fukushima citizens (n=5). They were carefully reviewed for the purpose, suitability, and necessity from ethical as well as scientific viewpoints. The majority of the research projects focused on the effects of the Tohoku Earthquake and/or chronic exposure to low-dose radioactivity on the health of children and pregnant women, as well as on various disorders, such as mental health and chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, among 58 projects we collected from 22

  19. Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d -1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d -1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-05

    This is Japan Report with Science and Technology. It contains the issues with different topics on biotecnology , defense industry, nuclear engineering, Marine technology, science and technology policy.

  1. The anthropogenic change of sedimentary system recored to short core in brackish Lake Ogawara, North Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, A.; Seto, K.; yamada, K.; Yonenobu, H.

    2013-12-01

    The sedimentary environment of brackish lake is fluctuated by the effect of sediment flux from rivers, tidal, climate change, and human activities. Each brackish lake has a specific character. The Lake Ogawara is located in east part of Aomori Prefecture, is connected to the Pacific Ocean through Takase River. In this study, we performed the investigation in the Lake Ogawara at 2011, to clarify a characteristic of recent sedimentary environments. In addition, the short coring at 2012 is performed to show a changes of sedimentary environments. The investigation is made up of 110 detailed sampling localities in grid and 100 water quality measurement sites in a traverse line through the lake system. In addition, the short cores were sampled at sites of Og20, 33, 64, 84, 95 and 97. The water column of Lake Ogawara divided into 3 water masses, as an epilimnion (0-10m), a metalimnion (10-18m), and a hypolimnion (deeper than 18m). The environments in metalimnion and hypolimnion show the anoxic to euxinic condition. The upper part of the metalimnion shows pycnocline dependent on water temperature and salinity, and the lower part shows pycnocline dependent on mainly salinity. Surface sediments are observed well-sorted sand shallower than 10m, and black organic mud with lamination deeper than it depth. As a result of CNS element anaysis of surface sediments, the total organic carbon (TOC) contens increase toward deep, and show very high value (around 8%) in metalimnion and hypolimnion. Total sulfur (TS) content shows 1-2% of values deeper than metalimnion. In spite of euxinic condition, TOC/TS ratio is high in comparison with the normal marine. This suggests the exhaustion of metal ions such as iron or undersupply of sulfate ion. In Og84, 97 cores, the upper part shows the black (L*=6). But lower part shows relative high lightness (L*=15 to 20). The mean grain size of the upper part (black layer) is 6.5φ, the lower part shows the 8.0φ. TOC contents shows the around 7% in

  2. The graying of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women.

  3. Holography In Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiuchi, Jumpei

    1985-08-01

    The present status of activities of research and application of holography in Japan is reviewed. The most active field is metrology, and many applications in automobile, aircraft, electronic industries as well as basic researches are found. Information processing and optical memory are still in laboratory level, and suitable applications are looked for. Optical elements are promising, and applications in POS scanning systems are already in practical use. Applications in 3-D image display are spreading among the public, and applications for medical purpose have started. Acoustical holography is applied in mechanical engineering, and electron holography becomes a very attractive tool for experimental physics.

  4. Skiing research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K

    1981-01-01

    Skiing and skiing techniques were introduced by the Austrians to Japanese soldiers in 1911. After that, skiing spread beyond the original purpose and recently produced the ski sciences. From a sports biomechanical aspect, the development of the study of ski jumping, alpine skiing, and the basic movement in skiing is introduced in this paper. One of the characteristic points of these studies in Japan was that the ski sciences were supported not only by biomechanists and physiologists, but also basically by physicists and engineers. The fundamental research and studies from divergent fields are supporting each other and being integrated into ski science.

  5. Nyheder i Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  6. Domestic violence in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, J

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.

  7. Nuclear services for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) became AEA Technology in April 1990. The commercial interests are focussed through 4 business units: AEA Reactor Services, with whom several contracts have been won from Japanese customers for high resolution Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (FEGSTEM); AEA Fuel Services, a contract is being negotiated with an existing Japanese customer; AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, with whom further development of an alternative approach to evaporation of liquid waste effluent for specific application in Japan is in progress; AEA Fusion. 1 fig

  8. A nationwide survey of ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs and cats in Japan in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakami, Shinya; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-10-01

    A nationwide survey of ixodid ticks was performed in 2011, during which a total of 4237 and 298 ticks were recovered from 1162 dogs and 136 cats, respectively. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most frequently found tick species on canine hosts (739 dogs), followed by H. flava (166), Ixodes ovatus (139), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (70). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, H. formosensis, H. campanulata, H. ias, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, and Amblyomma testudinarium were also recovered. H. longicornis was also the most frequently found species on feline hosts (52 cats), followed by I. ovatus (34), A. testudinarium (19), and H. flava (12). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, I. granulatus and R. sanguineus sensu lato were also recovered from cats. The three major species of ticks found on dogs and cats, H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. ovatus, displayed a wide geographical distribution, with specimens found throughout northern and southern Japan. R. sanguineus sensu lato was primarily recovered in Okinawa, but was also found in Kanagawa, Wakayama, Hiroshima, and Yamaguchi Prefectures. A. testudinarium was mainly distributed throughout western Japan, but small numbers were also recovered from Gumma and Shizuoka Prefectures. H. longicornis was more frequently found on dogs in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Exposure to woodland environments was significantly associated with H. flava and I. ovatus in dogs. Dogs in urban or suburban areas encountered R. sanguineus sensu lato more often than other tick species. Most of the cats surveyed in the present study were from rural areas. In the present study, H. hystricis and R. sanguineus sensu lato were found on cats for the first time in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in adult women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, J; Mizoue, T; Kita, T; Kishimoto, H; Joh, K; Nakada, Y; Ugajin, S; Naya, Y; Nakamura, T; Tada, Y; Okabe, N; Maruyama, Y; Saitoh, K; Kurozawa, Y

    2016-04-01

    Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan.

  10. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  11. Re-examination on the 1891 M8.0 Nobi Earthquake, Japan: Collspse rate distributions in cities, towns and villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, F.; Matta, N.

    2014-12-01

    The 1891 M8.0 Nobi Earthquake is the greatest inland earthquakes in Japan. The Neodani Fault was slipped for 80 km length at the earthquake. Over 7000 peoples was perished around Gifu prefecture, central Japan by the earthquake. It was passed 20 years to be established a constitutional monarchy in Japan, and Meiji government modernized oneself after the West. The cities, towns and villages were decreasing to 15,859 from 71,314 by the community integration in 1888-1889. And yet, there were 61 towns and villages in Motosu county located in the hypocenter of the Nobi earthquake at the time, and there were 33,000 people. The 61 towns and villages were consisting with populations of 114 -3506, and households of 14-3508. Gifu prefecture published a disaster report on the numbers of collapsed house and casualties by the earthquake, including the populations and households on all cities, towns in a week after the earthquake. Already Muramatsu (1983) and Iida (1985) discussed the Gifu prefecture disaster report, and they calculated the collapse rate and estimated the seismic intensities in the towns and villages. However, they never discuss precisely the disaster in each city, town and village. Firstly, we make a distribution map of the completely-collapse rates of the cities, towns and villages in Gifu and Aichi prefectures using GIS software. As Muramatsu already pointed out that there are two regions over 90% of collapse rates precisely. One is located along the Neodani fault, and it is a very narrow area. The other is located wide area in north Nobi Plain. Some research groups suggest another fault named Gifu-Ichinomiya line, because the region of seismic intensity 7 is estimated from Gifu to south Nagoya. However high collapse rate over 90% is not distributed as zones. It is suggested that collapsed houses are increased by shallow ground structures such as alluvium. Surely, alluvium is distributed with thick with 50 m maximally in the region. However, more local

  12. Safety Concerns of Tourism Business in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Karavaeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state of tourism industry in Japan after the nuclear disaster of 2011. A focus is made on networking activities of Japan Government aimed at boosting leisure travel flows to Japan.

  13. [Reform of Japan's NTP and its technical perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toru

    2004-10-01

    expansion of the DOTS Japan version. While the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs will be realized in the near future, Japan still has to overcome the issue of improper practice of treatment, as well as the government's slow process for approving new drugs to be used for multi-drug resistant TB and non-tuberculous mycobacterioses. 5. Prefectural TB Control Plan: In order to resolve the problems specific to the respective prefectures in terms of epidemiological parameters or available resources, the new Law requests every prefecture to develop its own TB control plan. In order for the new TB Control Law to be effective, strong government commitment supported by technological innovation is mandatory. It is for that reason that the Japanese Society of Tuberculosis should aggressively join the global movement to stop TB along with the general public of Japan.

  14. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  15. Factors used for the estimation of radioactive nuclide intake through foodstuffs by inhabitants in coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Nemoto, Yohko; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1978-01-01

    The consumption of eight categories of marine foods was surveyed on two kinds of families in Oarai town, one of the famous fishing towns in Ibaraki prefecture. The average daily intake of whole marine foods through a year of 1973 was 255 g/d/p for fisherman's families and 166 g/d/p for nonfisherman's, respectively. Fisherman's families showed higher consumption of all categories of marine foods except algae than non-fisherman's. Seasonal variation of marine food consumption was observed for both families, i.e., the consumption in spring was less than that in the other seasons. One half of the total marine foods consumption was occupied by fishes. And among three kinds of fishes, high consumption of pelagic fish was recognized. These consumption aspects were almost similar to those observed in Kuji, Tokai and Nakaminato as reported previously. (auth.)

  16. Determinants of Electricity Consumption Intensity in China: Analysis of Cities at Subprovince and Prefecture Levels in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X. H.; Hu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    China has experienced great social and economic vicissitudes that caused the vast complexity and uncertainty for electricity consumption. This paper attempts to identify the main determinants of the electricity consumption intensity by using the data from Chinese cities at subprovince and prefecture levels in 2009. The key category factors, including urban morphology, industrial structure, regulation context, urbanization degree, price, natural condition, and resource endowment, are abstracted and the influence of these determinants is evaluated by adopting the finite mixture models. The variation of each determinant across regions, the comparative weights of all the factors, and the detailed classifications of the cities are reported for facilitating the understanding of electricity consumption in China. The corresponding policies for electricity administration are addressed as well. PMID:22927781

  17. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  18. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  19. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge.

  20. Japan and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  1. Survey on evacuation facilities in case of nuclear emergency in Shimane prefecture (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Shogo; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Oguri, Tomomi; Kimura, Masanori; Hirouchi, Jun; Munakata, Masahiro; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2017-02-01

    To contribute evaluations of dose reduction effect due to evacuation facilities in case of nuclear emergency, we surveyed on structural and material data on 22 facilities (290 rooms) which are listed in local disaster management plan in Matsue city. These facilities can be divided into three categories in terms of structure, scale and intended purpose of them: educational facilities (12 facilities, 235 rooms (include gymnastic hall)), communal facilities (7 facilities, 42 rooms) and gymnastic hall (3 facilities, 13 rooms). Height and floor-area of rooms, as well as window-area were collected as the structural data. We also collected information on constructional materials (i.e. roof, ceiling, inner wall, outer wall, window, floor), and density of those. In addition, mass-thicknesses of the constructional materials were evaluated based on our surveys, and compared to the previous studies which were made in Japan, U.S., and European countries. Consequently, it was found that there is no significant difference of mass-thickness of constructional materials between the results of our surveys and the previous studies. However, for gymnastic hall, since thin metal plates are used for roofs, we can point out that the mass-thickness of roofs are much lower than those for other concrete facilities and clay tile roofing wooden houses. (author)

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular mortality in the Great East Japan and the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquakes - a large-scale data analysis of death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Misa; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Nakai, Michikazu; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Ogawa, Hisao; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Toh, Ryuji; Morino, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Naito, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Large earthquakes have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In Japan, the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji (H-A) Earthquake was an urban-underground-type earthquake, whereas the 2011 Great East Japan (GEJ) Earthquake was an ocean-trench type. In the present study, we examined how these different earthquake types affected CVD mortality. We examined death certificate data from 2008 to 2012 for 131 municipalities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (n=320,348) and from 1992 to 1996 for 220 municipalities in Hyogo, Osaka, and Kyoto prefectures (n=592,670). A Poisson regression model showed significant increases in the monthly numbers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-related deaths (incident rate ratio [IRR] GEJ=1.34, P=0.001; IRR of H-A=1.57, Pearthquakes. Two months after the earthquakes, AMI deaths remained significant only for H-A (IRR=1.13, P=0.029). When analyzing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) after the earthquakes using the Cochran-Armitage trend test, seismic intensity was significantly associated with AMI mortality for 2 weeks after both the GEJ (P for trend=0.089) and H-A earthquakes (P for trend=0.005). Following the GEJ and H-A earthquakes, there was a sharp increase in CVD mortality. The effect of the disaster was sustained for months after the H-A earthquake, but was diminished after the GEJ Earthquake.

  3. The trial edition of historical earthquake data base in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A.; Satake, K.; Yata, T.; Urabe, A.; Maejima, Y.

    2012-04-01

    There are many historical documents in Japan and these are analyzed by historical researchers. The descriptions of the occurrence times and damage of historical earthquakes in and around Japan are included in these historical documents. However, the analyses of these historical documents require technical knowledge and therefore, it is not straightforward for unprofessional researchers to directly utilize these historical documents. A historical earthquake document data base was made by Ishibashi et al. for ancient and medieval ages (until around AD 1600). For early modern, or Edo, period, the amount of historical documents is significantly larger and quality of documents is variable, hence quality check is important. We are making historical earthquake data base, which is composed of the historical earthquake document data base and seismic intensity data base, for a few earthquakes in Edo period. The 1751 Echigo-Takada and 1828 Echigo-Sanjo earthquakes, which occurred in Echigo (the present Niigata Prefecture) and caused extensive damage, were selected for the trial edition of historical earthquake data base. We selected historical records with high reliability, formatted them as XML data, and created historical earthquake record data base. Incidentally, pictures which describe damage of these historical earthquakes are also contained in this data base, and the damage can be visually shown. From the reliable documents, we estimated a ratio of collapsed houses and seismic intensity, and created the trial edition of seismic intensity data base by using Google Earth as a platform. We selected historical records which describe both the total number of houses and the number of collapsed houses in each village or town at the occurrence time of these earthquakes because the number of houses varies in time. Then, we calculated the ratio of collapsed houses and estimated seismic intensities in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale based on Usami (1986)'s table as

  4. Safety regulations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.

    1987-01-01

    In Japan, it is provided in the Law for Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors (referred as LRNR) that the licensee shall establish the safety regulations for individual plant by themselves regarding the operating management of nuclear reactor facility to secure the concrete safety of the nuclear power plant, that he shall receive an authorization of responsible government agencies (Minister of International Trade and Industry for commercial power station) and that this regulation shall be kept by the licensee and its employees. Furthermore, it is also provided in the same law that the licensee shall voluntarily nominate a chief reactor engineer to supervise the safety of reactor operation and that those who are engaged to the reactor operation shall obey the chief reactor engineer's instruction for the safety of reactor operation. These two factors are the base of the voluntary security system for reactor safety

  5. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  6. Childhood cancer incidence and survival in Japan and England: A population-based study (1993-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Magadi, Winnie; Bonaventure, Audrey; Stiller, Charles A; Katanoda, Kota; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Rachet, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare cancer incidence and trends in survival for children diagnosed in Japan and England, using population-based cancer registry data. The analysis was based on 5192 children with cancer (age 0-14 years) from 6 prefectural cancer registries in Japan and 21 295 children diagnosed in England during 1993-2010. Differences in incidence rates between the 2 countries were measured with Poisson regression models. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors and Ewing sarcomas in England were more than twice as high as those in Japan. Incidence of germ cell tumors, hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was higher in Japan than in England. Incidence of all cancers combined decreased in Japan throughout the period 1993 to 2010, which was mainly explained by a decrease in registration of neuroblastoma in infants. For many cancers, 5-year survival improved in both countries. The improvement in survival in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was particularly dramatic in both countries. However, 5-year survival remained less than 80% in 2005-2008 in both countries for AML, brain tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, malignant bone tumors and neuroblastoma (age 1-14 years). There were significant differences in incidence of several cancers between countries, suggesting variation in genetic susceptibility and possibly environmental factors. The decrease in incidence for all cancers combined in Japan was related to the cessation of the national screening program for neuroblastoma. The large improvement in survival in CML coincided with the introduction of effective therapy (imatinib). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. The great East Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011, from the vantage point of blood banking and transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Hasegawa, Arifumi

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, and subsequent tsunami took nearly 20 000 lives in Tohoku, the northeastern part of Japan's main island. Most victims were either carried away by the tsunami or drowned. The ability to collect blood was disrupted on the Pacific coast of Tohoku. Inland areas were less affected, but allogeneic blood collected in Tohoku is tested at the Miyagi Red Cross Blood Center (Miyagi Center) in the coastal city of Sendai. Miyagi Center was damaged and could not test for 2 months. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to assess transfusion practice at 8 disaster response hospitals in Tohoku's Fukushima Prefecture, for equal intervals before and after March 11, 2011; (2) to report activities related to blood collection and distribution in response to the disaster; and (3) to describe the Great East Japan Earthquake in the context of other disasters. Data were collected through a survey of transfusion services at 8 major disaster response hospitals, communication at transfusion conferences, and literature review. Transfused patients and units transfused were about 70% and 60% of normal in the surveyed hospitals because this was a disaster of mass casualty rather than mass injury, and patients requiring chronic care were evacuated out. A nationally coordinated effort allowed excess blood collected outside Tohoku to be transported in, despite infrastructure damage. Japan's national system of blood collection and distribution responded effectively to local needs after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Disasters such as Japan's 3.11 should guide discourse about emergency preparedness and centralization of services. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The begomoviruses Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus and Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus with DNAbeta satellites cause yellow dwarf disease of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Sharma, P; Ikegami, M

    2008-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two begomoviruses (Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2), a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Nara) and defective DNAs were obtained from honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) showing characteristic yellow vein mosaic symptoms in Nara Prefecture, Japan. One begomovirus (Ibaraki virus) and a satellite DNA (DNAbeta-Ibaraki) was isolated and cloned from honeysuckle plants exhibited typical yellowing of veins and small elliptical shaped enations along veins on the under side of the leaves in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. The genome organization of the three viruses is the same as those of other Old World monopartite begomoviruses. Nara virus-1 had overall nucleotide sequence identity with Nara virus-2 of 94% and Ibaraki virus of 90%. DNAbeta-Nara had overall nucleotide sequence identity with DNAbeta-Ibaraki of 83%. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences with other begomoviruses revealed that Nara virus-1 and Nara virus-2 are strains of Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), hence named as HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2, whereas Ibaraki virus was a strain of Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV), designated as TbLCJV-Hs[Iba]. HYVMV-Nara1 and HYVMV-Nara2 have hybrid genomes, which are likely to have formed recombination between HYVMV and TbLCJV. TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 could infect and cause yellowing, leaf crinkling and stunting symptoms when partial tandem dimeric constructs were agroinoculated on tomato plants. However, in the presence of DNAbeta, both TbLCJV-Hs[Iba] or HYVMV-Nara2 produced more severe stunting symptoms in tomato plants. Therefore, these viruses along with their satellites are causal agents of tomato yellow dwarf disease in Japan, and honeysuckle acts as a potential reservoir host. Previously available evidence indicated that DNAbeta elements do not contain iteron sequences of their helper viruses; hence this is the first evidence that DNAbeta satellites have the iteron of their helper virus.