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Sample records for ao soil-borne wheat

  1. Differential Characteristics of Viral siRNAs between Leaves and Roots of Wheat Plants Naturally Infected with Wheat Yellow Mosaic Virus, a Soil-Borne Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linying; Andika, Ida Bagus; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Xin, Xiangqi; Hu, Lifeng; Sun, Zongtao; Hong, Gaojie; Chen, Yang; Yan, Fei; Yang, Jian; Li, Junmin; Chen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    RNA silencing is an important innate antiviral defense in plants. Soil-borne plant viruses naturally infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors, but it is unclear how antiviral RNA silencing responds to virus infection in this particular tissue. In this study, viral small interfering RNA (siRNA) profiles from leaves and roots of wheat plants naturally infected with a soil-borne virus, wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV, genus Bymovirus ), were analyzed by deep sequencing. WYMV siRNAs were much more abundant in roots than leaves, which was positively correlated with the accumulation of viral RNA. WYMV siRNAs in leaves and roots were predominantly 21- and 22-nt long and equally derived from the positive- and negative-strands of the viral genome. WYMV siRNAs from leaves and roots differed in distribution pattern along the viral genome. Interestingly, compared to siRNAs from leaves (and most other reports), those from roots obviously had a lower A/U bias at the 5'-terminal nucleotide. Moreover, the expression of Dicer-like genes upon WYMV infection were differently regulated between leaves and roots. Our data suggest that RNA silencing in roots may operate differently than in leaves against soil-borne virus invasion.

  2. IRIDOID GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA GENISTIFOLIA (L. MILL. IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF SOIL-BORNE FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF WHEAT AND SOME STRUCTURE CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of the iridoid glycosides extract from Linaria genistifolia (L. Mill. has been investigated, namely its influence on the resistance of the winter wheat Odesschi 51 plant to the caused by the Fusarium oxysporum and Helminthosporium avenae pathogenic fungi root rot. Our results indicate that summary iridoid glycosides from this plant, containing four major known compounds: 5-O-allosylantirrinoside, antirrinoside, linarioside and 6-β-hidroxiantirride, can be successfully employed in biological control of the afore-mentioned wheat pathogens: it stimulates wheat grains germination and embryonic root growth in conditions of fungal infection. 1H and 13C NMR characteristics of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in Py-d5 are for the first time presented. Structures of two conformers of 5-O-allosylantirrinoside in D2O and Py-d5 solutions are proposed, based on the experimental NMR evidence and molecular modelling studies.

  3. Characterization of Aldehyde Oxidase (AO Genes Involved in the Accumulation of Carotenoid Pigments in Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Colasuonno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde Oxidase (AO enzyme (EC 1.2.3.1 catalyzes the final steps of carotenoid catabolism and it is a key enzyme in the abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis. AO isoforms are located in the cytosolic compartment of tissues in many plants, where induce the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyze the hydroxylation of some heterocycles. The goal of the present study was to characterize the AO genes involved in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in wheat grain, an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. The cDNAs corresponding to the four AO isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana and five AO isoforms from Brachypodium distachyon were used as query in 454 sequence assemblies data for Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (https://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/blast/blast.php to obtain the partial or whole orthologous wheat AO sequences. Three wheat isoforms, designated AO1, AO2, and AO3 were located on the chromosome groups 2, 5, and 7, respectively, and mapped on two consensus wheat maps by SNP markers located within the AO gene sequences. To validate the possible relationships between AO3 genes and carotenoid accumulation in wheat, the expression levels of AO-A3 and AO-B3 gene were determined during the kernel maturation stage of two durum wheat cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo, characterized by a low and high carotenoid content, respectively. Different AO-A3 gene expression values were observed between the two cultivars indicating that the AO-A3 allele present in Ciccio was more active in carotenoid degradation. A gene marker was developed and can be used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.

  4. Characterization of Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) Genes Involved in the Accumulation of Carotenoid Pigments in Wheat Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Lozito, Maria L; Simeone, Rosanna; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2017-01-01

    Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) enzyme (EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final steps of carotenoid catabolism and it is a key enzyme in the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. AO isoforms are located in the cytosolic compartment of tissues in many plants, where induce the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyze the hydroxylation of some heterocycles. The goal of the present study was to characterize the AO genes involved in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in wheat grain, an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. The cDNAs corresponding to the four AO isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana and five AO isoforms from Brachypodium distachyon were used as query in 454 sequence assemblies data for Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (https://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/blast/blast.php) to obtain the partial or whole orthologous wheat AO sequences. Three wheat isoforms, designated AO1, AO2 , and AO3 were located on the chromosome groups 2, 5, and 7, respectively, and mapped on two consensus wheat maps by SNP markers located within the AO gene sequences. To validate the possible relationships between AO3 genes and carotenoid accumulation in wheat, the expression levels of AO-A3 and AO-B3 gene were determined during the kernel maturation stage of two durum wheat cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo, characterized by a low and high carotenoid content, respectively. Different AO-A3 gene expression values were observed between the two cultivars indicating that the AO-A3 allele present in Ciccio was more active in carotenoid degradation. A gene marker was developed and can be used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.

  5. Fusarium diseases as the main soil borne fungal pathogen on plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequently soil-borne fungal pathogens on plants are Fusarium species that make high economical damages in various agricultural locations in Iran. Our studies show that Fusarium species cause significant yield losses in main crops especially potato, pea, bean, wheat, corn and rice in several parts of the country.

  6. Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agtmaal, van M.

    2015-01-01

    Soil borne plant pathogens considerably reduce crop yields worldwide and are difficult to control due to their ”masked” occurrence  in the heterogeneous soil environment. This hampers the efficacy of chemical - and microbiological control agents.   Outbreaks of crop

  7. Management of soil-borne diseases of organic vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Hafiza Asma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides, people are looking for organically grown vegetables. Consumers are increasingly choosing organic foods due to the perception that they are healthier than those conventionally grown. Vegetable crops are vulnerable to a range of pathogenic organisms that reduce yield by killing the plant or damaging the product, thus making it unmarketable. Soil-borne diseases are among the major factors contributing to low yields of organic produce. Apart from chemical pesticides there are several methods that can be used to protect crops from soil-borne pathogens. These include the introduction of biocontrol agents against soil-borne plant pathogens, plants with therapeutic effects and organic soil amendments that stimulate antagonistic activities of microorganisms to soil-borne diseases. The decomposition of organic matter in soil also results in the accumulation of specific compounds that may be antifungal or nematicidal. With the growing interest in organic vegetables, it is necessary to find non chemical means of plant disease control. This review describes the impact of soil-borne diseases on organic vegetables and methods used for their control.

  8. Determinants of oral bioavailability of soil-borne contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Agnes Guadalupe

    2000-01-01

    Children ingest soil, either accidentally via hand-to-mouth behavior or deliberately. In this manner, a child ingests on average between 50 and 200 mg soil/day, although amounts of as much as 60 g/day have also been observed. Hence, soil ingestion can be a main route of exposure to soil-borne

  9. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion Bravo, Victor; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne

  10. Effect of soil solarization on soil-borne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobh, Hana

    1995-01-01

    -knot indices nor yields were significantly different in both treatments. At present, fumigation with methyl bromide is the most common method adopted by Lebanese farmers to control soil-borne pathogens of high value crops in greenhouses. Since methyl bromide is extremely toxic and damage the ozone layer, and its use is banned in several countries and may be banned world wide in year 2001, these preliminary results prove that soil solarization may stand as a good alternative control measure

  11. Soil borne gungi associated with different vegetable crop in sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, F.; Abid, M.; Hussain, F.

    2014-01-01

    Different soil-borne fungi are responsible for reducing the yield of vegetables throughout the world including Pakistan. There are several soil borne fungal pathogens which aggressively infect vegetable crops. Surveys conducted during September 2010 to October 2011, demonstrated that a great diversity of soil borne plant pathogens associated with different vegetables prevail in vegetable growing areas of Sindh such as Tando Allahayar, Mirpurkhas, Ghotaki, Khairpur, Kunri, Umerkot and Karachi, etc. Our study noted in total thirteen different genera of fungi isolated from vegetable crops (cabbage, brinjal, tomato, radish and spinach). Isolated fungi identified included Alternaria solani, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terrus, Aeromonium fusidiocles, Cladosporium sp., Drechselra hawaiiensis, Eurotium berbanbrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium commune, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma harzianum, Ulocladium sp., and unidentified black mycelium from the soil and roots of vegetable crops. In addition, it was found that soil is commonly infected by soil-borne fungi and eventually results in heavy losses of vegetable yield in the vegetable growing areas of Sindh province. The infection rapidly increased due to many factors such as, presence of moisture, excess of water and infection may be caused by winds, gales and dust storms as well as by mechanical vectors. (author)

  12. (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl11

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... Melon is an important dessert fruit in the Sistan region of. Iran, but its cultivation is threatened by attacks of. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi), Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack and Uecker) and Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) (Safarnezhad, 2004). Melon death induced by these soil-borne plant pathogenic ...

  13. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel),

  14. Selection procedures for durable resistance in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    A wheat breeding programme for durable resistance to all locally important pathogens: leaf rust, stem rust, powdery mildew, Septoria nodorum, Septoria tritici, Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium graminearum, Common Root Rot, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus and Soil Borne Mosaic

  15. Testing of Early Ripening Strawberry Cultivars Tolerant to Soil-Borne Pathogens as Alternative to 'Elsanta'

    OpenAIRE

    Spornberger, Andreas; Steffek, Robert; Altenburger, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Soil-borne pathogens, above all Verticillium sp., cause plant loss and yield decrease in many Austrian strawberry regions. As part of a research project 13 cultivars were planted in 2005 at 11 sites on nine farms in five different Austrian regions. The aim was to test early ripening Verticillium tolerant cultivars which are winter hardy, with high yield and good fruit characteristics as alternative to the highly susceptible cultivar ‘Elsanta’. Although in 2005 climatic conditions where not fa...

  16. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manici, L M; Bregaglio, S; Fumagalli, D; Donatelli, M

    2014-12-01

    Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran.

  18. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Durán; Paola Durán; Milko Jorquera; Milko Jorquera; Sharon Viscardi; Sharon Viscardi; Victor J. Carrion; María de la Luz Mora; María J. Pozo

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence...

  19. Farinha integral de trigo germinado: 3. Características nutricionais e estabilidade ao armazenamento Whole flour of germinated wheat: 3. Nutritional characteristics and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Zavariz de Miranda

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O trigo (Triticum aestivum L. é usado principalmente para alimentação humana, na forma de farinhas. A germinação pode ser útil para melhorar a qualidade protéica, bem como a de outros nutrientes do trigo, e a estabilidade das farinhas produzidas de trigo germinado é desconhecida. Assim, este trabalho investigou, em laboratório, o efeito da germinação sobre algumas características nutricionais e sobre a estabilidade ao armazenamento de farinhas integrais de trigo germinado por 48 (FITG48, 72 (FITG72 e 96 horas (FITG96. O perfil de aminoácidos das FITGs foi considerado bom, quando comparado com o da farinha controle e com o do padrão teórico da FAO para pré-escolares (2-5 anos. Somente a lisina (primeiro aminoácido limitante e a treonina das FITGs mostraram valores mais baixos que o do citado padrão. O escore químico (em torno de 56-57 e o escore de aminoácidos corrigido pela digestibilidade protéica (em torno de 54-58 foram mais altos nas FITGs que na farinha integral controle (48 e 42, respectivamente. Com base nesses resultados, as características nutricionais das FITGs foram melhoradas pela germinação de trigo. Com relação à estabilidade ao armazenamento, o pH diminuiu e a acidez álcool-solúvel aumentou de acordo com o tempo de germinação de trigo. As FITGs foram estáveis até 4 meses de armazenamento, com exceção da FITG96, que apresentou alto nível de acidez álcool-solúvel, provavelmente devido à rancidez hidrolítica. O hexanal, uma medida da deterioração oxidativa, foi encontrado somente na farinha controle; nas FITGs não foi detectado, indicando boa estabilidade oxidativa durante 6 meses de armazenamento.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is used mainly as human food in the form of flour. Germination may be useful to improve the quality of protein, and possibly other nutrients in wheat. Since the stability of flours produced from germinated grains is little known, this work investigated the effect of

  20. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants against common soil-borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuba, T.; Abid, M.; Shaukat, S. S.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), The spesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100 percent. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100 percent and 82 percent, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99 percent mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens. (author)

  1. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food and soil-borne Penicillia in Arctic environments: Chemical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    Penicillia are very common inhabitants of cold environments, including arctic soil, plants, animals, and foods. We have investigated the mycobiota of Greenland inland ice and soil, and found a very unique and pronounced diversity among the Penicillia. Nearly all species were new to science....... The species found in inland ice were both of the soil-borne type, and Penicillia that grow and sporulate well at 25°C. The latter group of Penicillia have been found earlier in refrigerated foods, including P. nordicum, and in glacier ice and melting water from Svalbard (se Sonjak et al., this conference......). This “food-borne group” of arctic fungi also contained some new species, but not as many as in arctic soil. The chemical diversity of the Penicillium species was remarkably high and in most cases even larger than the chemical diversity of Penicillia in the tropics. Several new secondary metabolites were...

  3. Human soil-borne pathogens and risks associated with land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is a source of pathogenic, neutral and beneficial microorganisms. Natural events and anthropogenic activity can affect soil biodiversity and influence the balance and distribution of soil-borne human pathogens. Important bacterial and fungal pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis, Coxiella bernetii, Clostridium tetani, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Sporothrix schenckii will be discussed. This presentation will concentrate on soil pathogenic microorganisms and the effects of land use change on their prevalence and distribution. In particular, the potential of agricultural soil cultivation to enhance pathogen transmission to human through the release of soil microbes into the air attached to dust particles, contamination of waterways and infection of food plants and animal. Emerging solutions, such as biocontrol and probiotics, will be discussed.

  4. [Suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Niu, Yong-chun; Deng, Hui; Lin, Xiao-min; Jin, Chun-li

    2015-12-01

    To understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. Four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. The strain JCL143, identified as Aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In greenhouse pot experiments, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided 74% or more of relative control effect to all the three diseases of cucumber seedling caused by the above three pathogenic fungi, and provided 85% or more of relative control effect to Rhizoctonia root rot and Sclerotinia root and stem rot in pot experiment with non-sterilized substrate. In pot experiment with natural soil as substrate, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided average 84.1% of relative control effect to Fusarium wilt of cucumber at vine elongation stage. The fermentation broth of strain JCL143 showed inhibitory effect in different degrees on the colonial growth of the three pathogenic fungi tested, and reached 63.3% of inhibitory rate of colonial growth to S. sclerotiorum. The inhibitory activity of the fermentation broth decreased with increasing treatment temperature, was liable to decrease to alkaline pH than acid pH, and stable to protease treatment. The results indicated that A. terreus is an important factor in suppression of plant soil-borne diseases, and strain JCL143 with stable disease suppression is potential in biocontrol application.

  5. Variability of Effective Micro-organisms (EM) in bokashi and soil and effects on soil-borne plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Keumchul; Diepen, van G.; Blok, W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial inoculant ‘Effective Microorganisms’ (EM) has been used to promote soil fertility and plant growth in agriculture. We tested effects of commercial EM products on suppression of soil-borne diseases, microbial activity and bacterial composition in organically managed sandy soils. EM was

  6. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Abid, M.; Farzana, A.; Akbar, M.; Shaukat, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  7. Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Xie

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1, methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1, metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1 treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1 and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1 showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community.

  8. Selective response of Ricinus communis seedlings to soil borne rhizoctonia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Ricinus communis tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. There was no connection revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position, however, the castor plant proved to be susceptible to most strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. Rhizoctonia zeae (teleomorph: Waitea circinata, a species new for European flora, was less aggressive to R. communis as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection on mass accumulation of hypocotyls was more prominent than that on cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase (GST activity increased in parallel with evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic anti-omycete fungicide induced locally the GST activity in R. communis cotyledons with 24 hours lag phase, and this induction was altered in the seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil by strain dependent manner. It might be concluded, that the stress response related detoxication mechanisms of plants in tolerant host/parasite pairs take effect at higher level than in highly susceptible relationships.

  9. Trigo: tolerância ao alumínio em solução nutritiva Wheat: tolerance to aluminum in nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 21 cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas, com arejamento, contendo seis concentrações de Al3+ (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg/litro, à temperatura constante de 25 ± 1°C, e pH 4,0. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após 48 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. Os cultivares BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-28, IAC-5, IAC-74, IAC-13, PAT-72247, IAC-22, BR-2, IAC-21 e IAC-24 foram considerados como tolerantes por exibir crescimento da raiz primária central após tratamento em solução contendo 10 mg/litro de Al3+; os cultivares IAC-17, IAC-161, Mitacoré e CEP-7780 mostraram reação de média tolerância ao Al3+, por apresentar crescimento da raiz primária central após tratamento em soluções contendo 6 mg/litro de Al3+; os cultivares CNT-8, Alondra S-46, IAC-162, Paraguay-281 e IAC-23 foram considerados sensíveis ao Al3+, por mostrar crescimento das raízes primárias após tratamento em soluções contendo 2 mg/litro de Al3+, e o 'Anahuac' demonstrou-se muito sensível ao Al3+, não exibindo crescimento das raízes primárias após tratamento em soluções contendo 2 mg/litro de Al3+.Twenty one wheat cultivars were studied in aerated nutrient solutions for aluminum tolerance with six different levels, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg/litro of Al3+, under constant temperature, 25° ± 1°C and pH 4.0. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring the root growth in an aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a treatment of 48 hours in an aluminum solution. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-28, IAC-5, IAC-74, IAC-13, PAT-72247, IAC-22, BR-2, IAC-21 and IAC-24 were considered as tolerant because they exhibited growth of the central primary root after a treatment in solutions with 10 mg/l of Al3+. However cultivars IAC-17, IAC-161, Mitacoré and CEP-7780 showed moderate tolerance to Al3+ because

  10. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

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    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  11. Plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in soil-borne disease suppression on a maize and pepper intercropping system.

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    Min Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intercropping systems could increase crop diversity and avoid vulnerability to biotic stresses. Most studies have shown that intercropping can provide relief to crops against wind-dispersed pathogens. However, there was limited data on how the practice of intercropping help crops against soil-borne Phytophthora disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared to pepper monoculture, a large scale intercropping study of maize grown between pepper rows reduced disease levels of the soil-borne pepper Phytophthora blight. These reduced disease levels of Phytophthora in the intercropping system were correlated with the ability of maize plants to form a "root wall" that restricted the movement of Phytophthora capsici across rows. Experimentally, it was found that maize roots attracted the zoospores of P. capsici and then inhibited their growth. When maize plants were grown in close proximity to each other, the roots produced and secreted larger quantities of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H-one (DIMBOA and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA. Furthermore, MBOA, benzothiazole (BZO, and 2-(methylthio-benzothiazole (MBZO were identified in root exudates of maize and showed antimicrobial activity against P. capsici. CONCLUSIONS: Maize could form a "root wall" to restrict the spread of P. capsici across rows in maize and pepper intercropping systems. Antimicrobe compounds secreted by maize root were one of the factors that resulted in the inhibition of P. capsici. These results provide new insights into plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in intercropping systems.

  12. Translocações cromossômicas entre trigo e centeio: uma alternativa ao melhoramento Chromosomes translocations between wheat and rye: an alternative to plant breeding

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    Alice Casassola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Translocações são rearranjos cromossômicos estruturais que envolvem segmentos cromossômicos de extensão variada pertencentes a cromossomos homólogos ou não homólogos. Tanto a ocorrência natural quanto a induzida de translocações tem possibilitado um avanço no melhoramento varietal, uma vez que esses segmentos translocados podem carregar genes de resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos. O centeio é uma espécie da famíla Triticeae muito utilizada para transferência de genes para o trigo como, por exemplo, genes de resistência às ferrugens da folha e do colmo e também genes que favorecem o rendimento, tanto em quantidade como em qualidade de grãos. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo foi o de revisar as principais translocações envolvendo o trigo e o centeio, no qual se verificou, a partir dos dados analisados, que as translocações envolvendo os cromossomos 1 e 2 mostraram-se mais vantajosas para o rendimento de grãos em trigo e que as demais foram importantes, principalmente, na transferência de genes de resistência a estresses. Portanto, essa estratégia tem demonstrado efetividade na busca de novos genes que favorecem o cultivo de trigo e sua utilização vem crescendo grandemente nos últimos anos.Translocations are structural chromosomal rearrangements which involve segments with different length belonging to homologous or non homologous chromosomes. Either natural or induced occurrence of translocations have been enabled an improvement in the plant breeding, when these translocated segments carry resistance genes to biotic and abiotic stress. Rye is a grass largely used to transfer genes to wheat such as resistance genes to leaf rust, stem rust and genes that support the wheat yield, either in grain quantity or in quality. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the main translocations involving wheat and rye, which demonstrated, from the data analyzed, that translocations involving chromosomes 1 and 2 were

  13. Inhibition of in vitro growth of soil-borne pathogens by compost-inhabiting indigenous bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, N.; Noreen, N.; Shahzad, S.

    2014-01-01

    During the present studies, compost-inhabiting microorganisms including 44 fungi and 15 bacteria isolated from different compost samples were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy against soil-borne pathogens viz., Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Compost inhabiting microbes like Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens, Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Micrococcus varians and Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to inhibit all the test pathogens. Acrophialophora fusispora and Penicillium citrinum reduced the mycelial growth of all the test pathogens except Sclerotium rolfsii. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium showed biocontrol activity against all the pathogens except Rhizoctonia solani. Trichoderma harzianum parasitized mycelia of all the tested pathogens and produced coiling around the mycelium. (author)

  14. The effectiveness of post-culture liquids of antagonistic bacteria in the protection of soybean from soil-borne fungi

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    Elżbieta Patkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to determine the effectiveness of post-culture liquids of Bacillus sp. Bsch 19 and Pseudomonas sp. Psch 16 in the protection of soybean from soil-borne fungi. The use of post-culture liquids of those bacteria in seed dressing positively affected the number, healthiness and yielding of soybean plants. The plants were mainly infected by Fusarium spp., Phoma exigua var. exigua, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Those fungi were isolated much more rarely from the plants in combinations with the use of post-culture liquids of antagonistic bacteria as compared with the plants from the control combination, i.e. without seed dressing. A reverse relation was found for the occurrence of saprophytic fungi from the genera of Gliocladium, Penicillium and Trichoderma

  15. Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of "take-all" disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous "Mapuche" communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  17. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

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    Paola Durán

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt. In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  18. Zapobieganie infekcji glebowej lnu przez grzyby z rodzaju Fusarium za pomocą zaprawiania nasion [Seed dressing with fungicides a protection against soil borne Fusarium wilt of flax

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    H. Zarzycka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed dressing with systemic fungicides decreased flax infection by soil borne Fusarium. The yield of strow, seed and fibre from treated plants was higher than from untreated plants. The weather conditions and degree of soil infection with Fusarium influenced on the effect of seed dressing.

  19. Consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes e desempenho de caprinos recebendo farelo grosso de trigo na dieta em substituição ao milho Nutrient intake and digestibility and performance of goats fed rough wheat bran in replacement of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argélia Maria Araújo Dias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão de farelo grosso de trigo nos níveis 0,0; 8,9; 19,8 e 31,7% em substituição ao milho na dieta de caprinos. Utilizaram-se 24 cabritos mestiços, machos não-castrados, com peso inicial médio de 20 kg, alojados em gaiolas individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro dietas e seis repetições, durante 74 dias. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade foram obtidos por coleta total de fezes. A inclusão do farelo grosso de trigo influenciou de forma quadrática os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. O consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN aumentou e o de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF diminuiu com o uso do farelo grosso de trigo. A substituição do milho pelo farelo grosso de trigo não influenciou os consumos de extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais, mas teve efeito linear decrescente nos coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, MO, carboidratos totais e CNF, embora não tenha alterado os de PB, EE e FDN. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar não foram afetados pela inclusão de farelo grosso de trigo na dieta. O farelo grosso de trigo pode ser incluído em níveis de até 14% em dietas para caprinos em crescimento, desde que o percentual da FDN não ultrapasse 48% da matéria seca da dieta.It was evaluated the inclusion of rough wheat bran at 0.0; 8.9; 19.8 and 31.7% levels replacing corn in goat diets. Twenty-four crossbred non-castrated male goats averaging 20 kg body weight were used. They were allocated in individual cages as a complete randomized design with four treatments and six replicates during for 74 days. The digestibility coefficients were obtained through total collection of feces. The inclusion of rough wheat bran had a quadratic effect on the intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrient (TDN. The intake of fiber in neutral detergent (NDF increased and

  20. Interplay between parasitism and host ontogenic resistance in the epidemiology of the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

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    Thomas E Simon

    Full Text Available Spread of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens is mainly driven by the amount of resources the pathogen is able to capture and exploit should it behave either as a saprotroph or a parasite. Despite their importance in understanding the fungal spread in agricultural ecosystems, experimental data related to exploitation of infected host plants by the pathogen remain scarce. Using Rhizoctonia solani / Raphanus sativus as a model pathosystem, we have obtained evidence on the link between ontogenic resistance of a tuberizing host and (i its susceptibility to the pathogen and (ii after infection, the ability of the fungus to spread in soil. Based on a highly replicable experimental system, we first show that infection success strongly depends on the host phenological stage. The nature of the disease symptoms abruptly changes depending on whether infection occurred before or after host tuberization, switching from damping-off to necrosis respectively. Our investigations also demonstrate that fungal spread in soil still depends on the host phenological stage at the moment of infection. High, medium, or low spread occurred when infection was respectively before, during, or after the tuberization process. Implications for crop protection are discussed.

  1. Yield reduction caused by a soil-borne disease of naked, dwarf, and conventional oat in Finland

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    P. PELTONEN-SAINIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A severe disease occurred in the field plots of naked (cv. Salomon, dwarf (cv. Pal, and conventional oat (cvs. Jalostettu maatiainen and Salo at the Viikki Experimental Farm of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 1994 and 1995. Symptoms were expressed as grayish-brown necrotic areas on the lower leaves which killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed contributed to the yield losses. The infection also resulted in less grains per panicle and lower weight of both panicle and vegetative above-ground biomass. From a total of 57 fungal isolates obtained from infected leaves, Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Sm. Sacc. and F. sambucinum Fuck. Dominated and subsequently caused infection (particularly foot and root rot in oat in laboratory tests. These two Fusarium spp. Were considered to be the primary causal agents of the symptoms observed in the field, although other pathogens may have been present. The disease was probably soil-borne. The results of this study suggested that the unusually dry and warm weather during late June and in July was the principal factor behind the severe disease outbreak. ;

  2. Soil-borne reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are established following therapeutic treatment of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Zhao, Zhe; Orfe, Lisa; Subbiah, Murugan; Call, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    We determined if antibiotics residues that are excreted from treated animals can contribute to persistence of resistant bacteria in agricultural environments. Administration of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin, resulted in a ∼ 3 log increase in ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli found in the faeces and pen soils by day 10 (P = 0.005). This resistant population quickly subsided in faeces, but was sustained in the pen soil (∼ 4.5 log bacteria g(-1)) throughout the trial (1 month). Florfenicol treatment resulted in a similar pattern although the loss of florfenicol-resistant E. coli was slower for faeces and remained stable at ∼ 6 log bacteria g(-1) in the soil. Calves were treated in pens where eGFP-labelled E. coli were present in the bedding (∼ 2 log g(-1)) resulting in amplification of the eGFP E. coli population ∼ 2.1 log more than eGFP E. coli populations in pens with untreated calves (day 4; P 10-fold greater contribution to the bedding reservoir compared with shedding of resistant bacteria in faeces. Treatment with therapeutic doses of ceftiofur or florfenicol resulted in 2-3 log g(-1) more bacteria than the estimated ID50 (2.83 CFU g(-1)), consistent with a soil-borne reservoir emerging after antibiotic treatment that can contribute to the long-term persistence of antibiotic resistance in animal agriculture. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. On-Site Molecular Detection of Soil-Borne Phytopathogens Using a Portable Real-Time PCR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShields, Joseph B; Bomberger, Rachel A; Woodhall, James W; Wheeler, David L; Moroz, Natalia; Johnson, Dennis A; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2018-02-23

    On-site diagnosis of plant diseases can be a useful tool for growers for timely decisions enabling the earlier implementation of disease management strategies that reduce the impact of the disease. Presently in many diagnostic laboratories, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), particularly real-time PCR, is considered the most sensitive and accurate method for plant pathogen detection. However, laboratory-based PCRs typically require expensive laboratory equipment and skilled personnel. In this study, soil-borne pathogens of potato are used to demonstrate the potential for on-site molecular detection. This was achieved using a rapid and simple protocol comprising of magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction, portable real-time PCR (fluorogenic probe-based assay). The portable real-time PCR approach compared favorably with a laboratory-based system, detecting as few as 100 copies of DNA from Spongospora subterranea. The portable real-time PCR method developed here can serve as an alternative to laboratory-based approaches and a useful on-site tool for pathogen diagnosis.

  4. [Relationships between distribution of soil-born bryophytes in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Cao, Tong; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yang

    2008-04-01

    At the 21 sampling sites in urban area of Hangzhou, 47 species of soil-born bryophytes belonging to 31 genera and 22 families were recorded. Based on the ecological importance value of these species and the data of ecological factors at the sampling sites, the relationships between the distribution of the bryophytes species in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors were studied by canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that human disturbance and soil pH were the most important factors determining the distribution of the bryophytes. In urban parks and green lands where human disturbance was greater, soil pH was alkali, and the species were mainly belonging to the genera of Haplocladium and Bryum and the family of Pottiaceae. In hilly area where human disturbance was lesser, soil pH turned to acidic, and the bryophytes were more, with pleurocarpous mosses and liverworts being relatively rich. The niche width of the 47 bryophytes was calculated, which revealed that most of them had very narrow niche width (<0.1). The Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum widely distributed in the hilly area of southwest Xihu Lake had the widest niche width (0.3510), followed by Trichostomum planifolium (0.2239) and Haplocladium microphyllum (0.2185), the commonest species in the parks and greenlands in urban area of Hangzhou.

  5. Potential use of soil-born fungi isolated from treated soil in Indonesia to degrade glyphosate herbicide

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    N. Arfarita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The glyphosate herbicide is the most common herbicides used in palm-oil plantations and other agricultural in Indonesial. In 2020, Indonesian government to plan the development of oil palm plantations has reached 20 million hectares of which now have reached 6 million hectares. It means that a huge chemicals particularly glyphosate has been poured into the ground and continues to pollute the soil. However, there is no report regarding biodegradation of glyphosate-contaminated soils using fungal strain especially in Indonesia. This study was to observe the usage of Round Up as selection agent for isolation of soil-born fungi capable to grow on glyphosate as a sole source of phosphorus. Five fungal strains were able to grow consistently in the presence of glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source and identified as Aspergillus sp. strain KRP1, Fusarium sp. strain KRP2, Verticillium sp. strain KRP3, Acremoniumsp. strain GRP1 and Scopulariopsis sp. strain GRP2. This indicates as their capability to utilize and degrade this herbicide. We also used standard medium as control and get seventeen fungal strains. The seventeen fungal strains were identified as species of Botrytis, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Verticillium, Trichoderma and Paecilomyces. These results show the reduction in the number of fungal strains on solid medium containing glyphosate. Of the five isolated fungal species, Verticillium sp. strain KRP3 and Scopulariopsis sp. strain GRP2 were selected for further study based on their highest ratio of growth diameter. This study indicates that treatment of soil with glyphosate degrading fungus would be useful in some areas where this herbicide is extensively used.

  6. Soil Borne Human Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, Simon; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Soils are home to a remarkable array of biodiversity with some estimates stating that 25% of the Earth’s species find their home in the soil. Of these organisms, the vast majority are not of any threat to human health, but rather function to provide numerous ecosystem services which emerge through

  7. The use of nanoscale visible light-responsive photocatalyst TiO2-Pt for the elimination of soil-borne pathogens.

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    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Exposure to the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cenocepacia can lead to severe infections and even mortality. These pathogens exhibit a high resistance to antibiotic treatments. In addition, no licensed vaccine is currently available. A nanoscale platinum-containing titania photocatalyst (TiO(2-Pt has been shown to have a superior visible light-responsive photocatalytic ability to degrade chemical contaminants like nitrogen oxides. The antibacterial activity of the catalyst and its potential use in soil pathogen control were evaluated. Using the plating method, we found that TiO(2-Pt exerts superior antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli compared to other commercially available and laboratory prepared ultraviolet/visible light-responsive titania photocatalysts. TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis also affectively eliminates the soil-borne bacteria B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. An air pouch infection mouse model further revealed that TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis could reduce the pathogenicity of both strains of bacteria. Unexpectedly, water containing up to 10% w/v dissolved soil particles did not reduce the antibacterial potency of TiO(2-Pt, suggesting that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst is suitable for use in soil-contaminated environments. The TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst exerted superior antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. Soil particles (<10% w/v did not significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of TiO(2-Pt in water. These findings suggest that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst may have potential applications in the development of bactericides for soil-borne pathogens.

  8. A simple method for normalization of DNA extraction to improve the quantitative detection of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Ishiguro, Y; Kageyama, K; Zhu, Z

    2015-08-01

    Most of the current research into the quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes lacks determination of DNA extraction efficiency, probably leading to an incorrect estimation of DNA quantity. In this study, we developed a convenient method by using a 100 bp artificially synthesized DNA sequence derived from the mitochondrion NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene of Thunnus thynnus as a control to determine the DNA extraction efficiency. The control DNA was added to soils and then co-extracted along with soil genomic DNA. DNA extraction efficiency was determined by the control DNA. Two different DNA extraction methods were compared and evaluated using different types of soils, and the commercial kit was proved to give more consistent results. We used the control DNA combined with real-time PCR to quantify the oomycete DNAs from 12 naturally infested soils. Detectable target DNA concentrations were three to five times higher after normalization. Our tests also showed that the extraction efficiencies varied on a sample-to-sample basis and were simple and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes. Oomycetes include many important plant pathogens. Accurate quantification of these pathogens is essential in the management of diseases. This study reports an easy method utilizing an external DNA control for the normalization of DNA extraction by real-time PCR. By combining two different efficient soil DNA extraction methods, the developed quantification method dramatically improved the results. This study also proves that the developed normalization method is necessary and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: Analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS)was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 µg kg−1. Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes. PMID:18768257

  10. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I

    2009-04-30

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 microg kg(-1). Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes.

  11. Resposta de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. ao controle químico das principais doenças fúngicas da cultura Response of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. to the chemical control of fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito de Camargo Barros

    2006-09-01

    fungicida, embora as duas últimas tenham apresentado os menores índices de severidade das doenças, indicando que não só a resistência, mas fatores como o ciclo e características de produtividade intrínsecas a cada cultivar podem ser importantes na resposta ao controle químico.Leaf rust, leaf spot or brown spot and powdery mildew, caused by Puccinia recondita tritici, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Blumeria graminis tritici, respectively, are wheat diseases that may severely decrease crop yield. Several practices are recommended for the control of these diseases such as cultivar resistance, planting at a suitable time, and chemical control, without which the crop frequently becomes uneconomical. The objective of the present work was to evaluate, under field conditions, the response of six wheat cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 289, IAC 350, IAC 362, IAC 364 and IAC 370, in four experiments, carried out from 2000 to 2003 at Capão Bonito, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiments were set out in a randomized block design with four replications, and analyzed as a 2 x 6 factorial, being fungicide treatment (with and without the factor 1 and cultivar the factor 2. Severity of the diseases was graded in a scale that ranged from 0 to 9, (0 = without symptoms and 9 > 60% of the foliar area affected by disease. Grain yield and the thousand kernel weight (TKW were also assessed in each experiment. Powdery mildew was only observed in 2000, but leaf rust was detected in all years in high severity indexes (30 to 60% of leaf area affected by the disease. Leaf spot, detected in the last three years, from 2001 to 2003, showed the highest severity indexes in the rainiest year, 2001 (up to 60 % of the leaf affected by the disease. In all years the fungicides were efficient to control the diseases in all experiments and resulted in higher TKW and in grain yield increases. The cultivars with the longest crop cycles, IAC 370, IAC 289 and IAC 350, had the highest responses in yield to the chemical

  12. Gbadebo, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbadebo, AO. Vol 7, No 1 (2014) - Articles Investigating the effects of sewage on the groundwater quality in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 2 (2015) - Articles Impacts of land use change on peatland degradation: a review. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-0507. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  13. Ige, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ige, AO. Vol 9, No 1-2 (2013) - Articles Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred Fulani Ecotype Chicken in Derived Savannah Zone of Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0331-5428. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  14. Badejo, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Badejo, AO. Vol 3, No 2 (2010) - Articles Predisposing Factors Towards Examination Malpractice Among Students in Lagos Universities: Implications for Counselling Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-7593. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  15. Adewuya, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adewuya, AO. Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles Late Identification of Autistic Disorder in Nigeria: An Illustration with 2 Case Reports Abstract. ISSN: 0189-1774. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  16. Competition effects with mixed stands of wheat and kochia (Kochia scoparia biotypes resistant and susceptible to acetolactase synthase inhibitor herbicides Efeitos competitivos da mistura de stands de trigo e biotipos de kochia (Kochia scoparia resistentes e susceptíveis aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactase sintase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare the competitive ability of sulfonylurea resistant and susceptible kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard compared to wheat. The results of several replacement series experiments indicate that wheat was the dominant competitor, and an average of one wheat plant reduced resistant kochia yield per plant equal to the effect of 4.8 resistant kochia or 5.4 susceptible kochia plants. Intraspeciflc competition was more important than interspecific competition for wheat, whereas the reverse was true for the resistant and susceptible kochia. The results of the niche differentiation index (NDI indicate that wheat and either resistant or susceptible kochia are only partly limited by the same resources. The resistant and susceptible kochia, however, are limited by the same resources.Experimentos foram instalados em condições de casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de comparar a capacidade competitiva de biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactase synthase da planta daninha kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard comparada com trigo. Os resultados de diversos experimentos, utilizando a metodologia chamada de substitutiva, indicaram que o trigo foi o competidor dominante, e em média uma planta de trigo reduziu o crescimento da planta de kochia resistente igual ao efeito de 4,8 plantas de kochia resistente ou 5,4 plantas de kochia suscetível. A competição chamada de intraespecífíca foi mais importante que a competição interespecífica para o trigo, porém o inverso foi verdadeiro para os biotípos resistentes e susceptíveis de kochia. Os resultados do índice de diferenciação ecológica indicaram que trigo e qualquer um dos dois biotípos de kochia estudados foram limitados apenas parcialmente pelos mesmos recursos de crescimento. No entanto, o crescimento dos biotípos resistentes e susceptíveis de kochia foram limitados pelos mesmos fatores de crescimento.

  17. Herança da tolerância ao alumínio em populações híbridas de trigo Inheritance of aluminum tolerance in wheat hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE OLIVEIRA CAMARGO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas originárias de populações híbridas, em geração F2, de 26 cruzamentos entre cultivares de trigo tolerantes (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-18 e IAC-21 e sensíveis (Anahuac 75, IAC-287, IAC-289, Siete Cerros e Veery "S" à toxicidade de alumínio e de 18 cruzamentos entre cultivares tolerantes (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-21, C-17, IAC-74 e IAC-18 foram avaliadas em relação à tolerância a 3 mg/L de Al3+, empregando soluções nutritivas. A tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio foi medida pela capacidade de crescimento da raiz primária central em solução nutritiva completa, após um tratamento de 48 horas em solução contendo 3 mg/L de Al3+. Avaliando-se as plântulas das populações F2 provindas de cruzamentos entre cultivares tolerantes e sensíveis, verificou-se que a tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+ foi dominante, e que em 24 dos cruzamentos, as cultivares tolerantes diferiram das sensíveis por um par de genes. Não foi detectada diferença entre as cultivares tolerantes em relação ao par de genes dominantes em relação à tolerância. Qualquer uma dessas cultivares poderá ser utilizada como fonte de tolerância num programa de cruzamentos em que essa característica for desejada.Seedlings originated from hybrid populations, in F2 generation, from 26 crosses between tolerant wheat cultivars (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-18 and IAC-21 and sensitive cultivars (Anahuac 75, IAC-287, IAC-289, Siete Cerros and Veery "S" to aluminum toxicity and from 18 crosses between tolerant cultivars (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-21, C-17, IAC-74 and IAC-18 were evaluated for tolerance to 3 mg/L of Al3+, using nutrient solutions. It was considered tolerant the plant that was able to show root regrowth of the central primary root in the complete nutrient solution after a treatment of 48 hours in solution containing 3 mg/L of Al3+. The evaluation of

  18. Isolation of Chlorogenic Acid from Soil Borne Fungi Screlotium rolfsii, their Reversal of Multidrug Resistance and Anti-proliferative in Mouse Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Rizwan, Muhammad; Rauf, Abdur; Raza, Muslim; Bashir, Shumaila; Molnar, Joseph; Csonka, Akos; Szabo, Diana; Mubarak, Mohammad S; Noor, Mah; Siddiqui, Bina S

    2017-01-01

    Fungi performing a wide range of function in soil by secreting low molecular weight compound known as secondary metabolites. S. rolfsii is a soil borne phytopathogenic fungi was used for the production of bioactive compounds. The present study belongs to evaluate the anticancer potentials of a secondary metabolites isolated from S. rolfsii, their multidrug resistance (MDR), and molecular docking study. (1S,3R,4R,5R,E)-3-(3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)acryloyloxy)-1,4,5 trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid (1), or best known as chlorogenic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of crude secondary metabolites produced by the soil borne Fungus Screlotium rolfsii. Structure of chlorogenic acid (1) was confirmed by means of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry as well as by melting point. Effect of compound 1 on the reversion of multidrug resistant (MDR) mediated by Pglycoprotein (P-gp) against cancer cells was evaluated with a rhodamine-123 exclusion screening test on human mdr1 gene transfected mouse gene transfected L5178 and L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma. Compound 1 was also evaluated for Anti-proliferative effect on the L5178 mouse Tcell lymphoma cell line. Results from the present investigation revealed that compound 1 exhibits excellent MDR reversing effect in a dose-dependent manner against mouse T-lymphoma cell line. Compound 1 also showed anti-proliferative effect on L5178Y mouse T-lymphoma cell line. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Microevolution of Anthrax from a Young Ancestor (M.A.Y.A.) Suggests a Soil-Borne Life Cycle of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Peter; Grass, Gregor; Aceti, Angela; Serrecchia, Luigina; Affuso, Alessia; Marino, Leonardo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Pagano, Stefania; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Georgi, Enrico; Northoff, Bernd; Schöler, Anne; Schloter, Michael; Antwerpen, Markus; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During an anthrax outbreak at the Pollino National Park (Basilicata, Italy) in 2004, diseased cattle were buried and from these anthrax-foci Bacillus anthracis endospores still diffuse to the surface resulting in local accumulations. Recent data suggest that B. anthracis multiplies in soil outside the animal-host body. This notion is supported by the frequent isolation of B. anthracis from soil lacking one or both virulence plasmids. Such strains represent an evolutionary dead end, as they are likely no longer able to successfully infect new hosts. This loss of virulence plasmids is explained most simply by postulating a soil-borne life cycle of the pathogen. To test this hypothesis we investigated possible microevolution at two natural anthrax foci from the 2004 outbreak. If valid, then genotypes of strains isolated from near the surface at these foci should be on a different evolutionary trajectory from those below residing in deeper-laying horizons close to the carcass. Thus, the genetic diversity of B. anthracis isolates was compared conducting Progressive Hierarchical Resolving Assays using Nucleic Acids (PHRANA) and next generation Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). PHRANA was not discriminatory enough to resolve the fine genetic relationships between the isolates. Conversely, WGS of nine isolates from near-surface and nine from near-carcass revealed five isolate specific SNPs, four of which were found only in different near-surface isolates. In support of our hypothesis, one surface-isolate lacked plasmid pXO1 and also harbored one of the unique SNPs. Taken together, our results suggest a limited soil-borne life cycle of B. anthracis. PMID:26266934

  20. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  1. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watery eyes Wheat allergy Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  2. Evaluation of Allyl Isothiocyanate as a Soil Fumigant against Soil-borne Diseases in Commercial Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225 - 4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999 - 29.497 mg kg -1 ), and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300 - 47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates AITC had significantly improved plant vigor. The field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both about 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both about 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30 - 50g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) for management of soil-borne and foliar phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandhya; Singh, Braj Raj; Naqvi, Alim H; Singh, H B

    2017-03-27

    Stenotrophomonas sp. is emerging as a popular microbe of global concern with various potential ecological roles. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using this bacterial strain has shown promising applications in life sciences. However, there is no report on efficient agricultural applications of biosynthesized AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. In this regard, successful biosynthesis of AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) was monitored by Uv-visible spectrum showing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 440 nm. The biosynthesized AgNPs were spherical with an average mean size of ~12 nm. The antifungal efficacy of biosynthesized AgNPs against foliar and soil-borne phytopathogens was observed. The inhibitory impact of AgNPs (2, 4, 10 μg/ml) on conidial germination was recorded under in vitro conditions. Interestingly, sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii exposed to AgNPs failed to germinate on PDA medium and in soil system. Moreover, AgNPs treatment successfully managed collar rot of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii under greenhouse conditions. The reduced sclerotia germination, phenolic acids induction, altered lignification and H 2 O 2 production was observed to be the probable mechanisms providing protection to chickpea against S. rolfsii. Our data revealed that AgNPs treated plants are better equipped to cope with pathogen challenge pointing towards their robust applications in plant disease management.

  4. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  5. Mechanisms and Characterization of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 in Suppressing Nematodes (Heterodera avenae in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwu Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterodera avenae is an important soil-borne pathogen that affects field crops worldwide. Chemical nematicides can be used to control the nematode, but they bring toxicity to the environment and human. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been shown to have the ability to control H. avenae cysts, but detailed microscopic observations and bioassays are lacking. In this study, we used microscopic observations and bioassays to study the effect of T. longibrachiatum T6 (TL6 on the eggs and second stage juveniles (J2s of H. avenae, and investigate the role of TL6 in inducing the resistance to H. avenae in wheat seedling at physiological and biochemical levels. Microscopic observations recorded that TL6 parasitized on the H. avenae eggs, germinated, and produced a large number of hyphae on the eggs surface at the initial stage, thereafter, the eggs were completely surrounded by dense mycelia and the contents of eggs were lysed at the late stage. Meanwhile, the conidia suspension of TL6 parasitized on the surface of J2s, produced a large number of hyphae that penetrated the cuticle and caused deformation of the nematodes. TL6 at the concentration of 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had the highest rates of parasitism on eggs and J2s, reflected by the highest hatching-inhibition of eggs and the mortality of J2s. In the greenhouse experiments, wheat seedlings treated with TL6 at 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had reduced H. avenae infection, and increased plant growth significantly compared to the control. The cysts and juveniles in soil were reduced by 89.8 and 92.7%, the juveniles and females in roots were reduced by 88.3 and 91.3%, whereas the activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase, total flavonoids and lignin contents in wheat roots were increased significantly at different stage after inoculation with the eggs and TL6 conidia in comparison to the control. Maximum activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase were recorded at the 20th and 15th Days after

  6. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  8. The soil-borne supremacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Corné M J; de Jonge, Ronnie; Berendsen, Roeland L.

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome plays an important role in plant growth, nutrition and health. Recent research unearthed that plant genotype-dependent navigation of microbial community composition in the rhizosphere is associated with fitness consequences for the host plant, providing great promise for

  9. Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Piętka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest number in non-rhizosphere soil. The smallest total number of fungi was found in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, and the largest in the rhizosphere of soybean. Pathogenic fungi dominated in the rhizospheres of soybean and potato, while non-rhizosphere soil was the poorest in these microorganisms. Among the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, F.culmorum and F.solani were most frequently isolated. Soybean roots exudated the greatest amount of aminoacids, and acidic aminoacids, which have a positive effect on the development of phytopathogens, dominated in their content. On the other hand, the best quantitative and qualitative composition of aminoacids was found out in the root exudates of winter wheat, since they conlained big amounts of alkaline and aromatic aminoacids.

  10. Composição corporal e crescimento de juvenis de piava alimentados com dietas contendo farinhas de trigo e milho submetidas ao cozimento Body composition and growth of piava juveniles fed with diets containing corn and wheat flours submitted to the cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lazzari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do cozimento das farinhas de milho e trigo na composição corporal e crescimento de piavas. Foram utilizados 300 juvenis (peso no médio inicial=8,03 ± 0,02g, alimentados durante 60 dias, uma vez ao dia (3%PV. As dietas utilizadas constituíam-se de matriz única, designadas da seguinte forma: dieta B (sem cozimento, M (farinha de milho cozida, T (farinha de trigo cozida e dieta MT (ambas as farinhas cozidas. A umidade corporal foi maior nos peixes das dietas M, T e MT, ocorrendo o inverso para os lipídios corporais. As cinzas e proteína não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não se observou efeito do tratamento térmico sobre o crescimento dos peixes. Conclui-se que o cozimento sobre as farinhas de milho, trigo ou ambas não afeta o crescimento, porém diminui a deposição de lipídios em juvenis de piava.This study was aimed at evaluating the cooking effect in corn and wheat flours in the body composition and growth of piava. They were used 300 juveniles (Initial weight=8.03 ± 0.02g, fed for 60 days, once a day (3%BW. The basal diet was constituted by only matrix, being the treatments designated: diet B (without cooking, M (cooked corn flour, T (cooked wheat flour and diet MT (both cooked flours. Body moisture was higher in fish fed with M, T and MT diets, while the inverse was observed for the body lipids. The ash and protein values didn't present significant differences. It was not observed effect of the thermal treatment on the fish growth. It's concluded that the cooking in the corn and wheat flours not affect growth, however it reduces lipids deposition in piavas juveniles.

  11. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat. PMID:27899932

  12. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  13. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis , is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis , certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis , whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes ( Defensin, PR10, PR17c , and Chitinase1 ) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes ( TaCAD1, TaCCR , and TaCOMT1 ) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12 -overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12 -silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  14. Control of seedling blight in winter wheat by seed treatments - impact on emergence, crop stand, yield and deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise N; K. Nielsen, Linda; Nielsen, Bent J

    2012-01-01

    Seedling blight caused by Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. is common on wheat grain, and severe attacks can lead to poor establishment of new crops. Several seed treatments using bitertanol, difenoconazole, triticonazole, maneb, fludioxonil or guazatine found to significantly control Fusarium...... seedling blight (Fusarium spp., Microdochium spp.) were improving germination and reducing seedling blight on roots and coleoptiles under field conditions in winter wheat. Some of the seed treatments were also shown to have an impact on soil-borne Fusarium in trials carried out under glasshouse conditions...... germination by approximately 100%, which led to an improved crop stand and yield increases in the range of 1.2–1.5 tonnes ha−1. Attacks of Fusarium head blight were relatively slight in the two trials and the content of deoxynivalenol was below the EU limits of 1250 ppb in the harvested grain. Even so, seed...

  15. Recomendação de adubação nitrogenada para trigo em sucessão ao silho e soja sob sistema plantio direto no Paraguai Nitrogen fertilizer recommendation for no-till wheat in succession to corn and soybean in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Wendling

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O nitrogênio (N é um dos nutrientes mais requeridos pelo trigo e, muitas vezes, não é suprido nem na quantidade nem na época ideal. Devido à importância da adubação nitrogenada no trigo e à carência de informações disponíveis no Paraguai, foi desenvolvido este trabalho com o objetivo de propor uma recomendação nitrogenada para trigo sob sistema plantio direto. Cinco experimentos em rede foram realizados a campo, durante dois anos, em três departamentos do Paraguai, abrangendo os principais solos (Oxisols, Inceptisols e Ultisols e regiões produtoras (Alto Paraná, Itapúa e Missiones. Os tratamentos utilizados no trigo (Triticum aestivum foram cinco doses de N (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 após o milho (Zea mays e a soja (Glycine max, sendo também investigado o efeito residual de N aplicado no milho (0, 60, 120, 180 e 240 kg ha-1 na nutrição do trigo, em parcelas de 5 x 8 m, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. O trigo respondeu economicamente, em média, à dose de 35 kg ha-1 de N após a soja para produtividades em torno de 3.100 kg ha-1; após o milho, respondeu economicamente, em média, até 30 kg ha-1 de N, atingindo produtividade de 2.100 kg ha-1. No solo com teor de matéria orgânica maior que 4 %, verificou-se capacidade de suprir, sem adubação nitrogenada mineral, quantidade suficiente de N para alcançar produtividades de até 2.500 kg ha-1. O trigo respondeu à adubação residual de N aplicado no milho, elevando a produtividade de 1.800 (0 kg ha-1 para 2.300 kg ha-1 (com a dose estimada de 213 kg ha-1 de N aplicado no milho, na média de todos os locais.Nitrogen is one of the nutrients wheat needs most, but is often not supplied neither in the right quantity nor at the right time. Because of the importance of nitrogen fertilization and the lack of information available in Paraguay, this study was developed to establish a nitrogen fertilizer recommendation for wheat under no-till. Six

  16. Ao leitor sem medo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eisenberg

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto resenha Ao leitor sem medo, de Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999.This text is a review of Ao leitor sem medo by Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999

  17. Melhoramento do trigo: III. Evidência de controle genético na tolerância ao manganês e alumínio tóxico em trigo Wheat breeding: III. Evidence of genetic control in the tolerance to manganese and aluminum toxicity in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares Siete Cerros, tolerante, e BH-1146, sensível a elevadas doses de manganês, foram cruzados, obtendo-se sementes em gerações F1 e F2 desse cruzamento. As plantas dos cultivares pais e das gerações F1 e F2 foram cultivadas em soluções nutritivas contendo doses variadas de manganês (0,11; 300; 600 e 1.200mg/litro e testadas em outra solução nutritiva contendo 3mg/litro de alumínio. O comprimento das raízes primárias centrais das plantas dos genótipos estudados, após quinze dias de cultivo em soluções nutritivas contendo diferentes concentrações de manganês, serviu de base para avaliar a tolerância a esse elemento. Esse comprimento, após 72 horas de crescimento em solução nutritiva normal seguidas de 48 horas de crescimento em solução nutritiva contendo 3mg/litro de alumínio, foi utilizado para a avaliação da tolerância ao alumínio. Os valores da herdabilidade em sentido amplo para a tolerância a concentrações crescentes de manganês e para 3mg/litro de alumínio foram altos, indicando que grande parte da variabilidade encontrada nas populações segregantes para tolerância ao manganês e ao alumínio foram de origem genética, sugerindo que as seleções para estas características seriam efetivas a partir das gerações F2 e F3. Os dados mostraram que seria possível transferir, por meio de cruzamento entre os cultivares BH-1146 e Siete Cerros, a tolerância ao manganês do 'Siete Cerros' para o 'BH-1146' ou a tolerância ao alumínio deste para o 'Siete Cerros'.The cultivar Siete Cerros (P1 with tolerance to manganese toxicity and the cultivar BH-1146 (P2 showing sensitivity to manganese, were crossed. It was obtained the F1 and F2 generations of this cross. P1, P2, F1 and F2, where cultivated in nutrient solutions containing 0.11, 300, 600 and 1,200mg/l of manganese and they also were tested in other nutrient solution with 3mg/l of aluminum. The length of the central primary root of plants of each

  18. Available phosphorus and sulphur, exchangeable aluminum and remaining phosphorus in rhodic eutrudox submitted to gypsum cultivated with wheat and soybean Fósforo e enxofre disponível, alumínio trocável e fósforo remanescente em latossolo vermelho submetido ao gesso cultivado com trigo e soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rampim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The response to gypsum as a supplier of nutrients in the subsurface provides better root distribution for annual crops plants and thus provides use of larger volume of soil increasing the uptake of water and nutrients and therefore increased productivity, especially with evidence of interference of gypsum in phosphorus available in the soil. In this study evaluated the use of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O the levels of available phosphorus and sulfur, exchangeable aluminum and interference in the remaining phosphorus in the soil at 0-0.10, 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.40 m of deep in Rhodic Eutrudox in no tillage and crop yields of wheat and soybean. We conducted sampling of soil at six and 12 months after surface application of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 kg ha-1 gypsum and treatment without application of gypsum. The use of gypsum increased linearly the S content is available in layers from 0-0,10, 0,10-0,20 and 0,20 to 0,40 m deep, with the minimum content of available P at a dose of 2200 kg ha-1 and exchangeable Al with a dose of 3000 kg ha-1 layers evaluated, however, did not influence the values of remaining P. The use of gypsum increased linearly the S content available at depths of 0-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m, minimum P content available at the dose of 3166 kg ha-1 and exchangeable Al minimum point at the dose of 3300 kg ha-1 at a depth of 0.20-0.40 m however, did not affect the remaining P values. The use of gypsum increased the productivity of wheat, but did not influence soybean yield. A resposta ao gesso agrícola como fornecedor de nutrientes na subsuperfície proporciona melhor distribuição de raízes para culturas anuais e assim propicia às plantas explorar maior volume de solo aumentando a absorção de água e nutrientes e consequentemente incrementar a produtividade, com indícios da interferência do gesso no teor de fósforo disponível no solo. Neste trabalho o objetivo foi avaliar o uso do gesso agrícola (CaSO4.2H2O nos teores de f

  19. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.

    2016-01-01

    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  20. Efeito do manejo do lençol freático na adaptação fisiomorfológica de duas espécies de trigo ao encharcamento Effect of the water table management in the morpho-physiological adaptation of two wheat species to waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo de O. Calheiros

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de três manejos do lençol freático na indução de adaptações fisiomorfológicas dos trigos Triticum aestivum L. e Triticum durum L. à hipoxia, caracterizando e inferindo a influência relativa dos principais fatores físicos e biológicos interferentes. O experimento foi conduzido na ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, simulando-se ao máximo um meio físico/condição natural de uma várzea. Após a indução na fase vegetativa, através de períodos hipóxicos com duração progressiva, o grau de adaptação foi avaliado através de inundação permanente, incluindo o florescimento/formação de grãos. Observou-se: resposta diferenciada de exigência e/ou capacidade de extração de nutrientes entre as duas espécies; que a adubação foliar foi ineficiente para suprir as deficiências nutricionais da planta; que os manejos com curtos períodos de hipoxia induziram o trigo a adaptações fisiomorfológicas, porém não na intensidade ou eficiência de que resultassem parâmetros de produção em níveis adequados; enfim, que o manejo com o lençol freático mantido a 15 cm de profundidade durante todo o ciclo cultural foi o que propiciou melhor desempenho do trigo em cultivo sob encharcamento.The effect of three different water table managements in the morpho-physiological adaptation to waterlogging of Triticum aestivum, L. and Triticum durum, L., and the relative influence of the main physical and biological interferance factors were studied. The trial was conducted at ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, under simulated conditions of a natural low land. After introduction of stress adaptation during the vegetative growth stage, while applying progressive times of hipoxics periods, there were observed different requirements and/or extraction capacities of nutrients between the two species; the fertilization on leaves was not enough to avoid nutritional deficiencies in wheat under hipoxia. The water table management used resulted in

  1. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  2. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the early infection of wheat roots by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Yang

    Full Text Available Take-all, which is caused by the fungal pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt, is an important soil-borne root rot disease of wheat occurring worldwide. However, the genetic basis of Ggt pathogenicity remains unclear. In this study, transcriptome sequencing for Ggt in axenic culture and Ggt-infected wheat roots was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 2.62 and 7.76 Gb of clean reads were obtained, and 87% and 63% of the total reads were mapped to the Ggt genome for RNA extracted from Ggt in culture and infected roots, respectively. A total of 3,258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified with 2,107 (65% being 2-fold up-regulated and 1,151 (35% being 2-fold down-regulated between Ggt in culture and Ggt in infected wheat roots. Annotation of these DEGs revealed that many were associated with possible Ggt pathogenicity factors, such as genes for guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-2 subunit, cellulase, pectinase, xylanase, glucosidase, aspartic protease and gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase. Twelve DEGs were analyzed for expression by qRT-PCR, and could be generally divided into those with high expression only early in infection, only late in infection and those that gradually increasing expression over time as root rot developed. This indicates that these possible pathogenicity factors may play roles during different stages of the interaction, such as signaling, plant cell wall degradation and responses to plant defense compounds. This is the first study to compare the transcriptomes of Ggt growing saprophytically in axenic cultures to it growing parasitically in infected wheat roots. As a result, new candidate pathogenicity factors have been identified, which can be further examined by gene knock-outs and other methods to assess their true role in the ability of Ggt to infect roots.

  3. Take-all of Wheat and Natural Disease Suppression: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Sig Kwak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In agro-ecosystems worldwide, some of the most important and devastating diseases are caused by soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogens, against which crop plants generally lack genetic resistance. However, plants have evolved approaches to protect themselves against pathogens by stimulating and supporting specific groups of beneficial microorganisms that have the ability to protect either by direct inhibition of the pathogen or by inducing resistance mechanisms in the plant. One of the best examples of protection of plant roots by antagonistic microbes occurs in soils that are suppressive to take-all disease of wheat. Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most economically important root disease of wheat worldwide. Take-all decline (TAD is the spontaneous decline in incidence and severity of disease after a severe outbreak of take-all during continuous wheat or barley monoculture. TAD occurs worldwide, and in the United States and The Netherlands it results from a build-up of populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. during wheat monoculture. The antibiotic 2,4-DAPG has a broad spectrum of activity and is especially active against the take-all pathogen. Based on genotype analysis by repetitive sequence-based-PCR analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism of phlD, a key 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis gene, at least 22 genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been described worldwide. In this review, we provide an overview of G. graminis var. tritici, the take-all disease, Pseudomonas biocontrol agents, and mechanism of disease suppression.

  4. Carta ao Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Exmos. Senhores Editores-Chefe,Li com muito interesse o artigo de Sousa R e colaboradores, intitulado “Que fatores levam ao abandono de crianças do serviço de urgência antes da observação médica?”.

  5. Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Clifton

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought.

  6. Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Eric H; Jaronski, Stefan T; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought.

  7. In vivo sensitivity reduction of Puccinia triticina races, causal agent of wheat leaf rust, to DMI and QoI fungicides Redução da sensibilidade de raças de Puccinia triticina, agente causal da ferrugem da folha do trigo, aos fungicidas DMI e QoI, in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele da Silva Arduim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to determine in vivo the IC50 and the IC90 for demethylation-inhibitor fungicides (DMIs, triazoles and quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs, strobilurins to the five most frequent races of Puccinia triticina in 2007 growing season in Southern Brazil. The tests were done in a greenhouse with wheat seedlings. DMI fungicides were tested at the concentrations, in mg/L, 0.0; 0.02; 0.2; 2.0; 20.0; 100.0 and 200.0, and QoIs at the concentrations 0.0; 0.0001; 0.001; 0.01; 0.1; 1 and 10.0 mg of active ingredient/L water. Fungicides were preventively applied at 24 hours before the inoculation of seedlings with the fungal spores. The effect of treatments was assessed based on the number of uredia/cm². The lowest IC50 (inhibitory concentration for DMI fungicides determined for MCG-MN, sensitive race, ranged from 0.33 to 0.91 mg/L, while the highest values for MDP-MR, MDT-MR, MDK-MR, MFH-HT races, varied from 9.63 to 85.64 mg/L (suspected insensitivity. QoI fungicide presented an IC50 varying from 0.0018 to 0.14 mg/L. The sensitivity reduction factor for DMIs varied from 8.8 to 238.8, and for QoIs from 0.3 to 1.5 mg/L. Sensitivity reduction was confirmed for the races MDP-MR, MDT-MR, MDK-MR, MFH-HT to DMIs, as well as their sensitivity to QoI fungicides.Experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar, in vivo a IC50 e CI90 para fungicidas inibidores da demetilação (IDM(triazois e inibidores da quinona externa (IQe (estrobilurinas a cinco raças de Puccinia triticina mais frequentes na safra 2007, no Sul do Brasil. Os experimentos foram realizados em câmara de crescimento com plântulas de trigo. Os fungicidas IDMs foram testados nas concentrações em mg/L de 0,0; 0,02; 0,2; 2,0; 20,0; 100,0 e 200,0 e os IQes nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,0001; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1, 1 e 10,0 mg de ingrediente activo/L de água. Os fungicidas foram aplicados preventivamente 24 horas antes da inoculação das plântulas com os esporos do fungo. O efeito

  8. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  9. Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cointe, Ronan; Simon, Thomas E; Delarue, Patrick; Hervé, Maxime; Leclerc, Melen; Poggi, Sylvain

    Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential "shield effect" of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide-a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L-significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use.

  10. Wheat Stripe Rust

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Mike; Israelsen, Clark; Evans, Kent; Barnhill, James

    2008-01-01

    Stripe rust, or yellow rust, is primarily a foliar fungal disease of wheat, although it can infect spike and stem tissues. If the pathogen infects the spike (head) it causes extensive quality and grain yield loss. The disease is caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. The fungus can only survive and reproduce on wheat. It survives from one season to the next on volunteer plants.

  11. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  12. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  13. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  14. O combate ao escorpionismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available O outor estuda os processos de combate aos acidentes pelas picadas dos escorpiões, visando: a Profilaxia e b Terapêutica. Refere-se à luta nos campos e nas cidades e aqui, dentro e fora dos domicílios. Assinala os diferentes métodos para o combate a êsses artrópodos peçonhentos. Fala na luta direta, indireta, na vacinação pelo anaveneno, na propaganda pela educação racional da população contra o perigo dos acidentes. Refere-se à "cata" dos escorpiões, à luta química, ao emprêgo de animais escorpiófagos, á feitura de casas e jardins anti-escorpiões. Na primeira parte do presente trabalho o autor trata da luta química pelo d. D. T. contra os tityus bahiensis e serrulatus, concluindo que êste corpo químico é um poderoso elemento de luta contra êstes escorpiões. Na segunda parte do trabalho, o autor trata da terapêutica dos acidentes. Mostra a necessidade do emprêgo convenientemente da única terapêutica racional e eficaz contra a intoxicação escorpiônica: a soroterapia específica. Assinala a necessidade da injeção de doses maciças de um sôro de alta valência, preparado em bovídeos, para evitar o mais possível o choque anafilático, no menor tempo possível após as picadas. Aconselha o empêgo de anaveneno escorpiônico, para vacinação principalmente de crianças de baixa idade, nos lugares fortemente infestados pelos escorpiões (principalmente Tityus serrulatus, maximé quando no local não houver sôro anti-escorpiônico específico, como meio preventivo contra a gravidade das intoxicações. Cita finalmente os trabalhos recentes de Grasset, Shaasfsma e Hodgson, na África do Sul, que confirmam muitas idéias do autor e mostram a unidade universal do síndromo escorpiônico descrito no Brasil.

  15. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... for physiological traits that may confer better adaptation to changing climatic conditions. Eventually, combining all the identified “good genes” may aid in developing stress tolerant cultivars to overcome environmental constraints and thereby, meet the increasing demand of future food security....

  16. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  17. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  18. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  19. BRS 277: Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 277’ was developed by Embrapa (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária,resulting from a cross between OR1 and Coker 97-33. The plant height of ‘BRS 277’ is short, frost resistance in the vegetativestage is good and resistance to leaf rust moderate.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  1. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  2. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  3. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  4. Retinosquise juvenil ligada ao X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gomes da Silveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Relatar o caso de um paciente masculino de 28 anos que foi encaminhado ao Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas Oculistas Associados (RJ para avaliação de retina e apresentou os achados típicos de retinosquise juvenil ligada ao cromossomo X: maculopatia cistóide com formação de cistos na fóvea e retinosquise periférica. Foi realizado o manejo conservador, com atenção para as complicações.

  5. Canola-Wheat Rotation versus Continuous Wheat for the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Jason C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Vitale, Jeffrey D.; Peeper, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Crop rotations are not common in the wheat belt of the Southern Plains. After years of continuous wheat, weeds have become increasingly difficult and expensive to manage. Yield data were elicited from farmers and used to determine if canola-wheat-wheat rotations are economically competitive with continuous wheat in the region.

  6. THE IMPACT OF REFORMING WHEAT IMPORTING STATE-TRADING ENTERPRISES ON THE QUALITY OF WHEAT IMPORTED

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Recent surveys of wheat importers indicate that countries that import wheat via a state trader are less sensitive to quality issues in import decision making than countries that import wheat through private traders. This study examines conceptually and empirically the impact of the deregulation of wheat imports on the quality and source of wheat imports.

  7. Controle genético e tolerância ao estresse de calor em populações híbridas e em cultivares de trigo Genetic control and tolerance to the heat stress in wheat hybrid population and cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacil Alves de Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informações sobre o controle genético da produtividade de grãos de trigo sob condições de estresse de calor, o grau de tolerância ao estresse de calor de algumas cultivares e linhagens e a identificação de populações segregantes promissoras para a obtenção de linhagens adaptadas às condições da região central do Brasil. Foram avaliados 13 parentais e 40 populações provenientes de um dialelo parcial, nas gerações F1 e F2 em condições de campo, em Lavras e Patos de Minas, MG, com as semeaduras feitas no verão (fevereiro e no inverno (maio. Houve diferença de tolerância ao calor entre os parentais e entre as populações híbridas quanto ao caráter produção de grãos, e ambos os efeitos aditivos e não-aditivos foram importantes no controle genético deste caráter na presença ou ausência de calor. Apesar da ocorrência de interações populações x épocas de semeadura, a alta repetibilidade dos efeitos da capacidade geral de combinação permite inferir a possibilidade de acelerar os programas de melhoramento na região, efetuando-se a seleção tanto na época de verão quanto no inverno.The objective of this work was to get information about the genetic control of the grain yield under heat stress conditions, the tolerance of cultivar and the identification of promising segregation populations for selections of lines adapted to the conditions of the central region of Brazil. Thirteen parents and 40 populations in F1 and F2 generations derived by partial diallel crosses were evaluated. The experiments were conducted under field conditions in Lavras and Patos de Minas, MG, Brazil, sowing the seeds in the summertime (February and in the winter (May. There was difference of heat tolerance among parents and hybrid populations for grain yield character, and both additive and non-additive effects were important in the genetic control of grain yield character in the presence or absence

  8. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to wheat can present clinically in different forms: Sensitization to ingested wheat via the gastrointestinal tract can cause traditional food allergy or in combination with exercise, Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Sensitization to inhaled wheat flour may...

  9. Path Through the Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  10. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; hide

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  11. REALIDADE AUMENTADA APLICADA AO DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Bruno Chagas Alves; Sánchez, Joaquín Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta o atual estado da arte da Realidade Aumentada aplicada ao design. São apresentados exemplos de aplicações da Realidade Aumentada em áreas como design de produtos, arquitetura, indústria automotiva, educação e design colaborativo. Também é apresentada uma rápida visão geral sobre as tecnologias envolvidas na criação de aplicações de Realidade Aumentada.

  12. Realidade aumentada aplicada ao design

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sánchez, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta o estado da arte da Realidade Aumentada aplicada ao design. São apresentados exemplos de aplicações da Realidade Aumentada em áreas como design de produtos, arquitetura, indústria automotiva, educação e design colaborativo. Também é apresentada uma rápida visão geral sobre as tecnologias envolvidas na criação de aplicações de Realidade Aumentada.

  13. Weed Dynamics and Management in Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabran, Khawar; Mahmood, Khalid; Melander, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is among the most important cereal and food crops of world and is grown in almost all parts of the world. It is a staple for a large part of the world population. Any decline in wheat yield by biotic or abiotic factors may affect global food security adversely. Weeds are the most damaging...... pest of wheat causing in total 24% losses in wheat grain yield. In this chapter, we discuss the (i) weed flora in different wheat-growing regions of world; (ii) the yield losses caused by weeds in wheat; (iii) the preventive and cultural options for weed management; (iv) physical weed control; (v......) chemical weed control; and (vi) integrated weed management strategy in wheat. A critical analysis of recent literature indicated that broadleaved weeds are the most common group of weeds in wheat fields followed by grass weeds, while sedges were rarely noted in wheat fields. Across the globe, the most...

  14. Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Green, MD Celiac Genetic Testing with Annette K. Taylor, MS, PhD Introduction to Drug Development with Daniel ... July 2016, a team of researchers at Columbia University Medical Center, published a study confirming that wheat ...

  15. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate.......9% in the third screening with 41 selected cultivars. The Fv/Fm was influenced by heat stress and the difference between the cultivars appeared only during the heat stress. Further analysis of other chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed similar or higher GD, but they did not reveal the genetic difference....... The correlation of the cultivar response in intact plant versus detached leaf was low. Overall, the result suggests that selection of cultivars by detached leaves may operate for different genetic factors than in intact plants. In the third study, the previously selected high and low groups of cultivars (from...

  16. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  17. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H; Hol, W H G

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  18. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  19. Telephone system operations evaluation : before AOS implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a detailed baseline analysis of telephone system performance before AOS : implementation. By the time of the preparation of this report, the phone system component of : AOS had not been implemented.

  20. Sistemas de cultivo, sucessões de culturas, densidade do solo e sobrevivência de patógenos de solo Cropping systems and previous crops on soil density and survival of soil-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Toledo-Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo do solo e de cultivos prévios ao plantio do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. sobre a densidade do solo e as populações de Rhizoctonia spp. e de Fusarium spp. Os cultivos prévios incluíram as leguminosas: guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e crotalária (Crotalaria spectabilis; e as gramíneas: milheto (Pennisetum glaucum cv. BN-2, sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor cv. BR 304, capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e milho (Zea mays consorciado com braquiária. As culturas utilizadas no cultivo prévio foram semeadas nos verões de 2002, 2003 e 2004, e os plantios de feijoeiro, cultivar BRS Valente, foram realizados nos invernos subseqüentes de 2003, 2004 e 2005, com irrigação por pivô central. Os restos culturais dos cultivos eram incorporados ao solo, no plantio convencional, e ficavam à superfície, no plantio direto. De modo geral, as maiores populações de Fusarium spp. e Rhizoctonia spp. e as maiores densidades de solo foram encontradas no solo cultivado em plantio direto. As maiores populações de Rhizoctonia spp. foram observadas em solos mais adensados. As leguminosas geralmente aumentaram populações desses patógenos e devem ser evitadas como culturas prévias ao cultivo do feijoeiro, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. Plantios prévios de gramíneas, em geral, são supressores das populações de Rhizoctonia spp. e de Fusarium spp. no solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of cropping systems and crops cultivated previously to common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on soil density and soil populations of Rhizoctonia spp. and Fusarium spp. Previous crops included the following legumes: Cajanus cajan,Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão and Crotalaria spectabilis; and the following grasses: Pennisetum glaucum (cv. BN-2, millet, Sorghum bicolor

  1. Adrenoleucodistrofia cerebral ligada ao x

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Sergio Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: OBJETIVO: o padrão-ouro em exames de imagem para avaliar a adrenoleucodistrofia ligada ao X é o escore de Loes, baseado na localização, alterações de sinais e grau de atrofia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar como os parâmetros do tensor de difusão correlacionam com o escore de Loes e avaliar se poderiam indicar alterações estruturais precoces. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: as medidas do tensor de difusão foram obtidas em 9 locais pré-estabelecidos da substância branca, bilateralmente, ...

  2. Súmulas Relacionadas ao Controle Externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Costa da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Controle externo e o que se realiza por órgão distinto daquele responsável pelo ato controlado e visa a comprovar a probidade administrativa e a regularidade da guarda e do emprego dos bens, valores e dinheiros públicos, bem como a fiel execução do orçamento. Atualmente, o sistema de fiscalização governamental brasileiro esta estruturado a partir das disposições contidas nos arts. 70 a 75 da Carta Magna de 1988. Na execução dessas atividades, os órgãos de Controle Externo acabam por se deparar com situações controversas, que abrem margem para diversas interpretações dos dispositivos que regulam as atividades de controle. Assim, inicialmente, em virtude da inoperância judiciaria brasileira, fato social decorrente de inúmeros fatores sócio-organizacionais, sobretudo o grande número de processos e o diminuto número de magistrados, surgiu a fi gura da “Sumula”. Deste modo, objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, apresentar as principais Sumulas editadas pelo STF, STJ e TCU relacionadas ao tema controle externo. Para tanto, foi realizada inicialmente uma pesquisa documental, apresentando aspectos gerais pertinentes a fi gura das súmulas. Ademais, a pesquisa bibliográfica e empregada nos campos atinentes as súmulas relacionadas as normas de controle externo. Ressalte-se que o universo da pesquisa foram todas as súmulas editadas pelo STF, STJ e TCU. Apos a coleta, foram selecionadas as súmulas que tiveram mais repercussão nos meios de publicação. Ao término, foi possível identificar as principais súmulas editadas para efetivar o controle externo. Constatou-se, portanto, que o campo do Controle Externo também e uma área que demanda a edição de numerosas súmulas para a pacificação dos entendimentos. Nesse contexto, o TCU vem se destacando com a edição constante de súmulas, objetivando uniformizar os temas controversos. Algumas problemáticas chegaram ao STF, e, por fim, dois casos, ao STJ.

  3. REALIDADE AUMENTADA APLICADA AO DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chagas Alves Fernandes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o atual estado da arte da Realidade Aumentada aplicada ao design. São apresentados exemplos de aplicações da Realidade Aumentada em áreas como design de produtos, arquitetura, indústria automotiva, educação e design colaborativo. Também é apresentada uma rápida visão geral sobre as tecnologias envolvidas na criação de aplicações de Realidade Aumentada.

  4. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbe Mats

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68% or PWM alone (91%. Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated.

  5. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Borbála; Barta, Zsolt; Sipos, Bálint; Réczey, Kati; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-07-02

    Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated.

  6. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  7. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube. Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  8. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  9. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  10. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  11. Variation in Asparagine Concentration in Nebraska Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of asparagine in wheat grain depends on both genetics and environmental factors, therefore study of different wheat cultivars, growing locations and crops years is needed for proper evaluation of potential risks of acrylamide formation in baked products made from Nebraska wheats. T...

  12. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  13. Improvement of wheat for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, M.; Malinga, J.N.; Wanyama, J.; Karanja, L.; Njau, P.; Leo, T.; Alomba, E.

    2001-01-01

    Breeding for resistance against Russian wheat aphid in Kenya is reported. Results of six of the lines were found to have high to moderate resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Popular lines were susceptible in the greenhouse when subjected to aphid pressure but showed moderate susceptibility when screened under field conditions, indicating that in years or location with low aphid pressure farmers may still get a crop. However in areas of high aphid pressure or bad years they may lose their crop. Consequently, developing resistant/torerant varieties is urgent

  14. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  15. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked......Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...

  16. Integrated weed management in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Khan, M.A.; Nawab, K.; Khattak, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experiment conducted on wheat at Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during winter 2004-05. Randomized complete block design with split-split-plot arrangement was used where wheat line and broadcast sowing were kept in main plots. Seed rates (100 and 150 kg ha-1) were assigned as sub-plots, while four herbicides (Topik, Isoproturon, Puma super and Buctril super) and weed check were assigned to sub-sub-plots. Results revealed that higher biological yield was recorded in line sowing. However, higher wheat seed rate decreased weed biomass and increased biological yield. Herbicides proved to be effective in decreasing weed biomass and enhancing grain yield and its contributing traits. It was suggested that line sowing in combination with higher seeding rate and Buctril super should be used in an integrated weed management fashion. However further studies are required to investigate various ranges of seeding rate and herbicides doses. (author)

  17. Interactions between uptake of amino acids and inorganic nitrogen in wheat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gioseffi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne amino acids may constitute a source of nitrogen (N for plants in various terrestrial ecosystems but their importance for total N nutrition is unclear, particularly in nutrient-rich arable soils. One reason for this uncertainty is lack of information on how the absorption of amino acids by plant roots is affected by the simultaneous presence of inorganic N forms. The objective of the present study was to study absorption of glycine (Gly and glutamine (Gln by wheat roots and their interactions with nitrate (NO3 and ammonium (NH4+ during uptake. The underlying hypothesis was that amino acids, when present in nutrient solution together with inorganic N, may lead to down-regulation of the inorganic N uptake, thereby resulting in similar total N uptake rates. Amino acids were enriched with double-labelled 15N and 13C, while NO3 and NH4+ acquisition was determined by their rate of removal from the nutrient solution surrounding the roots. The uptake rates of NO3 and NH4+ did not differ from each other and were generally about twice as high as the uptake rate of organic N when the different N forms were supplied separately in concentrations of 2 mM. Nevertheless, replacement of 50% of the inorganic N with organic N was able to restore the N uptake to the same level as that in the presence of only inorganic N. Co-provision of NO3 did not affect glycine uptake, while the presence of glycine down-regulated NO3 uptake. The ratio between 13C and 15N were lower in shoots than in roots and also lower than the theoretical values, reflecting higher C losses via respiratory processes compared to N losses. It is concluded that organic N can constitute a significant N-source for wheat plants and that there is an interaction

  18. Efeito de lodo de esgoto sobre patógenos habitantes do solo e severidade de oídio da soja Effect of sewage sludge in soil-borne pathogens and powdery mildew severity in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O lodo de esgoto, atendendo as exigências ambientais, apresenta potencial para disposição em solos agrícolas. Sua incorporação altera as propriedades químicas, físicas e biológicas do solo, pois é rico em macro e micronutrientes e matéria orgânica. Estas alterações podem proporcionar benefícios como aumento da disponibilidade de nutrientes às culturas, indução de supressividade a fitopatógenos habitantes do solo e de resistência às doenças da parte aérea. Por outro lado, pode influenciar negativamente o equilíbrio biológico e químico no solo, devido à presença de contaminantes. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da incorporação de lodo de esgoto ao solo sobre a severidade de oídio (Erysiphe diffusa e na supressividade a Rhizoctonia solani e a Macrophomina phaseolina da soja (Glycine max. Para tanto, foram utilizados solos que receberam quatro aplicações (1999 a 2001 sucessivas de lodos de esgoto originários das Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto de Barueri e de Franca, SP, nas concentrações de 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8 vezes (0N a 8N a dose de N recomendada para a cultura do milho. Os estudos com oídio foram realizados em casa de vegetação com inoculação natural em dois cultivos sucessivos de soja. Também foi estudado o efeito de substrato produzido com 0%, 2,5%, 5% 10%, 15% e 20% de lodo de Franca sobre a emergência de plântulas e sobre a severidade de oídio da soja em três e dois ciclos, respectivamente. Nos estudos com R. solani e M. phaseolina, os solos foram artificialmente infestados com os patógenos e posteriormente cultivados com soja por dois ciclos, sendo avaliado o tombamento e a severidade das doenças. A aplicação de lodo de esgoto no solo aumentou a atividade eliciadora de fitoalexinas em soja e a severidade do oídio foi inversamente proporcional às concentrações do lodo, tanto no estudo com o solo de campo, como com o substrato obtido com o lodo de Franca. A emergência das pl

  19. Economic substitution for US wheat food use by class

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat for food use is conceptualised as an input into flour production and demand is derived from an industry profit function to quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability across wheat classes. Price and substitution elasticities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter and durum wheat. In general, hard red winter and spring wheat varieties are much more responsive to their own price than are soft wheat varieties and durum wheat. S...

  20. Evaluation of the quality attributes of wheat composite (wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite flour was produced with wheat and other crops like rice, plantain and cassava at 20% substitution. The flour mixes were evaluated for proximate, physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation was carried out on bread samples produced from these mixes. The moisture contents of these flours ranged from ...

  1. Development of a doubled haploid system for wheat through wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty wheat genotypes were crossed with six maize varieties. The haploid embryos were rescued and cultured for plant regeneration and subsequently treated with colchicines for chromosome doubling. Half-diallel crosses were made in a cage and greenhouse and the embryos were cultured in the laboratory under ...

  2. Effects of crop rotation on weed density, biomass and yield of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zareafeizabadi; H.R. Rostamzadeh

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the weed populations in wheat, under different crop rotations an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station of Jolgeh Rokh, Iran. During growing season this project was done in five years, based on Randomized Complete Bloch Design with three replications, on Crop rotations included: wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW), wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW), wheat- sugar beet- wheat-sugar beet- wheat (WSWSW), wheat- potato- wheat- potato- whea...

  3. MUSE WFM AO Science Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Bacon, R.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Johnston, E.; Kuntschner, H.; Selman, F.; Valenti, E.; Vernet, J.; Vogt, F.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of Science Verification (SV) as part of the transition into operations is to carry out scientific observations to test the end-to-end operations of a new instrument or new instrument modes. The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer, (MUSE; Bacon et al., 2010), at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) can be operated in several modes. The wide-field mode has been offered since Period 94 (October 2014) for natural-seeing observations. With the commissioning of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF; Arsenault et al., 2017) the wide-field mode can be supported by ground-layer adaptive optics through four artificial laser guide stars and the adaptive optics module, Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive OptiCs for Spectroscopic Imaging (GALACSI). The MUSE wide-field mode adaptive optics Science Verification (hereafter referred to MUSE WFM AO SV) was scheduled from 12–14 August 2017. Out of 41 submitted proposals, 19 observing programmes were scheduled, covering a wide range of science topics and amounting to an allocation of 42 hours. This included sufficient oversubscription to cover all expected observing conditions. Due to inclement weather during the original SV nights, two more nights were allocated on 16 and 17 September 2017 to observe more programmes. In total, seven programmes were completed, six programmes received partial data, and the remaining six projects could not be started. We summarise here the planning, execution and first results from the Science Verification.

  4. wheat flour (dubbie) in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dubbie into sour dough bread resulted in a complete removal of the phytic acid content and subsequent increase in iron absorption. It is concluded that sour dough bread (Difo dabbo) is a good source of iron compared to porridge prepared from Dubbie. Key words/phrases: Bread, iron'bioavailability, porridge, soy-wheat ...

  5. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    , but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24...

  6. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  7. Identification methods for irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengtao; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-02-01

    The effect of irradiation on wheat seeds was examined using various kinds of analytical methods for the identification of irradiated seeds. In germination test, the growth of sprouts was markedly inhibited at 500Gy, which was not affected by storage. The decrease in germination percentage was detected at 3300Gy. The results of enzymatic activity change in the germ measured by Vita-Scope germinator showed that the seeds irradiated at 10kGy could be identified. The content of amino acids in ungerminated and germinated seeds were analyzed. Irradiation at 10kGy caused the decrease of lysine content but the change was small which need very careful operation to detect it. The chemiluminescence intensity increased with radiation dose and decreased during storage. The wheat irradiated at 10kGy could be identified even after 3 months storage. In the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum analysis, the signal intensity with the g value f 2.0055 of skinned wheat seeds increased with radiation dose. Among these methods, germination test was the most sensitive and effective for identification of irradiated wheat. (author)

  8. Drought resistance in durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simane, B.

    1993-01-01

    Durum wheat is widely grown as a rainfed crop in the semi-arid tropics. Its production is low and variable from season to season due to frequent drought-stress. Characterization of target environment and employing both analytical and empirical breeding approaches would speed up progress in

  9. HULLED WHEAT FARMING IN DEVELI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Bulut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emmer (Triticum dicoccum and einkorn (T. monococcum cultivation has a long history in Anatolia. The crops, cultivated in Anatolia over thousands years, can still be found in some parts of the country, especially Develi in the Kayseri province. The total cultivation area of these crops was around 36 000 ha in 2015. The species is mainly cultivated in sloping and marginal lands by poor farmers, where no other crops can be economically grown. Cultivation area is rapidly declining, and if such trend continues, hulled wheats will be shortly completely wiped out from Turkey. Present-day distribution of emmer and spelt within Turkey is concentrated in countryside areas of Develi where traditional farming systems still survive. This group of wheats is called in Turkish the general name of ‘kaplìca’ which means ‘covered’ or ‘hulled’. More specifically, the tetraploid species (emmer is called ‘gacer’ in the Develi. Being a low-yielding type of wheat, emmer was replaced by other improved varieties of Triticum. This decrease was mainly due to the widespread use of improved cultivars of wheat and the adoption of new agricultural techniques, but also to social and economic factors. In fact, wheat yielded 2840 t/ha, whereas hulled wheats yielded 1200 t/ha. The cultivation of these two crops shows disadvantages that relate to the harvesting techniques used and the need to dehisce the spikelets to obtain the grain for human consumption. The increasing interest in low-input systems due to the actual ecological and economical situation has led to a growing interest in specific genetic variability. Organic agriculture and health food products have been gaining increasing popularity that has led to a renewed interest in hulled wheat species such as emmer and spelt. The objective of this study was to estimate agronomical and grain quality characteristics of some Turkey (Develi emmer landraces. This effort was motivated by the fact that autochthonous

  10. Acceptability of Noodles Produced from Blends of Wheat, Acha and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acha (Digitaria exilis) and soybean (Glycine max) were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour (Titicum aestivm) as a composite flour at different proportions of 100:0:0 (Wheat); 75:25:25 (Wheat: Acha: Soybean); 75:25 (Wheat: Acha); 75:25 (Wheat: Soybean) and 50:50 (Acha: soybean). The formulated ...

  11. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  12. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  14. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  15. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  16. Study of wheat protein based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng

    Wheat gluten is a naturally occurring protein polymer. It is produced in abundance by the agricultural industry, is biodegradable and very inexpensive (less than $0.50/lb). It has unique viscoelastic properties, which makes it a promising alternative to synthetic plastics. The unplasticized wheat gluten is, however, brittle. Plasticizers such as glycerol are commonly used to give flexibility to the articles made of wheat gluten but with the penalty of greatly reduced stiffness. Former work showed that the brittleness of wheat gluten can also be improved by modifying it with a tri-thiol additive with no penalty of reduced stiffness. However, the cost of the customer designed tri-thiol additive was very high and it was unlikely to make a cost effective material from such an expensive additive. Here we designed a new, inexpensive thiol additive called SHPVA. It was synthesized from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through a simple esterification reaction. The mechanical data of the molded wheat gluten/SHPVA material indicated that wheat gluten was toughened by SHPVA. As a control, the wheat gluten/PVA material showed no improvement compared with wheat gluten itself. Several techniques have been used to characterize this novel protein/polymer blend. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study showed two phases in both wheat gluten/PVA and wheat gluten/SHPVA material. However, scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicated that PVA was macroscopically separated from wheat gluten, while wheat gluten/SHPVA had a homogeneous look. The phase image from the atomic force microscope (AFM) gave interesting contrast based on the difference in the mechanical properties of these two phases. The biodegradation behavior of these protein/polymer blends was examined in soil. SHPVA was not degraded in the time period of the experiment. Wheat gluten/SHPVA degraded slower than wheat gluten. We also developed some other interesting material systems based on wheat gluten, including the

  17. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats ...

  18. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig J. Sturrock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray µCT and real-time PCR to study host-pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka. Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root system. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behaviour in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field.

  19. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  20. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Zifeng Guo; Ping Xu; Zhengbin Zhang; Yunna Guo

    2012-01-01

    Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA) and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR) were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD) was used as the female parent. Thes...

  1. Prehaustorial and posthaustorial resistance to wheat leaf rust in diploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    In modern wheat cultivars, resistance to wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina , is either based on hypersensitivity resistance or on partial resistance. Hypersensitivity resistance in wheat is monogenic, often complete and posthaustorial: it is induced after the

  2. Biotechnology in wheat improvement in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, L.; Kinyua, M.G.; Njau, P.N.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Use of double haploid (DH) and mutation techniques in breeding wheat lines and varieties tolerant to drought, acid soils and resistant to Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) at the National Plant Breeding Research Center in the last 4 years, is reported. The wheat variety, ''Pasa'' irradiated in 1996 is reported to have undergone selection process through yield trials in 1999-2000. Work done in the year 2000 is mainly described

  3. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2....... The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI...

  4. Durable resistance to wheat stem rust needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, Michael; Singh, Ravi; Lagudah, Evans

    2008-04-01

    The recent outbreak of a new wheat stem rust race capable of parasitizing many commercial wheat cultivars highlights the need for durable disease resistance in crop plants. More advanced breeding approaches using quantitative disease resistance genes and resistance gene pyramids are being used to combat wheat stem rust and other diseases, though widespread adoption of these breeding methodologies is needed to maintain resistance efficacy. Advances in understanding the molecular basis of plant disease resistance at both host and nonhost levels offers further possibilities for stem rust resistance using biotechnological approaches. However, truly durable resistance to wheat stem rust and other phytopathogens seems an unlikely prospect in the face of continually evolving pathogen populations.

  5. Winter wheat and summer shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  6. Inhibition of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici Germination and Partial Enhancement of Wheat Defenses by Milsana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randoux, Béatrice; Renard, Delphine; Nowak, Emmanuel; Sanssené, Jean; Courtois, Josiane; Durand, Roger; Reignault, Philippe

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT The prophylactic efficiency of Milsana against powdery mildew was evaluated on wheat (Triticum aestivum). A single short spraying on 10-day-old plantlets reduced the infection level by 85% and two long sprayings led to the total restriction of the disease. Although microscopic studies showed that Milsana treatments enhance hydrogen peroxide accumulation at the fungal penetration site, biochemical analysis did not allow us to correlate this accumulation with the activation of several enzyme activities involved in active oxygen species (AOS) metabolism. Only lipoxygenase activity, which is involved in both AOS metabolism and lipid peroxidation, showed a 26 to 32% increase 48-h posttreatment in leaves infiltrated with Milsana. This weak effect of Milsana on wheat lipid metabolism was confirmed at the lipid peroxidation level, which surprisingly, was shown to decrease in treated plants. In order to explain the high efficacy of Milsana, the fungistatic effect on conidia germination was also examined. In planta, we showed that a Milsana treatment resulted in a higher proportion of abnormally long appressorial germ tubes, whereas in vitro, it dramatically inhibited fungal conidia germination. The partial activity of Milsana in terms of defense response induction in the wheat/powdery mildew pathosystem and its newly described direct fungistatic activity are discussed.

  7. Agribusiness Perspectives on Transgenic Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Declining yields of the major human food crops, looming growth in global population and rise of populism, and ill-founded bans on agricultural and horticultural crops and foodstuffs which are genetically modified have potentially serious implications. It makes the chance less than otherwise would be the case that agribusiness value chains in the future will meet the growing demand around the world for more and different foods from more and wealthier people. In the agribusiness value chain, transgenic wheat, meeting a consumer "trigger need" also must meet the "experience" and "credence," risk-related criteria of well-informed consumers. Public policy that rejects science-based evidence about the reductions in costs of production and price of genetically modified agricultural products and the science about the safety of genetically modified foods, including transgenic wheat, has imposed significant costs on producers and consumers. If the science-based evidence is accepted, transgenic wheat has potential to improve significantly the well-being of grain growers and consumers all over the world.

  8. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  9. Customer satisfaction and response to AOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Passenger surveys were conducted in each of three successive springs in order to track passenger perception of changes in service quality during AOS implementation. In general, no improvement in passenger perceptions was observed relative to a high b...

  10. Soil-borne microbiome: linking diversity to function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, L.M.; Tsai, S.M.; Navarrete, Acácio A.; De Hollander, Mattias; Van Veen, J.A.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are sensitive to environment disturbances, and such alterations have consequences on microbial diversity and functions. Our hypothesis is that alpha diversity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease from undisturbed to disturbed soils, with consequences for

  11. Soil-borne microbiome: linking diversity to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Lucas W; Tsai, Siu M; Navarrete, Acácio A; de Hollander, Mattias; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2015-07-01

    Soil microorganisms are sensitive to environment disturbances, and such alterations have consequences on microbial diversity and functions. Our hypothesis is that alpha diversity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease from undisturbed to disturbed soils, with consequences for functional redundancy in the soil ecosystem. To test this hypothesis, we used soil DNA shotgun metagenomics approach to assess the soil microbiome in a chronosequence of land-use from a native tropical forest, followed by deforestation and cultivation of soybean croplands and pasture in different seasons. Agriculture and pasture soils were among the most diverse and presented higher functional redundancy, which is important to maintain the ecosystem functioning after the forest conversion. On the other hand, the ecosystem equilibrium in forest is maintained based on a lower alpha diversity but higher abundance of microorganisms. Our results indicate that land-use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities; however, ecosystem functionality is overcome by different strategies based on the abundance and diversity of the communities.

  12. Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  13. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.Z.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Veen, J.A..

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  14. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko E. Kuramae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate regression tree analysis of soil physicochemical properties and genes detected by functional microarrays, the main factor that explained the different microbial community functional structures was C : N ratio. C : N ratio showed a significant positive correlation with clay and soil pH. Fields with low C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes for carbon degradation, carbon fixation, metal reductase, and organic remediation categories, while fields with high C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfate reductase, methane oxidation, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. The most abundant genes related to carbon degradation comprised bacterial and fungal cellulases; bacterial and fungal chitinases; fungal laccases; and bacterial, fungal, and oomycete polygalacturonases. The high number of genes related to organic remediation was probably driven by high phosphate content, while the high number of genes for nitrification was probably explained by high total nitrogen content. The functional gene diversity found in different soils did not group the sites accordingly to land management. Rather, the soil factors, C : N ratio, phosphate, and total N, were the main factors driving the differences in functional genes across the fields examined.

  15. Hazards to wildlife from soil-borne cadmium reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element that should be included in environmental risk assessments of contaminated soils. This paper argues, however, that hazards to wildlife from cadmium have often been overstated. The literature contains only meager evidence that wild animals have been seriously harmed by cadmium, even at severely contaminated sites. Although some researchers have reported that wildlife have accumulated concentrations of cadmium in their kidneys that were above suggested injury thresholds, the thresholds may be disputed, since they were well below the World Health Organization criterion of 200 mg/kg (wet weight) of cadmium in the renal cortex for protecting human health. Recent risk assessments have concluded that soil cadmium concentrations less than 1 mg/kg are toxic to soil organisms and wildlife, which implies that background concentrations of cadmium naturally found in soils are hazardous. An examination of the databases used to support these assessments suggested that the toxicity of cadmium has been exaggerated.

  16. Quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MSS

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... The effect of the use of different lime rates on the pH values and subsequently on the quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum ... biological potential of the wheat variety ('Novosadska rana 5'), if adequately treated with lime along with .... stage with 300 kg/ha NPK fertilizer with microelements ratio of 10-.

  17. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  18. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  19. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham buns...

  20. Organelles genome stability of wheat plantlets produced by anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: RFLP analysis, wheat plantlets, wheat anther culture, doubled haploids, genetic stability, mitochondria and chloroplast genome. INTRODUCTION. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important staple food crops of the family Poaceae. Among the food crops, wheat is a common source ...

  1. based molecular characterization of popular wheat varieties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Wheat breeders in Pakistan relied upon phenotypic traits as indices of genetic variation among different wheat varieties which may ... expected area under wheat cultivation in Pakistan for the year 2010-2011 is 9.045 million ha .... Development of high genetic density maps of wheat, tobacco, maize, rice has.

  2. 77 FR 21685 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... will help to facilitate the marketing of wheat. DATES: Comments must be received on or before June 11... marketing of wheat and define U.S. wheat quality and commonly used industry terms in the domestic and global marketplace; contain basic principles governing the application of the wheat standards, such as the type of...

  3. Impact of improved wheat technology adoption on productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops cultivated in wide range of agro-ecologies in Eastern Africa. However, wheat productivity has remained low. This study was carried out in Ethiopia Aris Zone to determine the level and impact of adoption of improved wheat varieties on wheat productivity ...

  4. Evaluation on the resistance to aphids of wheat germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection of more than 200 wheat lines from the main wheat-producing areas of China was evaluated for resistance to wheat aphids, using fuzzy recognition technique in five field experiments over 2 years. The results show that susceptibility to wheat aphids was exhibited in most of the lines tested, and no immune and ...

  5. Identification of novel QTL for sawfly resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Sherman; D. K. Weaver; M. L. Hofland; S. E. Sing; M. Buteler; S. P. Lanning; Y. Naruoka; F. Crutcher; N. K. Blake; J. M. Martin; P. F. Lamb; G. R. Carlson; L. E. Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus Nort.) is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in the Northern Great Plains. This paper reports the genetic analysis of antixenosis for egg-laying WSS females in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of hard red spring wheat. Female WSS preferentially choose certain wheat genotypes for egg-laying, with the...

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat somaclonal variants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... yield potential, wide adaptation, and durable resistance to important diseases such as the rusts. ... diversity levels among adapted, wheat germplasm can provide predictive estimates of genetic ..... diversity among Tibetan wheat, common wheat and European spelt wheat revealed by RAPD markers, ...

  7. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  8. Wheat Blast: A New Fungal Inhabitant to Bangladesh Threatening World Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abu Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world’s largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries. However, as a long-term perspective, much greater losses will occur once this disease spreads to other major wheat producing areas of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan due to the existing favorable condition for the blast pathogen. The wheat blast pathogen belongs to the Magnaporthe oryzae species complex causing blast disease on multiple hosts in the Poaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bangladesh outbreak strains and the Brazil outbreak strains were the same phylogenetic lineage, suggesting that they might be migrated from Brazil to Bangladesh during the seed import. To protect wheat production of Bangladesh and its neighbors, several measures including rigorous testing of seed health, use of chemicals, crop rotation, reinforcement of quarantine procedures, and increased field monitoring should be implemented. Development of blast resistant wheat varieties should be a long-term solution and combination of different methods with partial resistant lines may suppress this disease for some time.

  9. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  10. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate Management of Glyphosate-resistant Conyza bonariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Paula

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available C. bonariensis (Conyza bonariensis é uma planta daninha da família Asteraceae, amplamente distribuída no Brasil, com presença marcante nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e do Paraná. Biótipos de C. bonariensis resistentes ao glyphosate foram identificados nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná e São Paulo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos de inverno e na pré-semeadura da soja sobre a população de plantas de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate. Os resultados evidenciaram que a população de C. bonariensis é maior em áreas mantidas sem cultivo (pousio do que naquelas áreas cultivadas com trigo ou aveia-preta durante o inverno. Observou-se que o trigo e a aveia-preta exercem efeito supressor sobre a população de C. bonariensis, proporcionando maior facilidade de controle com herbicida na pré-semeadura da cultura usada em sucessão. O controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao herbicida glyphosate foi satisfatório quando se utilizaram herbicidas pós-emergentes na cultura do trigo e glyphosate + 2,4-D ou glyphosate + diuron + paraquat na pré-semeadura da soja.Horseweed (Conyza bonariensis, which belongs to the Asteraceae family, is a weed species widely spread in Brazil. Horseweed biotypes resistant to glyphosate, the main herbicide used in Roundup Ready soybean fields, were identified in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Parana. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different winter and pre-sowing management techniques on soybean plant population of C. bonariensis resistant to glyphosate. The results showed that the population of C. bonariensis is larger in areas maintained fallow than in areas planted with wheat or oats during the winter. Wheat and oats were found to exert a suppressive effect on the population of C. bonariensis, providing greater ease of control with herbicide before seeding in the culture used in succession. The control of glyphosate-resistant C

  11. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  12. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  13. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  14. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...... agronomic and environmental factors. Our objective is to determine the general principles underlying how, in Mediterranean environments, grain protein content (GPC) is affected by these factors and provide a system model with high predictive ability. We initially evaluated the capability of the Delphi...

  15. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Caretto, Sofia; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-08-28

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  16. Aflatoxin B1and sterigmatocystin in wheat and wheat products from supermarkets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yarong; Wang, Qiongshan; Huang, Jianxiang; Ma, Liyan; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Fuhua

    2018-03-01

    Wheat is an important cereal but it is often contaminated with mycotoxins. The natural occurrence of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and sterigmatocystin (STC) was determined in 178 food samples (32 wheat samples and 146 wheat products) purchased from Chinese supermarkets. The methodology was validated, the wheat and wheat products samples were treated with a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From these samples 18.8% of wheat and 8.2% of cracker samples were contaminated with AFB 1 . Mean levels were 0.06 µg/kg and 0.05µg/kg, respectively. There was no AFB 1 contamination in white bread or whole meal bread. Meanwhile 53.1% of wheat, 59.2% of crackers, 20.8% of white bread and 16% of whole meal bread samples were contaminated with STC. The mean levels were 0.07, 0.79, 0.12 and 0.12 µg/kg respectively. Although the levels were low, this demonstrates the need for more comprehensive surveys for these two mycotoxins in wheat and wheat products from China.

  17. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  18. The potential of hyperspectral patterns of winter wheat to detect changes in soil microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida De Carvalho, Sabrina; Putten, van der Wim H.; Hol, W.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent

  19. Estados Unidos: do Iraque ao Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca analisar os recentes temas recorrentes na política externa norte-americana, caracterizada pela “guerra contra o terror”, e seus impactos para a agenda a ser discutida na vindoura visita do presidente dos Estados Unidos, Geoge W. Bush, ao Brasil.

  20. Turbellaria from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, Ernst

    1960-01-01

    A study of the several fresh and brackish-water springs on Curaçao, carried out by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, revealed (a) the common occurrence on that island of Dugesia festai (Borelli 1898), a species which until then had only been known from the South American mainland (nearest find: Ecuador!),

  1. SIG aplicado ao Ensino de Geografia

    OpenAIRE

    Dornelles, Liane Maria Azevedo; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - UERJ

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve as atividades desenvolvidas junto à disciplina eletiva SIG aplicado ao ensino de Geografia. Foram elaboradas aplicações ambientais para os Ensinos Fundamental e Médio, com auxílio dos programas VistaSAGA/UFRJ, SISPLAMTE 5as com GIS, SPRING/INPE e MapServer.

  2. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD was used as the female parent. These colored wheat were used for diallel cross to study the segregation ratios of F1 colored grains. Results show that the color inheritance of purple-grained wheat follows a maternal inheritance pattern and that the blue-grained wheat expresses xenia in most cases. In some circumstances, the grains with different color shades appear in the same spike.

  3. Common bunt resistant wheat composite cross populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias; Borgen, A.; Backes, Gunter Martin

    stability. However, a number of challenges must be met before diverse wheat populations can be introduced into commercial wheat production: one of these is the development of breeding technologies based on mass selection which enable breeders and farmers to improve specific traits in populations...... and maintain diversity at the same time. BIOBREED is a project which commenced in Denmark in 2011 to meet these challenges for wheat population breeding. The project focuses on the development of tools and methods for mass selection of traits relevant for organic and low input production, where it is expected...... that the highest benefits of utilizing diverse populations can be achieved. BIOBREED focuses on three main aspects of wheat population breeding for organic and low input production systems: i) common bunt (caused by Tilletia caries) resistance, ii) selection for improved protein content and iii) the influence...

  4. Rising Temperatures Reduce Global Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 degrees C to 32? degrees C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each degree C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

  5. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  6. Benchmark data set for wheat growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asseng, S; Ewert, F.; Martre, P

    2015-01-01

    The data set includes a current representative management treatment from detailed, quality-tested sentinel field experiments with wheat from four contrasting environments including Australia, The Netherlands, India and Argentina. Measurements include local daily climate data (solar radiation...

  7. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  8. Wheat production in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Bubenheim, David

    Our goal is to optimize conditions for maximum yield and quality of wheat to be used in a controlled-environment, life-support system (CELSS) in a Lunar or Martian base or perhaps in a space craft. With yields of 23 to 57 g m-2 d-1 of edible biomass, a minimum size for a CELSS would be between 12 and 30 m2 per person, utilizing about 600 W m-2 of electrical energy for artificial light. Temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, carbon-dioxide levels, humidity, and wind velocity are controlled in state-of-the-art growth chambers. Nutrient solutions (adjusted for wheat) are supplied to the roots via a recirculating system that controls pH by adding HNO3 and controlling the NO3/NH4 ratio in solution. A rock-wool plant support allows direct seeding and densities up to 10,000 plants per meter2. Densities up to 2000 plants m-2 appear to increase seed yield. Biomass production increases almost linearily with increasing irradiance from 400 to 1700 μmol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), but the efficiency of light utilization decreases over this range. Photoperiod and temperature both have a profound influence on floral initiation, spikelet formation, stem elongation, and fertilization. High temperatures (25 to 27°C) and long days shorten the life cycle and promote rapid growth, but cooler temperatures (20°C) and shorter days greatly increase seed number per head and thus yield (g m-2). The life cycle is lengthened in these conditions but yield per day (g m-2 d-1) is still increased. We have evaluated about 600 cultivars from around the world and have developed several breeding lines for our controlled conditions. Some of our ultra-dwarf lines (30 to 50 cm tall) look especially promising with high yields and high harvest indices (percent edible biomass).

  9. A Modified TILLING Method for Wheat Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongmei Dong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The large genome and polyploidy of wheat ( L. makes it difficult to identify desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. Forward genetics is, therefore, more difficult in wheat than in diploid plants. A modified TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes method including the harvest of five heads per M plant, storage of M seeds, using unlabeled primers and agarose gels for mutation detection, and crossing of useful mutants for desired grain quality was explored in this report. A soft wheat cultivar, QAL2000, and a hard wheat cultivar, Ventura, were mutagenized with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS. Screening of the genes and in 2348 EMS-treated M plants allowed identification of 121 mutants, including silent, missense, and knockout (truncation mutations. A complete waxy wheat was successfully bred in 18 mo by crossing two truncation mutants ( and ; is naturally null in both mutants. Screening of two genes ( and in QAL2000 identified 19 mutants. A hard grain variant of a soft cultivar was identified due to a mutation in caused by a premature stop codon. Background mutations were observed and further self-fertilization or crossing with a wild type was performed to eliminate deleterious mutations. With the rapid accumulation of wheat genomics information, many potential target genes of interest can be screened for mutations in these TILLING populations.

  10. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  11. Quality of shear fractionated wheat gluten – comparison to commercial vital wheat gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The functional properties of gluten obtained with a shear-induced separation process, recently proposed by Peighambardoust et al. (2008), are compared with a commercially available vital wheat gluten. Two tests were performed. First, a relatively strong wheat flour, Soissons, was enriched with

  12. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted. H1 was further purified. Their activities against fungi with varying degrees of wheat pathogenicity were determined. They included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearu...

  13. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  14. Strategies to reduce or prevent wheat coeliacimmunogenicity and wheat sensitivity through food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cereals are among the oldest foods of humans. Wheat is one of these. In present times,several syndromes are, whether true or false, increasingly attributed to the consumption of wheat, with increasing costs for medical care and decreasing turnover for the food industry, especially the bakery sector.

  15. MEMS DM development at Iris AO, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Kempf, Carl J.; Besse, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Iris AO is actively developing piston-tip-tilt (PTT) segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) and adaptive optics (AO) controllers for these DMs. This paper discusses ongoing research at Iris AO that has advanced the state-of-the-art of these devices and systems over the past year. Improvements made to open-loop operation and mirror fabrication enables mirrors to open-loop flatten to 4 nm rms. Additional testing of an anti snap-in technology was conducted and demonstrates that the technology can withstand 100 million snap-in events without failure. Deformable mirrors with dielectric coatings are shown that are capable of handling 630 W/cm2 of incident laser power. Over a localized region on the segment, the dielectric coatings can withstand 100kW/cm2 incident laser power for 30 minutes. Results from the first-ever batch of PTT489 DMs that were shipped to pilot customers are reported. Optimizations made to the open-loop PTT controller are shown to have latencies of 157.5 μs and synchronous array update rates of nearly 6.5 kHz. Finally, plans for the design and fabrication of the next-generation PTT939 DM are presented.

  16. New types of wheat chromosomal structural variations in derivatives of wheat-rye hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zongxiang; Li, Meng; Chen, Lei; Wang, Yangyang; Ren, Zhenglong; Fu, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements induced by wheat-rye hybridization is a very well investigated research topic. However, the structural alterations of wheat chromosomes in wheat-rye hybrids are seldom reported. Octoploid triticale lines were derived from common wheat Triticum. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'. Some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' and common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Chuannong27' followed by self-fertilization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 and rye genomic DNA as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A, 6A, 1B, 2B, 6B, 7B, 1D, 3D and 7D were observed. 5AL arm carrying intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1 or both Oligo-pSc119.2-1 and Oligo-pTa535-1 signals, 6AS, 1BS and 1DL arms containing terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 6BS and 3DS arms without terminal Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal, 7BS without subtelomeric Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal and 7DL with intercalary Oligo-pSc119.2-1 signal have been observed. However, these changed wheat chromosomes have not been detected in 'Mianyang11' and Chuannong 27. The altered 5A, 6A, 7B and 7D chromosomes in this study have not been reported and represent several new karyotype structures of common wheat chromosomes. These rearranged wheat chromosomes in the present study afford some new genetic variations for wheat breeding program and are valuable materials for studying the biological function of tandem repetitive DNA sequences.

  17. "Determination the best cereal substitute for wheat in wheat allergic children "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasy Esfahany Z "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy is one of the most important among other allergic diseases. Although it is less prevalent in adult but in infants it’s prevalence was reported as much as 8 percent. In part, wheat is one of the six main food allergens in infant and in other part there is extensive cross reactivity between the cereals. Therefore the aim of this study is selection of the best food substitute for wheat among other cereals. Materials and Methods: 24 patients with definitive diagnosis of type one hypersensitivity reaction to wheat were entered in this study. Skin prick test and serum specific IgE (Eliza with 6 members of cereals family (wheat, barley, oat, Rye-Rice & Corn were performed for them and open food challenge test was also done with three more available of the cereals (corn, Rice, barley in our food culture and so comparison between allergenicity of wheat flour and wheat bran with skin prick test were done. Results: The Skin prick tests (SPTs were positive in 66.7 percent for Barley, 100 percent for wheat bran and 80-100 percent for other cereals. The results of specific IgE for wheat, Barley were positive in 94.5 percent, 68 percent, 39 percent of patients respectively and the results for other cereals were positive in less than 11 percent of cases. The results of food challenge test, for barley were positive in 60 percent of cases and for Rice and Corn were negative in all cases. Conclusion: In the base of food challenge test as the gold standard test, the best food substitute for wheat sensitive patient between other cereals, were Corn and Rice respectively. It is important to emphasis that will be needed to perform oral food challenge in hospital with complete emergency equipment before introducing any other cereals as food substitute for wheat, specially Barley.

  18. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Analysis of HMWGS of historical set of Pakistani bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Pak, 11 = Chenab-70. Different alleles of HMWGS are shown left. polymorphism in the number and mobility of HMWGS in bread wheat (Lawrence and Shepherd, 1980). Bread wheat contain six different HMW-GS but due to the.

  20. Wheat Breeding Technologies for a Shifting Global Climate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset will contain phenotypic observations of a large number of wheat genotypes evaluated in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 at the International Maize and Wheat...

  1. The Effects of Carboxin-thiram on Associative Relationships between Azospirillum Species and Wheat (Chamran Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. rejali

    2017-03-01

    was effective on quantity of some trait in powdery formulation and some in liquid formulation.These findinds may be the result of fungicide effects in controlling soil born pathogens in compatable treatments with used bacterial inoculums. Conclusions: As final result, using A.lipoferum with both formulations and A.halopraeferense with powdery formulation, because of high compatibility with carboxin thiram fungicide can be advised in case of fungicide application. This advice can have good effects on functional traits such as number of tillers, grain weight in spike and shoot dry weight.To consider the effects of environmental conditions on the final results we propose to do this experiment in field scale in some Iranian provinces with different climatic conditions.The use of different concentrations of carboxin tiram and also different kinds of PGPR and other fungicides must be consider in future experiments.

  2. Manthar-03: a high-yielding cultivar of wheat released for general cultivation in Southern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Akhtar, L.H.; Nasim, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the release of a new wheat variety Manthar-03. 'Manthar-03' is a high yielding and rust resistant variety of bread wheat with erect growth habit. It was released in the year 2003 as a general purpose variety. Manthar-03 is a selection from CIMMYT material (Entry No. 42 of 29 International Bread Wheat Screening Nursery) made at Regional Agricultural Research Institute (RARI), Bahawalpur during 1996-97. This strain has the famous CIMMYT line 'Kauz' in its parentage (KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS). Its pedigree is CM11163-6M-20Y-10M- 0M-0B. It is a more adapted and a high yielder. Genetically, this strain differs from existing commercial cultivars of Punjab. Resistance against leaf rust (5MRMS to 10MR), RRI value of 6.7 and 7.6 for leaf rust and ACI values of 3.4 and 0.7 for leaf rust) and high yield potential (6300 kg ha-1 ) are the major attributes of Manthar-03 that make it a superior variety for its target regions. Manthar-03 is tolerant to wheat aphid and Helicoverpa armigera. The thousand seed weight of this variety is 40-44 g. Seed is amber in color and contains 12.97% protein, 8.2% dry gluten and 1.55% ash. It has good chapati making quality. Plant type of Manthar-03 is erect with plant height 94 cm and droopy flag leaves. It is lodging resistant. It completes heading in 98 days and matures in 142 days. Manthar-03 performs better when planted from 15, November to 1, December, keeping 125 kg ha/sup -1/ seed rate and 125-85-50 kg NPK ha/sup -1/ are applied. (author)

  3. QUALITY PREMIUMS FOR AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN THE GROWING ASIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Stanmore, Roland G.

    1994-01-01

    An hedonic price function is applied to Australia's wheat exports to the growing Asian markets. The values for the quality characteristics in the wheat markets of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand are estimated. The data base for the study is from the Australian Wheat Board shipments over the period 1984 to 1991. The sample is divided into two separate time periods to test the consistency in demand for export wheat and to trace recent trends in quality premiums. The im...

  4. GABA Shunt in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronia Carillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications. In this view, recently it has been found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA but not glycine betaine (GB is accumulated in durum wheat plants under salinity only when it is combined with high nitrate and high light. In these conditions, plants show lower reactive oxygen species levels and higher photosynthetic efficiency than plants under salinity at low light. This is certainly relevant because the most of drought or salinity studies performed on cereal seedlings have been done in growth chambers under controlled culture conditions and artificial lighting set at low light. However, it is very difficult to interpret these data. To unravel the reason of GABA accumulation and its possible mode of action, in this review, all possible roles for GABA shunt under stress are considered, and an additional mechanism of action triggered by salinity and high light suggested.

  5. GABA Shunt in Durum Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillo, Petronia

    2018-01-01

    Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications. In this view, recently it has been found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) but not glycine betaine (GB) is accumulated in durum wheat plants under salinity only when it is combined with high nitrate and high light. In these conditions, plants show lower reactive oxygen species levels and higher photosynthetic efficiency than plants under salinity at low light. This is certainly relevant because the most of drought or salinity studies performed on cereal seedlings have been done in growth chambers under controlled culture conditions and artificial lighting set at low light. However, it is very difficult to interpret these data. To unravel the reason of GABA accumulation and its possible mode of action, in this review, all possible roles for GABA shunt under stress are considered, and an additional mechanism of action triggered by salinity and high light suggested.

  6. Gelation and Retrogradation Mechanism of Wheat Amylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Tamaki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow behavior, dynamic viscoelasticity, and optical rotation of aqueous solutions of wheat amylose were measured using a rheogoniometer and a polarimeter. The amylose solutions, at 25 °C, showed shear-thinning behavior at a concentration of 1.2%, but plastic behavior at 1.4 and 1.6%, the yield values of which were estimated to be 0.6 and 1.0 Pa, respectively. The viscosity of the wheat amylose increased a little with increase in temperature up to 10 or 20 °C at 1.2% or 1.4 and 1.6%, which was estimated to be a transition temperature. The elastic modulus increased with increase in concentration, and increased with increasing temperature up to 20, 25 and 30 °C, which was estimated to be a transition temperature, respectively, then decreased gradually but stayed at a large value even at high temperature (80 °C. A very low elastic modulus of the wheat amylose was observed upon addition of urea (4.0 M and in alkaline solution (0.05 M NaOH even at low temperature. The optical rotation of wheat amylose solution increased a little with decreasing temperature down to 25 °C, then increased rapidly with further decrease in the temperature. The mode of gelation mechanism of amylose molecules, which was previously proposed, was confirmed and a retrogradation mechanism of wheat amylose was proposed.

  7. Genome Evolution Due to Allopolyploidization in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A.

    2012-01-01

    The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed “revolutionary” changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species’ evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed. PMID:23135324

  8. Microsatellites in wheat and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, P.; Bryan, G.J.; Kirby, J.; Gale, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The development of large panels of simply analyzable genetic markers for diversity studies and tagging, agronomically important genes in hexaploid bread wheat is an important goal in applied cereal genetic research. We have isolated and sequenced over two-hundred clones containing microsatellites from the wheat genome, and have tested 150 primer pairs for genetic polymorphism using a panel of ten wheat varieties, including the parents of our main mapping cross. A total of 125 loci were detected by 82 primer pairs, of which 105 loci from 63 primer pairs can be unequivocally allocated to one of the wheat chromosomes. A relatively low frequency of the loci detected are from the D-genome (24%). Generally, the microsatellites show high levels of genetic polymorphism and an average 3.5 alleles per locus with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.5. The observed levels of polymorphism are positively correlated with the length of the microsatellite repeats. A high proportion, approximately one half, of primer pairs designed to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation in wheat do not generate the expected amplification products and, more significantly, often generate unresolvable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products. In general our results agree closely with those obtained from other recent studies using microsatellites in plants. (author)

  9. Wheat germ stabilization by infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Renato D; Palavecino, Pablo M; Cecilia Penci, M; Martinez, Marcela L; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-01-01

    Wheat germ has an important enzymatic activity, being lipases the enzymes which cause the highest impact in the reduction of shelf life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of infrared radiation on wheat germ stabilization in an attempt to extend the shelf life. The effects of treatment time, gap (sample distance to IR emitters) and infrared radiation intensity on wheat germ were analyzed through response surface methodology. Final moisture content, final temperature, color of germ and germ oil quality parameters: free fatty acid content changes and total tocopherol content were the responses evaluated using a Box-Behnken design. A combination of an infrared radiation intensity of 4800 W/m 2 , a 3 min treatment and 0.2 m emitter-sample distance were the best processing condition to stabilize the wheat germ without significantly reduction of the tocopherol content. A confirmatory experiment was conducted with these optimal conditions, and the heat-treated and raw germ samples were stored for 90 days at room temperature in three layer packages to protect them against light and oxygen. The oil quality parameters indicated that the raw germ had a shelf-life of about 15 days, with the heat-treated wheat germ maintaining its quality for at least 90 days under these stored conditions.

  10. Pot^encias simb olicas de ideais perfeitos de codimens~ao 2 com apresenta c~ao linear

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Zaqueu Alves

    2012-01-01

    O tema desse trabalho s~ao as pot^encias simb olicas de ideais perfeitos de codimens~ ao 2 com apresenta c~ao linear. Estudamos mais profundamente os casos onde os elementos s~ao formas lineares gerais e onde a matriz de sizigias e uma variante da matriz de Hankel. A principal contribui c~ao na abordagem presente e o uso da teoria birracional subjacente a alguns desses ideais para mostrar uma profunda rela c~ao entre os geradores das pot^encias simb olicas e os fatores de inv...

  11. An overview of wheat genome sequencing and its implications for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serves as the staple food for. 30% of the global population and is a rich source of proteins, minerals and other essential nutrients. But global warming is posing a serious threat to wheat productivity worldwide, and of note, wheat is extremely sensitive to heat, where. ±2◦. C temperature variation ...

  12. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... 1Group of Quality Wheat Breeding of State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology of Shandong Agricultural University,. No. 61 Daizong Road, Tai'an 271018, ... especially improving the amino acid composition of protein. Contents of wheat grain amino ... nutritional quality of wheat grain. Materials and methods.

  13. The mechanism on rhizosphere phosphorus activation of two wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism on rhizosphere phosphorus activation of two wheat genotypes with different phosphorus efficiency. ... genotype would be a potential approach for maintaining wheat yield potential in soils with low P bioavailability. Key words: Wheat, P efficiency, rhizosphere properties, P fractions, phosphates activity.

  14. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  15. Fusarium head blight: distribution in wheat in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treikale, O; Priekule, I; Javoisha, B; Lazareva, L

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat has, in recent years, been a very important worldwide disease in intensive growing of cereal. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of FHB in wheat in Latvia and to identify the Fusarium species involved. This paper describes the distribution of Fusarium species that were isolated from samples representing winter and spring wheat varieties in Latvia, identified both by the classical morphological analyses of J. Leslie and B. Summerell (2006) and by PCR. The FHB incidence range in winter wheat was 1-20%, in spring wheat was 1-42%. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of fusarial head blight in wheat in Latvia was heightened temperature at the time of an thesis of wheat. In winter wheat 9 Fusarium species caused FHB: F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. poae, F. oxysporum, F. cerealis, F. sporotrichoides and F. verticillioides were identified by morphological characterization, and 5 were confirmed by PCR-analysis. After experience of 5 years, it can be concluded that the most frequent in winter wheat were F. poae and F. culmorum. In spring wheat from F. culmorum was dominant among 8 Fusarium species. Among 13 varieties of spring wheat, three were sensitive ('Chamsin', 'W 166', 'Azurite') and one was resistant ('Granny') to FHB in conditions of high natural infection in 2009. The monitoring surveys demonstrate a significant presence of FHB in spring wheat in conditions of heightened temperature at the time of flowering in Latvia.

  16. Effect of Some Oligosaccharides on Functional Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of oligosaccharides on the functional properties of wheat starch. Methods: The blue value, retrogradation and pasting properties of wheat starch were determined. In addition, water activity (Aw), melting enthalpy and melting temperature of wheat starch paste were analyzed. Results: ...

  17. Characterization of a new synthetic wheat – Aegilops biuncialis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiments was to identify the synthetic wheat – Aegilops biuncialis germplasm Line 15-3-2 with 42 chromosomes. Morphologically, the spike of line 15-3-2 is intermediate to those of its wheat and Aegilops parents. Line 15-3-2 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel dwarf wheat line with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Novel dwarfing germplasms and dwarfing genes are valuable for the wheat breeding. A novel semi-dwarf line, 31505-1, with reduced height compared with its common wheat parent, was derived from a cross between common wheat and Thinopyrum ponticum. Cytological studies demonstrated that 31505-1 contained 42 ...

  19. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  20. Identifying high-yielding dryland wheat cultivars for the summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of new, improved dryland wheat cultivars released for the SRA during the recent period from 2003 to 2012 were evaluated for yield over several seasons under the National Wheat Cultivar Evaluation Program. As preliminary work for improving drought tolerance of wheat in the SRA, yield data of this genetic pool ...

  1. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  2. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  3. Determination of genetic diversity among Turkish durum wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat landraces represent an important source of genetic variation that can be used for future wheat breeding program. The rich wheat landraces from Turkey have not been sufficiently analyzed genetically. For this reason, genetic diversity and relationship of the landraces must be determined. In this study, genetic diversity ...

  4. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire...

  5. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour...

  6. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  7. Saliva fractions from South African Russian wheat aphid biotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjomov, 1913), is a notorious pest that reduces yield in wheat. Nevertheless, the source of eliciting activity during RWA–wheat interaction has not been established. This paper reports on the isolation of eliciting activity in aphid saliva that is capable of inducing ...

  8. Development of RAPD based markers for wheat rust resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rust diseases are the major cause of low yield of wheat in Pakistan. Wheat breeders all over the world as well as in Pakistan are deriving rust resistance genes from alien species like Triticum ventricosum and introducing them in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). One such example is the introgression of rust resistance ...

  9. Sources of stem rust resistance in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem or black rust of wheat caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Ericks and Henn (Pgt) is an important disease on wheat worldwide. Pgt is an obligate biotroph, heteroceous in its life cycle and heterothallic in mating type. Seedlings of 41 emmer (Triticum dicoccum), 56 durum (T. durum) wheat accessions were ...

  10. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  11. ROBO-AO M DWARF MULTIPLICITY SURVEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamman, Claire; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas; Schonhut, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed over 7,000 observations from Robo-AO’s field M dwarf survey taken on the 2.1m Kitt Peak telescope. Results will help determine the multiplicity fraction of M dwarfs as a function of primary mass, which is a crucial step towards understanding their evolution and formation mechanics. Through its robotic, laser-guided, and automated system, the Robo-AO instrument has yielded the largest adaptive-optics M dwarf survey to date. I developed a graphical user interface to quickly analyze this data. Initial data analysis included assessing data quality, checking the result from Robo-AO’s automatic reduction pipeline, and determining existence as well as the relative position of companions through a visual inspection. This program can be applied to other datasets and was successfully tested by re-analyzing observations from a separate Robo-AO survey. Following the preliminary results from this data analysis tool, further observations were done with the Keck II telescope by using its NIRC2 imager to follow up on ten select targets for the existence and physical association of companions. After a conservative initial cut for quality, 356 companions were found within 4” of a primary star out of 2,746 high quality Robo-AO M dwarf observations, including four triple systems. We will present a preliminary estimate for the multiplicity rate of wide M dwarf companions after accounting for observation limitations and the completeness of our search. Future research will yield insights into low-mass stellar formation and provide a database of nearby M dwarf multiples that will potentially assist ongoing and future surveys for planets around these stars, such as the NASA TESS mission.

  12. Hepatotoxicidade associada ao uso de esteroides anabolizantes

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Brinquinho; Ana Andresa Sousa; Janine Resende; João Valente

    2017-01-01

    O consumo de esteroides androgénicos anabolizantes tem vindo a aumentar no meio desportivo amador, sendo de fácil acesso apesar de se tratarem de substâncias proibidas. Estão descritos múltiplos efeitos laterais, sendo a hepatotoxicidade uma das mais reportadas. Apresentam-se dois casos clínicos representativos da lesão hepática associada ao consumo de esteroides anabolizantes. Ambos evidenciaram morbilidade significativa, embora nenhum deles tenha evoluído para falência hepática. Os autores ...

  13. O DIREITO HUMANO AO ACESSO À INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martín Pino Estrada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O acesso à internet tornou-se essencial na vida das pessoas. Estas podem manifestar as suas ideias, fazer denúncias, colocar vídeos, postar imagens, procurar emprego, fazer amizades, convocar protestos, incentivar grupos para atividades diversas, mobilizar gente em prol de reivindicação de direitos, assim como para conquistá-los, pedir ajuda, estudar e adquirir conhecimento, dentre outras atividades afins. Então, ao tornar-se tão importante, tornou-se também um direito humano, que não pode ser mais retirado da rede.

  14. Esta é minha carta ao mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mourão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da primeira carta de Emily Dickinson (1830-1886 a Thomas Higginson, que então seria seu “preceptor” e interlocutor para sempre, este texto propõe uma leitura da obra da escritora norte-americana a partir do biografema da carta e da ideia de sua obra como “carta ao mundo” – conforme um de seus mais famosos poemas –, com todas as implicações trazidas pelo termo, e à luz das teorias de Roland Barthes, Maurice Blanchot e Silvina Rodrigues Lopes, entre outros.

  15. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  16. Iron Biofortification of Modern Wheat Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz Darbani; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a public health problem and is primarily due to poverty in the developing world which leads to a simple, undiversified diet that largely is based on stables, such as wheat and rice. One of the key targets in the international alliance HarvestPlus is to boost the iron...... content of these stables to improve the living conditions of the poor people. As member of HarvestPlus we are working to improve the iron content quanti- and qualitatively in the wheat grain. Therefore, wheat grain has been subjected to work through endosperm-specific expression of the ferritin protein...... as an iron storage complex. Primary evaluation of Bobwhite cv. has approved that endosperm expression of wheat’s own ferritin, works as a sink for iron and accumulates two to three folds more iron in the endosperm. To bring the bioavailable iron on the people's tables, modern cultivars were applied for co...

  17. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  18. Redesigning the exploitation of wheat genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C

    2014-10-01

    More than half a million wheat genetic resources are resting in gene banks worldwide. Unlocking their hidden favorable genetic diversity for breeding is pivotal for enhancing grain yield potential, and averting future food shortages. Here, we propose exploiting recent advances in hybrid wheat technology to uncover the masked breeding values of wheat genetic resources. The gathered phenotypic information will enable a targeted choice of accessions with high value for pre-breeding among this plethora of genetic resources. We intend to provoke a paradigm shift in pre-breeding strategies for grain yield, moving away from allele mining toward genome-wide selection to bridge the yield gap between genetic resources and elite breeding pools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization are used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. However, pelletization of torrefied biomass can be challenging and in this study the torrefaction and pelletizing properties...... of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...... straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  20. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  1. Radioimmunoassay of deoxynivalenol in wheat and corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.C.; Zhang, G.S.; Chu, F.S.

    With the availability of antibody against deoxynivalenol triacetate (DON-triacetate), a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for DON in wheat was developed. DON is extracted from the sample with acetonitrile-water defatted with hexane, and then reacted with acetic anhydride to form DON-triacetate. The reaction mixture is loaded onto a C-18 cartridge to remove excess reagents and impurities. Acetylated DON is eluted from the cartridge with 50% methanol in water, and then analyzed by radioimmunoassay utilizing antiserum against DON-triacetate and tritiated DON-triacetate. Overall recovery for DON added to wheat between 50 and 5000 ppb was 86% with a standard deviation of 7% and coefficient of variation of 8%. The limit of detection for DON was about 20 ppb. Analysis of 12 naturally contaminated wheat, corn, and mixed feed samples for DON revealed that RIA results agreed well with thin layer chromatographic analyses performed by other laboratories.

  2. O TEMA DA JUSTIFICAÇÃO NAS CARTAS AOS ROMANOS E AOS GÂLATAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. F. Alisson

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das dificuldades para entender a doutrina de Paulo sobre a justificação é o fato de esse tema constar em escritos que retomam a exposição anteriormente apresentada em forma oral à comunidade cristã da Galácia e de Roma. Ele escreve aos destinatários com a finalidade de esclarecer assunto anteriormente explicado. É o que se vê nas referências ao quérigma que recordam o primeiro anúncio da salvação em Cristo, já comunicado aos destinatários em outra ocasião. O uso freqüente da fórmula "acaso não sabeis?" é indício do conhecimento que os destinatários têm sobre o assunto.

  3. Evaluation of broiler performance when fed roundup ready wheat event mon 71800, control, and commercial wheat varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 40% wheat grain from Roundup Ready wheat (MON 71800), its similar nontransgenic control (MON 71900), or reference commercial wheat varieties. The feeding trial lasted 40 d, and each treatment consisted of 10 replicates of

  4. Dissection of the multigenic wheat stem rust resistance present in the Montenegrin spring wheat accession PI 362698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to identify and characterize stem rust resistance genes in common wheat, Triticum aestivum, has been stimulated by the emergence of Ug99-lineage races of the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), in Eastern Africa. The Montenegrin spring wheat landrace PI 362698 ...

  5. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  6. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Budak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum and durum wheat (Triticum durum and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides, which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  7. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  8. How fast was wild wheat domesticated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Willcox, George

    2006-03-31

    Prehistoric cultivation of wild wheat in the Fertile Crescent led to the selection of mutants with indehiscent (nonshattering) ears, which evolved into modern domestic wheat. Previous estimates suggested that this transformation was rapid, but our analyses of archaeological plant remains demonstrate that indehiscent domesticates were slow to appear, emerging approximately 9500 years before the present, and that dehiscent (shattering) forms were still common in cultivated fields approximately 7500 years before the present. Slow domestication implies that after cultivation began, wild cereals may have remained unchanged for a long period, supporting claims that agriculture originated in the Near East approximately 10,500 years before the present.

  9. Yellow rust protection on the wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzalová, Alena; Bartoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Heavy incidence of yellow rust in the years 2014 and 2015 has proved high deleterious effects of this rust. For this reason this publication deals with yellow rust on wheat. Rusts on wheat cause losses every year. In the years of an epidemic yield can be decreased by more than a half. Epidemics of stem rust and yellow rust occur in irregular intervals. Leaf rust causes damage every year particularly in central and southern part of Moravia. Chemical control limits yield losses, however in the ...

  10. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  11. Nefrocalcinose associada ao uso de esteroide anabolizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverton Machado Luchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Os esteroides anabolizantes têm sido usados como arma terapêutica em diversas condições clínicas. Entretanto, o uso abusivo e indiscriminado, associado a outros suplementos nutricionais, tem gerado efeitos adversos graves. Relato do caso: Sexo masculino, 21 anos, admitido com náuseas, astenia, hiporexia, cefaleia e hipertensão arterial. Exames no sangue evidenciaram Cr: 3,9 mg/dl U:100 mg/dl e Cálcio total 14 mg/dl. Ultrassonografia e biópsia renal compatíveis com nefrocalcinose. Houve melhora gradativa da função renal e da calcemia após hidratação vigorosa e furosemida. Entretanto, após 1 ano, persistiram depósitos renais de cálcio e relação córticomedular reduzida ao ultrassom e creatinina estável em 1,4 mg/dl. Casos anteriores evidenciaram necrose tubular aguda e nefrite intersticial com poucos depósitos de cálcio no interstício renal. Nesse caso, encontramos nefrocalcinose acentuada associada à nefroesclerose. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar a ocorrência de injúria renal aguda com nefrocalcinose associada ao uso de esteroide anabolizante e oferecer uma revisão do assunto.

  12. Testing the VLT AO facility with ASSIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuik, Remko; Arsenault, Robin; Boland, Wilfried; Deep, Atul; Delabre, Bernard; Hubin, Norbert; Kolb, Johann; La Penna, Paolo; Molster, Frank; Wiegers, Emiel

    2010-07-01

    The testing and verification of ESO Very Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Facility (VLT-AOF) requires new and innovative techniques to deal with the absence of an intermediate focus on the telescope. ASSIST, The Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator, was developed to provide a testing facility for the ESO AOF and will allow off-telescope testing of three elements of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility; the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the AO systems for MUSE and HAWK-I (GALACSI and GRAAL). ASSIST will provide a full testing environment which includes an interferometric testing mode for the DSM, an on-axis testing mode with a single wavefront sensor and full operation testing modes for both the AO systems. Both natural as well as laser guide stars will be simulated under various asterisms and a realistic turbulent atmosphere will be provided for varying atmospheric conditions. ASSIST passed its final design review and is now being manufactured, integrated and tested and will be operational in mid 2011, in time for first testing with the DSM.

  13. Escala de valores relativos ao trabalho : EVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Juliana Barreiros

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura internacional são encontradas várias escalas para medir valores relativos ao trabalho, porém a maioria apresenta problemas com relação à definição do conceito ou a falta de integração com os modelos teóricos sobre valores pessoais. No Brasil foram encontrados dois instrumentos, um não foi validado para a população brasileira e o outro foi validado para uma população de baixa escolaridade. Foi objetivo do presente estudo desenvolver e validar uma Escala de Valores relativos ao Trabalho. Para o desenvolvimento da EVT foi realizado um levantamento de instrumentos anteriores e foram entrevistados trabalhadores. Após a análise de juízes e validação semântica, o instrumento foi respondido por 394 pessoas. A análise fatorial apontou para quatro fatores: Realização no trabalho, Relações sociais, Prestígio e Estabilidade. O instrumento após validação é composto por 45 itens. Os resultados corroboraram o modelo teórico previsto e conclui-se que a escala foi devidamente estabelecida e pode ser utilizada para pesquisa e diagnóstico.

  14. A haplotype specific to North European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsombalova, J.; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Peusa, H.; Jakobson, I.; Jarve, M.; Valárik, Miroslav; Doležel, Jaroslav; Jarve, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2017), s. 653-664 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bread wheat * genetic diversity * polyploid wheat * introgression lines * molecular analysis * tetraploid wheat * hexaploid wheat * powdery mildew * spelta l. * map * Common wheat * Triticum aestivum L * Spelt * Triticum spelta L * Chromosome 4A * Zeroalleles * Haplotype * Linkage disequilibrium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.294, year: 2016

  15. Pricing behavior of USA exporter in wheat international market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, R. P.; Sumono; Iddrisu, Y.; Darus, M.; Sihombing, L. P.; Jufri

    2018-02-01

    The number of wheat producing countries is changing over time. It is expected the change in wheat supply will lead world wheat market become more competitive and reduce market power of major exporter country. This paper tries to identify and examined the degree of market power on wheat international market for USA by using the Pricing to Market (PTM) method. USA is the biggest producer and exporter in wheat market. The PTM method found that USA impose noncompetitive strategy by applying price discrimination and apply market power to their importer country.

  16. Binary mixtures of waxy wheat and conventional wheat as measured by NIR reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Graybosch, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Waxy wheat contains very low concentration (generally industries seek to have a rapid technique to ensure the purity of identity preserved waxy wheat lots. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, a technique widely used in the cereals industry for proximate analysis, is a logical candidate for measuring contamination level and thus is the subject of this study. Two sets of wheat samples, harvested, prepared and scanned one year apart, were used to evaluate the NIR concept. One year consisted of nine pairs of conventional:waxy preparations, with each preparation consisting of 29 binary mixtures ranging in conventional wheat fraction (by weight) of 0-100% (261 spectral samples). The second year was prepared in the same fashion, with 12 preparations, thus producing 348 spectral samples. One year's samples were controlled for protein content and moisture level between pair components in order to avoid the basis for the conventional wheat fraction models being caused by something other than spectral differences attributed to waxy and nonwaxy endosperm. Likewise the second year was controlled by selection of conventional wheat for mixture preparation based on either protein content or cluster analysis of principal components of candidate spectra. Partial least squares regression, one and two-term linear regression, and support vector machine regression models were examined. Validation statistics arising from sets within the same year or across years were remarkably similar, as were those among the three regression types. A single wavelength on second derivative transformed spectra, namely 2290 nm, was effective at estimating the mixture level by weight, with standard errors of performance in the 6-9% range. Thus, NIR spectroscopy may be used for measuring conventional hard wheat 'contamination' in waxy wheat at mixture levels above 10% w/w. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em

  18. Domestication and crop physiology: roots of green-revolution wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, J Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-11-01

    Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and 'Veery'-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F(2) of 'Norin 10' and 'Brevor', further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat-rye translocation in 'Kavkaz' for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters.

  19. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat and barley, bread, burghul and parboiled wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Residues of 14 C-pirimiphos-methyl in stored grain declined to 88% in wheat and 82% in barley after 12 months. Corresponding percentages with the unlabelled insecticide were 78% and 59% since only the parent chemical was determined. Surface residues, removed by washing the grain with water, decreased from 3.3 to 0.2 mg/kg for wheat and from 2.0 to 0.2 mg/kg for barley. Bound residues increased gradually with time and reached a maximum of 2.2% for wheat and 3.0% for barley in 12 months. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in flour increased from 1.1 at 0 time to 2.2 mg/kg after one year. The mean values of residues contained in the unwashed wheat grain were 81% for bran and 19% for flour. The loss in milling during preparation of wholemeal flour from prewashed grain was 7% for wheat and 6% for barley. Processed products from wheat showed residue losses ranging from 24 to 45%. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Sensitized with Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein in Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Chinuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP, has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  1. Drought tolerant wheat varieties developed through mutation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In search for higher yielding drought tolerant wheat varieties, one of the Kenyan high yielding variety 'Pasa' was irradiated with gamma rays (at 150, 200, and 250gy) in 1997 so as to induce variability and select for drought tolerance. Six mutants ((KM10, KM14, KM15, KM18, KM20 and KM21) were selected at M4 for their ...

  2. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  3. Sequence divergence between spelt and common wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, M.; Zhao, Q.; Qi, F.; Stiller, J.; Tang, Q.; Miao, J.; Vrána, Jan; Holušová, Kateřina; Liu, D.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Manners, J. M.; Han, B. P.; Liu, C.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 5 (2018), s. 1125-1132 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BREAD WHEAT * DNA * DIVERSITY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2016

  4. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread

  5. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  6. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  7. Characterization of wheat varieties by seed storageprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Electrophorogram for each variety were scored and Jaccard's similarity index (JSI) was calculated. Genetic diversity of wheat was evaluated by constructing the dendrogram for high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) gluten subunit bands.

  8. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Perez de Ayala, P.; Villamide, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets

  9. Physical, Sensory and Microbiological Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread was produced from the flour blends using the straight dough method. Loaf weight and volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of plantain flour inclusion. Sensory evaluation of the flour samples revealed significant differences in the ratings for crumb colour and texture between 100% wheat ...

  10. Extraction and fractionation of wheat flour proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, A.; Bosveld, P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Moonen, H.H.E.; Scheepstra, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extraction of wheat flour with 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution dissolved 65–67% of the total flour nitrogen. The SDS‐insoluble proteinaceous material was separated into glycoproteins‐I, II and III by ultracentrifugation. Part of the SDS‐soluble proteinaceous material was precipitated by

  11. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montenegro, J. D.; Golicz, A. A.; Bayer, P.E.; Hurgobin, B.; Lee, H. T.; Chan, C. K. K.; Visendi, P.; Lai, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, J.; Edwards, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2017), s. 1007-1013 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : database * diversity * genome * pangenome * single nucleotide polymorphisms * Triticum aestivum * wheat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  12. Allelopathy regulates wheat genotypes performance at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth adaptation and allelopathic potential of four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions has been investigated in pot experiments by prohydrojasmon (PDJ, 10 - 5M) and soil water (75 and 45%) at the enhancement stage. This paper also presented the performance of photosynthesis, water use and weed ...

  13. Molecular genetic studies on irradiated wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2002-01-01

    Composite genotype(octamer hybrid) was obtained from crossing among eight Egyptian hexaploid wheat cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought stress to produce a genotype, which can economize on the irrigation water requirements or can tolerate drought stress. Gamma irradiation with 10-Krad was used to induce mutations, which could improve drought tolerance for this composite. From eight Egyptian wheat cultivars, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G-160 and Sk-61, respectively. They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield-related traits. Bulked segregating analysis developed some RAPD and SSR markers with different primers, which were considered as molecular for drought tolerance in wheat. Hal 2-like gene was introduced into Egyptian wheat cultivar G-164 via micro projectile bombardment. Two putative transgenic plants were successfully detected by leaf painting with the herbicide basta. PCR/ Southern blotting analysis indicated the presence of both/either bar and/or Hal 2-like genes in the genomic background of the two transgenic plants

  14. Hepatotoxicidade associada ao uso de esteroides anabolizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Brinquinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de esteroides androgénicos anabolizantes tem vindo a aumentar no meio desportivo amador, sendo de fácil acesso apesar de se tratarem de substâncias proibidas. Estão descritos múltiplos efeitos laterais, sendo a hepatotoxicidade uma das mais reportadas. Apresentam-se dois casos clínicos representativos da lesão hepática associada ao consumo de esteroides anabolizantes. Ambos evidenciaram morbilidade significativa, embora nenhum deles tenha evoluído para falência hepática. Os autores pretendem chamar a atenção para o consumo destes fármacos, particularmente frequente em indivíduos jovens, praticantes de desporto amador.

  15. Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisory Services Given to Wheat Farmers through Wheat Farm Monitor Specialists in West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rasouli azar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of agricultural advisory services given to wheat farmers through "monitor specialists" of wheat based on farmer's knowledge، skills and attitude toward service given by the specialists to the farmers. The research instrument was structural questionnaire with close-ended questions، where their validity and reliability were confirmed. The target population of this study consisted of all wheat farmers who participated in wheat plan in West Azerbaijan province (N=6293. According to Krejcie and Morgan research's table، a number of 362 people were selected by using statistical sampling in a stratified and cluster randomization methods. Finally 326 questionnaires were filled out and analyzed (n=326. The results of correlation tests and multivariate regression showed that delivered agricultural advisory services delivered to wheat farmers of West Azerbaijan province through wheat monitor specialists to wheat the farmers were effective.

  16. Acesso ao aborto e liberdades laicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arriada Lorea

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Enfrentar o tema do aborto no Brasil requer uma perspectiva laica, na medida em que a liberdade de consciência assegurada na Constituição Federal impõe ao Estado contemplar não apenas as diferentes visões oriundas de distintas religiões, mas, principalmente, assegurar o direito à diversidade existente no seio de uma mesma religião, garantindo o direito de divergir da hierarquia de sua própria igreja. Assim, não havendo obstáculo jurídico à descriminalização do aborto no país, resta aos legisladores reformar a lei vigente, para descriminalizar o aborto, atendendo os compromissos assumidos pelo Brasil perante organismos internacionais de proteção dos direitos humanos e assegurando a eficácia das liberdades laicas.In Brazil, face an issue like abortion requires a lay perspective considering that the freedom of conscience assured by the Federal Constitution lays upon the State the need to look not only at different views from different religions but specially assure the right to the existing diversity within the same religion, as well as, the right to diverge from the hierarchy of his/her own religion. Therefore there is no legal barrier for the decriminalization of abortion in the country. It is up to the legislators to reform the present law to decriminalize abortion, assuming the commitments made by Brazil upon international organizations for the protection of the human rights assuring the efficacy of lay liberties.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  18. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  19. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  20. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  1. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Helfenstein

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India, and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1 did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  3. Domestication and Crop Physiology: Roots of Green-Revolution Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and ‘Veery’-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Methods Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. Key Results The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F2 of ‘Norin 10’ and ‘Brevor’, further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat–rye translocation in ‘Kavkaz’ for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Conclusions Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters. PMID:17940075

  4. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat.

  5. Robo-AO KOI Survey: LGS-AO imaging of every Kepler planetary candidate host star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed

    2018-01-01

    Robo-AO is observing every Kepler planetary candidate host star (KOI) in high resolution, made possible using the unprecedented efficiency provided by automation of LGS adaptive optics. Nearby contaminating stars may be the source of false positive transit signals or, if a bona fide planet is in the system, dilute the observed transit signal, resulting in underestimated planet radii. In 3857 observations, we find 632 stars within 4" (approximately the Kepler pixel scale) of KOIs. In particular, we find 26 rocky, habitable zone planets with contaminating nearby stars, 8 of which are now more likely to have large gaseous envelopes. We present evidence that the majority of these nearby stars are unbound, and use the likely bound stars to test theories of planetary formation and evolution within multiple star systems. Finally, we discuss future all-sky, kilo-target surveys made possible by the construction of a Southern Robo-AO analog.

  6. AO group, AO subgroup, Garden and Pauwels classification systems of femoral neck fractures: are they reliable and reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašpar, Drago; Crnković, Tomislav; Durović, Dražen; Podsednik, Dinko; Slišurić, Ferdinand

    2012-08-01

    To determine which of the classification systems for the femoral neck fracture between AO group, AO subgroup, Garden and Pauwels is much more reliable and reproducible to predict a method of treatment, radiological prediction of nonunion and prediction of outcomes. Five observers classified 77 randomly selected anterior- posterior (AP) and lateral view preoperative radiographs of the femoral neck fractures according to AO group, AO subgroup, Garden and Pauwels classification systems. The procedure was repeated on the same radiographs after three months. First classification is used to calculate interobserver agreement by kappa value between observers, while the first and second classification has served to calculate intraobserver kappa value for each examiner. Overall mean for classification system for interobserver agreement is: AO 0.44, AO subgroup 0.17, Garden 0.41 and Pauwels 0.19. Mean intraobserver agreement for AO group was 0.56, AO subgroup 0.38, Garden 0.49 and Pauwels 0.38 coefficient kappa value. Garden and AO group are useful for the division of femoral neck fractures without displacement and with displacement, but they are not for clinical use. AO subgroup and Pauwels classification are not recommended for further use.

  7. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Anawar, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  8. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  9. Quality of synthetic hexaploid wheat containing null alleles at Glu-A1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GSs. However, incorporation of HMW-GS from Ae. tauschii in six synthetic hexaploid wheat lines significantly increased most quality related parameters. The potential values of these wheat lines in improving the quality of wheat are discussed.

  10. Directly Imaging Planets with SCExAO: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Tamura, Motohide; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Uyama, Taichi; Garcia, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    We present the first science results from the newly commissioned Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics project, an experimental system dedicated to image faint jovian planets around nearby stars. SCExAO is now achieving true extreme AO capability. We describe the typical performance of SCExAO, the first images of benchmark exoplanets and planet-forming disks, and SCExAO’s first science results. Finally, we briefly chart the path forward for SCExAO to achieve its full scientific capability, including imaging mature planets in reflected light.

  11. Adesao ao guia alimentar para populacao brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Verly Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar a adesão ao Guia Alimentar para População Brasileira. MÉTODOS : Amostra composta por participantes do Inquérito de Saúde de São Paulo (n = 1.661 que preencheram dois recordatórios de 24 horas. Foi utilizado modelo bivariado de efeito misto para a razão entre o consumo de energia do grupo de alimentos e o consumo calórico total. A razão estimada foi utilizada para calcular o percentual de indivíduos com consumo abaixo ou acima da recomendação. RESULTADOS : Pelo menos 80,0% da população consome abaixo do recomendado para: leite e derivados; frutas e sucos de frutas; e cereais, tubérculos e raízes; aproximadamente 60,0% para legumes e verduras; 30,0% para feijões; e 8,0% para carnes e ovos. Adolescentes apresentaram a maior inadequação para legumes e verduras (90,0%, e o estrato de maior renda foi associado à menor inadequação para óleos, gorduras e sementes oleaginosas (57,0%. CONCLUSÕES : Foi observado consumo inadequado dos grupos de alimentos relacionados com aumento do risco de doenças crônicas.

  12. Medidas socioeducativas: cartas ao reinado do saber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislei Domingas Romanzini Lazzarotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo problematiza a experiência desenvolvida na defensoria interdisciplinar de adolescentes em conflito com a lei num programa de extensão acadêmica da Univewrsidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, no contexto de políticas públicas brasileiras. A metodologia do estudo consiste em analisar as narrativas sobre o trabalho da equipe de defensoria interdisciplinar discutindo as experiências ali vivenciadas com um olhar crítico sobre as práticas desenvolvidas no atendimento de adolescentes que cumprem medida socioeducativa por terem cometido ato infracional. A análise conceitual é orientada pelo diálogo com o filósofo Michel Foucault, especial em seu texto " La vie des hommes infâmes”, mapeando as relações de poder e saber que regulam as práticas institucionais e visam ao controle social dos indivíduos. A análise possibilita uma reflexão sobre as ligações que são estabelecidas entre os saberes do direito, da psicologia e da pedagogia, produzindo práticas que tendem a regular e prescrever a vida de adolescentes no contexto de atendimento socioeducativo, numa perspectiva de judicialização da vida contemporânea.

  13. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V.B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0–30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy. - Highlights: Ø γ-irradiation was found to inactivate Lipase present in Wheat Germ. Ø The treatment did not result in significant changes in Total Ash, Moisture and Protein Content of Wheat Germ. Ø The irradiation at 30 kGy resulted in 31.2 % inactivation of Lipase in Wheat Germ

  14. Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat.

  15. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  16. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for modeling wheat response to heat: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martre, P.; Reynolds, M.P.; Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Alderman, P.D.; Cammarano, D.; Maiorano, Andrea; Ruane, A.C.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Anothai, J.; Supit, I.

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown during

  17. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for modeling wheat response to heat: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Reynolds, Matthew; Asseng, Senthold

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown dur...

  18. Development and characterization of edible films based on gluten from semi-hard and soft Brazilian wheat flours (development of films based on gluten from wheat flours Desenvolvimento e caracterização de filmes comestíveis de glúten de farinhas fortes e fracas de trigos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sayuri Tanada-Palmu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Edible films based on gluten from four types of Brazilian wheat gluten (2 "semi-hard" and 2 "soft" were prepared and mechanical and barrier properties were compared with those of wheat gluten films with vital gluten. Water vapor, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percent elongation at break, solubility in water and surface morphology were measured. The films from "semi-hard" wheat flours showed similar water vapor permeability and solubility in water to films from vital gluten and better tensile strength than the films from "soft" and vital gluten. The films from vital gluten had higher elongation at break and oxygen permeability and also lower solubility in water than the films from the Brazilian wheat "soft" flours. In spite of the vital gluten showed greater mechanical resistance, desirable for the bakery products, for the purpose of developing gluten films Brazilian "semi-hard" wheat flours can be used instead of vital gluten, since they showed similar barrier and mechanical properties.Filmes à base de glúten de quatro tipos de farinhas de trigo brasileiras (2 "semi-fortes " e 2 "fracas" foram preparados e suas propriedades mecânicas e de barreira foram comparadas com filmes com glúten vital (comercial. Permeabilidade ao vapor d'água e oxigênio, resistência à tração, porcentagem de elongação na ruptura, solubilidade em água e morfologia de superfície foram medidas. Filmes de glúten das farinhas "semi-fortes" mostraram similar permeabilidade ao vapor d'água e solubilidade em água em comparação aos filmes de glúten vital e melhor resistência à tração do que os filmes das farinhas "fracas" e glúten vital. O filme de glúten vital apresentou maior elongação na ruptura e permeabilidade ao oxigênio do que os filmes das farinhas brasileiras e ainda mais baixa solubilidade que as farinhas fracas. Apesar do glúten vital ter uma grande resistência mecânica, desejável para produtos de panificação, para o prop

  19. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  20. The application of potassium phosphate primes wheat against aphid infestation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Botany) Wheat is the second most important grain crop produced in South Africa. It is mostly used for human consumption (e.g. biscuits, rusks, breakfast cereals, and bread) with the remainder being used as seed and animal feed. Wheat is also used for production of alcohol for ethanol, absorbing agents for adhesives, disposable diapers and industrial uses as starch on coatings (Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 2011). The leading wheat producing areas in South Africa...

  1. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  2. Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield with WOFOST in County Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shangjie; Pei, Zhiyuan; He, Yajuan; Wang, Lianlin; Ma, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Winter wheat is mainly planted in water shortage area, such as North China and Northwest China. As a key field management measure, irrigation plays an important role in the production of winter wheat. This paper focuses on the improvement of regional winter wheat yield estimation technique in county scale by adjusting the irrigation management measure in crop growth model. The WOFOST (World Food Study) model was used by dividing the whole county into a number of EMUs (...

  3. Wheat breeding in abiotic stress conditions of solonetz

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević Miodrag; Petrović Sofija; Banjac Borislav

    2012-01-01

    The complex stress environment at locality Kumane (Banat) primarily is caused by alkaline soil of solonetz type, but includes the other sources of wheat variability, water-logging and occasional extreme temperatures, as well. In order to obtain wheat varieties that could fulfill the requirement of enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress conditions of alkaline soil a set of wheat varieties was examined in parallel trials in Kumane (solonetz), and at Rimski Sanc...

  4. Preliminary Findings on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Organic Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Anne; Fox, Dr. Stephen; Entz, Dr. Martin; Tenuta, Dr. Mario

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi aid many crop plants in the uptake of phosphorus, which is one of the most limiting nutrients in organic crop production. Genotypic variation for mycorrhizal colonization exists in wheat cultivars. Mycorrhizal colonization and yield were studied in 5 modern wheat cultivars and 5 older wheat cultivars to investigate if differences in colonization exist between the cultivars. Cultivars that may be better suited for organic production are identified.

  5. Rejecting New Technology: The Case of Genetically Modified Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Berwald; Colin A. Carter; Guillaume P. Gruère

    2006-01-01

    Canada has stringent regulations covering the release of new wheat varieties, but the United States has virtually no regulations in this area. Monsanto Co. developed genetically modified (GM) spring wheat for North America, and made a commitment to the U.S. industry to release this new technology simultaneously in both Canada and the United States, or not at all. The Canadian regulatory bias against new varieties acted as a veto against GM wheat and caused Monsanto to shelve the technology in...

  6. Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness of Wheat Crop in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Anwar; Zakir Hussain; M. Siddique Javed

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of wheat crop and its implications for resource allocation towards competing crops. The extent of policy distortion and agricultural protection was also determined by the study. The data were collected from APCom on cost of production of wheat cropover the three year period (2001-2003). Two main provinces contributing towards wheat production i.e. Punjab and Sindh were selected as the sample. This data were then...

  7. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  8. Induced multiple disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borojevic, K.; Worland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The existence of genes suppressing resistance to leaf rust, stem rust and yellow rust in hexaploid wheat has been suggested. If such genes are deleted or inactivated, a more resistant variety may be obtained. In mutant lines of the wheat variety San Pastore, selected after treatment with 20,000 rad of gamma-rays, resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust, and to some extent to Erysiphe graminis was determined. The mutants responded to infection by producing necrotic flecks in the presence of high level of disease inoculum. Similar flecks develop under stress condition. It is likely that the mother variety San Pastore carries genes for resistance which are masked by suppressor genes. Irradiation inactivates suppressors so that resistance genes which were previously masked are expressed. The first results of monosomic analysis indicate that chromosomes of groups 4 and 5 or possibly 7 may be critical for expression of resistance in the mutant lines. (author)

  9. Preparation, properties and applications of wheat gluten edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TANADA-PALMU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible films from wheat gluten were prepared with various amounts of glycerol as a plasticizer. Water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percentage elongation at break at different water activities ( aw were measured. Films with low amounts of glycerol had lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break. Wheat gluten coatings reduced weight loss during two weeks of storage for cherry tomatoes and sharon fruits compared to uncoated controls. A bilayer film of wheat gluten and beeswax significantly lowered weight loss from coated cheese cubes compared to single layer coating of wheat gluten.;

  10. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal volatile fatty acid emission, blood constituents, and faecal microbiota in growing pigs.

  11. Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tafoughalti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production is of paramount importance in the region of Meknes, which is mainly produced under rainfed conditions. It is the dominant cereal, the greater proportion being the soft type. During the past few decades, rainfall flaws have caused a number of cases of droughts. These flaws have seriously affecting wheat production. The main objective of this study is the assessment of rainfall variability at monthly, seasonal and annual scales and to determine their impact on wheat yields. To reduce this impact we suggested some mechanisms of adaptation. We used monthly rainfall records for three decades and wheat yields records of fifteen years. Rainfall variability is assessed utilizing the precipitation concentration index and the variation coefficient. The association between wheat yields and cumulative rainfall amounts of different scales was calculated based on a regression model to evaluate the impact of rainfall on wheat yields. Data analysis shown moderate seasonal and irregular annual rainfall distribution. Yields fluctuated from 210 to 4500 Kg/ha with 52% of coefficient of variation. The correlation results shows that soft wheat and hard wheat are strongly correlated with the period of January to March than with the whole growing-season. While they are adversely correlated with the mid-spring. This investigation concluded that synchronizing appropriate adaptation with the period of January to March was crucial to achieving success yield of wheat.

  12. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 reg...

  13. Vacuole Formation in Wheat Starchy Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtel, D. B.; Frend, A.; Kaleikau, L. A.; Wilson, J. D.; Shewry, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of vacuoles in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Highbury) starchy endosperm cells was studied using electron microscopy. Some vacuoles were always present, even in the coenocytic cytoplasm. The first formed endosperm cells were highly vacuolated, but became filled with cytoplasm as they grew older. Various-sized pieces of cytoplasm were found in vacuoles of developing endosperm cells, probably as a result of autophagic sequestration. The membranes of the autographic vacuoles appeare...

  14. Risk-Efficient Irrigation Strategies for Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sushil

    1988-01-01

    Agricultural production is risky. When farmers are risk-averse, they are likely to put a premium on production methods that reduce perceived risks. Irrigation is generally believed to be a riskreducing input. By using the concept of stochastic dominance, risk-efficient irrigation policies for wheat grown in central India are identified and quantitative estimates of benefits due to risk reduction are obtained. Such benefits were found to be of a large order of magnitude. The more common method...

  15. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    OpenAIRE

    Baenziger, P. Stephen; Salah, Ibrahim; Little, Richard S.; Santra, Dipak K.; Regassa, Teshome; Wang, Meng Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal), followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region) beginning with the F 6 generation. Yield a...

  16. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wheat genotypes under different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César Vieira Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wheat tillering capacity defines yield and yield components, being affected by seeding rate. This study aimed at evaluating wheat genotypes under different seeding rates, in Londrina and Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, in 2009 and 2010. A completely randomized blocks design, in a factorial scheme, with four replications, was used. The agronomic traits of three wheat genotypes (PF 014384, BRS Tangará and BRS Pardela were evaluated under the seeding rates of 150 pl m-2, 250 pl m-2, 350 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. In Londrina, the maximum yield was observed at densities close to 270 pl m-2, while in Ponta Grossa (2009 there was a linear fit. There was no adjustment for plant height, concerning seeding rate. The number of ears per area (ears m-2 was higher in Ponta Grossa (2009 and did not differ between the locations, in 2010. In Ponta Grossa (2010, the highest one thousand seeds weight was estimated at the density of 341 pl m-2, while in Londrina (2010 it was estimated at 150 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. The seeding rate affected grain yield, depending on place and year. In Londrina, there was a limit for yield, concerning seeding rate. The one thousand seeds weight was influenced by seeding rate, depending on year and location. Plant height was affected by genotype and growing area.

  18. STUDY OF WHEAT PROTEIN DEGRADATION DURING GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Michalcová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutens, the storage proteins of cereals, play significant role in technological and nutraceutical quality of cereal grains. Whereas the high content of glutens allows making better structure of dough, consummation of foods with high gluten content can cause digestive problems. In our work, we studied ability of wheat proteases to degrade proteins, especially glutens. Wheat grains were germinated for up to seven days at three different temperatures 15, 20, 30 °C and pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.5, 7.0, 8.0. Proteins were fractionated into salt-soluble albumins and globulins, alcohol-soluble gliadins and base-soluble glutenins. In these fractions, protein content and their composition were analyzed by Bradford method and SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that remarkable degradation of glutens started after three days and the lowest concentration was measured at the seventh day of germination of wheat grain at temperature 20 °C, pH 5.5.

  19. Free radical kinetics of irradiated durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.; Polat, M.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, a detailed ESR investigation of characteristic features and kinetic behaviors at three different temperatures of free radicals produced in a species of durum wheat cultivated in Turkey and irradiated at doses of up to 5 kGy by a γ source, is reported. Unirradiated wheat samples exhibit a weak, single-line ESR signal originating from a radical of unknown structure called radical III in this work. Irradiation produces two more radicals identified as hydroxyalkyl (I) and aldehydalkyl (II) radicals beside radical III. The radicals (I, II and III) follow complicated kinetics. Species I and II initially decay very fast after the irradiation followed by slower decay. Radical half-life times depend on whether they were induced in the crystalline or amorphous fractions of the wheat starch. Activation energy values of the radicals were found to follow the order E a (III)>E a (II)>E a (I). ESR parameters of the radical species were determined by simulating experimental spectra recorded following the irradiation. Room temperature dose-response curves and variations of different spectral parameters between 120 and 390 K were also studied

  20. Free radical kinetics of irradiated durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, M.; Polat, M

    2000-04-01

    In the present work, a detailed ESR investigation of characteristic features and kinetic behaviors at three different temperatures of free radicals produced in a species of durum wheat cultivated in Turkey and irradiated at doses of up to 5 kGy by a {gamma} source, is reported. Unirradiated wheat samples exhibit a weak, single-line ESR signal originating from a radical of unknown structure called radical III in this work. Irradiation produces two more radicals identified as hydroxyalkyl (I) and aldehydalkyl (II) radicals beside radical III. The radicals (I, II and III) follow complicated kinetics. Species I and II initially decay very fast after the irradiation followed by slower decay. Radical half-life times depend on whether they were induced in the crystalline or amorphous fractions of the wheat starch. Activation energy values of the radicals were found to follow the order E{sub a}(III)>E{sub a}(II)>E{sub a}(I). ESR parameters of the radical species were determined by simulating experimental spectra recorded following the irradiation. Room temperature dose-response curves and variations of different spectral parameters between 120 and 390 K were also studied.

  1. Impact of protein markers in wheat breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obreht Dragana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of structure, function and polymorphism of cereal storage and functional proteins has important value in cereal breeding. Beside of emergence of new molecular markers in last decade, special classes of protein markers are still the first choice in conventional breeding programmes. Wheat storage proteins, high molecular weight glutenins (HMW GS represent only 10% of total endosperm proteins, but their composition has a major effect on visco-elastic properties of dough. Second routinely applied marker test in cereal breeding are secaline subunits coded by Sec-1 locus. Their presence in bread wheat genome are marker for IB, 1R substitution or 1BL/1RS translocation which has serious defects in bread making quality such as high dough stickiness and low loaf volume. Composition of HMW GS and the presence of 1BL/1RS traslocation in 93 bread wheat cultivars breed in period 1990-2000. at the Research Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad was detected by SDS-PAG electrophoresis. Eleven alleles were scored, 3 at the Glu-A1, 5 at the Glu-B1, and 3 at the Glu-D1. 1BL/1RS translocation was present in 28 cultivars. Since more than one-third of analyzed cultivars possess high Glu-1 quality score and that 1BL/1RS traslocation presence express retrograde trend it could be conclude that the significant bread-making oriented genetic potential is present. .

  2. Nitrogen use efficiency in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Todeschini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE is defined as the capacity of a given genotype in take advantage of the applied nitrogen (N and transform it in biomass and grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate 12 wheat cultivars as to the NUE and its components. The experiment was conducted in a controlled environment, in a randomized block design with three replications. Twelve wheat cultivars were submitted to four N supply levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg of N∙ha–1. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, means multiple comparison, polynomial regression, and path analysis. The nitrogen remobilization efficiency (NRE was the main NUE component of the evaluated cultivars, in both low and high conditions of nitrogen fertilization. In the cultivars average, the nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE presented reduction tendency as the N supply was increased, tending to stabilization at the dose of 231 kg of N∙ha–1. The wheat cultivars Mirante, TBIO Itaipu, BRS Parrudo, and TBIO Iguaçu were the most efficient on the N use, and the first two were also efficient in remobilizing the N from the phytomass to the grains.

  3. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  4. Nitrate movement in soil under irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In field experiments on wheat from 1994 to 1998, grain yields and yield-contributing components increased with the amount of fertilizer N; however, differences with 120 and 180 kg N ha -1 were not statistically significant. Grain yields ranged between 1.22 to 5.25 Mg ha -1 over the four growing seasons. Water-use efficiency values increased with amount of fertilizer N applied. Total-N uptake was always highest with the 180 kg N ha -1 treatment, i.e. with 50% more fertilizer applied than the locally recommended 120 kg N ha -1 . The use of 15 N revealed that percent N derived from fertilizer from the first split application at planting, 40 or 60 kg N ha -1 , was lower than that applied as a second split of 80 and 120 kg N ha -1 , respectively, at growth stage Z-30; this trend prevailed in all the cropping seasons. Fertilizer-N uptake was highest with 180 kg N ha -1 and varied from 16 to 50% of that applied. Nitrogen applied to the wheat had positive residual effects on subsequently grown rice in comparison with the zero-N checks. The downward flux of water measured in a nearby plot increased with depth, but showed a decreasing trend with wheat growth; the fertilizer-N fraction was relatively lower with depth. A minor fraction of applied N moved down to 120 cm, indicating little likelihood of pollution of groundwater by NO 3 - from fertilizer. (author)

  5. Sensibilidade de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium ao glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação do glyphosate sobre a soja resistente a este herbicida pode causar prejuízos à simbiose com o rizóbio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade ao herbicida glyphosate de três estirpes de Bradyrhizobium recomendadas para a produção de inoculantes de sementes de soja no Brasil. Avaliou-se o efeito das concentrações de 0,0; 5,4; 10,8; 21,6 e 43,2 µg L-1 do ingrediente ativo do glyphosate [N-(fosfonometil glicina] no meio YM líquido sobre o crescimento de B. japonicum (estirpe SEMIA 5079 e de B. elkanii (estirpe SEMIA 5019 e estirpe SEMIA 587, por meio de leituras das densidades óticas e geração de curvas de crescimento. As reduções de crescimento na presença da menor concentração do glyphosate foram de 18% para SEMIA 5079, 29% para SEMIA 5019 e de 35% para SEMIA 587, sendo, de modo geral, quanto maior a concentração do herbicida no meio de cultura maior a inibição do crescimen­to. As estirpes apresentaram sensibilidade diferencial somente às concentrações mais baixas do glyphosate; nesse caso, foi possível determinar a seguinte ordem de sensibilidade: SEMIA 587 > SEMIA 5019 > SEMIA 5079. Essa sensibilidade diferencial é dependente da concentração do herbicida, pois na presença de 43,2 µg L-1 todas as estirpes tiveram seu crescimento severamente reduzido, não havendo diferença entre elas.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Wheat Yellow Striate Virus, a Novel Leafhopper-Transmitted Nucleorhabdovirus Infecting Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new wheat viral disease was found in China. Bullet-shaped viral particles within the nucleus of the infected wheat leave cells, which possessed 180–210 nm length and 35–40 nm width, were observed under transmission electron microscopy. A putative wheat-infecting rhabdovirus vectored by the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus was identified and tentatively named wheat yellow striate virus (WYSV. The full-length nucleotide sequence of WYSV was determined using transcriptome sequencing and RACE analysis of both wheat samples and leafhoppers P. alienus. The negative-sense RNA genome of WYSV contains 14,486 nucleotides (nt and seven open reading frames (ORFs encode deduced proteins in the order N-P-P3-M-P6-G-L on the antisense strand. In addition, WYSV genome has a 76-nt 3′ leader RNA and a 258-nt 5′ trailer, and the ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic sequences. The entire genome sequence shares 58.1 and 57.7% nucleotide sequence identity with two strains of rice yellow stunt virus (RYSV-A and RYSV-B genomes, respectively. The highest amino acid sequence identity was 63.8% between the L proteins of the WYSV and RYSV-B, but the lowest was 29.5% between the P6 proteins of these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis firmly established WYSV as a new member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus. Collectively, this study provided evidence that WYSV is likely the first nucleorhabdovirus described infecting wheat via leafhopper P. alienus transmission.

  7. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) Process Improvement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    26  APPENDIX A AoA PI UNCLASSIFIED David Thomen Michael Thurston Alison Tichenor Donald Tison Sean Vessey Sarah Webster Charity West-Garvin...Camilla White Stephen Wills Alfred Wilson John Wilson Cedric Wins Mark Young Nicholas Zello UNCLASSIFIED CAA-2016058 AoA PI APPENDIX B

  8. The Birds of Aruba, Curaçao, and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1957-01-01

    This is the second and concluding part of a report on the birds of the Netherlands Antilles, the first part dealt with the birds of St. Martin, Saba, and St. Eustatius (Studies fauna Curaçao Car. Is. 6, no. 25, 1955, p. 1-82). The present part will give a full account of the birds of Aruba, Curaçao,

  9. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  10. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Joukhadar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to

  11. Controle químico de azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. na cultura do trigo Chemical control of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Fleck

    1978-09-01

    relativa seletividade ao trigo, exerceram inadequada atividade de pós-emergência sobre o azevém. O tratamento diuron mostrou comportamento insuficiente tanto em relação ao controle do azevém, quanto ao rendimento do trigo. Os herbicidas cianazina e terbutrina proporcionaram adequado controle do azevém; contudo, suas seletividades à cultura do trigo foram muito reduzidas, além de terem causado diminuição no poder germinativo das sementes de trigo colhidas das parcelas tratadas com estes herbicidas.A field experiment was conducted during 1977 in the Central Depression region of Rio Grande do Sul to evaluate herbicide treatments to selectively control ryegrass (Lolium multif lorum L. in wheat (line E-7414, as well as to establish the competition levels between both grasses. The herbicides chlorbromuron, chlortoluron, cyanazine, diclofop, diuron, metoxuron, and terbutryn were compared with the control treatments: wheat without ryegrass, wheat competing with ryegrass, and ryegrass alone. All the herbicides were applied in postemergence, when wheat plants in the stage of 3-4 leaves, and ryegrass presented 1-3 leaves. It was found that, when ryegrass infestation was not controled by any means, an average reduction of 52% occurred in wheat seed yield. On the other hand, the wheat population which competed with ryegrass plants, caused a decrease in the order of 42% on ryegrass dry matter production. It was observed that all the herbicides presented phytotoxicity, causing from light to very severe injuries to wheat plants, depending on the product used; and that seed yields resulting from the chemical treatments were lower than that of the check plot free of ryegrass. However, all the compounds tested presented significant post-emergence activity, showing potential for ryegrass control. As well as ryegrass dry matter production, also visual evaluation of ryegrass control were appropriate methods to measure the herbicide effect. Among the herbicides evaluated, diclofop was

  12. AO 0235+164 and Surrounding Field: Surprising HST Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, E. M.; Beaver, E. A.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope on the highly variable radio, x-ray, and gamma-ray emitting QSO (or BL Lac object) AO 0235 + 164 are presented and analyzed. WFPC2 images were obtained in 1994 June, when AO 0235 + 164 was bright (m approx. 17), and the results are described in Sec. 3. After subtraction of the PSF of the QSO, hereafter called AO following the nomenclature of Yanny et al. (1989), the companion object named A, 2 sec south of AO, is discovered not to be an elliptical galaxy as hypothesized earlier, but to be an AGN object, with a central UV-bright point-source nucleus and faint surrounding nebulosity extending to AO. The second companion object 1.3 sec east of AO discovered by Yanny et al. (1989) and named object Al, appears more like a normal spiral galaxy. We have measured the positions, luminosities, and colors of some 30 faint objects in the field around AO 0235 + 16; most are extended and may be star-forming galaxies in a loose group or cluster. Our most surprising result of the HST observations comes from FOS spectra obtained in 1995 July, discussed in Sec. 4. Because of a positioning error of the telescope and AO's faintness at that time (m approx. 20), object A was observed instead of the intended target AO. Serendipitously, we discovered A to have broad deep BALQSO-type absorptions of C IV, Si IV, N V shortward of broad emissions. A is thus ejecting high velocity, highly ionized gas into the surrounding IGM. We discuss in Sec. 5 the relationship of the objects in the central 10 sec X 1O sec region around AO, where redshifts z(sub e) = 0.94, z(sub a) = 0.524, 0.851 in AO, (sub e) = 0.524 and Z(sub BAL)=0.511 in A, are found. We hypothesize that some of the 30 faint objects in the 77 sec. x 77 sec. field may be part of a large star-forming region at z approx. 0.5, as suggested for a few objects by Yanny et al. (1989). The proximity of two highly active extragalactic objects, AO 0235+164 and its AGN companion A, is remarkable and

  13. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 m...

  14. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... Therefore, it is important to enhance the level of nutrition in food by increasing the protein content of wheat, especially improving the amino acid composition of protein. Contents of wheat grain amino acids are quantitative traits, controlled by many genes, and their genetic basis was. ∗For correspondence.

  15. Trangressive segregation for resistance in wheat to Septoria tritici ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to study the inheritance of resistance in F6 progenies obtained from 36 crosses involving 14 wheat cultivars. Transgressive segregation towards more resistance and/or more susceptibility to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat occurred in most of the crosses. With so many parents, most showing ...

  16. Factors affecting wheat nutritional value for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all

  17. Nitrogen economy in relay intercropping systems of wheat and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Werf, van der W.

    2008-01-01

    Relay intercropping of wheat and cotton is practiced on a large scale in China. Winter wheat is thereby grown as a food crop from November to June and cotton as a cash crop from April to October. The crops overlap in time, growing as an intercrop, from April till June. High levels of nitrogen are

  18. Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts | Le Maitre | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts. ... Puccinia triticina, Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis cause leaf, stem and yellow rust, respectively. Wheat rusts can cause ... Breeding resistant cultivars is a long process and requires an accurate picture of the current and future pathogen population. Differentiation of ...

  19. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  20. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang Stelte; Craig Clemons; Jens K. Holm; Jesper Ahrenfeldt; Ulrik B. Henriksen; Anand R. Sanadi

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under these conditions two transitions arising from the glass transition of lignin...

  1. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    compared to that from the raw biomas s. On the other hand, the results from the codigestion of raw (non-pretreated) wheat straw with swine manure were very promising, suggesting that 4.6 kg of straw added to 1 t of manure increase the methane production by 10%. Thus, wheat straw can be considered...

  2. Drought tolerance of some bread wheat genotypes in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low moisture stress is one of the most important abiotic constraints limiting bread wheat production and area expansion in Ethiopia. To alleviate this problem, evaluation of varieties in drought prone areas has been undertaken from 1996 to1998. In this study, eighteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were tested at ...

  3. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  4. Response of bread wheat ( Tritcum aestivum L. ) to nitrogen after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation is a common practice in the study area, but there is no enough information on the specific rate of nitrogen to be applied after legumes for wheat production. Hence, on farm field experiments were conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer rates needed for bread wheat after chick pea, grass pea, ...

  5. cultural management of russian wheat aphid infestation of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    staple food crop in East Africa with consumption levels ranging from 34% in Ethiopia to 5% kg/ caput (Curtis, 2015). Wheat is ranked the second after maize in Kenya. It is an important source of both food and livestock feed (FAOSTAT, 2009). Kenya's annual domestic wheat requirement stands at 1,750,000 metric tonnes, ...

  6. Changes in germination behavior of wheat seeds exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that wheat seeds with low vigor can be invigorated with the use of magnetized water; whereas, the potential to use magnetized seed remain to be extensively studied on larger groups of crops/samples. Key words: Wheat, magnetized water, germination behavior, biomagnetism, presowing magnetic ...

  7. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 1. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat. Sushil Kumar Vishakha Sharma Swati Chaudhary ...

  8. Yield response of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... The study was conducted to investigate yields of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves ... waste tea leaves based composts, the highest mushroom yield (24.90%) were recorded on wheat straw and pigeon ... kg then filled into plastic bags at 7 kg wet weight basis. During.

  9. Management of parthenium weed by extracts and residue of wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehsan Zaidi

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... also adversely affected by methanol extracts of various wheat varieties. The effect of extracts of Ufaq and Uqab was more pronounced as compared to the other two wheat varieties. All the extract concentrations of these two varieties significantly sup-pressed root length as compared to the control (Table 2).

  10. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  11. Ridge Regression: A tool to forecast wheat area and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Jamal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study is designed to develop forecasting models for acreage and production of wheat crop for Chakwal district of Rawalpindi region keeping in view the assumptions of OLS estimation. The forecasting models are developed on the basis of 15 years data from 1984-85 to 1998-99 then wheat area and production for next five years from 1999-2000 to 2003-04 is forecasted through the models and compared with the actual figures. After evaluating the accuracy of the models, final models are developed on the basis of 20 years data for the period 1984-85 to 2003-04. These linear models can be used to forecast wheat area and production of next five years. The Urea fertilizer, DAP fertilizer and manures plays a significant role to enhance the production of wheat crop. Number of ploughs in the wheat fields is significant factor to increase the production of wheat crop. Good rains in the month of October and November significantly contributes to increase the production of wheat crop and mean maximum temperature in the month of March is a significant factor to reduce the production of wheat crop.

  12. Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... different aluminium (Al) concentrations on the seedling parameters of wheat and the effect of malate and citrate treatments as chelates for reducing the noxious effect of Al in medium culture and seedlings of two wheat cultivars, Darab (Al sensitive) and Maroon (Al tolerant) were grown on hydroponic solution (non modified ...

  13. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population densities of Haplothrips tritici (H. tritici) Kurdjumov (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. In 2002, bread wheat cultivars, Bocro 4, Pehlivan and Yüreğir 89, durum wheat cultivars, Balcali 85, Ceylan 95 and Harran 95 and barley cultivars, Esterel and Pacific, were used. In 2003 ...

  14. Evaluation on the resistance to aphids of wheat germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... 3College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, Peoples Republic of China. 4Mianyang ... A collection of more than 200 wheat lines from the main wheat-producing areas of China was evaluated for resistance to ..... development, fecundity and population growth of insects.

  15. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... SPSS v17.0 software (SPSS Inc. 1999). Candidate genes mapping within a genomic region associated with a trait were identified from the deletion bin maps prepared in wheat cv. Chinese Spring (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/pubs/2004/. Genetics/Bioinfo/). 3. Results. 3.1 Genomic distribution of DArT markers.

  16. Silicon mediated biochemical changes in wheat under salinized and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... Silicon (Si) can alleviate salinity damage, a major threat to agriculture that causes instability in wheat production. We report on ... inclusion into the growth medium is of assistance for wheat growth by maintaining plant water status, .... unit of SOD was defined as the amount of enzyme required to cause 50% ...

  17. Molecular Characterization of wheat stem rust races in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Erikss. & Henning causes severe losses to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), historically threatening global wheat production. Characterizing prevalent isolates of Pgt would enhance the knowledge of population dynamics and evolution of t...

  18. Common vetch-wheat intercropping: Haylage yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine an optimum ratio of vetch and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) components in their mixture, a four-year trial (autumn 2005 to spring 2009) was carried out, aiming at the yield and quality of winter vetch haylage. The sowing rate of winter vetch was 120 kg ha-1, while the sowing rate of winter wheat was 0, 15 ...

  19. Establishment of efficient in vitro culture protocol for wheat land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADNAN

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... Wheat landraces are intermediaries between the wild populations .... to avoid loss of water due to evapotranspiration. The propagator ... Effect of 2,4-D on callus induction response of different wheat landraces. MS + 2,4-D (mg). Callus induction percentage. LLR-16. LLR-15. LLR-13. Control. 0.00d. 0.00e.

  20. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although silicon improves the salt tolerance in grasses, the mechanism involved is still ambiguous. Moreover in wheat, classified as Si-accumulator, silicon can alleviate the salt stress. Hence in this study, the effects of silicon using calcium silicate (150 mg/L) on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry of wheat ...

  1. based molecular characterization of popular wheat varieties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated using standard protocols and procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers to amplify DNA of all wheat ..... Transfer of alien genetic material to wheat. (Eds. Peacock WJ, Evans LT).

  2. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H2 was the best selection generation for traits with high heredity ability, and H3 was the best selection for grain traits and yield test. Consequently, we bred and licensed six new wheat varieties derived from anther culture and significantly reduced breeding time to three to five years. Huapei 8 was the newest released wheat ...

  3. SEED-BORNE MYCOFLORA OF LOCAL AND IMPROVED WHEAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... produced cereal crop after rice and maize (FAO,2010). Wheat is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and streamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta noodles, couscous, and for fermentation to make beer, vodka and fuel. (Gonzales and Resnicks, 1997). Wheat is planted ...

  4. Quality Characteristics of bread made from Wheat and Fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread fortified with fluted pumpkin seed flour was made; the seeds of fluted pumpkin were extracted and processed into raw dried flour. Appropriate quantities of wheat and fluted pumpkin flour (on dry weight basis) were measured and mixed to give the following blends, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, wheat/fluted pumpkin ...

  5. 77 FR 25375 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ...-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat Correction PART 810 In proposed rule document 2012-9182... 4.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 Total \\1\\ 3.0 5.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 Wheat of other classes: \\2\\ Contrasting classes 1...

  6. Characterization and glutenin diversity in tetraploid wheat varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important methods applied for the breeding of bread-quality wheat (Triticum durum L.) consist of smallscale bread-quality tests for the determination of the grain protein content, SDS-sedimentation volume, thousand weight kernel and kernel diameter. Wheat grains of six varieties were analyzed. The thousand weight kernel, ...

  7. Farmers’ adoption of extensive wheat production – Determinants and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finger, R.; Benni, El N.

    2013-01-01

    Using farm-level panel data, we analyze farmers’ adoption decisions with respect to extensive wheat production, which is supported in Switzerland since 1992 with an ecological direct payment scheme. It shows that in particular farms with a small area under wheat, low levels of input use and low

  8. Molecular markers for predicting end-products quality of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are key factors in bread making quality since they are major contributors of glutenin elasticity and polymer formation of wheat dough. DNA markers for quality traits are currently used by wheat breeders for direct measurement of these traits without waiting for ...

  9. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and ... [Kumar S., Sharma V., Chaudhary S., Tyagi A., Mishra P., Priyadarshini A. and Singh A. 2012 Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat ..... to ascertain the hybrid nature of F1 plants.

  10. Genotype-dependent responses of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to investigate the growth and physiological - biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings to UV-B, drought, and their combined stresses. Both UV-B and drought treatments retarded seedling growth with UV-B having worse impact on wheat plants ...

  11. Soft wheat quality characteristics required for making baking powder biscuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen soft wheat varieties were evaluated for their grain, milling, flour and dough mixing characteristics, as well as their solvent retention capacities (SRCs), pasting properties and suitability for making baking powder biscuits, to identify wheat quality characteristics required for making bisc...

  12. Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.E.; Bano, R.; Zayed, M.E.; Elshikh, M.S.; Khan, M.H.; Chaudhry, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is affected by yellow rust disease caused by a fungus Puccinia striiformis. There is a need to broaden the genetic basis of wheat by identifying new resistance genes. The present study was aimed to identify an alternate resistance gene for yellow rust disease in wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis. Genome sequence was compared with databases and similar gene was identified for disease resistance in rye plant. Structural analysis of RGA1 gene (resistance gene in wheat) was carried out using different bioinformatics tools and an alternative gene having same structure was identified on the basis of structural and sequence homology. Rye plant is the proposed plant for the alternate new resistance gene. The result of pairwise alignment of RGA1 gene in wheat and gene of rye plant is 94.2% with accession DQ494535 .The secondary structures of both the genes was compared and found similar to each other. These comparisons between the wheat resistance gene and gene from rye plant depict structural similarities between the two genes. Results of RGA1 gene's structural analysis in wheat is as follow: Helices: 59, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 12, Coils: 13 and for alternate resistance genes in Rye is as follow: Helices: 52, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 14, Coils: 17. As structures are similar, the alternate identified gene could be used for resistance in wheat. (author)

  13. Variability in wheat: factors affecting its nutritional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is a common raw material used to provide energy in broiler diets. Its apparent metabolisable energy and its influence on broiler performance varies between wheat samples. Reasons for that variability can be classified as intrinsic (variety, chemical composition) and extrinsic factors (growing

  14. Proteome catalog of Zymoseptoria tritici captured during pathogenesis in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'Barek, Ben S.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; America, A.H.P.; Mirzadi Gohari, A.; Mehrabi, R.; Hamza, S.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici is an economically important pathogen of wheat. However, the molecular basis of pathogenicity on wheat is still poorly understood. Here, we present a global survey of the proteins secreted by this fungus in the apoplast of resistant (cv. Shafir) and susceptible (cv. Obelisk)

  15. Genetic variation of durum wheat landraces using morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... extensibility to dough (Feillet, 2000). The main objective of this study was to study genetic diversity in landraces of durum wheat using morphological data and seed storage proteins. This information will be useful to improve techniques for sampling wheat genetic variation which might increase efficiency of ...

  16. Evaluating spring wheat cultivars for drought tolerance through yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress in wheat yields under drought conditions is rather a difficult task to achieve. The experiment was conducted in factorial design with 16 spring wheat cultivars grown under two irrigation regimes, non-stress and water-stress imposed at boot and anthesis growth stages. Water-stress significantly influenced the ...

  17. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the role of antioxidative enzymes in the responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar Cang 6001 to high-salt stress compared to ...

  18. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Wheat straw, waste tea leaves, dry matter, protein, carbohydrate. INTRODUCTION. Cultivation of edible mushrooms with agricultural residues, such as rice and wheat straw, is a value-added process to convert these materials, which are otherwise considered to be wastes, into human food ...

  19. foreign exchange rationing and wheat markets in ethiopia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    These sales at the low official price also implied that recipient households, ... Keywords: Exchange Rate Policy, Agricultural Trade, Price Stabilization, Food Policy. JEL Classification: O240 Development ... assessing the effects of rationing on real exchange rates and domestic prices of wheat. Section 4 focuses on wheat ...

  20. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  1. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  2. Genetic evaluation of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... leaf rust, terminal heat stress and drought stress have adverse impact on wheat productivity in the eastern regions of South Asia especially Eastern Gangetic Plains of India (Joshi et al., 2007). However, spot blotch is most serious constrain for the wheat production caused by. Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and ...

  3. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize. Genetic diversity evaluation of germplasm is the basis of improvement in wheat. In the present study genetic diversity of 10 ...

  4. Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological basis for allelopathic potential of different wheat cultivars in heading period on the Loess Plateau of China. ... With the breeding history from No. 1 Bima, No. 3 Fengchan, No. 1 Ningdong to No 22 Xiaoyan and agronomic properties of winter wheat like thousand seed weight and yield, etc increased gradually.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Wheat Genotypes Using SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Arslan Sehgal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. rusts are the most destructive and widespread among all other diseases of wheat because of their wide distribution, and their capacity to form new races that can attack previously resistant cultivars which result in serious yield losses. The molecular characterization and genetic diversity of 20 wheat genotypes was investigated using 34 polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR screened primers. About thirty-one loci were found. Lr-19 gene was present in all 20 wheat genotypes that cause resistance against wheat rust. Shalimar-86 and Chakwal-86 showed the highest genetic diversity with SH-02 and Ufaq respectively, giving a 98.94% genetic similarity and a minimum genetic diversity was observed between Chakwal-50 and Bhakar which showed that they are 74% similar. The current research found that SSR makers could distinguish and characterize all of the genotypes, more screened primers could be used for study and for saturation of different regions in further research. The identification of rust resistant genes in Pakistani wheat germplasm will help in accelerating the breeding program in future, including pyramiding of different wheat resistant genes in wheat genotypes and varieties.

  6. CD 122 - Bread wheat, suitable for cultivation across southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 122 was tested in the wheat-producing regions VCU 1, 2 and 3, with an average grain yield of 3,527 kg ha-1 when fungicide-treated, exceeding the average of the control cultivars by 5%. CD 122 is resistant to leaf rust and was classified as bread wheat.

  7. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Romanian wheat varieties, to study the associations between yield and yield components, and to ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations and years are important. Wheat shows highly significant genotype by environment ...

  8. Evaluation of preformance of Predictive Models for Deoxynivalenol in Wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two predictive models for deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat at harvest in the Netherlands, including the use of weather forecast data and external model validation. Data were collected in a different year and from different wheat fields

  9. Determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat bran and whole-wheat flour by fluorescence polarization immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid and accurate fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay has been optimized for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in bran and whole-wheat flour. A preliminary treatment with activated charcoal was used to eliminate the strong matrix effect due to highly colored interfering compounds p...

  10. Resistance to brown leaf rust of hybrids between wheat and amphiploids wheat-thinopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lvovivh SECHNYAK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to a brown leaf rust in 56 chromosomal partial аmphiploids (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp. Z.-W. Liu and R.-C. Wang, РА 2 (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth and D.R. Devey, H79/9-9 (Triticum aestivum L. × Elymus sp., Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Albatross odesskiy, Fantaziya odesskaya, Zhatva Altaya and their hybrids, F2-F4 were studied at artificial infection in field infectious nursery in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The investigated varieties of wheat have shown a high susceptibility to pathogen. Amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 also are susceptible to pathogen, but in a lesser degree, than the wheat. Good resistance was shown only by amphiploid Н79/9-9, but its hybrid with wheat Albatross Odessa appeared is susceptible to pathogen. The hybrids with amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 have shown a various degree of resistance to brown leaf rust. Hybrid Zhatva Altaya × РА 2 within three years stably showed 8 point resistance to disease. The reasonsfor different resistance of amphiploids and its hybrids with wheat are discussed.

  11. Surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, Donald D; Dupont, Frances M; Vensel, William H; Altenbach, Susan B; Lopez, Rocio; Tanaka, Charlene K; Hurkman, William J

    2008-11-12

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries but is avoided in the United States because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye, and barley proteins and products that contain them. These proteins are capable of initiating damage to the absorptive lining of the small intestine in CD patients, apparently as a consequence of undesirable interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this study, starch surface-associated proteins were extracted from four commercial wheat starches, fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. More than 150 proteins were identified, many of which (for example, histones, purothionins, and glutenins) had not been recognized previously as starch-associated. The commercial starches were analyzed by the R-5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to estimate the amount of harmful gluten protein present. One of these starches had a low gluten content of 7 ppm and actually fell within the range proposed as a new Codex Alimentarius Standard for naturally gluten-free foods (maximum 20 ppm). This low level of gluten indicates that the starch should be especially suitable for use by celiac patients, although wheat starches with levels up to 100 ppm are deemed safe in the proposed Codex standards.

  12. Virulence of wheat yellow rust races and resistance genes of wheat cultivars in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa, J.B.; Danial, D.L.; Paucar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Virulence factors of the yellow rust, Puccinia striiformis, populations in bread wheat were studied in Ecuador between 1973 and 2004. The number of virulence factors has increased markedly from very few in the early seventies to 16 at the end of the 90s. Isolates belonging to race 0E0 seem to be the

  13. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. II. Durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Nachit, M.M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum), provided by ICARDA, were tested in a greenhouse experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards two varieties, differing in salt tolerance, were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment to analyse their

  14. Multi-wheat-model ensemble responses to interannual climatic variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruane, A C; Hudson, N I; Asseng, S

    2016-01-01

    We compare 27 wheat models' yield responses to interannual climate variability, analyzed at locations in Argentina, Australia, India, and The Netherlands as part of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) Wheat Pilot. Each model simulated 1981–2010 grain yield, and ......-term warming, suggesting that additional processes differentiate climate change impacts from observed climate variability analogs and motivating continuing analysis and model development efforts.......We compare 27 wheat models' yield responses to interannual climate variability, analyzed at locations in Argentina, Australia, India, and The Netherlands as part of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) Wheat Pilot. Each model simulated 1981–2010 grain yield, and we...... evaluate results against the interannual variability of growing season temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation. The amount of information used for calibration has only a minor effect on most models' climate response, and even small multi-model ensembles prove beneficial. Wheat model clusters reveal...

  15. Wheat breeding in abiotic stress conditions of solonetz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex stress environment at locality Kumane (Banat primarily is caused by alkaline soil of solonetz type, but includes the other sources of wheat variability, water-logging and occasional extreme temperatures, as well. In order to obtain wheat varieties that could fulfill the requirement of enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress conditions of alkaline soil a set of wheat varieties was examined in parallel trials in Kumane (solonetz, and at Rimski Šančevi on chernzem (black soil. The multiyear results helped to select usable wheat genetic material among the existing varietal genetic variability. That variability was used as parents in in situ established crosses. The results in segregating F2 offspring surpassed the average parental values for examined traits - plant height, grain number and grain weight per spike. Hence, selecting desirable genetic variability in novel variability through years could lead to wheat plant ideotype capable to bring forth a economically justified yield.

  16. From Genetic Stock to Genome Editing: Gene Exploitation in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Shubin; Liang, Zhen; Shi, Weiming; Gao, Caixia; Xia, Guangmin

    2018-02-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) ranks as one of our most important staple crops. However, its hexaploid nature has complicated our understanding of the genetic bases underlying many of its traits. Historically, functional genetic studies in wheat have focused on identifying natural variations and have contributed to assembling and enriching its genetic stock. Recently, mold-breaking advances in whole genome sequencing, exome-capture based mutant libraries, and genome editing have revolutionized strategies for genetic research in wheat. We review new trends in wheat functional genetic studies along with germplasm conservation and innovation, including the relevance of genetic stocks, and the application of sequencing-based mutagenesis and genome editing. We also highlight the potential of multiplex genome editing toolkits in addressing species-specific challenges in wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON WHEAT PRODUCTION IN KANSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Howard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of climate change on wheat production in Kansas using annual time series data from 1949 to 2014. For the study, an error correction model is developed in which the price of wheat, the price of oats (substitute good, average annual temperature and average annual precipitation are used as explanatory variables with total output of wheat being the dependent variable. Time series properties of the data series are diagnosed using unit root and cointegration tests. The estimated results suggest that Kansas farmers are supply responsive to both wheat as well as its substitute (oat prices in the short run as well as in the long run. Climate variables; temperature has a positive effect on wheat output in the short run but an insignificant effect in the long run. Precipitation has a positive effect in the short run but a negative effect in the long run.

  18. Effects of feeding irradiated wheat to malnourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskaram, C.; Sadasivan, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fifteen children suffering from severe protein-calorie malnutrition were divided into three groups of five each and received diets containing either unirradiated, freshly irradiated, or stored irradiated wheat. All the children were hospitalized for a period of 6 weeks and leukocyte cultures were done initially and at intervals of 2 weeks. Children receiving freshly irradiated wheat developed polyploid cells and certain abnormal cells in increasing number as the duration of feeding increased and showed a gradual reversal to basal level of nil after withdrawal of irradiated wheat. In marked contrast, none of the children fed unirradiated diet developed any abnormal cells while children fed stored irradiated wheat showed polyploid and abnormal cells in significantly decreased numbers. Though the biological significance of polyploidy is not clear, its association with malignancy makes it imperative that the wholesomeness of irradiated wheat for human consumption be very carefully assessed. (U.S.)

  19. O direito ao uso de enteógenos

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Eduardo Didonet

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho se propõe a analisar o regime jurídico pertinente aos usuários de substâncias psicoativas em situações ritualístico-religiosas. Constatou-se, desde o início, que o uso de drogas na sociedade contemporânea difere substancialmente do uso feito por certas religiões. Enquanto na sociedade em geral o uso de drogas se da de maneira recreacional e aditiva, o uso religioso esta associado ao sagrado, à contemplação e ao auto-conhecimento. Para além dos preceitos constitucionais de liberd...

  20. Changes in the phenolic composition of pancake fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of two wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenolic acids, namely ultrasonic-assisted extrac...

  1. Fermentation of wheat: effects of backslopping different proportions of pre-fermented wheat on the microbial and chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moran, C.A.; Scholten, R.H.J.; Tricarico, J.M.; Brooks, P.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine effect of backslop on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented wheat (FW). Coarsely ground wheat was mixed with water (1:3 wt/wt) and inoculated with 6 log cfu ml(-1) each of an overnight culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and

  2. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  3. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang

    2005-10-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  4. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of

  5. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  6. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF METALLOID STRESS ON WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Maglovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As belongs to heavy metals and its accumulation in plants, besides damaging the organism itself, represents a potential health risk to animal and human consumers. Therefore, contamination of soils and waters with this compound is a serious environmental problem. In this work we focused on investigating a negative impact of As on selected parameters of growth of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Genoveva grown in hydropony. In the stage of first assimilation leaves we applied a solution of heavy metal (1 mg.kg-1 As3+ on wheat plants. For plants grown under hydropony conditions we observed different plant parameters such as length, weight, amount of fresh and dry biomass. Further we analyzed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and products membrane lipid peroxidation as indicators of oxidative stress. In addition to these we also measured the content of photosynthetic pigments, maximal quantum yield and proline in plant tissue. Our data indicate reduction of the biomass of shoots forthcoming as a result of exposure of stressed plants to As. Decline of biomass accumulation was accompanied by increase of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissue. In contrast, level of lipid peroxidation was suppressed in stressed shoots. Contents of photosynthetic pigments soundly decreased. Interestingly, fluorescence (Fp=Fm in stressed wheat shoots increased. Similarly in tested shoots the content of proline was increased. The results indicate that the applied dose of As has a negative impact on the growth and photosynthetic performance of stressed plants. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for As resistance and toxicity in plants requires further investigation.

  7. Direito ao Procedimento e/ou Direito ao Processo para a Defesa do Meio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augustin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze, in theprocedural dimension, the rights to participationand access to the judiciary, presupposing the informationand the environmental education. In this work, are highlighted the possibilities of effectiveness of this rights in the Brazilian normative system, as well as the public power’s duty ofpromoting the transversality of the environmentalmatter through all the educational stagesO presente artigo objetiva analisar nadimensão procedimental/processual os direitos departicipação e de acesso ao Poder Judiciário, tendocomo pressuposto a informação e a educaçãoambiental. Neste trabalho ressaltam-se as possibilidadesde efetivação desses direitos no sistemanormativo brasileiro, bem como o dever do poderpúblico de promover a transversalidade da questãoambiental em todas as etapas educacionais.

  8. A regional implementation of WOFOST for calculating yield gaps of winter wheat across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Wolf, J.; Supit, I.; Niemeyer, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is Europe’s dominant crop in terms of land use in the European Union (EU25). Most of this wheat area is sown in autumn, i.e., winter wheat in all EU25 countries, apart from southern Italy, southern Spain and most of Portugal, where spring wheat varieties are sown in late autumn. We evaluated

  9. Wheat related allergy – A retrospective single-centre study of 156 patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergy to wheat can manifest in different forms: sensitization to ingested wheat via the gastrointestinal tract can cause traditional food allergy or in combination with exercise, Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Sensitization to inhaled wheat flour may lead to oc...

  10. 76 FR 44574 - Antidumping Duty Investigation and Countervailing Duty Investigation of Hard Red Spring Wheat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Red Spring Wheat From Canada: Notice of Court Decision and Amended Revocation of Countervailing and...''), in Canadian Wheat Board v. United States, 2010-1083 (Fed. ] Cir. 2011) (``Wheat Board (CAFC)''), held... Border Protection (``CBP'') to liquidate all unliquidated entries of hard red spring wheat from Canada...

  11. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mészáros

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of cereals is one of the emerging areas for plant genomic and biotechnology research. Wheat was among the last major crops to be transformed by particle bombardment about 10 years ago. However, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has several advantages over bombardment, including a reduction in copy number, fewer rearrangements and preferential integration into transcriptionally active chromosome regions. As a first step, we started to adapt an immature embryo-based transformation method for the model variety ‘Cadenza’. The regeneration of this variety was low and especially the cost of generating donor plants was high. Therefore, we decided (i to test regeneration capacity of winter and spring wheats using four different explants, (ii to determine the optimal genotype-regeneration system combinations, and (iii to work out the details of mature embryo transformation with Agrobacterium. The experiment was carried out with 16 cultivated winter wheat and 2 model spring wheat varieties. Four different explants: anther, immature embryo, mature embryo and dry seed were tested for callus induction and plant regeneration. The regeneration capacity was the lowest in the case of anther culture and ranged from 20% (‘Mv Béres’ to 0.1% (‘Mv Magvas’ with four varieties exerting significantly higher regeneration than ‘Cadenza’. Plant regeneration from immature embryos ranged between 59% (‘Mv Regiment’ and 0.1% (‘Mv Toborzó’. Again, four varieties produced significantly more plants than the control ‘Cadenza’. We tested two systems for the plant regeneration from mature embryos. First, mature embryos were isolated from seeds, which resulted in an average of 17% plant regeneration (from 63% in ‘Fatima’ to zero in ‘Mv Palotás’. ‘Cadenza’ was one of the worse regenerating genotype (7%. The highest plant regeneration (average 54% was in the case of seed explants. There were no significant differences

  12. A recombinant wheat serpin with inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Dahl, Søren Weis; Nørgård, Anette

    1996-01-01

    , equipped with a histidine affinity tag at the N-terminus and expressed in Escherichia coli BL(21) DE3 pLysS. Recombinant WSZ1 from the soluble fraction was partially purified on Ni-NTA agarose and MonoQ columns and shown to form SDS-stable complexes with sc-chymotrypsin. Southern blots and amino acid...... sequencing indicated that only few serpins are encoded by wheat, but at least three distinct genes are expressed in the grain. Cleavage experiments on a chymotrypsin column suggested a Gln-Gln reactive site bond not previously observed in inhibitory serpins....

  13. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  14. Wheat Under LED's (Light Emitting Diodes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants, and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  15. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    so far been mapped to chromosomes, and 9 quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been reported. Infection with common bunt occurs shortly after wheat sowing, however, symptoms can only be clearly assessed after the heading stage. Thus a long time for disease assessment is required. The use of molecular......Tseq markers. Missing markers between typed markers were imputed on a 1cM grid along the whole genome, and single marker regression tests located Bt 9 to the dorsal end of chromosome 6D. The development of molecular markers in tight linkage with Bt 9 will offer the possibility to apply marker assisted...

  16. Efficiency of foliar dressing of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Худолій

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To elaborate winter wheat cultivation technologies based on balanced fertilizer system that combines application of mineral fertilizers and the increase of their efficiency by the use of preparations with microelements. Methods. Field and laboratory studies, mathematical and statistical analysis. Results. During 2011–2013, the effect of cultivation technologies on the formation of yield and quality of winter wheat varie­ty ‘Benefis’ (pea is a predecessor was studied. In case of alternative technologies that provided adding only by-products of the predecessor, the yield of winter wheat was 3.73 t/ha when using integrated protection system, and it was increased to 4.22 t/ha with grain quality of the 4th–5th class of the group B when foliar dressing was applied. Resource saving technologies of cultivation with restricted use of fertilizers (Р45К45N30(II+30(IV provided productivity at the level of 5.19–5.61 t/ha with grain quality of the 2nd–3rd class of the group A. Grain yield of 6.27 t/ha of the 2nd class quality was obtained by the use of intensive cultivation technology, which included application of mineral fertilizers (Р90К90N30(II+60(IV+30(VIII in addition to the use of predecessor’s by-products and foliar dressing. The highest yield of grain (6.71 t/ha on average during all years of the study with the 1st class of the group A quality was provided by energy-intensive technology, which included application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII with embedding of predecessor’s by-products into the soil and foliar dressing. Conclusions. It was established that in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine the highest productivity of winter wheat was obtained in dark gray podzolic soils using the energy-intensive technology with application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII against the background of predecessor’s by-products embedded into the soil in case of integrated plant protection, and foliar dres

  17. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  18. Versão reduzida da escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, alcoolismo e ao alcoolista: resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os itens da Escala de Atitudes frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Alcoolista, a fim de elaborar uma versão reduzida, mantendo as propriedades psicométricas do instrumento. Em sua versão preliminar, a escala foi constituída por 165 itens, sendo aplicada a uma amostra de 144 estudantes de enfermagem. O processo de avaliação dos itens deu-se pela análise da correlação do item total e a confiabilidade do instrumento foi estimada pelo coeficiente alfa de Crombach. Os resultados obtidos indicaram a permanência de 83 itens, divididos em cinco fatores que apresentaram valores satisfatórios nos diferentes coeficientes de consistência interna. Concluiu-se que o resultado do estudo abre perspectivas para novas pesquisas, com a necessidade de ampliação da amostra com vistas a dar continuidade ao processo de validação da Escala de Atitudes frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Alcoolista entre profissionais da saúde.

  19. Eighteen cases of wheat allergy and wheat-dependent exercise-induced urticaria/anaphylaxis sensitized by hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ito, Tomonobu; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Fuzishiro, Kanzan; Hirano, Hirofumi; Okubo, Yukari; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    Glupearl 19S, an acid-hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), is used widely in Japan as a moisturizing ingredient in facial soaps. Since 2010, there has been an increasing number of reports of contact urticaria and wheat allergy resulting from the use of products containing this substance. Sixty-one patients who had used HWP-containing facial soap visited our hospital. Thirty-five of these experienced urticaria or anaphylaxis after consuming wheat-containing food. Eighteen of the 35 patients tested positive to 0.01% Glupearl 19S solution. Wheat-specific IgE and serum gluten-specific IgE were higher in the patients with HWP allergy than in non-HWP allergy patients. Among the patients who tested positive to Glupearl 19S on the skin prick test, nine experienced HWP-wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and four experienced food-dependent anaphylaxis. Moreover, four of these patients not only experienced food-dependent anaphylaxis but also a worsening of the symptoms during exercise. The clinical symptomology was so variable that the patients were classified into six groups. We found that patients with HWP allergy tended to manifest symptoms of both HWP-wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and contact urticaria. The etiology of hydrolyzed wheat protein allergy is unknown. Patients with a history of these symptoms need to be informed about the risk of consuming wheat-containing foods and the importance of excluding such items from their diet. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Características e desempenho agronômico da cultivar de trigo BRS 229 no Paraná Characteristics and agronomic performance of wheat cultivar BRS 229 in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Brunetta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar BRS 229, indicada para o Paraná, apresenta glúten médio a forte, e é considerada apropriada para fazer pão. É moderadamente resistente à brusone, às manchas marrom e bronzeada e ao vírus do nanismo amarelo da cevada, além de moderadamente suscetível à ferrugem da folha, ao oídio, ao vírus do mosaico e à giberela. Apresenta ciclo médio, moderada resistência ao acamamento e tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. No Paraná, na média de cinco anos, o rendimento de grãos foi de 4.633 kg ha-1, na região 6 (norte; 3.233 kg ha-1, na região 7 (centro-oeste e oeste; e 4.349 kg ha-1, na região 8 (sul.The wheat cultivar BRS 229, released for the State of Paraná, has a gluten strength suitable for baking. The cultivar is moderately resistant to wheat blast and spot blotch, and it is also moderately susceptible to leaf rust, powdery mildew, wheat soilborne mosaic and scab. The cultivar belongs to the medium maturity group, presents moderate resistance to lodging and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In the State of Paraná, in five years of yield testing, BRS 229 presented a grain yield average of 4,633 kg ha-1, in the region 6 (north; 3,233 kg ha-1, in the region 7 (west-central and west; and 4,349 kg ha-1, in the region 8 (south.

  1. Reproducibility of the Tronzo and AO classifications for transtrochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Carlos Augusto; Jesus, Alexandre Atsushi Koza; Floter, Michelle Dos Santos; Nunes, Luccas Franco Bettencourt; Sanches, Bárbara de Baptista; Zabeu, José Luís Amim

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the reproducibility of the Tronzo and AO classifications for transtrochanteric fractures. This was a cross-sectional study in which the intraobserver and interobserver concordance between two readings made by 11 observers was analyzed. The analysis of the variations used the kappa statistical method. Moderate concordance was found in relation to the AO classification, while slight concordance was found for the Tronzo classification. This study found that the AO/Asif classification for transtrochanteric presented greater intra and interobserver reproducibility and that greater concordance was correlated with greater experience of the observers. Without division into subgroups, the AO/Asif classification was shown, as described in the literature, to be acceptable for clinical use in relation to transtrochanteric fractures of the femur, although it did not show absolute concordance, given that its concordance level was only moderate. Nonetheless, its concordance was better than that of the Tronzo classification.

  2. Impact of Future Climate Change on Wheat Production: A Simulated Case for China’s Wheat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengpan Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With regard to global climate change due to increasing concentration in greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2, it is important to examine its potential impact on crop development and production. We used statistically-downscaled climate data from 28 Global Climate Models (GCMs and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM–Wheat model to simulate the impact of future climate change on wheat production. Two future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were used for atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations during two different future periods (2031–2060 referred to as 40S and 2071–2100 referred to as 80S. Relative to the baseline period (1981–2010, the trends in mean daily temperature and radiation significantly increased across all stations under the future scenarios. Furthermore, the trends in precipitation increased under future climate scenarios. Due to climate change, the trend in wheat phenology significantly advanced. The early flowering and maturity dates shortened both the vegetative growth stage (VGP and the whole growth period (WGP. As the advance in the days of maturity was more than that in flowering, the length of the reproductive growth stage (RGP of spring wheat was shortened. However, as the advance in the date of maturity was less than that of flowering, the RGP of winter wheat was extended. When the increase in CO2 concentration under future climate scenarios was not considered, the trend in change in wheat production for the baseline declined. In contrast, under increased CO2 concentration, the trend in wheat yield increased for most of the stations (except for Nangong station under future climatic conditions. Winter wheat and spring wheat evapotranspiration (ET decreased across all stations under the two future climate scenarios. As wheat yield increased with decreasing water consumption (as ET under the future climatic conditions, water use efficiency (WUE significantly improved in the future period.

  3. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...... biomass and grain production than wheat growing alone. However, two other experiments with adult plants harvested before wheat maturity showed no effect of corn cockle on wheat production per pot. Within the pots the presence of corn cockle influenced wheat in all three experiments. Wheat plants growing...... at the same position as a corn cockle plant were 20 to 50% larger than wheat plants standing alone....

  4. A Large-Telescope Natural Guide Star AO System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, David; Milman, Mark; Needels, Laura

    1994-01-01

    None given. From overview and conclusion:Keck Telescope case study. Objectives-low cost, good sky coverage. Approach--natural guide star at 0.8um, correcting at 2.2um.Concl- Good performance is possible for Keck with natural guide star AO system (SR>0.2 to mag 17+).AO-optimized CCD should b every effective. Optimizing td is very effective.Spatial Coadding is not effective except perhaps at extreme low light levels.

  5. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour de...

  6. The economics of irrigating wheat in a humid climate - A study in the East of England

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherhead, E. K.; El Chami, D.; Knox, Jerry W.; Daccache, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, wheat is the most important cultivated cereal, grown extensively as a rainfed crop. Irrigation of wheat has previously been considered uneconomic, but increases in world wheat prices and recent droughts have led to some farmers revising their views. Widespread adoption of wheat irrigation would have major implications for wheat production, the irrigation industry and water resources in regions that are already water scarce. This study investigated the financial viability of irrigat...

  7. GLUTENIN LOCI VARIABILITY OF CROATIAN WHEAT GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rukavina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutenins loci were used for variability estimation in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding centres. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS was used for determination of high molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS. Number of allels per loci ranged from 3 at Glu-A1 to 5 at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, the average number of allels was 4.33. The highest genetic diversity was found at loci Glu-B1 (He=0.687. The most frequent subunit at loci Glu-A1 was 2* (56%. At loci Glu-B1 the most common combination of subunits was 7+8 with 40%, and at loci Glu-D1 5+10 with 68%. The study also defines high quality varieties with largest number of Glu-scores. The results attained from this study allow further development of specific breeding programs for winter wheat quality improvement and improvers creation.

  8. Mutation breeding for nutritional value in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, P.; Fuentes, R.; Manquian, N.; Mansilla, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1981 two batches of 100,000 seeds of the spring wheat cultivars Austral and Huenufen were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 and 25 Krad doses. The source of radiation was 60 Co, from the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear. Objectives of this irradiation program were to develop wheat cultivars well adapted to the Lakes Region of Chile (latitude south 39 to 40 0 ), whith higher content of protein and lysine and good yield. Generation M 1 was sown densily under field conditions and harvested by mass selection. Plant selection was set up in generation M 2 onwards. Selected mutants for protein content (DBC values) in generations M 2 (1982-83) and M 3 (1983-84) showed ranges from 18 to 22%. These contents were higher than in the controls. As regards lysine content of the proteins, the number of selected was low, however mutants with maximum lysine content overshot 4%. In M 4 generation, the better mutants, with adequate number of controls, will be analyzed in the crop season 1984-85, in preliminary trials of production. The technique of horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as an alternative technique to the identification and certification of mutants with high content of protein is examined. (Author) [pt

  9. Have we to harvest the contaminated wheats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenberg, P. de

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) has just developed a calculation method allowing to evaluate the radioactive contamination of harvesting. This tool would allow, in case of nuclear accident, to determine if the contaminated lands under cultivation are eatable or not. Two radionuclides have been chosen: cesium 137 and strontium 90. The experiments are conclusive: the experimental releases of cesium and strontium were comparable to these ones of the Chernobyl forbidden zone (between 10 and 40 millions of becquerels/m 2 ): the foliar contamination is proportional to the plants development. Wheats ready to be harvested capture more than 80% of the radioactivity that contaminates them. Leaves of young plants keep only 20 to 40 %. Second result: cesium is more easily washable than strontium. Third results: more late is the contamination more the plant will be irradiated; then,the wheats contaminated when they are just out of ground are nine times less contaminated than cereals contaminated just before the harvest. (N.C.)

  10. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  11. Nitrogen-use efficiency of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvalle-Bueno, X.; Osorio-Alatorre, R.; Ortiz-Monasterio, I.

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments with irrigated wheat were conducted from 1994 to 1998, using 15 N, with the objective of identifying appropriate ways of managing applied N to maximize economic profit, minimize N losses and avoid environmental pollution. Fertilizer application was partitioned with one third applied at sowing and two thirds added at Zadoks growth-stage 30 (Z-30), or two thirds at sowing and one third at Z-30, at total rates of 84, 167 and 250 kg N ha -1 . Urea and ammonium sulphate were compared as N-sources at sowing, whereas ammonium nitrate was used at Z-30. The optimum agronomic rate based on the average of the first two years was 178 kg N ha -1 . The economic optimum was 118 kg N ha -1 . The uptake of N from ammonium fertilizer was 20% higher than that from nitrate. Soil mineral N was relatively high at sowing and subsequent mineralization resulted in uptake of 90 kg N ha -1 from the zero-applied-N control plots. Soil-supplied N is, however, not considered when farmers decide on the rate of fertilizer to be applied, potentially resulting in high losses. Nitrogen-15 constituted a useful tool for understanding the relative contributions of soil and fertilizer to the N-nutrition of wheat. (author)

  12. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  13. Relationships between surface solar radiation and wheat yield in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Barrera, Sara; Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepción

    2017-04-01

    Here we examine the role of solar radiation to describe wheat-yield variability in Spain. We used Partial Least Square regression to capture the modes of surface solar radiation that drive wheat-yield variability. We will show that surface solar radiation introduces the effects of teleconnection patterns on wheat yield and also it is associated with drought and diurnal temperature range. We highlight the importance of surface solar radiation to obtain models for wheat-yield projections because it could reduce uncertainty with respect to the projections based on temperatures and precipitation variables. In addition, the significance of the model based on surface solar radiation is greater than the previous one based on drought and diurnal temperature range (Hernandez-Barrera et al., 2016). According to our results, the increase of solar radiation over Spain for 21st century could force a wheat-yield decrease (Hernandez-Barrera et al., 2017). Hernandez-Barrera S., Rodríguez-Puebla C. and Challinor A.J. 2016 Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. DOI: 10.1007/s00704-016-1779-9 Hernandez-Barrera S., Rodríguez-Puebla C. 2017 Wheat yield in Spain and associated solar radiation patterns. International Journal of Climatology. DOI: 10.1002/joc.4975

  14. Identification of Leaf Promoters for Use in Transgenic Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqer S. Alotaibi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat yields have plateaued in recent years and given the growing global population there is a pressing need to develop higher yielding varieties to meet future demand. Genetic manipulation of photosynthesis in elite wheat varieties offers the opportunity to significantly increase yields. However, the absence of a well-defined molecular tool-box of promoters to manipulate leaf processes in wheat hinders advancements in this area. Two promoters, one driving the expression of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase and the other fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA from Brachypodium distachyon were identified and cloned into a vector in front of the GUS reporter gene. Both promoters were shown to be functionally active in wheat in both transient assays and in stably transformed wheat plants. Analysis of the stable transformants of wheat (cv. Cadenza showed that both promoters controlled gus expression throughout leaf development as well as in other green tissues. The availability of these promoters provides new tools for the expression of genes in transgenic wheat leaves and also paves the way for multigene manipulation of photosynthesis to improve yields.

  15. Genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in shanxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daizhen; Wang Shuguang; Yang Wude; Cao Yaping; Yang Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    In order to discover genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in Shanxi, A-PAGE method was used to analyze difference of gliadin composition and genetic diversity of 214 varieties including local bred, introduced and landraces wheat in recent 40 years. The results were as follows: number of gliadin band increased by 2.1 and 1.5 in bred and introduced wheat varieties compared to Shanxi landraces. In total 70 bands,the frequency of 26 bands detected from bred and introduced cultivars was up, 23 down, 21 no regular pattern compared to Shanxi landraces. In 4 gliadin zones, variation of types and frequency of gliadin band in ω zone was largest, γ was the second, β and α was smallest. Two band block of 16.5 and 19.1, and three band block of 12.9, 15.7 and 17.8 were tested in ω zone, but they do not express in the same variety. Mean of genetic distance in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than those in other two type wheat cultivars. The cluster analysis found that cultivars of landraces, bred or introduced were divided into the same group, which showed genetic difference of loci encoded gliadin in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than the other two type wheat cultivars, namely, the level of genetic variation of gliadin in bred or introduced cultivars was not high in the last 40 years. (authors)

  16. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degewione, A; Alamerew, S

    2013-11-01

    Wheat is one most important cereal crops grown in Ethiopia. Yet, keeping in view insufficient information on exotic bread wheat genotypes is limiting the access to useful traits present among the genotypes in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes. Twenty six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes obtained from ICARDA-CIMMYT were tested at Gode and Kelafo research sites at three cropping seasons (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12) under irrigation. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten agronomic traits were included in the study. The mean values, ranges and the coefficient of variation of the 10 characters indicated the existence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 26 bread wheat genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 91.87% of the total variation. D2 analysis showed the 26 bread wheat genotypes grouped into six clusters. This made to become moderate diversity among the genotypes. The crosses between genotypes selected from cluster-III with cluster-VI and cluster V with cluster VI are expected to produce better genetic recombination and segregation in their progenies. Therefore, these bread wheat genotypes need to be crossed and selected to develop high yielding pure line variety.

  17. Classification of whole wheat flour using a dimensionless number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, Georgia Ane Raquel; Steel, Caroline Joy

    2017-11-01

    The rheological standards currently used for classifying refined wheat flour for technological quality of bread are also used for whole wheat flours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and technological behavior of different whole wheat flours, as well as pre-mixes of refined wheat flour with different replacement levels of wheat bran, to develop a dimensionless number that assigns a numerical scale using results of rheological parameters to solve this problem. Through farinograph and extensograph results, most whole wheat flours evaluated presented parameters recommended for bread making, according to the current classification. However, the specific volume of breads elaborated with these flours was not suitable, that is, the rheological analyses were not able to predict the specific volume of pan bread. The development of the Sehn-Steel dimensionless number allowed establishing a classification of whole wheat flours as "suitable" (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number between 62 and 200) or "unsuitable" for the production of pan bread (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number lower than 62). Moreover, an equation that can predict the specific volume of whole pan bread through this dimensionless number was developed.

  18. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhe Ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl concentration using a recombinant inbred line population (Xiaoyan 54×Jing 411. Values of wheat seedling traits including maximum root length (MRL, root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total dry weight (TDW and the ratio of TDW of wheat plants between salt stress and control (TDWR were evaluated or calculated. A total of 19QTLs for five traits were detected through composite interval mapping method by using QTL Cartographer version 2.5 under normal and salt stress conditions. These QTLs distributed on 12 chromosomes explained the percentage of phenotypic variation by individual QTL varying from 7.9% to 19.0%. Among them, 11 and six QTLs were detected under normal and salt stress conditions, respectively and two QTLs were detected for TDWR. Some salt tolerance related loci may be pleiotropic. Chromosome 1A, 3A and 7A may harbor crucial candidate genes associated with wheat salt tolerance. Our results would be helpful for the marker assisted selection to breed wheat varieties with improved salt tolerance.

  19. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sanzidur; Hasan, M. Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha −1 ; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  20. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  1. Climate Change and Rainfed Wheat Production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research was conducted to evaluate the impacts of climate change on rainfed wheat growth and yield at country level. Weather data generated by a General Circulation model based on the ICCP scenarios for the target years of 2025 and 2050. Daily weather data including minimum and maximum temperatures, precipitation and radiation were used as the inputs of a growth simulation model for rainfed after calibration and validation for predicting wheat yield under current climatic conditions. Using the model, the impacts of climate change on wheat growth and yield was predicted and compared with the current data. The simulation results indicated that leaf area index and absorbed radiation by wheat canopy was reduced under climatic conditions of the target years. Reduction of absorbed radiation resulted to a lower crop growth rate and consequently drastic reduction in dry matter production. Estimated drought stress index for the future climate conditions showed that reduction of crop growth rate was mainly resulted from water shortage due to increased evapotranspiration. Reduction of the length of growth period together with a considerable decline of harvest index resulted in a significant reduction of rainfed wheat yield despite the positive effects of increased CO2 concentration and this negative impacts on wheat yield was intensified from 2025 towards 2050. Simulation results showed that the potential impact of climate change on rainfed wheat yield was more pronounced in Eastern regions of the country compared to the Western production areas. The overall country level reduction of rainfed wheat yield was estimated in the range of 16 to 25 % and 22 to 32% for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. Keywords: Climate change, Rainfed wheat, General Circulation models, Simulation, Yield, Iran

  2. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó B. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

  3. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under...... these conditions two transitions arising from the glass transition of lignin and hemicelluloses have been identified. Key transitions attributed to softening of lignin were found at 53, 63 and 91 °C for moist samples of wheat straw, extracted straw and spruce, respectively. Transitions for hemicelluloses were...

  4. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  5. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of torrefaction on the grindability of wheat straw. Straw samples were torrefied at temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C and with residence times between 0.5 and 3 h. Spectroscopic information obtained from ATR-FTIR indicated that below ...... Weight Loss (AWL%) of the wheat straw sample was 30% on dry and ash free basis (daf), and the higher heating value of the torrefied wheat straw was 24.2 MJ kg−1 (daf). The energy loss compared to the original material was 15% (daf)....

  6. Stable isotopes. Enriched wheat: a new chance for nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagvardieff, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Plant Eco-physiology (DEV) from the CEA/Life Sciences Department of Cadarache (France) has artificially produced two kg of carbon 13 labelled wheat for nutrition research. It is the first successful stable isotope labelling of complex nutriments with a 10% enrichment in carbon 13. This wheat has been used for the manufacturing of pastas to follow the assimilation of nutrients by the organism. This short paper gives some details about the experimental procedure of labelled wheat cultivation. (J.S.)

  7. Effect of fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches: A structural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Jinrong; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three saturated fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches were investigated. The complexing index (CI) of normal wheat starch-fatty acid complexes decreased with increasing carbon chain length. In contrast, waxy wheat starch-fatty acid complexes presented much lower CI. V-type crystalline polymorphs were formed between normal wheat starch and three fatty acids, with shorter chain fatty acids producing more crystalline structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy presented the similar results with XRD. The formation of amylose-fatty acid complex inhibited granule swelling, gelatinization progression, retrogradation and pasting development of normal wheat starch, with longer chain fatty acids showing greater inhibition. Amylopectin can also form complexes with fatty acids, but the amount of complex was too little to be detected by XRD, FTIR, Raman and DSC. As a consequence, small changes were observed in the functional properties of waxy wheat starch with the addition of fatty acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lysine-fortified wheat flour improves the nutritional and immunological status of wheat-eating families in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhua; Zhai, Fengying; Zhang, Ding; An, Yunqing; Liu, Ying; He, Yuna; Ge, Keyou; Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the fortification of wheat flour with lysine on selected health indicators among farm families obtaining 58% to 67% of their dietary protein from wheat. A man, a woman, and a child aged 5 to 12 years were studied from each of 88 families in a village near Huixian City, Henan Province, China. Half of the families received wheat flour fortified with 3 g of lysine per kilogram for three months, and the other half received wheat flour without fortification. The results showed a significantly greater gain in the height and weight of children receiving lysine-fortified wheat flour. Hemoglobin values were not affected. The mean prealbumin values of adult men and women were higher in those receiving lysine. The numbers of CD3 T cells increased significantly in women and children, as did the complement fraction C3 and IgG in men, IgA in women, and IgG, IgA, IgM, and C3 in children. These results indicate that lysine fortification of wheat flour can significantly improve some indicators of the nutritional status and immune function of family members consuming a wheat-based diet.

  9. Assistência de enfermagem ao escolar: uma introdução ao problema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças C. Ferriani

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo são apresentados alguns aspectos da assistência de saúde ao escolar através dos tempos. Atualmente, profissionais de saúde estão voltados para a saúde escolar e todos tentam de alguma forma desempenhar o seu papel contribuindo para transformar os escolares em cidadãos úteis e capazes. A enfermagem de há muito tempo despertou seu interesse para melhorar as condições de vida do escolar. Na literatura consultada verificamos que a enfermeira, em alguns países da Europa e Estados Unidos, faz parte integrante do Sistema Escolar, e esta atividade é oficializada pelo governo. No Brasil, embora exista uma lei que coloca a enfermeira no sistema escolar, não encontramos nenhuma atividade de enfermagem oficializada e próprias das Secretarias de Educação dos diversos setores da União. O objet'vo deste ensaio é mostrar a importância da assistência de enfermagem dentro do sistema escolar.

  10. The case of the missing wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.

    2012-06-01

    In Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, Alice finds herself running as fast as she can but not moving anywhere. The Red Queen explains to her 'Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that.' Such is the situation in global agriculture. Global demand for agricultural products continues to rise as population grows and people get richer. As they get richer, people have fewer babies but eat more. And they use a lot more energy, which is increasingly derived from agricultural products. Crop technologies have to move incredibly fast just to keep up. Remarkably, over the past 50 years they have, with yields (production per hectare of land) for most crops more than doubling since 1960, and real prices of food falling for most of the period. In many ways we have come to take continued yield growth for granted. But, as Lin and Huybers show [1] elsewhere in this issue, there is increasing evidence that this growth has stalled in many regions. The question is not new—people have worried about the pace of yield growth since at least the days of Malthus [2, 3]. But Lin and Huybers [1] use updated data and bring a new rigor to identifying where stagnation is statistically significant, for example by taking care to account for year-to-year correlation in yields. They report that for slightly more than half of the regions that they inspected, it is likely (80% chance) that yield growth has already flattened out. For many of these countries, responsible for about one quarter of global wheat production, the stagnation has very likely occurred (95% chance). Why are yields of wheat stagnating in so many areas? At least four suspects seem plausible. One narrative is that for years the real price of wheat was declining, providing little incentive for innovation. The most obvious consequence was a major decline in investment in research and development in most

  11. Epidemiological link between wheat allergy and exposure to hydrolyzed wheat protein in facial soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Y; Taniguchi, M; Nakamura, H; Akiyama, K

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of extra-intestinal routes of sensitization to food-related allergens as the cause of epidemics of food allergy. Instances of Japanese women developing food allergy to wheat after exposure to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP) present in facial soap have been reported. However, the epidemiologic impact of these ingredients as a cause of food allergy has not been well studied. To clarify the epidemiological relationship between food allergy to wheat and contact exposure to HWP, a case-control study of Japanese women aged 20-54 years with self-reported wheat allergy (WA) (cases, n = 157) and age-matched control subjects without WA (controls, n = 449) was performed using a large-scale Web-based research panel. Subjects answered a Web-based questionnaire regarding the use of skin and hair care products, as well as other possible risk factors. Current use of an HWP-containing facial soap (Cha no Shizuku; Yuka) was significantly associated with an increased risk of WA (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.7; frequencies of current use in cases and controls; 11% and 6%, respectively). Use of Cha no Shizuku was more common in subjects with more recent-onset WA, implying that this soap may have contributed to the recent epidemic of WA. An epidemiological relationship between WA and contact exposure to HWP has been documented. This study implicates a possible role of contact exposure to food-derived protein hydrolysates as a risk factor for the development of food allergy manifesting itself as anaphylaxis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Enhance Root Development under Drought in Modern Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Merchuk-Ovnat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A near-isogenic line (NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a quantitative trait locus (QTL on chromosome 7AS from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides into the background of bread wheat (T. aestivum L. cv. BarNir, was recently developed and studied in our lab. NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited better productivity and photosynthetic capacity than its recurrent parent across a range of environments. Here we tested the hypothesis that root-system modifications play a major role in NIL-7A-B-2’s agronomical superiority. Root-system architecture (dry matter and projected surface area and shoot parameters of NIL-7A-B-2 and ‘BarNir’ were evaluated at 40, 62, and 82 days after planting (DAP in a sand-tube experiment, and root tip number was assessed in a ‘cigar-roll’ seedling experiment, both under well-watered and water-limited (WL treatments. At 82 DAP, under WL treatment, NIL-7A-B-2 presented greater investment in deep roots (depth 40–100 cm than ‘BarNir,’ with the most pronounced effect recorded in the 60–80 cm soil depth (60 and 40% increase for root dry matter and surface area, respectively. NIL-7A-B-2 had significantly higher root-tip numbers (∼48% per plant than ‘BarNir’ under both treatments. These results suggest that the introgression of 7AS QTL from wild emmer wheat induced a deeper root system under progressive water stress, which may enhance abiotic stress resistance and productivity of domesticated wheat.

  13. Genetic gains in wheat in Turkey: Winter wheat for dryland conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Keser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeders in Turkey have been developing new varieties since the 1920s, but few studies have evaluated the rates of genetic improvement. This study determined wheat genetic gains by evaluating 22 winter/facultative varieties released for rainfed conditions between 1931 and 2006. The study was conducted at three locations in Turkey during 2008–2012, with a total of 21 test sites. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates in 2008 and 2009 and three replicates in 2010–2012. Regression analysis was conducted to determine genetic progress over time. Mean yield across all 21 locations was 3.34 t ha−1, but varied from 1.11 t ha−1 to 6.02 t ha−1 and was highly affected by moisture stress. Annual genetic gain was 0.50% compared to Ak-702, or 0.30% compared to the first modern landmark varieties. The genetic gains in drought-affected sites were 0.75% compared to Ak-702 and 0.66% compared to the landmark varieties. Modern varieties had both improved yield potential and tolerance to moisture stress. Rht genes and rye translocations were largely absent in the varieties studied. The number of spikes per unit area decreased by 10% over the study period, but grains spike−1 and 1000-kernel weight increased by 10%. There were no significant increases in harvest index, grain size, or spike fertility, and no significant decrease in quality over time. Future use of Rht genes and rye translocations in breeding programs may increase yield under rainfed conditions. Keywords: Genetic gain, Rainfed wheat production, Winter wheat, Yield

  14. A Review of the Interactions between Wheat and Wheat Pathogens: Zymoseptoria tritici, Fusarium spp. and Parastagonospora nodorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Duba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. The pathogenesis of the disease consists of a biotrophic phase and a necrotrophic phase. The pathogen infects the host plant by suppressing its immune response in the first stage of infection. Hemibiotrophic pathogens of the genus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight, and the necrotrophic Parastagonospora nodorum is responsible for Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat. Cell wall-degrading enzymes in plants promote infections by necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and trichothecenes, secondary fungal metabolites, facilitate infections caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. There are no sources of complete resistance to the above pathogens in wheat. Defense mechanisms in wheat are controlled by many genes encoding resistance traits. In the wheat genome, the characteristic features of loci responsible for resistance to pathogenic infections indicate that at least several dozen genes encode resistance to pathogens. The molecular interactions between wheat and Z. tritici, P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. pathogens have been insufficiently investigated. Most studies focus on the mechanisms by which the hemibiotrophic Z. tritici suppresses immune responses in plants and the role of mycotoxins and effector proteins in infections caused by P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. fungi. Trichothecene glycosylation and effector proteins, which are involved in defense responses in wheat, have been described at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have produced interesting findings which should be further elucidated in studies of molecular interactions between wheat and fungal pathogens. The Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/ CRISPR associated (CRISPR/Cas system can be used to introduce targeted mutations into the wheat genome and confer resistance to selected fungal diseases. Host-induced gene silencing and spray-induced gene

  15. Quantitative analysis of phytate globoids isolated from wheat bran and characterization of their sequential dephosphorylation by wheat phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Lisbeth; Josefsen, Lone; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat phytase was purified to investigate the action of the enzyme toward its pure substrate (phytic acid - myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) and its naturally occurring substrate (phytate globoids). Phytate globoids were purified to homogeneity from wheat bran, and their nutritionally relevant...... phytic acid was replaced with phytate globoids as substrate. Time course degradation of phytic acid or phytate globoids using purified wheat phytase was followed by HPIC identification of inositol phosphates appearing and disappearing as products. In both cases, enzymatic degradation initiated at both...... the 3- and 6-positions of phytic acid and end products were inositol and phosphate....

  16. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  17. Effect of Processing on phenolic acid composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of three wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effect of bread-making on the assay of phenolic acids of whole and refined wheat from three wheat varieties, comparing refined (RF) and whole wheat (WW) flour, dough, and bread fractions. The efficacy of two common base hydrolysis methods for phenolic acid analysis...

  18. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised ...

  19. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in commercial Bulgur wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bertechini FARIA

    Full Text Available Abstract Aflatoxins are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic mycotoxins. The objective of this work was to study the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus in commercial Bulgur wheat in the city of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Thirty samples of commercial Bulgur wheat, acquired in the period of August 2011 to January 2012, were evaluated. The enumeration analysis showed that samples had up to 273.3 CFU of molds and 133.3 CFU of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus per gram of wheat. Forty-two monosporic isolates were obtained and identified as Aspergillus flavus. The isolates were analyzed regarding their aflatoxigenic potential by culture in coconut milk agar; hydroxide vapor exposure; chromatography; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting genes that code enzymes of the aflatoxins synthesis pathway. Some of the isolates were confirmed to be aflatoxin producers and several of them presented a genetic profile of aflatoxin synthesis. The obtained results demonstrated that Bulgur wheat A. flavus contamination is concerning.

  20. Wheat breeding for low phytic acid content: State and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in wheat breeding for low phytic acid content arised from its roll as antinutrient factor which chelates mineral elements (Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and P, leading to their inadequate use. Excretion of unused P in phytic acid complex through non-ruminant animals such as poultry, swine and fish causes water eutrophication. Numerous indirect methods (e.g. spectrophotometric and direct methods (HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography were developed for fast and accurate phytic acid determination in wheat. It typically represents 50-85% of seed total phosphorus and one to several percents of dry seed weight. Phytic acid content and phytate phosphorus genetic variability have been determined for wheat cultivars and lines under different environmental conditions. Wheat mutant (Triticum aestivum L for low phytic acid content Js-12-LPA was created through breeding efforts.

  1. Recent advances and application of doubled haploids in wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses with acceptable end use qualities is the most viable and environment friendly option to increase wheat yield in a sustainable fashion. In vitro haploid production followed by chromosome doubling greatly ...

  2. EVOLUTION OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WHEAT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Elena MARIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of supply demand and of wheat in Romanian market. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute of Statistics and European Statistics (Eurostat. The data have been processed into the following indicators: cultivated surfaces, obtained production, consumption per capita. Wheat production is correlated with seeding surface, but, sometimes paradoxes appear, where even if the cultivated surface is large the production is low. During the analyzed period, cultivated surfaces remained constantly; the production has continuously increased, so that in the year 2013 there are 7,383 million tonnes of wheat in Romania. As a conclusion, Romania is able to support domestic demand for wheat and can also export a significant amount of this grain.

  3. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  4. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcussen, T.; Sandve, S. R.; Heier, L.; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.; Gill, B.; Friebe, B.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Endo, T. R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Febrer, M.; Clissold, L.; Jakobsen, K. S.; Wulff, B.H.; Steuernagel, B.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Olsen, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014) ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : POLYPLOID WHEAT * HYBRID SPECIATION * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014

  5. Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UREAStabil) on NUE and yields of bread wheat and ... The increase of agricultural food production worldwide over the past four decades has been associated with ..... Soil at Different Land use in Kelantan, Malaysia. Journal of Applied Science and.

  6. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  7. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  8. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  9. North Dakota wheat transportation knowledge for market enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    North Dakota wheat producers are located long distances from major consumer and export markets. Understanding the competitive position of their products is important to focusing efforts for market development and transportation investments. Research ...

  10. Photosynthesis of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) in rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... on photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) as well as their relationship with yield of spring wheat genotypes viz: Chakwal-50, Wafaq-2001 and GA-2002 was studied.

  11. PCR-Based EST Mapping in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PERRY GUSTAFSON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs to hexaploid wheat is aimed to reveal the structure and function of the hexaploid wheat genome. Sixty eight ESTs representing 26 genes were mapped into all seven homologous chromosome groups of wheat (Triticum aestivum L using a polymerase chain reaction technique. The majority of the ESTs were mapped to homologous chromosome group 2, and the least were mapped to homologous chromosome group 6. Comparative analysis between the EST map from this study and the EST map based on RFLPs showed 14 genes that have been mapped by both approaches were mapped to the same arm of the same homologous chromosome, which indicated that using PCR-based ESTs was a reliable approach in mapping ESTs in hexaploid wheat.

  12. Bioactive phytochemicals in wheat: Extraction, analysis, processing, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat provides a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals namely, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, alkylresorcinols, arabinoxylans, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, and lignans. This review provides information on the distribution, extractability, analysis, and nutraceutical properties of...

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on wheat quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkaya, B.; Koksel, H.; Ozkaya, H.; Tutluer, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation at the doses of 2.5,5.0,7.5,10.0 and 12.5 kGy on two bread wheat samples (Bezostaya and Gerek) with distinct physical and technological properties was investigated in this study.Irradiation at the levels used had no significant effect on the flour yields of both varieties.No apparent changes were observed in ash,protein and wet gluten contents of the irradiated samples and control.However,as the radiation level was increased the falling number and sedimentation values of the irradiated samples showed a steady decrease.Thiamine and riboflavin contents also decreased significantly with irradiation.Farinograph absorption increased with increasing radiation exposure.However, dough development time,stability and valorimeter values decreased as radiation levels increased.Maximum resistance to extension(Rm), resistance at constant deformation (R 5) and area(A) values of extensograms decreased in both varieties as radiation levels increased

  14. Persistence of malathion residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The persistence of succinate- 14 C-malathion in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 32 weeks. The insecticide penetrated readily into the seed and up to 16% of the applied dose was found to be bound after 32 weeks in storage. Total terminal residues declined to 9.3 and 21.0 mg/kg from initially applied doses of 12.2 and 24.4 mg/kg respectively. A small percentage of malaoxon was detected only during the early weeks after treatment (3-5%). Malathion was the major constituent of the extractable residues. In addition, seven degradation products were detected and identified. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  15. [Effects of water stress on red-edge parameters and yield in wheat cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke-Xun; Zaho, Shu-He; Lai, Jian-Bin; Luo, Yun-Xiao; Qin, Zhi-Hao

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present paper is to study the influence of water stress on wheat spectrum red edge parameters by using field wheat spectrum data obtained from water stress experiment. Firstly, the authors analyzed the influence of water stress on wheat spectrum reflectance. Then the authors got the wheat red edge position and red edge peak through calculating wheat spectrum first-order differential and analyzed the influence of water stress on wheat red edge parameters. Finally the authors discussed the relationship between red peak and wheat yield. The results showed that the wheat red edge position shows "red shift" at the beginning of the wheat growth period and "blue shift" at the later period of the wheat growth period under the water stress experiment. Also, the red edge peak of the wheat showed that red edge peak increased with the water stress sharpening at the beginning of the wheat growth period, and then the red edge peak reduced with the water stress sharpening. The wheat red edge peak presented positive correlation with the wheat yield before the elongation period, and exhibited negative correlation after that period.

  16. Lunasin detection in coloured wheat genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lunasin is a biologically active protein, composed of 43 amino acid residues. There has been proven many health-promoting effects of lunasin peptide. The most important health benefits include: anti-hypertension, antioxidant activity, cancer prevention or therapy. It was also demonstrated anti-inflammation, hypocholesterolemic activity, anti-obesity and immunomodulation. The focus of our research is to summarize the discovery, characterization and biological activities of lunasin, which will provide a reference for the future development and utilization of lunasin, and a basis for exploring the underlying mechanisms of these health-beneficial functions. Lunasin was first isolated in 1987 at Niigata University School of Medicine in Japan, during the screening of protease inhibitors from soybean seeds. It was subsequently found in other beans, grains and herbal plants, including wheat, barley, rye, triticale. Concentration of lunasin is ranging from 0.013 to 70.5 mg protein lunasin/g of protein. Big step forward in the understanding of the lunasine operating mechanism in the fight against cancer has arisen after study on cloning of the soybean lunasin gene and subsequent transfection into mammalian cells which led to the discovery that the lunasin gene can disrupt mitosis and induce chromosome breakage, ultimately leading to cell apoptosis. The main goal of our work was to evaluate collection of wheat with unusual grain colour for presence of lunasin gene. DNA was extracted by commercial kit and lunasin gene was detected by PCR reaction. Our results showed presence of lunasin gene detected by 3 combinations of 2 sets of primer pair and indicated lunasin peptide presence in cereal grains. These findings are necessary to confirmed by proteome analysis. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  17. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  18. molecular characterization of γ gliadin from durum wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R. Mzid

    1 sept. 2017 ... for selecting high nutritive value of durum wheat and/or for genetic improvement of durum wheat quality. ... part à la famille des gliadines chez le genre Triticum et d'autre part à un gène candidat associé .... post-traductionnelle sert à la signalisation cellulaire et représente un mécanisme impliqué dans la ...

  19. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatica Kohajdova; Jolana Karovicova

    2008-01-01

    Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefit...

  20. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff