WorldWideScience

Sample records for anxious face stimuli

  1. Training Approach-Avoidance of Smiling Faces Affects Emotional Vulnerability in Socially Anxious Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eRinck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.

  2. Faces in a crowd: high socially anxious individuals estimate that more people are looking at them than low socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia C Bolt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention. METHOD: Forty-eight high and 48 low socially anxious participants performed a "faces in a crowd" computer task during which they briefly saw matrices of faces, which varied in terms of the proportion of people who were looking at them. Participants estimated the proportion of people who were looking at them. The task was performed once with mirrors present (to induce an enhanced self-focused state and once without mirrors present (neutral state. RESULTS: Participants' subjective estimates and the objective proportion of faces looking towards them were strongly correlated in both the high and low socially anxious groups. However, high socially anxious participants estimated that more people were looking at them than low socially anxious participants. In the first phase of the experiment, but not in the later phases, this effect was magnified in the mirror condition. DISCUSSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of a social anxiety related perceptual difference that may be amplified by self-focused attention. Clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Interpretative biases for positive faces in high socially anxious individuals%高社交焦虑个体对正性面孔的解释偏差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚泥沙; 李松蔚; 钱铭怡; 余红玉; 林沐雨; 王小玲; 杨鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To figure out whether high socially anxious individuals interpreted positive faces in a biased way, and how they interpreted positive facial stimuli, through which we could learn more about socially-anxious individuals'cognitive processing pattern towards positive social information. Methods: The current study consisted of a single factor design, and group type was the between-subject factor. Before the experiment, 60 participants form Peking University firstly finished the social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS). Participants who scored the highest 27% were the high social anxiety group, and those who scored the lowest 27% were the low social anxiety group. Then the positive facial stimuli were presented separately under different social situations. Each of the positive faces was followed by three alternatives. Two of the alternatives involved a positive and a negative interpretation of the faces, and the remaining one involved a neutral interpretation. By means of self-report, participants scoring high and low on SIAS were instructed to rate each alternative interpretations separately in terms of the likelihood of each interpretations coming to mind. Then, participants were asked to rank order the three alternative explanations based on how much they believe different explanations of a positive face. Results: Compared to lower socially anxious group, individuals with higher social anxiety were less likely to think about positive interpretations (P <0. 001), and were more likely to think about negative interpretations for positive social stimuli (P <0. 001). Also, compared to positive interpretations, higher socially anxious individuals regard negative interpretations for posi- tive faces as more believable (P <0. 001). Conclusion: Compared to lower social anxiety group, higher social anxiety participants are characterized by an interpretative bias towards positive faces. It suggests that lack of positive thinking and the outright negative

  4. Phasic alertness enhances processing of face and non-face stimuli in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Michal; Weinbach, Noam; Mardo, Elite; Henik, Avishai; Avidan, Galia

    2016-08-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a severe face processing impairment that occurs in the absence of any obvious brain damage and has often been associated with a more general deficit in deriving holistic relations between facial features or even between non-face shape dimensions. Here we further characterized this deficit and examined a potential way to ameliorate it. To this end we manipulated phasic alertness using alerting cues previously shown to modulate attention and enhance global processing of visual stimuli in normal observers. Specifically, we first examined whether individuals with CP, similarly to controls, would show greater global processing when exposed to an alerting cue in the context of a non-facial task (Navon global/local task). We then explored the effect of an alerting cue on face processing (upright/inverted face discrimination). Confirming previous findings, in the absence of alerting cues, controls showed a typical global bias in the Navon task and an inversion effect indexing holistic processing in the upright/inverted task, while CP failed to show these effects. Critically, when alerting cues preceded the experimental trials, both groups showed enhanced global interference and a larger inversion effect. These results suggest that phasic alertness may modulate visual processing and consequently, affect global/holistic perception. Hence, these findings further reinforce the notion that global/holistic processing may serve as a possible mechanism underlying the face processing deficit in CP. Moreover, they imply a possible route for enhancing face processing in individuals with CP and thus shed new light on potential amelioration of this disorder. PMID:27364232

  5. Are Attractive Men's Faces Masculine or Feminine? The Importance of Type of Facial Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Langlois, Judith H.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated whether differences in facial stimuli could explain the inconsistencies in the facial attractiveness literature regarding whether adults prefer more masculine- or more feminine-looking male faces. Their results demonstrated that use of a female average to dimorphically transform a male facial average produced stimuli that…

  6. Spontaneous Attention to Faces in Asperger Syndrome Using Ecologically Valid Static Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary; McPhillips, Martin; Mulhern, Gerry; Riby, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous eye tracking research on the allocation of attention to social information by individuals with autism spectrum disorders is equivocal and may be in part a consequence of variation in stimuli used between studies. The current study explored attention allocation to faces, and within faces, by individuals with Asperger syndrome using a range…

  7. Does Seeing Faces of Young Black Boys Facilitate the Identification of Threatening Stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew R; Thiem, Kelsey C; Neel, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Pervasive stereotypes linking Black men with violence and criminality can lead to implicit cognitive biases, including the misidentification of harmless objects as weapons. In four experiments, we investigated whether these biases extend even to young Black boys (5-year-olds). White participants completed sequential priming tasks in which they categorized threatening and nonthreatening objects and words after brief presentations of faces of various races (Black and White) and ages (children and adults). Results consistently revealed that participants had less difficulty (i.e., faster response times, fewer errors) identifying threatening stimuli and more difficulty identifying nonthreatening stimuli after seeing Black faces than after seeing White faces, and this racial bias was equally strong following adult and child faces. Process-dissociation-procedure analyses further revealed that these effects were driven entirely by automatic (i.e., unintentional) racial biases. The collective findings suggest that the perceived threat commonly associated with Black men may generalize even to young Black boys. PMID:26833757

  8. Developmental changes in visual scanning of dynamic faces and abstract stimuli in infants : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of scanning patterns between the ages of 6 and 26 weeks were investigated through repeated assessments of 10 infants. Eye movements were recorded using a corneal-reflection system while the infants looked at 2 dynamic stimuli: the naturally moving face of their mother and an abst

  9. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    mixed with unfamiliar faces, and performed a distracter task. A post-test checked participants’ memory of the individual faces. We hypothesized that negative gossip would modulate the face-sensitive N170 component at electrodes P7 and P8. No differences were observed in the N170, and no memory effect...... was found. However, a secondary analysis showed that an even earlier left-lateralized component, the P1, was modulated by negative gossip stimuli. Supporting the results of Anderson et al. (2011), we found that linguistic information modulates early processing of faces. Although the N170 appears impervious...... to the influence of gossip, an effect of negative social information was measured at 100 ms. after stimulus onset....

  10. Face and voice as social stimuli enhance differential physiological responding in a Concealed Information Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eAmbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Attentional, intentional, and motivational factors are known to influence the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT. Although concealing information is essentially a social action closely related to motivation, CIT studies typically rely on testing participants in an environment lacking of social stimuli: Subjects interact with a computer while sitting alone in an experimental room. To address this gap, we examined the influence of social stimuli on the physiological responses in a CIT.Seventy-one participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a between-subjects design, subjects were either questioned acoustically by a pre-recorded male voice presented together with a virtual male experimenter’s uniform face or by a text field on the screen, which displayed the question devoid of face and voice. Electrodermal activity (EDA, respiration line length (RLL, phasic heart rate (pHR, and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL were registered. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R was administered in addition. The differential responses of RLL, pHR, and FPWL to probe vs. irrelevant items were greater in the condition with social stimuli than in the text condition; interestingly, the differential responses of EDA did not differ between conditions. No modulatory influence of the PPI-R sum or subscale scores was found.The results emphasize the relevance of social aspects in the process of concealing information and in its detection. Attentional demands as well as the participants’ motivation to avoid detection might be the important links between social stimuli and physiological responses in the CIT.

  11. Attentional Biases toward Face-Related Stimuli among Face Dissatisfied Women: Orienting and Maintenance of Attention Revealed by Eye-Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hui; Su, Yanhua; Bi, Taiyong; Gao, Xiao; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine attentional biases toward attractive and unattractive faces among face dissatisfied women. Twenty-seven women with high face dissatisfaction (HFD) and 27 women with low face dissatisfaction (LFD) completed a visual dot-probe task while their eye-movements were tracking. Under the condition of faces-neutral stimuli (vases) pairs, compared to LFD women, HFD women directed their first fixations more often toward faces, directed their first fixations toward unattractive faces more quickly, and had longer first fixation duration on such faces. All participants had longer overall gaze duration on attractive faces than on unattractive ones. Our behavioral data revealed that HFD women had difficulty in disengaging their attention from faces. However, there are no group differences in stimulus pairs containing an attractive and an unattractive face. In sum, when faces were paired with neutral stimuli (vases) HFD women showed an attention pattern characterized by orienting and maintenance, at least initially, toward unattractive faces but showed overall attention maintenance to attractive ones, but any attention bias wasn’t found in attractive - unattractive face pairs. PMID:27445892

  12. Newborns' preference for face-relevant stimuli: Effects of contrast polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.; Menon, Enrica; Zulian, Luisa; Faraguna, Dino; Csibra, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    There is currently no agreement as to how specific or general are the mechanisms underlying newborns' face preferences. We address this issue by manipulating the contrast polarity of schematic and naturalistic face-related images and assessing the preferences of newborns. We find that for both schematic and naturalistic face images, the contrast polarity is important. Newborns did not show a preference for an upright face-related image unless it was composed of darker areas around the eyes and mouth. This result is consistent with either sensitivity to the shadowed areas of a face with overhead (natural) illumination and/or to the detection of eye contact. PMID:16284255

  13. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne;

    The ability to inhibit inappropriate behavior is an essential cognitive and social skill. Response inhibition of pre-potent motor responses as measured with a stop-signal or a Go/Nogo task improves throughout adolescence1,2. Performance on these tasks can be modulated by the valence of task stimuli...

  14. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Khanna, Ashish; Zarate, Carlos A; Furey, Maura L

    2016-08-30

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). In healthy subjects, manipulation of acetyl-cholinergic transmission modulates attention in a stimulus-dependent manner. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala acquired while MDD patients processed sad face stimuli correlated positively with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Amygdalar response to sad faces in MDD patients who did not respond to scopolamine did not differ from that of healthy controls. This suggests that the pre-treatment task elicited amygdalar activity that may constitute a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine. Furthermore, in MDD patients who responded to scopolamine, we observed a post-scopolamine stimulus processing shift towards a pattern demonstrated by healthy controls, indicating a change in stimulus-dependent neural response potentially driven by attenuated cholinergic activity in the amygdala. PMID:27366831

  15. Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing in anxious individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eForster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is associated with increased attentional capture by threat. Previous studies have used simultaneous or briefly separated (< 1s presentation of threat distractors and target stimuli. Here, we tested the hypothesis that high trait anxious participants would show a longer time window within which distractors cause disruption to subsequent task processing, and that this would particularly be observed for stimuli of moderate or ambiguous threat value. A novel temporally separated emotional distractor task was used. Face or house distractors were presented for 250ms at short (~1.6s or long (~3s intervals prior to a letter string comprising Xs or Ns. Trait anxiety was associated with slowed identification of letter strings presented at long intervals after face distractors with part surprise / part fear expressions. In other words, these distractors had an impact on high anxious individuals’ speed of target identification seconds after their offset. This was associated with increased activity in the fusiform gyrus and amygdala and reduced dorsal anterior cingulate recruitment. This pattern of activity may reflect impoverished recruitment of reactive control mechanisms to damp down stimulus-specific processing in subcortical and higher visual regions. These findings have implications for understanding how threat-related attentional biases in anxiety may lead to dysfunction in everyday settings where stimuli of moderate, potentially ambiguous, threat value such as those used here are fairly common, and where attentional disruption lasting several seconds may have a profound impact.

  16. Contextual blending of ingroup/outgroup face stimuli and word valence: LPP modulation and convergence of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ramiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several event related potential (ERP studies have investigated the time course of different aspects of evaluative processing in social bias research. Various reports suggest that the late positive potential (LPP is modulated by basic evaluative processes, and some reports suggest that in-/outgroup relative position affects ERP responses. In order to study possible LPP blending between facial race processing and semantic valence (positive or negative words, we recorded ERPs while indigenous and non-indigenous participants who were matched by age and gender performed an implicit association test (IAT. The task involved categorizing faces (ingroup and outgroup and words (positive and negative. Since our paradigm implies an evaluative task with positive and negative valence association, a frontal distribution of LPPs similar to that found in previous reports was expected. At the same time, we predicted that LPP valence lateralization would be modulated not only by positive/negative associations but also by particular combinations of valence, face stimuli and participant relative position. Results Results showed that, during an IAT, indigenous participants with greater behavioral ingroup bias displayed a frontal LPP that was modulated in terms of complex contextual associations involving ethnic group and valence. The LPP was lateralized to the right for negative valence stimuli and to the left for positive valence stimuli. This valence lateralization was influenced by the combination of valence and membership type relevant to compatibility with prejudice toward a minority. Behavioral data from the IAT and an explicit attitudes questionnaire were used to clarify this finding and showed that ingroup bias plays an important role. Both ingroup favoritism and indigenous/non-indigenous differences were consistently present in the data. Conclusion Our results suggest that frontal LPP is elicited by contextual blending of evaluative

  17. Comparison of volume-selective z-shim and conventional EPI in fMRI studies using face stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Fukunaga, Hu Cheng Srikanth Padmala Rena

    2013-01-01

    Single-shot gradient recalled echo planar imaging (EPI) is the primary tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The image often suffers from signal drop near the air-tissue interface, such as the amygdala and regions of the orbitofrontal lobe. An effective way to correct for this type of artifact is by applying multi-shot EPI using different z-shimming. Unfortunately, the scanning efficiency is significantly lowered. More recently, a new technique called volume-selective z-shim was proposed to implement z-shim compensation to only specific slices with large susceptibility effects. The high imaging efficiency of volume selective z-shim makes it possible to substitute conventional EPI for whole brain studies. In this study two fMRI experiments were conducted to compare volume- selective z-shim and conventional EPI while subjects performed tasks on face stimuli. The comparison was focused on three brain regions: amygdala, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results indicate that despite fewer volu...

  18. Anxious mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, E B; McNally, R; Murdock, T B

    1989-01-01

    Influenced by Bower (Am. Psychol. 36, 129-148, 1981) and Lang (Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1985), we tested three hypotheses concerning anxious mood and memory: (1) the mood state dependent hypothesis which states that memory retrieval will be greater when mood at encoding and at recall are the same than when they are different: (2) the encoding mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at encoding is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at encoding; and (3) the recall mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at recall is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at recall. We induced anxiety in speech anxious students by informing them that they would be delivering a speech during the experiment. Mood could be either anxious or nonanxious at encoding, recall, both, or neither. Hence, there were four groups: Anxiety-Anxiety, Anxiety-Nonanxiety, Nonanxiety-Anxiety, and Nonanxiety-Nonanxiety. Subjects were asked to rate the self-descriptiveness of anxiety (e.g. NERVOUS) and nonanxiety adjective (e.g. POLITE) during the encoding phase, and to recall them later. Anxious mood was measured by self-report scales and by heart rate. No support was obtained for any of the three hypotheses. However, post-hoc analyses indicated that anxiety words were recalled least often in subjects whose heart rate increased from encoding to recall. This suggests that attention to threat information may diminish in aroused nonclinical subjects.

  19. Intensified neuronal investment in the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals in non-socially anxious and socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M Pause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.

  20. Five- and Eight-Month-Old Infants Recognize Their Faces and Voices as Familiar and Social Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Maria; Anderson, Diane; Schaffer, Alliza

    1998-01-01

    Presented five- and eight-month olds with silent moving and static video images of self, peer, and doll, and sounds of self and nonsocial objects. Found that recognition of one's image develops through experience with dynamic facial stimulation during first eight months. By five months, infants treat their faces and voices as familiar and social…

  1. The effect of cognitive bias modification training on memory of emotional words in anxious children

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Hiu-wing, Sharon.; 黃曉穎.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research had demonstrated cognitive biases towards threatening stimuli in anxious individuals, such as in attention, interpretation and memory. The present study aimed to examine the differences in memory-related information processing between anxious and nonanxious children and the effectiveness of a Cognitive-Bias Modification (CBM) based positive training in altering these differences. The study adopted a directed forgetting paradigm, where children with anxiety disorders (N=12) ...

  2. 注视方向影响社交焦虑个体对情绪面孔加工的眼动研究%Gaze direction affects the processing of emotional faces among socially anxious individuals:an eye-tracking study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 朱春燕; 汪凯; 余凤琼; 叶榕; 谢新晖; 刘云峰; 李丹丹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of gaze direction in the processing of facial expression among socially anxious individuals.Methods 56 students were selected from Anhui Medical University.Based on Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) scores,the subjects were grouped into high socially anxious individuals (HSA) and low socially anxious individuals(LSA).Eye movements were recorded while pairs of disgust and neutral faces as experimental stimulus were presented.Results Under the direct gaze condition,there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the total dwell time of disgust faces ((2311.09 ± 521.41) ms) and the neutral faces((1910.69 ±607.59)ms) in HSA,while there were no significant differences in LSA(P>0.05).Under the averted gaze condition,the total dwell time were not significant between disgust faces and neutral faces in HSA and LSA (P > 0.05).Conclusion Gaze direction affects the processing of facial expressions among socially anxious individuals.Disgust face with direct gaze may be perceived as a social threat information for socially anxiety individuals,whereas disgust face with averted gaze is not a clear social threat information.%目的 探讨注视方向线索对社交焦虑个体面部表情加工的影响.方法 从安徽医科大学抽取56名本科生,依Liebowitz社交焦虑量表(LSAS)得分将被试分为高社交焦虑组(HSA)和低社交焦虑组(LSA),采用配对的厌恶和中性面孔作为实验刺激材料并记录眼动数据.结果 直视条件下,HSA组注视厌恶面孔的时间为(2311.09±521.41)ms,注视中性面孔的时间为(1910.69±607.59)ms,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),LSA组注视厌恶面孔与中性面孔的时间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);斜视条件下,HSA与LSA注视厌恶面孔与中性面孔的时间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 注视方向影响了社交焦虑个体对厌恶表情的加工,表明直视的厌恶面孔对于HSA个体来说是一种社交威胁信

  3. Impaired visuocortical discrimination learning of socially conditioned stimuli in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lea M; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Wieser, Matthias J

    2015-07-01

    In search of causative factors of social anxiety disorder (SAD), classical conditioning has been discussed as a potential trigger mechanism for many years. Recent findings suggest that the social relevance of the unconditioned stimulus (US) might play a major role in learning theories of SAD. Thus, this study applied a social conditioning paradigm with disorder-relevant US to examine the electrocortical correlates of affective learning. Twenty-four high socially anxious (HSA) and 23 age- and gender-matched low socially anxious (LSA) subjects were conditioned to 3 different faces flickering at a frequency of 15 Hz which were paired with auditory insults, compliments or neutral comments (US). The face-evoked electrocortical response was measured via steady-state visually evoked potentials and subjective measures of valence and arousal were obtained. Results revealed a significant interaction of social anxiety and conditioning, with LSA showing highest cortical activity to faces paired with insults and lowest activity to faces paired with compliments, while HSA did not differentiate between faces. No group differences were discovered in the affective ratings. The findings indicate a potentially impaired ability of HSA to discriminate between relevant and irrelevant social stimuli, which may constitute a perpetuating factor of SAD. PMID:25338634

  4. Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing in anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Nunez-Elizalde, Anwar O; Castle, Elizabeth; Bishop, Sonia J

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with increased attentional capture by threat. Previous studies have used simultaneous or briefly separated (ambiguous threat value. A novel temporally separated emotional distractor task was used. Face or house distractors were presented for 250 ms at short (∼1.6 s) or long (∼3 s) intervals prior to a letter string comprising Xs or Ns. Trait anxiety was associated with slowed identification of letter strings presented at long intervals after face distractors with part surprise/part fear expressions. In other words, these distractors had an impact on high anxious individuals' speed of target identification seconds after their offset. This was associated with increased activity in the fusiform gyrus and amygdala and reduced dorsal anterior cingulate recruitment. This pattern of activity may reflect impoverished recruitment of reactive control mechanisms to damp down stimulus-specific processing in subcortical and higher visual regions. These findings have implications for understanding how threat-related attentional biases in anxiety may lead to dysfunction in everyday settings where stimuli of moderate, potentially ambiguous, threat value such as those used here are fairly common, and where attentional disruption lasting several seconds may have a profound impact. PMID:25191249

  5. Anxiety symptom interpretation in high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, low-anxious and repressor sport performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Richard; Lane, Andrew; Hanton, Sheldon

    2009-01-01

    For the first time in a sport setting this study examined the intensity and direction of the competitive state anxiety response in collegiate athletes as a function of four different coping styles: high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, low-anxious and repressors. Specifically, the study predicted that repressors would interpret competitive state anxiety symptoms as more facilitative compared to high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, and low-anxious performers. Separate Multivariate Analyses of Variance (MANOVA) were performed on the intensity and direction subscales of the modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). A significant main effect was identified for trait worry revealing that low trait anxious athletes reported lower intensities of cognitive and somatic anxiety and higher self-confidence and interpreted these as more facilitative than high trait anxious athletes. The prediction that performers with a repressive coping style would interpret state anxiety symptoms as more facilitative than performers with non-repressive coping styles was not supported. PMID:18791904

  6. Socially Anxious Individuals with Low Working Memory Capacity Could Not Inhibit the Goal-Irrelevant Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMoriya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attentional capture to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attentional capture to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli, low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.

  7. Both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduce the facing-the-viewer bias in biological motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Heenan

    Full Text Available Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1 or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2 would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2 would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1 or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2, and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our

  8. Manipulating Attention to Nonemotional Distractors Influences State Anxiety: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Low- and High-Anxious College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Moran, Tim P; Leber, Andrew B

    2015-11-01

    Anxious individuals have difficulty inhibiting attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli. The exact nature of this relationship remains unclear, however. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increasing attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli would lead to increases in state anxiety by manipulating attentional strategies during a visual search task. We randomly assigned students low and high in trait anxiety to either a 1-session singleton detection training group or a feature search group. Singleton detection training increases distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli whereas feature search training protects attention against distracting stimuli. Findings revealed that singleton detection training not only increased distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli but also increased state anxiety. Moreover, this increase in state anxiety was most pronounced among high trait-anxious individuals. In contrast, feature search training protected attention against distracting stimuli and against increases in state anxiety, particularly in the high trait-anxious individuals. Together, the current findings provide initial support for the notion that distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli can increase state anxiety levels. Furthermore, these results suggest that individuals already vulnerable to experience anxiety are most likely to be affected by distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli, and that training anxious individuals to focus on specific shape features may be a viable attention modification intervention.

  9. Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Mann, Nikki; Phills, Curtis E

    2010-07-01

    In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects. In Study 4 the effect of a different relational anxious uncertainty threat on implicit approach motivation was heightened by manipulated salience of personal ideals. Results suggest a RAM account for idealistic and ideological reactions in the threat and defense literature. Speculative implications are suggested for understanding diverse social and clinical phenomena ranging from worldview defense, prejudice, and meaning making to narcissism, hypomania, and aggression. PMID:20565191

  10. An Investigation of Control among Parents of Selectively Mute, Anxious, and Non-Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…

  11. Context counts! Social anxiety modulates the processing of fearful faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eAdolph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated.Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA and low socially anxious (LSA participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I, and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while Late Positive Potential (LPP activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II, as well as larger startle responses towards faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I. Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II. In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information.

  12. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A.; Layne, Ann E.; Egan, Elizabeth A.; Tennison, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three school-based interventions for anxious children: group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training group, and no-treatment control. Method: Students (7-11 years old) in three elementary schools (N = 453) were screened using the Multidimensional…

  13. Attentional bias towards threatening stimuli in children with anxiety: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeney, Joanne; Sharpe, Louise; Hunt, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that anxious adults show selective attention to threatening stimuli, research investigating attentional bias in children with anxiety has produced mixed results. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of studies investigating attentional bias in children with anxiety. Using a systematic search for articles which included both children with anxiety and reported data suitable for a meta-analysis, 38 articles were identified involving 4221 subjects (anxiety n=2222). We used a random effects meta-analysis with standardized mean difference as our primary outcome to estimate between- and within-group effects of attentional bias towards threat-related information in children with anxiety. Overall, children with anxiety showed a significantly greater bias to threat-related stimuli, compared to controls (d=0.21). Children with anxiety also showed a significant bias to threat-related stimuli, over neutral stimuli (d=0.54), which was greater than the bias shown by control children (d=0.15). Specific variables in attentional bias were also explored, with varying results. The review concluded that anxious children do show a similar bias towards threatening stimuli as has been documented in adults, albeit to a lesser degree and this bias is moderated by age, such that the difference between anxious and control children increases with age. Given the small number of studies in some areas, future research is needed to understand the precise conditions under which anxious children exhibit selective attentional biases to threat-related stimuli.

  14. The temporal primacy of self-related stimuli and negative stimuli: an ERP-based comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Luo, Junlong; Zhao, Na; Hu, Yinying; Yan, Lingyue; Gao, Xiangping

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown there exist attention biases for self-related and negative stimuli. Few studies, however, have been carried out to compare the effects of such stimuli on the neural mechanisms of early attentional alertness and subsequent cognitive processing. The purpose of the present study was to examine the temporal primacy of both self-related stimuli and negative stimuli in the neurophysiologic level. In a modified oddball task, event-related potentials of the deviant stimuli (i.e., self-face, negative face and neutral face) were recorded. Results revealed that larger P2 amplitudes were elicited by self-related and negative stimuli than by neutral stimuli. Negative stimuli, however, elicited shorter P2 latencies than self-related and neutral stimuli. As for the N2 component, self-related and negative stimuli elicited smaller amplitudes and shorter latencies than neutral stimuli, but otherwise did not differ. Self-related stimuli also elicited larger P3 and late positive component (LPC) amplitudes than negative and neutral stimuli. The pattern of results suggests that the primacy of negative stimuli occurred at an early attention stage of processing, while the primacy of self-related stimuli occurred at the subsequent cognitive evaluation and memory stage. PMID:26513485

  15. Time Course of Attention in Socially Anxious Individuals: Investigating the Effects of Adult Attachment Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrow, Yulisha; Chen, Nigel T M; Peters, Lorna

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical models of social anxiety propose that attention biases maintain symptoms of social anxiety. Research findings regarding the time course of attention and social anxiety disorder have been mixed. Adult attachment style may influence attention bias and social anxiety, thus contributing to the mixed findings. This study investigated the time course of attention toward both negative and positive stimuli for individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and assessed whether attachment style moderates this relationship. One hundred and thirty participants (age: M=29.03) were assessed using a semistructured clinical interview. Those meeting eligibility criteria for the clinical sample met DSM-IV criteria for SAD (n=90, age: M=32.18), while those in the control sample did not meet criteria for any mental disorder (n=23, age: M=26.04, 11 females). All participants completed self-report measures examining depression, social anxiety, adult attachment style, and completed an eye-tracking task used to measure the time course of attention. Eye-tracking data were analysed using growth curve analysis. The results indicate that participants in the control group overall displayed greater vigilance towards emotional stimuli, were faster at initially fixating on the emotional stimulus, and had a greater percentage of fixations towards the emotional stimulus as the stimulus presentation time progressed compared to those in the clinical group. Thus, the clinical participants were more likely to avoid fixating on emotional stimuli in general (both negative and positive) compared to those in the control group. These results support the Clark and Wells (1995) proposal that socially anxious individuals avoid attending to emotional information. Attachment style did not moderate this association, however anxious attachment was related to greater vigilance toward emotional compared to neutral stimuli. PMID:27423171

  16. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  17. Sensitivity of Gray’s behavioral inhibition system in clinically anxious and non-anxious children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Vervoort; L.H. Wolters; S.M. Hogendoorn; E. de Haan; F. de Boer; P.J.M. Prins

    2010-01-01

    The child version of the Carver and White (1994) BIS/BAS-scales (Muris et al., 2005) was used to assess sensitivity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System in clinically anxious and non-anxious youth (n = 175, ages 8-18 years, 70 boys). Results supported the hypothesis that

  18. Inhibitory Control in Anxious and Healthy Adolescents Is Modulated by Incentive and Incidental Affective Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods: Twenty-five healthy…

  19. The Influence of Anxiety on the Initial Selection of Emotional Faces Presented in Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katie L. H.; Adams, Wendy J.; Garner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the…

  20. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  1. Are anxiously attached women better mindreaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This research was aimed at providing first evidence concerning the relationship between adults' self-reported attachment style and their performance on a standard 'theory of mind' task. Based on adult attachment theory, we hypothesized that the two dimensions of self-reported adult attachment, anxiety and avoidance, are differently related to 'theory of mind,' and that this relationship is moderated by variables concerning the 'theory of mind' stimuli. The 'Experiences in Close Relationships' questionnaire and the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test were administered to 132 young women. In line with our expectations, women's attachment-related anxiety was associated with better mind reading concerning stimuli that were emotionally neutral or difficult to recognize.

  2. Faces in the dark: Interactive effects of darkness and anxiety on the memory for threatening faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi F Nakashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, we extend past work on the effects of ambient darkness and threat to the domain of memory for expressive faces. In one study, we examined the effects of ambient darkness and individual differences in state anxiety on memory of unfamiliar expressive faces. Here, participants were seated in either a dark or light room and encoded a set of unfamiliar faces with angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. A subsequent recognition task revealed an interactive effect of ambient darkness, anxiety, and target expression. Highly anxious participants in ambient darkness had worse memory for angry faces than did low-anxiety participants. On the other hand, the recognition performance for happy faces was affected neither by the darkness nor state anxiety. The results suggest not only that ambient darkness has its strongest effect on anxious perceivers, but also that person x situation effects should be considered in face recognition research.

  3. Cognitive content structure of anxious and depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There were three aims of the study: to determine psychometric properties of Serbian translation of Beck's Cognition Check List, to analyze factor structure of both subscales of Check List and to check the relationship among determined dimensions of the subscales. Patients with depressive anxiety and mixed diagnoses participated. Results suggest that subscale of depressive cognitions is of satisfactory reliability and both concurrent and divergent validity. Subscale of anxious cognitions has satisfactory internal consistency, but is weakly correlated with anxiety symptoms and is not discriminatively valid. Principal components analysis of depressive cognitions subscale yielded three factors that corresponded to the elements of Beck's "Negative Cognitive Triad". Analysis of anxious subscale did not provided dimensions hypothesized by Beck, but three dimensions, which correspond to three groups of anxious symptoms, where identified. Results indicate possibility of applying Beck’s Content Specificity Hypothesis on separation of specific anxiety or phobic disorders.

  4. Anxious attachment and psychological distress in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Sarah Rose, M; Brewis, C S

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychologically distressed and non-psychologically distressed cardiac patients. Attachment is a biologically based behavioral system in which proximity to a special other is sought or maintained to achieve a sense of safety and security. Anxious attachment, as the name denotes, fails to achieve the function of attachment in the sense of individuals having little or no confidence in the availability of their attachment figures. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking and separation protest) capture the features of anxious attachment as elaborated by Bowlby. These scales were administered to 178 cardiac rehabilitation patients drawn from the cardiac rehabilitation program of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that feared loss and proximity seeking differentiated psychologically distressed from non-psychologically distressed patients. The implications of this finding for the understanding of psychologically distressed cardiac patients are discussed.

  5. Social Skills among Socially Anxious Children in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the nature of social skills in socially anxious children from a social learning theory perspective. The reasons why socially anxious children often perform poorly in social situations have not yet been fully resolved. Is it due to lack of social skills or are these children too inhibited and nervous in social situations to exhibit the skills they possess? Ninety-two elementary and middle school children (age 10-14 years) in Kopavogur, Iceland p...

  6. Time course of processing emotional stimuli as a function of perceived emotional intelligence, anxiety, and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    An individual’s self-reported abilities to attend to, understand, and reinterpret emotional situations or events have been associated with anxiety and depression, but it is unclear how these abilities affect the processing of emotional stimuli, especially in individuals with these symptoms. The present study recorded event-related brain potentials while individuals reporting features of anxiety and depression completed an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that anxious apprehension, ...

  7. Frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects cognitive biases in anxiety: evidence from an emotional face Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Julia; Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C

    2010-12-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been extensively used in studies of the frontal asymmetry of emotion and motivation. This study investigated the midfrontal EEG activation, heart rate and skin conductance during an emotional face analog of the Stroop task, in anxious and non-anxious participants. In this task, the participants were asked to identify the expression of calm, fearful and happy faces that had either a congruent or incongruent emotion name written across them. Anxious participants displayed a cognitive bias characterized by facilitated attentional engagement with fearful faces. Fearful face trials induced greater relative right frontal activation, whereas happy face trials induced greater relative left frontal activation. Moreover, anxiety specifically modulated the magnitude of the right frontal activation to fearful faces, which also correlated with the cognitive bias. Therefore, these results show that frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects the bias toward facilitated processing of fearful faces in anxiety. PMID:20607389

  8. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Gazendam; J.H. Kamphuis; M. Kindt

    2012-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current stud

  9. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  10. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L.; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used socioecon

  11. Anxious attachment as a determinant of adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Rose, M S; Sheldon, A

    1993-07-01

    Traditionally, an excess of interpersonal dependency has been used to characterize disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults. This approach stands in sharp contrast to that of attachment theorists who conceptualize attachment as functionally distinct from dependency. Attachment theory focuses on anxious attachment in the definition and dynamics of disturbed adult interpersonal relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychiatric outpatients from nonpatients. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking, and separation protest) measure the components of anxious attachment as defined by Bowlby. The scales were administered to two research samples. Sample 1 was composed of 136 respondents to a survey within the Calgary community. Sample 2 consisted of 110 psychiatric outpatients drawn from the psychotherapy clinic of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that the three components of anxious attachment offer a clinically relevant system for differentiating between psychiatric outpatients and nonpatients. Of these three components, feared loss has the predominant effect. The implications of this finding for the delineation of disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults is discussed.

  12. Socially Anxious Children: An Observational Study of Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Regina M.; Gross, Alan M.

    2001-01-01

    Differences in rate and quality of parent-child communication in parents of socially anxious and normal children 9-12 years old were examined. Socially anxious children, like the control group, tended to mirror verbalizations of parents. In contrast, socially anxious children did not show the same similarities in responsiveness. (BF)

  13. Parenting behaviors and anxious self-talk in youth and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiaying; Cummings, Colleen M; Villabø, Marianne A; Kendall, Philip C

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the association between parental anxious self-talk, parenting behaviors, and youth anxious self-talk. Parents and youth ages 7 to 14 (M = 10.17; N = 208; 53% male) seeking treatment for anxiety were evaluated for anxiety symptoms, youth anxious self-talk, parental anxious self-talk, and youth-perceived parenting behavior. Youth and parental anxious self-talk were assessed by both child and parent self-reports; youth-perceived parenting behaviors were assessed by youth-reports. Parenting behaviors included separate ratings of paternal and maternal (a) acceptance, (b) psychological control, and (c) firm/behavioral control. Correlational analyses revealed that maternal anxious self-talk, but not paternal anxious self-talk, was significantly associated with youth's anxious self-talk. Maternal anxious self-talk had an inverse association with youth-perceived maternal acceptance, but was not associated with youth-perceived maternal psychological or behavioral control. Higher youth-perceived maternal acceptance was significantly associated with lower youth anxious self-talk. Youth-perceived maternal acceptance partially mediated the association between mother's anxious self-talk and youth's anxious self-talk. However, this mediation effect disappeared when taking into account youth depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to clinical implications and future directions in research.

  14. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee's facial-recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  15. Processing of emotional faces in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

  16. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...

  17. Prefrontal Reactivity to Social Signals of Threat as a Predictor of Treatment Response in Anxious Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Swain, James E; Hanna, Gregory L; Koschmann, Elizabeth; Simpson, David; Connolly, Sucheta; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging has shown promise as a tool to predict likelihood of treatment response in adult anxiety disorders, with potential implications for clinical decision-making. Despite the relatively high prevalence and emergence of anxiety disorders in youth, very little work has evaluated neural predictors of response to treatment. The goal of the current study was to examine brain function during emotional face processing as a predictor of response to treatment in children and adolescents (age 7-19 years; N=41) with generalized, social, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Prior to beginning treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), participants completed an emotional faces matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Whole brain responses to threatening (ie, angry and fearful) and happy faces were examined as predictors of change in anxiety severity following treatment. Greater activation in inferior and superior frontal gyri, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as precentral/postcentral gyri during processing of threatening faces predicted greater response to CBT and SSRI treatment. For processing of happy faces, activation in postcentral gyrus was a significant predictor of treatment response. Post-hoc analyses indicated that effects were not significantly moderated by type of treatment. Findings suggest that greater activation in prefrontal regions involved in appraising and regulating responses to social signals of threat predict better response to SSRI and CBT treatment in anxious youth and that neuroimaging may be a useful tool for predicting how youth will respond to treatment. PMID:26708107

  18. Face to Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...

  19. Long term consequences of suppression of intrusive anxious thoughts and repressive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraerts, Elke; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko; Smeets, Elke

    2006-10-01

    The current experiment employed a thought suppression paradigm to investigate whether repressors (N=40) are more skilled in suppressing positive and anxious autobiographical thoughts than low anxious (N=40), high anxious (N=40), and defensive high anxious (N=40) individuals, both immediately and over a longer time period (i.e., 7 days). Regardless of suppression instructions, repressors reported during their lab visit fewer target thoughts for their most anxious events than participants in the other three groups. However, over a 7 days period, repressors showed the highest number of intrusive thoughts about their anxious autobiographical events. Thus, our results demonstrate that repressive coping might be adaptive in the short run, but counterproductive in the long run. PMID:16337604

  20. PROCESSING OF MULTI-DIGIT ADDITIONS IN HIGH MATH-ANXIOUS INDIVIDUALS: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ISABEL eNÚÑEZ-PEÑA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA and low-math anxious (LMA individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. They also took longer and made more errors than their LMA peers. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources towards emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may invest more attentional resources during the arithmetical

  1. Brain responses in evaluating feedback stimuli with a social dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eZhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on outcome evaluation and performance monitoring using gambling or simple cognitive tasks have identified two components of event-related potentials (ERPs that are particularly relevant to the neural responses to decision outcome. The feedback-related negativity (FRN, typically occurring 200-300 ms post-onset of feedback stimuli, encodes mainly the valence of outcome while the P300, which is the most positive peak between 200-600 ms, is found to be related to various aspects of outcome evaluation. This study investigated the extent which neural correlates of outcome evaluation involving complex feedback stimuli (i.e., female faces are similar to those revealed for simplex feedback. We asked participants to judge the attractiveness of blurred faces and then showed them unblurred faces as (implicit feedback of their performance. The FRN effect can be identified by the ERP waveforms, albeit in a delayed 300-380 ms time window, with faces inconsistent with the initial judgment eliciting more negative-going responses than faces consistent with the judgment. However, the ERP waveforms did not show the typical pattern of P300 responses. With the principal component analysis (PCA, a clear pattern of P300 effects were revealed, with the P300 being more positive to faces consistent with the initial judgment than to faces inconsistent with the judgment and more positive to attractive faces than to unattractive ones. The feedback consistency effect on either the FRN or the P300 was unaffected by the attractiveness of the feedback faces. These findings suggest that brain responses involved in processing complex feedback stimuli with a social dimension are generally similar to those involved in processing simplex feedback stimuli in gambling or cognitive tasks, although appropriate means of data analysis are needed to reveal the typical ERP effects that may have been masked by sophisticated cognitive (and emotional processes for complex

  2. Socially anxious mothers’ narratives to their children, and their relation to child representations and adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Lynne; Pella, Jeff; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Arteche, Adriane; Pass, Laura; Percy, Ray; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Anxious mothers’ parenting, particularly transfer of threat information, has been considered important in their children’s risk for social anxiety disorder (SAnxD), and maternal narratives concerning potential social threat could elucidate this contribution. Maternal narratives to their pre-school 4-5 year-old children, via a picture book about starting school, were assessed in socially anxious (N=73), and non-anxious (N=63) mothers. Child representations of school were assessed via Doll P...

  3. Impact of an anxious social situation on emotional facial expressions (EFE) recognition in children

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Marie; Taskin, Aslihan; Blairy, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Socially anxious children have difficulties to interact adequately with others. The core characteristic of social anxiety, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others, may among others, be based on problems with the decoding of other persons’ emotional facial expression (EFE). Up to now, the research on EFE recognition in socially anxious children has produced mixed results. Whereas some studies reported differences between anxious and healthy children in EFE recognition (e.g., Simonian,...

  4. Interpretation Biases for Positive Facial Stimuli in Social Anxiety%社交焦虑个体对正性面孔刺激的解释偏差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚泥沙; 李松蔚; 钱铭怡; 余红玉; 王小玲; 林沐雨; 赵欣

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggested that socially anxious individuals might form threatening interpretations of positive facial stimuli. However, some studies failed to provide empirical evidence of an interpretation bias toward positive faces. These studies may have several methodological limitations that the present study attempted to overcome. And none of them assessed the interpretations bias, if existent, over time. The present study tried to figure out whether the socially anxious individuals were characterized by an interpretation bias towards positive facial stimuli, and investigated whether this interpretation bias tends to occur at an early stage in the interpretation process of positive stimuli, or it occurs at a later stage. The current study consisted of a 2 ( stimulus duration type) × 2 ( group type) mixed factorial design. The within-subjects factor of duration type had two levels (long vs. brief durations), and the between-subjects factor of group type had two levels (high vs. low social anxiety groups). Before the experiment, the participants first finished a package of questionnaires (S1AS, SPS, BFNE). Then, they were told that they would conduct an impromptu speaking task after the experiment, and their performance would be assessed. The participants were made convinced that the experiment was about to test their social and presentation skills, After the experiment, no speaking task would be performed. They were debriefed and explained about the design. In the experiment, a positive face and a matched neutral face were presented on the screen at the same time for each trial. The participants, who scored high and low on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, were instructed to imagine that these faces represented the audience in their coming speaking task, and they were asked to identify the facial displays that they subjectively perceived to be more threatening. The matched positive and neutral facial displays were presented at both long (unlimited) and

  5. Working memory of emotional stimuli: Electrophysiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Dominique; García-Rubio, María J; González, E Kirstin; Tapia, Manuel; López-Martín, Sara; Román, Francisco J; Capilla, Almudena; Martínez, Kenia; Colom, Roberto; Carretié, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Memorizing emotional stimuli in a preferential way seems to be one of the adaptive strategies brought on by evolution for supporting survival. However, there is a lack of electrophysiological evidence on this bias in working memory. The present study analyzed the influence of emotion on the updating component of working memory. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices were measured from a 3-back task using negative, neutral, and positive faces. Electrophysiological data evidenced an emotional influence on the working memory sensitive P3 component, which presented larger amplitudes for negative matching faces compared to neutral ones. This effect originated in the superior parietal cortex, previously reported to be involved in N-back tasks. Additionally, P3 results showed a correlation with reaction times, where higher amplitudes were associated with faster responses for negative matching faces. These findings indicate that electrophysiological measures seem to be very suitable indices of the emotional influence on working memory. PMID:27402441

  6. Working memory of emotional stimuli: Electrophysiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Dominique; García-Rubio, María J; González, E Kirstin; Tapia, Manuel; López-Martín, Sara; Román, Francisco J; Capilla, Almudena; Martínez, Kenia; Colom, Roberto; Carretié, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Memorizing emotional stimuli in a preferential way seems to be one of the adaptive strategies brought on by evolution for supporting survival. However, there is a lack of electrophysiological evidence on this bias in working memory. The present study analyzed the influence of emotion on the updating component of working memory. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices were measured from a 3-back task using negative, neutral, and positive faces. Electrophysiological data evidenced an emotional influence on the working memory sensitive P3 component, which presented larger amplitudes for negative matching faces compared to neutral ones. This effect originated in the superior parietal cortex, previously reported to be involved in N-back tasks. Additionally, P3 results showed a correlation with reaction times, where higher amplitudes were associated with faster responses for negative matching faces. These findings indicate that electrophysiological measures seem to be very suitable indices of the emotional influence on working memory.

  7. When is a Face a Face? Schematic Faces, Emotion, Attention and the N170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Maratos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions provide important non-verbal cues as to the imminent behavioural intentions of a second party. Hence, within emotion science the processing of faces (emotional or otherwise has been at the forefront of research. Notably, however, such research has led to a number of debates including the ecological validity of utilising schematic faces in emotion research, and the face-selectively of N170. In order to investigate these issues, we explored the extent to which N170 is modulated by schematic faces, emotional expression and/or selective attention. Eighteen participants completed a three-stimulus oddball paradigm with two scrambled faces as the target and standard stimuli (counter-balanced across participants, and schematic angry, happy and neutral faces as the oddball stimuli. Results revealed that the magnitude of the N170 associated with the target stimulus was: (i significantly greater than that elicited by the standard stimulus, (ii comparable with the N170 elicited by the neutral and happy schematic face stimuli, and (iii significantly reduced compared to the N170 elicited by the angry schematic face stimulus. These findings extend current literature by demonstrating N170 can be modulated by events other than those associated with structural face encoding; i.e. here, the act of labelling a stimulus a ‘target’ to attend to modulated the N170 response. Additionally, the observation that schematic faces demonstrate similar N170 responses to those recorded for real faces and, akin to real faces, angry schematic faces demonstrated heightened N170 responses, suggests caution should be taken before disregarding schematic facial stimuli in emotion processing research per se.

  8. Angry-happy interpretations of ambiguous faces in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Keren; Eldar, Sharon; Stoddard, Joel; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-07-30

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by a tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as negative. Here we tested whether interpretation of ambiguous faces differs between participants with SAD and non-anxious controls. Twenty-seven individuals with SAD and 21 non-anxious control participants completed an emotion recognition task in which they judged ambiguous morphed faces as happy or angry. Participants with SAD judged a higher proportion of the faces as angry compared to non-anxious participants, and were slower to judge faces as angry compared to happy, while no such reaction time bias manifested in the control group. Finally, happy judgments were slower in the SAD group compared to the control group, while angry judgments were faster in the SAD group compared to the control group. These findings provide evidence for a negative bias in resolving emotional ambiguity in facial expressions among individuals with SAD. PMID:27173656

  9. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxie eGluckman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants’ first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

  10. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: Effects of face direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Martina Kliegl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009 reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented towards the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance and an evolutionary context.

  11. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension, anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and attachment security (Security Scale. Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  12. Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Children's understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  13. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Crookes

    Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  14. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  15. Parenting Practices of Anxious and Nonanxious Mothers: A Multi-Method, Multi-Informant Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2011-01-01

    Anxious and nonanxious mothers were compared on theoretically derived parenting and family environment variables (i.e., overcontrol, warmth, criticism, anxious modeling) using multiple informants and methods. Mother-child dyads completed questionnaires about parenting and were observed during an interactional task. Findings reveal that, after…

  16. Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior towards Socially Anxious Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blote, Anke W.; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class…

  17. Parenting by Anxious Mothers: Effects of Disorder Subtype, Context and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Lau, Pui Yi; Arteche, Adriane; Creswell, Cathy; Russ, Stephanie; Zoppa, Letizia Della; Muggeo, Michela; Stein, Alan; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing research interest in parenting by anxious adults; however, little is known about anxiety-subtype effects, or effects of the context in which parenting is assessed. Methods: Two groups of anxious mothers, social phobia (N = 50), generalised anxiety disorder (N = 38), and nonanxious controls (N = 62) were…

  18. Face To Face

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, Lea Holst; Eilertzen, Freja Nissen; Repsdorph, Helene Reck; Gerelsaikhan, Gerelmaa; Otkjær, Mia Jo; Søndergaard, Ditte Klerens

    2008-01-01

    The face-to-face (F2F) strategy is a method which entails groups of so-called ‘facers’ standing in a public space trying to recruit people to the organisation and informing about the organisation’s work. In combination with the possibility of reaching large numbers of people, this technique provides a steady and ongoing flow of money, something which is vital for the NGO’s when planning future activities. In spite of ethical regulations the use of facers is a very controversial strat...

  19. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it.

  20. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it. PMID:25962856

  1. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...... of the adhesive. This is also known from skin adhesives where it is very undesirable to cause damage to the skin. The overall idea of this project was to resolve this problem by developing a material which could switch between an adhesive and a non-adhesive state. Switchable adhesion is known in the literature...... but the presented work has a new approach to the field by basing itself on the idea of developing a network into which a photo-active polymer is mixed and which function as an adhesive. Upon irradiation with UV-light for a short time a non-adhering inter-penetrating network material would be formed. Two simple...

  2. Developing representations of compound stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Visser; M.E.J. Raijmakers

    2012-01-01

    Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged childre

  3. Updating Positive and Negative Stimuli in Working Memory in Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Levens, Sara M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in the ability to update stimuli in working memory (WM) may underlie the problems with regulating emotions that lead to the development and perpetuation of mood disorders such as depression. To examine the ability to update affective material in WM, diagnosed depressed and never-disordered controls performed an emotion 2-back task in which they were presented with a series of happy, sad, and neutral faces and were asked to indicate whether the current face had the same (match-set...

  4. Developing Representations of Compound Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar eVisser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification based on multiple dimensions of stimuli is usually associated with similarity-based representations, whereas uni-dimensional classifications are associated with rule-based representations. This paper studies classification of stimuli and category representations in school-aged children and adults when learning to categorize compound, multidimensional stimuli. Stimuli were such that both similarity-based and rule-based representations would lead to correct classification. This allows testing whether children have a bias for formation of similarity-based representations. The results are at odds with this expectation. Children use both uni-dimensional and multidimensional classification, and the use of both strategies increases with age. Multidimensional classification is best characterized as resulting from an analytic strategy rather than from procedural processing of overall-similarity. The conclusion is that children are capable of using complex rule-based categorization strategies that involve the use of multiple features of the stimuli.

  5. Sleep problems in anxious and depressive older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc MF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie-France Leblanc,1 Sophie Desjardins,1 Alain Desgagné2 1Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, 2Department of Mathematics, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the sleep problems most often encountered by the elderly according to the presence or absence of anxiety and mood disorders. The aim was also to determine whether groups of anxious, depressive, and asymptomatic individuals differ in relation to sleep onset latency; awakenings at night or early in the morning; subjective quality of sleep; taking of sleep medication; and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Structured interviews based on the DSM-IV-TR were administered to a sample of 2,759 seniors aged 65 years and older at the participants’ home by health professionals. Results: Awakening was found to be the most common disturbance. Increased sleep onset latency was the second most frequent sleep difficulty. Taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep was associated with the likelihood of meeting the diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, and even reduced the risk of meeting the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder rather than an anxiety disorder. Awakenings were associated with the probability of suffering from an anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. Quality of sleep, as perceived by the elderly, was not found to be associated with the probability of suffering from a mental disorder. Conclusion: These findings should help to facilitate the practitioner’s diagnosis and add further nuances to be considered when encountering symptoms of an anxious or depressive appearance. All of these data also add fuel to the ongoing debate about whether anxiety and depression are one or two distinct categories of disorders. Keywords: anxiety, awakenings, daytime sleepiness, depression, elderly, quality of sleep, sleep medication, sleep onset latency 

  6. Face To Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  7. Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

  8. Tagging Multiple Emotional Stimuli: Negative Valence Has Little Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Derrick G.; Blagrove, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Six experiments examined the influence of emotional valence on the tagging and enumeration of multiple targets. Experiments 1, 5 and 6 found that there was no difference in the efficiency of tagging/enumerating multiple negative or positive stimuli. Experiment 2 showed that, when neutral-expression face distractors were present, enumerating…

  9. Emotion Socialization in Anxious Youth: Parenting Buffers Emotional Reactivity to Peer Negative Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Waller, Jennifer M; Ryan, Neal D; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Sheeber, Lisa; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Anxious youth exhibit heightened emotional reactivity, particularly to social-evaluative threat, such as peer evaluation and feedback, compared to non-anxious youth. Moreover, normative developmental changes during the transition into adolescence may exacerbate emotional reactivity to peer negative events, particularly for anxious youth. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may buffer emotional reactivity within peer contexts among anxious youth. The current study examined the role of parenting behaviors in child emotional reactivity to peer and non-peer negative events among 86 anxious youth in middle childhood to adolescence (Mean age = 11.29, 54 % girls). Parenting behavior and affect was observed during a social-evaluative laboratory speech task for youth, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods were used to examine youth emotional reactivity to typical daily negative events within peer and non-peer contexts. Results showed that parent positive behaviors, and low levels of parent anxious affect, during the stressful laboratory task for youth buffered youth negative emotional reactivity to real-world negative peer events, but not non-peer events. Findings inform our understanding of parenting influences on anxious youth's emotional reactivity to developmentally salient negative events during the transition into adolescence. PMID:26783026

  10. Emotion Socialization in Anxious Youth: Parenting Buffers Emotional Reactivity to Peer Negative Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Waller, Jennifer M; Ryan, Neal D; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Sheeber, Lisa; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Anxious youth exhibit heightened emotional reactivity, particularly to social-evaluative threat, such as peer evaluation and feedback, compared to non-anxious youth. Moreover, normative developmental changes during the transition into adolescence may exacerbate emotional reactivity to peer negative events, particularly for anxious youth. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may buffer emotional reactivity within peer contexts among anxious youth. The current study examined the role of parenting behaviors in child emotional reactivity to peer and non-peer negative events among 86 anxious youth in middle childhood to adolescence (Mean age = 11.29, 54 % girls). Parenting behavior and affect was observed during a social-evaluative laboratory speech task for youth, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods were used to examine youth emotional reactivity to typical daily negative events within peer and non-peer contexts. Results showed that parent positive behaviors, and low levels of parent anxious affect, during the stressful laboratory task for youth buffered youth negative emotional reactivity to real-world negative peer events, but not non-peer events. Findings inform our understanding of parenting influences on anxious youth's emotional reactivity to developmentally salient negative events during the transition into adolescence.

  11. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli.

  12. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: effects of face direction

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegl, Katrin M.; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Dürr, Lea; Traue, Harald C.; Huckauf, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009) reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented toward the observer. We aimed at replicating this...

  13. Neural substrates of species-dependent visual processing of faces: use of morphed faces

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Emi; Ogata, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Junji; Tanaka, Mutsuhide; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamasaki, Takao; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Face identification and categorization are essential for social communication. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) is considered to be a biomarker of face perception. To elucidate the neural basis of species-dependent face processing, we recorded 128-ch high-density ERPs in 14 healthy adults while they viewed the images of morphed faces. The morphed stimuli contained different proportions of human and monkey faces, and the species boundary was shifted away from the center of the morph cont...

  14. Menstrual cycle phase modulates cognitive control over male but not female stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Garavan, Hugh; NEWELL, FIONA

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Evolutionary selection pressures have been one of the factors proposed to underlie sex differences in inhibitory control. Consequently, inhibitory control may vary as a function of the menstrual cycle and may be modulated by the stimuli being processed if these stimuli are related to reproductive success. We used functional MRI to study women's brain activation across the menstrual cycle on a GO/NOGO response inhibition task using attractive male and female faces as stimuli. We d...

  15. Face to Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    子非

    2004-01-01

    <正> 子非 1.“We know that we’ve alreadybeaten Chelsea and that we can doit again if we perform at our bestds We‘ve shown that before.They havealways been hard games againstChelsea but maybe we’ve had theDsyChlongical advantage.All runseventually have to come to an end!We will treat it as a normal game,1ike the semi-finals of the FA Cup.The good thing is that there willbe an Engllsh team 1n the semi-finals.But the negative thing isthat 1t takes a bit of the charmaway from a European CUP tie.Youexpect to Play a team from anothercountry.No matter which team doesit,they are worthy winners.Butat the moment,we have a big taskin the Quarter-finals and it’S notsure that the winners will faceReal Madrid."

  16. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2016-01-01

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety. PMID:27098489

  17. Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…

  18. Het sex-in-the-crowd effect: Over het opvallen van seksuele stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kennedy; H. Buis; M. Spiering

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionair gezien is het aannemelijk dat stimuli die de overleving en de reproductie bevorderen, sneller opvallen dan neutrale stimuli. Zo is aangetoond dat een bedreigend gezicht tussen neutrale gezichten eerder wordt gedecteerd dan andersom, het face-in-the-crowd effect (HAnsen & Hansen, 1988).

  19. Late Positive Potential ERP Responses to Social and Nonsocial Stimuli in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Stephen D; Kovac, Megan; Campbell, Alana; Miller, Stephanie; Hanna, Eleanor K; Damiano, Cara R; Sabatino-DiCriscio, Antoinette; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Sasson, Noah J; Aaron, Rachel V; Kinard, Jessica; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2016-09-01

    We examined the late positive potential (LPP) event related potential in response to social and nonsocial stimuli from youths 9 to 19 years old with (n = 35) and without (n = 34) ASD. Social stimuli were faces with positive expressions and nonsocial stimuli were related to common restricted interests in ASD (e.g., electronics, vehicles, etc.). The ASD group demonstrated relatively smaller LPP amplitude to social stimuli and relatively larger LPP amplitude to nonsocial stimuli. There were no group differences in subjective ratings of images, and there were no significant correlations between LPP amplitude and ASD symptom severity within the ASD group. LPP results suggest blunted motivational responses to social stimuli and heightened motivational responses to nonsocial stimuli in youth with ASD. PMID:27344337

  20. Socially Anxious and Confident Men Interact with a Forward Virtual Woman: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xueni Pan; Marco Gillies; Chris Barker; Clark, David M.; Mel Slater

    2012-01-01

    Background Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men. Met...

  1. Impact of an anxious social situation on emotional facial expressions (EFEs) recognition in children

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Marie; Taskin, Aslihan Serap; Blairy, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between the capacity of emotional facial expressions (EFEs) recognition and self-esteem in children placed in an anxious social situation. Seventy children (8 – 12 years) were placed in an anxious social situation of performance in which they were instructed to count aloud backwards, beginning at 200 in decrements of 13. After that, children were assessed on a decoding test of 16 photographs depicting EFE. For each photograph, they evaluated the presence ...

  2. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Femke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Kindt, Merel

    2013-02-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current study therefore assessed fear learning across multiple response domains and multiple test phases in a two-day discriminative fear-conditioning paradigm. We tested whether trait anxiety is associated with deficient safety learning, by comparing HTA individuals (N=20) and healthy Controls (N=22). HTA participants showed stronger fear on the startle response and distress ratings to the safety (CS(-)) but not to the threat stimulus (CS(+)) during acquisition, along with impaired extinction and re-extinction. Trait anxiety did not affect skin conductance responses and effects on UCS-expectancy were limited. We conclude that high trait anxiety may be characterized by deficient safety learning which in turn may promote persistent and generalized fear responses.

  3. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  4. Recognizing one's own face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, T T; Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Benson, P J; Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Bartels, M; David, A S

    2001-01-01

    We report two studies of facial self-perception using individually tailored, standardized facial photographs of a group of volunteers and their partners. A computerized morphing procedure was used to merge each target face with an unknown control face. In the first set of experiments, a discrimination task revealed a delayed response time for the more extensively morphed self-face stimuli. In a second set of experiments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation while subjects viewed morphed versions of either their own or their partner's face, alternating in blocks with presentation of an unknown face. When subjects viewed themselves (minus activation for viewing an unknown face), increased blood oxygenation was detected in right limbic (hippocampal formation, insula, anterior cingulate), left prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex. In the partner (versus unknown) experiment, only the right insula was activated. We suggest that a neural network involving the right hemisphere in conjunction with left-sided associative and executive regions underlies the process of visual self-recognition. Together, this combination produces the unique experience of self-awareness. PMID:11062324

  5. Executive functioning and diabetes: The role of anxious arousal and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Lacourt, Tamara E; Duke, Danny C; Heijnen, Cobi J; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-09-01

    Individuals who perform poorly on measures of the executive function of inhibition have higher anxious arousal in comparison to those with better performance. High anxious arousal is associated with a pro-inflammatory response. Chronically high anxious arousal and inflammation increase one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We sought to evaluate anxious arousal and inflammation as underlying mechanisms linking inhibition with diabetes incidence. Participants (N=835) completed measures of cognitive abilities, a self-report measure of anxious arousal, and donated blood to assess interleukin-6 (IL-6) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Individuals with low inhibition were more likely to have diabetes than those with high inhibition due to the serial pathway from high anxious arousal to IL-6. Findings remained when entering other indicators of cognitive abilities as covariates, suggesting that inhibition is a unique cognitive ability associated with diabetes incidence. On the basis of our results, we propose several avenues to explore for improved prevention and treatment efforts for type 2 diabetes. PMID:27261922

  6. The role of gender in face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnman, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Faces constitute one of the most important stimuli for humans. Studies show that women recognize more faces than men, and that females are particularly able to recognize female faces, thus exhibiting an own-sex bias. In the present thesis, three empirical studies investigated the generality of sex differences in face recognition and the female own-sex bias. Study I explored men’s and women’s face recognition performance for Bangladeshi and Swedish female and male faces of adults and children....

  7. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing. PMID:23805248

  8. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Gobbini

    Full Text Available We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing.

  9. Socially anxious and confident men interact with a forward virtual woman: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men. METHODOLOGY: The scenario was a party with five virtual characters, four sitting at a distance from the participant and talking amongst themselves and one lone woman standing closer. The woman approached the participant, introduced herself and initiated a conversation that was first about mundane matters and then became more personal and intimate. Participants were men who were either relatively socially confident (18 or socially anxious in their relationships with women (18. A second experimental factor was whether or not the other four characters occasionally looked towards the participant. There was a post-trial questionnaire about social anxiety in relation to the experience, and skin conductance and ECG physiological measures were recorded. Our expectation was that the socially anxious participants would show greater anxiety throughout. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to baseline readings both socially confident and socially anxious groups on average showed signs of significantly increased stress at the initial approach of the virtual woman. The stress then diminished once the conversation entered into the mundane phase and then did not significantly change. Comparing pre- and post-questionnaire anxiety scores there was no change for the more confident participants but a significant decrease in average score amongst the anxious group. The methodology of placing socially anxious participants in a virtual reality where they can gain experience of how to act in a

  10. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Fox

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  11. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Shelton, Steven E; Oakes, Terrence R; Davidson, Richard J; Kalin, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray) that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and depression. In

  12. Looking at a face. Relavant aspects of face perception in social cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Comparetti,

    2012-01-01

    An important issue in human cognition concerns face processing. Faces are incontestably one of the most important biological stimuli for humans. They convey crucial social cues, such as age, sex, emotion and identity information, and are the basis of verbal and non-verbal communication. Face processing and recognition have been extensively studied over the past years, through different methodology including neuroimaging and electrophysiology, mostly aimed at testing the extent to which faces...

  13. Relations Between Depressive and Anxious Symptoms and Quality of Life in Caregivers of Children With Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Montag-Leifling, Karen; Acton, James D.; Modi, Avani C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Little is known about depressive and anxious symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in caregivers of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aims of this study were to: (1) assess rates of female and male caregiver depressive and anxious symptoms, and (2) evaluate relations between depressive and anxious symptoms, caregiver QOL, and health outcomes. Patients and Methods Eligible participants were caregivers of children with CF who completed three questionnaires assessing depressive and an...

  14. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, V; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance Jr, W.C.; Hallett, M

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to positive stimuli. We investigated the relationship between conversion disorder and affect by assessing amygdala activity to affective stimuli. We conduct...

  15. Do pictures of faces, and which ones, capture attention in the inattentional blindness paradigm?

    OpenAIRE

    Devue, C.; Laloyaux, C.; Feyers, D.; Theeuwes, J; Bredart, S.

    2009-01-01

    Faces and self-referential materials (eg the own name) are more likely to capture attention in the inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm than others stimuli. This effect is presumably due to the meaning of these stimuli rather than to their familiarity (Mack and Rock 1998). IB has mostly been investigated with schematic stimuli in previous work. In the present study, the generalisability of this finding was tested using photographic stimuli. In support to the view that faces constitute a spec...

  16. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2009-06-29

    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  17. Losing Face

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-Jones, David; Reinstein, David

    2010-01-01

    When person A makes an offer to person B and B rejects it, then A may “lose face.” This loss of face is assumed to occur only if B knows for sure of A’s offer. While under some circumstances loss of face can be rationalized by the consequences for future reputation, it may also enter directly into the utility function. Loss of face concerns can lead to fewer offers and inefficiency in markets that involve matching, discrete transactions, and offers/proposals in both directions, su...

  18. Are Attractive Men's Faces Masculine or Feminine? The Importance of Controlling Confounds in Face Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Smith, Finlay G.; Little, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    Women's preferences for male masculinity are highly variable. Although many researchers explain this variability as reflecting systematic individual differences in how women resolve the tradeoff between the costs and benefits of choosing a masculine partner, others suggest that methodological differences between studies are responsible. A recent…

  19. The MR2: A multi-racial, mega-resolution database of facial stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohminger, Nina; Gray, Kurt; Chituc, Vladimir; Heffner, Joseph; Schein, Chelsea; Heagins, Titus Brooks

    2016-09-01

    Faces impart exhaustive information about their bearers, and are widely used as stimuli in psychological research. Yet many extant facial stimulus sets have substantially less detail than faces encountered in real life. In this paper, we describe a new database of facial stimuli, the Multi-Racial Mega-Resolution database (MR2). The MR2 includes 74 extremely high resolution images of European, African, and East Asian faces. This database provides a high-quality, diverse, naturalistic, and well-controlled facial image set for use in research. The MR2 is available under a Creative Commons license, and may be accessed online.

  20. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  1. The role of mindfulness and decentering in depressive and anxious symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Linares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive and anxious symptoms have a clear impact on the functioning of people. Their appearance seems to be related to the presence of deficits in metacognitive capacities. Mindfulness interventions increase metacognitive awareness through their effect in the decentering capacity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mindfulness and decentering with anxious and depressive symptomatology respectively. The sample consisted of 465 participants contacted through universities and social networks. Results revealed that both mindfulness and the ability to decenter explain the presence of depressive symptoms while only mindfulness explains the presence of anxiety symptoms. These results are encouraging for intervention in mindfulness with anxious and depressive symptoms and stress the importance of metacognitive processes such as decentering in their development.

  2. Threat Interference Biases Predict Socially Anxious Behavior: The Role of Inhibitory Control and Minute of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-07-01

    The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. PMID:26163713

  3. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius 't Hart

    Full Text Available The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces", false positives ("illusory faces" and correctly rejected locations ("non faces". Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.

  4. Face-to-face coalition

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Timothy J.; Thompson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The perception and recognition of familiar faces are thought to depend critically on an analysis of the internal features of the face. However, other studies have shown that combining highly familiar internal features with an inappropriate set of familiar external features produces a composite face whose identity is dominated by the external features. Here, we show that this illusion depends on the distinctiveness of the external features.

  5. Finding an emotional face in a crowd and the role of threat-biased attention in social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Juth, Pernilla

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the functionality of prioritizing efficient threat detection (Öhman, 1986, 1993) provided the foundation for a hypothesis of an attentional bias for preferential detection of angry faces in a group of faces. Furthermore, an evolutionary analysis implied that such a threat bias would be enhanced in socially anxious individuals, whose bias for detecting threat in faces would be potentiated by their increased sensitivity for facial signals of soc...

  6. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise;

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada.......Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  7. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Montoya

    Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences

  8. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  9. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoed Nissan Kenett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks – Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition – and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere, unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere. In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized left hemisphere was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  10. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Yoed N; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks-Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition-and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field (SVF) paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere (RH), unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere (LH). In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized LH was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  11. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Mariska eKret; Jeroen eStekelenburg; Karin eRoelofs; Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2013-01-01

    Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emo...

  12. Perception of Face and Body Expressions Using Electromyography, Pupillometry and Gaze Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kret, Mariska E.; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.; Roelofs, Karin; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important as well. In these experiments we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily ...

  13. Developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive problems during the transition from childhood to adolescence : Personality x Parenting interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Shiner, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 th

  14. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term. PMID:26191980

  15. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term.

  16. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  17. Classroom Emotional Climate as a Moderator of Anxious Solitary Children's Longitudinal Risk for Peer Exclusion: A Child x Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of…

  18. Impact of REM sleep on distortions of self-concept, mood and memory in depressed/anxious participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Auerbach, Sanford; Johnson, Patricia; Harris, Erica; Doros, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that REM sleep contributes to core features of cognitive dysfunction of anxious depression including negative self-appraisals, biased memory processing and unpleasant dream content. Methods: After a habituation night in a sleep lab, a convenience sample of 35 healthy college students and 20 depressed/anxious students were awakened 10 minutes into a REM sleep episode and then 10 minutes into a NREM sleep episode. Awakenings were counterbalanced to control circadian effects. After each awakening participants reported a dream and then completed memory recall, mood and self-appraisal tasks. Results: Self-appraisals of depressed/anxious participants were significantly less positive and significantly more negative after awakenings from REM sleep vs NREM sleep. Appraisal of the REM sleep dream self was negative for depressed/anxious subjects only. Recall of negative memories was significantly more frequent after REM vs NREM sleep awakenings for both depress/anxious and healthy participants. REM sleep dreams were associated with greater frequencies of negative emotion, greater aggression and victimization rates than dreams in NREM sleep for depressed/anxious participants. Limitations: Depressed/anxious participants were classified as such on the basis of mood scales rather than clinical interview. All participants were drawn from a volunteer college student population and thus our results may not be applicable to some elderly clinical populations. Conclusions: REM appears to facilitate cognitive distortions of anxious depression. PMID:19631989

  19. Effects of state and trait anxiety on selective attention to threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Ortega Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.

  20. The role of the amygdala in face perception and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Faces are one of the most significant social stimuli and the processes underlying face perception are at the intersection of cognition, affect, and motivation. Vision scientists have had a tremendous success of mapping the regions for perceptual analysis of faces in posterior cortex. Based on eviden

  1. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on...

  2. Associations of Parent–Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9–15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptoms. Linear Mixed Models analyses controlling for the alternate parent and child symptoms indicated that both parent and child depressive symptoms and parent and child anxious symptoms were positively associated. Parental depressive symptoms were not positively associated with child anxious symptoms, and parental anxious symptoms were not positively associated with child depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence for positive specific links between parent and child development of same-syndrome, but not cross-syndrome, symptoms when a caregiver has a history of depression. PMID:25844031

  3. Covert Face Recognition without Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Ellis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985. The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, “automatic” aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury.

  4. Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

    2010-01-01

    Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

  5. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova;

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...... unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...

  6. Misaligned and Polarity-Reversed Faces Determine Face-specific Capacity Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Volker; Ward, Neil; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits. Experiment 1 replicated earlier findings that a distracter face is processed even in high load conditions when participants looked for a target name of a famous person among additional names (non-targets) in a central search array. Two further experiments show that when targets and non-targets were faces (instead of names), however, distracter interference was eliminated under high load—adding non-target faces to the search array exhausted processing capacity for peripheral faces. The novel finding was that replacing non-target faces with images that consisted of two horizontally misaligned face-parts reduced distracter processing. Similar results were found when the polarity of a non-target face image was reversed. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural properties of face processing, but by face parts. PMID:27729889

  7. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing. PMID:27531986

  8. Social cognition in Williams syndrome: face tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style. The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions, the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  9. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing. PMID:27531986

  10. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  11. High Math-Anxious Female College Freshmen: What Do They Have in Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Marylou; Austin-Martin, George

    Presented is a study which investigated the relationship of mathematics anxiety to mathematics attitudes and mathematics achievement for 62 high math-anxious female college freshmen. Subjects were given the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Inventory, including a mathematics anxiety scale, and a mathematics achievement test. High math-anxious…

  12. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…

  13. The importance of personality and life-events in anxious depression : from trait to state anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. METHOD: Baseline data of the Netherlands S

  14. A cognitive-behavioral group treatment for test-anxious adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA

    1994-01-01

    Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the

  15. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children: 3-, 6-, and 12-Month Follow-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A.; Bernat, Debra H.; Victor, Andrea M.; Layne, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    The study followed participants aged 7 to 11 years from a previous study that compared three school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions for anxious children to determine long-term post-treatment benefits. Results indicate school-based CBT decreases anxiety symptoms up to 12 months post-treatment.

  16. Common and Specific Emotion-Related Predictors of Anxious and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Hoffman, Brian; Zeman, Janice L.; Thomassin, Kristel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether specific emotion-related constructs may be uniquely related to anxious or depressive symptoms in youth. Although anxiety and depression are comorbid in both youth and adult populations, delineation of these disorders is a worthwhile endeavor given that such differentiation may lead to a clearer conceptualization of the…

  17. Negative emotional primes and attentional bias towards alcohol in high anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Samelink; R.W. Wiers

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term, pro

  18. The Impact of Anxious and Calm Emotional States on Color Usage in Pre-Drawn Mandalas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Andrea; van der Vennet, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this single-subject experiment was to test whether a link exists between emotional state and color usage in a common art therapy technique. The researchers hypothesized that when coloring a pre-drawn mandala, participants would choose warm colors when they were anxious and cool colors when they were calm. The non-random sample…

  19. Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

  20. Anxiety and quality of life: clinically anxious children with and without autism spectrum disorders compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; C.D. Dirksen

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid

  1. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van der Sluis; F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses

  2. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  3. Microinterventions targeting regulatory focus and regulatory fit selectively reduce dysphoric and anxious mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauman, Timothy J; Socolar, Yvonne; Kwapil, Lori; Cornwell, James F M; Franks, Becca; Sehnert, Steen; Higgins, E Tory

    2015-09-01

    Depression and generalized anxiety, separately and as comorbid states, continue to represent a significant public health challenge. Current cognitive-behavioral treatments are clearly beneficial but there remains a need for continued development of complementary interventions. This manuscript presents two proof-of-concept studies, in analog samples, of "microinterventions" derived from regulatory focus and regulatory fit theories and targeting dysphoric and anxious symptoms. In Study 1, participants with varying levels of dysphoric and/or anxious mood were exposed to a brief intervention either to increase or to reduce engagement in personal goal pursuit, under the hypothesis that dysphoria indicates under-engagement of the promotion system whereas anxiety indicates over-engagement of the prevention system. In Study 2, participants with varying levels of dysphoric and/or anxious mood received brief training in counterfactual thinking, under the hypothesis that inducing individuals in a state of promotion failure to generate subtractive counterfactuals for past failures (a non-fit) will lessen their dejection/depression-related symptoms, whereas inducing individuals in a state of prevention failure to generate additive counterfactuals for past failures (a non-fit) will lessen their agitation/anxiety-related symptoms. In both studies, we observed discriminant patterns of reduction in distress consistent with the hypothesized links between dysfunctional states of the two motivational systems and dysphoric versus anxious symptoms.

  4. Parent-directed cognitive behavioral therapy for young anxious children: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van der Sluis; C.O. van der Bruggen; M.L. Brechman-Toussaint; M.A.P. Thissen; S.M. Bögels

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was delivere

  5. Lived experiences of self-reported science-anxious students taking an interdisciplinary undergraduate science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Mark Austin

    Having fears and frustrations while studying science topics can lead to science anxiety for some individuals. For those who experience science learning anxiety, the reality is often poor performance, lowered self-esteem, anger, and avoidance of further science courses. Using an interpretive approach, this study captures the experiences of five self-reported science anxious students as they participate in an interdisciplinary science course at the University of Minnesota. A series of three in-depth interviews were conducted with five students who were enrolled in the "Our Changing Planet" course offered at the University of Minnesota. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed thematically. Four major themes emerged from the interviews. Two of the themes involve the realities of being a science anxious student. These focus on participants' experiences of feeling frustrated, anxious and incompetent when studying both math and science; and the experiences of trying to learn science content that does not seem relevant to them. The last two themes highlight the participants' perceptions of their experiences during the "Our Changing Planet" course, including how the course seemed different from previous science courses as well as their learning experiences in cooperative groups. After presenting the themes, with supporting quotations, each theme is linked to the related literature. The essence of the participants' science anxiety experiences is presented and practical implications regarding science anxious students are discussed. Finally, insights gained and suggestions for further research are provided.

  6. Socially anxious children at risk for victimization : The role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Saskia F.; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether Big Five personality traits affect the extent to which a socially anxious child will be victimized. A total of 1814 children participated in the study (mean age = 11.99 years). Children completed self-reports and peer reports of victimization, which were aggregated, and s

  7. Costs and cost-effectiveness of family CBT versus individual CBT in clinically anxious children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Bodden; C.D. Dirksen; S.M. Bögels; M.H. Nauta; E. de Haan; J. Ringrose; C. Appelboom; A.G. Brinkman; K.C.M.M.J. Appelboom-Geerts

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of family cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with individual CBT in children with anxiety disorders. Clinically anxious children (aged 8—18 years) referred for treatment were randomly assigned to family or individual CBT

  8. Differential age-related changes in N170 responses to upright faces, inverted faces, and eyes in Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to investigate the development of face perception in Japanese children, focusing on the changes in face processing strategies (holistic and/or configural vs. feature-based that occur during childhood. To achieve this, we analyzed the face-related N170 component, evoked by upright face, inverted face, and eyes stimuli in 82 Japanese children aged between 8- and 13-years-old. During the experiment, the children were asked to perform a target detection task in which they were told to press a button when they saw images of faces or kettles with moustaches, glasses, and fake noses; i.e., an implicit face perception task. The N170 signals observed after the presentation of the upright face stimuli were longer in duration and/or had at least two peaks in the 8-11-year-old children, whereas those seen in the 12-13-year-old children were sharp and only had a single peak. N170 latency was significantly longer after the presentation of the eyes stimuli than after the presentation of the upright face stimuli in the 10- and 12-year-old children. In addition, significant differences in N170 latency were observed among all three stimulus types in the 13-year-old children. N170 amplitude was significantly greater after the presentation of the eyes stimuli than after the presentation of the upright face stimuli in the 8-10- and 12-year-old children. The results of the present study indicate that the upright face stimuli were processed using holistic and/or configural processing by the 13-year-old children.

  9. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  10. Face Processing & Frontal Face Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Conrad

    2003-01-01

    In this report we first review important publications in the field of face recognition; geometric features, templates, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), pseudo-2D Hidden Markov Models, Elastic Graph Matching, as well as other points are covered; important issues, such as the effects of an illumination direction change and the use of different face areas, are also covered. A new feature set (termed DCT-mod2) is then proposed; the feature set utilizes polynomial coefficients derived from 2D D...

  11. Eye movements in pedophiles: automatic and controlled attentional processes while viewing prepubescent stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromberger, Peter; Jordan, Kirsten; Steinkrauss, Henrike; von Herder, Jakob; Stolpmann, Georg; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Müller, Jürgen Leo

    2013-05-01

    Recent theories in sexuality highlight the importance of automatic and controlled attentional processes in viewing sexually relevant stimuli. The model of Spiering and Everaerd (2007) assumes that sexually relevant features of a stimulus are preattentively selected and automatically induce focal attention to these sexually relevant aspects. Whether this assumption proves true for pedophiles is unknown. It is aim of this study to test this assumption empirically for people suffering from pedophilic interests. Twenty-two pedophiles, 8 nonpedophilic forensic controls, and 52 healthy controls simultaneously viewed the picture of a child and the picture of an adult while eye movements were measured. Entry time was assessed as a measure of automatic attentional processes and relative fixation time in order to assess controlled attentional processes. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly shorter entry time to child stimuli than to adult stimuli. The opposite was the case for nonpedophiles, as they showed longer relative fixation time for adult stimuli, and, against all expectations, pedophiles also demonstrated longer relative fixation time for adult stimuli. The results confirmed the hypothesis that pedophiles automatically selected sexually relevant stimuli (children). Contrary to all expectations, this automatic selection did not trigger the focal attention to these sexually relevant pictures. Furthermore, pedophiles were first and longest attracted by faces and pubic regions of children; nonpedophiles were first and longest attracted by faces and breasts of adults. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that the face and pubic region are the most attracting regions in children for pedophiles. PMID:23206281

  12. Cognitive bias modification for attention and interpretation reduces trait and state anxiety in anxious patients referred to an out-patient service: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosan, Lee; Hoppitt, Laura; Shelfer, Lorna; Sillence, Alison; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2011-09-01

    It is well established that anxious individuals show biases in information processing, such that they attend preferentially to threatening stimuli and interpret emotional ambiguity in a threatening way. It has also been established that these biases in attention and interpretation can causally influence anxiety. Recent advances in experimental work have involved the development of a paradigm known as Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a constellation of procedures which directly modify bias using computerised tasks. Excitingly, these procedures have been shown to reduce bias in attention to threat (CBM-A), and to promote a positive interpretive bias (CBM-I) in anxious populations; furthermore, these modifications are associated with reductions in anxiety. We believe that these techniques have the potential to create a real clinical impact for people with anxiety. Initial studies involved volunteer participants who reached criteria for clinical diagnoses to be made, but emerging evidence suggests that patients referred for therapy also benefit. For the purposes of experimentation researchers have normally looked at one procedure at a time. In order to try to maximise the potential clinical impact we wished to investigate whether the combination of the procedures would be more effective than either alone. We also wished to investigate whether the procedures could be carried out in routine clinical settings with patients referred to an out-patient psychological treatment service. We therefore carried out a pilot study using a combined approach of CBM-A and CBM-I with a sample of 13 anxious patients referred to an out-patient psychology service for cognitive therapy. The results showed successful reductions in threat related attentional and interpretive bias, as well as reductions in trait and state anxiety. Participant reports describe the procedures as acceptable, with the attentional task experienced as boring, but the interpretive one experienced as helpful. While

  13. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  14. Face diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Ventalló, Xènia

    2015-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The Face Diarization project is a comparative analysis between two methods already developed. This project aims to determine if, using this procedure, the video sequence scenes limits can be determined. For face detection a 69.78% recall and a 65.78% precision are achieved. Using the LBPH classification system a 74.34% of detections are correctly classified; while, using the system algorithm that also considers the cloth, a 62.57% are classified. For the scenes separation system, usi...

  15. On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiqi G Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past century, researchers have extensively studied human face processing and its development. These studies have advanced our understanding of not only face processing, but also visual processing in general. However, most of what we know about face processing was investigated using static face images as stimuli. Therefore, an important question arises: to what extent does our understanding of static face processing generalize to face processing in real-life contexts in which faces are mostly moving? The present article addresses this question by examining recent studies on moving face processing to uncover the influence of facial movements on face processing and its development. First, we describe evidence on facial movements’ facilitation effect on face recognition and two related theoretical hypotheses: the supplementary information hypothesis and the representation enhancement hypothesis. We then highlight several recent studies suggesting that facial movements optimize face processing by activating specific face processing strategies that accommodate to task requirements. Lastly, we review the influence of facial movements on the development of face processing in the first year of life. We focus on infants’ sensitivity to facial movements and explore the facilitative effects of facial movements on infants’ face recognition performance. We conclude by outlining several future directions in investigating moving face processing and emphasize the importance of including dynamic aspects of facial information to further understand face processing in real-life contexts.

  16. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... chap 18. Digre KB. Headaches and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  17. Detection, discrimination, and sensation of visceral stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Hölzl, Rupert; Erasmus, Lutz-Peter; Möltner, Andreas; Samay, Sebastian; Waldmann, Hans-Christian; Neidig, Claus W.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the interoception of gastrointestinal stimuli. A total of 48 subjects participated in the study that used an adaptive up-down tracking method of threshold determination of distensions to the colon wall. Subjects were presented with two temporal intervals, and the stimulus was applied to one of the intervals. Then they were required to give behavioral and subjective responses to perceived distension stimuli in the lower bowel segments. It is concluded that detection of stimuli is poss...

  18. Cardiorespiratory interactions to external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Spicuzza, L; Sleight, P

    2005-09-01

    Respiration is a powerful modulator of heart rate variability, and of baro- or chemo-reflex sensitivity. This occurs via a mechanical effect of breathing that synchronizes all cardiovascular variables at the respiratory rhythm, particularly when this occurs at a particular slow rate coincident with the Mayer waves in arterial pressure (approximately 6 cycles/min). Recitation of the rosary prayer (or of most mantras), induces a marked enhancement of these slow rhythms, whereas random verbalization or random breathing does not. This phenomenon in turn increases baroreflex sensitivity and reduces chemoreflex sensitivity, leading to increases in parasympathetic and reductions in sympathetic activity. The opposite can be seen during either verbalization or mental stress tests. Qualitatively similar effects can be obtained even by passive listening to more or less rhythmic auditory stimuli, such as music, and the speed of the rhythm (rather than the style) appears to be one of the main determinants of the cardiovascular and respiratory responses. These findings have clinical relevance. Appropriate modulation of breathing, can improve/restore autonomic control of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in relevant diseases such as hypertension and heart failure, and might therefore help improving exercise tolerance, quality of life, and ultimately, survival.

  19. Evidence for unique threat-processing mechanisms in psychopathic and anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Allison J; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Li, Wen; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2011-12-01

    Behaviorally, psychopathy and anxiety display opposite patterns of threat sensitivity and response inhibition. However, it is unclear whether this is due to shared or to separate underlying processes. To address this question, we evaluated whether the threat sensitivity of psychopathic and anxious offenders relates to similar or different components of Gray and McNaughton's (2000) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory using a sample of 87 prisoners and a task that crossed threat onset with attentional focus. Psychopathy was associated with significantly weaker fear-potentiated startle (FPS) under conditions that presented threat cues after alternative, goal-directed cues. Conversely, anxiety was associated with significantly stronger FPS when threat appeared first and was the focus of attention. Furthermore, these differences were statistically independent. The results suggest that the abnormal sensitivity to threat cues associated with psychopathy and anxiety relate to different underlying processes and have implications for understanding the relationship between low- and high-anxious psychopathy. PMID:21590315

  20. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. PMID:27287752

  1. [Features of therapy for chronic pancreatitis associated with anxious depressive disorders in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Lubavskaya, S S; Batishcheva, G A; Chernov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    The article presents data on peculiarities of chronic pancreatitis course in railway transport workers (engine operators, engine operator assistants, dispatchers) with anxious depressive disorders. Pain and dyspepsia in patients with affective disorders appeared to be constant and more intense than in the patients without concomitant anxious depression. Psychophysiologic tests in 83% of patients with comorbid conditions revealed significant psychomotor dullness manifested in reliable lower speed of visual motor reactions. Pharmacologic correction via anxiolytics (Adaptol, Afobasol) combined with standard therapy for chronic pancreatitis exacerbation enabled to improve clinical symptoms, but Adaptol appeared to slow simple visual motor reactions, therefore has to be ruled out in engine operators. Pharmacotherapy of chronic pancreatitis, that included Afobasol in addition to standard treatment, promoted reliable improvement of occupationally important psychophysiologic functions. This study received a patent.

  2. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality.

  3. Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Liv Merete; Olavsbråten, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Machine based face recognition has been a popular research area for several years, and has numerous applications. This technology has now reached a point where there already exists good algorithms for recognition for standardized still images - which have little variation in e.g. lighting, facial expression and pose. We are however in lack of good algorithms that are able to do recognition from live video. The low quality of most surveillance cameras, together with non-standardized imaging c...

  4. Face Value

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine C. Eckel; Ragan Petrie

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence of systematic heterogeneity in behavior by observable characteristics, such as what one would see in a face. We ask, is there informational value in knowing these characteristics in a strategic interaction? Subjects are given the opportunity to purchase a photograph of their partner in the play of a trust game. Not everyone purchases the photo, even at prices as low as $0.20. Senders (first movers in the game) have a more inelastic demand for pictures than responders...

  5. Face Off

    OpenAIRE

    Busby, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Face off explored and expanded the perceptions of where the DJ could be found by collaborating with the artist David Dixon to create an equipment set up and performance which was a sonic and structural intervention of his work Entangled Practice. This work is part of the Shit! I can DJ project which explores the fringes of what might be considered DJ practice, and seeks to explore and promote experimental DJ practices across fields.

  6. Measuring sexual dimorphism with a race-gender face space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, William J; Finklea, Kristin M; Winkielman, Piotr; Huber, David E

    2014-10-01

    Faces are complex visual objects, and faces chosen to vary in 1 regard may unintentionally vary in other ways, particularly if the correlation is a property of the population of faces. Here, we present an example of a correlation that arises from differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. In Experiment 1, paired similarity ratings were collected for a set of 40 real face images chosen to vary in terms of gender and race (Asian vs. White). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) placed these stimuli in a "face space," with different attributes corresponding to different dimensions. Gender was found to vary more for White faces, resulting in a negative or positive correlation between gender and race when only considering male or only considering female faces. This increased sexual dimorphism for White faces may provide an alternative explanation for differences in face processing between White and Asian faces (e.g., the own-race bias, face attractiveness biases, etc.). Studies of face processing that are unconfounded by this difference in the degree of sexual dimorphism require stimuli that are decorrelated in terms of race and gender. Decorrelated faces were created using a morphing technique, spacing the morphs uniformly around a ring in the 2-dimensional (2D) race-gender plane. In Experiment 2, paired similarity ratings confirmed the 2D positions of the morph faces. In Experiment 3, race and gender category judgments varied uniformly for these decorrelated stimuli. Our results and stimuli should prove useful for studying sexual dimorphism and for the study of face processing more generally.

  7. Parental and Family Factors as Predictors of Threat Bias in Anxious Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Blossom, Jennifer B.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T.; KENDALL, Philip C.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Langley, Audra K.; Piacentini, John C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Albano, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relative predictive value of parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child threat bias, and family dysfunction on child's threat bias in a clinical sample of anxious youth. Participants (N = 488) were part of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multi-modal study (CAMS), ages 7–17 years (M = 10.69; SD = 2.80). Children met diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and/or social phobia. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires ass...

  8. Trait-Like Brain Activity during Adolescence Predicts Anxious Temperament in Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Andrew S.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2008-01-01

    Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now d...

  9. Cognitive Functioning and Academic Performance in Elementary School Children with Anxious/Depressed and Withdrawn Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Lundy, SM; Sliva, GE; Kaemingk, K.L.; Goodwin, Joy; Quan, Stuart Fun

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Few studies have evaluated the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neuropsychological performance in children without symptomatic depression.Objectives: This study determined the relationship between anxious/depressed and withdrawn symptoms and performance on cognitive and academic achievement measures.Methods: 335 Caucasian and Hispanic children aged 6 to 11 years who participated in the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea (TuCASA) study were administered a ...

  10. Social anxiety and perception of (un)trustworthiness in smiling faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G

    2016-10-30

    In social environments the smile can be driven by different motives and convey different emotions. This makes a smiling face ambiguous and amenable to alternative interpretations. We investigated how social anxiety is related to trustworthiness evaluation of morphed dynamic smiling faces depending on changes in the eye expression. Socially anxious and non-anxious participants judged the un/trustworthiness of people with different smiles. Social anxiety was related to reduced trustworthiness of (a) faces with a neutral mouth unfolding to a smile when the eyes were neutral at the beginning or end of the dynamic sequence, and (b) faces with a smiling mouth when happy eyes slightly changed towards neutrality, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, or anger. In contrast, social anxiety was not related to trustworthiness judgments for non-ambiguous expressions unfolding from neutral (eyes and mouth) to happy (eyes and mouth) or from happy to neutral. Socially anxious individuals are characterized by an interpretation bias towards mistrusting any ambiguous smile due to the presence of non-happy eyes.

  11. Associations of Parent–Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9–15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptoms. Linear Mixed Models analyses controlling for the alternate parent and child symptoms indicated that b...

  12. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACARENA eSUÁREZ PELLICIONI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA and 20 low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias towards math-related words in HMA individuals.

  13. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related - neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals.

  14. A Qualitative Impairment in Face Perception in Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from a Reduced Face Inversion Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Marie Maxime; Gandini, Delphine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Vallet, Guillaume T; Joannette, Maude; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno; Joubert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent face recognition difficulties in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have typically been attributed to the underlying episodic and semantic memory impairment. The aim of the current study was to determine if AD patients are also impaired at the perceptual level for faces, more specifically at extracting a visual representation of an individual face. To address this question, we investigated the matching of simultaneously presented individual faces and of other nonface familiar shapes (cars), at both upright and inverted orientation, in a group of mild AD patients and in a group of healthy older controls matched for age and education. AD patients showed a reduced inversion effect (i.e., larger performance for upright than inverted stimuli) for faces, but not for cars, both in terms of error rates and response times. While healthy participants showed a much larger decrease in performance for faces than for cars with inversion, the inversion effect did not differ significantly for faces and cars in AD. This abnormal inversion effect for faces was observed in a large subset of individual patients with AD. These results suggest that AD patients have deficits in higher-level visual processes, more specifically at perceiving individual faces, a function that relies on holistic representations specific to upright face stimuli. These deficits, combined with their memory impairment, may contribute to the difficulties in recognizing familiar people that are often reported in patients suffering from the disease and by their caregivers. PMID:26967217

  15. Binocular coordination in response to stereoscopic stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversedge, Simon P.; Holliman, Nicolas S.; Blythe, Hazel I.

    2009-02-01

    Humans actively explore their visual environment by moving their eyes. Precise coordination of the eyes during visual scanning underlies the experience of a unified perceptual representation and is important for the perception of depth. We report data from three psychological experiments investigating human binocular coordination during visual processing of stereoscopic stimuli.In the first experiment participants were required to read sentences that contained a stereoscopically presented target word. Half of the word was presented exclusively to one eye and half exclusively to the other eye. Eye movements were recorded and showed that saccadic targeting was uninfluenced by the stereoscopic presentation, strongly suggesting that complementary retinal stimuli are perceived as a single, unified input prior to saccade initiation. In a second eye movement experiment we presented words stereoscopically to measure Panum's Fusional Area for linguistic stimuli. In the final experiment we compared binocular coordination during saccades between simple dot stimuli under 2D, stereoscopic 3D and real 3D viewing conditions. Results showed that depth appropriate vergence movements were made during saccades and fixations to real 3D stimuli, but only during fixations on stereoscopic 3D stimuli. 2D stimuli did not induce depth vergence movements. Together, these experiments indicate that stereoscopic visual stimuli are fused when they fall within Panum's Fusional Area, and that saccade metrics are computed on the basis of a unified percept. Also, there is sensitivity to non-foveal retinal disparity in real 3D stimuli, but not in stereoscopic 3D stimuli, and the system responsible for binocular coordination responds to this during saccades as well as fixations.

  16. Company Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天田

    2011-01-01

    有些演员长得不好看但上镜,这叫有Camera Face;而有些企业有明星企业家,这叫有Company Face.塑造一张Company Face对企业来说是非常合算的,因为公众对于枯燥的商业概念和数据并无兴趣,把企业人格化才是建立沟通的捷径.然而,究竟你的CompanyFace是杂志封面的人物还是客户走进公司会接触的保安、保洁和秘书?听说一个绿色八卦:张艺谋在《山楂树之恋》选角时,为了“静秋”可谓是踏破铁鞋.当时分了若干组人马四处寻访,但是带回来的候选人张艺谋统统看不上.张艺谋讽刺一位选角的同事:你选出来的女孩儿,一打开电视满眼都是!这位同事立即反唇相讥:你选的呢?连电视都不让上!

  17. Brain and face: communicating signals of health in the left and right sides of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, V A; Zaidel, D W

    2001-01-01

    In human communication and mate selection the appearance of health sends signals regarding biological fitness. We compared the appearance of health in the sides of the face to previous results on left-right facial asymmetry in the appearance of beauty (1). The stimuli were created by aligning the left and right sides of the face each with its own mirror image. Here, participants viewed 38 pairs of left-left and right-right faces and judged which member of the pair looked healthier. No significant interaction emerged between decision (health vs attractiveness) and face side. Rather, in women's faces right-right was significantly more healthy and attractive than left-left, while in men's faces there was no significant left-right difference. In biology and evolution, health and beauty are closely linked and the findings here confirm this relationship in human faces.

  18. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response—as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic—strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  19. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N

    2008-06-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response-as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic--strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  20. Infants' Detection of Correlated Features among Social Stimuli: A Precursor to Stereotyping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary D.; And Others

    This study examined the abilities of 10-month-old infants to detect correlations between objects and persons based on the characteristic of gender. A total of 32 infants were habituated to six stimuli in which a picture of a male or female face was paired with one of six objects such as a football or frying pan. Three objects were associated with…

  1. Post-Decision Wagering Affects Metacognitive Awareness of Emotional Stimuli: An Event Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchoń, Michał; Wronka, Eligiusz; Paulewicz, Borysław; Szczepanowski, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigated metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli and its psychophysiological correlates. We used a backward masking task presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces. We asked participants for face discrimination and then probed their metacognitive awareness with confidence rating (CR) and post-decision wagering (PDW) scales. We also analysed psychophysiological correlates of awareness with event-related potential (ERP) components: P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN), and P3. We have not observed any differences between PDW and CR conditions in the emotion identification task. However, the "aware" ratings were associated with increased accuracy performance. This effect was more pronounced in PDW, especially for fearful faces, suggesting that emotional stimuli awareness may be enhanced by monetary incentives. EEG analysis showed larger N170, EPN and P3 amplitudes in aware compared to unaware trials. It also appeared that both EPN and P3 ERP components were more pronounced in the PDW condition, especially when emotional faces were presented. Taken together, our ERP findings suggest that metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli depends on the effectiveness of both early and late visual information processing. Our study also indicates that awareness of emotional stimuli can be enhanced by the motivation induced by wagering. PMID:27490816

  2. Exploring combinations of different color and facial expression stimuli for gaze-independent BCIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention had been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression change had been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn’t tell them apart. Especially they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm. Consequently, the performance of BCIs is reduced.New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help subjects to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs. In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s: The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems were whether dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than grey faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy subjects (7 male, aged 21-26 years, mean 24.5±1.25 participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed.Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed

  3. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  4. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  5. Effective stimuli for constructing reliable neuron models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaul Druckmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose.

  6. Does inversion abolish the left chimeric face processing advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen H; Harvey, Monika

    2005-12-19

    Experiments using chimeric stimuli have shown that the right hemisphere is more influential in processing facial information. Here, again, we found clear evidence that study participants used the information from the left side of the face to inform their gender decisions when chimeric male/female, female/male stimuli were presented. Most interestingly though, this effect was not only present for upright faces but also for inverted (flipped) faces (although the effect was significantly reduced). We propose that the chimeric bias effects found here argue against the idea that inversion destroys the right hemisphere superiority for faces. If this was indeed the case, flipping the chimeric faces should have resulted in a loss of the left face bias. This was not the case. PMID:16317340

  7. Neuromagnetic evidence that the right fusiform face area is essential for human face awareness: An intermittent binocular rivalry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Yuko; Maekawa, Toshihiko; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Hironaga, Naruhito; Ogata, Katsuya; Shigyo, Maki; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-08-01

    When and where the awareness of faces is consciously initiated is unclear. We used magnetoencephalography to probe the brain responses associated with face awareness under intermittent pseudo-rivalry (PR) and binocular rivalry (BR) conditions. The stimuli comprised three pictures: a human face, a monkey face and a house. In the PR condition, we detected the M130 component, which has been minimally characterized in previous research. We obtained a clear recording of the M170 component in the fusiform face area (FFA), and found that this component had an earlier response time to faces compared with other objects. The M170 occurred predominantly in the right hemisphere in both conditions. In the BR condition, the amplitude of the M130 significantly increased in the right hemisphere irrespective of the physical characteristics of the visual stimuli. Conversely, we did not detect the M170 when the face image was suppressed in the BR condition, although this component was clearly present when awareness for the face was initiated. We also found a significant difference in the latency of the M170 (humanface stimuli are imperative for evoking the M170 and that the right FFA plays a critical role in human face awareness. PMID:26907522

  8. Probing the Feature Map for Faces in Visual Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.

  9. Holistic face categorization in higher-level cortical visual areas of the normal and prosopagnosic brain: towards a non-hierarchical view of face perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossion

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How a visual stimulus is initially categorized as a face in a network of human brain areas remains largely unclear. Hierarchical neuro-computational models of face perception assume that the visual stimulus is first decomposed in local parts in lower order visual areas. These parts would then be combined into a global representation in higher order face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Here we tested this view in fMRI with visual stimuli that are categorized as faces based on their global configuration rather than their local parts (2-tones Mooney figures and Arcimboldo’s facelike paintings. Compared to the same inverted visual stimuli that are not categorized as faces, these stimuli activated the right middle fusiform gyrus (Fusiform face area, FFA and superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, with no significant activation in the posteriorly located inferior occipital gyrus (i.e., no occipital face area, OFA. This observation is strengthened by behavioral and neural evidence for normal face categorization of these stimuli in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient (PS whose intact right middle fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus are devoid of any potential face-sensitive inputs from the lesioned right inferior occipital cortex. Together, these observations indicate that face-preferential activation may emerge in higher order visual areas of the right hemisphere without any face-preferential inputs from lower order visual areas, supporting a non-hierarchical view of face perception in the visual cortex.

  10. Why are some people's names easier to learn than others? The effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantelis, Peter C.; Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synthetic faces that varied along four perceptual dimensions (Wilson, Loffler, & Wilkinson, 2002), we examined the effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations. The nature of these stimuli allowed us to go beyond the categorical similarity manipulations used in previous verb

  11. Apprentissage dans le développement de la discrimination des stimuli sociaux chez l’enfant avec ou sans troubles du développement

    OpenAIRE

    Cousin, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the environment has been demonstrated in the development of the discrimination of social stimuli. The discrimination of social stimuli such as faces and facial expressions have been extensively studied during the past decades. In addition, people with autism show atypical responses to social stimuli compared to typically functioning individuals. Those discrepancies can be seen very early in life. However, there is still much to know about how this learning takes place, particularl...

  12. Effective stimuli for constructing reliable neuron models.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaul Druckmann; Berger, Thomas K.; Felix Schürmann; Sean Hill; Henry Markram; Idan Segev

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Neurons perform complicated non-linear transformations on their input before producing their output - a train of action potentials. This input-output transformation is shaped by the specific composition of ion channels, out of the many possible types, that are embedded in the neuron's membrane. Experimentally, characterizing this transformation relies on injecting different stimuli to the neuron while recording its output; but which of the many possible stimuli should one apply...

  13. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  14. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  15. Binocular combination of second-order stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  16. Binocular combination of second-order stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Zhou

    Full Text Available Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated and second-order (contrast modulated stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements.

  17. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A; Marwah N; Raju O

    2007-01-01

    Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - s...

  18. Biased self-perception of social skills in anxious children: The role of state anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Helen; Hudson, Jennifer; Lyneham, Heidi; Wuthvich, Viviana; Morris, Talia; Monier, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The role of state and trait anxiety on observer ratings of social skill and negatively biased self-perception of social skill was examined. Participants were aged between 7 and 13 years (mean=9.65; sd=1.77; N=102), 47 had a current anxiety diagnosis and 55 were non-anxious controls. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low anxiety condition and asked to complete social tasks. Task instructions were adjusted across conditions to manipulate participants’ state anxiety. Observers ra...

  19. Outlining face processing skills of portrait artists: Perceptual experience with faces predicts performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devue, Christel; Barsics, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Most humans seem to demonstrate astonishingly high levels of skill in face processing if one considers the sophisticated level of fine-tuned discrimination that face recognition requires. However, numerous studies now indicate that the ability to process faces is not as fundamental as once thought and that performance can range from despairingly poor to extraordinarily high across people. Here we studied people who are super specialists of faces, namely portrait artists, to examine how their specific visual experience with faces relates to a range of face processing skills (perceptual discrimination, short- and longer term recognition). Artists show better perceptual discrimination and, to some extent, recognition of newly learned faces than controls. They are also more accurate on other perceptual tasks (i.e., involving non-face stimuli or mental rotation). By contrast, artists do not display an advantage compared to controls on longer term face recognition (i.e., famous faces) nor on person recognition from other sensorial modalities (i.e., voices). Finally, the face inversion effect exists in artists and controls and is not modulated by artistic practice. Advantages in face processing for artists thus seem to closely mirror perceptual and visual short term memory skills involved in portraiture.

  20. Combat PTSD and implicit behavioral tendencies for positive affective stimuli: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Nicole Clausen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prior cognitive research in PTSD has focused on automatic responses to negative affective stimuli, including attentional facilitation or disengagement and avoidance action tendencies. More recent research suggests PTSD may also relate to differences in reward processing, which has lead to theories of PTSD relating to approach-avoidance imbalances. The current pilot study assessed how combat-PTSD symptoms relate to automatic behavioral tendencies to both positive and negative affective stimuli. Method: Twenty male combat veterans completed the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II. During the AAT, subjects pulled (approach or pushed (avoid a joystick in response to neutral, happy, disgust, and angry faces based on border color. Bias scores were calculated for each emotion type (avoid-approach response latency differences. Main and interaction effects for psychological symptom severity and emotion type on bias score were assessed using linear mixed models. Results: There was a significant interaction between PTSD symptoms and emotion type, driven primarily by worse symptoms relating to a greater bias to avoid happy faces. Post-hoc tests revealed that veterans with worse PTSD symptoms were slower to approach as well as quicker to avoid happy faces. Neither depressive nor anger symptoms related to avoid or approach tendencies of emotional stimuli.Conclusion: PTSD severity was associated with a bias for avoiding positive affective stimuli. These results provide further evidence that PTSD may relate to aberrant processing of positively valenced, or rewarding stimuli. Implicit responses to rewarding stimuli could be an important factor in PTSD pathology and treatment. Specifically, these findings have implications for recent endeavors in using computer-based interventions to influence automatic approach-avoidance tendencies.

  1. Combat PTSD and Implicit Behavioral Tendencies for Positive Affective Stimuli: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ashley N.; Youngren, Westley; Sisante, Jason-Flor V.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Taylor, Charles; Aupperle, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cognitive research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused on automatic responses to negative affective stimuli, including attentional facilitation or disengagement and avoidance action tendencies. More recent research suggests PTSD may also relate to differences in reward processing, which has lead to theories of PTSD relating to approach-avoidance imbalances. The current pilot study assessed how combat-PTSD symptoms relate to automatic behavioral tendencies to both positive and negative affective stimuli. Method: Twenty male combat veterans completed the approach-avoidance task (AAT), Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II. During the AAT, subjects pulled (approach) or pushed (avoid) a joystick in response to neutral, happy, disgust, and angry faces based on border color. Bias scores were calculated for each emotion type (avoid-approach response latency differences). Main and interaction effects for psychological symptom severity and emotion type on bias score were assessed using linear mixed models. Results: There was a significant interaction between PTSD symptoms and emotion type, driven primarily by worse symptoms relating to a greater bias to avoid happy faces. Post hoc tests revealed that veterans with worse PTSD symptoms were slower to approach as well as quicker to avoid happy faces. Neither depressive nor anger symptoms related to avoid or approach tendencies of emotional stimuli. Conclusion: Posttraumatic stress disorder severity was associated with a bias for avoiding positive affective stimuli. These results provide further evidence that PTSD may relate to aberrant processing of positively valenced, or rewarding stimuli. Implicit responses to rewarding stimuli could be an important factor in PTSD pathology and treatment. Specifically, these findings have implications for recent endeavors in using computer-based interventions to influence automatic

  2. The eye-tracking of social stimuli in patients with Rett syndrome and autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salomão Schwartzman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare visual fixation at social stimuli in Rett syndrome (RT and autism spectrum disorders (ASD patients. Method Visual fixation at social stimuli was analyzed in 14 RS female patients (age range 4-30 years, 11 ASD male patients (age range 4-20 years, and 17 children with typical development (TD. Patients were exposed to three different pictures (two of human faces and one with social and non-social stimuli presented for 8 seconds each on the screen of a computer attached to an eye-tracker equipment. Results Percentage of visual fixation at social stimuli was significantly higher in the RS group compared to ASD and even to TD groups. Conclusion Visual fixation at social stimuli seems to be one more endophenotype making RS to be very different from ASD.

  3. Short term memory for tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Haggard, Patrick; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-23

    Research has shown that unreported information stored in rapidly decaying visual representations may be accessed more accurately using partial report than using full report procedures (e.g., [Sperling, G., 1960. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74, 1-29.]). In the 3 experiments reported here, we investigated whether unreported information regarding the actual number of tactile stimuli presented in parallel across the body surface can be accessed using a partial report procedure. In Experiment 1, participants had to report the total number of stimuli in a tactile display composed of up to 6 stimuli presented across their body (numerosity task), or else to detect whether or not a tactile stimulus had previously been presented in a position indicated by a visual probe given at a variable delay after offset of a tactile display (i.e., partial report). The results showed that participants correctly reported up to 3 stimuli in the numerosity judgment task, but their performance was significantly better than chance when up to 5 stimuli were presented in the partial report task. This result shows that short-lasting tactile representations can be accessed using partial report procedures similar to those used previously in visual studies. Experiment 2 showed that the duration of these representations (or the time available to consciously access them) depends on the number of stimuli presented in the display (the greater the number of stimuli that are presented, the faster their representation decays). Finally, the results of a third experiment showed that the differences in performance between the numerosity judgment and partial report tasks could not be explained solely in terms of any difference in task difficulty. PMID:18083147

  4. WIDER FACE: A Face Detection Benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shuo; Luo, Ping; Loy, Chen Change; Tang, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Face detection is one of the most studied topics in the computer vision community. Much of the progresses have been made by the availability of face detection benchmark datasets. We show that there is a gap between current face detection performance and the real world requirements. To facilitate future face detection research, we introduce the WIDER FACE dataset, which is 10 times larger than existing datasets. The dataset contains rich annotations, including occlusions, poses, event categori...

  5. Mixed-grade rejection and its association with overt aggression, relational aggression, anxious-withdrawal, and psychological maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between mixed-grade rejection (rejection by peers in a different school grade), anxious-withdrawal, aggression, and psychological adjustment in a middle school setting. Participants were 181 seventh-grade and 180 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.20 years, SD = 0.68 years) who completed peer nomination and self-report measures in their classes. Analyses indicated that in general, same- and mixed-grade rejection were related to overt and relational aggression, but neither type was related to anxious-withdrawal. Mixed-grade rejection was associated uniquely and negatively with self-esteem for seventh-grade boys, while increasing the loneliness associated with anxious-withdrawal. The results suggest that school-wide models of peer relations may be promising for understanding the ways in which different peer contexts contribute to adjustment in middle school settings.

  6. Salivary oxytocin in clinically anxious youth: Associations with separation anxiety and family accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; McDonald, Nicole; Silverman, Wendy K

    2016-03-01

    Clinical anxiety disorders in youth are common and associated with interpersonal behaviors including reliance on parents for family accommodation, or changes that parents make to their own behaviors to help the youth avoid anxiety related distress. The neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with the regulation of anxiety and of close interpersonal behavior leading to the hypothesis that oxytocinergic functioning plays a role in youth anxiety and its disorders, and the resulting family accommodation. To test this hypothesis salivary OT from 50 youth with primary DSM-5 anxiety disorders was assayed. A multi-source/multi-method anxiety assessment including semistructured interviews with youth and mothers, rating scales, and behavioral observations was used to assess anxiety disorders and symptoms, and family accommodation. Youth with separation anxiety disorder had significantly lower salivary OT levels than clinically anxious youth not diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. Salivary OT levels were significantly negatively correlated with separation anxiety symptoms based on both youth- and mother-ratings. Anxious behavior displayed by youth during interactions with their mothers was associated with lower salivary OT levels in youth. Maternal ratings of family accommodation were negatively associated with salivary OT levels in youth. Results support the role of the oxytocinergic system in youth anxiety and its disorders and in parental involvement in youth anxiety through family accommodation. OT may be particularly important for diagnoses and symptoms of separation anxiety, which is inherently interpersonal in nature. Findings have potentially important implications for assessment and treatment of anxiety in youth.

  7. Frequency and Clinical Correlates of Sleep-Related Problems Among Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Joshua M; Arnold, Elysse B; Keene, Amanda C; Collier, Amanda B; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are common and problematic among anxious youth but have not been investigated in anxious youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 102 youth (ages 7-16 years) with ASD and comorbid anxiety. Youth and their primary caregiver were administered the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale. Parents completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-Parent (MASC-P) Report, Social Responsiveness Scale, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A measure of SRPs was created from items from the CBCL and MASC-P. Results suggest SRPs were relatively common among youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety. The number of SRPs endorsed directly associated with parent ratings of social deficits, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, as well as with clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. Parent-rated internalizing symptoms predicted frequency of SRPs over and above social deficits, externalizing symptoms, and parent- and clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. A subset of 40 participants who completed family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) experienced reduced SRPs following treatment. Implications, study limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25239284

  8. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  9. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - screening visit, prophylaxis visit, cavity preparation and restoration visit, and extraction visit. Child′s anxiety level in each visit was assessed using a combination of four measures: Venham′s picture test, Venham′s rating of clinical anxiety, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation. The values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that audiovisual distraction technique was more effective in managing anxious pediatric dental patient as compared to audio distraction technique.

  10. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Angels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  11. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  12. Spatial attention effects of disgusted and fearful faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhang

    Full Text Available Effective processing of threat-related stimuli is of significant evolutionary advantage. Given the intricate relationship between attention and the neural processing of threat-related emotions, this study manipulated attention allocation and emotional categories of threat-related stimuli as independent factors and investigated the time course of spatial-attention-modulated processing of disgusting and fearful stimuli. The participants were instructed to direct their attention either to the two vertical or to the two horizontal locations, where two faces and two houses would be presented. The task was to respond regarding the physical identity of the two stimuli at cued locations. Event-related potentials (ERP evidences were found to support a two-stage model of attention-modulated processing of threat-related emotions. In the early processing stage, disgusted faces evoked larger P1 component at right occipital region despite the attention allocation while larger N170 component was elicited by fearful faces at right occipito-temporal region only when participants attended to houses. In the late processing stage, the amplitudes of the parietal P3 component enhanced for both disgusted and fearful facial expressions only when the attention was focused on faces. According to the results, we propose that the temporal dynamics of the emotion-by-attention interaction consist of two stages. The early stage is characterized by quick and specialized neural encoding of disgusting and fearful stimuli irrespective of voluntary attention allocation, indicating an automatic detection and perception of threat-related emotions. The late stage is represented by attention-gated separation between threat-related stimuli and neutral stimuli; the similar ERP pattern evoked by disgusted and fearful faces suggests a more generalized processing of threat-related emotions via top-down attentional modulation, based on which the defensive behavior in response to threat

  13. Suppression of Face Perception during Saccadic Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Seirafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of awareness of a stimulus briefly presented during saccadic eye movement is known as saccadic omission. Studying the reduced visibility of visual stimuli around the time of saccade—known as saccadic suppression—is a key step to investigate saccadic omission. To date, almost all studies have been focused on the reduced visibility of simple stimuli such as flashes and bars. The extension of the results from simple stimuli to more complex objects has been neglected. In two experimental tasks, we measured the subjective and objective awareness of a briefly presented face stimuli during saccadic eye movement. In the first task, we measured the subjective awareness of the visual stimuli and showed that in most of the trials there is no conscious awareness of the faces. In the second task, we measured objective sensitivity in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC face detection task, which demonstrated chance-level performance. Here, we provide the first evidence of complete suppression of complex visual stimuli during the saccadic eye movement.

  14. Eros-Face

    OpenAIRE

    Jammal, Elias

    2011-01-01

    In diesem Papier werden Face-Konzepte im arabischen Kontext vorgestellt, die mit der Bezeichnung Eros-Face belegt werden. Dieses wurde bislang in der Face-Literatur nicht berücksichtigt. Es werden zwei Typen des Eros-Face diskutiert: Das individuelle und das kollektivistische Eros-Face. This paper introduces face concepts in the Arab context for which the notion Eros face has been given. Literature on face did not consider the Eros face so far. Two types of Eros face are discussed: The ind...

  15. Discrimination of facial appearance stimuli in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Ulrich; Adam-Schwebe, Stefanie; Müller, Thomas; Wolter, Manfred

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) propose that information-processing biases--in particular, selective attention to a defect in one's appearance as well as improved aesthetical perception--might contribute to the development or maintenance of the disorder. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that patients with BDD discriminate facial appearance stimuli more accurately than controls. Sixty female patients from a dermatological clinic participated in the study: 21 patients with BDD, 19 patients with disfiguring dermatological conditions, and 20 patients with nondisfiguring dermatological disorders. Participants rated dissimilarities between pictures of neutral faces that had been manipulated with regard to aesthetic characteristics. Manipulation ratings of participants with BDD were significantly more accurate than those of both control groups. Implications of these results for cognitive theories of BDD are discussed.

  16. Do bullied children become anxious and depressed adults?: A cross-sectional investigation of the correlates of bullying and anxious depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Malhi, Gin S

    2006-03-01

    There is little empirical research examining the historical and clinical correlates of exposure to childhood bullying in adult clinical subjects. Using structured clinical assessments, the authors studied a group of adult males and females presenting to an outpatient depression clinic, to examine the childhood risk factors and the distinguishing comorbid features associated with those reporting exposure to bullying. Just over a quarter of both men and women reported having experienced bullying that was severe and traumatic. More of these subjects also reported several other well studied childhood risk factors. Childhood correlates that were particularly relevant for exposure to bullying were parental overcontrol, illness or disability, and the tendency to have an inhibited temperament early in life. The experience of childhood bullying was strongly related to high levels of comorbid anxiety, both in terms of greater levels of state anxiety and a higher prevalence of both social phobia and agoraphobia. Independent of other childhood risk factors, exposure to bullying was especially predictive of subjects' higher levels of general state anxiety and the tendency to express anxious arousal externally when under stress. These results are compatible with both cross-sectional and prospective studies of child and adolescent samples, and highlight the potential etiological significance of early peer victimization experiences for a percentage of adults suffering from depression with comorbid anxiety. PMID:16534438

  17. Unconscious Processing of Facial Emotional Valence Relation: Behavioral Evidence of Integration between Subliminally Perceived Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen; Cui, Qian; Zhao, Guang; Qiu, Jiang; Tu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Although a few studies have investigated the integration between some types of unconscious stimuli, no research has yet explored the integration between unconscious emotional stimuli. This study was designed to provide behavioral evidence for the integration between unconsciously perceived emotional faces (same or different valence relation) using a modified priming paradigm. In two experiments, participants were asked to decide whether two faces in the target, which followed two subliminally presented faces of same or different emotional expressions, were of the same or different emotional valence. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between the prime and the target was manipulated (0, 53, 163 ms). In Experiment 1, prime visibility was assessed post-experiment. In Experiment 2, it was assessed on each trial. Interestingly, in both experiments, unconsciously processed valence relation of the two faces in the prime generated a negative priming effect in the response to the supraliminally presented target, independent of the length of ISI. Further analyses suggested that the negative priming was probably caused by a motor response incongruent relation between the subliminally perceived prime and the supraliminally perceived target. The visual feature incongruent relation across the prime and target was not found to play a role in the negative priming. Because the negative priming was found at short ISI, an attention mechanism as well as a motor inhibition mechanism were proposed in the generation of the negative priming effect. Overall, this study indicated that the subliminal valence relation was processed, and that integration between different unconsciously perceived stimuli could occur. PMID:27622600

  18. A Preliminary Study of Perfectionism and Loneliness as Predictors of Depressive and Anxious Symptoms in Latinas: A Top-Down Test of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Sanna, Lawrence J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Fabian, Cathryn G.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we used a top-down approach to examine perfectionism and loneliness as additive sociocognitive predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 121 Latina college students. Consistent with expectations, we found perfectionism and loneliness to be associated with both depressive and anxious symptoms. In addition,…

  19. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  20. Diffuse optical tomography activation in the somatosensory cortex: specific activation by painful vs. non-painful thermal stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Becerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is difficult to assess due to the subjective nature of self-reporting. The lack of objective measures of pain has hampered the development of new treatments as well as the evaluation of current ones. Functional MRI studies of pain have begun to delineate potential brain response signatures that could be used as objective read-outs of pain. Using Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT, we have shown in the past a distinct DOT signal over the somatosensory cortex to a noxious heat stimulus that could be distinguished from the signal elicited by innocuous mechanical stimuli. Here we further our findings by studying the response to thermal innocuous and noxious stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Innocuous and noxious thermal stimuli were applied to the skin of the face of the first division (ophthalmic of the trigeminal nerve in healthy volunteers (N = 6. Stimuli temperatures were adjusted for each subject to evoke warm (equivalent to a 3/10 and painful hot (7/10 sensations in a verbal rating scale (0/10 = no/max pain. A set of 26 stimuli (5 sec each was applied for each temperature with inter-stimulus intervals varied between 8 and 15 sec using a Peltier thermode. A DOT system was used to capture cortical responses on both sides of the head over the primary somatosensory cortical region (S1. For the innocuous stimuli, group results indicated mainly activation on the contralateral side with a weak ipsilateral response. For the noxious stimuli, bilateral activation was observed with comparable amplitudes on both sides. Furthermore, noxious stimuli produced a temporal biphasic response while innocuous stimuli produced a monophasic response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are in accordance with fMRI and our other DOT studies of innocuous mechanical and noxious heat stimuli. The data indicate the differentiation of DOT cortical responses for pain vs. innocuous stimuli that may be useful in assessing objectively acute pain.

  1. When the face fits: recognition of celebrities from matching and mismatching faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Hamlin, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The results of two experiments are presented in which participants engaged in a face-recognition or a voice-recognition task. The stimuli were face-voice pairs in which the face and voice were co-presented and were either "matched" (same person), "related" (two highly associated people), or "mismatched" (two unrelated people). Analysis in both experiments confirmed that accuracy and confidence in face recognition was consistently high regardless of the identity of the accompanying voice. However accuracy of voice recognition was increasingly affected as the relationship between voice and accompanying face declined. Moreover, when considering self-reported confidence in voice recognition, confidence remained high for correct responses despite the proportion of these responses declining across conditions. These results converged with existing evidence indicating the vulnerability of voice recognition as a relatively weak signaller of identity, and results are discussed in the context of a person-recognition framework. PMID:23531227

  2. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  3. Effect of Face Tampering on Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Aruni Singh; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Modern face recognition systems are vulnerable to spoofing attack. Spoofing attack occurs when a persontries to cheat the system by presenting fake biometric data gaining unlawful access. A lot of researchershave originated novel techniques to fascinate these types of face tampering attack. It seems that nocomparative studies of different face recognition algorithms on same protocols and fake data have beenincorporated. The motivation behind this paper is to present the effect of face tamperi...

  4. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: Pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not - or only partly - affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e. facial expressions of pain. Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing.

  5. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  6. Categorization of Multidimensional Stimuli by Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Mark E.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2011-01-01

    Six pigeons responded in a visual category learning task in which the stimuli were dimensionally separable Gabor patches that varied in frequency and orientation. We compared performance in two conditions which varied in terms of whether accurate performance required that responding be controlled jointly by frequency and orientation, or…

  7. Musicians' Perception of Beat in Monotonic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses musicians' perceptions of beat in monotonic stimuli and attempts to define empirically the range of perceived beat tempo in music. Subjects performed a metric pulse in response to periodic stimulus tones. Results indicate a relatively narrow range within which beats are perceived by trained musicians. (LS)

  8. Computer programming for generating visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Farhan; Kurylo, Daniel D

    2008-02-01

    Critical to vision research is the generation of visual displays with precise control over stimulus metrics. Generating stimuli often requires adapting commercial software or developing specialized software for specific research applications. In order to facilitate this process, we give here an overview that allows nonexpert users to generate and customize stimuli for vision research. We first give a review of relevant hardware and software considerations, to allow the selection of display hardware, operating system, programming language, and graphics packages most appropriate for specific research applications. We then describe the framework of a generic computer program that can be adapted for use with a broad range of experimental applications. Stimuli are generated in the context of trial events, allowing the display of text messages, the monitoring of subject responses and reaction times, and the inclusion of contingency algorithms. This approach allows direct control and management of computer-generated visual stimuli while utilizing the full capabilities of modern hardware and software systems. The flowchart and source code for the stimulus-generating program may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  9. Neural substrates of species-dependent visual processing of faces: use of morphed faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Emi; Ogata, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Junji; Tanaka, Mutsuhide; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamasaki, Takao; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-05-01

    Face identification and categorization are essential for social communication. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) is considered to be a biomarker of face perception. To elucidate the neural basis of species-dependent face processing, we recorded 128-ch high-density ERPs in 14 healthy adults while they viewed the images of morphed faces. The morphed stimuli contained different proportions of human and monkey faces, and the species boundary was shifted away from the center of the morph continuum. Three experiments were performed to determine how task requirement, facial orientation, and spatial frequency (SF) of visual stimuli affected ERPs. In an equal SF condition, the latency, and amplitude of the occipital P100 for upright faces were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by the level of morphing. In contrast, the N170 latency for upright faces was modulated in a step-like fashion, showing a flexion point that may reflect species discrimination. Although N170 amplitudes for upright faces were not modulated by morph level, they were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by inverted faces. The late positive (LP) component (350-550 msec) in the parietal region was modulated in a U-shaped function by morph level during a categorization task, but not in a simple reaction task. These results suggest that P100 reflects changes in the physical properties of faces and that N170 is involved in own-species selectivity. The LP component seems to represent species categorization that occurs 350 msec after stimulus onset. PMID:25975645

  10. Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program in Portuguese Schools: Study with a Sample of Highly Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.

    2014-01-01

    The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…

  11. Can Parents Treat their Anxious Child using CBT? A Brief Report of a Self-Help Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Christiansen, Bianca Munkebo; Walczak, Monika Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We developed and tested a self-help program with minimal therapist involvement for parents of anxious children. Method: The program focused on transfer of control from therapist to parents of children with moderate anxiety, and consisted of two therapist-led workshops, a Facebook group...

  12. Emotional response patterns during social threat in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder and non-anxious controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscovitch, D.A.; Suvak, M.K.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of synchrony in repeated measures of heart rate, skin conductance levels, negative affect, and positive affect were investigated in patients with social anxiety disorder and non-anxious controls during a speech task. Despite expected low levels of absolute concordance between measures of af

  13. Anxious Solitude and Clinical Disorder in Middle Childhood: Bridging Developmental and Clinical Approaches to Childhood Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…

  14. Taming Test Anxiety: The Activation of Failure-Related Concepts Enhances Cognitive Test Performance of Test-Anxious Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2016-01-01

    We investigated processes underlying performance decrements of highly test-anxious persons. Three experiments contrasted conditions that differed in the degree of activation of concepts related to failure. Participants memorized a list of words either containing words related to failure or containing no words related to failure in Experiment 1. In…

  15. Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety : differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of negative self-image in social phobia. Participants were 19 high and 19 low socially anxious women. Because self-report measures of self-esteem are sensitive to self-presentation and impression management strategies, an implicit association test (IAT

  16. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  17. Associations of Parent-Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms when a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…

  18. The Effect of Perceived Child Anxiety Status on Parental Latency to Intervene with Anxious and Nonanxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined the effect of perceived child anxiety status on parental latency to intervene with anxious and nonanxious youth. Method: Parents (68) of anxiety-disordered (PAD) and nonanxiety-disordered (PNAD; 56) children participated. Participants listened and responded to an audio vignette of a parent-child interaction: Half were told…

  19. Relations between behavioral inhibition, big five personality factors, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical and clinically anxious children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Vreeke (Leonie); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, t

  20. Child Versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth : An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Nauta, Maaike H.; De Haan, Else; Ringrose, Jaap; Appelboom, Carla; Brinkman, Andries G.; Appelboom-Geerts, Karen C. M. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age. Method: Clinically referred children with anxiety disorder

  1. Child Versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth: An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodden, D.H.M.; Bögels, S.M.; Nauta, M.H.; Haan, E. de; Ringrose, J.; Appelboom, C.; Brinkman, A.G.; Appelboom-Geerts, K.C.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age. Method: Clinically referred children with anxiety disorder

  2. Looking in the Eyes to Discriminate: Linking Infants' Habituation Speed to Looking Behaviour Using Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Jantina; Kolling, Thorsten; Knopf, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Studies showed that individual differences in encoding speed as well as looking behaviour during the encoding of facial stimuli can relate to differences in subsequent face discrimination. Nevertheless, a direct linkage between encoding speed and looking behaviour during the encoding of facial stimuli and the role of these encoding characteristics…

  3. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  4. The Composite Face Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, J.; Gray, K.; Cook, R

    2016-01-01

    Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, a...

  5. Emotionally Neutral Stimuli Are Not Neutral in Schizophrenia: A Mini Review of Functional Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2016-01-01

    Reliable evidence shows that schizophrenia patients tend to experience negative emotions when presented with emotionally neutral stimuli. Similarly, several functional neuroimaging studies show that schizophrenia patients have increased activations in response to neutral material. However, results are heterogeneous. Here, we review the functional neuroimaging studies that have addressed this research question. Based on the 36 functional neuroimaging studies that we retrieved, it seems that the increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is fairly common in schizophrenia, but that the regions involved vary considerably, apart from the amygdala. Prefrontal and cingulate sub-regions and the hippocampus may also be involved. By contrasts, results in individuals at risk for psychosis are less consistent. In schizophrenia patients, results are less consistent in the case of studies using non-facial stimuli, explicit processing paradigms, and/or event-related designs. This means that human faces may convey subtle information (e.g., trustworthiness) other than basic emotional expressions. It also means that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is less likely to occur when experimental paradigms are too cognitively demanding as well as in studies lacking statistical power. The main hypothesis proposed to account for this increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is the aberrant salience hypothesis of psychosis. Other investigators propose that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli in schizophrenia results from abnormal associative learning, untrustworthiness judgments, priming effects, and/or reduced habituation to neutral stimuli. In the future, the effects of antipsychotics on this aberrant brain reactivity will need to be determined, as well as the potential implication of sex/gender. PMID:27445871

  6. Emotionally Neutral Stimuli Are Not Neutral in Schizophrenia: A Mini Review of Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2016-01-01

    Reliable evidence shows that schizophrenia patients tend to experience negative emotions when presented with emotionally neutral stimuli. Similarly, several functional neuroimaging studies show that schizophrenia patients have increased activations in response to neutral material. However, results are heterogeneous. Here, we review the functional neuroimaging studies that have addressed this research question. Based on the 36 functional neuroimaging studies that we retrieved, it seems that the increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is fairly common in schizophrenia, but that the regions involved vary considerably, apart from the amygdala. Prefrontal and cingulate sub-regions and the hippocampus may also be involved. By contrasts, results in individuals at risk for psychosis are less consistent. In schizophrenia patients, results are less consistent in the case of studies using non-facial stimuli, explicit processing paradigms, and/or event-related designs. This means that human faces may convey subtle information (e.g., trustworthiness) other than basic emotional expressions. It also means that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is less likely to occur when experimental paradigms are too cognitively demanding as well as in studies lacking statistical power. The main hypothesis proposed to account for this increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is the aberrant salience hypothesis of psychosis. Other investigators propose that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli in schizophrenia results from abnormal associative learning, untrustworthiness judgments, priming effects, and/or reduced habituation to neutral stimuli. In the future, the effects of antipsychotics on this aberrant brain reactivity will need to be determined, as well as the potential implication of sex/gender. PMID:27445871

  7. Familiar smiling faces in Alzheimer’s disease: Understanding the positivity-related recognition bias

    OpenAIRE

    Werheid, Katja; McDonald, Rebecca S.; Simmons-Stern, Nicholas; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has revealed a recognition bias favoring positive faces and other stimuli in older compared to younger adults. However, it is yet unclear whether this bias reflects an age-related preference for positive emotional stimuli, or an affirmatory bias used to compensate for episodic memory deficits. To follow up this point, the present study examined recognition of emotional faces and current mood state in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy controls. Expecting low...

  8. The role of the amygdala in face perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Faces are one of the most significant social stimuli and the processes underlying face perception are at the intersection of cognition, affect, and motivation. Vision scientists have had a tremendous success of mapping the regions for perceptual analysis of faces in posterior cortex. Based on evidence from (a) single unit recording studies in monkeys and humans; (b) human functional localizer studies; and (c) meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies, I argue that faces automatically evoke responses not only in these regions but also in the amygdala. I also argue that (a) a key property of faces represented in the amygdala is their typicality; and (b) one of the functions of the amygdala is to bias attention to atypical faces, which are associated with higher uncertainty. This framework is consistent with a number of other amygdala findings not involving faces, suggesting a general account for the role of the amygdala in perception.

  9. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. PMID:26071923

  10. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity. PMID:24623114

  11. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this 'photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli. PMID:27572806

  12. Discrimination of auditory stimuli during isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel J; Navas, Jinna A; Greene, Stephen A; Rector, David M

    2008-10-01

    Deep isoflurane anesthesia initiates a burst suppression pattern in which high-amplitude bursts are preceded by periods of nearly silent electroencephalogram. The burst suppression ratio (BSR) is the percentage of suppression (silent electroencephalogram) during the burst suppression pattern and is one parameter used to assess anesthesia depth. We investigated cortical burst activity in rats in response to different auditory stimuli presented during the burst suppression state. We noted a rapid appearance of bursts and a significant decrease in the BSR during stimulation. The BSR changes were distinctive for the different stimuli applied, and the BSR decreased significantly more when stimulated with a voice familiar to the rat as compared with an unfamiliar voice. These results show that the cortex can show differential sensory responses during deep isoflurane anesthesia.

  13. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  14. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-08-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this `photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli.

  15. A novel polar-based human face recognition computational model

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zana; J.P. Mena-Chalco; Cesar Jr, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by a recently proposed biologically inspired face recognition approach, we investigated the relation between human behavior and a computational model based on Fourier-Bessel (FB) spatial patterns. We measured human recognition performance of FB filtered face images using an 8-alternative forced-choice method. Test stimuli were generated by converting the images from the spatial to the FB domain, filtering the resulting coefficients with a band-pass filter, and finally taking the inv...

  16. Cognitive Interpretations of Ambiguous Visual Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Naber, Marnix

    2012-01-01

    Brains can sense and distinguish signals from background noise in physical environments, and recognize and classify them as distinct entities. Ambiguity is an inherent part of this process. It is a cognitive property that is generated by the noisy character of the signals, and by the design of the sensory systems that process them. Stimuli can be ambiguous if they are noisy, incomplete, or only briefly sensed. Such conditions may ...

  17. Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Tullis, Jonathan G.; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    Remindings–stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events–may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw, 1994); here we evaluate whether remindings influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were either pre...

  18. Facing and quality of life in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of coping strategies quality of life of women with breast cancer. patients faced a series of stressful events related to the disease and its treatment. We show some results of a longitudinal study. Patients and Methods: We interviewed and questionnaires applied to 51 patients with positive diagnosis of breast cancer. We apply the questionnaires at week following the surgery, and after completion of the treatments listed chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy. Scales used - the mental adjustment to cancer (Mac, mental adjustment was evaluated to cancer), anxiety and depression through the HADS, and quality of life and S F 36 POMS (profile of mood states). Results: The analysis of the results show this trend, to find the following negative correlations (Spearman r) between coping strategies (Mac) and the domains of the S F-36 Hopelessness with physical function (R.38) and social function (R.44); anxious concern physical role (R.36), general health (R.35) and mental health (R.62); avoidance with role physical (37 r.) and mental health (R.36); fatalism pain (R.37) and vitality (R.41). Hopelessness, anxious worry, anxiety and depression, are psychosocial factors that affect quality of life

  19. The face-specific N170 component is modulated by emotional facial expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tottenham Nim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the traditional two-stage model of face processing, the face-specific N170 event-related potential (ERP is linked to structural encoding of face stimuli, whereas later ERP components are thought to reflect processing of facial affect. This view has recently been challenged by reports of N170 modulations by emotional facial expression. This study examines the time-course and topography of the influence of emotional expression on the N170 response to faces. Methods Dense-array ERPs were recorded in response to a set (n = 16 of fear and neutral faces. Stimuli were normalized on dimensions of shape, size and luminance contrast distribution. To minimize task effects related to facial or emotional processing, facial stimuli were irrelevant to a primary task of learning associative pairings between a subsequently presented visual character and a spoken word. Results N170 to faces showed a strong modulation by emotional facial expression. A split half analysis demonstrates that this effect was significant both early and late in the experiment and was therefore not associated with only the initial exposures of these stimuli, demonstrating a form of robustness against habituation. The effect of emotional modulation of the N170 to faces did not show significant interaction with the gender of the face stimulus, or hemisphere of recording sites. Subtracting the fear versus neutral topography provided a topography that itself was highly similar to the face N170. Conclusion The face N170 response can be influenced by emotional expressions contained within facial stimuli. The topography of this effect is consistent with the notion that fear stimuli exaggerates the N170 response itself. This finding stands in contrast to previous models suggesting that N170 processes linked to structural analysis of faces precede analysis of emotional expression, and instead may reflect early top-down modulation from neural systems involved in

  20. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  1. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  2. Observing of chain-schedule stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Anderson, Karen G

    2014-06-01

    A classical-conditioning account of the processes maintaining behavior under chained schedules entails a backward transmission of conditioned-reinforcement effects. Assessing this process in traditional chain schedules is limited because the response maintained by stimulus onset accompanied by each link in a chain schedule may also be maintained by the primary reinforcer. In the present experiment, an observing response was used to measure the conditioned-reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with a three-link chain variable-time (VT) food schedule, and resistance-to-change tests (extinction and prefeeding) were implemented to examine if a backward transmission of reinforcement effects occur. Four pigeons served as subjects. Observing was maintained by the production of stimuli correlated with links of a three-link chain VT schedule with the middle-link stimulus maintaining the highest rate of observing, followed by the initial-link stimulus and the terminal-link stimulus maintaining the lowest observing rate. Results from resistance-to-change tests of extinction and prefeeding were not supportive of a backward transmission of reinforcement effects and in general, the pattern of resistance-to-change was forward. Based on past and current research, it appears that a backward pattern of relative rate decreases in responses maintained by stimuli correlated with a chain schedule due to disruption (i.e., extinction and prefeeding) is not a ubiquitous process that is evident within different chain-schedule arrangements.

  3. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  4. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  5. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C; Michael, Andrew M; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex.

  6. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C.; Michael, Andrew M.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex. PMID:27378880

  7. A truly human interface: Interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin eCorti; Alex eGillespie

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (echoborgs) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experi...

  8. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (“echoborgs”) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s expe...

  9. Steroids facing emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used are pictures of human facial expressions of emotion. The main interest was in establishing psychoneuronedocrine and psychological motivational predictors of biased processing of angry and fearful f...

  10. Individuating Faces and Common Objects Produces Equal Responses in Putative Face Processing Areas in the Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Haist

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the proposal that specific human cortical regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, commonly called the fusiform face area (FFA and occipital face area (OFA, are specialized for face processing. Here, we present findings from a fMRI study of identity discrimination of faces and objects that demonstrates the FFA and OFA are equally responsive to processing stimuli at the level of individuals (i.e., individuation, be they human faces or non-face objects. The FFA and OFA were defined via a passive viewing task as regions that produced greater activation to faces relative to non-face stimuli within the middle fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. In the individuation task, participants judged whether sequentially presented images of faces, diverse objects, or wristwatches depicted the identical or a different exemplar. All three stimulus types produced equivalent BOLD activation within the FFA and OFA; that is, there was no face-specific or face-preferential processing. Critically, individuation processing did not eliminate an object superiority effect relative to faces within a region more closely linked to object processing in the lateral occipital complex (LOC, suggesting that individuation processes are reasonably specific to the FFA and OFA. Taken together, these findings challenge the prevailing view that the FFA and OFA are face-specific processing regions, demonstrating instead that they function to individuate -- i.e., identify specific individuals -- within a category. These findings have significant implications for understanding the function of a brain region widely believed to play an important role in social cognition.

  11. Dogs can discriminate emotional expressions of human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Schmitt, Kira; Barber, Anjuli L A; Huber, Ludwig

    2015-03-01

    The question of whether animals have emotions and respond to the emotional expressions of others has become a focus of research in the last decade [1-9]. However, to date, no study has convincingly shown that animals discriminate between emotional expressions of heterospecifics, excluding the possibility that they respond to simple cues. Here, we show that dogs use the emotion of a heterospecific as a discriminative cue. After learning to discriminate between happy and angry human faces in 15 picture pairs, whereby for one group only the upper halves of the faces were shown and for the other group only the lower halves of the faces were shown, dogs were tested with four types of probe trials: (1) the same half of the faces as in the training but of novel faces, (2) the other half of the faces used in training, (3) the other half of novel faces, and (4) the left half of the faces used in training. We found that dogs for which the happy faces were rewarded learned the discrimination more quickly than dogs for which the angry faces were rewarded. This would be predicted if the dogs recognized an angry face as an aversive stimulus. Furthermore, the dogs performed significantly above chance level in all four probe conditions and thus transferred the training contingency to novel stimuli that shared with the training set only the emotional expression as a distinguishing feature. We conclude that the dogs used their memories of real emotional human faces to accomplish the discrimination task.

  12. Atypical Face Perception in Autism: A Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Karine; Guy, Jacalyn; Habak, Claudine; Wilson, Hugh R; Pagani, Linda; Mottron, Laurent; Bertone, Armando

    2015-10-01

    Face perception is the most commonly used visual metric of social perception in autism. However, when found to be atypical, the origin of face perception differences in autism is contentious. One hypothesis proposes that a locally oriented visual analysis, characteristic of individuals with autism, ultimately affects performance on face tasks where a global analysis is optimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by assessing face identity discrimination with synthetic faces presented with and without changes in viewpoint, with the former condition minimizing access to local face attributes used for identity discrimination. Twenty-eight individuals with autism and 30 neurotypical participants performed a face identity discrimination task. Stimuli were synthetic faces extracted from traditional face photographs in both front and 20° side viewpoints, digitized from 37 points to provide a continuous measure of facial geometry. Face identity discrimination thresholds were obtained using a two-alternative, temporal forced choice match-to-sample paradigm. Analyses revealed an interaction between group and condition, with group differences found only for the viewpoint change condition, where performance in the autism group was decreased compared to that of neurotypical participants. The selective decrease in performance for the viewpoint change condition suggests that face identity discrimination in autism is more difficult when access to local cues is minimized, and/or when dependence on integrative analysis is increased. These results lend support to a perceptual contribution of atypical face perception in autism. PMID:25683613

  13. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving accordin

  14. Developmental Changes in Infant Attention to Dynamic and Static Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddy, D. Jill; Colombo, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 4- and 6-month-olds' responses to static or dynamic stimuli using behavioral and heart-rate-defined measures of attention. Infants looked longest to dynamic stimuli with an audio track and least to a static stimulus that was mute. Overall, look duration declined with age to the different stimuli. The amount of time spent in…

  15. Meet The Simpsons: top-down effects in face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Lesley; Burton, A Mike; Jenkins, Rob; McNeill, Allan; Vicki, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether prior knowledge of a person affects the visual processes involved in learning a face. In two experiments, subjects were taught to associate human faces with characters they knew (from the TV show The Simpsons) or characters they did not (novel names). In each experiment, knowledge of the character predicted performance in a recognition memory test, relying only on old/new confidence ratings. In experiment 1, we established the technique and showed that there is a face-learning advantage for known people, even when face items are counterbalanced for familiarity across the experiment. In experiment 2 we replicated the effect in a setting which discouraged subjects from attending more to known than unknown people, and eliminated any visual association between face stimuli and a character from The Simpsons. We conclude that prior knowledge about a person can enhance learning of a new face. PMID:14700251

  16. Gaze shifting in infancy : A longitudinalstudy using dynamic faces and abstract stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Disengaging from and shifting gaze to a salient stimulus is a prerequisite for early exploration and communication. The efficiency of disengagement increases during the first few months after birth. Little is known about the effect of stimulus characteristics on disengagement during the different st

  17. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety.

  18. Severity of Depression, Anxious Distress and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Swedish Population-Based Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Almas

    Full Text Available Depression is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD. This population-based cohort study aimed to determine the association between depression of varying severity and risk for CVD and to study the effect of concomitant anxious distress on this association.We utilized data from a longitudinal cohort study of mental health, work and relations among adults (20-64 years, with a total of 10,443 individuals. Depression and anxious distress were assessed using psychiatric rating scales and defined according to DSM-5. Outcomes were register-based and self-reported cardiovascular diseases.Overall increased odds ratios of 1.5 to 2.6 were seen for the different severity levels of depression, with the highest adjusted OR for moderate depression (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.3, 3.5. Similar odds ratios were seen for sub-groups of CVD: ischemic/hypertensive heart disease and stroke, 2.4 (95% CI 1.4, 3.9 and OR 2.1 (95%CI 1.2, 3.8 respectively. Depression with anxious distress as a specifier of severity showed OR of 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9 for CVD.This study found that severity level of depression seems to be of significance for increased risk of CVD among depressed persons, although not in a dose-response manner which might be obscured due to treatment of depression. Further, we found a higher risk of CVD among depressed individuals with symptoms of anxious distress.

  19. Listening to Birds in the Anthropocene: The Anxious Semiotics of Sound in a Human-Dominated World

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Rachel Carson predicted a “silent spring” environmentalists have been carefully and anxiously listening to birds. More recently the musician and scientist Bernie Krause has examined the effects of human activity on avian soundscapes throughout the world. He argues that human activities cause ecological and sonic disruptions that really are rendering the world silent or discordant, submerging the “animal orchestra” beneath noise. A healthy natural environment can be heard, according...

  20. Show-that-I-Can (Homework) in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Individualizing Homework for Robert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C.; Barmish, Andrea J.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been reviewed and described as an empirically supported treatment for anxious youth. One component of CBT is the use of out-of-session "Show That I Can" tasks (STIC; i.e., homework tasks). STIC tasks vary in content and are to be completed between sessions. We discuss homework in CBT for Robert, a 13-year-old…

  1. A parametric study of fear generalization to faces and non-face objects: relationship to discrimination thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Daphne J; Boeke, Emily A; Wolthusen, Rick P F; Nasr, Shahin; Milad, Mohammed R; Tootell, Roger B H

    2014-01-01

    Fear generalization is the production of fear responses to a stimulus that is similar-but not identical-to a threatening stimulus. Although prior studies have found that fear generalization magnitudes are qualitatively related to the degree of perceptual similarity to the threatening stimulus, the precise relationship between these two functions has not been measured systematically. Also, it remains unknown whether fear generalization mechanisms differ for social and non-social information. To examine these questions, we measured perceptual discrimination and fear generalization in the same subjects, using images of human faces and non-face control stimuli ("blobs") that were perceptually matched to the faces. First, each subject's ability to discriminate between pairs of faces or blobs was measured. Each subject then underwent a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which each of the paired conditioned stimuli (CS) were either followed (CS+) or not followed (CS-) by a shock. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were also measured. Subjects were then presented with the CS+, CS- and five levels of a CS+-to-CS- morph continuum between the paired stimuli, which were identified based on individual discrimination thresholds. Finally, subjects rated the likelihood that each stimulus had been followed by a shock. Subjects showed both autonomic (SCR-based) and conscious (ratings-based) fear responses to morphs that they could not discriminate from the CS+ (generalization). For both faces and non-face objects, fear generalization was not found above discrimination thresholds. However, subjects exhibited greater fear generalization in the shock likelihood ratings compared to the SCRs, particularly for faces. These findings reveal that autonomic threat detection mechanisms in humans are highly sensitive to small perceptual differences between stimuli. Also, the conscious evaluation of threat shows broader generalization than autonomic responses, biased towards labeling a

  2. A parametric study of fear generalization to faces and non-face objects: relationship to discrimination thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fear generalization is the production of fear responses to a stimulus that is similar – but not identical - to a threatening stimulus. Although prior studies have found that fear generalization magnitudes are qualitatively related to the degree of perceptual similarity to the threatening stimulus, the precise relationship between these two functions has not been measured systematically. Also, it remains unknown whether fear generalization mechanisms differ for social and non-social information.To examine these questions, we measured perceptual discrimination and fear generalization in the same subjects, using images of human faces and non-face control stimuli (blobs that were perceptually matched to the faces. First, each subject’s ability to discriminate between pairs of faces or blobs was measured. Each subject then underwent a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which each of the paired stimuli were either followed (CS+ or not followed (CS- by a shock. Skin conductance responses (SCRs were also measured. Subjects were then presented with the CS+, CS- and five levels of a CS+-to-CS- morph continuum between the paired stimuli, based on individual discrimination thresholds. Finally, subjects rated the likelihood that each stimulus had been followed by a shock. Subjects showed both autonomic (SCR-based and conscious (ratings-based fear responses to morphs that they could not discriminate from the CS+ (generalization. For both faces and non-face objects, fear generalization was not found above discrimination thresholds. However, subjects exhibited greater fear generalization in the shock likelihood ratings compared to the SCRs, particularly for faces. These findings reveal that autonomic threat detection mechanisms in humans are highly sensitive to small perceptual differences between stimuli. Also, the conscious evaluation of threat shows broader generalization than autonomic responses, biased towards labeling a stimulus as threatening.

  3. Doll Play narratives about starting school in children of socially anxious mothers, and their relation to subsequent child school-based anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Pass, Laura; Arteche, Adriane; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child social anxiety is common, and predicts later emotional and academic impairment. Offspring of socially anxious mothers are at increased risk. It is important to establish whether individual vulnerability to disorder can be identified in young children. Method: The responses of 4.5 year-old children of mothers with social phobia (N = 62) and non-anxious mothers (N = 60) were compared, two months before school entry, using a Doll Play (DP) procedure focused on the social...

  4. Effects of Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs on Anxiety and Quality of Life in Anxious Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Babaei Ruchi; Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Saeed Sadeghian; Ali Ramezankhani; Alireza Heidarnia; Tahereh Dehdari; Soraya Etemadi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with psychological problems after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) show poorer outcomes; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into the effects of cardiac rehabilitation programs on such patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of phase III cardiac rehabilitation programs on the anxiety and quality of life of anxious patients who had undergone CABG in Iran.Methods: Six weeks after CABG, 83 anxious patients participated in an 8-week...

  5. Anxious and Depressive Avoidance and Symptoms of Prolonged Grief, Depression, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Boelen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Following loss, people can develop symptoms of depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, or Complicated Grief (CG – also termed Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD. A recent cognitive-behavioural model has proposed that avoiding confrontation with the reality of the loss (called “anxious avoidance” [AA] and refraining from activities that could foster adjustment (called “depressive avoidance” [DA] both play a critical role in CG/PGD. The present study examined this assumption, using self-reported data from 161 mourners. Findings showed that items constituting AA and DA represented two distinct factors. Both factors were strongly correlated with other measures of bereavement-related avoidance and both accounted for a unique part of the explained variance in CG/PGD severity, beyond relevant background variables, negative cognitions, and concomitant symptom-levels of depression and PTSD. DA also explained unique variance in depression beyond these variables. Moreover, AA and DA mediated the linkages of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with symptom-levels of CG/PGD.

  6. Psychophysiological activation during preparation, performance, and recovery in high- and low-anxious music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA. PMID:24477850

  7. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  8. Heart rate variability and the anxious client: cardiac autonomic and behavioral associations with therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Trisha; Meara, Alan; Psychotherapy, M Gestalt; Lal, Sara

    2014-08-01

    This exploratory study was designed to investigate the link between a client's heart rate variability (HRV) and the forming of a therapeutic alliance (TA) during psychotherapy. Change in HRV is associated with many psychological and physiological situations, including cardiac mortality. Cardiac effects were evaluated during therapy in 30 symptomatically anxious clients using HRV during six weekly 1-hour therapy sessions (S1-S6). Therapeutic index (TI), a measure of TA, was evaluated using skin conductance resonance between client and therapist. The Working Alliance Inventory provides a subjective measure of TA. State and trait anxiety and mood states were also assessed. Most HRV parameters were highest during S4. The sympathovagal balance was highest in S1 but stabilized after S2. In S4, TI was linked to high HRV parameters. Overall higher anxiety levels seem to be associated to lower HRV parameters. Conversely, in S4, high HRV parameters were linked to higher mood scores. This study found that a subjective measure of TA contradicted the physiological outcome. Results suggest that physiological data collected during therapy are a more accurate barometer of TA forming. These research findings suggest a need for further research identifying physiological markers in clients with a variety of mental health disorders over long-term therapy. PMID:25010104

  9. Analyzing the relationship between social networking addiction, interaction anxiousness and levels of loneliness of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Özgür

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to analyze the social networking addiction of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables and evaluate the relationship between social networking addiction and loneliness and interaction anxiousness. The research was designed according to the relational screening model. The study sample included 349 pre-service teachers studying at Trakya University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic year fall term. The data were obtained using Facebook Addiction Scale, Interaction Anxiousness Scale, the UCLA-Loneliness Scale III and personal information form. In analysis of data, descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H and correlation tests were benefited. The research findings revealed that social networking addiction of pre-service teachers was at a low level, the relationship between interaction anxiousness and social networking addiction was high, and the relationship between the level of loneliness and social networking addiction was at a mid-level. Moreover, in the research a statistically significant difference was obtained between the variables of social networking addiction and frequency of using social networking, gender and the level of grade they study.

  10. Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-02-01

    Remindings-stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events-may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw Memory & Cognition, 22, 591-605, 1994); here, we evaluate whether remindings will influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were preceded by a biasing cue on the same background three items earlier, preceded by a biasing cue on a different background three items earlier, or followed by a biasing cue on the same background three items later. When biasing cues preceded the homographs on the same backgrounds as the homographs, the meanings of the homographs in learner-generated sentences were consistent with the biasing cues more often than in the other two conditions. These results show that remindings can influence word interpretation. In addition, later memory for the homographs and cues was greater when the meaning of the homograph in the sentence was consistent with the earlier biasing cue, suggesting that remindings enhanced mnemonic performance. Remindings play an important role in how we interpret ambiguous stimuli and enhance memory for the involved material. PMID:23835617

  11. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Victor Fogelson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF. In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  12. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  13. Lightweight Face Relighting

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Sylvain; Sillion, François X.; Quan, Long

    2003-01-01

    International audience In this paper we present a method to relight human faces in real time, using consumer-grade graphics cards even with limited 3D capabilities. We show how to render faces using a combination of a simple, hardware-accelerated parametric model simulating skin shading and a detail texture map, and provide robust procedures to estimate all the necessary parameters for a given face. Our model strikes a balance between the difficulty of realistic face rendering (given the v...

  14. Stable face representations

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2011-01-01

    Photographs are often used to establish the identity of an individual or to verify that they are who they claim to be. Yet, recent research shows that it is surprisingly difficult to match a photo to a face. Neither humans nor machines can perform this task reliably. Although human perceivers are good at matching familiar faces, performance with unfamiliar faces is strikingly poor. The situation is no better for automatic face recognition systems. In practical settings, automatic systems have...

  15. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  16. GPU accelerated face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphics processing units have massive parallel processing capabilities, and there is a growing interest in utilizing them for generic computing. One area of interest is computationally heavy computer vision algorithms, such as face detection and recognition. Face detection is used in a variety of applications, for example the autofocus on cameras, face and emotion recognition, and access control. In this thesis, the face detection algorithm was accelerated with GPU using OpenCL. The goal was...

  17. Learning Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Haoqiang; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Yuning; Yin, Qi; Doudou, Chinchilla

    2014-01-01

    Face representation is a crucial step of face recognition systems. An optimal face representation should be discriminative, robust, compact, and very easy-to-implement. While numerous hand-crafted and learning-based representations have been proposed, considerable room for improvement is still present. In this paper, we present a very easy-to-implement deep learning framework for face representation. Our method bases on a new structure of deep network (called Pyramid CNN). The proposed Pyrami...

  18. Intact rapid detection of fearful faces in the absence of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Moradi, Farshad; Felsen, Csilla; Yamazaki, Madoka; Adolphs, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala is thought to process fear-related stimuli rapidly and nonconsciously. We found that an individual with complete bilateral amygdala lesions, who cannot recognize fear from faces, nonetheless showed normal rapid detection and nonconscious processing of those same fearful faces. We conclude that the amygdala is not essential for early stages of fear processing but, instead, modulates recognition and social judgment.

  19. Assessing paedophilia based on the haemodynamic brain response to face images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponseti, Jorge; Granert, Oliver; Van Eimeren, Thilo;

    2016-01-01

    that human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences. This observation prompted us to test whether paedophilia can be inferred based on the haemodynamic brain responses to adult and child faces. METHODS: Twenty-four men sexually attracted to prepubescent boys or girls (paedophiles) and 32 men...... stimuli to paedophiles....

  20. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  1. Salient cues from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers’ face expressions, fixations and pupil size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Esther Kret

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene context on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face-body-scene combinations. Participants viewed emotionally (incongruent face-body and body-scene pairs whilst eye fixations, pupil-size and electromyography (EMG responses were recorded. Participants focused more on angry and fearful vs. happy or neutral cues, independent of the source and relatively independent from emotional incongruence. Moreover, angry faces combined with angry bodies and angry bodies viewed in an aggressive social scene context elicited greatest pupil dilation. Participants' face expressions matched the valence of the stimuli but when face-body compounds were shown, the observed facial expression influenced EMG responses more than the postures. Our results show that threatening signals from faces, bodies and scenes attract attention, induce arousal, and evoke congruent facial reactions.

  2. About (above) a face - a face

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Cervelin

    2009-01-01

    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  3. The prevalence of psychiatric disease in the significant others of patients with known mood and anxious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corea Salvatore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Information about the Significant Others (S.O. of 530 patients with mood and anxious spectrum disorders has been tabulated in this multicentre, retrospective, clinical observational study in order to learn the prevalence of the same mood and/or anxious spectrum diseases in the S.O. of the patients. Methods - The 530 outpatients (of age range from 18 to 70 years with mood and anxious spectrum disorders have been treated by the authors, observed for a seven year period (from January 1995 until May 2003. The patients live in 16 different Italian provinces, but are predominantly from Lombardia and Veneto. Mood disease (includes substance abuse was present in 72% of the patients and anxious disease was present in 28% (DSM-IV diagnoses based upon clinical interviews. The S.O. (various heterosexual long-term relationships of each patient was interviewed for this study to establish a DSM-IV diagnosis of any psychiatric disease that might be present. In cases in which the patient had no S.O. or in which information about the S.O. was unavailable, that information was collected. As data was collected, 10 item report was completed for each patient and the respective S.O. Results - Patients had an S.O. with a similar mental disease to their own in 41% of cases; only 16% of the patients chose their S.O. with no mental disease; 18% of the patients did not have any S.O. and in 26% of the cases the health of the S.O. was unknown. Conclusion - In this multicentre, retrospective, clinical observational study, the corresponding Significant Others of 530 patients with mood and anxious spectrum disorders presented with a high percentage of similar disease to the patients. These findings suggest that it may be appropriate to counsel our patients with these diseases to encourage their respective S.O. to undergo a psychiatric evaluation for possible treatable disease: the first objective of an S.O. is preventive care, secondarily the well-being of

  4. Decision-dependent aftereffects for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Christian; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-07-01

    Adaptation-related aftereffects (AEs) have been found in the perception of face identity, in that perception of an ambiguous face is typically biased away from the identity of a preceding unambiguous adaptor face. In previous studies, we could show that both perceptual ambiguity and physical similarity play a role in determining perceived face identity AEs, Cortex 49 (2013) 1963-1977, Plos One 8 (2013) e70525. Here, we tested further the role of ambiguity by manipulating participants' task such that the very same target stimuli were either ambiguous or unambiguous regarding stimulus classification. We created two partially overlapping continua spanning three unfamiliar face identities each, by morphing identity A via B to C, and B via C to D. In a first session, participants were familiarised with faces A and C and asked to classify faces of the A-B-C continuum as either identity A or C in an AE paradigm. Following adaptation to A or C, we observed contrastive AEs for the ambiguous identity B, but not for the unambiguous identities A or C. In a second session, the same participants were familiarised with faces B and D, followed by tests of AEs for the B-C-D continuum now involving a B-D classification task. We again observed contrastive AEs but only for target identity C (ambiguous for the decision) and not for B or D (unambiguous). Our results suggest that perceptual ambiguity, as given by the task-context, determines whether or not AEs are induced. PMID:24768800

  5. Towards Designing Android Faces after Actual Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Using their face as their prior affective interface, android robots and other agents embody emotional facial expressions, and convey messages on their identity, gender, age, race, and attractiveness. We are examining whether androids can convey emotionally relevant information via their static...... human) and its’ Original (the actual human). The emotional judgments were achieved through an online survey with video-stimuli and questionnaires, following a forced-choice design. Analysis of the results indicated that the emotional judgments for the Geminoid-DK highly depend on the emotional judgments...... of the robotic task, in order to increase the chance of sustaining a more emotional interaction....

  6. The development of an attentional bias for angry faces following Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischek-Simpson, Leah K; Boschen, Mark J; Neumann, David L; Waters, Allison M

    2009-04-01

    Although it is well documented that fear responses develop following aversive Pavlovian conditioning, it is unclear whether fear learning also manifests in the form of attentional biases for fear-related stimuli. Boschen, Parker, and Neumann (Boschen, M. J., Parker, I., & Neumann, D. L. (2007). Changes in implicit associations do not occur simultaneously to Pavlovian conditioning of physiological anxiety responses. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 788-803.) showed that despite the acquisition of differential skin conductance conditioned responses to angry faces paired (CS+) and unpaired (CS-) with an aversive shock, development of implicit associations was not subsequently observed on the Implicit Association Test. In the present study, participants (N=76) were assigned either to a Shock or NoShock group and completed a similar aversive Pavlovian conditioning procedure with angry face CS+ and CS- stimuli. Participants next completed a visual probe task in which the angry face CS+ and CS- stimuli were paired with angry face control stimuli and neutral faces. Results confirmed that differential fear conditioning was observed in the Shock group but not in the NoShock group, and that the Shock group subsequently showed a selective attentional bias for the angry face CS+ compared with the CS- and control stimuli during the visual probe task. The findings confirm the interplay between learning-based mechanisms and cognitive processes, such as attentional biases, in models of fear acquisition and have implications for treatment of the anxiety disorders.

  7. Transient inability to distinguish between faces: electrophysiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundel, Trevor; Milton, John G; Dimitrov, Alexander; Wilson, Hugh W; Pelizzari, Charles; Uftring, Stephen; Torres, Ivan; Erickson, Robert K; Spire, Jean-Paul; Towle, Vernon L

    2003-04-01

    It is not known with certainty at which level of face processing by the cortex the distinction between a familiar and an unfamiliar face is made. Subdural electrodes were implanted under the fusiform gyrus of the right temporal lobe in a patient who developed an unusual inability to distinguish differences between faces as part of the epileptic aura ("all faces looked the same"). A cortical region located posterior to the epileptic focus was identified that exhibited a maximum evoked response to the presentation of facial images (N165), but not to objects, scenes, or character strings. Evoked potentials elicited by a variety of visual images indicated that any perturbation away from novel whole-face stimuli produced submaximal responses from this region of the right temporal lobe. Electrical stimulation of this region resulted in an impairment of face discrimination. It was found that presentation of familiar faces (grandmother, treating physician) produced a different response from that observed for novel faces. These observations demonstrate that within 165 msec of face presentation, and before the conscious precept of face familiarity has formed, this cortical region has already begun to distinguish between a familiar and an unfamiliar face.

  8. A neurocomputational account of the face configural effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaokun; Biederman, Irving; Shah, Manan P

    2014-01-01

    A striking phenomenon in face perception is the configural effect in which a difference in a single part appears more distinct in the context of a face than it does by itself. The face context would be expected to increase search complexity, rendering discrimination more--not less--difficult. Remarkably, there has never been a biologically plausible explanation of this fundamental signature of face recognition.We show that the configural effect can be simply derived from a model composed of overlapping receptive fields (RFs) characteristic of early cortical simple-cell tuning but also present in face-selective areas. Because of the overlap in RFs, the difference in a single part is not only represented in the RFs centered on it but also propagated to larger RFs centered on distant parts of the face. Dissimilarity values computed from the model between pairs of faces and pairs of face parts closely matched the recognition accuracy of human observers who had learned a set of faces composed of composite parts and were tested on wholes (Which is Larry?) and parts (Which is Larry’s nose?). When stimuli were high versus low passed the contributions of different spatial frequency (SF) bands to the configural effect were largely comparable. Therefore, it was the larger RFs rather than the low SFs that accounted for most of the configural effect. The representation explains why, relative to objects, face recognition is so adversely affected by inversion and contrast reversal and why distinctions between similar faces are ineffable. PMID:25009359

  9. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  10. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Victor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. AIMS: To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. METHOD: Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. RESULTS: The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  11. Eye tracking reveals a crucial role for facial motion in recognition of faces by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-06-01

    Current knowledge about face processing in infancy comes largely from studies using static face stimuli, but faces that infants see in the real world are mostly moving ones. To bridge this gap, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Asian infants (N = 118) were familiarized with either moving or static Asian female faces, and then their face recognition was tested with static face images. Eye-tracking methodology was used to record eye movements during the familiarization and test phases. The results showed a developmental change in eye movement patterns, but only for the moving faces. In addition, the more infants shifted their fixations across facial regions, the better their face recognition was, but only for the moving faces. The results suggest that facial movement influences the way faces are encoded from early in development. PMID:26010387

  12. Self-face does not capture attention: an inattentional blindness study

    OpenAIRE

    Devue, Christel; Laloyaux, Cédric; Feyers, Dorothée; Brédart, Serge

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown previously that some categories of stimuli are more likely to capture attention under condition of inattention compared to others. This is the case of faces and auto-referential material (e.g., the subject’s own name) in the inattentional blindness paradigm (Mack & Rock, 1998). However, stimuli combining these two properties have never been assessed. Yet it could be that the own face, because it is both a face and a self-referential stimulus, is more prone to attract attenti...

  13. Finding faces, animals, and vehicles in far peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucart, Muriel; Lenoble, Quentin; Quettelart, Justine; Szaffarczyk, Sebastien; Despretz, Pascal; Thorpe, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that faces exhibit a central visual field bias, as compared to buildings and scenes. With a saccadic choice task, Crouzet, Kirchner, and Thorpe (2010) demonstrated a speed advantage for the detection of faces with stimuli located 8° from fixation. We used the same paradigm to examine whether the face advantage, relative to other categories (animals and vehicles), extends across the whole visual field (from 10° to 80° eccentricity) or whether it is limited to the central visual field. Pairs of photographs of natural scenes (a target and a distractor) were displayed simultaneously left and right of central fixation for 1s on a panoramic screen. Participants were asked to saccade to a target stimulus (faces, animals, or vehicles). The distractors were images corresponding to the two other categories. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted eye tracker. Only the first saccade was measured. Experiment 1 showed that (a) in terms of speed of categorization, faces maintain their advantage over animals and vehicles across the whole visual field, up to 80° and (b) even in crowded conditions (an object embedded in a scene), performance was above chance for the three categories of stimuli at 80° eccentricity. Experiment 2 showed that, when compared to another category with a high degree of within category structural similarity (cars), faces keep their advantage at all eccentricities. These results suggest that the bias for faces is not limited to the central visual field, at least in a categorization task.

  14. Enhanced sensitization to animal, interpersonal, and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli (but no evidence for selective one-trial fear learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Cronin, Sophie L; Alhadad, Sakinah S J; Luck, Camilla C

    2015-11-01

    Selective sensitization has been proposed as an alternative explanation for enhanced responding to animal fear-relevant stimuli--snakes and spiders--during extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study sought to replicate the phenomenon using a shock workup procedure as the sensitizing manipulation and to extend it to interpersonal and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli--angry faces and other-race faces. Assessment of selective sensitization was followed by a one-trial fear learning procedure. Selective sensitization, larger electrodermal responses to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization, or a larger increase in electrodermal responding to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization was observed across stimulus domains. However, the one-trial fear learning procedure failed to provide evidence for enhanced fear conditioning to fear-relevant stimuli. One-trial fear learning was either absent or present for fear-relevant and nonfear-relevant stimuli. The current study confirms that electrodermal responses to fear-relevant stimuli across stimulus domains are subject to selective sensitization. PMID:26283264

  15. Multiview Face Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sauquet, Tiffany; Rodriguez, Yann; Marcel, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    In this document, we address the problem of multiview face detection. This work extends the frontal face detection system developed at the IDIAP Research Institute to multiview face detection. The main state-of-the art techniques are reviewed and a novel architecture is presented, based on a pyramid of detectors that are trained for different views of faces. The proposed approach robustly detects faces rotated up to -67.5 degree in the image plane and up to -90 degree out of the image plane. ...

  16. Face processing is gated by visual spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Crist

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human perception of faces is widely believed to rely on automatic processing by a domain-specifi c, modular component of the visual system. Scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP recordings indicate that faces receive special stimulus processing at around 170 ms poststimulus onset, in that faces evoke an enhanced occipital negative wave, known as the N170, relative to the activity elicited by other visual objects. As predicted by modular accounts of face processing, this early face-specifi c N170 enhancement has been reported to be largely immune to the infl uence of endogenous processes such as task strategy or attention. However, most studies examining the infl uence of attention on face processing have focused on non-spatial attention, such as object-based attention, which tend to have longer-latency effects. In contrast, numerous studies have demonstrated that visual spatial attention can modulate the processing of visual stimuli as early as 80 ms poststimulus – substantially earlier than the N170. These temporal characteristics raise the question of whether this initial face-specifi c processing is immune to the infl uence of spatial attention. This question was addressed in a dual-visualstream ERP study in which the infl uence of spatial attention on the face-specifi c N170 could be directly examined. As expected, early visual sensory responses to all stimuli presented in an attended location were larger than responses evoked by those same stimuli when presented in an unattended location. More importantly, a signifi cant face-specifi c N170 effect was elicited by faces that appeared in an attended location, but not in an unattended one. In summary, early face-specifi c processing is not automatic, but rather, like other objects, strongly depends on endogenous factors such as the allocation of spatial attention. Moreover, these fi ndings underscore the extensive infl uence that top-down attention exercises over the processing of

  17. Enhanced ERPs to visual stimuli in unaffected male siblings of ASD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Goyet, Louise; Ganea, Natasa; Johnson, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication abilities. While unaffected relatives lack severe deficits, milder impairments have been reported in some first-degree relatives. The present study sought to verify whether mild deficits in face perception are evident among the unaffected younger siblings of children with ASD. Children between 6-9 years of age completed a face-recognition task and a passive viewing ERP task with face and house stimuli. Sixteen children were typically developing with no family history of ASD, and 17 were unaffected children with an older sibling with ASD. Findings indicate that, while unaffected siblings are comparable to controls in their face-recognition abilities, unaffected male siblings in particular show relatively enhanced P100 and P100-N170 peak-to-peak amplitude responses to faces and houses. Enhanced ERPs among unaffected male siblings is discussed in relation to potential differences in neural network recruitment during visual and face processing. PMID:25506753

  18. Diverting attention suppresses human amygdala responses to faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eMorawetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies disagree as to whether the processing of emotion-laden visual stimuli is dependent upon the availability of attentional resources or entirely capacity-free. Two main factors have been proposed to be responsible for the discrepancies: the differences in the perceptual attentional demands of the tasks used to divert attentional resources from emotional stimuli and the spatial location of the affective stimuli in the visual field. To date, no neuroimaging report addressed these two issues in the same set of subjects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high and low attentional load as well as different stimulus locations on face processing in the amygdala using fMRI to provide further evidence for one of the two opposing theories. We were able for the first time to directly test the interaction of attentional load and spatial location. The results revealed a strong attenuation of amygdala activity when the attentional load was high. The eccentricity of the emotional stimuli did not affect responses in the amygdala and no interaction effect between attentional load and spatial location was found. We conclude that the processing of emotional stimuli in the amygdala is strongly dependent on the availability of attentional resources without a preferred processing of stimuli presented in the periphery and provide firm evidence for the concept of the attentional load theory of emotional processing in the amygdala.

  19. MULTIFUNCTIONAL AND STIMULI-SENSITIVE PHARMACEUTICAL NANOCARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchilin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Currently used pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles, demonstrate a broad variety of useful properties, such as longevity in the body; specific targeting to certain disease sites; enhanced intracellular penetration; contrast properties allowing for direct carrier visualization in vivo; stimili-sensitivity, and others. Some of those pharmaceutical carriers have already made their way into clinic, while others are still under preclinical development. In certain cases, the pharmaceutical nanocarriers combine several of the listed properties. Long-circulating immunoliposomes capable of prolonged residence in the blood and specific target recognition represent one of examples of this kind. The engineering of multifunctional pharmaceutical nanocarriers combining several useful properties in one particle can significantly enhance the efficacy of many therapeutic and diagnostic protocols. This paper considers the current status and possible future directions in the emerging area of multifunctional nanocarriers with primary attention on the combination of such properties as longevity, targetability, intracellular penetration, contrast loading, and stimuli sensitivity. PMID:18977297

  20. Termination of pinned spirals by local stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Guo, Ming-Ming; Ma, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The termination of pinned spirals on a defect by means of local stimuli is studied. On a completely unexcitable defect, the elimination process is discussed and its corresponding mechanism is presented. Especially, the mechanism of unpinning spirals on a partially unexcitable defect, which has not been investigated so far, is explored. With fixed pacing frequency ω L , there exists a maximal radius R max above which the pinned spiral cannot be removed. It is found that the value of R max does not increase as ω L in a dynamical regime, forming a platform in the R\\textit{max}\\text-ωL curves. Based on analyzing the dispersion relation on the spiral tip around the obstacle, the underlying mechanism is clarified. Also, it is found that when multiple spirals are pinned, the value of R max decreases on a partially unexcitable defect while the change is very slight on a completely unexcitable one.

  1. Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Benjamin G; Inoue, Yushi

    2004-01-01

    Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli may be triggered by patterned and flashing displays that are now ubiquitous. The seizures may be clinically generalized, but unilateral and bilateral myoclonic attacks also may be triggered, especially in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and recently, clearly focal reflex occipital lobe seizures have been described. Some seizure-triggering properties of video displays can be identified, such as perceived brightness, pattern, flicker frequency, and color. Knowledge of these is useful in planning individual treatment and in designing regulations for screen content of television broadcasts or for other video displays. Some subjects will also be sensitive to cognitive or action-programming activation, especially when playing video games, and this can increase the chance of seizure triggering. Nonspecific factors such as sleep deprivation, prolonged exposure, and drug or alcohol use also may play a role in reflex seizure occurrence. PMID:14706042

  2. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being.

  3. A Neurorobotic Platform to Test the Influence of Neuromodulatory Signaling on Anxious and Curious Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Krichmar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate neuromodulatory systems are critical for appropriate value-laden responses to environmental challenges. Whereas changes in the overall level of dopamine have an effect on the organism’s reward or curiosity seeking behavior, changes in the level of serotonin can affect its level of anxiety or harm aversion. Moreover, top-down signals from frontal cortex can exert cognitive control on these neuromodulatory systems. The cholinergic and noradrenergic systems affect the ability to filter out noise and irrelevant events. We introduce a neural network for action selection that is based on these principles of neuromodulatory systems. The algorithm tested the hypothesis that high levels of serotonin lead to withdrawn behavior by suppressing dopaminergic action and that high levels of dopamine or low levels of serotonin lead to curious, exploratory behavior. Furthermore, the algorithm tested the idea that top-down signals from the frontal cortex to neuromodulatory areas are critical for an organism to cope with both stressful and novel events. The neural network was implemented on an autonomous robot and tested in an open field paradigm. The open field test is often used to test for models anxiety or exploratory behavior in the rodent and allows for qualitative comparisons with the neurorobot’s behavior. The present neurorobotic experiments can lead to a better understanding of how neuromodulatory signaling affects the balance between anxious and curious behavior. Therefore, this experimental paradigm may also be informative in exploring a wide range of neurological diseases such as anxiety, autism, attention deficit disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

  4. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders;

    Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition...... was abnormal. First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length in any of the subjects. Secondly, we compared performance with single word and single letter stimuli using RT measures. Third, we measured the word superiority effect in accuracy of word and letter report with brief exposure...... durations. These data were also analysed using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention1, to extract estimates of perceptual processing speed for words and letters. We find that the group of developmental prosopagnosics perform well within the normal range on all reading tests. In the traditional RT...

  5. Are reading and face processing related?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition...... development. In three experiments, we investigated reading performance in a group of 11 participants with DP and matched controls: First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length. Secondly, we compared RTs for single word and single letter stimuli. Third, we measured the word superiority...... effect in accuracy of word and letter report with brief exposure durations. These data were also analysed using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention1, to extract estimates of perceptual processing speed for words and letters. We find that the group of DPs perform well within the normal range...

  6. Word and face recognition deficits following posterior cerebral artery stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Christina D.; Asperud Thomsen, Johanne; Delfi, Tzvetelina;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings have challenged the existence of category specific brain areas for perceptual processing of words and faces, suggesting the existence of a common network supporting the recognition of both. We examined the performance of patients with focal lesions in posterior cortical...... areas to investigate whether deficits in recognition of words and faces systematically co-occur as would be expected if both functions rely on a common cerebral network. Seven right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage following stroke in areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery were...... included (four with right hemisphere damage, three with left, tested at least 1 year post stroke). We examined word and face recognition using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm using four different categories of stimuli: cropped faces, full faces, words, and cars. Reading speed and word length effects...

  7. Effects of AKAP5 Pro100Leu genotype on working memory for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sylvia; Gorny, Xenia; Machts, Judith; Behnisch, Gusalija; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Herbort, Maike C; Münte, Thomas F; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2013-01-01

    Recent investigations addressing the role of the synaptic multiadaptor molecule AKAP5 in human emotion and behavior suggest that the AKAP5 Pro100Leu polymorphism (rs2230491) contributes to individual differences in affective control. Carriers of the less common Leu allele show a higher control of anger as indicated by behavioral measures and dACC brain response on emotional distracters when compared to Pro homozygotes. In the current fMRI study we used an emotional working memory task according to the n-back scheme with neutral and negative emotional faces as target stimuli. Pro homozygotes showed a performance advantage at the behavioral level and exhibited enhanced activation of the amygdala and fusiform face area during working memory for emotional faces. On the other hand, Leu carriers exhibited increased activation of the dACC during performance of the 2-back condition. Our results suggest that AKAP5 Pro100Leu effects on emotion processing might be task-dependent with Pro homozygotes showing lower control of emotional interference, but more efficient processing of task-relevant emotional stimuli. PMID:23383244

  8. Effects of AKAP5 Pro100Leu genotype on working memory for emotional stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Richter

    Full Text Available Recent investigations addressing the role of the synaptic multiadaptor molecule AKAP5 in human emotion and behavior suggest that the AKAP5 Pro100Leu polymorphism (rs2230491 contributes to individual differences in affective control. Carriers of the less common Leu allele show a higher control of anger as indicated by behavioral measures and dACC brain response on emotional distracters when compared to Pro homozygotes. In the current fMRI study we used an emotional working memory task according to the n-back scheme with neutral and negative emotional faces as target stimuli. Pro homozygotes showed a performance advantage at the behavioral level and exhibited enhanced activation of the amygdala and fusiform face area during working memory for emotional faces. On the other hand, Leu carriers exhibited increased activation of the dACC during performance of the 2-back condition. Our results suggest that AKAP5 Pro100Leu effects on emotion processing might be task-dependent with Pro homozygotes showing lower control of emotional interference, but more efficient processing of task-relevant emotional stimuli.

  9. Familiarity is not notoriety: Phenomenological accounts of face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eLiccione

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available From a phenomenological perspective, faces are perceived differently from objects as their perception always involves the possibility of a relational engagement (Bredlau, 2011. This is especially true for familiar faces, i.e. faces of people with a history of real relational engagements. Similarly, valence of emotional expressions assumes a key role, as they define the sense and direction of this engagement. Following these premises, the aim of the present study is to demonstrate that face recognition is facilitated by at least two variables, familiarity and emotional expression, and that perception of familiar faces is not influenced by orientation. In order to verify this hypothesis, we implemented a 3x3x2 factorial design, showing seventeen healthy subjects three type of faces (unfamiliar, personally familiar, famous characterized by three different emotional expressions (happy, hungry/sad, neutral and in two different orientation (upright vs inverted. We showed every subject a total of 180 faces with the instructions to give a familiarity judgment. Reaction times were recorded and we found that the recognition of a face is facilitated by personal familiarity and emotional expression, and that this process is otherwise independent from a cognitive elaboration of stimuli and remains stable despite orientation. These results highlight the need to make a distinction between famous and personally familiar faces when studying face perception and to consider its historical aspects from a phenomenological point of view.

  10. Face Animation with Kinect Face Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Forns Gutierrez, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    El projecte consisteix en obtenir les dades d'un Kinect, tractar-les amb el SDK Kinect FaceTracking per obtenir les expressions facials i la inclinació del cap d'una persona que aparegui a la imatge, per finalment animar un avatar 3D amb aquestes dades This project involves obtaining data from a Kinect, treat them with FaceTracking Kinect SDK to obtain facial expressions and head tilt of a person who appears in the picture, finally animate a 3D avatar with these data.

  11. Passive and motivated perception of emotional faces: qualitative and quantitative changes in the face processing network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie R Skelly

    Full Text Available Emotionally expressive faces are processed by a distributed network of interacting sub-cortical and cortical brain regions. The components of this network have been identified and described in large part by the stimulus properties to which they are sensitive, but as face processing research matures interest has broadened to also probe dynamic interactions between these regions and top-down influences such as task demand and context. While some research has tested the robustness of affective face processing by restricting available attentional resources, it is not known whether face network processing can be augmented by increased motivation to attend to affective face stimuli. Short videos of people expressing emotions were presented to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Motivation to attend to the videos was manipulated by providing an incentive for improved recall performance. During the motivated condition, there was greater coherence among nodes of the face processing network, more widespread correlation between signal intensity and performance, and selective signal increases in a task-relevant subset of face processing regions, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and right amygdala. In addition, an unexpected task-related laterality effect was seen in the amygdala. These findings provide strong evidence that motivation augments co-activity among nodes of the face processing network and the impact of neural activity on performance. These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains.

  12. Separating discriminative and function-altering effects of verbal stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D

    1993-01-01

    Ever since Skinner's first discussion of rule-governed behavior, behavior analysts have continued to define rules, either explicitly or implicitly, as verbal discriminative stimuli. Consequently, it is not difficult to find, in the literature on rule-governed behavior, references to stimulus control, antecedent control, or to rules occasioning behavior. However, some verbal stimuli have effects on behavior that are not easily described as discriminative. Such stimuli don't evoke behavior as d...

  13. Localizing evoked and induced responses to faces using magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gavin; Singh, Krish D

    2014-05-01

    A rich pattern of responses in frequency, time and space are known to be generated in the visual cortex in response to faces. Recently, a number of studies have used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to try to record these responses non-invasively - in many cases using source analysis techniques based on the beamforming method. Here we sought both to characterize best practice for measuring face-specific responses using MEG beamforming, and to determine whether the results produced by the beamformer match evidence from other modalities. We measured activity to visual presentation of face stimuli and phase-scrambled control stimuli, and performed source analyses of both induced and evoked responses using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry. We localized the gamma-band response to bilateral lateral occipital cortex, and both the gamma-band response and the M170-evoked response to the right fusiform gyrus. Differences in the gamma-band response between faces and scrambled stimuli were confined to the frequency range 50-90 Hz; gamma-band activity at higher frequencies did not differ between the two stimulus categories. We additionally identified a component of the M220-evoked response - localized to the parieto-occipital sulcus - which was enhanced for scrambled vs. unscrambled faces. These findings help to establish that MEG beamforming can localize face-specific responses in time, frequency and space with good accuracy (when validated against established findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging and intracranial recordings), as well as contributing to the establishment of best methodological practice for the use of the beamformer method to measure face-specific responses.

  14. Frontal contributions to face processing differences in autism: evidence from fMRI of inverted face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookheimer, Susan Y; Wang, A Ting; Scott, Ashley; Sigman, Marian; Dapretto, Mirella

    2008-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of face processing deficits in autism have typically focused on visual processing regions, such as the fusiform face area (FFA), which have shown reduced activity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though inconsistently. We recently reported reduced activity in the inferior frontal region in ASD, implicating impaired mirror-neuron systems during face processing. In the present study, we used fMRI during a face processing task in which subjects had to match faces presented in the upright versus inverted position. Typically developing (TD) children showed a classic behavioral inversion effect, increased reaction time for inverted faces, while this effect was significantly reduced in ASD subjects. The fMRI data showed similar responses in the fusiform face area for ASD and TD children, with both groups demonstrating increased activation for inverted faces. However, the groups did differ in several brain regions implicated in social cognition, particularly prefrontal cortex and amygdala. These data suggest that the behavioral differences in processing upright versus inverted faces for TD children are related not to visual information processing but to the social significance of the stimuli. Our results are consistent with other recent studies implicating frontal and limbic dysfunction during face processing in autism. PMID:18954473

  15. Face-Guarding Polyhedra

    OpenAIRE

    Viglietta, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We study the Art Gallery Problem for face guards in polyhedral environments. The problem can be informally stated as: how many (not necessarily convex) windows should we place on the external walls of a dark building, in order to completely illuminate its interior? We consider both closed and open face guards (i.e., faces with or without their boundary), and we study several classes of polyhedra, including orthogonal polyhedra, 4-oriented polyhedra, and 2-reflex orthostacks. We give upper and...

  16. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearr...

  17. The neural basis of individual face and object representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eWatson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We routinely need to process the identity of many faces around us, and how the brain achieves this is still the subject of much research in cognitive neuroscience. To date, insights on face identity processing have come from both healthy and clinical populations. However, in order to directly compare results across and within participant groups, and across different studies, it is crucial that a standard task is utilised which includes different exemplars (for example, non-face stimuli along with faces, is memory-neutral, and taps into identity recognition across orientation and across viewpoint change. The goal of this study was to test a previously behaviourally tested, optimised face and object identity matching design in a healthy control sample whilst being scanned using fMRI. Specifically, we investigated categorical, orientation, and category-specific orientation effects while participants were focused on identity processing of simultaneously presented exemplar stimuli. Alongside observing category and orientation specific effects in a distributed set of brain regions, we also saw an interaction between stimulus category and orientation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. Generally these clusters showed the pattern of a heightened response to inverted, as opposed to upright faces; and to upright, as opposed to inverted shoes. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies and to potential future research within prosopagnosic individuals.

  18. Predictive validity of BODE index for anxious and depressive symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li; LIN Ying-xiang; YANG Ting; ZHANG Hong; JIAO Xia; ZHANG Shu; CHANG Xiao-hong; WANG Zhao-mei; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression are two of the commonest and most modifiable comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have an independent effect on health and prognosis. FEV1% has been shown to be a poor predictor of anxiety and depression. The body mass index, degree of airflow obstruction, dyspnea,and exercise capacity (BODE) index is a multidimensional assessment system which may predict health outcome in COPD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of the BODE index for anxious and depressive symptoms in COPD patients.Methods This was a multicenter prospective cross-sectional study in 256 patients with stable COPD. Anxious and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The relationships between anxiety, depression and potential predictors (including the BODE index) were analyzed by a binary Logistic regression model. Results Subjects who were anxious and depressive walked a shorter six-minute walking distance (6MWD), had more dyspnea, a higher BODE index, and lower health-related quality of life (P <0.01). Anxiety and depression score was significantly correlated with BODE index, respectively (r=0.335, P <0.001; r=0.306, P <0.001). The prevalence of anxiety and depression increased with BODE stage increasing (P <0.05). On the basis of binary Logistic regression, the BODE index was a good and independent predictor of anxiety and depression because it comprised dyspnea and 6MWD, which were shown to be the main determinants.Conclusions The predictive validity of the BODE index for anxiety and depression was demonstrated. We propose that the BODE index should be included in assessment of COPD severity.

  19. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  20. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca B; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Silk, Jennifer S; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E; Forbes, Erika E; Siegle, Greg J

    2016-06-01

    Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts. PMID:27010577

  1. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B. Price

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts.

  2. Anchoring in numeric judgments of visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eLangeborg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with source credibility or cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  3. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  4. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  5. Stereotypic vision: how stereotypes disambiguate visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Joshua; Wittenbrink, Bernd; Crawford, Matthew T; Sadler, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    Three studies examined how participants use race to disambiguate visual stimuli. Participants performed a first-person-shooter task in which Black and White targets appeared holding either a gun or an innocuous object (e.g., a wallet). In Study 1, diffusion analysis (Ratcliff, 1978) showed that participants rapidly acquired information about a gun when it appeared in the hands of a Black target, and about an innocuous object in the hands of a White target. For counterstereotypic pairings (armed Whites, unarmed Blacks), participants acquired information more slowly. In Study 2, eye tracking showed that participants relied on more ambiguous information (measured by visual angle from fovea) when responding to stereotypic targets; for counterstereotypic targets, they achieved greater clarity before responding. In Study 3, participants were briefly exposed to targets (limiting access to visual information) but had unlimited time to respond. In spite of their slow, deliberative responses, they showed racial bias. This pattern is inconsistent with control failure and suggests that stereotypes influenced identification of the object. All 3 studies show that race affects visual processing by supplementing objective information. PMID:25603373

  6. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  7. Psychophysiological response patterns to affective film stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G N Bos

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1 whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR, skin conductance response (SCR and heart rate (HR elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2 the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding.

  8. The anxious wait: assessing the impact of patient accessible EHRs for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiljer David

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal health records (PHRs provide patients with access to personal health information (PHI and targeted education. The use of PHRs has the potential to improve a wide range of outcomes, including empowering patients to be more active participants in their care. There are a number of widespread barriers to adoption, including privacy and security considerations. In addition, there are clinical concerns that patients could become anxious or distressed when accessing complex medical information. This study assesses the implementation of a PHR, and its impact on anxiety levels and perceptions of self-efficacy in a sample of breast cancer patients. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used to collect data from participants to evaluate the use of the PHR. Study participants completed background and pre-assessment questionnaires and were then registered into the portal. By entering an activation key, participants were then able to review their lab results and diagnostic imaging reports. After six weeks, participants completed post-assessment questionnaires and usability heuristics. All data were collected using an online survey tool. Data were cleaned and analyzed using SAS v9.1. Results A total of 311 breast cancer patients completed demographic and pre-assessment questionnaires, 250 registered to use the online intervention, and 125 participants completed all required study elements. Matching the pre- and post-anxiety scores demonstrated a decrease in mean anxiety scores (-2.2, p = 0.03; the chemotherapy sub-group had a statistically insignificant mean increase (1.8, p = .14. There was no mean change in self-efficacy scores. Conclusions Participants generally found the portal easy to use; however, the perceived value of improved participation was not detected in the self-efficacy scores. Having access to personal health information did not increase anxiety levels. While these results suggest that the use

  9. Nonaware classical conditioning to pictorial facial stimuli in a between-groups paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, S; Hugdahl, K

    1999-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of aware and nonaware modes of extinction in classical conditioning to facial emotional stimuli. The subjects participated in three different experimental phases. In the first (habituation) phase they were presented with a 500 ms angry face. In the second (acquisition) phase, for half of the subjects the 500 ms face was paired with an aversive noise (experimental group) while for the other half of the subjects the face and the noise presentations were separated by 6-10 s intervals (sensitization control group). In the third (extinction) phase, these two groups were further divided into two subgroups. One subgroup of both the experimental and control group had the face stimulus presented for 30 ms, and immediately masked with a neutral picture. The other two subgroups had the face presented for 500 ms with no mask. The results showed that conditioning only occurred in the experimental subgroups which was indicated by a significant difference between skin conductance responses during habituation and corresponding responses during extinction. Secondly, comparing the experimental and control groups during the extinction phase, a significant conditioning effect was observed for both the aware and nonaware masked modes of extinction for the experimental group. The results suggest that conditioned autonomic responses may be elicited in a nonaware mode. PMID:10381162

  10. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  11. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience...

  12. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nomi, Jason S.; Lucina Q. Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD...

  13. Fear Extinction to an Out-Group Face: The Role of Target Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete, Carlos D.; Thomsen, Lotte; Olsson, Andreas; Mendes, Wendy; Sidanius, James; Ho, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Conditioning studies on humans and other primates show that fear responses acquired toward danger-relevant stimuli, such as snakes, resist extinction, whereas responses toward danger-irrelevant stimuli, such as birds, are more readily extinguished. Similar evolved biases may extend to human groups, as recent research demonstrates that a conditioned fear response to faces of persons of a social out-group resists extinction, whereas fear toward a social in-group is more readily extinguished. He...

  14. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  15. Face Time: Educating Face Transplant Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Lamparello, Brooke M.; Bueno, Ericka M.; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. Methods: We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify top...

  16. Genetic influences on sociability: Heightened amygdala reactivity and event-related responses to positive social stimuli in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Brian W.; Mills, Debra; Yam, Anna; Hoeft, Fumiko; Bellugi, Ursula; Reiss, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder caused by a hemizygous microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a compelling neurocognitive profile characterized by relative deficits in visiospatial function, relative strengths in face and language processing, and enhanced drive towards social engagement. We used a combined fMRI and ERP approach to examine the neural basis of social responsiveness in WS participants to two types of social stimuli, negative (fearful) and positiv...

  17. Age-related differences in cortical activity during a visuo-spatial working memory task with facial stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Schechtman Belham

    Full Text Available Emotion, importantly displayed by facial expressions, is one of the most significant memory modulators. The interaction between memory and the different emotional valences change across lifespan, while young adults (YA are expected to better recall negative events (Negativity Bias Hypothesis, older adults (OA tend to focus on positive stimuli (Positivity Effect Hypothesis. This research work aims at verifying whether cortical electrical activity of these two age groups would also be differently influenced by emotional valences in a visuo-spatial working memory task. 27 YA (13 males and 25 OA (14 males, all healthy volunteers, underwent electroencephalographic recordings (21 scalp electrodes montage, while performing the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task using a touch screen with different stimuli categories: neutral, positive and negative faces and geometric pictures. YA obtained higher scores than OA, and showed higher activation of theta and alpha bands in the frontal and midline regions, besides a more evident right-hemispheric asymmetry on alpha band when compared to OA. For both age groups, performance in the task was worse for positive faces than to negative and to neutral faces. Facial stimuli induced a better performance and higher alpha activation on the pre-frontal region for YA, and on the midline, occipital and left temporal regions for OA when compared to geometric figures. The superior performance of YA was expected due to the natural cognitive deficits connected to ageing, as was a better performance with facial stimuli due to the evolutionary importance of faces. These results were related to cortical activity on areas of importance for action-planning, decision making and sustained attention. Taken together, they are in accordance with the Negativity Bias but do not support the Positivity Effect. The methodology used was able to identify age-related differences in cortical activity during emotional mnemonic processing and

  18. I am resting but rest less well with you. The Moderating Effect of Anxious Attachment Style on Alpha Power during EEG Resting State in a Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A or together (T. We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants’ cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T versus A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants’ anxious attachment style.

  19. Logical Rules and the Classification of Integral-Dimension Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Daniel R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.; Donkin, Christopher; Denton, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    A classic distinction in perceptual information processing is whether stimuli are composed of separable dimensions, which are highly analyzable, or integral dimensions, which are processed holistically. Previous tests of a set of logical-rule models of classification have shown that separable-dimension stimuli are processed serially if the…

  20. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  1. Processing of natural temporal stimuli by macaque retinal ganglion cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the

  2. Behavioral and neural correlates of emotional development: typically developing infants and infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Porto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the main findings of studies of behavioral and neural correlates regarding the development of facial emotion processing during the first year of life in typically developing infants and infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers. Sources: Comprehensive, non-systematic review of the literature on studies about individual differences in facial emotion processing by newborns and infants over the first year of life. Summary of the findings: Maternal stress related to depression and anxiety has been associated to atypical emotional processing and attentional behaviors in the offspring. Recent neurophysiological studies using electroencephalogram and event-related potentials have begun to shed light on the possible mechanisms underlying such behaviors. Conclusions: Infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers have increased risk for several adverse outcomes across the lifespan. Further neurobehavioral investigations and the promotion of clinical and developmental research integration might eventually contribute to refining screening tools, improving treatment, and enabling primary prevention interventions for children at risk.

  3. Optimal Decision Stimuli for Risky Choice Experiments: An Adaptive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I; Pitt, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than others, so the choice of stimuli is critical. This paper provides the theoretical background and a methodological framework for adaptive selection of optimal stimuli for discriminating among models of risky choice. The approach, called Adaptive Design Optimization (ADO), adapts the stimulus in each experimental trial based on the results of the preceding trials. We demonstrate the validity of the approach with simulation studies aiming to discriminate Expected Utility, Weighted Expected Utility, Original Prospect Theory, and Cumulative Prospect Theory models. PMID:24532856

  4. Emotional attention for erotic stimuli: Cognitive and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, Vanessa; Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Sander, David

    2016-06-01

    It has long been posited that among emotional stimuli, only negative threatening information modulates early shifts of attention. However, in the last few decades there has been an increase in research showing that attention is also involuntarily oriented toward positive rewarding stimuli such as babies, food, and erotic information. Because reproduction-related stimuli have some of the largest effects among positive stimuli on emotional attention, the present work reviews recent literature and proposes that the cognitive and cerebral mechanisms underlying the involuntarily attentional orientation toward threat-related information are also sensitive to erotic information. More specifically, the recent research suggests that both types of information involuntarily orient attention due to their concern relevance and that the amygdala plays an important role in detecting concern-relevant stimuli, thereby enhancing perceptual processing and influencing emotional attentional processes. PMID:26179894

  5. Development of Recognition of Face Parts from Unfamiliar Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoying; Anzures, Gizelle; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined developmental changes in the ability to recognize face parts. In Experiment 1, participants were familiarized with whole faces and given a recognition test with old and new eyes, noses, mouths, inner faces, outer faces, or whole faces. Adults were above chance in their recognition of the eye and mouth regions. However, children did not naturally encode and recognize face parts independently of the entire face. In addition, all age groups showed comparable inner and ...

  6. Reduced face aftereffects in autism are not due to poor attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ewing

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine why face identity aftereffects are diminished in children with autism, relative to typical children. To address the possibility that reduced face aftereffects might reflect reduced attention to adapting stimuli, we investigated the consequence of controlling attention to adapting faces during a face identity aftereffect task in children with autism and typical children. We also included a size-change between adaptation and test stimuli to determine whether the reduced aftereffects reflect atypical adaptation to low- or higher-level stimulus properties. Results indicated that when attention was controlled and directed towards adapting stimuli, face identity aftereffects in children with autism were significantly reduced relative to typical children. This finding challenges the notion that atypicalities in the quality and/or quantity of children's attention during adaptation might account for group differences previously observed in this paradigm. Additionally, evidence of diminished face identity aftereffects despite a stimulus size change supports an adaptive processing atypicality in autism that extends beyond low-level, retinotopically coded stimulus properties. These findings support the notion that diminished face aftereffects in autism reflect atypicalities in adaptive norm-based coding, which could also contribute to face processing difficulties in this group.

  7. The Composite Effect Is Face-Specific in Young but Not Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana

    2016-01-01

    In studying holistic face processing across the life-span there are only few attempts to separate face-specific from general aging effects. Here we used the complete design of the composite paradigm (Cheung et al., 2008) with faces and novel non-face control objects (watches) to investigate composite effects in young (18-32 years) and older adults (63-78 years). We included cueing conditions to alert using a narrow or a wide attentional focus when comparing the composite objects, and used brief and relaxed exposure durations for stimulus presentation. Young adults showed large composite effects for faces, but none for watches. In contrast, older adults showed strong composite effects for faces and watches, albeit the effects were larger for faces. Moreover, composite effects for faces were larger for the wide attentional focus in both age groups, while the composite effects for watches of older adults were alike for both cueing conditions. Older adults showed low accuracy at the same levels for both types of stimuli when attended and non-attended halves were incongruent. Increasing presentation times improved performance strongly for congruent but not for incongruent composite objects. These findings suggest that the composite effects of older adults reflect substantial decline in the ability to control irrelevant stimuli, which takes effect both in non-face objects and in faces. In young adults, highly efficient attentional control mostly precludes interference of irrelevant features in novel objects, thus their composite effects reflect holistic integration specific for faces or objects of expertise.

  8. Emotion recognition in the human face and voice

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Lisa Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London At a perceptual level, faces and voices consist of very different sensory inputs and therefore, information processing from one modality can be independent of information processing from another modality (Adolphs & Tranel, 1999). However, there may also be a shared neural emotion network that processes stimuli independent of modality (Peelen, Atkinson, & Vuilleumier, 2010) or emotion...

  9. Pet Face: Mechanisms Underlying Human-Animal Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute) faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet) animals (i.e., dogs and cats) might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown...

  10. The bilateral advantage for famous faces: interhemispheric communication or competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lyndsay M; Burton, A Mike

    2008-04-01

    The bilateral advantage for the perception of famous faces was investigated using a redundant target procedure. In experiment 1 we compared simultaneous presentation of stimuli (a) bilaterally and (b) one above the other in the central field. Results showed a redundancy advantage, but only when faces were presented bilaterally. This result lends support to the notion of interhemispheric communication using cross-hemisphere representations. Experiment 2 examined the nature of such communication by comparing bilateral presentation of identical face images, with bilateral presentation of different images of the same person. When asked to make a familiar/unfamiliar face judgement, participants showed evidence for a redundancy advantage under both bilateral conditions. This suggests that the nature of the information shared in interhemispheric communication is abstract, rather than being tied to superficial stimulus properties.

  11. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    In this article I will make some analytical sketches – describe, comment on and contextualize my experience with four examples of his works of art recently presented in a large Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face (March-July 2012) at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark . The analytical description......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  12. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  13. Revisiting the Role of the Fusiform Face Area in Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalić, Merim

    2016-09-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is considered to be a highly specialized brain module because of its central importance for face perception. However, many researchers claim that the FFA is a general visual expertise module that distinguishes between individual examples within a single category. Here, I circumvent the shortcomings of some previous studies on the FFA controversy by using chess stimuli, which do not visually resemble faces, together with more sensitive methods of analysis such as multivariate pattern analysis. I also extend the previous research by presenting chess positions, complex scenes with multiple objects, and their interrelations to chess experts and novices as well as isolated chess objects. The first experiment demonstrates that chess expertise modulated the FFA activation when chess positions were presented. In contrast, single chess objects did not produce different activation patterns among experts and novices even when the multivariate pattern analysis was used. The second experiment focused on the single chess objects and featured an explicit task of identifying the chess objects but failed to demonstrate expertise effects in the FFA. The experiments provide support for the general expertise view of the FFA function but also extend the scope of our understanding about the function of the FFA. The FFA does not merely distinguish between different exemplars within the same category of stimuli. More likely, it parses complex multiobject stimuli that contain numerous functional and spatial relations. PMID:27082047

  14. Emotional cues during simultaneous face and voice processing: electrophysiological insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taosheng Liu

    Full Text Available Both facial expression and tone of voice represent key signals of emotional communication but their brain processing correlates remain unclear. Accordingly, we constructed a novel implicit emotion recognition task consisting of simultaneously presented human faces and voices with neutral, happy, and angry valence, within the context of recognizing monkey faces and voices task. To investigate the temporal unfolding of the processing of affective information from human face-voice pairings, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs to these audiovisual test stimuli in 18 normal healthy subjects; N100, P200, N250, P300 components were observed at electrodes in the frontal-central region, while P100, N170, P270 were observed at electrodes in the parietal-occipital region. Results indicated a significant audiovisual stimulus effect on the amplitudes and latencies of components in frontal-central (P200, P300, and N250 but not the parietal occipital region (P100, N170 and P270. Specifically, P200 and P300 amplitudes were more positive for emotional relative to neutral audiovisual stimuli, irrespective of valence, whereas N250 amplitude was more negative for neutral relative to emotional stimuli. No differentiation was observed between angry and happy conditions. The results suggest that the general effect of emotion on audiovisual processing can emerge as early as 200 msec (P200 peak latency post stimulus onset, in spite of implicit affective processing task demands, and that such effect is mainly distributed in the frontal-central region.

  15. Attention Bias to Emotional Faces Varies by IQ and Anxiety in Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Oates, Joyce M; Dai, Yael G; Dodd, Helen F; Waxler, Jessica; Clements, Caitlin C; Weill, Sydney; Hoffnagle, Alison; Anderson, Erin; MacRae, Rebecca; Mullett, Jennifer; McDougle, Christopher J; Pober, Barbara R; Smoller, Jordan W

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) often experience significant anxiety. A promising approach to anxiety intervention has emerged from cognitive studies of attention bias to threat. To investigate the utility of this intervention in WS, this study examined attention bias to happy and angry faces in individuals with WS (N = 46). Results showed a significant difference in attention bias patterns as a function of IQ and anxiety. Individuals with higher IQ or higher anxiety showed a significant bias toward angry, but not happy faces, whereas individuals with lower IQ or lower anxiety showed the opposite pattern. These results suggest that attention bias interventions to modify a threat bias may be most effectively targeted to anxious individuals with WS with relatively high IQ. PMID:26886469

  16. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Stella J; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  17. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella J Faerber

    Full Text Available According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991, any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm, such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV, and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV. In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1 that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2 that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations.

  18. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Stella J.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  19. Abnormalities in the Visual Processing of Viewing Complex Visual Stimuli Amongst Individuals With Body Image Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, A J F; Atkins, K J; Beilharz, F L; Mundy, M E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i.e., increased local processing). Furthermore, we assessed whether this bias appeared for general visual stimuli or specifically for appearance-related stimuli, such as faces and bodies. Participants with high-BIC (n = 25) and low-BIC (n = 30) performed a stimulus discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, scenes, objects, and bodies. Unexpectedly, the high-BIC group showed an increased inversion effect compared to the low-BIC group, indicating perceptual abnormalities may not be present as local processing biases, as originally thought. There was no significant difference in performance across stimulus types, signifying that any visual processing abnormalities may be general rather than appearance-based. This has important implications for whether visual processing abnormalities are predisposing factors for BDD or develop throughout the disorder. PMID:27152128

  20. How Attention Modulates Encoding of Dynamic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Noga; Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Lerner, Yulia; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Ash, Elissa L.

    2016-01-01

    When encoding a real-life, continuous stimulus, the same neural circuits support processing and integration of prior as well as new incoming information. This ongoing interplay is modulated by attention, and is evident in regions such as the prefrontal cortex section of the task positive network (TPN), and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub of the default mode network (DMN). Yet the exact nature of such modulation is still unclear. To investigate this issue, we utilized an fMRI task that employed movies as the encoded stimuli and manipulated attentional load via an easy or hard secondary task that was performed simultaneously with encoding. Results showed increased intersubject correlation (inter-SC) levels when encoding movies in a condition of high, as compared to low attentional load. This was evident in bilateral ventrolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and the dorsal PCC (dPCC). These regions became more attuned to the combination of the movie and the secondary task as the attentional demand of the latter increased. Activation analyses revealed that at higher load the prefrontal TPN regions were more activated, whereas the dPCC was more deactivated. Attentional load also influenced connectivity within and between the networks. At high load the dPCC was anti-correlated to the prefrontal regions, which were more functionally coherent amongst themselves. Finally and critically, greater inter-SC in the dPCC at high load during encoding predicted lower memory strength when that information was retrieved. This association between inter-SC levels and memory strength suggest that as attentional demands increased, the dPCC was more attuned to the secondary task at the expense of the encoded stimulus, thus weakening memory for the encoded stimulus. Together, our findings show that attentional load modulated the function of core TPN and DMN regions. Furthermore, the observed relationship between memory strength and the modulation of the dPCC points

  1. The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Minces

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regulation, making a definitive interpretation of the behavioral role of cholinergic projections difficult. Furthermore, a review of the electrophysiological literature suggests that cholinergic modulation is particularly important in representing the fine temporal details of stimuli, an issue rarely addressed in behavioral experimentation. The goal of this work is to understand the role cholinergic projections, specific to the sensory cortex, in learning to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of stimuli. A novel visual Go/No-Go task was developed to assess the ability of rats to learn and discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of visual stimuli (lights flashing at various frequencies. The cholinergic contribution to this task was examined by selectively eliminating acetylcholine projections to visual cortex (using 192 IgG-saporin, either before or after discrimination training.We find that in the face of compromised cholinergic input to the visual cortex, the rats’ ability to learn to perform fine discriminations is impaired, whereas their ability to perform discriminations remains unaffected.These results suggest that acetylcholine serves the role of facilitating plastic changes in the sensory cortices that are needed for an animal to refine their sensitivity to the temporal characteristics of relevant stimuli.

  2. The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minces, V H; Alexander, A S; Datlow, M; Alfonso, S I; Chiba, A A

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regulation, making a definitive interpretation of the behavioral role of cholinergic projections difficult. Furthermore, a review of the electrophysiological literature suggests that cholinergic modulation is particularly important in representing the fine temporal details of stimuli, an issue rarely addressed in behavioral experimentation. The goal of this work is to understand the role of cholinergic projections, specific to the sensory cortices, in learning to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of stimuli. A novel visual Go/No-Go task was developed to assess the ability of rats to learn to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of visual stimuli (lights flashing at various frequencies). The cholinergic contribution to this task was examined by selective reduction of acetylcholine projections to visual cortex (VCx) (using 192 IgG-saporin), either before or after discrimination training. We find that in the face of compromised cholinergic input to the VCx, the rats' ability to learn to perform fine discriminations is impaired, whereas their ability to perform previously learned discriminations remains unaffected. These results suggest that acetylcholine serves the role of facilitating plastic changes in the sensory cortices that are necessary for an animal to refine its sensitivity to the temporal characteristics of relevant stimuli. PMID:23519084

  3. The Chicago face database: A free stimulus set of faces and norming data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Debbie S; Correll, Joshua; Wittenbrink, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Researchers studying a range of psychological phenomena (e.g., theory of mind, emotion, stereotyping and prejudice, interpersonal attraction, etc.) sometimes employ photographs of people as stimuli. In this paper, we introduce the Chicago Face Database, a free resource consisting of 158 high-resolution, standardized photographs of Black and White males and females between the ages of 18 and 40 years and extensive data about these targets. In Study 1, we report pre-testing of these faces, which includes both subjective norming data and objective physical measurements of the images included in the database. In Study 2 we surveyed psychology researchers to assess the suitability of these targets for research purposes and explored factors that were associated with researchers' judgments of suitability. Instructions are outlined for those interested in obtaining access to the stimulus set and accompanying ratings and measures.

  4. Gaze direction affects the magnitude of face identity aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Nadine; Jeffery, Linda; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The face perception system partly owes its efficiency to adaptive mechanisms that constantly recalibrate face coding to our current diet of faces. Moreover, faces that are better attended produce more adaptation. Here, we investigated whether the social cues conveyed by a face can influence the amount of adaptation that face induces. We compared the magnitude of face identity aftereffects induced by adaptors with direct and averted gazes. We reasoned that faces conveying direct gaze may be more engaging and better attended and thus produce larger aftereffects than those with averted gaze. Using an adaptation duration of 5 s, we found that aftereffects for adaptors with direct and averted gazes did not differ (Experiment 1). However, when processing demands were increased by reducing adaptation duration to 1 s, we found that gaze direction did affect the magnitude of the aftereffect, but in an unexpected direction: Aftereffects were larger for adaptors with averted rather than direct gaze (Experiment 2). Eye tracking revealed that differences in looking time to the faces between the two gaze directions could not account for these findings. Subsequent ratings of the stimuli (Experiment 3) showed that adaptors with averted gaze were actually perceived as more expressive and interesting than adaptors with direct gaze. Therefore it appears that the averted-gaze faces were more engaging and better attended, leading to larger aftereffects. Overall, our results suggest that naturally occurring facial signals can modulate the adaptive impact a face exerts on our perceptual system. Specifically, the faces that we perceive as most interesting also appear to calibrate the organization of our perceptual system most strongly. PMID:25761338

  5. Faces call for attention: evidence from patients with visual extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, P

    2000-01-01

    Three patients with left spatial neglect and visual extinction from right brain damage were studied to determine whether faces are privileged in summoning attention. In a first experiment, either a face, a name, or a meaningless shape were briefly presented in the right, left or both visual hemifields. On bilateral trials, all patients extinguished a left-side face much less often than a left-side name or a left-side shape. Conversely, they extinguished a left-side shape more often when it was accompanied by a right-side face rather than a right-side name. In a second experiment, either a face or a scrambled face could appear in the right, left or both hemifields. Again, on bilateral trials, a left-side face was less likely to be missed than a scrambled one. These results suggest an advantage of faces in capturing attention and overcoming extinction, which may be related to their special biological and social value, or to the very efficient and automatic operation of specific perceptual processses that extract facial organization in extrastriate visual areas. These findings also demonstrate that the distribution of spatial attention and extinction can be modulated by the relevance of visual stimuli. This implies that substantial analysis and categorization may take place in the visual system before information from the contralesional field is selected for, or excluded from, attentive vision. PMID:10689045

  6. Face Detection using Ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel, Sébastien; Subburaman, Venkatesh Bala

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of ferns (a set of binary features) for face detection. The binary feature used here is the sign of pixel intensity difference. Ferns were first introduced for keypoint recognition and showed good performance, and improving the speed of recognition. Keypoint recognition deals with classification of few hundred different classes, while face detection is a two-class problem with an unbalanced data. For keypoint recognition random pixel pairs proved to be good enoug...

  7. A new face

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilic, D

    2012-01-01

    The ethical barriers seem to pose the greatest challenge to performing facial transplantation with proponents and critics fiercely debating their positions. Chapter 1 outlines the main ethical issues and events that have preluded clinical facial transplantation. In particular, human hand transplantation programs and their impact on face transplantation have been reviewed. Although the first face transplants already have been performed, the social and psychological debates concerning the ethic...

  8. to face the music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗华

    2002-01-01

    When someone says,“Well,i guess i'll have to go face the music”it does not mean he is planning to go to a concert .it is something far less pleasant,like being called in by your boss to explain why you did this and did that,and why you did not do to this or that sour music indeed,but it has to be faced.

  9. Numerosity judgments for tactile stimuli distributed over the body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A large body of research now supports the claim that two different and dissociable processes are involved in making numerosity judgments regarding visual stimuli: subitising (fast and nearly errorless) for up to 4 stimuli, and counting (slow and error-prone) when more than 4 stimuli are presented. We studied tactile numerosity judgments for combinations of 1-7 vibrotactile stimuli presented simultaneously over the body surface. In experiment 1, the stimuli were presented once, while in experiment 2 conditions of single presentation and repeated presentation of the stimulus were compared. Neither experiment provided any evidence for a discontinuity in the slope of either the RT or error data suggesting that subitisation does not occur for tactile stimuli. By systematically varying the intensity of the vibrotactile stimuli in experiment 3, we were able to demonstrate that participants were not simply using the 'global intensity' of the whole tactile display to make their tactile numerosity judgments, but were, instead, using information concerning the number of tactors activated. The results of the three experiments reported here are discussed in relation to current theories of counting and subitising, and potential implications for the design of tactile user interfaces are highlighted. PMID:16583769

  10. Left-Right and Upper-Lower Visual Field Asymmetries for Face Matching, Letter Naming, and Lexical Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Hagenbeek; J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe relation between left-right and upper-lower visual field (VF) asymmetries was examined for face matching, letter naming and lexical decision. Stimuli were flashed in the VF quadrants. Face matching resulted in a lower-left and upper-right VF advantage. Letter-naming resulted in a rob

  11. Neural Processing of Emotional Musical and Nonmusical Stimuli in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Ruth Ann; Chrysikou, Evangelia; Martin, Laura E.; Clair, Alicia A.; Ingram, Rick E.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Savage, Cary R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI) and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression. Method Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND) control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning. Results ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum. Conclusions These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments. PMID:27284693

  12. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  13. External-stimuli responsive systems for cancer theranostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Yao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The upsurge of novel nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has inspired the researchers who are striving for designing safer and more efficient drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Stimuli responsive nanomaterial offered an alternative to design controllable drug delivery system on account of its spatiotemporally controllable properties. Additionally, external stimuli (light, magnetic field and ultrasound could develop into theranostic applications for personalized medicine use because of their unique characteristics. In this review, we give a brief overview about the significant progresses and challenges of certain external-stimuli responsive systems that have been extensively investigated in drug delivery and theranostics within the last few years.

  14. Response properties of cat AMLS neurons to optic flow stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Baowang(李宝旺); LI; Bing(李兵); CHEN; Hui(陈辉); XU; Ying(徐颖); DIAO; Yuncheng(刁云程)

    2002-01-01

    Spiral and translation stimuli were used to investigate the response properties of cat AMLS (anteromedial lateral suprasylvian area) neurons to optic flow. The overwhelming majority of cells could be significantly excited by the two modes of stimuli and most responsive cells displayed obvious direction selectivity. It is the first time to find a visual area in mammalian brain preferring rotation stimuli. Two representative hypotheses are discussed here on the neural mechanism of optic flow analysis in visual cortex, and some new viewpoints are proposed to explain the experimental results.

  15. Dedifferentiated face processing in older adults is linked to lower resting state metabolic activity in fusiform face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie; Ward, Noreen; Boshyan, Jasmine; Gutchess, Angela; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-08-01

    We used multimodal brain imaging to examine possible mediators of age-related neural dedifferentiation (less specific neural activation) to different categories of stimuli that had been shown in previous research. Specifically, we examined resting blood flow and brain activation in areas involved in object, place and face perception. We observed lower activation, specificity, and resting blood flow for older adults (OA) than younger adults (YA) in the fusiform face area (FFA) but not in the other regions of interest. Mediation analyses further revealed that FFA resting state blood flow mediated age differences in FFA specificity, whereas age differences in visual and cognitive function and cortical thickness did not. Whole brain analyses also revealed more activated voxels for all categories in OA, as well as more frontal activation for faces but not for the other categories in OA than YA. Less FFA specificity coupled with more frontal activation when passively viewing faces suggest that OA have more difficulty recruiting specialized face processing mechanisms, and the lower FFA metabolic activity even when faces are not being processed suggests an OA deficiency in the neural substrate underlying face processing. Our data point to a detuning of face-selective mechanisms in older adults. PMID:27163722

  16. Effect of distracting faces on visual selective attention in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Rogier; Sharma, Jitendra; Sur, Mriganka; Desimone, Robert

    2014-12-16

    In primates, visual stimuli with social and emotional content tend to attract attention. Attention might be captured through rapid, automatic, subcortical processing or guided by slower, more voluntary cortical processing. Here we examined whether irrelevant faces with varied emotional expressions interfere with a covert attention task in macaque monkeys. In the task, the monkeys monitored a target grating in the periphery for a subtle color change while ignoring distracters that included faces appearing elsewhere on the screen. The onset time of distracter faces before the target change, as well as their spatial proximity to the target, was varied from trial to trial. The presence of faces, especially faces with emotional expressions interfered with the task, indicating a competition for attentional resources between the task and the face stimuli. However, this interference was significant only when faces were presented for greater than 200 ms. Emotional faces also affected saccade velocity and reduced pupillary reflex. Our results indicate that the attraction of attention by emotional faces in the monkey takes a considerable amount of processing time, possibly involving cortical-subcortical interactions. Intranasal application of the hormone oxytocin ameliorated the interfering effects of faces. Together these results provide evidence for slow modulation of attention by emotional distracters, which likely involves oxytocinergic brain circuits. PMID:25472846

  17. Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy

    OpenAIRE

    Storper, Michael; Venables, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  18. Dysregulation in cortical reactivity to emotional faces in PTSD patients with high dissociation symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Klimova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predominant dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by restricted affective responses to positive stimuli. To date, no studies have examined neural responses to a range of emotional expressions in PTSD with high dissociative symptoms. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients with high dissociative symptoms will display increased event-related potential (ERP amplitudes in early components (N1, P1 to threatening faces (angry, fearful, and reduced later ERP amplitudes (Vertex Positive Potential (VPP, P3 to happy faces compared to PTSD patients with low dissociative symptoms. Methods: Thirty-nine civilians with PTSD were classified as high dissociative (n=16 or low dissociative (n=23 according to their responses on the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale. ERPs were recorded, whilst participants viewed emotional (happy, angry, fear and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. Results: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed significantly increased N120 amplitude to the majority of facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry compared to low dissociative PTSD patients under conscious and preconscious conditions. The high dissociative PTSD group had significantly reduced VPP amplitude to happy faces in the conscious condition. Conclusion: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed increased early (preconscious cortical responses to emotional stimuli, and specific reductions to happy facial expressions in later (conscious, face-specific components compared to low dissociative PTSD patients. Dissociation in PTSD may act to increase initial pre-attentive processing of affective stimuli, and specifically reduce cortical reactivity to happy faces when consciously processing these stimuli.

  19. Emotional perception: meta-analyses of face and natural scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatinelli, Dean; Fortune, Erica E; Li, Qingyang; Siddiqui, Aisha; Krafft, Cynthia; Oliver, William T; Beck, Stefanie; Jeffries, Joshua

    2011-02-01

    Functional imaging studies of emotional processing typically contain neutral control conditions that serve to remove simple effects of visual perception, thus revealing the additional emotional process. Here we seek to identify similarities and differences across 100 studies of emotional face processing and 57 studies of emotional scene processing, using a coordinate-based meta-analysis technique. The overlay of significant meta-analyses resulted in extensive overlap in clusters, coupled with offset and unique clusters of reliable activity. The area of greatest overlap is the amygdala, followed by regions of medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal/orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, and extrastriate occipital cortex. Emotional face-specific clusters were identified in regions known to be involved in face processing, including anterior fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, and emotional scene studies were uniquely associated with lateral occipital cortex, as well as pulvinar and the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. One global result of the meta-analysis reveals that a class of visual stimuli (faces vs. scenes) has a considerable impact on the resulting emotion effects, even after removing the basic visual perception effects through subtractive contrasts. Pure effects of emotion may thus be difficult to remove for the particular class of stimuli employed in an experimental paradigm. Whether a researcher chooses to tightly control the various elements of the emotional stimuli, as with posed face photographs, or allow variety and environmental realism into their evocative stimuli, as with natural scenes, will depend on the desired generalizability of their results. PMID:20951215

  20. Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

  1. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  2. Socially anxious individuals get a second chance after being disliked at first sight: The role of self-disclosure in the development of likeability in sequential social contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Voncken; K.F.L. Dijk

    2013-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals (SAs) not only fear social rejection, accumulating studies show that SAs are indeed judged as less likeable after social interaction with others. This study investigates if SAs already make a more negative impression on others in the very first seconds of contact. The st

  3. A randomized controlled trial of attention bias modification training for socially anxious adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Rawdon, Caroline; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The current study aimed to examine the efficacy of attention bias modification (ABM) training to reduce social anxiety in a community-based sample of adolescents 15-18 years. The study used a single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial design (Clinical Trials ID: NCT02270671). Participants were screened in second-level schools using a social anxiety questionnaire. 130 participants scoring ≥24 on the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) were randomized to the ABM training (n = 66)/placebo (n = 64) group, 120 of which completed pre-, post-, and 12-week follow-up data collection including threat bias, anxiety, and depression measures. The ABM intervention included 4 weekly training sessions using a dot-probe task designed to reduce attention bias to threatening stimuli. ABM training did not alter the primary outcomes of attention bias to threat or social anxiety symptoms raising questions about the efficacy of ABM as an intervention for adolescents. PMID:27379745

  4. Emerging applications of stimuli-responsive polymer materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, M.A.C.; Genzer, J.; Muller, M.; Ober, C.; Stamm, M.; Sukhorukov, G.B.; Szleifer, I.; Tsukruk, V.V.; Urban, M.; Winnik, F.; Zauscher, S.; Luzinov, I.; Minko, S.

    2010-01-01

    Responsive polymer materials can adapt to surrounding environments, regulate transport of ions and molecules, change wettability and adhesion of different species on external stimuli, or convert chemical and biochemical signals into optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical signals, and vice versa

  5. Things that Go Bump in the Night: Frequency and Predictors of Nightmares in Anxious and Nonanxious Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Alfano, Candice A

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and predictors of nightmares among children 7-11 years old with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 42) and no diagnosis (n = 44) were examined using both prospective and retrospective child and parent reports. Both children with GAD and their parents reported significantly more nightmares than controls based on retrospective reports, but the groups did not differ when nightmares were assessed daily across a one-week prospective period. Females reported more nightmares than males according to prospective assessment only. Controlling for sex and group, child sleep anxiety and presleep somatic arousal predicted parent but not child report of nightmares. Results suggest both clinically anxious youth and their parents overestimate the occurrence of nightmares, yet factors influencing retrospective accounts appear to differ across informants. PMID:26406387

  6. Linking perceptual learning with identical stimuli to imagery perceptual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeczkowski, Lukasz; Tartaglia, Elisa; Mast, Fred W.; Herzog, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual learning is usually thought to be exclusively driven by the stimuli presented during training (and the underlying synaptic learning rules). In some way, we are slaves of our visual experiences. However, learning can occur even when no stimuli are presented at all. For example, Gabor contrast detection improves when only a blank screen is presented and observers are asked to imagine Gabor patches. Likewise, performance improves when observers are asked to imagine the non-existing ce...

  7. Variable Patterned Pudendal Nerve Stimuli Improves Reflex Bladder Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Tim M.; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated variable patterns of pudendal nerve (PN) stimuli for reflex bladder excitation. Reflex activation of the bladder has been demonstrated previously with 20–33 Hz continuous stimulation of PN afferents. Neuronal circuits accessed by afferent mediated pathways may respond better to physiological patterned stimuli than continuous stimulation. Unilateral PN nerve cuffs were placed in neurologically intact male cats. PN stimulation (0.5–100 Hz) was performed under isovolumetric conditio...

  8. Regional Brain Responses in Nulliparous Women to Emotional Infant Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Nicole Landi; Hedy Kober; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; W Einar Mencl; Mayes, Linda C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infan...

  9. Exposure to virtual social stimuli modulates subjective pain reports

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob M Vigil; Daniel Torres; Alexander Wolff; Katy Hughes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contextual factors, including the gender of researchers, influence experimental and patient pain reports. It is currently not known how social stimuli influence pain percepts, nor which types of sensory modalities of communication, such as auditory, visual or olfactory cues associated with person perception and gender processing, produce these effects.OBJECTIVES: To determine whether exposure to two forms of social stimuli (audio and visual) from a virtual male or female stranger ...

  10. Listening to Birds in the Anthropocene: The Anxious Semiotics of Sound in a Human-Dominated World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehouse, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since Rachel Carson predicted a “silent spring” environmentalists have been carefully and anxiously listening to birds. More recently the musician and scientist Bernie Krause has examined the effects of human activity on avian soundscapes throughout the world. He argues that human activities cause ecological and sonic disruptions that really are rendering the world silent or discordant, submerging the “animal orchestra” beneath noise. A healthy natural environment can be heard, according to Krause, in a rich and harmonious soundscape that has evolved over millions of years. The loss of wildness thus elicits a loss of harmony. I consider these Anthropocene interpretations of silence, noise and dissonance by comparing the environmentalist concerns of Krause with responses to the Listening to Birds project—an anthropological investigation of bird sounds. These responses emphasise the significance of bird sounds for people’s sense of place, time and season and the longing that many have for their own lives to resonate with the birds around them. I argue that this has less to do with desires to hear harmony in pristine nature but with developing relations of companionship with birds living alongside humans. While listening to birds can still iconically and indexically ground people, signs of absence and change can precipitate anxieties that stem from the ambiguities implicit in the Anthropocene’s formulation of human relations with other species. Using narratives and field recordings I explore the anxious semiotics of listening to birds in the Anthropocene by drawing on Kohn’s recent arguments on the semiotics of more-than-human relations and Ingold’s understanding of the world as a meshwork.

  11. Acute toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in the anxious mood of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suxia Li; Jing Li; Xue Wang; Weihong Kuang; Zugui Peng; Mingsheng Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) mainly caused by repeated exposure to MDMA or a single big dose of MDMA, which results in degeneration of serotonin terminal of central nervous system, and someone believe that the great release of serotonin transmitter in central nervous system will lead to anxious mood.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of anxiety related behaviors in rats after single administration of different doses of MDMA.DESIGN: A randomized control study.SETTING: Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.MATERIALS: Thirty male adult Wistar rats, weighing (251.3±18.34) g, were used. MDMA were obtained from the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, and dissolved in saline. All the doses of the drug were administered in a volume of 1 mg/kg.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University in July 2003. ①The rats were randomly divided into control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=24), and then those in the latter were randomly assigned into four subgroups of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg groups, with 6 rats in each, which were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively, and those in the control group were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of saline of the same volume. ② The open field test,elevated plus-maze test and social interaction test were performed immediately after administration. For the open field test, the apparatus was situated in a darkened room, illuminated by a single 60 W white light bulb located approximately 60 cm above the center of the open field. Before administration, all the rats were placed into the open field to be familiar with the open field for 5 minutes. They were observed for 45 minutes after administration. The

  12. face the music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    [英语对话] A:How do you comment on those people who dare to do wrong things but not courageous enough to face the music? B:It’s human nature that nobody likes punishment.When people go into something,they may either see an angle in it or not know the conse- quence.They chance the ducks. But when they realize they have to take the consequences,nine out of ten will try to escape punishment. A:But there are people who are daring:daring to do,and daring to face the music. B:There must be a reward in daring to face the music.I mean,there must

  13. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  14. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  15. Multisensory numerosity judgments for visual and tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2007-05-01

    To date, numerosity judgments have been studied only under conditions of unimodal stimulus presentation. It is therefore unclear whether the same limitations on correctly reporting the number of unimodal visual or tactile stimuli presented in a display might be expected under conditions in which participants have to count stimuli presented simultaneously in two or more different sensory modalities. In Experiment 1, we investigated numerosity judgments using both unimodal and bimodal displays consisting of one to six vibrotactile stimuli (presented over the body surface) and one to six visual stimuli (seen on the body via mirror reflection). Participants had to count the number of stimuli regardless of their modality of presentation. Bimodal numerosity judgments were significantly less accurate than predicted on the basis of an independent modality-specific resources account, thus showing that numerosity judgments might rely on a unitary amodal system instead. The results of a second experiment demonstrated that divided attention costs could not account for the poor performance in the bimodal conditions of Experiment 1. We discuss these results in relation to current theories of cross-modal integration and to the cognitive resources and/or common higher order spatial representations possibly accessed by both visual and tactile stimuli. PMID:17727102

  16. Attentional Capture by Emotional Faces is Contingent on Attentional Control Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Attentional capture by schematic emotional faces was investigated in two experiments using the flanker task devised by Eriksen and Eriksen (1974). In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a central target (a schematic face that was either positive or negative) flanked by two identical...... distractors, one on either side (schematic faces that were positive, negative, or neutral). The objective was to identify the central target as quickly as possible. The impact of the flankers depended on their emotional expression. Consistent with a threat advantage hypothesis (negative faces are processed...... was a standard flanker task with letter stimuli except that the task-neutral flankers were schematic faces that were either positive, negative, or emotionally neutral. In this case, in which faces and emotional expressions were to be ignored, performance seemed entirely unaffected by the faces. This result...

  17. The social evaluation of faces: a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Said, Christopher P; Todorov, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Neuroscience research on the social evaluation of faces has accumulated over the last decade, yielding divergent results. We used a meta-analytic technique, multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA), to analyze 29 neuroimaging studies on face evaluation. Across negative face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in bilateral amygdala. Across positive face evaluations, we observed the most consistent activations in medial prefrontal cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), left caudate and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Based on additional analyses comparing linear and non-linear responses, we propose a ventral/dorsal dissociation within the amygdala, wherein separate populations of neurons code for face valence and intensity, respectively. Finally, we argue that some of the differences between studies are attributable to differences in the typicality of face stimuli. Specifically, extremely attractive faces are more likely to elicit responses in NAcc/caudate and mOFC.

  18. A temporary face support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.I.; Bakhtin, V.N.; Tolkachev, N.I.

    1980-03-30

    A temporary face support is proposed. It includes a beam supported by hydraulic jacks on the housing of the cutter-loader with a working tool and rotary pressure regulator. It differs in that to decrease the volume of unsecured roofing in the face space between the leading edge of the beam and the cutting tool of the cutter-loader, the beam is hinged onto the housing of the rotary pressure regulator by a fastened connecting rod, and the hydraulic jacks are provided with additional powered elements with a mechanism that regulates the length of the cut-off plate of the hydraulic pump when the seam pressure changes.

  19. Time course of visual attention with emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2010-02-01

    When a briefly presented and then masked visual object is identified, it impairs the identification of the second target for several hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is known as attentional blink or attentional dwell time. The present study is an attempt to investigate the role of salient emotional information in shifts of covert visual attention over time. Two experiments were conducted using the dwell time paradigm, in which two successive targets are presented at different locations with a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In the first experiment, real emotional faces (happy/sad) were presented as the first target, and letters (L/T) were presented as the second target. The order of stimulus presentation was reversed in the second experiment. In the first experiment, identification of the letters preceded by happy faces showed better performance than did those preceded by sad faces at SOAs less than 200 msec. Similarly, happy faces were identified better than sad faces were at short SOAs in Experiment 2. The results show that the time course of visual attention is dependent on emotional content of the stimuli. The findings indicate that happy faces are associated with distributed attention or broad scope of attention and require fewer attentional resources than do sad faces. PMID:20139452

  20. A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces

    OpenAIRE

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Ulman eLindenberger; Michaela eRiediger

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent? (2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred ...

  1. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  2. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  3. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  4. Pose estimation and frontal face detection for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eng Thiam; Wang, Jiangang; Xie, Wei; Ronda, Venkarteswarlu

    2005-05-01

    This paper proposes a pose estimation and frontal face detection algorithm for face recognition. Considering it's application in a real-world environment, the algorithm has to be robust yet computationally efficient. The main contribution of this paper is the efficient face localization, scale and pose estimation using color models. Simulation results showed very low computational load when compare to other face detection algorithm. The second contribution is the introduction of low dimensional statistical face geometrical model. Compared to other statistical face model the proposed method models the face geometry efficiently. The algorithm is demonstrated on a real-time system. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient.

  5. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska eKret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body compounds. Participants’ fixations were measured and their pupil size recorded with eye-tracking equipment, and their facial reactions measured with electromyography (EMG. The behavioral results support our prediction that the recognition of a facial expression is improved in the context of a matching posture and importantly, also vice versa. From their facial expression, it appeared that observers acted with signs of negative emotionality (increased corrugator activity to angry and fearful facial expressions and with positive emotionality (increased zygomaticus to happy facial expressions. What we predicted and found, was that angry and fearful cues from the face or the body, attracted more attention than happy cues. We further observed that responses evoked by angry cues were amplified in individuals with high anxiety scores. In sum, we show that people process bodily expressions of emotion in a similar fashion as facial expressions and that the congruency between the emotional signals from the face and body ameliorates the recognition of the emotion.

  6. The impact of puberty and social anxiety on amygdala activation to faces in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, Jamie; Bress, Jennifer N.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with the onset of puberty, shifts in social and emotional behavior, and an increased vulnerability to social anxiety disorder. These transitions coincide with changes in amygdala response to social and affective stimuli. Utilizing an emotional face-matching task, we examined amygdala response to peer-aged neutral and fearful faces in relation to puberty and social anxiety in a sample of 60 adolescent females between the ages of 8 and 15. We observed amygdala activati...

  7. Subliminal presentation of other faces (but not own face) primes behavioral and evoked cortical processing of empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Hurtado, Esteban; Lobos, Alejandro; Escobar, Josefina; Trujillo, Natalia; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Manes, Facundo; Decety, Jean

    2011-06-29

    Current research on empathy for pain emphasizes the overlap in the neural response between the first-hand experience of pain and its perception in others. However, recent studies suggest that the perception of the pain of others may reflect the processing of a threat or negative arousal rather than an automatic pro-social response. It can thus be suggested that pain processing of other-related, but not self-related, information could imply danger rather than empathy, due to the possible threat represented in the expressions of others (especially if associated with pain stimuli). To test this hypothesis, two experiments considering subliminal stimuli were designed. In Experiment 1, neutral and semantic pain expressions previously primed with own or other faces were presented to participants. When other-face priming was used, only the detection of semantic pain expressions was facilitated. In Experiment 2, pictures with pain and neutral scenarios previously used in ERP and fMRI research were used in a categorization task. Those pictures were primed with own or other faces following the same procedure as in Experiment 1 while ERPs were recorded. Early (N1) and late (P3) cortical responses between pain and no-pain were modulated only in the other-face priming condition. These results support the threat value of pain hypothesis and suggest the necessity for the inclusion of own- versus other-related information in future empathy for pain research. PMID:21624566

  8. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  9. Pingguo Aluminum Faces Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinalco Guangxi Pinggjuo Branch is an exemplary company of Chinalco. Many of its indicators including technology, management standard, and profit rank in leading position in the industry, but such a pace-setter company is also facing the dilemma of overstock of Alumina products, and loss in electrolytic aluminum business.

  10. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  11. Wavelets and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelets have been successfully used in image processing. Their ability to capture localized spatial-frequency information of image motivates their use for feature extraction. We give an overview of using wavelets in the face recognition technology. Due to limit of space the use of Gabor wavelets is not covered in this survey. Interested readers are referred to section 8.3 for references.

  12. Face the Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文新

    2005-01-01

    When someone says, “Well, Iguess I'll have to go and face the music, ”it does not mean he is planning to go to a concert. It is something far less pleasant, like being called in by your boss to explain why you did this and did that,

  13. Two Faces of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  14. A Face Farce?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Some people proclaim the success of the facial transplant operation marks the advent of a new era, one in which changing face will be as normal as changing clothing. Teng Li, a doctor with the Plastic Surgery Hospital affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, believes facial transplant surgery should be encouraged as a scientific exploration, though he cautioned that experiments on animals

  15. Response of biomembrane domains to external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Iztok

    To enrich our knowledge about membrane domains, new measurement techniques with extended spatial and temporal windows are being vigorously developed by combining various approaches. Following such efforts of the scientific community, we set up fluorescence microspectroscopy (FMS), bridging two well established methods: fluorescence microscopy, which enables imaging of the samples with spatial resolution down to 200 nm, and fluorescence spectroscopy that provides molecular information of the environment at nanometer and nanosecond scale. The combined method therefore allows us to localize this type of information with the precision suitable for studying various cellular structures. Faced with weak available fluorescence signals, we have put considerable efforts into optimization of measurement processes and analysis of the data. By introducing a novel acquisition scheme and by fitting the data with a mathematical model, we preserved the spectral resolution, characteristic for spectroscopic measurements of bulk samples, also at microscopic level. We have at the same time overcome the effects of photobleaching, which had previously considerably distorted the measured spectral lineshape of photosensitive dyes and consequently hindered the reliability of FMS. Our new approach has therefore greatly extended the range of applicable environmentally sensitive probes, which can now be designed to better accommodate the needs of each particular experiment. Moreover, photobleaching of fluorescence signal can now even be exploited to obtain new valuable information about molecular environment of the probes, as bleaching rates of certain probes also depend on physical and chemical properties of the local surroundings. In this manner we increased the number of available spatially localized spectral parameters, which becomes invaluable when investigating complex biological systems that can only be adequately characterized by several independent variables. Applying the developed

  16. Oxytocin and Pareidolia Face Detection Using the Visual Search Task. A double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design study using eye tracking and intranasal oxytocin.

    OpenAIRE

    Winge, Jarle Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Face pareidolia is the human tendency to see illusory human-like faces, for example in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of a face. Past research on humans show that oxytocin has a crucial role in enhancing facial processing. By leading to an increased focus on the face in general, and eyes especially, alter the encoding and conceptual recognition of social stimuli, enhancing sensitivity to hidden emotions in facial expressions, and enhancing the ability to interpret the fac...

  17. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J; Dai, B; Peng, D.; C. Zhu; L. Liu; Lu, C

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  18. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto eArnone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  19. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on

  20. Finding Faces Among Faces: Human Faces are Located More Quickly and Accurately than Other Primate and Mammal Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli—human and animal faces—or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species’ faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all a...

  1. siRNA Delivery by Stimuli-Sensitive Nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Giuseppina; Costa, Daniel F; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    Since its discovery in the late 1990, small interfering RNA (siRNA) have quickly crept into the biopharmaceutical research as a new and powerful tool for the treatment of different human diseases based on altered gene-expression. Despite promising data from many pre-clinical studies, concrete hurdles still need to be overcome to bring therapeutic siRNAs in clinic. The design of stimuli-sensitive nanopreparations for gene therapy is a lively area of the current research. Compared to conventional systems for siRNA delivery, this type of platform can respond to local stimuli that are characteristics of the pathological area of interest, allowing the release of nucleic acids at the desired site. Acidic pH, de-regulated levels of enzymes, altered redox potential and magnetic field are examples of stimuli exploit to design stimuli-sensitive nanoparticles. In this review, we discuss on recent stimulisensitive strategies for siRNA delivery and we highlight on the potential of combining multiple stimuli-sensitive strategies in the same nano-platform for a better therapeutic outcome. PMID:26486143

  2. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  3. Facing the Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Moira Baker

    2014-01-01

    Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenou...

  4. Deciphering the Face

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Aleix M

    2011-01-01

    We argue that to make robust computer vision algorithms for face analysis and recognition, these should be based on configural and shape features. In this model, the most important task to be solved by computer vision researchers is that of accurate detection of facial features, rather than recognition. We base our arguments on recent results in cognitive science and neuroscience. In particular, we show that different facial expressions of emotion have diverse uses in human behavior/cognition...

  5. IntraFace

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that i...

  6. Infrared face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Colin K.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study continues a previous face recognition investigation using uncooled infrared technology. The database developed in an earlier study is further expanded to include 50 volunteers with 30 facial images from each subject. The automatic image reduction method reduces the pixel size of each image from 160 120 to 60 45 . The study reexamines two linear classification methods: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher ...

  7. MMI Face Database

    OpenAIRE

    Maat, L.M.; Sondak, R.C.; Valstar, M.F.; Pantic, M.; Gaia, P.

    2005-01-01

    The automatic recognition of human facial expressions is an interesting research area in AI with a growing number of projects and researchers. In spite of repeated references to the need for a reference set of images that could provide a basis for benchmarking various techniques in automatic facial expression analysis, a readily accessible and complete enough database of face images does not exist yet. This lack represented our main incentive to develop a web-based, easily accessible, and eas...

  8. Robust Statistical Face Frontalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In this paper, we propose a novel method for joint frontal view reconstruction and landmark localization using a small set of frontal images only. By observing that the frontal facial image is the on...

  9. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  10. Crayfish recognize the faces of fight opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van der Velden

    Full Text Available The capacity to associate stimuli underlies many cognitive abilities, including recognition, in humans and other animals. Vertebrates process different categories of information separately and then reassemble the distilled information for unique identification, storage and recall. Invertebrates have fewer neural networks and fewer neural processing options so study of their behavior may reveal underlying mechanisms still not fully understood for any animal. Some invertebrates form complex social colonies and are capable of visual memory-bees and wasps, for example. This ability would not be predicted in species that interact in random pairs without strong social cohesion; for example, crayfish. They have chemical memory but the extent to which they remember visual features is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the crayfish Cherax destructor is capable of visual recognition of individuals. The simplicity of their interactions allowed us to examine the behavior and some characteristics of the visual features involved. We showed that facial features are learned during face-to-face fights, that highly variable cues are used, that the type of variability is important, and that the learning is context-dependent. We also tested whether it is possible to engineer false identifications and for animals to distinguish between twin opponents.

  11. Foil Face Seal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  12. Mental rotation of faces in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra A Adduri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD develop visuospatial difficulties that affect their ability to mentally rotate objects. Surprisingly, the existing literature has generally ignored the impact of this mental rotation deficit on the ability of AD patients to recognize faces from different angles. Instead, the devastating loss of the ability to recognize friends and family members in AD has primarily been attributed to memory loss and agnosia in later stages of the disorder. The impact of AD on areas of the brain important for mental rotation should not be overlooked by face processing investigations -- even in early stages of the disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the sensitivity of face processing in AD, young controls and older non-neurological controls to two changes of the stimuli -- a rotation in depth and an inversion. The control groups showed a systematic effect of depth rotation, with errors increasing with the angle of rotation, and with inversion. The majority of the AD group was not impaired when faces were presented upright and no transformation in depth was required, and were most accurate when all faces were presented in frontal views, but accuracy was severely impaired with any rotation or inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that with the onset of AD, mental rotation difficulties arise that affect the ability to recognize faces presented at different angles. The finding that a frontal view is "preferred" by these patients provides a valuable communication strategy for health care workers.

  13. Impairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyse, Evelyne; Bastin, Christine; Salmon, Eric; Brédart, Serge

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for any function in social cognition is the perception and processing of social cues. Age estimation is a skill that is used in everyday life and is fundamental in social interactions. This study evaluated whether facial age estimation is impaired in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current age of faces is known to have an impact on age estimation, and therefore stimuli belonging to different age groups (young, middle-aged, and older adults' faces) were used. As expected, an impairment of age estimation from faces was observed in mild to moderate AD patients. However, the profile of impairment depended on the age of faces and stage of the disease. Mild AD patients presented difficulties mainly in assessing the age of middle-aged adults. In moderate disease stage, these difficulties also affected the age estimation of young adult faces. Interestingly, AD patients remained relatively good at estimating the age of older adults' faces, compared to healthy controls. PMID:25589725

  14. Fixation patterns during recognition of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van Belle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies recording eye movements have rendered inconclusive findings with respect to processing differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces. We argue that this can be attributed to a number of factors that differ across studies: the type and extent of familiarity with stimuli presented, the varying spatial resolution of visual information and/or specifics, the definition of areas of interest subject to analyses, as well as the fact that the time course of scan patterns is often neglected. Here we sought to address these issues by recording gaze patterns in a face recognition task with personally familiar and unfamiliar faces, without predefining areas of interest and investigating potential processing differences at each individual fixation. We found that after a first fixation on the center of mass of the face—suggesting an initial holistic perception—and a subsequent left eye bias, local features were focused and explored more for familiar than unfamiliar faces. Although the number of fixations made did not differ for un-/familiar faces, the locations of fixations began to differ much earlier than when the familiarity decisions were provided. This suggests that without strict time constraints, different types of information are collected relatively early on familiar and unfamiliar faces.

  15. Polymeric micelles with stimuli-triggering systems for advanced cancer drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masamichi; Akimoto, Jun; Okano, Teruo

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1990s, nanoscale drug carriers have played a pivotal role in cancer chemotherapy, acting through passive drug delivery mechanisms and subsequent pharmaceutical action at tumor tissues with reduction of adverse effects. Polymeric micelles, as supramolecular assemblies of amphiphilic polymers, have been considerably developed as promising drug carrier candidates, and a number of clinical studies of anticancer drug-loaded polymeric micelle carriers for cancer chemotherapy applications are now in progress. However, these systems still face several issues; at present, the simultaneous control of target-selective delivery and release of incorporated drugs remains difficult. To resolve these points, the introduction of stimuli-responsive mechanisms to drug carrier systems is believed to be a promising approach to provide better solutions for future tumor drug targeting strategies. As possible trigger signals, biological acidic pH, light, heating/cooling and ultrasound actively play significant roles in signal-triggering drug release and carrier interaction with target cells. This review article summarizes several molecular designs for stimuli-responsive polymeric micelles in response to variation of pH, light and temperature and discusses their potentials as next-generation tumor drug targeting systems.

  16. Diffusion Based Modeling of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Namazi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Human brain response is the overall ability of the brain in analyzing internal and external stimuli in the form of transferred energy to the mind/brain phase-space and thus, making the proper decisions. During the last decade scientists discovered about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research there was less effort which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling of human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, due to receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equation. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus, this model can be used as a strong representative of the human brain activity.

  17. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. PMID:26683083

  18. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  19. vMMN for schematic faces: automatic detection of change in emotional expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi eKreegipuu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our brain is able to automatically detect changes in sensory stimulation, including in vision. A large variety of changes of features in stimulation elicit a deviance-reflecting ERP component known as the mismatch negativity (MMN. The present study has three main goals: (1 to register vMMN using a rapidly presented stream of schematic faces (neutral, happy, angry; adapted from Öhman et al., 2001; (2 to compare elicited vMMNs to angry and happy schematic faces in two different paradigms, in a traditional oddball design with frequent standard and rare target and deviant stimuli (12.5% each and in an version of an optimal multi-feature paradigm with several deviant stimuli (altogether 37.5% in the stimulus block; (3 to compare vMMNs to subjective ratings of valence, arousal and attention capture for happy and angry schematic faces, i.e., to estimate the effect of affective value of stimuli on their automatic detection. Eleven observers (19-32 years, 6 women took part in both experiments, an oddball and optimum paradigm. Stimuli were rapidly presented schematic faces and an object with face-features that served as the target stimulus to be detected by a button-press. Results show that a vMMN-type response at posterior sites was equally elicited in both experiments. Post-experimental reports confirmed that the angry face attracted more automatic attention than the happy face but the difference did not emerge directly at the ERP level. Thus, when interested in studying change detection in facial expressions we encourage the use of the optimum (multi-feature design in order to save time and other experimental resources.

  20. Neurophysiological correlates of configural face processing in schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ann Batty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Face processing impairment in schizophrenia appears to be underpinned by poor configural (as opposed to feature-based processing, however few studies have sought to characterize this impairment electrophysiologically. Given the sensitivity of event-related potentials (ERPs to antipsychotic medications, and the potential for neurophysiological abnormalities to serve as vulnerability markers for schizophrenia, a handful of studies have investigated early visual P100 and face-selective N170 in at risk populations. However, this is the first known neurophysiological investigation of configural face processing in a non-clinical schizotypal sample. Methods: Using stimuli designed to engage configural processing in face perception (upright and inverted Mooney and photographic faces, P100 and N170 components were recorded in healthy individuals characterized by high (N=14 and low (N=14 schizotypal traits according to the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE. Results: High schizotypes showed significantly reduced N170 amplitudes to inverted photographic faces. Typical N170 latency and amplitude inversion effects (delayed and enhanced N170 to inverted relative to upright photographic faces, and enhanced amplitude to upright versus inverted Mooney faces, were demonstrated by low, but not high, schizotypes. No group differences were shown for P100 analyses. Conclusions: The findings suggest that neurophysiological deficits in processing facial configurations (N170 are apparent in schizotypy, while the early sensory processing (P100 of faces appears intact. This work adds to the mounting evidence for analogous neural processing anomalies at the healthy end of the psychosis continuum.

  1. Effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on acoustic change complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth N. Shetty

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on the latency and amplitude of acoustic change complex (ACC. ACC is a multiple overlapping P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting acoustic changes across the entire stimulus. Fifteen males and 15 females, in the age range of 18 to 25 (mean=21.67 years, having normal hearing participated in the study. The ACC was recorded using the vertical montage. The naturally produced stimuli /sa/ and /si/ were presented through the insert earphone/loud speaker to record the ACC. The ACC obtained from different stimuli presented through different transducers from male/female participants were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Dependent t-test and independent t-test were performed when indicated. There was a significant difference in latency of 2N1 at the transition, with latency for /sa/ being earlier; but not at the onset portions of ACC. There was no significant difference in amplitude of ACC between the stimuli. Among the transducers, there was no significant difference in latency and amplitude of ACC, for both /sa/ and /si/ stimuli. Female participants showed earlier latency for 2N1 and larger amplitude of N1 and 2P2 than male participants, which was significant. ACC provides important insight in detecting the subtle spectral changes in each stimulus. Among the transducers, no difference in ACC was noted as the spectra of stimuli delivered were within the frequency response of the transducers. The earlier 2N1 latency and larger N1 and 2P2 amplitudes noticed in female participants could be due to smaller head circumference. The findings of this study will be useful in determining the capacity of the auditory pathway in detecting subtle spectral changes in the stimulus at the level of the auditory cortex.

  2. Species-specific effects of pigmentation negation on the neural response to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Stevenson, Kate

    2013-08-01

    Face processing is limited in scope as a function of experience - discrimination ability and face-specific behavioral effects are reduced in out-group faces. Nonetheless, other-species faces phylogenetically close to our own may be processed by similar mechanisms as human faces. Presently, we asked whether or not the well-known effect of contrast-negation on face recognition (Galper, 1970) was exclusive to human faces or generalized to monkey faces. Negation disrupts face pigmentation substantially, allowing us to examine species-specific use of surface cues as a function of expertise. We tested adult observers behaviorally and electrophysiologically: participants completed a 4AFC discrimination task subject to manipulations of face species and independent negation of image luminance and image chroma, and the same stimuli were used to collect event-related potentials in a go/no-go task. We predicted that expertise for human faces would lead to larger deleterious effects of negation for human faces in both tasks, reflected in longer RTs for correct responses in the discrimination task and species-specific modulation of the N170 and P200 by contrast-negation. Our results however, indicate that behaviorally, luminance and chroma negation affect discrimination performance in a species-independent manner, while similar effects of contrast-negation effects are evident in each species at different components of the ERP response. PMID:23792327

  3. Emerging applications of stimuli-responsive polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.; Genzer, Jan; Müller, Marcus; Ober, Christopher; Stamm, Manfred; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Szleifer, Igal; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Urban, Marek; Winnik, Françoise; Zauscher, Stefan; Luzinov, Igor; Minko, Sergiy

    2010-02-01

    Responsive polymer materials can adapt to surrounding environments, regulate transport of ions and molecules, change wettability and adhesion of different species on external stimuli, or convert chemical and biochemical signals into optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical signals, and vice versa. These materials are playing an increasingly important part in a diverse range of applications, such as drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and 'smart' optical systems, as well as biosensors, microelectromechanical systems, coatings and textiles. We review recent advances and challenges in the developments towards applications of stimuli-responsive polymeric materials that are self-assembled from nanostructured building blocks. We also provide a critical outline of emerging developments.

  4. Thermo-Responsive Hydrogels for Stimuli-Responsive Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Mah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite membranes with stimuli-responsive properties can be made by coating a thermo-responsive hydrogel onto a micro- or macroporous support. These hydrogels undergo a temperature induced volume-phase transition, which contributes towards the composite membrane’s stimuli-responsive properties. This paper reviews research done on complimentary forms of temperature responsive “thermophilic” hydrogels, those exhibiting positive volume-phase transitions in aqueous solvent. The influences of intermolecular forces on the mechanism of phase-transition are discussed along with case examples of typical thermophilic hydrogels.

  5. Cognitive robotic system for learning of complex visual stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Rozhkov, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of learning of complex visual stimuli in cognitive robotics is considered. These stimuli should be selected on the base of rules supporting arbitrary comparisons of stimulus features with features of other salient objects (context). New perceptual knowledge representation based on the predicate logic is implemented to express such rules. Computable predicates are provided by low-level vision system. The rules are constructed using genetic algorithms on the base of a set of examples obtained by a robot during consequent trials. Dependence between the number of necessary trials and rule complexity is studied.

  6. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew;

    2011-01-01

    The visual attention mechanism plays a key role in the human perception system and it has a significant impact on our assessment of perceived video quality. In spite of receiving less attention from the viewers, unattended stimuli can still contribute to the understanding of the visual content...... tuned by the attention map considers the degradations on the significantly attended stimuli. To generate the overall video quality score, global and local quality features are combined by a content adaptive linear fusion method and pooled over time, taking the temporal quality variation...

  7. Precuneus-prefrontal activity during awareness of visual verbal stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T W; Nowak, M; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt;

    2001-01-01

    Awareness is a personal experience, which is only accessible to the rest of world through interpretation. We set out to identify a neural correlate of visual awareness, using brief subliminal and supraliminal verbal stimuli while measuring cerebral blood flow distribution with H(2)(15)O PET....... Awareness of visual verbal stimuli differentially activated medial parietal association cortex (precuneus), which is a polymodal sensory cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is thought to be primarily executive. Our results suggest participation of these higher order perceptual and executive...

  8. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  9. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A.; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  10. Taiwanese political parties can be categorized by face, by those who reported making face-to-trait inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fu eHu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to replicate and extend Rule & Ambady (2010’s findings that Republicans and Democrats could be differentiated by face. In Experiment 1, undergraduates categorized 50 gray-scale full-face photos of candidates of the two major political parties in Taiwan, the Kuomingtang (KMT and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP. Using identical stimuli and procedure, Experiment 2 tested 25- to 57-year-olds. Experiment 3 tested undergraduates with cropped photos, Experiment 4, with photos devoid of the mouth and chin area. At the end of each Experiment, we interviewed the participants about the strategies used. Results showed that undergraduates could categorize KMT and DPP with accuracies significantly higher than chance in full-face photos (Exp.1, M = .524, p = .045, cropped photos (Exp.3, M = .534, p = .016, and photos devoid of the mouth-and-chin area (Exp.4, M = .530, p = .048. Adults aged between 25 and 57 could also categorize full-face photos (Exp.2, M = .557, p < .001. Analysis on strategy use revealed that the better-than-chance performance may be a unique contribution of those who reported making face-to-trait inferences. In sum, we replicated Rule and Ambady’s (2010 results in East Asian and found that face-to-trait inferences may be essential.

  11. 大学生交往焦虑状况及其影响因素%Interaction anxiousness and associated factors among college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹枫; 陈昕昱; 段添翼; 余真真; 杨智辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解大学生交往焦虑状况的特点及影响因素,为有针对性地开展干预活动提供有益参考.方法 采用交往焦虑量表、自尊量表、对不确定性忍受力问卷和元担忧问卷,对随机抽取的北京市17所高校905名大学生进行调查.结果 不同性别、不同家庭经济状况、不同生源地的大学生交往焦虑总分差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05);相关分析表明,自尊与交往焦虑呈负相关,不确定性忍受力和元担忧与交往焦虑呈正相关(P值均<0.05).路径分析表明,自尊、不确定性忍受力、元担忧对交往焦虑总分有直接效应,自尊还会通过不确定性忍受力、元担忧对交往焦虑总分起间接效应.结论 大学生交往焦虑水平较高,不确定性忍受力对交往焦虑起着最为重要的直接作用,自尊通过不确定性忍受力和元担忧对交往焦虑起间接作用.应关注大学生不确定性忍受力、自尊及元担忧,并及时采取干预措施.%Objective To explore epidemiology of anxiety among college students and to explore possible risk factors.Methods The Interaction Anxiousness Scale,Self-Esteem Scale,Intolerance of Uncertainty Questionnaire,Meta-Worry Questionnaire were used to investigate the Interaction Anxiousness and associated psychological information in 905 undergraduates.Results There were significant differences of Interaction Anxiousness scores in genders,family economic status and prior residence place.Analysis showed that Interaction Anxiousness was significantly negatively correlated with parental educational level and self-esteem and positively related to intolerance of uncertainty and meta-worry.Path analysis showed that self-esteem had the important direct effect on the Interaction Anxiousness,and also had indirect effects on it through the effects of intolerance of uncertainty and metaworry.The intolerance of uncertainty had the most impact on Interaction Anxiousness

  12. Less precise representation of numerical magnitude in high math-anxious individuals: an ERP study of the size and distance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Peña, M Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-12-01

    Numerical comparison tasks are widely used to study the mental representation of numerical magnitude. In study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 26 high math-anxious (HMA) and 27 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with pairs of single-digit Arabic numbers and were asked to decide which one had the larger numerical magnitude. The size of the numbers and the distance between them were manipulated in order to study the size and the distance effects. The results showed that both distance and size effects were larger for the HMA group. As for ERPs, results showed that the ERP distance effect had larger amplitude for both the size and distance effects in the HMA group than among their LMA counterparts. Since this component has been taken as a marker of the processing of numerical magnitude, this result suggests that HMA individuals have a less precise representation of numerical magnitude.

  13. The many faces of research on face perception

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Face perception is fundamental to human social interaction. Many different types of important information are visible in faces and the processes and mechanisms involved in extracting this information are complex and can be highly specialized. The importance of faces has long been recognized by a wide range of scientists. Importantly, the range of perspectives and techniques that this breadth has brought to face perception research has, in recent years, led to many important advances in our un...

  14. Evidence for Integrated Visual Face and Body Representations in the Anterior Temporal Lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Bronson B; Umla-Runge, Katja; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S; Downing, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Research on visual face perception has revealed a region in the ventral anterior temporal lobes, often referred to as the anterior temporal face patch (ATFP), which responds strongly to images of faces. To date, the selectivity of the ATFP has been examined by contrasting responses to faces against a small selection of categories. Here, we assess the selectivity of the ATFP in humans with a broad range of visual control stimuli to provide a stronger test of face selectivity in this region. In Experiment 1, participants viewed images from 20 stimulus categories in an event-related fMRI design. Faces evoked more activity than all other 19 categories in the left ATFP. In the right ATFP, equally strong responses were observed for both faces and headless bodies. To pursue this unexpected finding, in Experiment 2, we used multivoxel pattern analysis to examine whether the strong response to face and body stimuli reflects a common coding of both classes or instead overlapping but distinct representations. On a voxel-by-voxel basis, face and whole-body responses were significantly positively correlated in the right ATFP, but face and body-part responses were not. This finding suggests that there is shared neural coding of faces and whole bodies in the right ATFP that does not extend to individual body parts. In contrast, the same approach revealed distinct face and body representations in the right fusiform gyrus. These results are indicative of an increasing convergence of distinct sources of person-related perceptual information proceeding from the posterior to the anterior temporal cortex. PMID:27054399

  15. Face reconstruction from image sequences for forensic face comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Chris; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the possibilities of a dense model-free three-dimensional (3D) face reconstruction method, based on image sequences from a single camera, to improve the current state of forensic face comparison. They propose a new model-free 3D reconstruction method for faces, based on the Lambe

  16. Robust Face Recognition via Multimodal Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Changxing; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Face images appeared in multimedia applications, e.g., social networks and digital entertainment, usually exhibit dramatic pose, illumination, and expression variations, resulting in considerable performance degradation for traditional face recognition algorithms. This paper proposes a comprehensive deep learning framework to jointly learn face representation using multimodal information. The proposed deep learning structure is composed of a set of elaborately designed convolutional neural ne...

  17. The Williams syndrome chromosome 7q11.23 hemideletion confers hypersocial, anxious personality coupled with altered insula structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kippenhan, J. Shane; Kohn, Philip; Marenco, Stefano; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Morris, Colleen A.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Berman, Karen Faith

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that genes can influence complex behavioral traits such as human temperament, the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Williams syndrome (WS), a rare disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, including genes important for neuronal migration and maturation (LIMK1 and CLIP2), is typified by a remarkable hypersocial but anxious personality and offers a unique opportunity to investigate this open issue. Based on the documented rol...

  18. Face the music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2004-01-01

    英语中的很多词语是不能望文生义的,如“face the music”这个短语。如果你认为是“面对、应付音乐”的话,就大错特错了。这个短语已有百年以上的历史了,是美国男女老少都非常熟悉的短语。最早使用这个表现法的是

  19. Face Avulsion and Degloving

    OpenAIRE

    Panse, Nikhil; Sahasrabudhe, Parag; Joshi, Namrata

    2014-01-01

    There have been sparse reports in literature of avulsion and degloving injuries of individual areas of face like the nose, eyelids, ear and even mandible. Hemi-facial degloving is extremely rare. We present a case of post-assault degloving of the nose, part of forehead with anterior wall of frontal sinus, entire upper and lower eyelids and the cheek. Proper planning and staging of the surgical procedures and use of local flaps, meticulous and proper alignment of tissues gave us good aesthetic...

  20. On toric face rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ichim, Bogdan; Roemer, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Following a construction of Stanley we consider toric face rings associated to rational pointed fans. This class of rings is a common generalization of the concepts of Stanley--Reisner and affine monoid algebras. The main goal of this article is to unify parts of the theories of Stanley--Reisner- and affine monoid algebras. We consider (non-pure) shellable fan's and the Cohen--Macaulay property. Moreover, we study the local cohomology, the canonical module and the Gorenstein property of a tor...