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Sample records for anxious face stimuli

  1. Training Approach-Avoidance of Smiling Faces Affects Emotional Vulnerability in Socially Anxious Individuals

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    Mike Rinck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.

  2. Training approach-avoidance of smiling faces affects emotional vulnerability in socially anxious individuals

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    Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling fa...

  3. Training Approach-Avoidance of Smiling Faces Affects Emotional Vulnerability in Socially Anxious Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Rinck

    2013-01-01

    Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to appro...

  4. Faces in a crowd: high socially anxious individuals estimate that more people are looking at them than low socially anxious individuals.

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    Olivia C Bolt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention. METHOD: Forty-eight high and 48 low socially anxious participants performed a "faces in a crowd" computer task during which they briefly saw matrices of faces, which varied in terms of the proportion of people who were looking at them. Participants estimated the proportion of people who were looking at them. The task was performed once with mirrors present (to induce an enhanced self-focused state and once without mirrors present (neutral state. RESULTS: Participants' subjective estimates and the objective proportion of faces looking towards them were strongly correlated in both the high and low socially anxious groups. However, high socially anxious participants estimated that more people were looking at them than low socially anxious participants. In the first phase of the experiment, but not in the later phases, this effect was magnified in the mirror condition. DISCUSSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of a social anxiety related perceptual difference that may be amplified by self-focused attention. Clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Faces in a Crowd: High Socially Anxious Individuals Estimate that More People Are Looking at Them than Low Socially Anxious Individuals

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    Bolt, Olivia C.; Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention. Method Forty-eight high and 48 low soci...

  6. Interpretative biases for positive faces in high socially anxious individuals%高社交焦虑个体对正性面孔的解释偏差

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    姚泥沙; 李松蔚; 钱铭怡; 余红玉; 林沐雨; 王小玲; 杨鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To figure out whether high socially anxious individuals interpreted positive faces in a biased way, and how they interpreted positive facial stimuli, through which we could learn more about socially-anxious individuals'cognitive processing pattern towards positive social information. Methods: The current study consisted of a single factor design, and group type was the between-subject factor. Before the experiment, 60 participants form Peking University firstly finished the social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS). Participants who scored the highest 27% were the high social anxiety group, and those who scored the lowest 27% were the low social anxiety group. Then the positive facial stimuli were presented separately under different social situations. Each of the positive faces was followed by three alternatives. Two of the alternatives involved a positive and a negative interpretation of the faces, and the remaining one involved a neutral interpretation. By means of self-report, participants scoring high and low on SIAS were instructed to rate each alternative interpretations separately in terms of the likelihood of each interpretations coming to mind. Then, participants were asked to rank order the three alternative explanations based on how much they believe different explanations of a positive face. Results: Compared to lower socially anxious group, individuals with higher social anxiety were less likely to think about positive interpretations (P <0. 001), and were more likely to think about negative interpretations for positive social stimuli (P <0. 001). Also, compared to positive interpretations, higher socially anxious individuals regard negative interpretations for posi- tive faces as more believable (P <0. 001). Conclusion: Compared to lower social anxiety group, higher social anxiety participants are characterized by an interpretative bias towards positive faces. It suggests that lack of positive thinking and the outright negative

  7. Phasic alertness enhances processing of face and non-face stimuli in congenital prosopagnosia.

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    Tanzer, Michal; Weinbach, Noam; Mardo, Elite; Henik, Avishai; Avidan, Galia

    2016-08-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a severe face processing impairment that occurs in the absence of any obvious brain damage and has often been associated with a more general deficit in deriving holistic relations between facial features or even between non-face shape dimensions. Here we further characterized this deficit and examined a potential way to ameliorate it. To this end we manipulated phasic alertness using alerting cues previously shown to modulate attention and enhance global processing of visual stimuli in normal observers. Specifically, we first examined whether individuals with CP, similarly to controls, would show greater global processing when exposed to an alerting cue in the context of a non-facial task (Navon global/local task). We then explored the effect of an alerting cue on face processing (upright/inverted face discrimination). Confirming previous findings, in the absence of alerting cues, controls showed a typical global bias in the Navon task and an inversion effect indexing holistic processing in the upright/inverted task, while CP failed to show these effects. Critically, when alerting cues preceded the experimental trials, both groups showed enhanced global interference and a larger inversion effect. These results suggest that phasic alertness may modulate visual processing and consequently, affect global/holistic perception. Hence, these findings further reinforce the notion that global/holistic processing may serve as a possible mechanism underlying the face processing deficit in CP. Moreover, they imply a possible route for enhancing face processing in individuals with CP and thus shed new light on potential amelioration of this disorder. PMID:27364232

  8. Mnemonic discrimination of similar face stimuli and a potential mechanism for the "other race" effect.

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    Chang, Allen; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Face recognition is an important component of successful social interactions in humans. A large literature in social psychology has focused on the phenomenon termed the "other race" (ORE) effect, the tendency to be more proficient with face recognition within one's own ethnic group compared with other ethnic groups. Several potential hypotheses have been proposed for this effect, including perceptual expertise, social grouping, and holistic face processing. Recent work on mnemonic discrimination (i.e., the ability to resolve mnemonic interference among similar experiences) may provide a mechanistic account for the ORE. In the current study, we examined how discrimination and generalization in the presence of mnemonic interference may contribute to the ORE. We developed a database of computerized faces divided evenly among ethnic origins (Black, Caucasian, East Asian, South Asian), as well as morphed face stimuli that varied in the amount of similarity to the original stimuli (30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% morphs). Participants first examined the original unmorphed stimuli during study, then during test were asked to judge the prior occurrence of repetitions (targets), morphed stimuli (lures), and new stimuli (foils). We examined participants' ability to correctly reject similar morphed lures and found that it increased linearly as a function of face dissimilarity. We additionally found that Caucasian participants' mnemonic discrimination-generalization functions were sharply tuned for Caucasian faces but considerably less tuned for East Asian and Black faces. These results suggest that expertise plays an important role in resolving mnemonic interference, which may offer a mechanistic account for the ORE. PMID:26413724

  9. Spontaneous Attention to Faces in Asperger Syndrome Using Ecologically Valid Static Stimuli

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    Hanley, Mary; McPhillips, Martin; Mulhern, Gerry; Riby, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous eye tracking research on the allocation of attention to social information by individuals with autism spectrum disorders is equivocal and may be in part a consequence of variation in stimuli used between studies. The current study explored attention allocation to faces, and within faces, by individuals with Asperger syndrome using a range…

  10. Does Seeing Faces of Young Black Boys Facilitate the Identification of Threatening Stimuli?

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    Todd, Andrew R; Thiem, Kelsey C; Neel, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Pervasive stereotypes linking Black men with violence and criminality can lead to implicit cognitive biases, including the misidentification of harmless objects as weapons. In four experiments, we investigated whether these biases extend even to young Black boys (5-year-olds). White participants completed sequential priming tasks in which they categorized threatening and nonthreatening objects and words after brief presentations of faces of various races (Black and White) and ages (children and adults). Results consistently revealed that participants had less difficulty (i.e., faster response times, fewer errors) identifying threatening stimuli and more difficulty identifying nonthreatening stimuli after seeing Black faces than after seeing White faces, and this racial bias was equally strong following adult and child faces. Process-dissociation-procedure analyses further revealed that these effects were driven entirely by automatic (i.e., unintentional) racial biases. The collective findings suggest that the perceived threat commonly associated with Black men may generalize even to young Black boys. PMID:26833757

  11. Developmental changes in visual scanning of dynamic faces and abstract stimuli in infants : A longitudinal study

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    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of scanning patterns between the ages of 6 and 26 weeks were investigated through repeated assessments of 10 infants. Eye movements were recorded using a corneal-reflection system while the infants looked at 2 dynamic stimuli: the naturally moving face of their mother and an abst

  12. Top-down and bottom-up modulation in processing bimodal face/voice stimuli

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    VanRullen Rufin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Processing of multimodal information is a critical capacity of the human brain, with classic studies showing bimodal stimulation either facilitating or interfering in perceptual processing. Comparing activity to congruent and incongruent bimodal stimuli can reveal sensory dominance in particular cognitive tasks. Results We investigated audiovisual interactions driven by stimulus properties (bottom-up influences or by task (top-down influences on congruent and incongruent simultaneously presented faces and voices while ERPs were recorded. Subjects performed gender categorisation, directing attention either to faces or to voices and also judged whether the face/voice stimuli were congruent in terms of gender. Behaviourally, the unattended modality affected processing in the attended modality: the disruption was greater for attended voices. ERPs revealed top-down modulations of early brain processing (30-100 ms over unisensory cortices. No effects were found on N170 or VPP, but from 180-230 ms larger right frontal activity was seen for incongruent than congruent stimuli. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that in a gender categorisation task the processing of faces dominate over the processing of voices. Brain activity showed different modulation by top-down and bottom-up information. Top-down influences modulated early brain activity whereas bottom-up interactions occurred relatively late.

  13. Blinded by fear? Prior exposure to fearful faces enhances attentional processing of task-irrelevant stimuli.

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    Berggren, Nick; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Threatening information has been shown to both capture attention and enhance sensory processing. Recent evidence has also suggested that exposure to fearful stimuli may enhance perceptual processing of subsequently presented information, as well as increase attentional capacity. However, these results are inconsistent with other findings that fearful stimuli reduce task-irrelevant distraction and improve selective attention. Here, we investigated the effect of prior exposure to fearful faces on performance in the Eriksen flanker task. Across experiments, fearful cues led to increased task-irrelevant distraction for items positioned across visual space, in contrast to other emotional expressions and inverted face items, and under conditions of attentional load. Findings support the view that fearful images enhance attentional capacity, allowing one to attend to as much visual information as possible when danger is implied. Conflicting findings on the effect of fear and selective attention are discussed. PMID:23510073

  14. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    Language allows us to operate more efficiently in the world. By hearing about others’ experiences, we are able to orient toward things that could be beneficial to us, and avoid hazards. This sharing of experiences is particularly prominent in the social realm. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm......, Anderson et al. (2011) showed that short “gossip” phrases modulated the length of time faces remained perceptually dominant. However, binocular rivalry is measured by self-report. We used EEG to investigate the timing of gossip’s early effect on face perception. Gossip stimuli were those used by Anderson...

  15. Attentional Biases toward Face-Related Stimuli among Face Dissatisfied Women: Orienting and Maintenance of Attention Revealed by Eye-Movement

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    Kou, Hui; Su, Yanhua; Bi, Taiyong; Gao, Xiao; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine attentional biases toward attractive and unattractive faces among face dissatisfied women. Twenty-seven women with high face dissatisfaction (HFD) and 27 women with low face dissatisfaction (LFD) completed a visual dot-probe task while their eye-movements were tracking. Under the condition of faces-neutral stimuli (vases) pairs, compared to LFD women, HFD women directed their first fixations more often toward faces, directed their first fixations toward unattractive faces more quickly, and had longer first fixation duration on such faces. All participants had longer overall gaze duration on attractive faces than on unattractive ones. Our behavioral data revealed that HFD women had difficulty in disengaging their attention from faces. However, there are no group differences in stimulus pairs containing an attractive and an unattractive face. In sum, when faces were paired with neutral stimuli (vases) HFD women showed an attention pattern characterized by orienting and maintenance, at least initially, toward unattractive faces but showed overall attention maintenance to attractive ones, but any attention bias wasn’t found in attractive - unattractive face pairs. PMID:27445892

  16. Differences between visual hemifields in identifying rapidly presented target stimuli: Letters and digits, faces, and shapes.

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    DariuszAsanowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The right hemisphere has been shown to play a dominant role in processing of visuo-spatial information. Recently, this role has been studied in the two-stream rapid serial visual presentation task. In this task, two alphanumerical targets are embedded in left and right simultaneous streams of rapidly changing letters. The second target (T2 is identified better in the left than in the right visual field. This difference has been interpreted as advantage of the right hemisphere (RH. However, a disadvantage of the left hemisphere (LH could not be excluded so far. The LH, specialized for processing of verbal stimuli, might be overloaded due to constant input of letters from both visual fields. In the present study, this overload hypothesis was tested by reducing demands on verbal processing (Experiments 1, and by overloading the RH with nonverbal stimuli: faces (Experiment 2 and irregular shapes (Experiment 3. The left visual field advantage proved to be largely independent from the level of verbal load and from stimulus type. Therefore, although not entirely disproving the overload hypothesis, these results suggest as the most parsimonious explanation this asymmetry reflects a RH advantage, presumably in perceptual and attentional processing, rather than a LH disadvantage caused by verbal overload.

  17. Threatening faces and social anxiety: A literature review

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    Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2010-01-01

    A threatening facial expression is a potent social sign of hostility or dominance. During the past 20 years, photographs of threatening faces have been increasingly included as stimuli in studies with socially anxious participants, based on the hypothesis that a threatening face is especially sal...

  18. Newborns' preference for face-relevant stimuli: Effects of contrast polarity

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    Farroni, Teresa; Johnson, Mark H.; Menon, Enrica; Zulian, Luisa; Faraguna, Dino; Csibra, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    There is currently no agreement as to how specific or general are the mechanisms underlying newborns' face preferences. We address this issue by manipulating the contrast polarity of schematic and naturalistic face-related images and assessing the preferences of newborns. We find that for both schematic and naturalistic face images, the contrast polarity is important. Newborns did not show a preference for an upright face-related image unless it was composed of darker areas around the eyes and mouth. This result is consistent with either sensitivity to the shadowed areas of a face with overhead (natural) illumination and/or to the detection of eye contact. PMID:16284255

  19. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder.

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    Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Khanna, Ashish; Zarate, Carlos A; Furey, Maura L

    2016-08-30

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). In healthy subjects, manipulation of acetyl-cholinergic transmission modulates attention in a stimulus-dependent manner. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala acquired while MDD patients processed sad face stimuli correlated positively with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Amygdalar response to sad faces in MDD patients who did not respond to scopolamine did not differ from that of healthy controls. This suggests that the pre-treatment task elicited amygdalar activity that may constitute a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine. Furthermore, in MDD patients who responded to scopolamine, we observed a post-scopolamine stimulus processing shift towards a pattern demonstrated by healthy controls, indicating a change in stimulus-dependent neural response potentially driven by attenuated cholinergic activity in the amygdala. PMID:27366831

  20. The use of faces as stimuli in neuroimaging and psychological experiments: a procedure to standardize stimulus features.

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    Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Smeets, Floortje; Vuurman, Eric F P M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-11-01

    In psychological experiments involving facial stimuli, it is of great importance that the basic perceptual or psychological characteristics that are investigated are not confounded by factors such as brightness and contrast, head size, hair cut and color, skin color, and the presence of glasses and earrings. Standardization of facial stimulus materials reduces the effect of these confounding factors. We therefore employed a set of basic image processing techniques to deal with this issue. The processed images depict the faces in grayscale, all at the same size, brightness, and contrast, and confined to an oval mask revealing only the basic features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth. The standardization was successfully applied to four different face databases, consisting of male and female faces and including neutral as well as happy facial expressions. An important advantage of the proposed standardization is that featural as well as configurational information is retained. We also consider the procedure to be a major contribution to the development of a de facto standard for the use of facial stimuli in psychological experiments. Such methodological standardization would allow a better comparison of the results of these studies. PMID:19897813

  1. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... matter underlying these regions continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence, as indicated by in an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA), possibly reflecting ongoing myelination, and/or increase in axon diameter and density7,8. Here we used an emotional Go/Nogo task to test the hypothesis...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  2. Do Threatening Stimuli Draw or Hold Visual Attention in Subclinical Anxiety?

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    Fox, Elaine; Russo, Riccardo; Bowles, Robert; Dutton, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Biases in information processing undoubtedly play an important role in the maintenance of emotion and emotional disorders. In an attentional cueing paradigm, threat words and angry faces had no advantage over positive or neutral words (or faces) in attracting attention to their own location, even for people who were highly state-anxious. In contrast, the presence of threatening cues (words and faces) had a strong impact on the disengagement of attention. When a threat cue was presented and a target subsequently presented in another location, high state-anxious individuals took longer to detect the target relative to when either a positive or a neutral cue was presented. It is concluded that threat-related stimuli affect attentional dwell time and the disengage component of attention, leaving the question of whether threat stimuli affect the shift component of attention open to debate. PMID:11757875

  3. Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing in anxious individuals

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    Sophie eForster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is associated with increased attentional capture by threat. Previous studies have used simultaneous or briefly separated (< 1s presentation of threat distractors and target stimuli. Here, we tested the hypothesis that high trait anxious participants would show a longer time window within which distractors cause disruption to subsequent task processing, and that this would particularly be observed for stimuli of moderate or ambiguous threat value. A novel temporally separated emotional distractor task was used. Face or house distractors were presented for 250ms at short (~1.6s or long (~3s intervals prior to a letter string comprising Xs or Ns. Trait anxiety was associated with slowed identification of letter strings presented at long intervals after face distractors with part surprise / part fear expressions. In other words, these distractors had an impact on high anxious individuals’ speed of target identification seconds after their offset. This was associated with increased activity in the fusiform gyrus and amygdala and reduced dorsal anterior cingulate recruitment. This pattern of activity may reflect impoverished recruitment of reactive control mechanisms to damp down stimulus-specific processing in subcortical and higher visual regions. These findings have implications for understanding how threat-related attentional biases in anxiety may lead to dysfunction in everyday settings where stimuli of moderate, potentially ambiguous, threat value such as those used here are fairly common, and where attentional disruption lasting several seconds may have a profound impact.

  4. Contextual blending of ingroup/outgroup face stimuli and word valence: LPP modulation and convergence of measures

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    González Ramiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several event related potential (ERP studies have investigated the time course of different aspects of evaluative processing in social bias research. Various reports suggest that the late positive potential (LPP is modulated by basic evaluative processes, and some reports suggest that in-/outgroup relative position affects ERP responses. In order to study possible LPP blending between facial race processing and semantic valence (positive or negative words, we recorded ERPs while indigenous and non-indigenous participants who were matched by age and gender performed an implicit association test (IAT. The task involved categorizing faces (ingroup and outgroup and words (positive and negative. Since our paradigm implies an evaluative task with positive and negative valence association, a frontal distribution of LPPs similar to that found in previous reports was expected. At the same time, we predicted that LPP valence lateralization would be modulated not only by positive/negative associations but also by particular combinations of valence, face stimuli and participant relative position. Results Results showed that, during an IAT, indigenous participants with greater behavioral ingroup bias displayed a frontal LPP that was modulated in terms of complex contextual associations involving ethnic group and valence. The LPP was lateralized to the right for negative valence stimuli and to the left for positive valence stimuli. This valence lateralization was influenced by the combination of valence and membership type relevant to compatibility with prejudice toward a minority. Behavioral data from the IAT and an explicit attitudes questionnaire were used to clarify this finding and showed that ingroup bias plays an important role. Both ingroup favoritism and indigenous/non-indigenous differences were consistently present in the data. Conclusion Our results suggest that frontal LPP is elicited by contextual blending of evaluative

  5. Comparison of volume-selective z-shim and conventional EPI in fMRI studies using face stimuli

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    Fukunaga, Hu Cheng Srikanth Padmala Rena

    2013-01-01

    Single-shot gradient recalled echo planar imaging (EPI) is the primary tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The image often suffers from signal drop near the air-tissue interface, such as the amygdala and regions of the orbitofrontal lobe. An effective way to correct for this type of artifact is by applying multi-shot EPI using different z-shimming. Unfortunately, the scanning efficiency is significantly lowered. More recently, a new technique called volume-selective z-shim was proposed to implement z-shim compensation to only specific slices with large susceptibility effects. The high imaging efficiency of volume selective z-shim makes it possible to substitute conventional EPI for whole brain studies. In this study two fMRI experiments were conducted to compare volume- selective z-shim and conventional EPI while subjects performed tasks on face stimuli. The comparison was focused on three brain regions: amygdala, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results indicate that despite fewer volu...

  6. Intensified neuronal investment in the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals in non-socially anxious and socially anxious individuals.

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    Bettina M Pause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.

  7. Five- and Eight-Month-Old Infants Recognize Their Faces and Voices as Familiar and Social Stimuli.

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    Legerstee, Maria; Anderson, Diane; Schaffer, Alliza

    1998-01-01

    Presented five- and eight-month olds with silent moving and static video images of self, peer, and doll, and sounds of self and nonsocial objects. Found that recognition of one's image develops through experience with dynamic facial stimulation during first eight months. By five months, infants treat their faces and voices as familiar and social…

  8. The effect of cognitive bias modification training on memory of emotional words in anxious children

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    Wong, Hiu-wing, Sharon.; 黃曉穎.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research had demonstrated cognitive biases towards threatening stimuli in anxious individuals, such as in attention, interpretation and memory. The present study aimed to examine the differences in memory-related information processing between anxious and nonanxious children and the effectiveness of a Cognitive-Bias Modification (CBM) based positive training in altering these differences. The study adopted a directed forgetting paradigm, where children with anxiety disorders (N=12) ...

  9. 注视方向影响社交焦虑个体对情绪面孔加工的眼动研究%Gaze direction affects the processing of emotional faces among socially anxious individuals:an eye-tracking study

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    李丹; 朱春燕; 汪凯; 余凤琼; 叶榕; 谢新晖; 刘云峰; 李丹丹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of gaze direction in the processing of facial expression among socially anxious individuals.Methods 56 students were selected from Anhui Medical University.Based on Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) scores,the subjects were grouped into high socially anxious individuals (HSA) and low socially anxious individuals(LSA).Eye movements were recorded while pairs of disgust and neutral faces as experimental stimulus were presented.Results Under the direct gaze condition,there were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the total dwell time of disgust faces ((2311.09 ± 521.41) ms) and the neutral faces((1910.69 ±607.59)ms) in HSA,while there were no significant differences in LSA(P>0.05).Under the averted gaze condition,the total dwell time were not significant between disgust faces and neutral faces in HSA and LSA (P > 0.05).Conclusion Gaze direction affects the processing of facial expressions among socially anxious individuals.Disgust face with direct gaze may be perceived as a social threat information for socially anxiety individuals,whereas disgust face with averted gaze is not a clear social threat information.%目的 探讨注视方向线索对社交焦虑个体面部表情加工的影响.方法 从安徽医科大学抽取56名本科生,依Liebowitz社交焦虑量表(LSAS)得分将被试分为高社交焦虑组(HSA)和低社交焦虑组(LSA),采用配对的厌恶和中性面孔作为实验刺激材料并记录眼动数据.结果 直视条件下,HSA组注视厌恶面孔的时间为(2311.09±521.41)ms,注视中性面孔的时间为(1910.69±607.59)ms,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),LSA组注视厌恶面孔与中性面孔的时间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);斜视条件下,HSA与LSA注视厌恶面孔与中性面孔的时间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 注视方向影响了社交焦虑个体对厌恶表情的加工,表明直视的厌恶面孔对于HSA个体来说是一种社交威胁信

  10. Social anxiety under load: the effects of perceptual load in processing emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C; Rocha, Marta; Neiva, Tiago; Rodrigues, Paulo; Silva, Carlos F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in the social anxiety arena have shown an impaired attentional control system, similar to that found in trait anxiety. However, the effect of task demands on social anxiety in socially threatening stimuli, such as angry faces, remains unseen. In the present study, 54 university students scoring high and low in the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale (SIPAAS) questionnaire, participated in a target letter discrimination task while task-irrelevant face stimuli (angry, disgust, happy, and neutral) were simultaneously presented. The results showed that high (compared to low) socially anxious individuals were more prone to distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli, particularly under high perceptual load conditions. More importantly, for such individuals, the accuracy proportions for angry faces significantly differed between the low and high perceptual load conditions, which is discussed in light of current evolutionary models of social anxiety. PMID:25954232

  11. Impaired visuocortical discrimination learning of socially conditioned stimuli in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lea M; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul; Wieser, Matthias J

    2015-07-01

    In search of causative factors of social anxiety disorder (SAD), classical conditioning has been discussed as a potential trigger mechanism for many years. Recent findings suggest that the social relevance of the unconditioned stimulus (US) might play a major role in learning theories of SAD. Thus, this study applied a social conditioning paradigm with disorder-relevant US to examine the electrocortical correlates of affective learning. Twenty-four high socially anxious (HSA) and 23 age- and gender-matched low socially anxious (LSA) subjects were conditioned to 3 different faces flickering at a frequency of 15 Hz which were paired with auditory insults, compliments or neutral comments (US). The face-evoked electrocortical response was measured via steady-state visually evoked potentials and subjective measures of valence and arousal were obtained. Results revealed a significant interaction of social anxiety and conditioning, with LSA showing highest cortical activity to faces paired with insults and lowest activity to faces paired with compliments, while HSA did not differentiate between faces. No group differences were discovered in the affective ratings. The findings indicate a potentially impaired ability of HSA to discriminate between relevant and irrelevant social stimuli, which may constitute a perpetuating factor of SAD. PMID:25338634

  12. Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing in anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Nunez-Elizalde, Anwar O; Castle, Elizabeth; Bishop, Sonia J

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with increased attentional capture by threat. Previous studies have used simultaneous or briefly separated (ambiguous threat value. A novel temporally separated emotional distractor task was used. Face or house distractors were presented for 250 ms at short (∼1.6 s) or long (∼3 s) intervals prior to a letter string comprising Xs or Ns. Trait anxiety was associated with slowed identification of letter strings presented at long intervals after face distractors with part surprise/part fear expressions. In other words, these distractors had an impact on high anxious individuals' speed of target identification seconds after their offset. This was associated with increased activity in the fusiform gyrus and amygdala and reduced dorsal anterior cingulate recruitment. This pattern of activity may reflect impoverished recruitment of reactive control mechanisms to damp down stimulus-specific processing in subcortical and higher visual regions. These findings have implications for understanding how threat-related attentional biases in anxiety may lead to dysfunction in everyday settings where stimuli of moderate, potentially ambiguous, threat value such as those used here are fairly common, and where attentional disruption lasting several seconds may have a profound impact. PMID:25191249

  13. Mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals is not a consequence of response bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Riccardo; Whittuck, Dora; Roberson, Debi; Dutton, Kevin; Georgiou, George; Fox, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The status of mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals was evaluated following incidental encoding of target words. Individuals with high and low levels of trait anxiety completed a modified Stroop task, which revealed an attentional bias for threat-related stimuli in anxious individuals. This group was significantly slower in naming the colour in which threat-related words were displayed compared to neutral words. In a subsequent free recall test for the words used in the modified Stroop task, anxious individuals recalled more threat-related words compared to low-anxious people. This difference was significant even when controlling for the false recall of items that had not been presented during study. These results support the view put forward by Russo, Fox, Bellinger, and Nguyen-Van-Tam (2001) that mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals can be observed if the target material is encoded at a relatively shallow level. Moreover, contrary to Dowens and Calvo (2003), the current results show that the memory advantage for threat-related information in anxious individuals is not a consequence of response bias. PMID:16766443

  14. PREFACE: Stimuli Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    successfully with this crystal growth technique. We were very much impressed by the success in Leningrad. Liquid-phase epitaxy yields, in principle, exceedingly pure crystals, but we were unhappy about the principal lack of direct monitoring during this growth process, which we deemed absolutely necessary for obtaining reproducible heterojunctions with tightly controlled small dimensions. Ultrahigh-vacuum epitaxy seemed to be the inescapable solution. Delicate molecular beams had to be gently used and monitored! What a costly proposition! I clearly remember the day when Mort and I went to the Laboratory director John Galt. A little bit fearful and subdued, we explained our project. No, not expensive, rather a very expensive idea! We anxiously watched John with his usual stern demeanour; he paused and contemplated: 'All right, we do it—go ahead!' Construction for equipment needed for the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) began, and in Al Cho, an excellent new employee was hired for this task. A little later I left Bell Labs, this fabulous 'Mecca of Solid State' for a physics professorship at the Goethe University in Frankfurt-on-the-Main in Germany. Meanwhile, successful work on semiconductor lasers bore ample fruit worldwide. In Frankfurt, I used gas laser sources for photoluminescence diagnostics of elemental and compound semiconductors. With my astute doctoral student 'Teddy' Güttler, for example, we observed impurity photoluminescence in Au-doped silicon and concluded that doping of solar cells with deep impurities would not be beneficial for cell efficiency; just the opposite would happen because of increased carrier recombination [16]. In 1968, Western Germany experienced an ultra-left-wing student rebellion. Frankfurt students violently attacked me and accused me of war research since I used lasers, obviously a deadly weapon of mass destruction. Dieter Bimberg, our co-editor of this Festschrift, will undoubtedly remember those happenings when he was a doctoral candidate

  15. Anxiety symptom interpretation in high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, low-anxious and repressor sport performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Richard; Lane, Andrew; Hanton, Sheldon

    2009-01-01

    For the first time in a sport setting this study examined the intensity and direction of the competitive state anxiety response in collegiate athletes as a function of four different coping styles: high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, low-anxious and repressors. Specifically, the study predicted that repressors would interpret competitive state anxiety symptoms as more facilitative compared to high-anxious, defensive high-anxious, and low-anxious performers. Separate Multivariate Analyses of Variance (MANOVA) were performed on the intensity and direction subscales of the modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). A significant main effect was identified for trait worry revealing that low trait anxious athletes reported lower intensities of cognitive and somatic anxiety and higher self-confidence and interpreted these as more facilitative than high trait anxious athletes. The prediction that performers with a repressive coping style would interpret state anxiety symptoms as more facilitative than performers with non-repressive coping styles was not supported. PMID:18791904

  16. Socially Anxious Individuals with Low Working Memory Capacity Could Not Inhibit the Goal-Irrelevant Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMoriya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attentional capture to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attentional capture to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli, low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.

  17. Both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduce the facing-the-viewer bias in biological motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Heenan

    Full Text Available Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1 or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2 would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2 would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1 or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2, and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our

  18. Attentional Bias for Threat: Evidence for Delayed Disengagement from Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Russo, Riccardo; Dutton, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports three new experiments suggesting that the valence of a face cue can influence attentional effects in a cueing paradigm. Moreover, heightened trait anxiety resulted in increased attentional dwell-time on emotional facial stimuli, relative to neutral faces. Experiment 1 presented a cueing task, in which the cue was either an “angry”, “happy”, or “neutral” facial expression. Targets could appear either in the same location as the face (valid trials) or in a different location to the face (invalid trials). Participants did not show significant variations across the different cue types (angry, happy, neutral) in responding to a target on valid trials. However, the valence of the face did affect response times on invalid trials. Specifically, participants took longer to respond to a target when the face cue was “angry” or “happy” relative to neutral. In Experiment 2, the cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was increased and an overall inhibition of return (IOR) effect was found (i.e., slower responses on valid trials). However, the “angry” face cue eliminated the IOR effect for both high and low trait anxious groups. In Experiment 3, threat-related and jumbled facial stimuli reduced the magnitude of IOR for high, but not for low, trait-anxious participants.These results suggest that: (i) attentional bias in anxiety may reflect a difficulty in disengaging from threat-related and emotional stimuli, and (ii) threat-related and ambiguous cues can influence the magnitude of the IOR effect. PMID:18273395

  19. Anxious uncertainty and reactive approach motivation (RAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Mann, Nikki; Phills, Curtis E

    2010-07-01

    In 4 experiments anxious uncertainty threats caused reactive approach motivation (RAM). In Studies 1 and 2, academic anxious uncertainty threats caused RAM as assessed by behavioral neuroscience and implicit measures of approach motivation. In Study 3 the effect of a relational anxious uncertainty threat on approach-motivated personal projects in participants' everyday lives was mediated by the idealism of those projects. In Study 4 the effect of a different relational anxious uncertainty threat on implicit approach motivation was heightened by manipulated salience of personal ideals. Results suggest a RAM account for idealistic and ideological reactions in the threat and defense literature. Speculative implications are suggested for understanding diverse social and clinical phenomena ranging from worldview defense, prejudice, and meaning making to narcissism, hypomania, and aggression. PMID:20565191

  20. An Investigation of Control among Parents of Selectively Mute, Anxious, and Non-Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…

  1. Context counts! Social anxiety modulates the processing of fearful faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eAdolph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated.Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA and low socially anxious (LSA participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I, and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while Late Positive Potential (LPP activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II, as well as larger startle responses towards faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I. Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II. In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information.

  2. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.;

    2015-01-01

    (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also......Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the...... present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...

  3. Leverage Cycles and the Anxious Economy

    OpenAIRE

    John Geanakoplos; Ana Fostel

    2008-01-01

    We provide a pricing theory for emerging asset classes, like emerging markets, that are not yet mature enough to be attractive to the general public. We show how leverage cycles can cause contagion, flight to collateral, and issuance rationing in a frequently recurring phase we call the anxious economy. Our model provides an explanation for the volatile access of emerging economies to international financial markets, and for three stylized facts we identify in emerging markets and high yield ...

  4. Functional Connectivity under Anticipation of Shock: Correlates of Trait Anxious Affect versus Induced Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijsterbosch, Janine; Smith, Stephen; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-09-01

    Sustained anxiety about potential future negative events is an important feature of anxiety disorders. In this study, we used a novel anticipation of shock paradigm to investigate individual differences in functional connectivity during prolonged threat of shock. We examined the correlates of between-participant differences in trait anxious affect and induced anxiety, where the latter reflects changes in self-reported anxiety resulting from the shock manipulation. Dissociable effects of trait anxious affect and induced anxiety were observed. Participants with high scores on a latent dimension of anxious affect showed less increase in ventromedial pFC-amygdala connectivity between periods of safety and shock anticipation. Meanwhile, lower levels of induced anxiety were linked to greater augmentation of dorsolateral pFC-anterior insula connectivity during shock anticipation. These findings suggest that ventromedial pFC-amygdala and dorsolateral pFC-insula networks might both contribute to regulation of sustained fear responses, with their recruitment varying independently across participants. The former might reflect an evolutionarily old mechanism for reducing fear or anxiety, whereas the latter might reflect a complementary mechanism by which cognitive control can be implemented to diminish fear responses generated due to anticipation of aversive stimuli or events. These two circuits might provide complementary, alternate targets for exploration in future pharmacological and cognitive intervention studies. PMID:25961638

  5. The temporal primacy of self-related stimuli and negative stimuli: an ERP-based comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Luo, Junlong; Zhao, Na; Hu, Yinying; Yan, Lingyue; Gao, Xiangping

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown there exist attention biases for self-related and negative stimuli. Few studies, however, have been carried out to compare the effects of such stimuli on the neural mechanisms of early attentional alertness and subsequent cognitive processing. The purpose of the present study was to examine the temporal primacy of both self-related stimuli and negative stimuli in the neurophysiologic level. In a modified oddball task, event-related potentials of the deviant stimuli (i.e., self-face, negative face and neutral face) were recorded. Results revealed that larger P2 amplitudes were elicited by self-related and negative stimuli than by neutral stimuli. Negative stimuli, however, elicited shorter P2 latencies than self-related and neutral stimuli. As for the N2 component, self-related and negative stimuli elicited smaller amplitudes and shorter latencies than neutral stimuli, but otherwise did not differ. Self-related stimuli also elicited larger P3 and late positive component (LPC) amplitudes than negative and neutral stimuli. The pattern of results suggests that the primacy of negative stimuli occurred at an early attention stage of processing, while the primacy of self-related stimuli occurred at the subsequent cognitive evaluation and memory stage. PMID:26513485

  6. Time Course of Attention in Socially Anxious Individuals: Investigating the Effects of Adult Attachment Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrow, Yulisha; Chen, Nigel T M; Peters, Lorna

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical models of social anxiety propose that attention biases maintain symptoms of social anxiety. Research findings regarding the time course of attention and social anxiety disorder have been mixed. Adult attachment style may influence attention bias and social anxiety, thus contributing to the mixed findings. This study investigated the time course of attention toward both negative and positive stimuli for individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and assessed whether attachment style moderates this relationship. One hundred and thirty participants (age: M=29.03) were assessed using a semistructured clinical interview. Those meeting eligibility criteria for the clinical sample met DSM-IV criteria for SAD (n=90, age: M=32.18), while those in the control sample did not meet criteria for any mental disorder (n=23, age: M=26.04, 11 females). All participants completed self-report measures examining depression, social anxiety, adult attachment style, and completed an eye-tracking task used to measure the time course of attention. Eye-tracking data were analysed using growth curve analysis. The results indicate that participants in the control group overall displayed greater vigilance towards emotional stimuli, were faster at initially fixating on the emotional stimulus, and had a greater percentage of fixations towards the emotional stimulus as the stimulus presentation time progressed compared to those in the clinical group. Thus, the clinical participants were more likely to avoid fixating on emotional stimuli in general (both negative and positive) compared to those in the control group. These results support the Clark and Wells (1995) proposal that socially anxious individuals avoid attending to emotional information. Attachment style did not moderate this association, however anxious attachment was related to greater vigilance toward emotional compared to neutral stimuli. PMID:27423171

  7. Romantic relationships: do socially anxious individuals benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elizabeth A; Heimberg, Richard G; Montesi, Jennifer L; Fauber, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Psychological health and interpersonal functioning mutually influence each other. Social anxiety has a pervasive effect on interpersonal functioning, resulting in smaller social networks, increased likelihood of being single or divorced, and less intimacy in relationships. However, little is known about how relationships affect socially anxious individuals in return. We utilized a structured interview to assess how romantic relationships were perceived as influencing three aspects of psychological health (well-being, social anxiety and comfort in social situations) and whether these patterns differed as a function of social anxiety in an undergraduate sample. The perceived importance of several reasons for these effects, including those that could be characterized as both protective and harmful, was also assessed. Relationships were perceived as having contributed positively in each domain. However, when positive and negative reasons were examined separately, socially anxious individuals reported benefiting more from the positive reasons and being harmed more by negative reasons. Further, social anxiety was associated with endorsing certain reasons as important. PMID:22413773

  8. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  9. Brief Report: How Anxiously Withdrawn Preadolescents Think about Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman's (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn…

  10. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  11. [Use of tiapride in the anxious alcoholic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, A

    1983-02-24

    The alcoholic patient is usually anxious. Anxiety is increased by withdrawal. The anxiety-relieving effect of tiapride was studied in 20 alcoholics, with a mean age of 44 years. 18 patients were male. Alcoholism was chronic in 18 cases and paroxystic in two. At the time of withdrawal each patient was given 3 intramuscular injections daily for 7 days, then 3 tablets per day. Results, which were evaluated according to the Hamilton score, were excellent in 9 cases, good in 10 and poor in 1: no failure was recorded. The symptoms which responded best were fear, somatic and psychic manifestations of anxiety, depressive feelings and sleep disturbances. Concomitantly, digestive disorders, anorexia, tremor and pain were alleviated. Tolerance was excellent: no neurologic, digestive, cardiovascular or biologic manifestations were recorded. In caring for alcoholic patients, the critical time of withdrawal is undeniably facilitated by the use of tiapride. PMID:6302898

  12. Inhibitory Control in Anxious and Healthy Adolescents Is Modulated by Incentive and Incidental Affective Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Michael G.; Mandell, Darcy; Mueller, Sven C.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. Methods: Twenty-five healthy…

  13. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  14. The Influence of Anxiety on the Initial Selection of Emotional Faces Presented in Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katie L. H.; Adams, Wendy J.; Garner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the…

  15. Brief Report: How Anxiously Withdrawn Preadolescents Think about Friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman’s (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn age mates. Fifth graders (N=116; 58% girls; mean age = 10.33 yrs) completed same-sex friendship and social behavior nominations, as well as a semi-s...

  16. Faces in the dark: Interactive effects of darkness and anxiety on the memory for threatening faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi F Nakashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, we extend past work on the effects of ambient darkness and threat to the domain of memory for expressive faces. In one study, we examined the effects of ambient darkness and individual differences in state anxiety on memory of unfamiliar expressive faces. Here, participants were seated in either a dark or light room and encoded a set of unfamiliar faces with angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. A subsequent recognition task revealed an interactive effect of ambient darkness, anxiety, and target expression. Highly anxious participants in ambient darkness had worse memory for angry faces than did low-anxiety participants. On the other hand, the recognition performance for happy faces was affected neither by the darkness nor state anxiety. The results suggest not only that ambient darkness has its strongest effect on anxious perceivers, but also that person x situation effects should be considered in face recognition research.

  17. Social Skills among Socially Anxious Children in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the nature of social skills in socially anxious children from a social learning theory perspective. The reasons why socially anxious children often perform poorly in social situations have not yet been fully resolved. Is it due to lack of social skills or are these children too inhibited and nervous in social situations to exhibit the skills they possess? Ninety-two elementary and middle school children (age 10-14 years) in Kopavogur, Iceland p...

  18. Time course of processing emotional stimuli as a function of perceived emotional intelligence, anxiety, and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    An individual’s self-reported abilities to attend to, understand, and reinterpret emotional situations or events have been associated with anxiety and depression, but it is unclear how these abilities affect the processing of emotional stimuli, especially in individuals with these symptoms. The present study recorded event-related brain potentials while individuals reporting features of anxiety and depression completed an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that anxious apprehension, ...

  19. Frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects cognitive biases in anxiety: evidence from an emotional face Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Julia; Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C

    2010-12-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has been extensively used in studies of the frontal asymmetry of emotion and motivation. This study investigated the midfrontal EEG activation, heart rate and skin conductance during an emotional face analog of the Stroop task, in anxious and non-anxious participants. In this task, the participants were asked to identify the expression of calm, fearful and happy faces that had either a congruent or incongruent emotion name written across them. Anxious participants displayed a cognitive bias characterized by facilitated attentional engagement with fearful faces. Fearful face trials induced greater relative right frontal activation, whereas happy face trials induced greater relative left frontal activation. Moreover, anxiety specifically modulated the magnitude of the right frontal activation to fearful faces, which also correlated with the cognitive bias. Therefore, these results show that frontal EEG activation asymmetry reflects the bias toward facilitated processing of fearful faces in anxiety. PMID:20607389

  20. Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: The role of stress history and accident severity

    OpenAIRE

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J. Houston; Hickling, Edward J.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behaviors, associations with objective accid...

  1. Socially Anxious Children: An Observational Study of Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Regina M.; Gross, Alan M.

    2001-01-01

    Differences in rate and quality of parent-child communication in parents of socially anxious and normal children 9-12 years old were examined. Socially anxious children, like the control group, tended to mirror verbalizations of parents. In contrast, socially anxious children did not show the same similarities in responsiveness. (BF)

  2. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L.; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used socioecon

  3. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  4. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee's facial-recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  5. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

  6. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the...... present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...... (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also...

  7. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...

  8. Processing of emotional faces in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

  9. Prefrontal Reactivity to Social Signals of Threat as a Predictor of Treatment Response in Anxious Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Swain, James E; Hanna, Gregory L; Koschmann, Elizabeth; Simpson, David; Connolly, Sucheta; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Monk, Christopher S; Phan, K Luan

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging has shown promise as a tool to predict likelihood of treatment response in adult anxiety disorders, with potential implications for clinical decision-making. Despite the relatively high prevalence and emergence of anxiety disorders in youth, very little work has evaluated neural predictors of response to treatment. The goal of the current study was to examine brain function during emotional face processing as a predictor of response to treatment in children and adolescents (age 7-19 years; N=41) with generalized, social, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Prior to beginning treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), participants completed an emotional faces matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Whole brain responses to threatening (ie, angry and fearful) and happy faces were examined as predictors of change in anxiety severity following treatment. Greater activation in inferior and superior frontal gyri, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as precentral/postcentral gyri during processing of threatening faces predicted greater response to CBT and SSRI treatment. For processing of happy faces, activation in postcentral gyrus was a significant predictor of treatment response. Post-hoc analyses indicated that effects were not significantly moderated by type of treatment. Findings suggest that greater activation in prefrontal regions involved in appraising and regulating responses to social signals of threat predict better response to SSRI and CBT treatment in anxious youth and that neuroimaging may be a useful tool for predicting how youth will respond to treatment. PMID:26708107

  10. Focusing on fear: Attentional disengagement from emotional faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George A.; Bleakley, Cheryl; Hayward, James; Russo, Riccardo; Dutton, Kevin; Eltiti, Stacy; Fox, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that anxiety is associated with a shift of visual attention toward threatening stimuli in the environment, such as facial expressions (Mogg & Bradley, 1999). More recent evidence, however, indicates that anxiety may be better characterized by a failure to rapidly disengage the visual attention system away from threat-related facial expressions (Fox, Russo, Bowles, & Dutton, 2001). The present study further investigates this delayed disengagement hypothesis. Results show that high trait-anxious individuals, in contrast to low trait-anxious individuals, take longer to classify peripheral target letters when fearful facial expressions were presented at fixation relative to sad, happy, or neutral expressions. These findings demonstrate a specific tendency to dwell on fear-relevant stimuli, as opposed to negative information in general. These findings are considered from an evolutionary perspective and the possible role of delayed disengagement from threat in the maintenance of anxiety states is also discussed. PMID:17460752

  11. Interpretation Biases for Positive Facial Stimuli in Social Anxiety%社交焦虑个体对正性面孔刺激的解释偏差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚泥沙; 李松蔚; 钱铭怡; 余红玉; 王小玲; 林沐雨; 赵欣

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggested that socially anxious individuals might form threatening interpretations of positive facial stimuli. However, some studies failed to provide empirical evidence of an interpretation bias toward positive faces. These studies may have several methodological limitations that the present study attempted to overcome. And none of them assessed the interpretations bias, if existent, over time. The present study tried to figure out whether the socially anxious individuals were characterized by an interpretation bias towards positive facial stimuli, and investigated whether this interpretation bias tends to occur at an early stage in the interpretation process of positive stimuli, or it occurs at a later stage. The current study consisted of a 2 ( stimulus duration type) × 2 ( group type) mixed factorial design. The within-subjects factor of duration type had two levels (long vs. brief durations), and the between-subjects factor of group type had two levels (high vs. low social anxiety groups). Before the experiment, the participants first finished a package of questionnaires (S1AS, SPS, BFNE). Then, they were told that they would conduct an impromptu speaking task after the experiment, and their performance would be assessed. The participants were made convinced that the experiment was about to test their social and presentation skills, After the experiment, no speaking task would be performed. They were debriefed and explained about the design. In the experiment, a positive face and a matched neutral face were presented on the screen at the same time for each trial. The participants, who scored high and low on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, were instructed to imagine that these faces represented the audience in their coming speaking task, and they were asked to identify the facial displays that they subjectively perceived to be more threatening. The matched positive and neutral facial displays were presented at both long (unlimited) and

  12. Long term consequences of suppression of intrusive anxious thoughts and repressive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraerts, Elke; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko; Smeets, Elke

    2006-10-01

    The current experiment employed a thought suppression paradigm to investigate whether repressors (N=40) are more skilled in suppressing positive and anxious autobiographical thoughts than low anxious (N=40), high anxious (N=40), and defensive high anxious (N=40) individuals, both immediately and over a longer time period (i.e., 7 days). Regardless of suppression instructions, repressors reported during their lab visit fewer target thoughts for their most anxious events than participants in the other three groups. However, over a 7 days period, repressors showed the highest number of intrusive thoughts about their anxious autobiographical events. Thus, our results demonstrate that repressive coping might be adaptive in the short run, but counterproductive in the long run. PMID:16337604

  13. Temporal Patterns of Anxious and Depressed Mood in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Daily Diary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that anxiety disorders tend to temporally precede depressive disorders, a finding potentially relevant to understanding comorbidity. The current study used diary methods to determine whether daily anxious mood also temporally precedes daily depressed mood. 55 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and history of depressive symptoms completed a 21-day daily diary tracking anxious and depressed mood. Daily anxious and depressed moods were concurrently associated....

  14. Impact of an anxious social situation on emotional facial expressions (EFE) recognition in children

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Marie; Taskin, Aslihan; Blairy, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Socially anxious children have difficulties to interact adequately with others. The core characteristic of social anxiety, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others, may among others, be based on problems with the decoding of other persons’ emotional facial expression (EFE). Up to now, the research on EFE recognition in socially anxious children has produced mixed results. Whereas some studies reported differences between anxious and healthy children in EFE recognition (e.g., Simonian,...

  15. Socially anxious mothers’ narratives to their children, and their relation to child representations and adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Lynne; Pella, Jeff; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Arteche, Adriane; Pass, Laura; Percy, Ray; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Anxious mothers’ parenting, particularly transfer of threat information, has been considered important in their children’s risk for social anxiety disorder (SAnxD), and maternal narratives concerning potential social threat could elucidate this contribution. Maternal narratives to their pre-school 4-5 year-old children, via a picture book about starting school, were assessed in socially anxious (N=73), and non-anxious (N=63) mothers. Child representations of school were assessed via Doll P...

  16. Face to Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...

  17. Attentional capture by social stimuli in young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxie eGluckman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility that a range of social stimuli capture the attention of 6-month-old infants when in competition with other non-face objects. Infants viewed a series of six-item arrays in which one target item was a face, body part, or animal as their eye movements were recorded. Stimulus arrays were also processed for relative salience of each item in terms of color, luminance, and amount of contour. Targets were rarely the most visually salient items in the arrays, yet infants’ first looks toward all three target types were above chance, and dwell times for targets exceeded other stimulus types. Girls looked longer at faces than did boys, but there were no sex differences for other stimuli. These results are interpreted in a context of learning to discriminate between different classes of animate stimuli, perhaps in line with affordances for social interaction, and origins of sex differences in social attention.

  18. When is a Face a Face? Schematic Faces, Emotion, Attention and the N170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Maratos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions provide important non-verbal cues as to the imminent behavioural intentions of a second party. Hence, within emotion science the processing of faces (emotional or otherwise has been at the forefront of research. Notably, however, such research has led to a number of debates including the ecological validity of utilising schematic faces in emotion research, and the face-selectively of N170. In order to investigate these issues, we explored the extent to which N170 is modulated by schematic faces, emotional expression and/or selective attention. Eighteen participants completed a three-stimulus oddball paradigm with two scrambled faces as the target and standard stimuli (counter-balanced across participants, and schematic angry, happy and neutral faces as the oddball stimuli. Results revealed that the magnitude of the N170 associated with the target stimulus was: (i significantly greater than that elicited by the standard stimulus, (ii comparable with the N170 elicited by the neutral and happy schematic face stimuli, and (iii significantly reduced compared to the N170 elicited by the angry schematic face stimulus. These findings extend current literature by demonstrating N170 can be modulated by events other than those associated with structural face encoding; i.e. here, the act of labelling a stimulus a ‘target’ to attend to modulated the N170 response. Additionally, the observation that schematic faces demonstrate similar N170 responses to those recorded for real faces and, akin to real faces, angry schematic faces demonstrated heightened N170 responses, suggests caution should be taken before disregarding schematic facial stimuli in emotion processing research per se.

  19. Angry-happy interpretations of ambiguous faces in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Keren; Eldar, Sharon; Stoddard, Joel; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-07-30

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by a tendency to interpret ambiguous social cues as negative. Here we tested whether interpretation of ambiguous faces differs between participants with SAD and non-anxious controls. Twenty-seven individuals with SAD and 21 non-anxious control participants completed an emotion recognition task in which they judged ambiguous morphed faces as happy or angry. Participants with SAD judged a higher proportion of the faces as angry compared to non-anxious participants, and were slower to judge faces as angry compared to happy, while no such reaction time bias manifested in the control group. Finally, happy judgments were slower in the SAD group compared to the control group, while angry judgments were faster in the SAD group compared to the control group. These findings provide evidence for a negative bias in resolving emotional ambiguity in facial expressions among individuals with SAD. PMID:27173656

  20. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: Effects of face direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Martina Kliegl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009 reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented towards the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance and an evolutionary context.

  1. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  2. Parenting by Anxious Mothers: Effects of Disorder Subtype, Context and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Lau, Pui Yi; Arteche, Adriane; Creswell, Cathy; Russ, Stephanie; Zoppa, Letizia Della; Muggeo, Michela; Stein, Alan; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing research interest in parenting by anxious adults; however, little is known about anxiety-subtype effects, or effects of the context in which parenting is assessed. Methods: Two groups of anxious mothers, social phobia (N = 50), generalised anxiety disorder (N = 38), and nonanxious controls (N = 62) were…

  3. Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior towards Socially Anxious Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blote, Anke W.; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class…

  4. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it. PMID:25962856

  5. Face To Face

    OpenAIRE

    Laursen, Lea Holst; Eilertzen, Freja Nissen; Repsdorph, Helene Reck; Gerelsaikhan, Gerelmaa; Otkjær, Mia Jo; Søndergaard, Ditte Klerens

    2008-01-01

    The face-to-face (F2F) strategy is a method which entails groups of so-called ‘facers’ standing in a public space trying to recruit people to the organisation and informing about the organisation’s work. In combination with the possibility of reaching large numbers of people, this technique provides a steady and ongoing flow of money, something which is vital for the NGO’s when planning future activities. In spite of ethical regulations the use of facers is a very controversial strat...

  6. Updating Positive and Negative Stimuli in Working Memory in Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Levens, Sara M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in the ability to update stimuli in working memory (WM) may underlie the problems with regulating emotions that lead to the development and perpetuation of mood disorders such as depression. To examine the ability to update affective material in WM, diagnosed depressed and never-disordered controls performed an emotion 2-back task in which they were presented with a series of happy, sad, and neutral faces and were asked to indicate whether the current face had the same (match-set...

  7. Tagging Multiple Emotional Stimuli: Negative Valence Has Little Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Derrick G.; Blagrove, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Six experiments examined the influence of emotional valence on the tagging and enumeration of multiple targets. Experiments 1, 5 and 6 found that there was no difference in the efficiency of tagging/enumerating multiple negative or positive stimuli. Experiment 2 showed that, when neutral-expression face distractors were present, enumerating…

  8. Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

  9. Sleep problems in anxious and depressive older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc MF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie-France Leblanc,1 Sophie Desjardins,1 Alain Desgagné2 1Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, 2Department of Mathematics, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the sleep problems most often encountered by the elderly according to the presence or absence of anxiety and mood disorders. The aim was also to determine whether groups of anxious, depressive, and asymptomatic individuals differ in relation to sleep onset latency; awakenings at night or early in the morning; subjective quality of sleep; taking of sleep medication; and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Structured interviews based on the DSM-IV-TR were administered to a sample of 2,759 seniors aged 65 years and older at the participants’ home by health professionals. Results: Awakening was found to be the most common disturbance. Increased sleep onset latency was the second most frequent sleep difficulty. Taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep was associated with the likelihood of meeting the diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, and even reduced the risk of meeting the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder rather than an anxiety disorder. Awakenings were associated with the probability of suffering from an anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. Quality of sleep, as perceived by the elderly, was not found to be associated with the probability of suffering from a mental disorder. Conclusion: These findings should help to facilitate the practitioner’s diagnosis and add further nuances to be considered when encountering symptoms of an anxious or depressive appearance. All of these data also add fuel to the ongoing debate about whether anxiety and depression are one or two distinct categories of disorders. Keywords: anxiety, awakenings, daytime sleepiness, depression, elderly, quality of sleep, sleep medication, sleep onset latency 

  10. Face To Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  11. Simultaneous face and voice processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Pinheiro, Ana P; Zhao, Zhongxin; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-05-15

    While several studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in the unisensory processing of face and voice in schizophrenia (SZ), the extent of abnormalities in the simultaneous processing of both types of information remains unclear. To address this issue, we used event-related potentials (ERP) methodology to probe the multisensory integration of face and non-semantic sounds in schizophrenia. EEG was recorded from 18 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects in three conditions: neutral faces (visual condition-VIS); neutral non-semantic sounds (auditory condition-AUD); neutral faces presented simultaneously with neutral non-semantic sounds (audiovisual condition-AUDVIS). When compared with HC, the schizophrenia group showed less negative N170 to both face and face-voice stimuli; later P270 peak latency in the multimodal condition of face-voice relative to unimodal condition of face (the reverse was true in HC); reduced P400 amplitude and earlier P400 peak latency in the face but not in the voice-face condition. Thus, the analysis of ERP components suggests that deficits in the encoding of facial information extend to multimodal face-voice stimuli and that delays exist in feature extraction from multimodal face-voice stimuli in schizophrenia. In contrast, categorization processes seem to benefit from the presentation of simultaneous face-voice information. Timepoint by timepoint tests of multimodal integration did not suggest impairment in the initial stages of processing in schizophrenia. PMID:26804362

  12. Menstrual cycle phase modulates cognitive control over male but not female stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Garavan, Hugh; NEWELL, FIONA

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Evolutionary selection pressures have been one of the factors proposed to underlie sex differences in inhibitory control. Consequently, inhibitory control may vary as a function of the menstrual cycle and may be modulated by the stimuli being processed if these stimuli are related to reproductive success. We used functional MRI to study women's brain activation across the menstrual cycle on a GO/NOGO response inhibition task using attractive male and female faces as stimuli. We d...

  13. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: effects of face direction

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegl, Katrin M.; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Dürr, Lea; Traue, Harald C.; Huckauf, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009) reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented toward the observer. We aimed at replicating this...

  14. Neural substrates of species-dependent visual processing of faces: use of morphed faces

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Emi; Ogata, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Junji; Tanaka, Mutsuhide; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamasaki, Takao; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Face identification and categorization are essential for social communication. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) is considered to be a biomarker of face perception. To elucidate the neural basis of species-dependent face processing, we recorded 128-ch high-density ERPs in 14 healthy adults while they viewed the images of morphed faces. The morphed stimuli contained different proportions of human and monkey faces, and the species boundary was shifted away from the center of the morph cont...

  15. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  16. Late Positive Potential ERP Responses to Social and Nonsocial Stimuli in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Stephen D; Kovac, Megan; Campbell, Alana; Miller, Stephanie; Hanna, Eleanor K; Damiano, Cara R; Sabatino-DiCriscio, Antoinette; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Sasson, Noah J; Aaron, Rachel V; Kinard, Jessica; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2016-09-01

    We examined the late positive potential (LPP) event related potential in response to social and nonsocial stimuli from youths 9 to 19 years old with (n = 35) and without (n = 34) ASD. Social stimuli were faces with positive expressions and nonsocial stimuli were related to common restricted interests in ASD (e.g., electronics, vehicles, etc.). The ASD group demonstrated relatively smaller LPP amplitude to social stimuli and relatively larger LPP amplitude to nonsocial stimuli. There were no group differences in subjective ratings of images, and there were no significant correlations between LPP amplitude and ASD symptom severity within the ASD group. LPP results suggest blunted motivational responses to social stimuli and heightened motivational responses to nonsocial stimuli in youth with ASD. PMID:27344337

  17. Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…

  18. Anxiety promotes memory for mood-congruent faces but does not alter loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2016-01-01

    Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety. PMID:27098489

  19. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  20. Face to Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    子非

    2004-01-01

    <正> 子非 1.“We know that we’ve alreadybeaten Chelsea and that we can doit again if we perform at our bestds We‘ve shown that before.They havealways been hard games againstChelsea but maybe we’ve had theDsyChlongical advantage.All runseventually have to come to an end!We will treat it as a normal game,1ike the semi-finals of the FA Cup.The good thing is that there willbe an Engllsh team 1n the semi-finals.But the negative thing isthat 1t takes a bit of the charmaway from a European CUP tie.Youexpect to Play a team from anothercountry.No matter which team doesit,they are worthy winners.Butat the moment,we have a big taskin the Quarter-finals and it’S notsure that the winners will faceReal Madrid."

  1. Interactions Between Transient and Sustained Neural Signals Support the Generation and Regulation of Anxious Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Leah; Wagner, D. D.; Wig, G. S.; Moran, Joe Michael; Whalen, P. J.; Kelley, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Anxious emotion can manifest on brief (threat response) and/or persistent (chronic apprehension and arousal) timescales, and prior work has suggested that these signals are supported by separable neural circuitries. This fMRI study utilized a mixed block-event–related emotional provocation paradigm in 55 healthy participants to simultaneously measure brief and persistent anxious emotional responses, testing the specificity of, and interactions between, these potentially distinct systems. Resu...

  2. Socially Anxious and Confident Men Interact with a Forward Virtual Woman: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xueni Pan; Marco Gillies; Chris Barker; Clark, David M.; Mel Slater

    2012-01-01

    Background Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men. Met...

  3. Impact of an anxious social situation on emotional facial expressions (EFEs) recognition in children

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Marie; Taskin, Aslihan Serap; Blairy, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between the capacity of emotional facial expressions (EFEs) recognition and self-esteem in children placed in an anxious social situation. Seventy children (8 – 12 years) were placed in an anxious social situation of performance in which they were instructed to count aloud backwards, beginning at 200 in decrements of 13. After that, children were assessed on a decoding test of 16 photographs depicting EFE. For each photograph, they evaluated the presence ...

  4. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Messina Vincenzo; Luca Antonina; De Luca Maria; Pistorio Elisabetta; Calandra Carmela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI) as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs). The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...

  5. Modulation of executive attention by threat stimulus in test-anxious students

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Renlai; Zou, Jilin

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when th...

  6. Recognizing one's own face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, T T; Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Rabe-Hesketh, S; Benson, P J; Bullmore, E T; Brammer, M; Simmons, A; Bartels, M; David, A S

    2001-01-01

    We report two studies of facial self-perception using individually tailored, standardized facial photographs of a group of volunteers and their partners. A computerized morphing procedure was used to merge each target face with an unknown control face. In the first set of experiments, a discrimination task revealed a delayed response time for the more extensively morphed self-face stimuli. In a second set of experiments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation while subjects viewed morphed versions of either their own or their partner's face, alternating in blocks with presentation of an unknown face. When subjects viewed themselves (minus activation for viewing an unknown face), increased blood oxygenation was detected in right limbic (hippocampal formation, insula, anterior cingulate), left prefrontal cortex and superior temporal cortex. In the partner (versus unknown) experiment, only the right insula was activated. We suggest that a neural network involving the right hemisphere in conjunction with left-sided associative and executive regions underlies the process of visual self-recognition. Together, this combination produces the unique experience of self-awareness. PMID:11062324

  7. Executive functioning and diabetes: The role of anxious arousal and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Lacourt, Tamara E; Duke, Danny C; Heijnen, Cobi J; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-09-01

    Individuals who perform poorly on measures of the executive function of inhibition have higher anxious arousal in comparison to those with better performance. High anxious arousal is associated with a pro-inflammatory response. Chronically high anxious arousal and inflammation increase one's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We sought to evaluate anxious arousal and inflammation as underlying mechanisms linking inhibition with diabetes incidence. Participants (N=835) completed measures of cognitive abilities, a self-report measure of anxious arousal, and donated blood to assess interleukin-6 (IL-6) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Individuals with low inhibition were more likely to have diabetes than those with high inhibition due to the serial pathway from high anxious arousal to IL-6. Findings remained when entering other indicators of cognitive abilities as covariates, suggesting that inhibition is a unique cognitive ability associated with diabetes incidence. On the basis of our results, we propose several avenues to explore for improved prevention and treatment efforts for type 2 diabetes. PMID:27261922

  8. The role of gender in face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnman, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Faces constitute one of the most important stimuli for humans. Studies show that women recognize more faces than men, and that females are particularly able to recognize female faces, thus exhibiting an own-sex bias. In the present thesis, three empirical studies investigated the generality of sex differences in face recognition and the female own-sex bias. Study I explored men’s and women’s face recognition performance for Bangladeshi and Swedish female and male faces of adults and children....

  9. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing. PMID:23805248

  10. Prioritized Detection of Personally Familiar Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Gobbini

    Full Text Available We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing.

  11. Do pictures of faces, and which ones, capture attention in the inattentional blindness paradigm?

    OpenAIRE

    Devue, C.; Laloyaux, C.; Feyers, D.; Theeuwes, J; Bredart, S.

    2009-01-01

    Faces and self-referential materials (eg the own name) are more likely to capture attention in the inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm than others stimuli. This effect is presumably due to the meaning of these stimuli rather than to their familiarity (Mack and Rock 1998). IB has mostly been investigated with schematic stimuli in previous work. In the present study, the generalisability of this finding was tested using photographic stimuli. In support to the view that faces constitute a spec...

  12. Looking at a face. Relavant aspects of face perception in social cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Comparetti,

    2012-01-01

    An important issue in human cognition concerns face processing. Faces are incontestably one of the most important biological stimuli for humans. They convey crucial social cues, such as age, sex, emotion and identity information, and are the basis of verbal and non-verbal communication. Face processing and recognition have been extensively studied over the past years, through different methodology including neuroimaging and electrophysiology, mostly aimed at testing the extent to which faces...

  13. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, V; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance Jr, W.C.; Hallett, M

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to positive stimuli. We investigated the relationship between conversion disorder and affect by assessing amygdala activity to affective stimuli. We conduct...

  14. Socially anxious and confident men interact with a forward virtual woman: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men. METHODOLOGY: The scenario was a party with five virtual characters, four sitting at a distance from the participant and talking amongst themselves and one lone woman standing closer. The woman approached the participant, introduced herself and initiated a conversation that was first about mundane matters and then became more personal and intimate. Participants were men who were either relatively socially confident (18 or socially anxious in their relationships with women (18. A second experimental factor was whether or not the other four characters occasionally looked towards the participant. There was a post-trial questionnaire about social anxiety in relation to the experience, and skin conductance and ECG physiological measures were recorded. Our expectation was that the socially anxious participants would show greater anxiety throughout. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to baseline readings both socially confident and socially anxious groups on average showed signs of significantly increased stress at the initial approach of the virtual woman. The stress then diminished once the conversation entered into the mundane phase and then did not significantly change. Comparing pre- and post-questionnaire anxiety scores there was no change for the more confident participants but a significant decrease in average score amongst the anxious group. The methodology of placing socially anxious participants in a virtual reality where they can gain experience of how to act in a

  15. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S; Shelton, Steven E; Oakes, Terrence R; Davidson, Richard J; Kalin, Ned H

    2008-01-01

    Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray) that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and depression. In

  16. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Fox

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  17. Relations Between Depressive and Anxious Symptoms and Quality of Life in Caregivers of Children With Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Montag-Leifling, Karen; Acton, James D.; Modi, Avani C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Little is known about depressive and anxious symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in caregivers of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aims of this study were to: (1) assess rates of female and male caregiver depressive and anxious symptoms, and (2) evaluate relations between depressive and anxious symptoms, caregiver QOL, and health outcomes. Patients and Methods Eligible participants were caregivers of children with CF who completed three questionnaires assessing depressive and an...

  18. Tagging multimedia stimuli with ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko; Popovic, Sinisa; Bogunovic, Nikola; Cosic, Kresimir

    2009-01-01

    Successful management of emotional stimuli is a pivotal issue concerning Affective Computing (AC) and the related research. As a subfield of Artificial Intelligence, AC is concerned not only with the design of computer systems and the accompanying hardware that can recognize, interpret, and process human emotions, but also with the development of systems that can trigger human emotional response in an ordered and controlled manner. This requires the maximum attainable precision and efficiency...

  19. Pavlovian conditioning with proximal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachnit, H; Bohn, A

    1986-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with the objective of demonstrating that the effective stimuli in Pavlovian Conditioning are not environmental stimuli but internal physiological processes elicited by environmental input (proximal stimuli). In order to achieve the objective, afterimages in color vision were used: looking at a diffuse lightened circle after seeing a red circle yields an image of a green circle. A differential conditioning paradigm with two sequential compounds was run. In one group (G+B-: n1 = 10), a red circle followed by a green circle was paired with shock, whereas a red circle followed by a blue circle remained unpaired. A second group (G-B+: n2 = 10) received red-blue paired trials and unpaired red-green trials. Immediately after that training, subjects were tested with a new, never trained sequential compound: a red circle followed by a diffuse lightened circle. Furthermore, they were tested with the already trained compounds. Taking the environmental point of view, the never trained stimulus should elicit an orienting response lying in between the excitatory reaction to the paired stimulus and the inhibitory reaction to the unpaired stimulus. From the proximal point of view, the diffuse light should elicit an excitatory reaction in group G+B- and an inhibitory reaction in group G-B+. Electrodermal conditioned anticipatory and omission responses were measured. The results supported the proximal hypothesis. Hence, defining input in environmental terms may be the wrong way. Instead, in conceptualizing the stimulus in conditioning, the following should be considered: the processing organism itself is creating the effective stimuli. PMID:3785989

  20. The role of mindfulness and decentering in depressive and anxious symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Linares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive and anxious symptoms have a clear impact on the functioning of people. Their appearance seems to be related to the presence of deficits in metacognitive capacities. Mindfulness interventions increase metacognitive awareness through their effect in the decentering capacity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mindfulness and decentering with anxious and depressive symptomatology respectively. The sample consisted of 465 participants contacted through universities and social networks. Results revealed that both mindfulness and the ability to decenter explain the presence of depressive symptoms while only mindfulness explains the presence of anxiety symptoms. These results are encouraging for intervention in mindfulness with anxious and depressive symptoms and stress the importance of metacognitive processes such as decentering in their development.

  1. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  2. Losing Face

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-Jones, David; Reinstein, David

    2010-01-01

    When person A makes an offer to person B and B rejects it, then A may “lose face.” This loss of face is assumed to occur only if B knows for sure of A’s offer. While under some circumstances loss of face can be rationalized by the consequences for future reputation, it may also enter directly into the utility function. Loss of face concerns can lead to fewer offers and inefficiency in markets that involve matching, discrete transactions, and offers/proposals in both directions, su...

  3. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jessica L; Landi, Nicole; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mencl, W Einar; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high) and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral) in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG) and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences in motivational

  4. Regional brain responses in nulliparous women to emotional infant stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Montoya

    Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences

  5. Famous Faces Demand Attention Due to Reduced Inhibitory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Liana; Guiney, Hayley; Mitchell, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    People have particular difficulty ignoring distractors that depict faces. This phenomenon has been attributed to the high level of biological significance that faces carry. The current study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which faces gain processing priority. We used a focused attention paradigm that tracks the influence of a distractor over time and provides a measure of inhibitory processing. Upright famous faces served as test stimuli and inverted versions of the faces as well as upri...

  6. Effects of state and trait anxiety on selective attention to threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Ortega Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.

  7. Finding an emotional face in a crowd and the role of threat-biased attention in social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Juth, Pernilla

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary perspective on the functionality of prioritizing efficient threat detection (Öhman, 1986, 1993) provided the foundation for a hypothesis of an attentional bias for preferential detection of angry faces in a group of faces. Furthermore, an evolutionary analysis implied that such a threat bias would be enhanced in socially anxious individuals, whose bias for detecting threat in faces would be potentiated by their increased sensitivity for facial signals of soc...

  8. Threat Interference Biases Predict Socially Anxious Behavior: The Role of Inhibitory Control and Minute of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-07-01

    The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. PMID:26163713

  9. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Mariska eKret; Jeroen eStekelenburg; Karin eRoelofs; Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2013-01-01

    Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emo...

  10. Perception of Face and Body Expressions Using Electromyography, Pupillometry and Gaze Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Kret, Mariska E.; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.; Roelofs, Karin; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important as well. In these experiments we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily ...

  11. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on...

  12. Face-to-face coalition

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Timothy J.; Thompson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The perception and recognition of familiar faces are thought to depend critically on an analysis of the internal features of the face. However, other studies have shown that combining highly familiar internal features with an inappropriate set of familiar external features produces a composite face whose identity is dominated by the external features. Here, we show that this illusion depends on the distinctiveness of the external features.

  13. Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

    2010-01-01

    Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

  14. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  15. Classroom Emotional Climate as a Moderator of Anxious Solitary Children's Longitudinal Risk for Peer Exclusion: A Child x Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of…

  16. Impact of REM sleep on distortions of self-concept, mood and memory in depressed/anxious participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Auerbach, Sanford; Johnson, Patricia; Harris, Erica; Doros, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that REM sleep contributes to core features of cognitive dysfunction of anxious depression including negative self-appraisals, biased memory processing and unpleasant dream content. Methods: After a habituation night in a sleep lab, a convenience sample of 35 healthy college students and 20 depressed/anxious students were awakened 10 minutes into a REM sleep episode and then 10 minutes into a NREM sleep episode. Awakenings were counterbalanced to control circadian effects. After each awakening participants reported a dream and then completed memory recall, mood and self-appraisal tasks. Results: Self-appraisals of depressed/anxious participants were significantly less positive and significantly more negative after awakenings from REM sleep vs NREM sleep. Appraisal of the REM sleep dream self was negative for depressed/anxious subjects only. Recall of negative memories was significantly more frequent after REM vs NREM sleep awakenings for both depress/anxious and healthy participants. REM sleep dreams were associated with greater frequencies of negative emotion, greater aggression and victimization rates than dreams in NREM sleep for depressed/anxious participants. Limitations: Depressed/anxious participants were classified as such on the basis of mood scales rather than clinical interview. All participants were drawn from a volunteer college student population and thus our results may not be applicable to some elderly clinical populations. Conclusions: REM appears to facilitate cognitive distortions of anxious depression. PMID:19631989

  17. Covert Face Recognition without Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Ellis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985. The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, “automatic” aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury.

  18. Integration of faces and voices, but not faces and names, in person recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Christiane; Newell, Fiona N

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies on cross-modal recognition suggest that face and voice information are linked for the purpose of person identification. We tested whether congruent associations between familiarized faces and voices facilitated subsequent person recognition relative to incongruent associations. Furthermore, we investigated whether congruent face and name associations would similarly benefit person identification relative to incongruent face and name associations. Participants were familiarized with a set of talking video-images of actors, their names, and their voices. They were then tested on their recognition of either the face, voice, or name of each actor from bimodal stimuli which were either congruent or novel (incongruent) associations between the familiarized face and voice or face and name. We found that response times to familiarity decisions based on congruent face and voice stimuli were facilitated relative to incongruent associations. In contrast, we failed to find a benefit for congruent face and name pairs. Our findings suggest that faces and voices, but not faces and names, are integrated in memory for the purpose of person recognition. These findings have important implications for current models of face perception and support growing evidence for multisensory effects in face perception areas of the brain for the purpose of person recognition. PMID:22229775

  19. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing. PMID:27531986

  20. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing. PMID:27531986

  1. The Visual Mismatch Negativity Elicited with Visual Speech Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne E Bernstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, deriving from the brain’s response to stimulus deviance, is thought to be generated by the cortex that represents the stimulus. The vMMN response to visual speech stimuli was used in a study of the lateralization of visual speech processing. Previous research suggested that the right posterior temporal cortex has specialization for processing simple non-speech face gestures, and the left posterior temporal cortex has specialization for processing visual speech gestures. Here, visual speech consonant-vowel (CV stimuli with controlled perceptual dissimilarities were presented in an electroencephalography (EEG vMMN paradigm. The vMMNs were obtained using the comparison of event-related potentials (ERPs for separate CVs in their roles as deviant versus their roles as standard. Four separate vMMN contrasts were tested, two with the perceptually far deviants (i.e., “zha” or “fa” and two with the near deviants (i.e., “zha” or “ta”. Only far deviants evoked the vMMN response over the left posterior temporal cortex. All four deviants evoked vMMNs over the right posterior temporal cortex. The results are interpreted as evidence that the left posterior temporal cortex represents speech stimuli that are perceived as different consonants, and the right posterior temporal cortex represents face gestures that may not be discriminable as different CVs.

  2. A cognitive-behavioral group treatment for test-anxious adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA

    1994-01-01

    Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the

  3. Lived experiences of self-reported science-anxious students taking an interdisciplinary undergraduate science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Mark Austin

    Having fears and frustrations while studying science topics can lead to science anxiety for some individuals. For those who experience science learning anxiety, the reality is often poor performance, lowered self-esteem, anger, and avoidance of further science courses. Using an interpretive approach, this study captures the experiences of five self-reported science anxious students as they participate in an interdisciplinary science course at the University of Minnesota. A series of three in-depth interviews were conducted with five students who were enrolled in the "Our Changing Planet" course offered at the University of Minnesota. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed thematically. Four major themes emerged from the interviews. Two of the themes involve the realities of being a science anxious student. These focus on participants' experiences of feeling frustrated, anxious and incompetent when studying both math and science; and the experiences of trying to learn science content that does not seem relevant to them. The last two themes highlight the participants' perceptions of their experiences during the "Our Changing Planet" course, including how the course seemed different from previous science courses as well as their learning experiences in cooperative groups. After presenting the themes, with supporting quotations, each theme is linked to the related literature. The essence of the participants' science anxiety experiences is presented and practical implications regarding science anxious students are discussed. Finally, insights gained and suggestions for further research are provided.

  4. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise;

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  5. Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

  6. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  7. Changes in Maternal Expressed Emotion toward Clinically Anxious Children following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar, Natalie S.; Hudson, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal expressed emotion (criticism and emotional overinvolvement) decreased across treatment for childhood anxiety. Mothers of 48 clinically anxious children (aged 6-14 years) were rated on levels of criticism (CRIT) and emotional overinvolvement (EOI), as measured by a Five Minute Speech Sample…

  8. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…

  9. Facilitating a benign interpretation bias in a high socially anxious population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rebecca; Hirsch, Colette R; Mathews, Andrew; Smith, Keren; Clark, David M

    2007-07-01

    Previous research has shown that high socially anxious individuals lack the benign interpretation bias present in people without social anxiety. The tendency of high socially anxious people to generate more negative interpretations may lead to anticipated anxiety about future social situations. If so, developing a more benign interpretation bias could lead to a reduction in this anxiety. The current study showed that a benign interpretation bias could be facilitated (or 'trained') in a high socially anxious population. Participants in the benign training groups had repeated practice in accessing benign (positive or non-negative) interpretations of potentially threatening social scenarios. Participants in the control condition were presented with the same social scenarios but without their outcomes being specified. In a later recognition task, participants who received benign interpretation training generated more benign, and less negative, interpretations of new ambiguous social situations compared to the control group. Participants who received benign training also predicted that they would be significantly less anxious in a future social situation than those in the control group. Possible implications of the findings for therapeutic interventions in social phobia are discussed. PMID:17349970

  10. Socially anxious children at risk for victimization : The role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Saskia F.; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether Big Five personality traits affect the extent to which a socially anxious child will be victimized. A total of 1814 children participated in the study (mean age = 11.99 years). Children completed self-reports and peer reports of victimization, which were aggregated, and s

  11. Perceptions and Responses of High- and Low-Competitive Trait-Anxious Males to Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Tara K.

    1978-01-01

    The findings tentatively suggest that highly competitive trait-anxious individuals generally will seek out competitive sports activities and will structure the situation so that the full impact of the competition is felt regardless of how personally threatening the situation might be. (MM)

  12. Anxiety and quality of life: clinically anxious children with and without autism spectrum disorders compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; C.D. Dirksen

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid

  13. Microinterventions targeting regulatory focus and regulatory fit selectively reduce dysphoric and anxious mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauman, Timothy J; Socolar, Yvonne; Kwapil, Lori; Cornwell, James F M; Franks, Becca; Sehnert, Steen; Higgins, E Tory

    2015-09-01

    Depression and generalized anxiety, separately and as comorbid states, continue to represent a significant public health challenge. Current cognitive-behavioral treatments are clearly beneficial but there remains a need for continued development of complementary interventions. This manuscript presents two proof-of-concept studies, in analog samples, of "microinterventions" derived from regulatory focus and regulatory fit theories and targeting dysphoric and anxious symptoms. In Study 1, participants with varying levels of dysphoric and/or anxious mood were exposed to a brief intervention either to increase or to reduce engagement in personal goal pursuit, under the hypothesis that dysphoria indicates under-engagement of the promotion system whereas anxiety indicates over-engagement of the prevention system. In Study 2, participants with varying levels of dysphoric and/or anxious mood received brief training in counterfactual thinking, under the hypothesis that inducing individuals in a state of promotion failure to generate subtractive counterfactuals for past failures (a non-fit) will lessen their dejection/depression-related symptoms, whereas inducing individuals in a state of prevention failure to generate additive counterfactuals for past failures (a non-fit) will lessen their agitation/anxiety-related symptoms. In both studies, we observed discriminant patterns of reduction in distress consistent with the hypothesized links between dysfunctional states of the two motivational systems and dysphoric versus anxious symptoms. PMID:26163353

  14. Facing Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it was, and then I just had a flood of emotions. Because of my history, I was ... Fibromyalgia: medlineplus.gov/fibromyalgia.html Read More "Fibromyalgia" Articles Fibromyalgia: A Puzzling and Painful Condition / Facing Fibromyalgia ...

  15. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  16. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova;

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...... performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  17. Face Processing & Frontal Face Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Conrad

    2003-01-01

    In this report we first review important publications in the field of face recognition; geometric features, templates, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), pseudo-2D Hidden Markov Models, Elastic Graph Matching, as well as other points are covered; important issues, such as the effects of an illumination direction change and the use of different face areas, are also covered. A new feature set (termed DCT-mod2) is then proposed; the feature set utilizes polynomial coefficients derived from 2D D...

  18. Face diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Ventalló, Xènia

    2015-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The Face Diarization project is a comparative analysis between two methods already developed. This project aims to determine if, using this procedure, the video sequence scenes limits can be determined. For face detection a 69.78% recall and a 65.78% precision are achieved. Using the LBPH classification system a 74.34% of detections are correctly classified; while, using the system algorithm that also considers the cloth, a 62.57% are classified. For the scenes separation system, usi...

  19. Detection, discrimination, and sensation of visceral stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Hölzl, Rupert; Erasmus, Lutz-Peter; Möltner, Andreas; Samay, Sebastian; Waldmann, Hans-Christian; Neidig, Claus W.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the interoception of gastrointestinal stimuli. A total of 48 subjects participated in the study that used an adaptive up-down tracking method of threshold determination of distensions to the colon wall. Subjects were presented with two temporal intervals, and the stimulus was applied to one of the intervals. Then they were required to give behavioral and subjective responses to perceived distension stimuli in the lower bowel segments. It is concluded that detection of stimuli is poss...

  20. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... chap 18. Digre KB. Headaches and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  1. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  2. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. PMID:27287752

  3. A Qualitative Impairment in Face Perception in Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from a Reduced Face Inversion Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Marie Maxime; Gandini, Delphine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Vallet, Guillaume T; Joannette, Maude; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno; Joubert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent face recognition difficulties in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have typically been attributed to the underlying episodic and semantic memory impairment. The aim of the current study was to determine if AD patients are also impaired at the perceptual level for faces, more specifically at extracting a visual representation of an individual face. To address this question, we investigated the matching of simultaneously presented individual faces and of other nonface familiar shapes (cars), at both upright and inverted orientation, in a group of mild AD patients and in a group of healthy older controls matched for age and education. AD patients showed a reduced inversion effect (i.e., larger performance for upright than inverted stimuli) for faces, but not for cars, both in terms of error rates and response times. While healthy participants showed a much larger decrease in performance for faces than for cars with inversion, the inversion effect did not differ significantly for faces and cars in AD. This abnormal inversion effect for faces was observed in a large subset of individual patients with AD. These results suggest that AD patients have deficits in higher-level visual processes, more specifically at perceiving individual faces, a function that relies on holistic representations specific to upright face stimuli. These deficits, combined with their memory impairment, may contribute to the difficulties in recognizing familiar people that are often reported in patients suffering from the disease and by their caregivers. PMID:26967217

  4. Partner relationships during pregnancy in anxious and depressed women and men

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela

    2010-01-01

    To assess anxiety, depression and relationship satisfaction in both women and men during pregnancy, the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) were administered during the second trimester to a sample of 59 pregnant women and their partners. Anxious pregnant women rated their relationships as less positive. Depressed pregnant women also rated their relationships as less positive. The women’s anxie...

  5. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present stu...

  6. Anxious and Depressive Avoidance and Symptoms of Prolonged Grief, Depression, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A Boelen; Jan van den Bout

    2010-01-01

    Following loss, people can develop symptoms of depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), or Complicated Grief (CG) – also termed Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). A recent cognitive-behavioural model has proposed that avoiding confrontation with the reality of the loss (called “anxious avoidance” [AA]) and refraining from activities that could foster adjustment (called “depressive avoidance” [DA]) both play a critical role in CG/PGD. The present study examined this assumption, using se...

  7. Failure to filter: Anxious individuals show inefficient gating of threat from working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M Stout; Shackman, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Dispositional anxiety is a well-established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders along the internalizing spectrum, including anxiety and depression. Importantly, many of the maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anxiety, such as anticipatory apprehension, occur when threat is absent. This raises the possibility that anxious individuals are less efficient at gating threat’s access to working memory, a limited capacity workspace where information is actively retained, mani...

  8. Failure to filter: anxious individuals show inefficient gating of threat from working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M Stout; Shackman, Alexander J.; Larson, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Dispositional anxiety is a well-established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders along the internalizing spectrum, including anxiety and depression. Importantly, many of the maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anxiety, such as anticipatory apprehension, occur when threat is absent. This raises the possibility that anxious individuals are less efficient at gating threat's access to working memory, a limited capacity workspace where information is actively retained, mani...

  9. Long-term Ovariectomy Alters Social and Anxious Behaviors in Semi-free Ranging Japanese Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Kris; Robertson, Nicola D; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of anxiety and depression often occur in young women after complete hysterectomy and in older women during menopause. There are many variables that are hard to control in human population studies, but that are absent to a large extent in stable nonhuman primate troops. However, macaques exhibit depressive and anxious behaviors in response to similar situations as humans such as isolation, stress, instability or aggression. Therefore, we hypothesized that examination of behavior in ov...

  10. Trait-Like Brain Activity during Adolescence Predicts Anxious Temperament in Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Andrew S.; Shelton, Steven E.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2008-01-01

    Early theorists (Freud and Darwin) speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI) (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations) and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now d...

  11. Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Divya; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Tripathi, Abhay Mani

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the eff-cacy of ‘audio distraction’ in anxious pediatric dental patients. Materials and methods: Sixty children were randomly selected and equally divided into two groups of thirty each. The first group was control group (group A) and the second group was music group (group B). The dental procedure employed was extraction for both the groups. The children included in music group were allowed to hear audio presentation throughout t...

  12. Parental and Family Factors as Predictors of Threat Bias in Anxious Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Blossom, Jennifer B.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T.; KENDALL, Philip C.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Langley, Audra K.; Piacentini, John C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Albano, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relative predictive value of parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child threat bias, and family dysfunction on child's threat bias in a clinical sample of anxious youth. Participants (N = 488) were part of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multi-modal study (CAMS), ages 7–17 years (M = 10.69; SD = 2.80). Children met diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and/or social phobia. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires ass...

  13. Effectiveness of a parental intervention program for high anxious trait children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, On-che Esther; 張安之

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, a well-known effective program in reducing children’s anxiety symptoms is the ‘Coping Cat’ program (Kendall, 1994). However, effectiveness studies of parental education program have been relatively limited. Parenting factors are important as the risk for anxiety disorders appears particularly high in the offspring of anxious parents (McClure, Brennan, Hammen, & Le Brocque, 2001). Further parenting styles such as over-involvement and criticism was found to play a significant...

  14. Cognitive Functioning and Academic Performance in Elementary School Children with Anxious/Depressed and Withdrawn Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Lundy, SM; Sliva, GE; Kaemingk, K.L.; Goodwin, Joy; Quan, Stuart Fun

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Few studies have evaluated the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neuropsychological performance in children without symptomatic depression.Objectives: This study determined the relationship between anxious/depressed and withdrawn symptoms and performance on cognitive and academic achievement measures.Methods: 335 Caucasian and Hispanic children aged 6 to 11 years who participated in the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea (TuCASA) study were administered a ...

  15. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013...... entitled Stranger Visions involves extracting DNA from discarded items she finds in public spaces in New York City, such as cigarette butts and chewing gum. She has the DNA that is extracted from these items analysed for specific genomic sequences associated with physical traits such as hair and eye colour...

  16. Relations Between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6–13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised. Results indicated that, compared to parents of non-clinical children, parents of clinically anxious...

  17. Associations of Parent–Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms When a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9–15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptoms. Linear Mixed Models analyses controlling for the alternate parent and child symptoms indicated that b...

  18. Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Liv Merete; Olavsbråten, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Machine based face recognition has been a popular research area for several years, and has numerous applications. This technology has now reached a point where there already exists good algorithms for recognition for standardized still images - which have little variation in e.g. lighting, facial expression and pose. We are however in lack of good algorithms that are able to do recognition from live video. The low quality of most surveillance cameras, together with non-standardized imaging c...

  19. Face Value

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine C. Eckel; Ragan Petrie

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence of systematic heterogeneity in behavior by observable characteristics, such as what one would see in a face. We ask, is there informational value in knowing these characteristics in a strategic interaction? Subjects are given the opportunity to purchase a photograph of their partner in the play of a trust game. Not everyone purchases the photo, even at prices as low as $0.20. Senders (first movers in the game) have a more inelastic demand for pictures than responders...

  20. Face Off

    OpenAIRE

    Busby, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Face off explored and expanded the perceptions of where the DJ could be found by collaborating with the artist David Dixon to create an equipment set up and performance which was a sonic and structural intervention of his work Entangled Practice. This work is part of the Shit! I can DJ project which explores the fringes of what might be considered DJ practice, and seeks to explore and promote experimental DJ practices across fields.

  1. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related - neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137

  2. Failure to filter: Anxious individuals show inefficient gating of threat from working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Stout

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispositional anxiety is a well-established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders along the internalizing spectrum, including anxiety and depression. Importantly, many of the maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anxiety, such as anticipatory apprehension, occur when threat is absent. This raises the possibility that anxious individuals are less efficient at gating threat’s access to working memory, a limited capacity workspace where information is actively retained, manipulated, and used to flexibly guide goal-directed behavior when it is no longer present in the external environment. Using a well-validated neurophysiological index of working memory storage, we demonstrate that threat-related distracters were difficult to filter on average and that this difficulty was exaggerated among anxious individuals. These results indicate that dispositionally anxious individuals allocate excessive working memory storage to threat, even when it is irrelevant to the task at hand. More broadly, these results provide a novel framework for understanding the maladaptive thoughts and actions characteristic of internalizing disorders.

  3. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and anxious preoccupation in early breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difficulties in coping with cancer, and the accompanying anxious and depressive symptoms, have been shown to affect the mood and the quality of life in breast cancer patients. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter Gene-linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) functional polymorphism of serotonin transporter has been shown to influence the adaptation to stressful life events. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to examine the association of 5-HTTLPR with the mental adaptation to cancer diagnosis and treatment. Forty eight consecutive patients with early mammary carcinoma were evaluated at enrolment and at follow up after one and three months. The patients were characterized psychometrically using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC); 5-HTTLPR allelic variants were determined using PCR-based techniques. In women with early breast cancer, the mental adaptation to the disease was associated with high scores of avoidance and anxious preoccupation of Mini-MAC, which decreased with time at follow up. Anxious preoccupation decreased with time less in patients with the S/S and S/L genetic variant of 5-HTTLPR as compared with the L/L carriers (p=0.023), indicating gene - environment interactions. These results indicate that the characterization of 5-HTTLPR allows the identification of breast cancer patients in greater risk of mental suffering, for which specific intervention may be focused; in case of drug therapy, they provide indications for the choice of most appropriate agent in a pharmacogenetic perspective

  4. Infants' Detection of Correlated Features among Social Stimuli: A Precursor to Stereotyping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary D.; And Others

    This study examined the abilities of 10-month-old infants to detect correlations between objects and persons based on the characteristic of gender. A total of 32 infants were habituated to six stimuli in which a picture of a male or female face was paired with one of six objects such as a football or frying pan. Three objects were associated with…

  5. Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

  6. Exploring combinations of different color and facial expression stimuli for gaze-independent BCIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention had been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression change had been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn’t tell them apart. Especially they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm. Consequently, the performance of BCIs is reduced.New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help subjects to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs. In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s: The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems were whether dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than grey faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy subjects (7 male, aged 21-26 years, mean 24.5±1.25 participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed.Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed

  7. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response—as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic—strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  8. Effective stimuli for constructing reliable neuron models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaul Druckmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose.

  9. Company Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天田

    2011-01-01

    有些演员长得不好看但上镜,这叫有Camera Face;而有些企业有明星企业家,这叫有Company Face.塑造一张Company Face对企业来说是非常合算的,因为公众对于枯燥的商业概念和数据并无兴趣,把企业人格化才是建立沟通的捷径.然而,究竟你的CompanyFace是杂志封面的人物还是客户走进公司会接触的保安、保洁和秘书?听说一个绿色八卦:张艺谋在《山楂树之恋》选角时,为了“静秋”可谓是踏破铁鞋.当时分了若干组人马四处寻访,但是带回来的候选人张艺谋统统看不上.张艺谋讽刺一位选角的同事:你选出来的女孩儿,一打开电视满眼都是!这位同事立即反唇相讥:你选的呢?连电视都不让上!

  10. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  11. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  12. Apprentissage dans le développement de la discrimination des stimuli sociaux chez l’enfant avec ou sans troubles du développement

    OpenAIRE

    Cousin, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the environment has been demonstrated in the development of the discrimination of social stimuli. The discrimination of social stimuli such as faces and facial expressions have been extensively studied during the past decades. In addition, people with autism show atypical responses to social stimuli compared to typically functioning individuals. Those discrepancies can be seen very early in life. However, there is still much to know about how this learning takes place, particularl...

  13. Neuromagnetic evidence that the right fusiform face area is essential for human face awareness: An intermittent binocular rivalry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Yuko; Maekawa, Toshihiko; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Hironaga, Naruhito; Ogata, Katsuya; Shigyo, Maki; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-08-01

    When and where the awareness of faces is consciously initiated is unclear. We used magnetoencephalography to probe the brain responses associated with face awareness under intermittent pseudo-rivalry (PR) and binocular rivalry (BR) conditions. The stimuli comprised three pictures: a human face, a monkey face and a house. In the PR condition, we detected the M130 component, which has been minimally characterized in previous research. We obtained a clear recording of the M170 component in the fusiform face area (FFA), and found that this component had an earlier response time to faces compared with other objects. The M170 occurred predominantly in the right hemisphere in both conditions. In the BR condition, the amplitude of the M130 significantly increased in the right hemisphere irrespective of the physical characteristics of the visual stimuli. Conversely, we did not detect the M170 when the face image was suppressed in the BR condition, although this component was clearly present when awareness for the face was initiated. We also found a significant difference in the latency of the M170 (humanface stimuli are imperative for evoking the M170 and that the right FFA plays a critical role in human face awareness. PMID:26907522

  14. Why are some people's names easier to learn than others? The effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantelis, Peter C.; Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synthetic faces that varied along four perceptual dimensions (Wilson, Loffler, & Wilkinson, 2002), we examined the effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations. The nature of these stimuli allowed us to go beyond the categorical similarity manipulations used in previous verb

  15. Cortical Gating of Oropharyngeal Sensory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    KarenWheeler-Hegland

    2010-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. ...

  16. Effective stimuli for constructing reliable neuron models.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaul Druckmann; Berger, Thomas K.; Felix Schürmann; Sean Hill; Henry Markram; Idan Segev

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Neurons perform complicated non-linear transformations on their input before producing their output - a train of action potentials. This input-output transformation is shaped by the specific composition of ion channels, out of the many possible types, that are embedded in the neuron's membrane. Experimentally, characterizing this transformation relies on injecting different stimuli to the neuron while recording its output; but which of the many possible stimuli should one apply...

  17. Binocular combination of second-order stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  18. Binocular combination of second-order stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Zhou

    Full Text Available Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated and second-order (contrast modulated stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements.

  19. The eye-tracking of social stimuli in patients with Rett syndrome and autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salomão Schwartzman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare visual fixation at social stimuli in Rett syndrome (RT and autism spectrum disorders (ASD patients. Method Visual fixation at social stimuli was analyzed in 14 RS female patients (age range 4-30 years, 11 ASD male patients (age range 4-20 years, and 17 children with typical development (TD. Patients were exposed to three different pictures (two of human faces and one with social and non-social stimuli presented for 8 seconds each on the screen of a computer attached to an eye-tracker equipment. Results Percentage of visual fixation at social stimuli was significantly higher in the RS group compared to ASD and even to TD groups. Conclusion Visual fixation at social stimuli seems to be one more endophenotype making RS to be very different from ASD.

  20. Combat PTSD and implicit behavioral tendencies for positive affective stimuli: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Nicole Clausen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prior cognitive research in PTSD has focused on automatic responses to negative affective stimuli, including attentional facilitation or disengagement and avoidance action tendencies. More recent research suggests PTSD may also relate to differences in reward processing, which has lead to theories of PTSD relating to approach-avoidance imbalances. The current pilot study assessed how combat-PTSD symptoms relate to automatic behavioral tendencies to both positive and negative affective stimuli. Method: Twenty male combat veterans completed the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II. During the AAT, subjects pulled (approach or pushed (avoid a joystick in response to neutral, happy, disgust, and angry faces based on border color. Bias scores were calculated for each emotion type (avoid-approach response latency differences. Main and interaction effects for psychological symptom severity and emotion type on bias score were assessed using linear mixed models. Results: There was a significant interaction between PTSD symptoms and emotion type, driven primarily by worse symptoms relating to a greater bias to avoid happy faces. Post-hoc tests revealed that veterans with worse PTSD symptoms were slower to approach as well as quicker to avoid happy faces. Neither depressive nor anger symptoms related to avoid or approach tendencies of emotional stimuli.Conclusion: PTSD severity was associated with a bias for avoiding positive affective stimuli. These results provide further evidence that PTSD may relate to aberrant processing of positively valenced, or rewarding stimuli. Implicit responses to rewarding stimuli could be an important factor in PTSD pathology and treatment. Specifically, these findings have implications for recent endeavors in using computer-based interventions to influence automatic approach-avoidance tendencies.

  1. Combat PTSD and Implicit Behavioral Tendencies for Positive Affective Stimuli: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Ashley N.; Youngren, Westley; Sisante, Jason-Flor V.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Taylor, Charles; Aupperle, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cognitive research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has focused on automatic responses to negative affective stimuli, including attentional facilitation or disengagement and avoidance action tendencies. More recent research suggests PTSD may also relate to differences in reward processing, which has lead to theories of PTSD relating to approach-avoidance imbalances. The current pilot study assessed how combat-PTSD symptoms relate to automatic behavioral tendencies to both positive and negative affective stimuli. Method: Twenty male combat veterans completed the approach-avoidance task (AAT), Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II. During the AAT, subjects pulled (approach) or pushed (avoid) a joystick in response to neutral, happy, disgust, and angry faces based on border color. Bias scores were calculated for each emotion type (avoid-approach response latency differences). Main and interaction effects for psychological symptom severity and emotion type on bias score were assessed using linear mixed models. Results: There was a significant interaction between PTSD symptoms and emotion type, driven primarily by worse symptoms relating to a greater bias to avoid happy faces. Post hoc tests revealed that veterans with worse PTSD symptoms were slower to approach as well as quicker to avoid happy faces. Neither depressive nor anger symptoms related to avoid or approach tendencies of emotional stimuli. Conclusion: Posttraumatic stress disorder severity was associated with a bias for avoiding positive affective stimuli. These results provide further evidence that PTSD may relate to aberrant processing of positively valenced, or rewarding stimuli. Implicit responses to rewarding stimuli could be an important factor in PTSD pathology and treatment. Specifically, these findings have implications for recent endeavors in using computer-based interventions to influence automatic

  2. Subjective - Objective Sleep Comparisons and Discrepancies Among Clinically-Anxious and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A; Patriquin, Michelle A; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-10-01

    We compared subjective and objective sleep patterns and problems, and examined cross-method correspondence across parent reports, child reports, and actigraphy-derived sleep variables in clinically-anxious children and healthy controls. In a multi-site, cross-sectional study, 75 pre-adolescent children (6 to 11 years; M = 8.7 years; SD = 1.4; n = 39/52 % female) were examined including 39 with a diagnosis of primary generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 36 controls recruited from university-based clinics in Houston, TX and Washington, DC. Structured interviews, validated sleep questionnaires, and 1 week of actigraphy data were utilized. Despite subjective reports of significantly greater sleep problems among anxious children, actigraphy data revealed no significant differences between the groups. All parents estimated earlier bedtimes and greater total sleep duration relative to actigraphy, and all children endorsed more sleep problems than parents. With few exceptions, subjective reports exhibited low and non-significant correspondence with actigraphy-based sleep patterns and problems. Our findings suggest that high rates of sleep complaints found among children with GAD (and their parents) are not corroborated by objective sleep abnormalities, with the exception of marginally prolonged sleep onset latency compared to controls. Objective-subjective sleep discrepancies were observed in both groups but more apparent overall in the GAD group. Frequent complaints of sleep problems and daytime tiredness among anxious youth might more accurately reflect difficulties prior to the actual sleep period, cognitive-affective biases associated with sleep, and/or poor sleep quality. Findings highlight the importance of considering sleep from multiple perspectives. PMID:25896729

  3. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  4. Biased self-perception of social skills in anxious children: The role of state anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Helen; Hudson, Jennifer; Lyneham, Heidi; Wuthvich, Viviana; Morris, Talia; Monier, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The role of state and trait anxiety on observer ratings of social skill and negatively biased self-perception of social skill was examined. Participants were aged between 7 and 13 years (mean=9.65; sd=1.77; N=102), 47 had a current anxiety diagnosis and 55 were non-anxious controls. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low anxiety condition and asked to complete social tasks. Task instructions were adjusted across conditions to manipulate participants’ state anxiety. Observers ra...

  5. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A; Marwah N; Raju O

    2007-01-01

    Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - s...

  6. Augmenting one-session treatment of children's specific phobias with attention training to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures

  7. Short term memory for tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Haggard, Patrick; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-23

    Research has shown that unreported information stored in rapidly decaying visual representations may be accessed more accurately using partial report than using full report procedures (e.g., [Sperling, G., 1960. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74, 1-29.]). In the 3 experiments reported here, we investigated whether unreported information regarding the actual number of tactile stimuli presented in parallel across the body surface can be accessed using a partial report procedure. In Experiment 1, participants had to report the total number of stimuli in a tactile display composed of up to 6 stimuli presented across their body (numerosity task), or else to detect whether or not a tactile stimulus had previously been presented in a position indicated by a visual probe given at a variable delay after offset of a tactile display (i.e., partial report). The results showed that participants correctly reported up to 3 stimuli in the numerosity judgment task, but their performance was significantly better than chance when up to 5 stimuli were presented in the partial report task. This result shows that short-lasting tactile representations can be accessed using partial report procedures similar to those used previously in visual studies. Experiment 2 showed that the duration of these representations (or the time available to consciously access them) depends on the number of stimuli presented in the display (the greater the number of stimuli that are presented, the faster their representation decays). Finally, the results of a third experiment showed that the differences in performance between the numerosity judgment and partial report tasks could not be explained solely in terms of any difference in task difficulty. PMID:18083147

  8. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures. PMID:25523628

  9. Attentional Disengagement from Emotional Stimuli in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Llerena, Katiah; Gold, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that abnormal attention-emotion interactions are related to symptom presentation in individuals with schizophrenia. However, the individual components of attention responsible for this dysfunction are unclear. In the current study we examined the possibility that schizophrenia patients with higher levels of negative symptoms (HI-NEG: n = 14) have greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than patients with low negative symptoms (LOW-NEG: n = 18) or controls (CN: n = 27). Participants completed an exogenous emotional cueing task that required them to focus on an initial emotional or neutral cue and subsequently shift attention to a separate location outside of foveal vision to detect a target stimulus (letter). Results indicated that HI-NEG patients had greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than CN or LOW-NEG patients; however, behavioral performance did not differ among the groups for pleasant stimuli. Higher self-reported trait negative affect was also associated with greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli. Abnormalities in disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli may thus play a critical role in the formation and maintenance of both negative symptoms and trait negative affect in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:21703824

  10. Suppression of Face Perception during Saccadic Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Seirafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of awareness of a stimulus briefly presented during saccadic eye movement is known as saccadic omission. Studying the reduced visibility of visual stimuli around the time of saccade—known as saccadic suppression—is a key step to investigate saccadic omission. To date, almost all studies have been focused on the reduced visibility of simple stimuli such as flashes and bars. The extension of the results from simple stimuli to more complex objects has been neglected. In two experimental tasks, we measured the subjective and objective awareness of a briefly presented face stimuli during saccadic eye movement. In the first task, we measured the subjective awareness of the visual stimuli and showed that in most of the trials there is no conscious awareness of the faces. In the second task, we measured objective sensitivity in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC face detection task, which demonstrated chance-level performance. Here, we provide the first evidence of complete suppression of complex visual stimuli during the saccadic eye movement.

  11. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. PMID:23602941

  12. Salivary oxytocin in clinically anxious youth: Associations with separation anxiety and family accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; McDonald, Nicole; Silverman, Wendy K

    2016-03-01

    Clinical anxiety disorders in youth are common and associated with interpersonal behaviors including reliance on parents for family accommodation, or changes that parents make to their own behaviors to help the youth avoid anxiety related distress. The neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with the regulation of anxiety and of close interpersonal behavior leading to the hypothesis that oxytocinergic functioning plays a role in youth anxiety and its disorders, and the resulting family accommodation. To test this hypothesis salivary OT from 50 youth with primary DSM-5 anxiety disorders was assayed. A multi-source/multi-method anxiety assessment including semistructured interviews with youth and mothers, rating scales, and behavioral observations was used to assess anxiety disorders and symptoms, and family accommodation. Youth with separation anxiety disorder had significantly lower salivary OT levels than clinically anxious youth not diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. Salivary OT levels were significantly negatively correlated with separation anxiety symptoms based on both youth- and mother-ratings. Anxious behavior displayed by youth during interactions with their mothers was associated with lower salivary OT levels in youth. Maternal ratings of family accommodation were negatively associated with salivary OT levels in youth. Results support the role of the oxytocinergic system in youth anxiety and its disorders and in parental involvement in youth anxiety through family accommodation. OT may be particularly important for diagnoses and symptoms of separation anxiety, which is inherently interpersonal in nature. Findings have potentially important implications for assessment and treatment of anxiety in youth. PMID:26716876

  13. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  14. Frequency and Clinical Correlates of Sleep-Related Problems Among Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Joshua M; Arnold, Elysse B; Keene, Amanda C; Collier, Amanda B; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are common and problematic among anxious youth but have not been investigated in anxious youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 102 youth (ages 7-16 years) with ASD and comorbid anxiety. Youth and their primary caregiver were administered the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale. Parents completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-Parent (MASC-P) Report, Social Responsiveness Scale, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A measure of SRPs was created from items from the CBCL and MASC-P. Results suggest SRPs were relatively common among youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety. The number of SRPs endorsed directly associated with parent ratings of social deficits, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, as well as with clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. Parent-rated internalizing symptoms predicted frequency of SRPs over and above social deficits, externalizing symptoms, and parent- and clinician-rated anxiety symptoms. A subset of 40 participants who completed family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) experienced reduced SRPs following treatment. Implications, study limitations, and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25239284

  15. Parenting Behaviors of Anxious Mothers and Youth Internalizing Symptoms: A Preliminary Cross-Ethnic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Weersing, V. Robin

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study examined youth report (ages 7 to 15) of maternal parenting behaviors (Psychological Control and Acceptance) and their association with internalizing symptoms in the children of clinically anxious non-Hispanic white and Latina mothers (N = 28). Compared to non-Hispanic white mothers, Latina mothers were rated by their children as higher in Psychological Control; a significant group difference in maternal Acceptance was not detected. Across the entire sample, lower maternal Acceptance was associated with higher somatic symptoms, and unexpectedly, higher Psychological Control was associated with lower youth anxiety. Ethnic-specific associations also emerged: higher maternal Psychological Control was associated with increased somatic symptoms in Latino youths, and lower Acceptance was associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms in non-Hispanic white youths. Broadly, results suggest that the linkages between parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and youth emotional functioning may vary by cultural context. This exploratory study helps to generate hypotheses for larger studies; recommendations for further investigation of these phenomena are suggested. PMID:27308185

  16. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - screening visit, prophylaxis visit, cavity preparation and restoration visit, and extraction visit. Child′s anxiety level in each visit was assessed using a combination of four measures: Venham′s picture test, Venham′s rating of clinical anxiety, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation. The values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that audiovisual distraction technique was more effective in managing anxious pediatric dental patient as compared to audio distraction technique.

  17. WIDER FACE: A Face Detection Benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shuo; Luo, Ping; Loy, Chen Change; Tang, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Face detection is one of the most studied topics in the computer vision community. Much of the progresses have been made by the availability of face detection benchmark datasets. We show that there is a gap between current face detection performance and the real world requirements. To facilitate future face detection research, we introduce the WIDER FACE dataset, which is 10 times larger than existing datasets. The dataset contains rich annotations, including occlusions, poses, event categori...

  18. Empathic behavioral and physiological responses to dynamic stimuli in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Regenbogen, Christina; Kellermann, Thilo; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Kohn, Nils; Derntl, Birgit; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2012-12-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is strongly linked to social withdrawal and interpersonal problems which characterize the disorder and further aggravate symptoms. Investigating the nature of impaired emotional-social functioning as a basis of interpersonal functioning in MDD has been widely restricted to static stimuli and behavioral emotion recognition accuracy. The present study aimed at examining higher order emotional processes, namely empathic responses and its components, emotion recognition accuracy and affective responses in 28 MDD patients and 28 healthy control participants. The dynamic stimulus material included 96 short video clips depicting actors expressing basic emotions by face, voice prosody, and sentence content. Galvanic skin conductance measurements revealed implicit processes in the multimethod assessment of empathy. Overall, patients displayed lower empathy, emotion accuracy, and affective response rates than controls. Autonomous arousal was higher in patients. A generalized emotion processing deficit is in line with the "emotional context insensitivity" (ECI) theory which proposes decreased overall responsiveness to emotional stimuli. The dissociation between hypo-reactivity in explicit and hyper-reactivity in implicit measures of emotion processing can be related to the "limbic-cortical dysregulation" model of depression. Our findings support the dissociation of autonomic and subjective emotional responses which may account for interpersonal as well as emotional deficits in depression. PMID:22560057

  19. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  20. Verbal Establishing Stimuli: Testing the Motivative Effect of Stimuli in a Derived Relation with Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Winifred C.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether the presentation of stimuli in equivalence relations with consequences increases the operant behavior that produces these consequences. In Experiment 1, both normal words and experimentally trained equivalence stimuli did so with young children. In Experiment 2, results were similar with college students. Here, a…

  1. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  2. Do bullied children become anxious and depressed adults?: A cross-sectional investigation of the correlates of bullying and anxious depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Malhi, Gin S

    2006-03-01

    There is little empirical research examining the historical and clinical correlates of exposure to childhood bullying in adult clinical subjects. Using structured clinical assessments, the authors studied a group of adult males and females presenting to an outpatient depression clinic, to examine the childhood risk factors and the distinguishing comorbid features associated with those reporting exposure to bullying. Just over a quarter of both men and women reported having experienced bullying that was severe and traumatic. More of these subjects also reported several other well studied childhood risk factors. Childhood correlates that were particularly relevant for exposure to bullying were parental overcontrol, illness or disability, and the tendency to have an inhibited temperament early in life. The experience of childhood bullying was strongly related to high levels of comorbid anxiety, both in terms of greater levels of state anxiety and a higher prevalence of both social phobia and agoraphobia. Independent of other childhood risk factors, exposure to bullying was especially predictive of subjects' higher levels of general state anxiety and the tendency to express anxious arousal externally when under stress. These results are compatible with both cross-sectional and prospective studies of child and adolescent samples, and highlight the potential etiological significance of early peer victimization experiences for a percentage of adults suffering from depression with comorbid anxiety. PMID:16534438

  3. Eros-Face

    OpenAIRE

    Jammal, Elias

    2011-01-01

    In diesem Papier werden Face-Konzepte im arabischen Kontext vorgestellt, die mit der Bezeichnung Eros-Face belegt werden. Dieses wurde bislang in der Face-Literatur nicht berücksichtigt. Es werden zwei Typen des Eros-Face diskutiert: Das individuelle und das kollektivistische Eros-Face. This paper introduces face concepts in the Arab context for which the notion Eros face has been given. Literature on face did not consider the Eros face so far. Two types of Eros face are discussed: The ind...

  4. Looking in the Eyes to Discriminate: Linking Infants' Habituation Speed to Looking Behaviour Using Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Jantina; Kolling, Thorsten; Knopf, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Studies showed that individual differences in encoding speed as well as looking behaviour during the encoding of facial stimuli can relate to differences in subsequent face discrimination. Nevertheless, a direct linkage between encoding speed and looking behaviour during the encoding of facial stimuli and the role of these encoding characteristics…

  5. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  6. Categorization of Multidimensional Stimuli by Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Mark E.; Grace, Randolph C.

    2011-01-01

    Six pigeons responded in a visual category learning task in which the stimuli were dimensionally separable Gabor patches that varied in frequency and orientation. We compared performance in two conditions which varied in terms of whether accurate performance required that responding be controlled jointly by frequency and orientation, or…

  7. Stimuli-responsive polymers for nanobiotechnologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Rittich, B.; Španová, A.

    Nagaoka: Nagaoka University of Technology , 2008, s. 71-74. [International Symposium: Global Renaissance by Green Energy Revolution /8./. Nagaoka (JP), 22.01.2008-23.01.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : stimuli-responsive * nanobiotechnologies * microspheres Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Musicians' Perception of Beat in Monotonic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses musicians' perceptions of beat in monotonic stimuli and attempts to define empirically the range of perceived beat tempo in music. Subjects performed a metric pulse in response to periodic stimulus tones. Results indicate a relatively narrow range within which beats are perceived by trained musicians. (LS)

  9. Cortical Gating of Oropharyngeal Sensory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KarenWheeler-Hegland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2 is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1. Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18-35 years served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs were measured via 32 electrode cap (10-20 system connected to SynAmps2 Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter stimulus interval of 500ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the 4 component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing.

  10. Neural substrates of species-dependent visual processing of faces: use of morphed faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Emi; Ogata, Katsuya; Kishimoto, Junji; Tanaka, Mutsuhide; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamasaki, Takao; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-05-01

    Face identification and categorization are essential for social communication. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) is considered to be a biomarker of face perception. To elucidate the neural basis of species-dependent face processing, we recorded 128-ch high-density ERPs in 14 healthy adults while they viewed the images of morphed faces. The morphed stimuli contained different proportions of human and monkey faces, and the species boundary was shifted away from the center of the morph continuum. Three experiments were performed to determine how task requirement, facial orientation, and spatial frequency (SF) of visual stimuli affected ERPs. In an equal SF condition, the latency, and amplitude of the occipital P100 for upright faces were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by the level of morphing. In contrast, the N170 latency for upright faces was modulated in a step-like fashion, showing a flexion point that may reflect species discrimination. Although N170 amplitudes for upright faces were not modulated by morph level, they were modulated in a monotonic-like fashion by inverted faces. The late positive (LP) component (350-550 msec) in the parietal region was modulated in a U-shaped function by morph level during a categorization task, but not in a simple reaction task. These results suggest that P100 reflects changes in the physical properties of faces and that N170 is involved in own-species selectivity. The LP component seems to represent species categorization that occurs 350 msec after stimulus onset. PMID:25975645

  11. Is that me or my twin? Lack of self-face recognition advantage in identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Matteo; Bufalari, Ilaria; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in twin studies and the stunning amount of research on face recognition, the ability of adult identical twins to discriminate their own faces from those of their co-twins has been scarcely investigated. One's own face is the most distinctive feature of the bodily self, and people typically show a clear advantage in recognizing their own face even more than other very familiar identities. Given the very high level of resemblance of their faces, monozygotic twins represent a unique model for exploring self-face processing. Herein we examined the ability of monozygotic twins to distinguish their own face from the face of their co-twin and of a highly familiar individual. Results show that twins equally recognize their own face and their twin's face. This lack of self-face advantage was negatively predicted by how much they felt physically similar to their co-twin and by their anxious or avoidant attachment style. We speculate that in monozygotic twins, the visual representation of the self-face overlaps with that of the co-twin. Thus, to distinguish the self from the co-twin, monozygotic twins have to rely much more than control participants on the multisensory integration processes upon which the sense of bodily self is based. Moreover, in keeping with the notion that attachment style influences perception of self and significant others, we propose that the observed self/co-twin confusion may depend upon insecure attachment. PMID:25853249

  12. Modulations of 'late' event-related brain potentials in humans by dynamic audiovisual speech stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebib, Riadh; Papo, David; Douiri, Abdel; de Bode, Stella; Gillon Dowens, Margaret; Baudonnière, Pierre-Marie

    2004-11-30

    Lipreading reliably improve speech perception during face-to-face conversation. Within the range of good dubbing, however, adults tolerate some audiovisual (AV) discrepancies and lipreading, then, can give rise to confusion. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the perceptual strategies governing the intermodal processing of dynamic and bimodal speech stimuli, either congruently dubbed or not. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that non-coherent audiovisual dubbings modulated in amplitude an endogenous ERP component, the N300, we compared to a 'N400-like effect' reflecting the difficulty to integrate these conflicting pieces of information. This result adds further support for the existence of a cerebral system underlying 'integrative processes' lato sensu. Further studies should take advantage of this 'N400-like effect' with AV speech stimuli to open new perspectives in the domain of psycholinguistics. PMID:15531091

  13. Infants’ visual processing of faces and objects: Age-related changes in interest, and stability of individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, Marybel; Kolling, Thorsten; Deák, Gedeon O

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal measures of infant visual processing of faces and objects were collected from a sample of healthy infants (N=40) every month from 6 to 9 months of age. Infants performed two habituation tasks each month, one with novel female faces as stimuli, and another with novel complex objects. Different individual faces and objects served as habituation (i.e., visual learning) and dishabituation (i.e., novelty response) stimuli. Measures included overall looking time to the habituation stim...

  14. Effect of Face Tampering on Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Aruni Singh; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Modern face recognition systems are vulnerable to spoofing attack. Spoofing attack occurs when a persontries to cheat the system by presenting fake biometric data gaining unlawful access. A lot of researchershave originated novel techniques to fascinate these types of face tampering attack. It seems that nocomparative studies of different face recognition algorithms on same protocols and fake data have beenincorporated. The motivation behind this paper is to present the effect of face tamperi...

  15. Can Parents Treat their Anxious Child using CBT? A Brief Report of a Self-Help Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Christiansen, Bianca Munkebo; Walczak, Monika Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We developed and tested a self-help program with minimal therapist involvement for parents of anxious children. Method: The program focused on transfer of control from therapist to parents of children with moderate anxiety, and consisted of two therapist-led workshops, a Facebook group...

  16. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  17. Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety : differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of negative self-image in social phobia. Participants were 19 high and 19 low socially anxious women. Because self-report measures of self-esteem are sensitive to self-presentation and impression management strategies, an implicit association test (IAT

  18. Perception of Threat in Children with Social Phobia: Comparison to Nonsocially Anxious Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…

  19. Taming Test Anxiety: The Activation of Failure-Related Concepts Enhances Cognitive Test Performance of Test-Anxious Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2016-01-01

    We investigated processes underlying performance decrements of highly test-anxious persons. Three experiments contrasted conditions that differed in the degree of activation of concepts related to failure. Participants memorized a list of words either containing words related to failure or containing no words related to failure in Experiment 1. In…

  20. Anxious Solitude and Clinical Disorder in Middle Childhood: Bridging Developmental and Clinical Approaches to Childhood Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…

  1. Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program in Portuguese Schools: Study with a Sample of Highly Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.

    2014-01-01

    The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…

  2. Emotionally Neutral Stimuli Are Not Neutral in Schizophrenia: A Mini Review of Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2016-01-01

    Reliable evidence shows that schizophrenia patients tend to experience negative emotions when presented with emotionally neutral stimuli. Similarly, several functional neuroimaging studies show that schizophrenia patients have increased activations in response to neutral material. However, results are heterogeneous. Here, we review the functional neuroimaging studies that have addressed this research question. Based on the 36 functional neuroimaging studies that we retrieved, it seems that the increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is fairly common in schizophrenia, but that the regions involved vary considerably, apart from the amygdala. Prefrontal and cingulate sub-regions and the hippocampus may also be involved. By contrasts, results in individuals at risk for psychosis are less consistent. In schizophrenia patients, results are less consistent in the case of studies using non-facial stimuli, explicit processing paradigms, and/or event-related designs. This means that human faces may convey subtle information (e.g., trustworthiness) other than basic emotional expressions. It also means that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is less likely to occur when experimental paradigms are too cognitively demanding as well as in studies lacking statistical power. The main hypothesis proposed to account for this increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is the aberrant salience hypothesis of psychosis. Other investigators propose that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli in schizophrenia results from abnormal associative learning, untrustworthiness judgments, priming effects, and/or reduced habituation to neutral stimuli. In the future, the effects of antipsychotics on this aberrant brain reactivity will need to be determined, as well as the potential implication of sex/gender. PMID:27445871

  3. Emotionally Neutral Stimuli Are Not Neutral in Schizophrenia: A Mini Review of Functional Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2016-01-01

    Reliable evidence shows that schizophrenia patients tend to experience negative emotions when presented with emotionally neutral stimuli. Similarly, several functional neuroimaging studies show that schizophrenia patients have increased activations in response to neutral material. However, results are heterogeneous. Here, we review the functional neuroimaging studies that have addressed this research question. Based on the 36 functional neuroimaging studies that we retrieved, it seems that the increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is fairly common in schizophrenia, but that the regions involved vary considerably, apart from the amygdala. Prefrontal and cingulate sub-regions and the hippocampus may also be involved. By contrasts, results in individuals at risk for psychosis are less consistent. In schizophrenia patients, results are less consistent in the case of studies using non-facial stimuli, explicit processing paradigms, and/or event-related designs. This means that human faces may convey subtle information (e.g., trustworthiness) other than basic emotional expressions. It also means that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is less likely to occur when experimental paradigms are too cognitively demanding as well as in studies lacking statistical power. The main hypothesis proposed to account for this increased brain reactivity to neutral stimuli is the aberrant salience hypothesis of psychosis. Other investigators propose that the aberrant brain reactivity to neutral stimuli in schizophrenia results from abnormal associative learning, untrustworthiness judgments, priming effects, and/or reduced habituation to neutral stimuli. In the future, the effects of antipsychotics on this aberrant brain reactivity will need to be determined, as well as the potential implication of sex/gender. PMID:27445871

  4. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  5. Familiar smiling faces in Alzheimer’s disease: Understanding the positivity-related recognition bias

    OpenAIRE

    Werheid, Katja; McDonald, Rebecca S.; Simmons-Stern, Nicholas; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has revealed a recognition bias favoring positive faces and other stimuli in older compared to younger adults. However, it is yet unclear whether this bias reflects an age-related preference for positive emotional stimuli, or an affirmatory bias used to compensate for episodic memory deficits. To follow up this point, the present study examined recognition of emotional faces and current mood state in patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy controls. Expecting low...

  6. Video stimuli reduce object-directed imitation accuracy: a novel two-person motion-tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Imitation is an important form of social behavior, and research has aimed to discover and explain the neural and kinematic aspects of imitation. However, much of this research has featured single participants imitating in response to pre-recorded video stimuli. This is in spite of findings that show reduced neural activation to video vs. real life movement stimuli, particularly in the motor cortex. We investigated the degree to which video stimuli may affect the imitation process using a novel motion tracking paradigm with high spatial and temporal resolution. We recorded 14 positions on the hands, arms, and heads of two individuals in an imitation experiment. One individual freely moved within given parameters (moving balls across a series of pegs) and a second participant imitated. This task was performed with either simple (one ball) or complex (three balls) movement difficulty, and either face-to-face or via a live video projection. After an exploratory analysis, three dependent variables were chosen for examination: 3D grip position, joint angles in the arm, and grip aperture. A cross-correlation and multivariate analysis revealed that object-directed imitation task accuracy (as represented by grip position) was reduced in video compared to face-to-face feedback, and in complex compared to simple difficulty. This was most prevalent in the left-right and forward-back motions, relevant to the imitator sitting face-to-face with the actor or with a live projected video of the same actor. The results suggest that for tasks which require object-directed imitation, video stimuli may not be an ecologically valid way to present task materials. However, no similar effects were found in the joint angle and grip aperture variables, suggesting that there are limits to the influence of video stimuli on imitation. The implications of these results are discussed with regards to previous findings, and with suggestions for future experimentation. PMID:26042073

  7. Action video game players' visual search advantage extends to biologically relevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. PMID:26071923

  8. Differentially Methylated Plasticity Genes in the Amygdala of Young Primates Are Linked to Anxious Temperament, an at Risk Phenotype for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Pankaj; Fox, Andrew S.; Chen, Kailei; White, Andrew T.J.; Roseboom, Patrick H.; Keles, Sunduz

    2014-01-01

    Children with an anxious temperament (AT) are at a substantially increased risk to develop anxiety and depression. The young rhesus monkey is ideal for studying the origin of human AT because it shares with humans the genetic, neural, and phenotypic underpinnings of complex social and emotional functioning. Heritability, functional imaging, and gene expression studies of AT in young monkeys revealed that the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) is a key environmentally sensitive substrate of this at risk phenotype. Because epigenetic marks (e.g., DNA methylation) can be modulated by environmental stimuli, these data led us to hypothesize a role for DNA methylation in the development of AT. To test this hypothesis, we used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to examine the cross-sectional genome-wide methylation levels in the Ce of 23 age-matched monkeys (1.3 ± 0.2 years) phenotyped for AT. Because AT reflects a continuous trait-like variable, we used an analytical approach that is consistent with this biology to identify genes in the Ce with methylation patterns that predict AT. Expression data from the Ce of these same monkeys were then used to find differentially methylated candidates linked to altered gene regulation. Two genes particularly relevant to the AT phenotype were BCL11A and JAG1. These transcripts have well-defined roles in neurodevelopmental processes, including neurite arborization and the regulation of neurogenesis. Together, these findings represent a critical step toward understanding the effects of early environment on the neuromolecular mechanisms that underlie the risk to develop anxiety and depressive disorders. PMID:25411484

  9. The Composite Face Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, J.; Gray, K.; Cook, R

    2016-01-01

    Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, a...

  10. The face-specific N170 component is modulated by emotional facial expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tottenham Nim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the traditional two-stage model of face processing, the face-specific N170 event-related potential (ERP is linked to structural encoding of face stimuli, whereas later ERP components are thought to reflect processing of facial affect. This view has recently been challenged by reports of N170 modulations by emotional facial expression. This study examines the time-course and topography of the influence of emotional expression on the N170 response to faces. Methods Dense-array ERPs were recorded in response to a set (n = 16 of fear and neutral faces. Stimuli were normalized on dimensions of shape, size and luminance contrast distribution. To minimize task effects related to facial or emotional processing, facial stimuli were irrelevant to a primary task of learning associative pairings between a subsequently presented visual character and a spoken word. Results N170 to faces showed a strong modulation by emotional facial expression. A split half analysis demonstrates that this effect was significant both early and late in the experiment and was therefore not associated with only the initial exposures of these stimuli, demonstrating a form of robustness against habituation. The effect of emotional modulation of the N170 to faces did not show significant interaction with the gender of the face stimulus, or hemisphere of recording sites. Subtracting the fear versus neutral topography provided a topography that itself was highly similar to the face N170. Conclusion The face N170 response can be influenced by emotional expressions contained within facial stimuli. The topography of this effect is consistent with the notion that fear stimuli exaggerates the N170 response itself. This finding stands in contrast to previous models suggesting that N170 processes linked to structural analysis of faces precede analysis of emotional expression, and instead may reflect early top-down modulation from neural systems involved in

  11. A novel polar-based human face recognition computational model

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zana; J.P. Mena-Chalco; Cesar Jr, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by a recently proposed biologically inspired face recognition approach, we investigated the relation between human behavior and a computational model based on Fourier-Bessel (FB) spatial patterns. We measured human recognition performance of FB filtered face images using an 8-alternative forced-choice method. Test stimuli were generated by converting the images from the spatial to the FB domain, filtering the resulting coefficients with a band-pass filter, and finally taking the inv...

  12. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this 'photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli. PMID:27572806

  13. Preparation of stimuli for timbre perception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar. PMID:23967955

  14. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity. PMID:24623114

  15. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  16. Cognitive Interpretations of Ambiguous Visual Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Naber, Marnix

    2012-01-01

    Brains can sense and distinguish signals from background noise in physical environments, and recognize and classify them as distinct entities. Ambiguity is an inherent part of this process. It is a cognitive property that is generated by the noisy character of the signals, and by the design of the sensory systems that process them. Stimuli can be ambiguous if they are noisy, incomplete, or only briefly sensed. Such conditions may ...

  17. Cortical gating of oropharyngeal sensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials provide a measure of cortical neuronal activation in response to various types of sensory stimuli. In order to prevent flooding of the cortex with redundant information various sensory stimuli are gated cortically such that response to stimulus 2 (S2) is significantly reduced in amplitude compared to stimulus 1 (S1). Upper airway protective mechanisms, such as swallowing and cough, are dependent on sensory input for triggering and modifying their motor output. Thus, it was hypothesized that central neural gating would be absent for paired-air puff stimuli applied to the oropharynx. Twenty-three healthy adults (18-35 years) served as research participants. Pharyngeal sensory evoked potentials (PSEPs) were measured via 32-electrode cap (10-20 system) connected to SynAmps(2) Neuroscan EEG System. Paired-pulse air puffs were delivered with an inter-stimulus interval of 500 ms to the oropharynx using a thin polyethylene tube connected to a flexible laryngoscope. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences found for the amplitudes S1 and S2 for any of the four component PSEP peaks. Mean gating ratios were above 0.90 for each peak. Results supports our hypothesis that sensory central neural gating would be absent for component PSEP peaks with paired-pulse stimuli delivered to the oropharynx. This may be related to the need for constant sensory monitoring necessary for adequate airway protection associated with swallowing and coughing. PMID:21423402

  18. Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Tullis, Jonathan G.; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    Remindings–stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events–may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw, 1994); here we evaluate whether remindings influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were either pre...

  19. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  20. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Elisabetta; Berzolla, Alessia; Oppo, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L.) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M), used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning. PMID:26543865

  1. Spatial Brightness Perception of Trichromatic Stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Houser, Kevin W.

    2012-11-16

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. The results indicate that light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, V(λ)-based photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. The results suggest further development of metrics to predict brightness perception is warranted, and that including age as a variable in predictive models may be valuable.

  2. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  3. Facing and quality of life in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of coping strategies quality of life of women with breast cancer. patients faced a series of stressful events related to the disease and its treatment. We show some results of a longitudinal study. Patients and Methods: We interviewed and questionnaires applied to 51 patients with positive diagnosis of breast cancer. We apply the questionnaires at week following the surgery, and after completion of the treatments listed chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy. Scales used - the mental adjustment to cancer (Mac, mental adjustment was evaluated to cancer), anxiety and depression through the HADS, and quality of life and S F 36 POMS (profile of mood states). Results: The analysis of the results show this trend, to find the following negative correlations (Spearman r) between coping strategies (Mac) and the domains of the S F-36 Hopelessness with physical function (R.38) and social function (R.44); anxious concern physical role (R.36), general health (R.35) and mental health (R.62); avoidance with role physical (37 r.) and mental health (R.36); fatalism pain (R.37) and vitality (R.41). Hopelessness, anxious worry, anxiety and depression, are psychosocial factors that affect quality of life

  4. A truly human interface: Interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin eCorti; Alex eGillespie

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (echoborgs) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experi...

  5. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (“echoborgs”) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s expe...

  6. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C.; Michael, Andrew M.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex. PMID:27378880

  7. Steroids facing emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used are pictures of human facial expressions of emotion. The main interest was in establishing psychoneuronedocrine and psychological motivational predictors of biased processing of angry and fearful f...

  8. Individuating Faces and Common Objects Produces Equal Responses in Putative Face Processing Areas in the Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Haist

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the proposal that specific human cortical regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, commonly called the fusiform face area (FFA and occipital face area (OFA, are specialized for face processing. Here, we present findings from a fMRI study of identity discrimination of faces and objects that demonstrates the FFA and OFA are equally responsive to processing stimuli at the level of individuals (i.e., individuation, be they human faces or non-face objects. The FFA and OFA were defined via a passive viewing task as regions that produced greater activation to faces relative to non-face stimuli within the middle fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. In the individuation task, participants judged whether sequentially presented images of faces, diverse objects, or wristwatches depicted the identical or a different exemplar. All three stimulus types produced equivalent BOLD activation within the FFA and OFA; that is, there was no face-specific or face-preferential processing. Critically, individuation processing did not eliminate an object superiority effect relative to faces within a region more closely linked to object processing in the lateral occipital complex (LOC, suggesting that individuation processes are reasonably specific to the FFA and OFA. Taken together, these findings challenge the prevailing view that the FFA and OFA are face-specific processing regions, demonstrating instead that they function to individuate -- i.e., identify specific individuals -- within a category. These findings have significant implications for understanding the function of a brain region widely believed to play an important role in social cognition.

  9. Atypical Face Perception in Autism: A Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Karine; Guy, Jacalyn; Habak, Claudine; Wilson, Hugh R; Pagani, Linda; Mottron, Laurent; Bertone, Armando

    2015-10-01

    Face perception is the most commonly used visual metric of social perception in autism. However, when found to be atypical, the origin of face perception differences in autism is contentious. One hypothesis proposes that a locally oriented visual analysis, characteristic of individuals with autism, ultimately affects performance on face tasks where a global analysis is optimal. The objective of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by assessing face identity discrimination with synthetic faces presented with and without changes in viewpoint, with the former condition minimizing access to local face attributes used for identity discrimination. Twenty-eight individuals with autism and 30 neurotypical participants performed a face identity discrimination task. Stimuli were synthetic faces extracted from traditional face photographs in both front and 20° side viewpoints, digitized from 37 points to provide a continuous measure of facial geometry. Face identity discrimination thresholds were obtained using a two-alternative, temporal forced choice match-to-sample paradigm. Analyses revealed an interaction between group and condition, with group differences found only for the viewpoint change condition, where performance in the autism group was decreased compared to that of neurotypical participants. The selective decrease in performance for the viewpoint change condition suggests that face identity discrimination in autism is more difficult when access to local cues is minimized, and/or when dependence on integrative analysis is increased. These results lend support to a perceptual contribution of atypical face perception in autism. PMID:25683613

  10. A parametric study of fear generalization to faces and non-face objects: relationship to discrimination thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fear generalization is the production of fear responses to a stimulus that is similar – but not identical - to a threatening stimulus. Although prior studies have found that fear generalization magnitudes are qualitatively related to the degree of perceptual similarity to the threatening stimulus, the precise relationship between these two functions has not been measured systematically. Also, it remains unknown whether fear generalization mechanisms differ for social and non-social information.To examine these questions, we measured perceptual discrimination and fear generalization in the same subjects, using images of human faces and non-face control stimuli (blobs that were perceptually matched to the faces. First, each subject’s ability to discriminate between pairs of faces or blobs was measured. Each subject then underwent a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which each of the paired stimuli were either followed (CS+ or not followed (CS- by a shock. Skin conductance responses (SCRs were also measured. Subjects were then presented with the CS+, CS- and five levels of a CS+-to-CS- morph continuum between the paired stimuli, based on individual discrimination thresholds. Finally, subjects rated the likelihood that each stimulus had been followed by a shock. Subjects showed both autonomic (SCR-based and conscious (ratings-based fear responses to morphs that they could not discriminate from the CS+ (generalization. For both faces and non-face objects, fear generalization was not found above discrimination thresholds. However, subjects exhibited greater fear generalization in the shock likelihood ratings compared to the SCRs, particularly for faces. These findings reveal that autonomic threat detection mechanisms in humans are highly sensitive to small perceptual differences between stimuli. Also, the conscious evaluation of threat shows broader generalization than autonomic responses, biased towards labeling a stimulus as threatening.

  11. A parametric study of fear generalization to faces and non-face objects: relationship to discrimination thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Daphne J; Boeke, Emily A; Wolthusen, Rick P F; Nasr, Shahin; Milad, Mohammed R; Tootell, Roger B H

    2014-01-01

    Fear generalization is the production of fear responses to a stimulus that is similar-but not identical-to a threatening stimulus. Although prior studies have found that fear generalization magnitudes are qualitatively related to the degree of perceptual similarity to the threatening stimulus, the precise relationship between these two functions has not been measured systematically. Also, it remains unknown whether fear generalization mechanisms differ for social and non-social information. To examine these questions, we measured perceptual discrimination and fear generalization in the same subjects, using images of human faces and non-face control stimuli ("blobs") that were perceptually matched to the faces. First, each subject's ability to discriminate between pairs of faces or blobs was measured. Each subject then underwent a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which each of the paired conditioned stimuli (CS) were either followed (CS+) or not followed (CS-) by a shock. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were also measured. Subjects were then presented with the CS+, CS- and five levels of a CS+-to-CS- morph continuum between the paired stimuli, which were identified based on individual discrimination thresholds. Finally, subjects rated the likelihood that each stimulus had been followed by a shock. Subjects showed both autonomic (SCR-based) and conscious (ratings-based) fear responses to morphs that they could not discriminate from the CS+ (generalization). For both faces and non-face objects, fear generalization was not found above discrimination thresholds. However, subjects exhibited greater fear generalization in the shock likelihood ratings compared to the SCRs, particularly for faces. These findings reveal that autonomic threat detection mechanisms in humans are highly sensitive to small perceptual differences between stimuli. Also, the conscious evaluation of threat shows broader generalization than autonomic responses, biased towards labeling a

  12. Stimuli-responsive chromism in organophosphorus chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Christian; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Changes in color are one of the most obvious and easily followed responses that can be induced by an external stimulus. π-Conjugated organophosphorus compounds are on the rise to challenge established systems by opening up new and simple pathways to diversely modified optoelectronic properties--the main challenge for the development of new chromic materials. Relevant stimuli highlighted in this Frontier article include electronic current (electrochromism), light (photochromism), solvent polarity (solvatochromism), aggregation formation (aggregation induced emission, AIE), mechanical force (mechanochromism), temperature (thermochromism), organic solvent vapor (vapochromism), and pH (halochromism). PMID:26286166

  13. Listening to Birds in the Anthropocene: The Anxious Semiotics of Sound in a Human-Dominated World

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Rachel Carson predicted a “silent spring” environmentalists have been carefully and anxiously listening to birds. More recently the musician and scientist Bernie Krause has examined the effects of human activity on avian soundscapes throughout the world. He argues that human activities cause ecological and sonic disruptions that really are rendering the world silent or discordant, submerging the “animal orchestra” beneath noise. A healthy natural environment can be heard, according...

  14. Analyzing the relationship between social networking addiction, interaction anxiousness and levels of loneliness of pre-service teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Özgür

    2013-01-01

    In this research, it was aimed to analyze the social networking addiction of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables and evaluate the relationship between social networking addiction and loneliness and interaction anxiousness. The research was designed according to the relational screening model. The study sample included 349 pre-service teachers studying at Trakya University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic year fall term. The data were obtained using Facebook Addiction ...

  15. Short term effects of inpatient cognitive behavioral treatment of adolescents with anxious-depressed school absenteeism : an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Daniel; Hautmann, Christopher; Rizk, Saada; Petermann, Maike; Minkus, Johannes; Sinzig, Judith; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Doepfner, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This observational study examined the changes during inpatient cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) of adolescents with chronic anxious-depressive school absenteeism with or without comorbid disruptive symptoms. 147 adolescents (aged 12?18 years) with a specific phobia or other anxiety disorder or a depressive episode or a mixed disorder of conduct and emotions and who had completely ceased to attend school or showed irregular school attendance underwent an inpatient cogni...

  16. Short term effects of inpatient cognitive behavioral treatment of adolescents with anxious-depressed school absenteeism: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Daniel; Hautmann, Christopher; Rizk, Saada; Petermann, Maike; Minkus, Johannes; Sinzig, Judith; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Doepfner, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    This observational study examined the changes during inpatient cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) of adolescents with chronic anxious-depressive school absenteeism with or without comorbid disruptive symptoms. 147 adolescents (aged 12-18 years) with a specific phobia or other anxiety disorder or a depressive episode or a mixed disorder of conduct and emotions and who had completely ceased to attend school or showed irregular school attendance underwent an inpatient cognitive-behavioral trea...

  17. Severity of Depression, Anxious Distress and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Swedish Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Aysha; Forsell, Yvonne; Iqbal, Romaina; Janszky, Imre; Moller, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This population-based cohort study aimed to determine the association between depression of varying severity and risk for CVD and to study the effect of concomitant anxious distress on this association. Methods We utilized data from a longitudinal cohort study of mental health, work and relations among adults (20–64 years), with a total of 10,443 individuals. Depression and anxious distress were assessed using psychiatric rating scales and defined according to DSM-5. Outcomes were register-based and self-reported cardiovascular diseases. Findings Overall increased odds ratios of 1.5 to 2.6 were seen for the different severity levels of depression, with the highest adjusted OR for moderate depression (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.3, 3.5). Similar odds ratios were seen for sub-groups of CVD: ischemic/hypertensive heart disease and stroke, 2.4 (95% CI 1.4, 3.9) and OR 2.1 (95%CI 1.2, 3.8) respectively. Depression with anxious distress as a specifier of severity showed OR of 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) for CVD. Conclusion This study found that severity level of depression seems to be of significance for increased risk of CVD among depressed persons, although not in a dose-response manner which might be obscured due to treatment of depression. Further, we found a higher risk of CVD among depressed individuals with symptoms of anxious distress. PMID:26469703

  18. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety. PMID:22858900

  19. Can Parents Treat their Anxious Child using CBT? A Brief Report of a Self-Help Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Christiansen, Bianca Munkebo; Walczak, Monika Anna; Østergaard, Sofie Wille; Breinholst, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We developed and tested a self-help program with minimal therapist involvement for parents of anxious children. Method: The program focused on transfer of control from therapist to parents of children with moderate anxiety, and consisted of two therapist-led workshops, a Facebook group...... results suggest that parent-based self-help groups focusing on transfer of control may be a cost-effective way of providing treatment to children with moderate anxiety...

  20. Effects of Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs on Anxiety and Quality of Life in Anxious Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Babaei Ruchi; Fazlollah Ghofranipour; Saeed Sadeghian; Ali Ramezankhani; Alireza Heidarnia; Tahereh Dehdari; Soraya Etemadi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with psychological problems after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) show poorer outcomes; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into the effects of cardiac rehabilitation programs on such patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of phase III cardiac rehabilitation programs on the anxiety and quality of life of anxious patients who had undergone CABG in Iran.Methods: Six weeks after CABG, 83 anxious patients participated in an 8-week...

  1. Doll Play narratives about starting school in children of socially anxious mothers, and their relation to subsequent child school-based anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Pass, Laura; Arteche, Adriane; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child social anxiety is common, and predicts later emotional and academic impairment. Offspring of socially anxious mothers are at increased risk. It is important to establish whether individual vulnerability to disorder can be identified in young children. Method: The responses of 4.5 year-old children of mothers with social phobia (N = 62) and non-anxious mothers (N = 60) were compared, two months before school entry, using a Doll Play (DP) procedure focused on the social...

  2. Gaze shifting in infancy : A longitudinalstudy using dynamic faces and abstract stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Disengaging from and shifting gaze to a salient stimulus is a prerequisite for early exploration and communication. The efficiency of disengagement increases during the first few months after birth. Little is known about the effect of stimulus characteristics on disengagement during the different st

  3. Unconscious neural processing differs with method used to render stimuli invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Victor Fogelson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF. In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.

  4. Analyzing the relationship between social networking addiction, interaction anxiousness and levels of loneliness of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Özgür

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to analyze the social networking addiction of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables and evaluate the relationship between social networking addiction and loneliness and interaction anxiousness. The research was designed according to the relational screening model. The study sample included 349 pre-service teachers studying at Trakya University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic year fall term. The data were obtained using Facebook Addiction Scale, Interaction Anxiousness Scale, the UCLA-Loneliness Scale III and personal information form. In analysis of data, descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H and correlation tests were benefited. The research findings revealed that social networking addiction of pre-service teachers was at a low level, the relationship between interaction anxiousness and social networking addiction was high, and the relationship between the level of loneliness and social networking addiction was at a mid-level. Moreover, in the research a statistically significant difference was obtained between the variables of social networking addiction and frequency of using social networking, gender and the level of grade they study.

  5. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  6. Anxious and Depressive Avoidance and Symptoms of Prolonged Grief, Depression, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Boelen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Following loss, people can develop symptoms of depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, or Complicated Grief (CG – also termed Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD. A recent cognitive-behavioural model has proposed that avoiding confrontation with the reality of the loss (called “anxious avoidance” [AA] and refraining from activities that could foster adjustment (called “depressive avoidance” [DA] both play a critical role in CG/PGD. The present study examined this assumption, using self-reported data from 161 mourners. Findings showed that items constituting AA and DA represented two distinct factors. Both factors were strongly correlated with other measures of bereavement-related avoidance and both accounted for a unique part of the explained variance in CG/PGD severity, beyond relevant background variables, negative cognitions, and concomitant symptom-levels of depression and PTSD. DA also explained unique variance in depression beyond these variables. Moreover, AA and DA mediated the linkages of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with symptom-levels of CG/PGD.

  7. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. PMID:25022771

  8. Psychophysiological activation during preparation, performance, and recovery in high- and low-anxious music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA. PMID:24477850

  9. Continuum Models of Stimuli-responsive Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    Immersed in a solution of small molecules and ions, a network of long-chain polymers may imbibe the solution and swell, resulting in a polymeric gel. Depending on the molecular structure of the polymers, the amount of swelling can be regulated by moisture, mechanical forces, ionic strength, electric field, pH value, and many other types of stimuli. Starting from the basic principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, this chapter formulates a field theory of the coupled large deformation and mass transportation in a neutral polymeric gel. The theory is then extended to study polyelectrolyte gels with charge-carrying networks by accounting for the electromechanical coupling and migration of solute ions. While the theoretical framework is adaptable to various types of material models, some representative ones are described through specific free-energy functions and kinetic laws. A specific material law for pH-sensitive gels—a special type of polyelectrolyte gels—is introduced as an example of incorporating chemical reactions in modeling stimuli-responsive gels. Finally, a simplified theory for the equilibrium but inhomogeneous swelling of a polymeric gel is deduced. The theory and the specific material models are illustrated through several examples.

  10. Remindings influence the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Braverman, Michael; Ross, Brian H; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2014-02-01

    Remindings-stimulus-guided retrievals of prior events-may help us interpret ambiguous events by linking the current situation to relevant prior experiences. Evidence suggests that remindings play an important role in interpreting complex ambiguous stimuli (Ross & Bradshaw Memory & Cognition, 22, 591-605, 1994); here, we evaluate whether remindings will influence word interpretation and memory in a new paradigm. Learners studied words on distinct visual backgrounds and generated a sentence for each word. Homographs were preceded by a biasing cue on the same background three items earlier, preceded by a biasing cue on a different background three items earlier, or followed by a biasing cue on the same background three items later. When biasing cues preceded the homographs on the same backgrounds as the homographs, the meanings of the homographs in learner-generated sentences were consistent with the biasing cues more often than in the other two conditions. These results show that remindings can influence word interpretation. In addition, later memory for the homographs and cues was greater when the meaning of the homograph in the sentence was consistent with the earlier biasing cue, suggesting that remindings enhanced mnemonic performance. Remindings play an important role in how we interpret ambiguous stimuli and enhance memory for the involved material. PMID:23835617

  11. Mimicking biophysical stimuli within bone tumor microenvironment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano-Kruik, A.; Yeager, K.; Bach, D.; Villasante, A.; Cimetta, E.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo, cells reside in a complex environment regulating their fate and function. Most of this complexity is lacking in standard in vitro models, leading to readouts falling short of predicting the actual in vivo situation. The use of engineering tools, combined with deep biological knowledge, leads to the development and use of bioreactors providing biologically sound niches. Such bioreactors offer new tools for biological research, and are now also entering the field of cancer research. Here we present the development and validation of a modular bioreactor system providing: (i) high throughput analyses, (ii) a range of biological conditions, (iii) high degree of control, and (iv) application of physiological stimuli to the cultured samples. The bioreactor was used to engineer a three-dimensional (3D) tissue model of cancer, where the effects of mechanical stimulation on the tumor phenotype were evaluated. Mechanical stimuli applied to the engineered tumor model activated the mechanotransduction machinery and resulted in measurable changes of mRNA levels towards a more aggressive tumor phenotype. PMID:26737062

  12. Intact rapid detection of fearful faces in the absence of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Moradi, Farshad; Felsen, Csilla; Yamazaki, Madoka; Adolphs, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala is thought to process fear-related stimuli rapidly and nonconsciously. We found that an individual with complete bilateral amygdala lesions, who cannot recognize fear from faces, nonetheless showed normal rapid detection and nonconscious processing of those same fearful faces. We conclude that the amygdala is not essential for early stages of fear processing but, instead, modulates recognition and social judgment.

  13. The Development of Visual Search in Infancy: Attention to Faces versus Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Setoodehnia, Mielle; Baek, Jongsoo; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments examined how faces compete with physically salient stimuli for the control of attention in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-old infants (N = 117 total). Three computational models were used to quantify physical salience. We presented infants with visual search arrays containing a face and familiar object(s), such as shoes and flowers. Six- and…

  14. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  15. The extended functional neuroanatomy of emotional processing biases for masked faces in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Victor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however. AIMS: To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants. METHOD: Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups. RESULTS: The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.

  16. Enhanced sensitization to animal, interpersonal, and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli (but no evidence for selective one-trial fear learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Cronin, Sophie L; Alhadad, Sakinah S J; Luck, Camilla C

    2015-11-01

    Selective sensitization has been proposed as an alternative explanation for enhanced responding to animal fear-relevant stimuli--snakes and spiders--during extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study sought to replicate the phenomenon using a shock workup procedure as the sensitizing manipulation and to extend it to interpersonal and intergroup fear-relevant stimuli--angry faces and other-race faces. Assessment of selective sensitization was followed by a one-trial fear learning procedure. Selective sensitization, larger electrodermal responses to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization, or a larger increase in electrodermal responding to fear-relevant than to control stimuli after sensitization was observed across stimulus domains. However, the one-trial fear learning procedure failed to provide evidence for enhanced fear conditioning to fear-relevant stimuli. One-trial fear learning was either absent or present for fear-relevant and nonfear-relevant stimuli. The current study confirms that electrodermal responses to fear-relevant stimuli across stimulus domains are subject to selective sensitization. PMID:26283264

  17. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zani Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.

  18. Self-face does not capture attention: an inattentional blindness study

    OpenAIRE

    Devue, Christel; Laloyaux, Cédric; Feyers, Dorothée; Brédart, Serge

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown previously that some categories of stimuli are more likely to capture attention under condition of inattention compared to others. This is the case of faces and auto-referential material (e.g., the subject’s own name) in the inattentional blindness paradigm (Mack & Rock, 1998). However, stimuli combining these two properties have never been assessed. Yet it could be that the own face, because it is both a face and a self-referential stimulus, is more prone to attract attenti...

  19. Salient cues from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers’ face expressions, fixations and pupil size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Esther Kret

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene context on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face-body-scene combinations. Participants viewed emotionally (incongruent face-body and body-scene pairs whilst eye fixations, pupil-size and electromyography (EMG responses were recorded. Participants focused more on angry and fearful vs. happy or neutral cues, independent of the source and relatively independent from emotional incongruence. Moreover, angry faces combined with angry bodies and angry bodies viewed in an aggressive social scene context elicited greatest pupil dilation. Participants' face expressions matched the valence of the stimuli but when face-body compounds were shown, the observed facial expression influenced EMG responses more than the postures. Our results show that threatening signals from faces, bodies and scenes attract attention, induce arousal, and evoke congruent facial reactions.

  20. Decision-dependent aftereffects for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Christian; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-07-01

    Adaptation-related aftereffects (AEs) have been found in the perception of face identity, in that perception of an ambiguous face is typically biased away from the identity of a preceding unambiguous adaptor face. In previous studies, we could show that both perceptual ambiguity and physical similarity play a role in determining perceived face identity AEs, Cortex 49 (2013) 1963-1977, Plos One 8 (2013) e70525. Here, we tested further the role of ambiguity by manipulating participants' task such that the very same target stimuli were either ambiguous or unambiguous regarding stimulus classification. We created two partially overlapping continua spanning three unfamiliar face identities each, by morphing identity A via B to C, and B via C to D. In a first session, participants were familiarised with faces A and C and asked to classify faces of the A-B-C continuum as either identity A or C in an AE paradigm. Following adaptation to A or C, we observed contrastive AEs for the ambiguous identity B, but not for the unambiguous identities A or C. In a second session, the same participants were familiarised with faces B and D, followed by tests of AEs for the B-C-D continuum now involving a B-D classification task. We again observed contrastive AEs but only for target identity C (ambiguous for the decision) and not for B or D (unambiguous). Our results suggest that perceptual ambiguity, as given by the task-context, determines whether or not AEs are induced. PMID:24768800

  1. Eye tracking reveals a crucial role for facial motion in recognition of faces by infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-06-01

    Current knowledge about face processing in infancy comes largely from studies using static face stimuli, but faces that infants see in the real world are mostly moving ones. To bridge this gap, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Asian infants (N = 118) were familiarized with either moving or static Asian female faces, and then their face recognition was tested with static face images. Eye-tracking methodology was used to record eye movements during the familiarization and test phases. The results showed a developmental change in eye movement patterns, but only for the moving faces. In addition, the more infants shifted their fixations across facial regions, the better their face recognition was, but only for the moving faces. The results suggest that facial movement influences the way faces are encoded from early in development. PMID:26010387

  2. The prevalence of psychiatric disease in the significant others of patients with known mood and anxious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corea Salvatore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Information about the Significant Others (S.O. of 530 patients with mood and anxious spectrum disorders has been tabulated in this multicentre, retrospective, clinical observational study in order to learn the prevalence of the same mood and/or anxious spectrum diseases in the S.O. of the patients. Methods - The 530 outpatients (of age range from 18 to 70 years with mood and anxious spectrum disorders have been treated by the authors, observed for a seven year period (from January 1995 until May 2003. The patients live in 16 different Italian provinces, but are predominantly from Lombardia and Veneto. Mood disease (includes substance abuse was present in 72% of the patients and anxious disease was present in 28% (DSM-IV diagnoses based upon clinical interviews. The S.O. (various heterosexual long-term relationships of each patient was interviewed for this study to establish a DSM-IV diagnosis of any psychiatric disease that might be present. In cases in which the patient had no S.O. or in which information about the S.O. was unavailable, that information was collected. As data was collected, 10 item report was completed for each patient and the respective S.O. Results - Patients had an S.O. with a similar mental disease to their own in 41% of cases; only 16% of the patients chose their S.O. with no mental disease; 18% of the patients did not have any S.O. and in 26% of the cases the health of the S.O. was unknown. Conclusion - In this multicentre, retrospective, clinical observational study, the corresponding Significant Others of 530 patients with mood and anxious spectrum disorders presented with a high percentage of similar disease to the patients. These findings suggest that it may be appropriate to counsel our patients with these diseases to encourage their respective S.O. to undergo a psychiatric evaluation for possible treatable disease: the first objective of an S.O. is preventive care, secondarily the well-being of

  3. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  4. Series Facing Radiation. 2 Facing radiation is facing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)

  5. Diverting attention suppresses human amygdala responses to faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eMorawetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies disagree as to whether the processing of emotion-laden visual stimuli is dependent upon the availability of attentional resources or entirely capacity-free. Two main factors have been proposed to be responsible for the discrepancies: the differences in the perceptual attentional demands of the tasks used to divert attentional resources from emotional stimuli and the spatial location of the affective stimuli in the visual field. To date, no neuroimaging report addressed these two issues in the same set of subjects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high and low attentional load as well as different stimulus locations on face processing in the amygdala using fMRI to provide further evidence for one of the two opposing theories. We were able for the first time to directly test the interaction of attentional load and spatial location. The results revealed a strong attenuation of amygdala activity when the attentional load was high. The eccentricity of the emotional stimuli did not affect responses in the amygdala and no interaction effect between attentional load and spatial location was found. We conclude that the processing of emotional stimuli in the amygdala is strongly dependent on the availability of attentional resources without a preferred processing of stimuli presented in the periphery and provide firm evidence for the concept of the attentional load theory of emotional processing in the amygdala.

  6. Lightweight Face Relighting

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Sylvain; Sillion, François X.; Quan, Long

    2003-01-01

    International audience In this paper we present a method to relight human faces in real time, using consumer-grade graphics cards even with limited 3D capabilities. We show how to render faces using a combination of a simple, hardware-accelerated parametric model simulating skin shading and a detail texture map, and provide robust procedures to estimate all the necessary parameters for a given face. Our model strikes a balance between the difficulty of realistic face rendering (given the v...

  7. Learning Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Haoqiang; Cao, Zhimin; Jiang, Yuning; Yin, Qi; Doudou, Chinchilla

    2014-01-01

    Face representation is a crucial step of face recognition systems. An optimal face representation should be discriminative, robust, compact, and very easy-to-implement. While numerous hand-crafted and learning-based representations have been proposed, considerable room for improvement is still present. In this paper, we present a very easy-to-implement deep learning framework for face representation. Our method bases on a new structure of deep network (called Pyramid CNN). The proposed Pyrami...

  8. Stable face representations

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2011-01-01

    Photographs are often used to establish the identity of an individual or to verify that they are who they claim to be. Yet, recent research shows that it is surprisingly difficult to match a photo to a face. Neither humans nor machines can perform this task reliably. Although human perceivers are good at matching familiar faces, performance with unfamiliar faces is strikingly poor. The situation is no better for automatic face recognition systems. In practical settings, automatic systems have...

  9. Generic Face Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Valenzuela, Renato; Hitschfeld-Kahler, Nancy; Terissi, Lucas; Gomez, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience In computer vision, the animation of objects has attracted a lot attention, specially the animations of 3D face models. The animation of face models requires in general to manually adapt each generic movement (open/close mouth) to each specific head geometry. In this work we propose a technique for the animation of any face model avoiding most of the manual intervention. In order to achieve this we assume that: (1) faces, despite obvious differences are quite similar...

  10. GPU accelerated face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphics processing units have massive parallel processing capabilities, and there is a growing interest in utilizing them for generic computing. One area of interest is computationally heavy computer vision algorithms, such as face detection and recognition. Face detection is used in a variety of applications, for example the autofocus on cameras, face and emotion recognition, and access control. In this thesis, the face detection algorithm was accelerated with GPU using OpenCL. The goal was...

  11. Enhanced ERPs to visual stimuli in unaffected male siblings of ASD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Goyet, Louise; Ganea, Natasa; Johnson, Mark H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by deficits in social and communication abilities. While unaffected relatives lack severe deficits, milder impairments have been reported in some first-degree relatives. The present study sought to verify whether mild deficits in face perception are evident among the unaffected younger siblings of children with ASD. Children between 6-9 years of age completed a face-recognition task and a passive viewing ERP task with face and house stimuli. Sixteen children were typically developing with no family history of ASD, and 17 were unaffected children with an older sibling with ASD. Findings indicate that, while unaffected siblings are comparable to controls in their face-recognition abilities, unaffected male siblings in particular show relatively enhanced P100 and P100-N170 peak-to-peak amplitude responses to faces and houses. Enhanced ERPs among unaffected male siblings is discussed in relation to potential differences in neural network recruitment during visual and face processing. PMID:25506753

  12. Face processing is gated by visual spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Crist

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human perception of faces is widely believed to rely on automatic processing by a domain-specifi c, modular component of the visual system. Scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP recordings indicate that faces receive special stimulus processing at around 170 ms poststimulus onset, in that faces evoke an enhanced occipital negative wave, known as the N170, relative to the activity elicited by other visual objects. As predicted by modular accounts of face processing, this early face-specifi c N170 enhancement has been reported to be largely immune to the infl uence of endogenous processes such as task strategy or attention. However, most studies examining the infl uence of attention on face processing have focused on non-spatial attention, such as object-based attention, which tend to have longer-latency effects. In contrast, numerous studies have demonstrated that visual spatial attention can modulate the processing of visual stimuli as early as 80 ms poststimulus – substantially earlier than the N170. These temporal characteristics raise the question of whether this initial face-specifi c processing is immune to the infl uence of spatial attention. This question was addressed in a dual-visualstream ERP study in which the infl uence of spatial attention on the face-specifi c N170 could be directly examined. As expected, early visual sensory responses to all stimuli presented in an attended location were larger than responses evoked by those same stimuli when presented in an unattended location. More importantly, a signifi cant face-specifi c N170 effect was elicited by faces that appeared in an attended location, but not in an unattended one. In summary, early face-specifi c processing is not automatic, but rather, like other objects, strongly depends on endogenous factors such as the allocation of spatial attention. Moreover, these fi ndings underscore the extensive infl uence that top-down attention exercises over the processing of

  13. About (above) a face - a face

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Cervelin

    2009-01-01

    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  14. Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Benjamin G; Inoue, Yushi

    2004-01-01

    Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli may be triggered by patterned and flashing displays that are now ubiquitous. The seizures may be clinically generalized, but unilateral and bilateral myoclonic attacks also may be triggered, especially in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and recently, clearly focal reflex occipital lobe seizures have been described. Some seizure-triggering properties of video displays can be identified, such as perceived brightness, pattern, flicker frequency, and color. Knowledge of these is useful in planning individual treatment and in designing regulations for screen content of television broadcasts or for other video displays. Some subjects will also be sensitive to cognitive or action-programming activation, especially when playing video games, and this can increase the chance of seizure triggering. Nonspecific factors such as sleep deprivation, prolonged exposure, and drug or alcohol use also may play a role in reflex seizure occurrence. PMID:14706042

  15. Effects of AKAP5 Pro100Leu genotype on working memory for emotional stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Richter

    Full Text Available Recent investigations addressing the role of the synaptic multiadaptor molecule AKAP5 in human emotion and behavior suggest that the AKAP5 Pro100Leu polymorphism (rs2230491 contributes to individual differences in affective control. Carriers of the less common Leu allele show a higher control of anger as indicated by behavioral measures and dACC brain response on emotional distracters when compared to Pro homozygotes. In the current fMRI study we used an emotional working memory task according to the n-back scheme with neutral and negative emotional faces as target stimuli. Pro homozygotes showed a performance advantage at the behavioral level and exhibited enhanced activation of the amygdala and fusiform face area during working memory for emotional faces. On the other hand, Leu carriers exhibited increased activation of the dACC during performance of the 2-back condition. Our results suggest that AKAP5 Pro100Leu effects on emotion processing might be task-dependent with Pro homozygotes showing lower control of emotional interference, but more efficient processing of task-relevant emotional stimuli.

  16. Effects of AKAP5 Pro100Leu genotype on working memory for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sylvia; Gorny, Xenia; Machts, Judith; Behnisch, Gusalija; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Herbort, Maike C; Münte, Thomas F; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Schott, Björn H

    2013-01-01

    Recent investigations addressing the role of the synaptic multiadaptor molecule AKAP5 in human emotion and behavior suggest that the AKAP5 Pro100Leu polymorphism (rs2230491) contributes to individual differences in affective control. Carriers of the less common Leu allele show a higher control of anger as indicated by behavioral measures and dACC brain response on emotional distracters when compared to Pro homozygotes. In the current fMRI study we used an emotional working memory task according to the n-back scheme with neutral and negative emotional faces as target stimuli. Pro homozygotes showed a performance advantage at the behavioral level and exhibited enhanced activation of the amygdala and fusiform face area during working memory for emotional faces. On the other hand, Leu carriers exhibited increased activation of the dACC during performance of the 2-back condition. Our results suggest that AKAP5 Pro100Leu effects on emotion processing might be task-dependent with Pro homozygotes showing lower control of emotional interference, but more efficient processing of task-relevant emotional stimuli. PMID:23383244

  17. Multiview Face Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sauquet, Tiffany; Rodriguez, Yann; Marcel, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    In this document, we address the problem of multiview face detection. This work extends the frontal face detection system developed at the IDIAP Research Institute to multiview face detection. The main state-of-the art techniques are reviewed and a novel architecture is presented, based on a pyramid of detectors that are trained for different views of faces. The proposed approach robustly detects faces rotated up to -67.5 degree in the image plane and up to -90 degree out of the image plane. ...

  18. A Neurorobotic Platform to Test the Influence of Neuromodulatory Signaling on Anxious and Curious Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Krichmar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate neuromodulatory systems are critical for appropriate value-laden responses to environmental challenges. Whereas changes in the overall level of dopamine have an effect on the organism’s reward or curiosity seeking behavior, changes in the level of serotonin can affect its level of anxiety or harm aversion. Moreover, top-down signals from frontal cortex can exert cognitive control on these neuromodulatory systems. The cholinergic and noradrenergic systems affect the ability to filter out noise and irrelevant events. We introduce a neural network for action selection that is based on these principles of neuromodulatory systems. The algorithm tested the hypothesis that high levels of serotonin lead to withdrawn behavior by suppressing dopaminergic action and that high levels of dopamine or low levels of serotonin lead to curious, exploratory behavior. Furthermore, the algorithm tested the idea that top-down signals from the frontal cortex to neuromodulatory areas are critical for an organism to cope with both stressful and novel events. The neural network was implemented on an autonomous robot and tested in an open field paradigm. The open field test is often used to test for models anxiety or exploratory behavior in the rodent and allows for qualitative comparisons with the neurorobot’s behavior. The present neurorobotic experiments can lead to a better understanding of how neuromodulatory signaling affects the balance between anxious and curious behavior. Therefore, this experimental paradigm may also be informative in exploring a wide range of neurological diseases such as anxiety, autism, attention deficit disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

  19. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being. PMID:25758939

  20. 5-HTTLPR differentially predicts brain network responses to emotional faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K;

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...

  1. Cortical networks for face perception in two-month-old infants

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Tamami; Nakatani, Kazuko

    2014-01-01

    Newborns have an innate system for preferentially looking at an upright human face. This face preference behaviour disappears at approximately one month of age and reappears a few months later. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this U-shaped behavioural change remain unclear. Here, we isolate the functional development of the cortical visual pathway for face processing using S-cone-isolating stimulation, which blinds the subcortical visual pathway. Using luminance stimuli, which are c...

  2. As good as the real thing? Performance differences for live versus recorded stimuli in an everyday listening task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    In an attempt to understand the influence of stimulus presentation method for a typical everyday listening task, test subject performance in a dropped-rod length-estimate experiment was compared for three cases: 1) live presentation of stimuli, 2) playback of binaural stimuli as recorded from an...... surfaces. This experiment was performed to assess the significance of the presentation technique and to better understand the underlying acoustic structure important for length perception. Normal-hearing test subjects were seated facing away from an acoustically transparent but visually opaque screen. Test...... to a just-reachable distance between it and a stationary surface. In an attempt to make the task as natural as possible, the recording, playback, and live presentation of the stimuli all occurred in the same acoustically-normal room. Recordings were made in a position typical of where the test...

  3. As good as the real thing? Performance differences for live versus recorded stimuli in an everyday listening task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the influence of stimulus presentation method for a typical everyday listening task, test subject performance in a dropped-rod length-estimate experiment was compared for three cases: 1) live presentation of stimuli, 2) playback of binaural stimuli as recorded from an...... surfaces. This experiment was performed to assess the significance of the presentation technique and to better understand the underlying acoustic structure important for length perception. Normal-hearing test subjects were seated facing away from an acoustically transparent but visually opaque screen. Test...... to a just-reachable distance between it and a stationary surface. In an attempt to make the task as natural as possible, the recording, playback, and live presentation of the stimuli all occurred in the same acoustically-normal room. Recordings were made in a position typical of where the test...

  4. Vestibular rehabilitation with visual stimuli in peripheral vestibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Manso; Mauricio Malavasi Ganança; Heloisa Helena Caovilla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Visual stimuli can induce vestibular adaptation and recovery of body balance. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation of peripheral vestibular disorders. METHODS: Clinical, randomized, prospective study. Forty patients aged between 23 and 63 years with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders underwent 12 sessions of rehabilitation with visual stimuli using digital video disk (DVD) (experimental...

  5. Passive and motivated perception of emotional faces: qualitative and quantitative changes in the face processing network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie R Skelly

    Full Text Available Emotionally expressive faces are processed by a distributed network of interacting sub-cortical and cortical brain regions. The components of this network have been identified and described in large part by the stimulus properties to which they are sensitive, but as face processing research matures interest has broadened to also probe dynamic interactions between these regions and top-down influences such as task demand and context. While some research has tested the robustness of affective face processing by restricting available attentional resources, it is not known whether face network processing can be augmented by increased motivation to attend to affective face stimuli. Short videos of people expressing emotions were presented to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Motivation to attend to the videos was manipulated by providing an incentive for improved recall performance. During the motivated condition, there was greater coherence among nodes of the face processing network, more widespread correlation between signal intensity and performance, and selective signal increases in a task-relevant subset of face processing regions, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and right amygdala. In addition, an unexpected task-related laterality effect was seen in the amygdala. These findings provide strong evidence that motivation augments co-activity among nodes of the face processing network and the impact of neural activity on performance. These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains.

  6. Always on My Mind? Recognition of Attractive Faces May Not Depend on Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André; Macedo, António F; Albuquerque, Pedro B; Arantes, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Little research has examined what happens to attention and memory as a whole when humans see someone attractive. Hence, we investigated whether attractive stimuli gather more attention and are better remembered than unattractive stimuli. Participants took part in an attention task - in which matrices containing attractive and unattractive male naturalistic photographs were presented to 54 females, and measures of eye-gaze location and fixation duration using an eye-tracker were taken - followed by a recognition task. Eye-gaze was higher for the attractive stimuli compared to unattractive stimuli. Also, attractive photographs produced more hits and false recognitions than unattractive photographs which may indicate that regardless of attention allocation, attractive photographs produce more correct but also more false recognitions. We present an evolutionary explanation for this, as attending to more attractive faces but not always remembering them accurately and differentially compared with unseen attractive faces, may help females secure mates with higher reproductive value. PMID:26858683

  7. Face Animation with Kinect Face Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Forns Gutierrez, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    El projecte consisteix en obtenir les dades d'un Kinect, tractar-les amb el SDK Kinect FaceTracking per obtenir les expressions facials i la inclinació del cap d'una persona que aparegui a la imatge, per finalment animar un avatar 3D amb aquestes dades This project involves obtaining data from a Kinect, treat them with FaceTracking Kinect SDK to obtain facial expressions and head tilt of a person who appears in the picture, finally animate a 3D avatar with these data.

  8. Nonaware classical conditioning to pictorial facial stimuli in a between-groups paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, S; Hugdahl, K

    1999-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of aware and nonaware modes of extinction in classical conditioning to facial emotional stimuli. The subjects participated in three different experimental phases. In the first (habituation) phase they were presented with a 500 ms angry face. In the second (acquisition) phase, for half of the subjects the 500 ms face was paired with an aversive noise (experimental group) while for the other half of the subjects the face and the noise presentations were separated by 6-10 s intervals (sensitization control group). In the third (extinction) phase, these two groups were further divided into two subgroups. One subgroup of both the experimental and control group had the face stimulus presented for 30 ms, and immediately masked with a neutral picture. The other two subgroups had the face presented for 500 ms with no mask. The results showed that conditioning only occurred in the experimental subgroups which was indicated by a significant difference between skin conductance responses during habituation and corresponding responses during extinction. Secondly, comparing the experimental and control groups during the extinction phase, a significant conditioning effect was observed for both the aware and nonaware masked modes of extinction for the experimental group. The results suggest that conditioned autonomic responses may be elicited in a nonaware mode. PMID:10381162

  9. Predictive validity of BODE index for anxious and depressive symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li; LIN Ying-xiang; YANG Ting; ZHANG Hong; JIAO Xia; ZHANG Shu; CHANG Xiao-hong; WANG Zhao-mei; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression are two of the commonest and most modifiable comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have an independent effect on health and prognosis. FEV1% has been shown to be a poor predictor of anxiety and depression. The body mass index, degree of airflow obstruction, dyspnea,and exercise capacity (BODE) index is a multidimensional assessment system which may predict health outcome in COPD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of the BODE index for anxious and depressive symptoms in COPD patients.Methods This was a multicenter prospective cross-sectional study in 256 patients with stable COPD. Anxious and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The relationships between anxiety, depression and potential predictors (including the BODE index) were analyzed by a binary Logistic regression model. Results Subjects who were anxious and depressive walked a shorter six-minute walking distance (6MWD), had more dyspnea, a higher BODE index, and lower health-related quality of life (P <0.01). Anxiety and depression score was significantly correlated with BODE index, respectively (r=0.335, P <0.001; r=0.306, P <0.001). The prevalence of anxiety and depression increased with BODE stage increasing (P <0.05). On the basis of binary Logistic regression, the BODE index was a good and independent predictor of anxiety and depression because it comprised dyspnea and 6MWD, which were shown to be the main determinants.Conclusions The predictive validity of the BODE index for anxiety and depression was demonstrated. We propose that the BODE index should be included in assessment of COPD severity.

  10. Anchoring in numeric judgments of visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eLangeborg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with source credibility or cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  11. Relating tribological stimuli to somatosensory electroencephalographic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oezguen, Novaf; Schubert, Kristof J; Bergmann, Ronny; Bennewitz, Roland; Strauss, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    The present study deals with the extraction of neural correlates evoked by tactile stimulation of the human fingertip. A reciprocal sliding procedure was performed using a home-built tribometer while simultaneously electroencephalographic (EEG) data from the somatosensory cortex was recorded. The tactile stimuli were delivered by a sliding block with equidistant, perpendicular ridges. The experiments were designed and performed in a fully passive way to prevent attentional locked influences from the subjects. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of event related single-trials (ERPs), nonlocal means in addition to 2D-anisotropic denoising schemes based on tight Gabor frames were applied. This novel approach allowed for an easier extraction of ERP alternations. A negative correlation between the latency of the P100 component of the resulting brain responses and the intensity of the underlying lateral forces was found. These findings lead to the conclusion that an increasing stimulus intensity results in a decreasing latency of the brain responses. PMID:26738177

  12. The Search for Optimal Visual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Watson, Barlow and Robson published a brief report in which they explored the relative visibility of targets that varied in size, shape, spatial frequency, speed, and duration (referred to subsequently here as WBR). A novel aspect of that paper was that visibility was quantified in terms of threshold contrast energy, rather than contrast. As they noted, this provides a more direct measure of the efficiency with which various patterns are detected, and may be more edifying as to the underlying detection machinery. For example, under certain simple assumptions, the waveform of the most efficiently detected signal is an estimate of the receptive field of the visual system's most efficient detector. Thus one goal of their experiment Basuto search for the stimulus that the 'eye sees best'. Parenthetically, the search for optimal stimuli may be seen as the most general and sophisticated variant of the traditional 'subthreshold summation' experiment, in which one measures the effect upon visibility of small probes combined with a base stimulus.

  13. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications. PMID:24734968

  14. Stereotypic vision: how stereotypes disambiguate visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Joshua; Wittenbrink, Bernd; Crawford, Matthew T; Sadler, Melody S

    2015-02-01

    Three studies examined how participants use race to disambiguate visual stimuli. Participants performed a first-person-shooter task in which Black and White targets appeared holding either a gun or an innocuous object (e.g., a wallet). In Study 1, diffusion analysis (Ratcliff, 1978) showed that participants rapidly acquired information about a gun when it appeared in the hands of a Black target, and about an innocuous object in the hands of a White target. For counterstereotypic pairings (armed Whites, unarmed Blacks), participants acquired information more slowly. In Study 2, eye tracking showed that participants relied on more ambiguous information (measured by visual angle from fovea) when responding to stereotypic targets; for counterstereotypic targets, they achieved greater clarity before responding. In Study 3, participants were briefly exposed to targets (limiting access to visual information) but had unlimited time to respond. In spite of their slow, deliberative responses, they showed racial bias. This pattern is inconsistent with control failure and suggests that stereotypes influenced identification of the object. All 3 studies show that race affects visual processing by supplementing objective information. PMID:25603373

  15. Psychophysiological response patterns to affective film stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G N Bos

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1 whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR, skin conductance response (SCR and heart rate (HR elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2 the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding.

  16. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  17. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  18. Face-Guarding Polyhedra

    OpenAIRE

    Viglietta, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We study the Art Gallery Problem for face guards in polyhedral environments. The problem can be informally stated as: how many (not necessarily convex) windows should we place on the external walls of a dark building, in order to completely illuminate its interior? We consider both closed and open face guards (i.e., faces with or without their boundary), and we study several classes of polyhedra, including orthogonal polyhedra, 4-oriented polyhedra, and 2-reflex orthostacks. We give upper and...

  19. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B. Price

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts.

  20. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca B; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Silk, Jennifer S; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E; Forbes, Erika E; Siegle, Greg J

    2016-06-01

    Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts. PMID:27010577

  1. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nomi, Jason S.; Lucina Q. Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD...

  2. Fear Extinction to an Out-Group Face: The Role of Target Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete, Carlos D.; Thomsen, Lotte; Olsson, Andreas; Mendes, Wendy; Sidanius, James; Ho, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Conditioning studies on humans and other primates show that fear responses acquired toward danger-relevant stimuli, such as snakes, resist extinction, whereas responses toward danger-irrelevant stimuli, such as birds, are more readily extinguished. Similar evolved biases may extend to human groups, as recent research demonstrates that a conditioned fear response to faces of persons of a social out-group resists extinction, whereas fear toward a social in-group is more readily extinguished. He...

  3. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  4. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent. PMID:24356350

  5. The anxious wait: assessing the impact of patient accessible EHRs for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiljer David

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal health records (PHRs provide patients with access to personal health information (PHI and targeted education. The use of PHRs has the potential to improve a wide range of outcomes, including empowering patients to be more active participants in their care. There are a number of widespread barriers to adoption, including privacy and security considerations. In addition, there are clinical concerns that patients could become anxious or distressed when accessing complex medical information. This study assesses the implementation of a PHR, and its impact on anxiety levels and perceptions of self-efficacy in a sample of breast cancer patients. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used to collect data from participants to evaluate the use of the PHR. Study participants completed background and pre-assessment questionnaires and were then registered into the portal. By entering an activation key, participants were then able to review their lab results and diagnostic imaging reports. After six weeks, participants completed post-assessment questionnaires and usability heuristics. All data were collected using an online survey tool. Data were cleaned and analyzed using SAS v9.1. Results A total of 311 breast cancer patients completed demographic and pre-assessment questionnaires, 250 registered to use the online intervention, and 125 participants completed all required study elements. Matching the pre- and post-anxiety scores demonstrated a decrease in mean anxiety scores (-2.2, p = 0.03; the chemotherapy sub-group had a statistically insignificant mean increase (1.8, p = .14. There was no mean change in self-efficacy scores. Conclusions Participants generally found the portal easy to use; however, the perceived value of improved participation was not detected in the self-efficacy scores. Having access to personal health information did not increase anxiety levels. While these results suggest that the use

  6. Genetic influences on sociability: Heightened amygdala reactivity and event-related responses to positive social stimuli in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Brian W.; Mills, Debra; Yam, Anna; Hoeft, Fumiko; Bellugi, Ursula; Reiss, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder caused by a hemizygous microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a compelling neurocognitive profile characterized by relative deficits in visiospatial function, relative strengths in face and language processing, and enhanced drive towards social engagement. We used a combined fMRI and ERP approach to examine the neural basis of social responsiveness in WS participants to two types of social stimuli, negative (fearful) and positiv...

  7. Age-related differences in cortical activity during a visuo-spatial working memory task with facial stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Schechtman Belham

    Full Text Available Emotion, importantly displayed by facial expressions, is one of the most significant memory modulators. The interaction between memory and the different emotional valences change across lifespan, while young adults (YA are expected to better recall negative events (Negativity Bias Hypothesis, older adults (OA tend to focus on positive stimuli (Positivity Effect Hypothesis. This research work aims at verifying whether cortical electrical activity of these two age groups would also be differently influenced by emotional valences in a visuo-spatial working memory task. 27 YA (13 males and 25 OA (14 males, all healthy volunteers, underwent electroencephalographic recordings (21 scalp electrodes montage, while performing the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task using a touch screen with different stimuli categories: neutral, positive and negative faces and geometric pictures. YA obtained higher scores than OA, and showed higher activation of theta and alpha bands in the frontal and midline regions, besides a more evident right-hemispheric asymmetry on alpha band when compared to OA. For both age groups, performance in the task was worse for positive faces than to negative and to neutral faces. Facial stimuli induced a better performance and higher alpha activation on the pre-frontal region for YA, and on the midline, occipital and left temporal regions for OA when compared to geometric figures. The superior performance of YA was expected due to the natural cognitive deficits connected to ageing, as was a better performance with facial stimuli due to the evolutionary importance of faces. These results were related to cortical activity on areas of importance for action-planning, decision making and sustained attention. Taken together, they are in accordance with the Negativity Bias but do not support the Positivity Effect. The methodology used was able to identify age-related differences in cortical activity during emotional mnemonic processing and

  8. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  9. Logical Rules and the Classification of Integral-Dimension Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Daniel R.; Nosofsky, Robert M.; Donkin, Christopher; Denton, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    A classic distinction in perceptual information processing is whether stimuli are composed of separable dimensions, which are highly analyzable, or integral dimensions, which are processed holistically. Previous tests of a set of logical-rule models of classification have shown that separable-dimension stimuli are processed serially if the…

  10. Viewing preferences of rhesus monkeys related to memory for complex pictures, colours and faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F A; Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1994-01-31

    In order to determine the preferences of rhesus monkeys for visual stimuli, their eye movements were measured in response to presentations of complex pictures, fields of uniform colour, and of faces using the scleral search coil technique. The monkeys (n = 4) controlled both the onset and offset of the stimuli by the direction of their gaze. Each stimulus was presented 4 times, with 0 or 2, and 36 or 38 trials between successive presentations. Several trends were apparent in their scanning behaviour: (1) all 4 monkeys spent more time looking at pictures and faces compared to colour fields. As individuals, they differed in their overall propensity in looking at visual stimuli: monkeys that spent the most (or least) time looking at pictures spent the most (or least) time looking at colour fields. (2) Although the monkeys appeared to prefer pictures and faces to colour fields as measured by gaze duration, preferences for individual pictures, faces and colour fields were not evident. (3) Memory for recently presented stimuli substantially affected gaze duration which was significantly longer for the first compared to the second presentation of the pictures and faces, and memory was estimated to influence gaze duration over as many as 38 intervening trials. These effects were not significant in the case of colour fields. (4) There were no significant differences either in the average latencies to initiate eye movements or the number of saccades on the first and second presentations of pictures, colors or faces for the 4 monkeys. However, the average latencies to the first eye movement within a trial were longer for colour fields than for pictures for all 4 monkeys. Individual monkeys differed substantially in their mean latencies for the initiation of the first eye movement within a trial, which ranged from 235 ms to 414 ms in the two extreme cases. (5) At the presentation of faces, the monkeys tended to make saccades to major facial features, and only occasionally to

  11. Optimal Decision Stimuli for Risky Choice Experiments: An Adaptive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I; Pitt, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than others, so the choice of stimuli is critical. This paper provides the theoretical background and a methodological framework for adaptive selection of optimal stimuli for discriminating among models of risky choice. The approach, called Adaptive Design Optimization (ADO), adapts the stimulus in each experimental trial based on the results of the preceding trials. We demonstrate the validity of the approach with simulation studies aiming to discriminate Expected Utility, Weighted Expected Utility, Original Prospect Theory, and Cumulative Prospect Theory models. PMID:24532856

  12. Emotional attention for erotic stimuli: Cognitive and brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, Vanessa; Pool, Eva; Brosch, Tobias; Delplanque, Sylvain; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Sander, David

    2016-06-01

    It has long been posited that among emotional stimuli, only negative threatening information modulates early shifts of attention. However, in the last few decades there has been an increase in research showing that attention is also involuntarily oriented toward positive rewarding stimuli such as babies, food, and erotic information. Because reproduction-related stimuli have some of the largest effects among positive stimuli on emotional attention, the present work reviews recent literature and proposes that the cognitive and cerebral mechanisms underlying the involuntarily attentional orientation toward threat-related information are also sensitive to erotic information. More specifically, the recent research suggests that both types of information involuntarily orient attention due to their concern relevance and that the amygdala plays an important role in detecting concern-relevant stimuli, thereby enhancing perceptual processing and influencing emotional attentional processes. PMID:26179894

  13. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience...

  14. I am resting but rest less well with you. The Moderating Effect of Anxious Attachment Style on Alpha Power during EEG Resting State in a Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A or together (T. We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants’ cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T versus A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants’ anxious attachment style.

  15. Emotion recognition in the human face and voice

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Lisa Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London At a perceptual level, faces and voices consist of very different sensory inputs and therefore, information processing from one modality can be independent of information processing from another modality (Adolphs & Tranel, 1999). However, there may also be a shared neural emotion network that processes stimuli independent of modality (Peelen, Atkinson, & Vuilleumier, 2010) or emotion...

  16. Pet Face: Mechanisms Underlying Human-Animal Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute) faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet) animals (i.e., dogs and cats) might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown...

  17. Behavioral and neural correlates of emotional development: typically developing infants and infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Porto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the main findings of studies of behavioral and neural correlates regarding the development of facial emotion processing during the first year of life in typically developing infants and infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers. Sources: Comprehensive, non-systematic review of the literature on studies about individual differences in facial emotion processing by newborns and infants over the first year of life. Summary of the findings: Maternal stress related to depression and anxiety has been associated to atypical emotional processing and attentional behaviors in the offspring. Recent neurophysiological studies using electroencephalogram and event-related potentials have begun to shed light on the possible mechanisms underlying such behaviors. Conclusions: Infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers have increased risk for several adverse outcomes across the lifespan. Further neurobehavioral investigations and the promotion of clinical and developmental research integration might eventually contribute to refining screening tools, improving treatment, and enabling primary prevention interventions for children at risk.

  18. Face Time: Educating Face Transplant Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Lamparello, Brooke M.; Bueno, Ericka M.; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. Methods: We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify top...

  19. Abnormalities in the Visual Processing of Viewing Complex Visual Stimuli Amongst Individuals With Body Image Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, A J F; Atkins, K J; Beilharz, F L; Mundy, M E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i.e., increased local processing). Furthermore, we assessed whether this bias appeared for general visual stimuli or specifically for appearance-related stimuli, such as faces and bodies. Participants with high-BIC (n = 25) and low-BIC (n = 30) performed a stimulus discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, scenes, objects, and bodies. Unexpectedly, the high-BIC group showed an increased inversion effect compared to the low-BIC group, indicating perceptual abnormalities may not be present as local processing biases, as originally thought. There was no significant difference in performance across stimulus types, signifying that any visual processing abnormalities may be general rather than appearance-based. This has important implications for whether visual processing abnormalities are predisposing factors for BDD or develop throughout the disorder. PMID:27152128

  20. The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Minces

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regulation, making a definitive interpretation of the behavioral role of cholinergic projections difficult. Furthermore, a review of the electrophysiological literature suggests that cholinergic modulation is particularly important in representing the fine temporal details of stimuli, an issue rarely addressed in behavioral experimentation. The goal of this work is to understand the role cholinergic projections, specific to the sensory cortex, in learning to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of stimuli. A novel visual Go/No-Go task was developed to assess the ability of rats to learn and discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of visual stimuli (lights flashing at various frequencies. The cholinergic contribution to this task was examined by selectively eliminating acetylcholine projections to visual cortex (using 192 IgG-saporin, either before or after discrimination training.We find that in the face of compromised cholinergic input to the visual cortex, the rats’ ability to learn to perform fine discriminations is impaired, whereas their ability to perform discriminations remains unaffected.These results suggest that acetylcholine serves the role of facilitating plastic changes in the sensory cortices that are needed for an animal to refine their sensitivity to the temporal characteristics of relevant stimuli.

  1. The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minces, V H; Alexander, A S; Datlow, M; Alfonso, S I; Chiba, A A

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regulation, making a definitive interpretation of the behavioral role of cholinergic projections difficult. Furthermore, a review of the electrophysiological literature suggests that cholinergic modulation is particularly important in representing the fine temporal details of stimuli, an issue rarely addressed in behavioral experimentation. The goal of this work is to understand the role of cholinergic projections, specific to the sensory cortices, in learning to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of stimuli. A novel visual Go/No-Go task was developed to assess the ability of rats to learn to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of visual stimuli (lights flashing at various frequencies). The cholinergic contribution to this task was examined by selective reduction of acetylcholine projections to visual cortex (VCx) (using 192 IgG-saporin), either before or after discrimination training. We find that in the face of compromised cholinergic input to the VCx, the rats' ability to learn to perform fine discriminations is impaired, whereas their ability to perform previously learned discriminations remains unaffected. These results suggest that acetylcholine serves the role of facilitating plastic changes in the sensory cortices that are necessary for an animal to refine its sensitivity to the temporal characteristics of relevant stimuli. PMID:23519084

  2. Revisiting the Role of the Fusiform Face Area in Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalić, Merim

    2016-09-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is considered to be a highly specialized brain module because of its central importance for face perception. However, many researchers claim that the FFA is a general visual expertise module that distinguishes between individual examples within a single category. Here, I circumvent the shortcomings of some previous studies on the FFA controversy by using chess stimuli, which do not visually resemble faces, together with more sensitive methods of analysis such as multivariate pattern analysis. I also extend the previous research by presenting chess positions, complex scenes with multiple objects, and their interrelations to chess experts and novices as well as isolated chess objects. The first experiment demonstrates that chess expertise modulated the FFA activation when chess positions were presented. In contrast, single chess objects did not produce different activation patterns among experts and novices even when the multivariate pattern analysis was used. The second experiment focused on the single chess objects and featured an explicit task of identifying the chess objects but failed to demonstrate expertise effects in the FFA. The experiments provide support for the general expertise view of the FFA function but also extend the scope of our understanding about the function of the FFA. The FFA does not merely distinguish between different exemplars within the same category of stimuli. More likely, it parses complex multiobject stimuli that contain numerous functional and spatial relations. PMID:27082047

  3. Emotional cues during simultaneous face and voice processing: electrophysiological insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taosheng Liu

    Full Text Available Both facial expression and tone of voice represent key signals of emotional communication but their brain processing correlates remain unclear. Accordingly, we constructed a novel implicit emotion recognition task consisting of simultaneously presented human faces and voices with neutral, happy, and angry valence, within the context of recognizing monkey faces and voices task. To investigate the temporal unfolding of the processing of affective information from human face-voice pairings, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs to these audiovisual test stimuli in 18 normal healthy subjects; N100, P200, N250, P300 components were observed at electrodes in the frontal-central region, while P100, N170, P270 were observed at electrodes in the parietal-occipital region. Results indicated a significant audiovisual stimulus effect on the amplitudes and latencies of components in frontal-central (P200, P300, and N250 but not the parietal occipital region (P100, N170 and P270. Specifically, P200 and P300 amplitudes were more positive for emotional relative to neutral audiovisual stimuli, irrespective of valence, whereas N250 amplitude was more negative for neutral relative to emotional stimuli. No differentiation was observed between angry and happy conditions. The results suggest that the general effect of emotion on audiovisual processing can emerge as early as 200 msec (P200 peak latency post stimulus onset, in spite of implicit affective processing task demands, and that such effect is mainly distributed in the frontal-central region.

  4. Development of Recognition of Face Parts from Unfamiliar Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoying; Anzures, Gizelle; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined developmental changes in the ability to recognize face parts. In Experiment 1, participants were familiarized with whole faces and given a recognition test with old and new eyes, noses, mouths, inner faces, outer faces, or whole faces. Adults were above chance in their recognition of the eye and mouth regions. However, children did not naturally encode and recognize face parts independently of the entire face. In addition, all age groups showed comparable inner and ...

  5. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Stella J.; Kaufmann, Jürgen M.; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  6. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Stella J; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations. PMID:27168323

  7. The Role of Familiarity for Representations in Norm-Based Face Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella J Faerber

    Full Text Available According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991, any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm, such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV, and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV. In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1 that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2 that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations.

  8. Attention Bias to Emotional Faces Varies by IQ and Anxiety in Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M; Oates, Joyce M; Dai, Yael G; Dodd, Helen F; Waxler, Jessica; Clements, Caitlin C; Weill, Sydney; Hoffnagle, Alison; Anderson, Erin; MacRae, Rebecca; Mullett, Jennifer; McDougle, Christopher J; Pober, Barbara R; Smoller, Jordan W

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) often experience significant anxiety. A promising approach to anxiety intervention has emerged from cognitive studies of attention bias to threat. To investigate the utility of this intervention in WS, this study examined attention bias to happy and angry faces in individuals with WS (N = 46). Results showed a significant difference in attention bias patterns as a function of IQ and anxiety. Individuals with higher IQ or higher anxiety showed a significant bias toward angry, but not happy faces, whereas individuals with lower IQ or lower anxiety showed the opposite pattern. These results suggest that attention bias interventions to modify a threat bias may be most effectively targeted to anxious individuals with WS with relatively high IQ. PMID:26886469

  9. Left-Right and Upper-Lower Visual Field Asymmetries for Face Matching, Letter Naming, and Lexical Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Hagenbeek; J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe relation between left-right and upper-lower visual field (VF) asymmetries was examined for face matching, letter naming and lexical decision. Stimuli were flashed in the VF quadrants. Face matching resulted in a lower-left and upper-right VF advantage. Letter-naming resulted in a rob

  10. Numerosity judgments for tactile stimuli distributed over the body surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A large body of research now supports the claim that two different and dissociable processes are involved in making numerosity judgments regarding visual stimuli: subitising (fast and nearly errorless) for up to 4 stimuli, and counting (slow and error-prone) when more than 4 stimuli are presented. We studied tactile numerosity judgments for combinations of 1-7 vibrotactile stimuli presented simultaneously over the body surface. In experiment 1, the stimuli were presented once, while in experiment 2 conditions of single presentation and repeated presentation of the stimulus were compared. Neither experiment provided any evidence for a discontinuity in the slope of either the RT or error data suggesting that subitisation does not occur for tactile stimuli. By systematically varying the intensity of the vibrotactile stimuli in experiment 3, we were able to demonstrate that participants were not simply using the 'global intensity' of the whole tactile display to make their tactile numerosity judgments, but were, instead, using information concerning the number of tactors activated. The results of the three experiments reported here are discussed in relation to current theories of counting and subitising, and potential implications for the design of tactile user interfaces are highlighted. PMID:16583769

  11. The Chicago face database: A free stimulus set of faces and norming data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Debbie S; Correll, Joshua; Wittenbrink, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Researchers studying a range of psychological phenomena (e.g., theory of mind, emotion, stereotyping and prejudice, interpersonal attraction, etc.) sometimes employ photographs of people as stimuli. In this paper, we introduce the Chicago Face Database, a free resource consisting of 158 high-resolution, standardized photographs of Black and White males and females between the ages of 18 and 40 years and extensive data about these targets. In Study 1, we report pre-testing of these faces, which includes both subjective norming data and objective physical measurements of the images included in the database. In Study 2 we surveyed psychology researchers to assess the suitability of these targets for research purposes and explored factors that were associated with researchers' judgments of suitability. Instructions are outlined for those interested in obtaining access to the stimulus set and accompanying ratings and measures. PMID:25582810

  12. Gaze direction affects the magnitude of face identity aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Nadine; Jeffery, Linda; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The face perception system partly owes its efficiency to adaptive mechanisms that constantly recalibrate face coding to our current diet of faces. Moreover, faces that are better attended produce more adaptation. Here, we investigated whether the social cues conveyed by a face can influence the amount of adaptation that face induces. We compared the magnitude of face identity aftereffects induced by adaptors with direct and averted gazes. We reasoned that faces conveying direct gaze may be more engaging and better attended and thus produce larger aftereffects than those with averted gaze. Using an adaptation duration of 5 s, we found that aftereffects for adaptors with direct and averted gazes did not differ (Experiment 1). However, when processing demands were increased by reducing adaptation duration to 1 s, we found that gaze direction did affect the magnitude of the aftereffect, but in an unexpected direction: Aftereffects were larger for adaptors with averted rather than direct gaze (Experiment 2). Eye tracking revealed that differences in looking time to the faces between the two gaze directions could not account for these findings. Subsequent ratings of the stimuli (Experiment 3) showed that adaptors with averted gaze were actually perceived as more expressive and interesting than adaptors with direct gaze. Therefore it appears that the averted-gaze faces were more engaging and better attended, leading to larger aftereffects. Overall, our results suggest that naturally occurring facial signals can modulate the adaptive impact a face exerts on our perceptual system. Specifically, the faces that we perceive as most interesting also appear to calibrate the organization of our perceptual system most strongly. PMID:25761338

  13. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    In this article I will make some analytical sketches – describe, comment on and contextualize my experience with four examples of his works of art recently presented in a large Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face (March-July 2012) at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark . The analytical description......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  14. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  15. Neural Processing of Emotional Musical and Nonmusical Stimuli in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Ruth Ann; Chrysikou, Evangelia; Martin, Laura E.; Clair, Alicia A.; Ingram, Rick E.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Savage, Cary R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI) and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression. Method Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND) control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning. Results ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum. Conclusions These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments. PMID:27284693

  16. Faces call for attention: evidence from patients with visual extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, P

    2000-01-01

    Three patients with left spatial neglect and visual extinction from right brain damage were studied to determine whether faces are privileged in summoning attention. In a first experiment, either a face, a name, or a meaningless shape were briefly presented in the right, left or both visual hemifields. On bilateral trials, all patients extinguished a left-side face much less often than a left-side name or a left-side shape. Conversely, they extinguished a left-side shape more often when it was accompanied by a right-side face rather than a right-side name. In a second experiment, either a face or a scrambled face could appear in the right, left or both hemifields. Again, on bilateral trials, a left-side face was less likely to be missed than a scrambled one. These results suggest an advantage of faces in capturing attention and overcoming extinction, which may be related to their special biological and social value, or to the very efficient and automatic operation of specific perceptual processses that extract facial organization in extrastriate visual areas. These findings also demonstrate that the distribution of spatial attention and extinction can be modulated by the relevance of visual stimuli. This implies that substantial analysis and categorization may take place in the visual system before information from the contralesional field is selected for, or excluded from, attentive vision. PMID:10689045

  17. Response properties of cat AMLS neurons to optic flow stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Baowang(李宝旺); LI; Bing(李兵); CHEN; Hui(陈辉); XU; Ying(徐颖); DIAO; Yuncheng(刁云程)

    2002-01-01

    Spiral and translation stimuli were used to investigate the response properties of cat AMLS (anteromedial lateral suprasylvian area) neurons to optic flow. The overwhelming majority of cells could be significantly excited by the two modes of stimuli and most responsive cells displayed obvious direction selectivity. It is the first time to find a visual area in mammalian brain preferring rotation stimuli. Two representative hypotheses are discussed here on the neural mechanism of optic flow analysis in visual cortex, and some new viewpoints are proposed to explain the experimental results.

  18. Individual differences in behavioral and cardiovascular reactivity to emotive stimuli and their relationship to cognitive flexibility in a primate model of trait anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Shiba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Like the disorders themselves high trait anxiety has marked phenotypic variation at the level of symptomatology and neural circuits, suggesting that there may be different symptoms and distinct neural circuits associated with risk for these disorders. To address these issues, it is essential to develop reliable animal models of trait anxiety in a non-human primate whose brain bears structural and functional similarity to humans. The present study investigated individual variation in responsivity to fearful and anxiety provoking stimuli in the common marmoset monkey. Seven out of 27 animals failed to display discriminative, conditioned cardiovascular and behavioral responses on an auditory fear discrimination task, similar to that seen in high anxious humans and rodents. Their heightened emotionality to a rubber snake was consistent with the hypothesis that they were high in trait-like anxiety. Evidence for phenotypic variation in the high anxiety group was provided by the finding that discrimination failure was predicted early in conditioning by either hyper-vigilant scanning to the cues or a reduction in blood pressure to the context, i.e. test apparatus. Given that high trait anxiety in humans can be associated with altered prefrontal cognitive functioning and previously we implicated the marmoset anterior orbitofrontal (antOFC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC in negative emotion regulation, we also tested the marmosets on two tests of cognitive flexibility differentially dependent on these two regions. While the high anxious group did not differ overall in their perseverative performance, the two distinct phenotypes were differentially correlated with reduced perseverative responding on the OFC- and vlPFC-dependent flexibility tests. Together, this study provides a new model of trait anxiety in marmosets amenable to analysis of phenotypic variation and

  19. Protective Face Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  20. Effect of distracting faces on visual selective attention in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Rogier; Sharma, Jitendra; Sur, Mriganka; Desimone, Robert

    2014-12-16

    In primates, visual stimuli with social and emotional content tend to attract attention. Attention might be captured through rapid, automatic, subcortical processing or guided by slower, more voluntary cortical processing. Here we examined whether irrelevant faces with varied emotional expressions interfere with a covert attention task in macaque monkeys. In the task, the monkeys monitored a target grating in the periphery for a subtle color change while ignoring distracters that included faces appearing elsewhere on the screen. The onset time of distracter faces before the target change, as well as their spatial proximity to the target, was varied from trial to trial. The presence of faces, especially faces with emotional expressions interfered with the task, indicating a competition for attentional resources between the task and the face stimuli. However, this interference was significant only when faces were presented for greater than 200 ms. Emotional faces also affected saccade velocity and reduced pupillary reflex. Our results indicate that the attraction of attention by emotional faces in the monkey takes a considerable amount of processing time, possibly involving cortical-subcortical interactions. Intranasal application of the hormone oxytocin ameliorated the interfering effects of faces. Together these results provide evidence for slow modulation of attention by emotional distracters, which likely involves oxytocinergic brain circuits. PMID:25472846

  1. Investigation of depth dependent changes in cerebral haemodynamics during face perception in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, A [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fox, S [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Everdell, N [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Volein, A [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Tucker, L [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Csibra, G [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gibson, A P [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hebden, J C [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Johnson, M H [Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Henry Wellcome Building, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Elwell, C E [Biomedical Optics Research Lab, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-07

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to record oxygenation changes in the visual cortex of 4 month old infants. Our in-house topography system, with 30 channels and 3 different source-detector separations, recorded changes in the concentration of oxy-, deoxy- and total haemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}, HHb and HbT) in response to visual stimuli (face, scrambled visual noise and cartoons as rest). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the capability of the system to spatially localize functional activation and study the possibility of depth discrimination in the haemodynamic response. The group data show both face stimulation and visual noise stimulation induced significant increases in HbO{sub 2} from rest, but the increase in HbO{sub 2} with face stimulation was not significantly different from that seen with visual noise stimulation. The face stimuli induced increases in HbO{sub 2} were spread across a greater area across all depths than visual noise induced changes. In results from a single subject there was a significant increase of HbO{sub 2} in the inferior area of the visual cortex in response to both types of stimuli, and a larger number of channels (source-detector pairs) showed HbO{sub 2} increase to face stimuli, especially at the greatest depth. Activation maps were obtained using 3D reconstruction methods on multi source-detector separation optical topography data.

  2. Investigation of depth dependent changes in cerebral haemodynamics during face perception in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to record oxygenation changes in the visual cortex of 4 month old infants. Our in-house topography system, with 30 channels and 3 different source-detector separations, recorded changes in the concentration of oxy-, deoxy- and total haemoglobin (HbO2, HHb and HbT) in response to visual stimuli (face, scrambled visual noise and cartoons as rest). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the capability of the system to spatially localize functional activation and study the possibility of depth discrimination in the haemodynamic response. The group data show both face stimulation and visual noise stimulation induced significant increases in HbO2 from rest, but the increase in HbO2 with face stimulation was not significantly different from that seen with visual noise stimulation. The face stimuli induced increases in HbO2 were spread across a greater area across all depths than visual noise induced changes. In results from a single subject there was a significant increase of HbO2 in the inferior area of the visual cortex in response to both types of stimuli, and a larger number of channels (source-detector pairs) showed HbO2 increase to face stimuli, especially at the greatest depth. Activation maps were obtained using 3D reconstruction methods on multi source-detector separation optical topography data

  3. Dedifferentiated face processing in older adults is linked to lower resting state metabolic activity in fusiform face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie; Ward, Noreen; Boshyan, Jasmine; Gutchess, Angela; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-08-01

    We used multimodal brain imaging to examine possible mediators of age-related neural dedifferentiation (less specific neural activation) to different categories of stimuli that had been shown in previous research. Specifically, we examined resting blood flow and brain activation in areas involved in object, place and face perception. We observed lower activation, specificity, and resting blood flow for older adults (OA) than younger adults (YA) in the fusiform face area (FFA) but not in the other regions of interest. Mediation analyses further revealed that FFA resting state blood flow mediated age differences in FFA specificity, whereas age differences in visual and cognitive function and cortical thickness did not. Whole brain analyses also revealed more activated voxels for all categories in OA, as well as more frontal activation for faces but not for the other categories in OA than YA. Less FFA specificity coupled with more frontal activation when passively viewing faces suggest that OA have more difficulty recruiting specialized face processing mechanisms, and the lower FFA metabolic activity even when faces are not being processed suggests an OA deficiency in the neural substrate underlying face processing. Our data point to a detuning of face-selective mechanisms in older adults. PMID:27163722

  4. Face Detection using Ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel, Sébastien; Subburaman, Venkatesh Bala

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of ferns (a set of binary features) for face detection. The binary feature used here is the sign of pixel intensity difference. Ferns were first introduced for keypoint recognition and showed good performance, and improving the speed of recognition. Keypoint recognition deals with classification of few hundred different classes, while face detection is a two-class problem with an unbalanced data. For keypoint recognition random pixel pairs proved to be good enoug...

  5. A new face

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilic, D

    2012-01-01

    The ethical barriers seem to pose the greatest challenge to performing facial transplantation with proponents and critics fiercely debating their positions. Chapter 1 outlines the main ethical issues and events that have preluded clinical facial transplantation. In particular, human hand transplantation programs and their impact on face transplantation have been reviewed. Although the first face transplants already have been performed, the social and psychological debates concerning the ethic...

  6. to face the music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗华

    2002-01-01

    When someone says,“Well,i guess i'll have to go face the music”it does not mean he is planning to go to a concert .it is something far less pleasant,like being called in by your boss to explain why you did this and did that,and why you did not do to this or that sour music indeed,but it has to be faced.

  7. In your face!

    OpenAIRE

    Katzeff, Ask

    2010-01-01

    Throughout time the face of power has constituted a favourite target of demon¬strations of dissent and social revolt. The face of the King, the Emperor, the President, the Sultan as objects of scorn and ridicule. This article investigates this particular form of physiognomic humiliation as an activist strategy, as a modifica¬tion of the image of power that attempts to establish a rupture in the prevailing social order and thus open up a new field of political potential.

  8. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  9. Buzz: face-to-face contact and the urban economy

    OpenAIRE

    Storper, Michael; Venables, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  10. Proving the suitability of magnetoelectric stimuli for tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ribeiro; Correia, Vítor Manuel Gomes; Martins, P.; Gama, F. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for tissue engineering applications based on the use of magnetoelectric materials is presented. This work proves that magnetoelectric Terfenol-D/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) composites are able to provide mechanical and electrical stimuli to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells and that those stimuli can be remotely triggered by an applied magnetic field. Cell proliferation is enhanced up to 25% when cells are cultured under mechanical (up to 110 ppm) and electrica...

  11. Variable Patterned Pudendal Nerve Stimuli Improves Reflex Bladder Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Tim M.; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated variable patterns of pudendal nerve (PN) stimuli for reflex bladder excitation. Reflex activation of the bladder has been demonstrated previously with 20–33 Hz continuous stimulation of PN afferents. Neuronal circuits accessed by afferent mediated pathways may respond better to physiological patterned stimuli than continuous stimulation. Unilateral PN nerve cuffs were placed in neurologically intact male cats. PN stimulation (0.5–100 Hz) was performed under isovolumetric conditio...

  12. Regional Brain Responses in Nulliparous Women to Emotional Infant Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Jessica L.; Nicole Landi; Hedy Kober; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; W Einar Mencl; Mayes, Linda C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2012-01-01

    Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infan...

  13. Prism adaptation contrasts perceptual habituation for repetitive somatosensory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, D M; Tatu, M K; Cotroneo, D; Alamia, A; Folegatti, A; Trojan, J

    2016-03-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is a non-invasive procedure that requires performing a visuo-motor pointing task while wearing prism goggles inducing a visual displacement of the pointed target. This procedure involves a reorganization of sensorimotor coordination, and induces long-lasting effects on numerous higher-order cognitive functions in healthy volunteers and neglect patients. Prismatic displacement (PD) of the visual field can be induced when prisms are worn but no sensorimotor task is required. In this case, it is unlikely that any subsequent reorganization takes place. The effects of PD are short-lived in the sense that they last as long as prisms are worn. In this study we aimed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, at investigating whether PA and PD induce changes in the perception of intensity of nociceptive and non- nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. We induced, in healthy volunteers, PD (experiment 1), or PA (experiment 2) and asked participants to rate the intensity of the stimuli applied to the hand undergoing the visuo-proprioceptive conflict (experiment 1) or adaptation (experiment 2). Our results indicate that: 1) the visuo-proprioceptive conflict induced by PD does not reduce the perceived intensity of the stimuli, 2) PA prevents perceptual habituation for both nociceptive and non-nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. Moreover, to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effects of PA we conducted a third experiment in which stimuli were applied both at the adapted and the non-adapted hand. In line with the results of experiment 2, we found that perceptual habituation was prevented for stimuli applied onto the adapted hand. Moreover, we observed the same finding for stimuli applied onto the non-adapted hand. This result suggests that the detention of habituation is not merely driven by changes in spatial attention allocation. Taken together, these data indicate that prisms can affect the perceived intensity of somatosensory stimuli

  14. Linking perceptual learning with identical stimuli to imagery perceptual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeczkowski, Lukasz; Tartaglia, Elisa; Mast, Fred W.; Herzog, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual learning is usually thought to be exclusively driven by the stimuli presented during training (and the underlying synaptic learning rules). In some way, we are slaves of our visual experiences. However, learning can occur even when no stimuli are presented at all. For example, Gabor contrast detection improves when only a blank screen is presented and observers are asked to imagine Gabor patches. Likewise, performance improves when observers are asked to imagine the non-existing ce...

  15. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  16. Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

  17. A randomized controlled trial of attention bias modification training for socially anxious adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Rawdon, Caroline; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The current study aimed to examine the efficacy of attention bias modification (ABM) training to reduce social anxiety in a community-based sample of adolescents 15-18 years. The study used a single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial design (Clinical Trials ID: NCT02270671). Participants were screened in second-level schools using a social anxiety questionnaire. 130 participants scoring ≥24 on the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) were randomized to the ABM training (n = 66)/placebo (n = 64) group, 120 of which completed pre-, post-, and 12-week follow-up data collection including threat bias, anxiety, and depression measures. The ABM intervention included 4 weekly training sessions using a dot-probe task designed to reduce attention bias to threatening stimuli. ABM training did not alter the primary outcomes of attention bias to threat or social anxiety symptoms raising questions about the efficacy of ABM as an intervention for adolescents. PMID:27379745

  18. Multisensory numerosity judgments for visual and tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2007-05-01

    To date, numerosity judgments have been studied only under conditions of unimodal stimulus presentation. It is therefore unclear whether the same limitations on correctly reporting the number of unimodal visual or tactile stimuli presented in a display might be expected under conditions in which participants have to count stimuli presented simultaneously in two or more different sensory modalities. In Experiment 1, we investigated numerosity judgments using both unimodal and bimodal displays consisting of one to six vibrotactile stimuli (presented over the body surface) and one to six visual stimuli (seen on the body via mirror reflection). Participants had to count the number of stimuli regardless of their modality of presentation. Bimodal numerosity judgments were significantly less accurate than predicted on the basis of an independent modality-specific resources account, thus showing that numerosity judgments might rely on a unitary amodal system instead. The results of a second experiment demonstrated that divided attention costs could not account for the poor performance in the bimodal conditions of Experiment 1. We discuss these results in relation to current theories of cross-modal integration and to the cognitive resources and/or common higher order spatial representations possibly accessed by both visual and tactile stimuli. PMID:17727102

  19. Things that Go Bump in the Night: Frequency and Predictors of Nightmares in Anxious and Nonanxious Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Alfano, Candice A

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and predictors of nightmares among children 7-11 years old with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 42) and no diagnosis (n = 44) were examined using both prospective and retrospective child and parent reports. Both children with GAD and their parents reported significantly more nightmares than controls based on retrospective reports, but the groups did not differ when nightmares were assessed daily across a one-week prospective period. Females reported more nightmares than males according to prospective assessment only. Controlling for sex and group, child sleep anxiety and presleep somatic arousal predicted parent but not child report of nightmares. Results suggest both clinically anxious youth and their parents overestimate the occurrence of nightmares, yet factors influencing retrospective accounts appear to differ across informants. PMID:26406387

  20. Attentional capture by emotional faces is contingent on attentional control settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, D.; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    was a standard flanker task with letter stimuli except that the task-neutral flankers were schematic faces that were either positive, negative, or emotionally neutral. In this case, in which faces and emotional expressions were to be ignored, performance seemed entirely unaffected by the faces. This result......Attentional capture by schematic emotional faces was investigated in two experiments using the flanker task devised by Eriksen and Eriksen (1974). In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a central target (a schematic face that was either positive or negative) flanked by two identical...... distractors, one on either side (schematic faces that were positive, negative, or neutral). The objective was to identify the central target as quickly as possible. The impact of the flankers depended on their emotional expression. Consistent with a threat advantage hypothesis (negative faces are processed...

  1. A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces

    OpenAIRE

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Ulman eLindenberger; Michaela eRiediger

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent? (2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred ...

  2. Repetition suppression of faces is modulated by emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Alumit; Pessoa, Luiz; Bikle, Philip C.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2004-06-01

    Single-unit recordings and functional brain imaging studies have shown reduced neural responses to repeated stimuli in the visual cortex. By using event-related functional MRI, we compared the activation evoked by repetitions of neutral and fearful faces, which were either task relevant (targets) or irrelevant (distracters). We found that within the inferior occipital gyri, lateral fusiform gyri, superior temporal sulci, amygdala, and the inferior frontal gyri/insula, targets evoked stronger responses than distracters and their repetition was associated with significantly reduced responses. Repetition suppression, as manifested by the difference in response amplitude between the first and third repetitions of a target, was stronger for fearful than neutral faces. Distracter faces, regardless of their repetition or valence, evoked negligible activation, indicating top-down attenuation of behaviorally irrelevant stimuli. Our findings demonstrate a three-way interaction between emotional valence, repetition, and task relevance and suggest that repetition suppression is influenced by high-level cognitive processes in the human brain. face perception | functional MRI

  3. A model-based cluster analysis of social experiences in clinically anxious youth: links to emotional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L; Whitehead, Monica; Jones, Anna; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2014-01-01

    Social difficulties are commonly associated with anxiety disorders in youth, yet are not well specified in the literature. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of social experiences in clinically anxious children and examine the associations with indices of emotional functioning. A model-based cluster analysis was conducted on parent-, teacher-, and child-reports of social experiences with 64 children, ages 7-12 years (M = 8.86 years, SD = 1.59 years; 60.3% boys; 85.7% Caucasian) with a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or generalized anxiety disorder. Follow-up analyses examined cluster differences on indices of emotional functioning. Findings yielded three clusters of social experiences that were unrelated to diagnosis: (1) Unaware Children (elevated scores on parent- and teacher-reports of social difficulties but relatively low scores on child-reports, n = 12), (2) Average Functioning (relatively average scores across all informants, n = 44), and (3) Victimized and Lonely (elevated child-reports of overt and relational victimization and loneliness and relatively low scores on parent- and teacher-reports of social difficulties, n = 8). Youth in the Unaware Children cluster were rated as more emotionally dysregulated by teachers and had a greater number of diagnoses than youth in the Average Functioning group. In contrast, the Victimized and Lonely group self-reported greater frequency of negative affect and reluctance to share emotional experiences than the Average Functioning cluster. Overall, this study demonstrates that social maladjustment in clinically anxious children can manifest in a variety of ways and assessment should include multiple informants and methods. PMID:24506348

  4. Time course of visual attention with emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2010-02-01

    When a briefly presented and then masked visual object is identified, it impairs the identification of the second target for several hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is known as attentional blink or attentional dwell time. The present study is an attempt to investigate the role of salient emotional information in shifts of covert visual attention over time. Two experiments were conducted using the dwell time paradigm, in which two successive targets are presented at different locations with a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In the first experiment, real emotional faces (happy/sad) were presented as the first target, and letters (L/T) were presented as the second target. The order of stimulus presentation was reversed in the second experiment. In the first experiment, identification of the letters preceded by happy faces showed better performance than did those preceded by sad faces at SOAs less than 200 msec. Similarly, happy faces were identified better than sad faces were at short SOAs in Experiment 2. The results show that the time course of visual attention is dependent on emotional content of the stimuli. The findings indicate that happy faces are associated with distributed attention or broad scope of attention and require fewer attentional resources than do sad faces. PMID:20139452

  5. Acute toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in the anxious mood of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suxia Li; Jing Li; Xue Wang; Weihong Kuang; Zugui Peng; Mingsheng Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) mainly caused by repeated exposure to MDMA or a single big dose of MDMA, which results in degeneration of serotonin terminal of central nervous system, and someone believe that the great release of serotonin transmitter in central nervous system will lead to anxious mood.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of anxiety related behaviors in rats after single administration of different doses of MDMA.DESIGN: A randomized control study.SETTING: Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.MATERIALS: Thirty male adult Wistar rats, weighing (251.3±18.34) g, were used. MDMA were obtained from the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, and dissolved in saline. All the doses of the drug were administered in a volume of 1 mg/kg.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University in July 2003. ①The rats were randomly divided into control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=24), and then those in the latter were randomly assigned into four subgroups of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg groups, with 6 rats in each, which were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively, and those in the control group were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of saline of the same volume. ② The open field test,elevated plus-maze test and social interaction test were performed immediately after administration. For the open field test, the apparatus was situated in a darkened room, illuminated by a single 60 W white light bulb located approximately 60 cm above the center of the open field. Before administration, all the rats were placed into the open field to be familiar with the open field for 5 minutes. They were observed for 45 minutes after administration. The

  6. The impact of puberty and social anxiety on amygdala activation to faces in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, Jamie; Bress, Jennifer N.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with the onset of puberty, shifts in social and emotional behavior, and an increased vulnerability to social anxiety disorder. These transitions coincide with changes in amygdala response to social and affective stimuli. Utilizing an emotional face-matching task, we examined amygdala response to peer-aged neutral and fearful faces in relation to puberty and social anxiety in a sample of 60 adolescent females between the ages of 8 and 15. We observed amygdala activati...

  7. face the music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    [英语对话] A:How do you comment on those people who dare to do wrong things but not courageous enough to face the music? B:It’s human nature that nobody likes punishment.When people go into something,they may either see an angle in it or not know the conse- quence.They chance the ducks. But when they realize they have to take the consequences,nine out of ten will try to escape punishment. A:But there are people who are daring:daring to do,and daring to face the music. B:There must be a reward in daring to face the music.I mean,there must

  8. Oxytocin and Pareidolia Face Detection Using the Visual Search Task. A double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design study using eye tracking and intranasal oxytocin.

    OpenAIRE

    Winge, Jarle Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Face pareidolia is the human tendency to see illusory human-like faces, for example in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of a face. Past research on humans show that oxytocin has a crucial role in enhancing facial processing. By leading to an increased focus on the face in general, and eyes especially, alter the encoding and conceptual recognition of social stimuli, enhancing sensitivity to hidden emotions in facial expressions, and enhancing the ability to interpret the fac...

  9. Subliminal presentation of other faces (but not own face) primes behavioral and evoked cortical processing of empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Hurtado, Esteban; Lobos, Alejandro; Escobar, Josefina; Trujillo, Natalia; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Manes, Facundo; Decety, Jean

    2011-06-29

    Current research on empathy for pain emphasizes the overlap in the neural response between the first-hand experience of pain and its perception in others. However, recent studies suggest that the perception of the pain of others may reflect the processing of a threat or negative arousal rather than an automatic pro-social response. It can thus be suggested that pain processing of other-related, but not self-related, information could imply danger rather than empathy, due to the possible threat represented in the expressions of others (especially if associated with pain stimuli). To test this hypothesis, two experiments considering subliminal stimuli were designed. In Experiment 1, neutral and semantic pain expressions previously primed with own or other faces were presented to participants. When other-face priming was used, only the detection of semantic pain expressions was facilitated. In Experiment 2, pictures with pain and neutral scenarios previously used in ERP and fMRI research were used in a categorization task. Those pictures were primed with own or other faces following the same procedure as in Experiment 1 while ERPs were recorded. Early (N1) and late (P3) cortical responses between pain and no-pain were modulated only in the other-face priming condition. These results support the threat value of pain hypothesis and suggest the necessity for the inclusion of own- versus other-related information in future empathy for pain research. PMID:21624566

  10. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska eKret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body compounds. Participants’ fixations were measured and their pupil size recorded with eye-tracking equipment, and their facial reactions measured with electromyography (EMG. The behavioral results support our prediction that the recognition of a facial expression is improved in the context of a matching posture and importantly, also vice versa. From their facial expression, it appeared that observers acted with signs of negative emotionality (increased corrugator activity to angry and fearful facial expressions and with positive emotionality (increased zygomaticus to happy facial expressions. What we predicted and found, was that angry and fearful cues from the face or the body, attracted more attention than happy cues. We further observed that responses evoked by angry cues were amplified in individuals with high anxiety scores. In sum, we show that people process bodily expressions of emotion in a similar fashion as facial expressions and that the congruency between the emotional signals from the face and body ameliorates the recognition of the emotion.

  11. Sex-related memory recall and talkativeness for emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto eArnone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.

  12. Response of biomembrane domains to external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Iztok

    To enrich our knowledge about membrane domains, new measurement techniques with extended spatial and temporal windows are being vigorously developed by combining various approaches. Following such efforts of the scientific community, we set up fluorescence microspectroscopy (FMS), bridging two well established methods: fluorescence microscopy, which enables imaging of the samples with spatial resolution down to 200 nm, and fluorescence spectroscopy that provides molecular information of the environment at nanometer and nanosecond scale. The combined method therefore allows us to localize this type of information with the precision suitable for studying various cellular structures. Faced with weak available fluorescence signals, we have put considerable efforts into optimization of measurement processes and analysis of the data. By introducing a novel acquisition scheme and by fitting the data with a mathematical model, we preserved the spectral resolution, characteristic for spectroscopic measurements of bulk samples, also at microscopic level. We have at the same time overcome the effects of photobleaching, which had previously considerably distorted the measured spectral lineshape of photosensitive dyes and consequently hindered the reliability of FMS. Our new approach has therefore greatly extended the range of applicable environmentally sensitive probes, which can now be designed to better accommodate the needs of each particular experiment. Moreover, photobleaching of fluorescence signal can now even be exploited to obtain new valuable information about molecular environment of the probes, as bleaching rates of certain probes also depend on physical and chemical properties of the local surroundings. In this manner we increased the number of available spatially localized spectral parameters, which becomes invaluable when investigating complex biological systems that can only be adequately characterized by several independent variables. Applying the developed

  13. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  14. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R;

    2014-01-01

    used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey....... However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...... to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration...

  15. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  16. Pose estimation and frontal face detection for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eng Thiam; Wang, Jiangang; Xie, Wei; Ronda, Venkarteswarlu

    2005-05-01

    This paper proposes a pose estimation and frontal face detection algorithm for face recognition. Considering it's application in a real-world environment, the algorithm has to be robust yet computationally efficient. The main contribution of this paper is the efficient face localization, scale and pose estimation using color models. Simulation results showed very low computational load when compare to other face detection algorithm. The second contribution is the introduction of low dimensional statistical face geometrical model. Compared to other statistical face model the proposed method models the face geometry efficiently. The algorithm is demonstrated on a real-time system. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient.

  17. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  18. Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…

  19. A Face Farce?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Some people proclaim the success of the facial transplant operation marks the advent of a new era, one in which changing face will be as normal as changing clothing. Teng Li, a doctor with the Plastic Surgery Hospital affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, believes facial transplant surgery should be encouraged as a scientific exploration, though he cautioned that experiments on animals

  20. Wavelets and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelets have been successfully used in image processing. Their ability to capture localized spatial-frequency information of image motivates their use for feature extraction. We give an overview of using wavelets in the face recognition technology. Due to limit of space the use of Gabor wavelets is not covered in this survey. Interested readers are referred to section 8.3 for references.

  1. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    supported women's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how...

  2. Face the Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文新

    2005-01-01

    When someone says, “Well, Iguess I'll have to go and face the music, ”it does not mean he is planning to go to a concert. It is something far less pleasant, like being called in by your boss to explain why you did this and did that,

  3. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  4. Lightweight Face Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, W. E. I.; Baucom, R. M.; Evans, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Lightweight face mask originally developed to protect epileptic patients during seizures could have many other medical and nonmedical applications such as muscular distrophy patients, football linesmen and riot-control police. Masks are extremely lightweight, the lightest of the configurations weighing only 136 grams.

  5. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J; Dai, B; Peng, D.; C. Zhu; L. Liu; Lu, C

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  6. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  7. The P3 produced by auditory stimuli presented in a passive and active condition: modulation by visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Kuniecki, Michał; Kaiser, Jan; Coenen, Anton M L

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the processing of auditory stimuli is affected by the simultaneous presentation of visual stimuli. This was approached in an active and passive condition, during which a P3 was elicited in the human EEG by single auditory stimuli. Subjects were presented tones, either alone or accompanied by the simultaneous exposition of pictures. There were two different sessions. In the first, the presented tones demanded no further cognitive activity from the subjects (passive or 'ignore' session), while in the second session subjects were instructed to count the tones (active or 'count' session). The central question was whether inter-modal influences of visual stimulation in the active condition would modulate the auditory P3 in the same way as in the passive condition. Brain responses in the ignore session revealed only a small P3-like component over the parietal and frontal cortex, however, when the auditory stimuli co-occurred with the visual stimuli, an increased frontal activity in the window of 300-500 ms was observed. This could be interpreted as the reflection of a more intensive involuntary attention shift, provoked by the preceding visual stimulation. Moreover, it was found that cognitive load caused by the count instruction, resulted in an evident P3, with maximal amplitude over parietal locations. This effect was smaller when auditory stimuli were presented on the visual background. These findings might support the thesis that available resources were assigned to the analysis of visual stimulus, and thus were not available to analyze the subsequent auditory stimuli. This reduction in allocation of resources for attention was restricted to the active condition only, when the matching of a template with incoming information results in a distinct P3 component. It is discussed whether the putative source of this effect is a change in the activity of the frontal cortex. PMID:17691223

  8. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. PMID:26607479

  9. Do neural correlates of face expertise vary with task demands? Event-related potential correlates of own- and other-race face inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Wiese

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We are typically more accurate at remembering own- than other-race faces. This “own-race bias” has been suggested to result from enhanced expertise with and more efficient perceptual processing of own-race than other-race faces. In line with this idea, the N170, an event-related potential correlate of face perception, has been repeatedly found to be larger for other-race faces. Other studies, however, found no difference in N170 amplitude for faces from diverse ethnic groups. The present study tested whether these seemingly incongruent findings can be explained by varying task demands. European participants were presented with upright and inverted European and Asian faces (as well as European and Asian houses, and asked to either indicate the ethnicity or the orientation of the stimuli. Larger N170s for other-race faces were observed in the ethnicity but not in the orientation task, suggesting that the necessity to process facial category information is a minimum prerequisite for the occurrence of the effect. In addition, N170 inversion effects, with larger amplitudes for inverted relative to upright stimuli, were more pronounced for own- relative to other-race faces in both tasks. Overall, the present findings suggest that the occurrence of ethnicity effects in N170 for upright faces depends on the amount of facial detail required for the task at hand. At the same time, the larger inversion effects for own- than other-race faces occur independent of task and may reflect the fine-tuning of perceptual processing to faces of maximum expertise.

  10. Finding Faces Among Faces: Human Faces are Located More Quickly and Accurately than Other Primate and Mammal Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli—human and animal faces—or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species’ faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all a...

  11. Diffusion Based Modeling of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Namazi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Human brain response is the overall ability of the brain in analyzing internal and external stimuli in the form of transferred energy to the mind/brain phase-space and thus, making the proper decisions. During the last decade scientists discovered about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research there was less effort which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling of human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, due to receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equation. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus, this model can be used as a strong representative of the human brain activity.

  12. Pedophilic brain potential responses to adult erotic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Impey, Danielle; Fisher, Derek; Delpero, Emily; Fedoroff, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive mechanisms associated with the relative lack of sexual interest in adults by pedophiles are poorly understood and may benefit from investigations examining how the brain processes adult erotic stimuli. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERP) to investigate the time course of the explicit processing of erotic, emotional, and neutral pictures in 22 pedophilic patients and 22 healthy controls. Consistent with previous studies, early latency anterior ERP components were highly selective for erotic pictures. Although the ERPs elicited by emotional stimuli were similar in patients and controls, an early frontal positive (P2) component starting as early as 185 ms was significantly attenuated and slow to onset in pedophilia, and correlated with a clinical measure of cognitive distortions. Failure of rapid attentional capture by erotic stimuli suggests a relative reduction in early processing in pedophilic patients which may be associated with relatively diminished sexual interest in adults. PMID:26683083

  13. Pupillary response to direct and consensual chromatic light stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Brondsted, Adam Elias; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess whether the direct and consensual postillumination (ipRGC-driven) pupil light responses to chromatic light stimuli are equal in healthy subjects. METHODS: Pupil responses in healthy volunteers were recorded using a prototype binocular chromatic pupillometer (IdeaMedical, Copenh......PURPOSE: To assess whether the direct and consensual postillumination (ipRGC-driven) pupil light responses to chromatic light stimuli are equal in healthy subjects. METHODS: Pupil responses in healthy volunteers were recorded using a prototype binocular chromatic pupillometer (Idea...... software. Subjects were randomized to receive light stimuli at either the right or left eye after 5 min of dark adaptation. Pupil light responses were recorded in both eyes for 10 seconds before illumination, during illumination and 50 seconds after illumination with red and blue light. Three variables...

  14. Neurophysiological responses to music and vibroacoustic stimuli in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström-Isacsson, Märith; Lagerkvist, Bengt; Holck, Ulla;

    2014-01-01

    caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs favourites. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and emotional responses related to six different musical stimuli in people with RTT. The study included 29 participants with RTT who were referred to the Swedish Rett Center for medical......People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities, and......, arousal (alerting) response and unclear response. The results showed that all participants responded to the musical stimuli, but not always in the expected way. It was noticeable that both people with and without RTT responded with an arousal to all musical stimuli to begin with. Even though the initial...

  15. vMMN for schematic faces: automatic detection of change in emotional expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi eKreegipuu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our brain is able to automatically detect changes in sensory stimulation, including in vision. A large variety of changes of features in stimulation elicit a deviance-reflecting ERP component known as the mismatch negativity (MMN. The present study has three main goals: (1 to register vMMN using a rapidly presented stream of schematic faces (neutral, happy, angry; adapted from Öhman et al., 2001; (2 to compare elicited vMMNs to angry and happy schematic faces in two different paradigms, in a traditional oddball design with frequent standard and rare target and deviant stimuli (12.5% each and in an version of an optimal multi-feature paradigm with several deviant stimuli (altogether 37.5% in the stimulus block; (3 to compare vMMNs to subjective ratings of valence, arousal and attention capture for happy and angry schematic faces, i.e., to estimate the effect of affective value of stimuli on their automatic detection. Eleven observers (19-32 years, 6 women took part in both experiments, an oddball and optimum paradigm. Stimuli were rapidly presented schematic faces and an object with face-features that served as the target stimulus to be detected by a button-press. Results show that a vMMN-type response at posterior sites was equally elicited in both experiments. Post-experimental reports confirmed that the angry face attracted more automatic attention than the happy face but the difference did not emerge directly at the ERP level. Thus, when interested in studying change detection in facial expressions we encourage the use of the optimum (multi-feature design in order to save time and other experimental resources.

  16. Crayfish recognize the faces of fight opponents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Van der Velden

    Full Text Available The capacity to associate stimuli underlies many cognitive abilities, including recognition, in humans and other animals. Vertebrates process different categories of information separately and then reassemble the distilled information for unique identification, storage and recall. Invertebrates have fewer neural networks and fewer neural processing options so study of their behavior may reveal underlying mechanisms still not fully understood for any animal. Some invertebrates form complex social colonies and are capable of visual memory-bees and wasps, for example. This ability would not be predicted in species that interact in random pairs without strong social cohesion; for example, crayfish. They have chemical memory but the extent to which they remember visual features is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the crayfish Cherax destructor is capable of visual recognition of individuals. The simplicity of their interactions allowed us to examine the behavior and some characteristics of the visual features involved. We showed that facial features are learned during face-to-face fights, that highly variable cues are used, that the type of variability is important, and that the learning is context-dependent. We also tested whether it is possible to engineer false identifications and for animals to distinguish between twin opponents.

  17. Impairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyse, Evelyne; Bastin, Christine; Salmon, Eric; Brédart, Serge

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for any function in social cognition is the perception and processing of social cues. Age estimation is a skill that is used in everyday life and is fundamental in social interactions. This study evaluated whether facial age estimation is impaired in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current age of faces is known to have an impact on age estimation, and therefore stimuli belonging to different age groups (young, middle-aged, and older adults' faces) were used. As expected, an impairment of age estimation from faces was observed in mild to moderate AD patients. However, the profile of impairment depended on the age of faces and stage of the disease. Mild AD patients presented difficulties mainly in assessing the age of middle-aged adults. In moderate disease stage, these difficulties also affected the age estimation of young adult faces. Interestingly, AD patients remained relatively good at estimating the age of older adults' faces, compared to healthy controls. PMID:25589725

  18. Fixation patterns during recognition of personally familiar and unfamiliar faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeikeRamon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies recording eye movements have rendered inconclusive findings with respect to processing differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces. We argue that this can be attributed to a number of factors that differ across studies: the type and extent of familiarity with stimuli presented, the varying spatial resolution of visual information and/or specifics, the definition of areas of interest subject to analyses, as well as the fact that the time course of scan patterns is often neglected. Here we sought to address these issues by recording gaze patterns in a face recognition task with personally familiar and unfamiliar faces, without predefining areas of interest and investigating potential processing differences at each individual fixation. We found that after a first fixation on the center of mass of the face—suggesting an initial holistic perception—and a subsequent left eye bias, local features were focused and explored more for familiar than unfamiliar faces. Although the number of fixations made did not differ for un-/familiar faces, the locations of fixations began to differ much earlier than when the familiarity decisions were provided. This suggests that without strict time constraints, different types of information are collected relatively early on familiar and unfamiliar faces.

  19. Effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on acoustic change complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth N. Shetty

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimuli, transducers and gender on the latency and amplitude of acoustic change complex (ACC. ACC is a multiple overlapping P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting acoustic changes across the entire stimulus. Fifteen males and 15 females, in the age range of 18 to 25 (mean=21.67 years, having normal hearing participated in the study. The ACC was recorded using the vertical montage. The naturally produced stimuli /sa/ and /si/ were presented through the insert earphone/loud speaker to record the ACC. The ACC obtained from different stimuli presented through different transducers from male/female participants were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Dependent t-test and independent t-test were performed when indicated. There was a significant difference in latency of 2N1 at the transition, with latency for /sa/ being earlier; but not at the onset portions of ACC. There was no significant difference in amplitude of ACC between the stimuli. Among the transducers, there was no significant difference in latency and amplitude of ACC, for both /sa/ and /si/ stimuli. Female participants showed earlier latency for 2N1 and larger amplitude of N1 and 2P2 than male participants, which was significant. ACC provides important insight in detecting the subtle spectral changes in each stimulus. Among the transducers, no difference in ACC was noted as the spectra of stimuli delivered were within the frequency response of the transducers. The earlier 2N1 latency and larger N1 and 2P2 amplitudes noticed in female participants could be due to smaller head circumference. The findings of this study will be useful in determining the capacity of the auditory pathway in detecting subtle spectral changes in the stimulus at the level of the auditory cortex.

  20. Precuneus-prefrontal activity during awareness of visual verbal stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T W; Nowak, M; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt;

    2001-01-01

    Awareness is a personal experience, which is only accessible to the rest of world through interpretation. We set out to identify a neural correlate of visual awareness, using brief subliminal and supraliminal verbal stimuli while measuring cerebral blood flow distribution with H(2)(15)O PET....... Awareness of visual verbal stimuli differentially activated medial parietal association cortex (precuneus), which is a polymodal sensory cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is thought to be primarily executive. Our results suggest participation of these higher order perceptual and executive...... cortical structures in visual verbal awareness....

  1. Cognitive robotic system for learning of complex visual stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A. S.; Rozhkov, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of learning of complex visual stimuli in cognitive robotics is considered. These stimuli should be selected on the base of rules supporting arbitrary comparisons of stimulus features with features of other salient objects (context). New perceptual knowledge representation based on the predicate logic is implemented to express such rules. Computable predicates are provided by low-level vision system. The rules are constructed using genetic algorithms on the base of a set of examples obtained by a robot during consequent trials. Dependence between the number of necessary trials and rule complexity is studied.

  2. Neurophysiological correlates of configural face processing in schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ann Batty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Face processing impairment in schizophrenia appears to be underpinned by poor configural (as opposed to feature-based processing, however few studies have sought to characterize this impairment electrophysiologically. Given the sensitivity of event-related potentials (ERPs to antipsychotic medications, and the potential for neurophysiological abnormalities to serve as vulnerability markers for schizophrenia, a handful of studies have investigated early visual P100 and face-selective N170 in at risk populations. However, this is the first known neurophysiological investigation of configural face processing in a non-clinical schizotypal sample. Methods: Using stimuli designed to engage configural processing in face perception (upright and inverted Mooney and photographic faces, P100 and N170 components were recorded in healthy individuals characterized by high (N=14 and low (N=14 schizotypal traits according to the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE. Results: High schizotypes showed significantly reduced N170 amplitudes to inverted photographic faces. Typical N170 latency and amplitude inversion effects (delayed and enhanced N170 to inverted relative to upright photographic faces, and enhanced amplitude to upright versus inverted Mooney faces, were demonstrated by low, but not high, schizotypes. No group differences were shown for P100 analyses. Conclusions: The findings suggest that neurophysiological deficits in processing facial configurations (N170 are apparent in schizotypy, while the early sensory processing (P100 of faces appears intact. This work adds to the mounting evidence for analogous neural processing anomalies at the healthy end of the psychosis continuum.

  3. Species-specific effects of pigmentation negation on the neural response to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Stevenson, Kate

    2013-08-01

    Face processing is limited in scope as a function of experience - discrimination ability and face-specific behavioral effects are reduced in out-group faces. Nonetheless, other-species faces phylogenetically close to our own may be processed by similar mechanisms as human faces. Presently, we asked whether or not the well-known effect of contrast-negation on face recognition (Galper, 1970) was exclusive to human faces or generalized to monkey faces. Negation disrupts face pigmentation substantially, allowing us to examine species-specific use of surface cues as a function of expertise. We tested adult observers behaviorally and electrophysiologically: participants completed a 4AFC discrimination task subject to manipulations of face species and independent negation of image luminance and image chroma, and the same stimuli were used to collect event-related potentials in a go/no-go task. We predicted that expertise for human faces would lead to larger deleterious effects of negation for human faces in both tasks, reflected in longer RTs for correct responses in the discrimination task and species-specific modulation of the N170 and P200 by contrast-negation. Our results however, indicate that behaviorally, luminance and chroma negation affect discrimination performance in a species-independent manner, while similar effects of contrast-negation effects are evident in each species at different components of the ERP response. PMID:23792327

  4. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  5. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A.; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  6. Facing the Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Moira Baker

    2014-01-01

    Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenou...

  7. Deciphering the Face

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Aleix M

    2011-01-01

    We argue that to make robust computer vision algorithms for face analysis and recognition, these should be based on configural and shape features. In this model, the most important task to be solved by computer vision researchers is that of accurate detection of facial features, rather than recognition. We base our arguments on recent results in cognitive science and neuroscience. In particular, we show that different facial expressions of emotion have diverse uses in human behavior/cognition...

  8. IntraFace

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that i...

  9. Infrared face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Colin K.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study continues a previous face recognition investigation using uncooled infrared technology. The database developed in an earlier study is further expanded to include 50 volunteers with 30 facial images from each subject. The automatic image reduction method reduces the pixel size of each image from 160 120 to 60 45 . The study reexamines two linear classification methods: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher ...

  10. MMI Face Database

    OpenAIRE

    Maat, L.M.; Sondak, R.C.; Valstar, M.F.; Pantic, M.; Gaia, P.

    2005-01-01

    The automatic recognition of human facial expressions is an interesting research area in AI with a growing number of projects and researchers. In spite of repeated references to the need for a reference set of images that could provide a basis for benchmarking various techniques in automatic facial expression analysis, a readily accessible and complete enough database of face images does not exist yet. This lack represented our main incentive to develop a web-based, easily accessible, and eas...

  11. Robust Statistical Face Frontalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In this paper, we propose a novel method for joint frontal view reconstruction and landmark localization using a small set of frontal images only. By observing that the frontal facial image is the on...

  12. The Asian Face Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2009-01-01

    The face-lift procedure (rhytidectomy) is increasingly popular in Asia. There is extensive literature on different techniques in Western patients. Cultural and anthropomorphologic differences between Asian and Caucasians require the adaptation of current techniques to obtain a satisfactory outcome for both the patient and the surgeon. This article therefore attempts to define important differences between Asians and Caucasians in terms of signs of facial aging, perception of beauty, and surgi...

  13. Foil Face Seal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  14. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  15. Taiwanese political parties can be categorized by face, by those who reported making face-to-trait inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fu eHu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to replicate and extend Rule & Ambady (2010’s findings that Republicans and Democrats could be differentiated by face. In Experiment 1, undergraduates categorized 50 gray-scale full-face photos of candidates of the two major political parties in Taiwan, the Kuomingtang (KMT and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP. Using identical stimuli and procedure, Experiment 2 tested 25- to 57-year-olds. Experiment 3 tested undergraduates with cropped photos, Experiment 4, with photos devoid of the mouth and chin area. At the end of each Experiment, we interviewed the participants about the strategies used. Results showed that undergraduates could categorize KMT and DPP with accuracies significantly higher than chance in full-face photos (Exp.1, M = .524, p = .045, cropped photos (Exp.3, M = .534, p = .016, and photos devoid of the mouth-and-chin area (Exp.4, M = .530, p = .048. Adults aged between 25 and 57 could also categorize full-face photos (Exp.2, M = .557, p < .001. Analysis on strategy use revealed that the better-than-chance performance may be a unique contribution of those who reported making face-to-trait inferences. In sum, we replicated Rule and Ambady’s (2010 results in East Asian and found that face-to-trait inferences may be essential.

  16. Evidence for Integrated Visual Face and Body Representations in the Anterior Temporal Lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Bronson B; Umla-Runge, Katja; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S; Downing, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Research on visual face perception has revealed a region in the ventral anterior temporal lobes, often referred to as the anterior temporal face patch (ATFP), which responds strongly to images of faces. To date, the selectivity of the ATFP has been examined by contrasting responses to faces against a small selection of categories. Here, we assess the selectivity of the ATFP in humans with a broad range of visual control stimuli to provide a stronger test of face selectivity in this region. In Experiment 1, participants viewed images from 20 stimulus categories in an event-related fMRI design. Faces evoked more activity than all other 19 categories in the left ATFP. In the right ATFP, equally strong responses were observed for both faces and headless bodies. To pursue this unexpected finding, in Experiment 2, we used multivoxel pattern analysis to examine whether the strong response to face and body stimuli reflects a common coding of both classes or instead overlapping but distinct representations. On a voxel-by-voxel basis, face and whole-body responses were significantly positively correlated in the right ATFP, but face and body-part responses were not. This finding suggests that there is shared neural coding of faces and whole bodies in the right ATFP that does not extend to individual body parts. In contrast, the same approach revealed distinct face and body representations in the right fusiform gyrus. These results are indicative of an increasing convergence of distinct sources of person-related perceptual information proceeding from the posterior to the anterior temporal cortex. PMID:27054399

  17. 大学生交往焦虑状况及其影响因素%Interaction anxiousness and associated factors among college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹枫; 陈昕昱; 段添翼; 余真真; 杨智辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解大学生交往焦虑状况的特点及影响因素,为有针对性地开展干预活动提供有益参考.方法 采用交往焦虑量表、自尊量表、对不确定性忍受力问卷和元担忧问卷,对随机抽取的北京市17所高校905名大学生进行调查.结果 不同性别、不同家庭经济状况、不同生源地的大学生交往焦虑总分差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05);相关分析表明,自尊与交往焦虑呈负相关,不确定性忍受力和元担忧与交往焦虑呈正相关(P值均<0.05).路径分析表明,自尊、不确定性忍受力、元担忧对交往焦虑总分有直接效应,自尊还会通过不确定性忍受力、元担忧对交往焦虑总分起间接效应.结论 大学生交往焦虑水平较高,不确定性忍受力对交往焦虑起着最为重要的直接作用,自尊通过不确定性忍受力和元担忧对交往焦虑起间接作用.应关注大学生不确定性忍受力、自尊及元担忧,并及时采取干预措施.%Objective To explore epidemiology of anxiety among college students and to explore possible risk factors.Methods The Interaction Anxiousness Scale,Self-Esteem Scale,Intolerance of Uncertainty Questionnaire,Meta-Worry Questionnaire were used to investigate the Interaction Anxiousness and associated psychological information in 905 undergraduates.Results There were significant differences of Interaction Anxiousness scores in genders,family economic status and prior residence place.Analysis showed that Interaction Anxiousness was significantly negatively correlated with parental educational level and self-esteem and positively related to intolerance of uncertainty and meta-worry.Path analysis showed that self-esteem had the important direct effect on the Interaction Anxiousness,and also had indirect effects on it through the effects of intolerance of uncertainty and metaworry.The intolerance of uncertainty had the most impact on Interaction Anxiousness

  18. An own-age bias in age estimation of faces in children and adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Moyse, Evelyne; Brédart, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the occurence of an own-age bias on age estimation performance (better performance for faces from the same age range as that of the beholder) by using an experimental design inspired from research on the own-race effect. The age of participants (10 to 14 year old children and 20 to 30 year old adults) was an independent factor that was crossed with the age of the stimuli (faces of 10 to 14 year old children and faces of 20 to 30 year old adults), the...

  19. Updating Positive and Negative Stimuli in Working Memory in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in the ability to update stimuli in working memory (WM) may underlie the problems with regulating emotions that lead to the development and perpetuation of mood disorders such as depression. To examine the ability to update affective material in WM, the authors had diagnosed depressed and never-disordered control participants perform…

  20. Alliesthesia to food cues: heterogeneity across stimuli and sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Soussignan, Robert; Rigaud, Daniel; Martin, Sylviane; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Brondel, Laurent; Schaal, Benoist

    2008-10-20

    Negative alliesthesia to olfactory and visual stimuli was assessed in 29 normal-weight women who, on alternate days, were either fasting or in a postprandial state after an ad libitum lunch. The participants were alternatively exposed to food and non-food pictures and odorants, and then rated for their hedonic appreciation (liking) and their desire to ingest (wanting) the evoked foods. While negative alliesthesia was observed only for food stimuli, it did not equally affect all food categories in either sensory modality. The stimuli representing foods eaten in typical local main dishes or having high energy density (e.g., pizza, bacon, beef, cheese) evoked clear negative alliesthesia, whereas this was not the case for those less consumed within a customary meal or associated with desserts (i.e., fruits). Furthermore, the visual food stimuli triggered a more negative shift in liking than did the food odours. Finally, the shift in wanting between pre- and post-meal state was more important than the shift in liking. These results suggest that alliesthesia may be influenced by both metabolic and non-metabolic factors. PMID:18675834

  1. PENILAIAN PEDOFILIA MENGGUNAKAN RESPON HEMODINAMIK OTAK TERHADAP STIMULI SEKSUAL

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhelan Mahendran

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Menilai secara akurat orientasi seksual seseorang sangat penting dalam melakukan penanganan terhadap pelaku kekerasan seksual pada anak. Phallometry adalah metode standar untuk mengidentifikasi orientasi seksual; tetapi, metode ini telah banyak dikritik oleh karena bersifat intrusif dan reliabilitasnya terbatas. Tujuan:Untuk mengevaluasi apakah pola respon spasial terhadap stimuli seksual yang ditandai oleh adanya perubahan blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD)memfasilitasi...

  2. Developmental Complexity of the Stimuli Included in Mispronunciation Detection Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brigid C.; Hesketh, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phonological representations are important for speech and literacy development. Mispronunciation detection tasks have been proposed as an appropriate measure of phonological representations for children with speech disorder. There has been limited analysis, however, of the developmental complexity of task stimuli. Further, the tasks…

  3. Balancing Attended and Global Stimuli in Perceived Video Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Junyong; Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew;

    2011-01-01

    tuned by the attention map considers the degradations on the significantly attended stimuli. To generate the overall video quality score, global and local quality features are combined by a content adaptive linear fusion method and pooled over time, taking the temporal quality variation into...

  4. Vestibular rehabilitation with visual stimuli in peripheral vestibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Manso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Visual stimuli can induce vestibular adaptation and recovery of body balance. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation of peripheral vestibular disorders. METHODS: Clinical, randomized, prospective study. Forty patients aged between 23 and 63 years with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders underwent 12 sessions of rehabilitation with visual stimuli using digital video disk (DVD (experimental group or Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises (control group. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, dizziness analog scale, and the sensitized Romberg static balance and one-leg stance tests were applied before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Before and after the intervention, there was no difference between the experimental and control groups (p > 0.005 regarding the findings of DHI, dizziness analog scale, and static balance tests. After the intervention, the experimental and control groups showed lower values (p < 0.05 in the DHI and the dizziness analog scale, and higher values (p < 0.05 in the static balance tests in some of the assessed conditions. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation is effective in reducing dizziness and improving quality of life and postural control in individuals with peripheral vestibular disorders.

  5. Stimuli-responsive copolymers studied by NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konefal, Rafal; Spěváček, Jiří; Petrova, Svetlana; Jäger, Eliezer

    Sofia : Institute of Polymers BAS, 2015. P1-18. [Challenges in Science and Technology of Polymer Materials. 19.05.2015-23.05.2015, Bansko] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13853S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : NMR * stimuli -responsive polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Auditory Long Latency Responses to Tonal and Speech Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, Shannon; Stuart, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of type of stimuli (i.e., nonspeech vs. speech), speech (i.e., natural vs. synthetic), gender of speaker and listener, speaker (i.e., self vs. other), and frequency alteration in self-produced speech on the late auditory cortical evoked potential were examined. Method: Young adult men (n = 15) and women (n = 15), all with…

  7. Secondary hyperalgesia to heat stimuli after burn injury in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the presence of hyperalgesia to heat stimuli within the zone of secondary hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli. A burn was produced on the medial part of the non-dominant crus in 15 healthy volunteers with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min), and...... assessments were made 70 min and 40 min before, and 0, 1, and 2 h after the burn injury. Hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli were examined by von Frey hairs and contact thermodes (3.75 and 12.5 cm2), and pain responses were rated with a visual analog scale (0-100). The area of secondary hyperalgesia...... to punctate stimuli was assessed with a rigid von Frey hair (462 mN). The heat pain responses to 45 degrees C in 5 s (3.75 cm2) were tested in the area just outside the burn, where the subjects developed secondary hyperalgesia, and on the lateral crus where no subject developed secondary hyperalgesia...

  8. ADRENERGIC RESPONSE IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA ON EXOGENOUS STIMULI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANAALDEREN, WMC; POSTMA, DS; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR; KNOL, K

    1992-01-01

    In asthmatic childen it was investigated whether the degree of impairment of the adrenergic response on exogenous stimuli is related to the magnitude of the 24-hour amplitude in airflow obstructions. Urinary-adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion after house dust mite (HDM) inhalation and after exer

  9. Submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli evoke electrical brain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperdin, Holger F; Spierer, Lucas; Becker, Robert; Michel, Christoph M; Landis, Theodor

    2015-04-01

    Subliminal perception is strongly associated to the processing of meaningful or emotional information and has mostly been studied using visual masking. In this study, we used high density 256-channel EEG coupled with an liquid crystal display (LCD) tachistoscope to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of the brain response to visual checkerboard stimuli (Experiment 1) or blank stimuli (Experiment 2) presented without a mask for 1 ms (visible), 500 µs (partially visible), and 250 µs (subliminal) by applying time-wise, assumption-free nonparametric randomization statistics on the strength and on the topography of high-density scalp-recorded electric field. Stimulus visibility was assessed in a third separate behavioral experiment. Results revealed that unmasked checkerboards presented subliminally for 250 µs evoked weak but detectable visual evoked potential (VEP) responses. When the checkerboards were replaced by blank stimuli, there was no evidence for the presence of an evoked response anymore. Furthermore, the checkerboard VEPs were modulated topographically between 243 and 296 ms post-stimulus onset as a function of stimulus duration, indicative of the engagement of distinct configuration of active brain networks. A distributed electrical source analysis localized this modulation within the right superior parietal lobule near the precuneus. These results show the presence of a brain response to submillisecond unmasked subliminal visual stimuli independently of their emotional saliency or meaningfulness and opens an avenue for new investigations of subliminal stimulation without using visual masking. PMID:25487054

  10. Infants' Preferential Attention to Sung and Spoken Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Ilari, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Caregivers and early childhood teachers all over the world use singing and speech to elicit and maintain infants' attention. Research comparing infants' preferential attention to music and speech is inconclusive regarding their responses to these two types of auditory stimuli, with one study showing a music bias and another one…

  11. How a face may affect object-based attention: Evidence from adults and 8-month-old infants

    OpenAIRE

    Eloisa eValenza; Laura eFranchin; Hermann eBulf

    2014-01-01

    Object-based attention operates on perceptual objects, opening the possibility that the costs and benefits humans have to pay to move attention between objects might be affected by the nature of the stimuli. The current study reported two experiments with adults and 8-month-old infants investigating whether object-based-attention is affected by the stimulus social salience (faces vs. non-faces stimuli). Using the well-known cueing task developed by Egly et al. (1994) to study the object-based...

  12. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  13. The Williams syndrome chromosome 7q11.23 hemideletion confers hypersocial, anxious personality coupled with altered insula structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kippenhan, J. Shane; Kohn, Philip; Marenco, Stefano; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Morris, Colleen A.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Berman, Karen Faith

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that genes can influence complex behavioral traits such as human temperament, the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Williams syndrome (WS), a rare disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, including genes important for neuronal migration and maturation (LIMK1 and CLIP2), is typified by a remarkable hypersocial but anxious personality and offers a unique opportunity to investigate this open issue. Based on the documented rol...

  14. Socially Anxious Individuals Get a Second Chance After Being Disliked at First Sight: The Role of Self-Disclosure in the Development of Likeability in Sequential Social Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Voncken, M. J.; Dijk, K. F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals (SAs) not only fear social rejection, accumulating studies show that SAs are indeed judged as less likeable after social interaction with others. This study investigates if SAs already make a more negative impression on others in the very first seconds of contact. The study further investigates the development of likeability and the role of self-disclosure herein in two sequential social interactions: first after an unstructured waiting room situation and next aft...

  15. Differentially Methylated Plasticity Genes in the Amygdala of Young Primates Are Linked to Anxious Temperament, an at Risk Phenotype for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Alisch, Reid S; Chopra, Pankaj; Fox, Andrew S.; Chen, Kailei; White, Andrew T J; Roseboom, Patrick H.; Keles, Sunduz; Ned H. Kalin

    2014-01-01

    Children with an anxious temperament (AT) are at a substantially increased risk to develop anxiety and depression. The young rhesus monkey is ideal for studying the origin of human AT because it shares with humans the genetic, neural, and phenotypic underpinnings of complex social and emotional functioning. Heritability, functional imaging, and gene expression studies of AT in young monkeys revealed that the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) is a key environmentally sensitive substrate of ...

  16. Babyfacedness, sex of face stimulus, and social context in face perception and person evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Kang

    2013-06-01

    This research investigated whether the well-documented babyface stereotypical effects are moderated by sex of face stimuli and social context. 'Medical doctor' and 'political candidate' were selected as two social contexts which differ at the private/public level. An experiment was conducted with 245 adults (M age = 38.5 yr., SD = 8.6, range = 23 to 64). Babyface effects were stronger for the babyfaced female in the political context, but greater for the babyfaced male in the doctor-patient context. Babyfacedness could be a disadvantage to men in political contexts if political sophistication is judged by their facial characteristics. The results of overall impressions are similar to the patterns of the likeability rating. Individual differences (political sophistication and health consciousness) account for little variance in inference-making or impression formation. Implications of the current findings are discussed, as are directions for future research. PMID:24245074

  17. Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models

    OpenAIRE

    Salah, Albert Ali; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the gallery. We explore the approach of registering the new facial surface to an average face model (AFM), which automatically establishes correspondence to the pre-registered gallery faces. We propose ...

  18. A clash of values: Fear-relevant stimuli can enhance or corrupt adaptive behavior through competition between Pavlovian and instrumental valuation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates preferentially learn to fear and avoid archetypical fear-relevant stimuli. Yet how these learning biases influence adaptive behavior, the basic mechanistic underpinnings of these biases, and how they interact with learning experiences during the life span of an individual remain unknown. To study this, we investigated how 4 classes of fear-relevant stimuli (snakes, threatening in-group faces, racial out-group faces, and guns) influenced adaptive behavior. We showed that stimulus-driven biases have a dramatic influence that can either promote or corrupt adaptive behavior depending on how a bias relates to the environment. We quantified and compared the effects of different fear-relevant stimuli on instrumental behavior using a computational reinforcement learning model that formalized the idea that the bias reflects competition between an instrumental and a Pavlovian valuation system. These results were further clarified by 2 independent rating studies showing that perceived danger of the stimuli corresponded well with their influence on adaptive behavior. PMID:25893448

  19. Face reconstruction from image sequences for forensic face comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Chris; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the possibilities of a dense model-free three-dimensional (3D) face reconstruction method, based on image sequences from a single camera, to improve the current state of forensic face comparison. They propose a new model-free 3D reconstruction method for faces, based on the Lambe

  20. Robust Face Recognition via Multimodal Deep Face Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Changxing; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Face images appeared in multimedia applications, e.g., social networks and digital entertainment, usually exhibit dramatic pose, illumination, and expression variations, resulting in considerable performance degradation for traditional face recognition algorithms. This paper proposes a comprehensive deep learning framework to jointly learn face representation using multimodal information. The proposed deep learning structure is composed of a set of elaborately designed convolutional neural ne...

  1. Cortical responses from adults and infants to complex visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman-Galambos, C; Galambos, R

    1978-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to the onset of visual stimuli were extracted from the EEG of normal adult (N = 16) and infant (N = 23) subjects. Subjects were not required to make any response. Stimuli delivered to the adults were 150 msec exposures of 2 sets of colored slides projected in 4 blocks, 2 in focus and 2 out of focus. Infants received 2-sec exposures of slides showing people, colored drawings or scenes from Disneyland, as well as 2-sec illuminations of the experimenter as she played a game or of a TV screen the baby was watching. The adult ERPs showed 6 waves (N1 through P4) in the 140--600-msec range; this included a positive wave at around 350 msec that was large when the stimuli were focused and smaller when they were not. The waves in the 150--200-msec range, by contrast, steadily dropped in amplitude as the experiment progressed. The infant ERPs differed greatly from the adult ones in morphology, usually showing a positive (latency about 200 msec)--negative(5--600msec)--positive(1000msec) sequence. This ERP appeared in all the stimulus conditions; its presence or absence, furthermore, was correlated with whether or not the baby seemed interested in the stimuli. Four infants failed to produce these ERPs; an independent measure of attention to the stimuli, heart rate deceleration, was demonstrated in two of them. An electrode placed beneath the eye to monitor eye movements yielded ERPs closely resembling those derived from the scalp in most subjects; reasons are given for assigning this response to activity in the brain, probably at the frontal pole. This study appears to be one of the first to search for cognitive 'late waves' in a no-task situation. The results suggest that further work with such task-free paradigms may yield additional useful techniques for studying the ERP. PMID:81745

  2. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. PMID:25143437

  3. Face the music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2004-01-01

    英语中的很多词语是不能望文生义的,如“face the music”这个短语。如果你认为是“面对、应付音乐”的话,就大错特错了。这个短语已有百年以上的历史了,是美国男女老少都非常熟悉的短语。最早使用这个表现法的是

  4. Face Avulsion and Degloving

    OpenAIRE

    Panse, Nikhil; Sahasrabudhe, Parag; Joshi, Namrata

    2014-01-01

    There have been sparse reports in literature of avulsion and degloving injuries of individual areas of face like the nose, eyelids, ear and even mandible. Hemi-facial degloving is extremely rare. We present a case of post-assault degloving of the nose, part of forehead with anterior wall of frontal sinus, entire upper and lower eyelids and the cheek. Proper planning and staging of the surgical procedures and use of local flaps, meticulous and proper alignment of tissues gave us good aesthetic...

  5. On toric face rings

    OpenAIRE

    Ichim, Bogdan; Roemer, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Following a construction of Stanley we consider toric face rings associated to rational pointed fans. This class of rings is a common generalization of the concepts of Stanley--Reisner and affine monoid algebras. The main goal of this article is to unify parts of the theories of Stanley--Reisner- and affine monoid algebras. We consider (non-pure) shellable fan's and the Cohen--Macaulay property. Moreover, we study the local cohomology, the canonical module and the Gorenstein property of a tor...

  6. Préface

    OpenAIRE

    Naugrette, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Il y a pour moi une double fidélité à écrire quelques mots de Préface au livre d'Hélène Machinal sur la fiction de Conan Doyle, qui va de Sherlock Holmes au professeur Challenger en passant par les textes fantastiques. Mon premier article de critique, paru en 1981 dans Études Anglaises, portait sur « Énigme et spectacle chez Conan Doyle ». Rencontrant à cette occasion le pionnier des études doyliennes qu'est Pierre Nordon, et constatant avec lui que nous étions encore trop rares en France à n...

  7. Massignon face au sionisme

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Agathe

    2010-01-01

    En 1916, Louis Massignon participe aux négociations franco-britanniques qui envisagent, dans la perspective de la capitulation probable des empires centraux, le futur partage de l’Empire ottoman. Dans ce contexte, Massignon cherche à se situer face la question sioniste qui, pour lui, est avant tout un problème de politique orientale.Sous l’influence d'Aaron Aaronsohn, l’islamologue éprouve d’abord pour les pionniers d’Eretz Israel, au regard de leurs réalisations agricoles, une sympathie enth...

  8. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  9. Adaptation to emotional conflict: evidence from a novel face emotion paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Clayson

    Full Text Available The preponderance of research on trial-by-trial recruitment of affective control (e.g., conflict adaptation relies on stimuli wherein lexical word information conflicts with facial affective stimulus properties (e.g., the face-Stroop paradigm where an emotional word is overlaid on a facial expression. Several studies, however, indicate different neural time course and properties for processing of affective lexical stimuli versus affective facial stimuli. The current investigation used a novel task to examine control processes implemented following conflicting emotional stimuli with conflict-inducing affective face stimuli in the absence of affective words. Forty-one individuals completed a task wherein the affective-valence of the eyes and mouth were either congruent (happy eyes, happy mouth or incongruent (happy eyes, angry mouth while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. There was a significant congruency effect and significant conflict adaptation effects for error rates. Although response times (RTs showed a significant congruency effect, the effect of previous-trial congruency on current-trial RTs was only present for current congruent trials. Temporospatial principal components analysis showed a P3-like ERP source localized using FieldTrip software to the medial cingulate gyrus that was smaller on incongruent than congruent trials and was significantly influenced by the recruitment of control processes following previous-trial emotional conflict (i.e., there was significant conflict adaptation in the ERPs. Results show that a face-only paradigm may be sufficient to elicit emotional conflict and suggest a system for rapidly detecting conflicting emotional stimuli and subsequently adjusting control resources, similar to cognitive conflict detection processes, when using conflicting facial expressions without words.

  10. Do congenital prosopagnosia and the other-race effect affect the same face recognition mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eEsins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital prosopagnosia, an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race effect, a disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both affect face recognition abilities. Are the same face processing mechanisms affected in both situations? To investigate this question, we tested three groups of 21 participants: German congenital prosopagnosics, South Korean participants and German controls in three different tasks involving faces and objects. First we tested all participants on the Cambridge Face Memory Test in which they had to recognize Caucasian target faces in a 3-alternative-forced-choice task. German controls performed better than Koreans who performed better than prosopagnosics. In the second experiment, participants rated the similarity of Caucasian faces that differed parametrically in either features or second-order relations (configuration. Prosopagnosics were less sensitive to configuration changes than both other groups. In addition, while all groups were more sensitive to changes in features than in configuration, this difference was smaller in Koreans. In the third experiment, participants had to learn exemplars of artificial objects, natural objects, and faces and recognize them among distractors of the same category. Here prosopagnosics performed worse than participants in the other two groups only when they were tested on face stimuli. In sum, Koreans and prosopagnosic participants differed from German controls in different ways in all tests. This suggests that German congenital prosopagnosics perceive Caucasian faces differently than do Korean participants. Importantly, our results suggest that different processing impairments underlie the other-race effect and congenital prosopagnosia.

  11. Face-painting and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan.

    2004-01-01

    We see the elaborate application of whitner to the face and neck of a young trainee geisha (maiko). The colouring of the rest of the face is followed by the dressing in robes and exit into the street.

  12. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... Changes in face with age References Brodie SE. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  13. Picasso: (in)human face

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Rejecting the notion that Picasso's representations of faces should always be considered in a biographical context as portraits, it is argued that in considering them as human faces we encounter a crisis in the idea of an essential humanity. The essay then discusses Picasso's faces relation to Georges Bataille's treatment of vernacular portrait photography and of animality in human emotional expression, arguing that Picasso's human faces court the inhuman. This inhuman countenance, bred so ef...

  14. Emotional expectations influence neural sensitivity to fearful faces in humans:An event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested whether neural sensitivity to salient emotional facial expressions was influenced by emotional expectations induced by a cue that validly predicted the expression of a subsequently presented target face. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by fearful and neutral faces were recorded while participants performed a gender discrimination task under cued (‘expected’) and uncued (‘unexpected’) conditions. The behavioral results revealed that accuracy was lower for fearful compared with neutral faces in the unexpected condition, while accuracy was similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. ERP data revealed increased amplitudes in the P2 component and 200–250 ms interval for unexpected fearful versus neutral faces. By contrast, ERP responses were similar for fearful and neutral faces in the expected condition. These findings indicate that human neural sensitivity to fearful faces is modulated by emotional expectations. Although the neural system is sensitive to unpredictable emotionally salient stimuli, sensitivity to salient stimuli is reduced when these stimuli are predictable.

  15. IntraFace

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.

  16. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Motion can amplify the face-inversion effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The face-inversion effect (FIE refers to increased response times or error rates for faces that are presented upside-down relative to those seen in a canonical, upright orientation. Here we report one situation in which this FIE can be amplified when observers are shown dynamic facial expressions, rather than static facial expressions. In two experiments observers were asked to assign gender to a random sequence of un-degraded static or moving faces. Each face was seen both upright and inverted. For static images, this task led to little or no effect of inversion. For moving faces, the cost of inversion was a response time increase of approximately 100 ms relative to upright. Motion thus led to a disadvantage in the context of inversion. The fact that such motion could not be ignored in favour of available form cues suggests that dynamic processing may be mandatory. In two control experiments a difference between static and dynamic inversion was not observed for whole-body stimuli or for human-animal decisions. These latter findings suggest that the processing of upside-down movies is not always more difficult for the visual system than the processing of upside-down static images.

  18. Attentional Biases in Currently Depressed Children: An Eye-Tracking Study of Biases in Sustained Attention to Emotional Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Gibb, Brandon E

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories state attentional biases contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Like depressed adults, there is growing evidence for the presence of attentional biases to sad stimuli in depressed youth. Although the direction of this bias among children remains unclear, preliminary evidence indicates attentional avoidance of sad stimuli in children. This is the first known sudy to use eye-tracking to investigate the exact nature of attention biases among depressed children. To assess sustained attention, the current study used eye-tracking and a passive viewing task in which children viewed a series of four facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, neutral) presented simultatiously for 20 s on a computer screen. The current study compared the attentional allocation of currently depressed children (n = 19; M age = 11.21) to a group of never depressed children (n = 22; M age = 10.82). Consistent with earlier research with children, we found that children with current major or minor depression, compared to children with no history of depression, exhibited attentional avoidance of sad facial stimuil as well as some evidence for preferential attention to happy faces. This study provides additional evidence that although depressed children demonstrate mood congruent attentional biases like that observed depressed adults, the nature of these biases may reflect attentional avoidance of sad stimuli, rather than preferential attention. PMID:25010145

  19. Perceived sexual orientation based on vocal and facial stimuli is linked to self-rated sexual orientation in Czech men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Varella Valentova

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions.

  20. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a