Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.
Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.
Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs' automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation). We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: it led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia. PMID:23970862
Nathan, Pradeep J.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Sule, Akeem; Müller, Ulrich; Dudas, Robert B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Background: Evidence suggests that individuals with social anxiety demonstrate vigilance to social threat, whilst the peptide hormone oxytocin is widely accepted as supporting affiliative behaviour in humans. Methods: This study investigated whether oxytocin can affect attentional bias in social anxiety. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-group study design, 26 healthy and 16 highly socially anxious (HSA) male volunteers (within the HSA group, 10 were diagnosed with generalized social anxiety disorder) were administered 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo to investigate attentional processing in social anxiety. Attentional bias was assessed using the dot-probe paradigm with angry, fearful, happy and neutral face stimuli. Results: In the baseline placebo condition, the HSA group showed greater attentional bias for emotional faces than healthy individuals. Oxytocin reduced the difference between HSA and non-socially anxious individuals in attentional bias for emotional faces. Moreover, it appeared to normalize attentional bias in HSA individuals to levels seen in the healthy population in the baseline condition. The biological mechanisms by which oxytocin may be exerting these effects are discussed. Conclusions: These results, coupled with previous research, could indicate a potential therapeutic use of this hormone in treatment for social anxiety. PMID:25552432
Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher
The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety.
Hanley, Mary; McPhillips, Martin; Mulhern, Gerry; Riby, Deborah M.
Previous eye tracking research on the allocation of attention to social information by individuals with autism spectrum disorders is equivocal and may be in part a consequence of variation in stimuli used between studies. The current study explored attention allocation to faces, and within faces, by individuals with Asperger syndrome using a range…
Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Wessing, Ida; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Steinberg, Christian; Eden, Annuschka Salima; Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus
Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+) were paired with an aversive noise (US), while further 52 faces (CS−) remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating), behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report), and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography) measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80–117 ms) and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140–160 ms) during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory. PMID:26113814
Maimu Alissa Rehbein
Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.
Chang, Allen; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A
Face recognition is an important component of successful social interactions in humans. A large literature in social psychology has focused on the phenomenon termed the "other race" (ORE) effect, the tendency to be more proficient with face recognition within one's own ethnic group compared with other ethnic groups. Several potential hypotheses have been proposed for this effect, including perceptual expertise, social grouping, and holistic face processing. Recent work on mnemonic discrimination (i.e., the ability to resolve mnemonic interference among similar experiences) may provide a mechanistic account for the ORE. In the current study, we examined how discrimination and generalization in the presence of mnemonic interference may contribute to the ORE. We developed a database of computerized faces divided evenly among ethnic origins (Black, Caucasian, East Asian, South Asian), as well as morphed face stimuli that varied in the amount of similarity to the original stimuli (30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% morphs). Participants first examined the original unmorphed stimuli during study, then during test were asked to judge the prior occurrence of repetitions (targets), morphed stimuli (lures), and new stimuli (foils). We examined participants' ability to correctly reject similar morphed lures and found that it increased linearly as a function of face dissimilarity. We additionally found that Caucasian participants' mnemonic discrimination-generalization functions were sharply tuned for Caucasian faces but considerably less tuned for East Asian and Black faces. These results suggest that expertise plays an important role in resolving mnemonic interference, which may offer a mechanistic account for the ORE. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.
The characteristics of scanning patterns between the ages of 6 and 26 weeks were investigated through repeated assessments of 10 infants. Eye movements were recorded using a corneal-reflection system while the infants looked at 2 dynamic stimuli: the naturally moving face of their mother and an
Maccari, Lisa; Martella, Diana; Marotta, Andrea; Sebastiani, Mara; Banaj, Nerisa; Fuentes, Luis J; Casagrande, Maria
Short-term sleep deprivation, or extended wakefulness, adversely affects cognitive functions and behavior. However, scarce research has addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on emotional processing. In this study, we investigated the impact of reduced vigilance due to moderate sleep deprivation on the ability to recognize emotional expressions of faces and emotional content of words. Participants remained awake for 24 h and performed the tasks in two sessions, one in which they were not affected by sleep loss (baseline; BSL), and other affected by SD, according to a counterbalanced sequence. Tasks were carried out twice at 10:00 and 4:00 am, or at 12:00 and 6:00 am. In both tasks, participants had to respond to the emotional valence of the target stimulus: negative, positive, or neutral. The results showed that in the word task, sleep deprivation impaired recognition irrespective of the emotional valence of words. However, sleep deprivation impaired recognition of emotional face expressions mainly when they showed a neutral expression. Emotional face expressions were less affected by the sleep loss, but positive faces were more resistant than negative faces to the detrimental effect of sleep deprivation. The differential effects of sleep deprivation on recognition of the different emotional stimuli are indicative of emotional facial expressions being stronger emotional stimuli than emotional laden words. This dissociation may be attributed to the more automatic sensory encoding of emotional facial content.
Todd, Andrew R; Thiem, Kelsey C; Neel, Rebecca
Pervasive stereotypes linking Black men with violence and criminality can lead to implicit cognitive biases, including the misidentification of harmless objects as weapons. In four experiments, we investigated whether these biases extend even to young Black boys (5-year-olds). White participants completed sequential priming tasks in which they categorized threatening and nonthreatening objects and words after brief presentations of faces of various races (Black and White) and ages (children and adults). Results consistently revealed that participants had less difficulty (i.e., faster response times, fewer errors) identifying threatening stimuli and more difficulty identifying nonthreatening stimuli after seeing Black faces than after seeing White faces, and this racial bias was equally strong following adult and child faces. Process-dissociation-procedure analyses further revealed that these effects were driven entirely by automatic (i.e., unintentional) racial biases. The collective findings suggest that the perceived threat commonly associated with Black men may generalize even to young Black boys. © The Author(s) 2016.
Joseph Michael Arizpe
Full Text Available Eye-movement patterns are often utilized in studies of visual perception as indices of the specific information extracted to efficiently process a given stimulus during a given task. Our prior work, however, revealed that not only the stimulus and task influence eye-movements, but that visuomotor (start position factors also robustly and characteristically influence eye-movement patterns to faces (Arizpe, et al, 2012. Here we manipulated lateral starting side and distance from the midline of face and line-symmetrical control (butterfly stimuli in order to further investigate the nature and generality of such visuomotor influences. First we found that increasing starting distance from midline (4, 8, 12, 16 degrees visual angle strongly and proportionately increased the distance of the first ordinal fixation from midline. We did not find influences of starting distance on subsequent fixations, however, suggesting that eye-movement plans are not strongly affected by starting distance following an initial orienting fixation. Further, we replicated our prior effect of starting side (left, right to induce a spatially contralateral tendency of fixations after the first ordinal fixation. However, we also established that these visuomotor influences did not depend upon the predictability of the location of the upcoming stimulus, and were present not only for face stimuli but also for our control stimulus category (butterflies. We found a correspondence in overall left-lateralized fixation tendency between faces and butterflies. Finally, for faces, we found a relationship between left starting side (right sided fixation pattern tendency and increased recognition performance, which likely reflects a cortical right hemisphere (left visual hemifield advantage for face perception. These results further indicate the importance of considering and controlling for visuomotor influences in the design, analysis, and interpretation of eye-movement studies.
Ambach, Wolfgang; Assmann, Birthe; Krieg, Bennet; Vaitl, Dieter
Attentional, intentional, and motivational factors are known to influence the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT). Although concealing information is essentially a social action closely related to motivation, CIT studies typically rely on testing participants in an environment lacking of social stimuli: subjects interact with a computer while sitting alone in an experimental room. To address this gap, we examined the influence of social stimuli on the physiological responses in a CIT. Seventy-one participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a between-subjects design, subjects were either questioned acoustically by a pre-recorded male voice presented together with a virtual male experimenter's uniform face or by a text field on the screen, which displayed the question devoid of face and voice. Electrodermal activity (EDA), respiration line length (RLL), phasic heart rate (pHR), and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL) were registered. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R) was administered in addition. The differential responses of RLL, pHR, and FPWL to probe vs. irrelevant items were greater in the condition with social stimuli than in the text condition; interestingly, the differential responses of EDA did not differ between conditions. No modulatory influence of the PPI-R sum or subscale scores was found. The results emphasize the relevance of social aspects in the process of concealing information and in its detection. Attentional demands as well as the participants' motivation to avoid detection might be the important links between social stimuli and physiological responses in the CIT.
Full Text Available Attentional, intentional, and motivational factors are known to influence the physiological responses in a Concealed Information Test (CIT. Although concealing information is essentially a social action closely related to motivation, CIT studies typically rely on testing participants in an environment lacking of social stimuli: Subjects interact with a computer while sitting alone in an experimental room. To address this gap, we examined the influence of social stimuli on the physiological responses in a CIT.Seventy-one participants underwent a mock-crime experiment with a modified CIT. In a between-subjects design, subjects were either questioned acoustically by a pre-recorded male voice presented together with a virtual male experimenter’s uniform face or by a text field on the screen, which displayed the question devoid of face and voice. Electrodermal activity (EDA, respiration line length (RLL, phasic heart rate (pHR, and finger pulse waveform length (FPWL were registered. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R was administered in addition. The differential responses of RLL, pHR, and FPWL to probe vs. irrelevant items were greater in the condition with social stimuli than in the text condition; interestingly, the differential responses of EDA did not differ between conditions. No modulatory influence of the PPI-R sum or subscale scores was found.The results emphasize the relevance of social aspects in the process of concealing information and in its detection. Attentional demands as well as the participants’ motivation to avoid detection might be the important links between social stimuli and physiological responses in the CIT.
Full Text Available For investigating the effect of observer's mood on level of processing of visual stimuli, happy or sad mood was induced in two groups of participants through asking them to deliberate one of their sad or happy memories while listening to a congruent piece of music. This was followed by a computer-based task that required counting some features (arcs or lines of emotional schematic faces (with either sad or happy expressions for group 1, and counting same features of meaningless combined shapes for group 2. Reaction time analysis indicated there is a significant difference in RTs after listening to the sad music compared with happy music for group 1; participants with sad moods were significantly slower when they worked on local levels of schematic faces with sad expressions. Happy moods did not show any specific effect on reaction time of participants who were working on local details of emotionally expressive faces. Sad moods or happy moods had no significant effect on reaction time of working on parts of meaningless shapes. It seems that sad moods as a contextual factor elevate the ability of sad expression to grab the attention and block fast access to the local parts of the holistic meaningful shapes.
Chang, Allen; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A.
Face recognition is an important component of successful social interactions in humans. A large literature in social psychology has focused on the phenomenon termed “the other race” (ORE) effect, the tendency to be more proficient with face recognition within one’s own ethnic group, as compared to other ethnic groups. Several potential hypotheses have been proposed for this effect including perceptual expertise, social grouping, and holistic face processing. Recent work on mnemonic discrimination (i.e. the ability to resolve mnemonic interference among similar experiences) may provide a mechanistic account for the ORE. In the current study, we examined how discrimination and generalization in the presence of mnemonic interference may contribute to the ORE. We developed a database of computerized faces divided evenly among ethnic origins (Black, Caucasian, East Asian, South Asian), as well as morphed face stimuli that varied in the amount of similarity to the original stimuli (30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% morphs). Participants first examined the original unmorphed stimuli during study, then during test were asked to judge the prior occurrence of repetitions (targets), morphed stimuli (lures), and new stimuli (foils). We examined participants’ ability to correctly reject similar morphed lures and found that it increased linearly as a function of face dissimilarity. We additionally found that Caucasian participants’ mnemonic discrimination/generalization functions were sharply tuned for Caucasian faces but considerably less tuned for East Asian and Black faces. These results suggest that expertise plays an important role in resolving mnemonic interference, which may offer a mechanistic account for the ORE. PMID:26413724
Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne
The ability to inhibit inappropriate behavior is an essential cognitive and social skill. Response inhibition of pre-potent motor responses as measured with a stop-signal or a Go/Nogo task improves throughout adolescence1,2. Performance on these tasks can be modulated by the valence of task stimuli...
Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Smeets, Floortje; Vuurman, Eric F P M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle
In psychological experiments involving facial stimuli, it is of great importance that the basic perceptual or psychological characteristics that are investigated are not confounded by factors such as brightness and contrast, head size, hair cut and color, skin color, and the presence of glasses and earrings. Standardization of facial stimulus materials reduces the effect of these confounding factors. We therefore employed a set of basic image processing techniques to deal with this issue. The processed images depict the faces in grayscale, all at the same size, brightness, and contrast, and confined to an oval mask revealing only the basic features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth. The standardization was successfully applied to four different face databases, consisting of male and female faces and including neutral as well as happy facial expressions. An important advantage of the proposed standardization is that featural as well as configurational information is retained. We also consider the procedure to be a major contribution to the development of a de facto standard for the use of facial stimuli in psychological experiments. Such methodological standardization would allow a better comparison of the results of these studies.
Hessels, Roy S; Kemner, Chantal; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C
A problem in eyetracking research is choosing areas of interest (AOIs): Researchers in the same field often use widely varying AOIs for similar stimuli, making cross-study comparisons difficult or even impossible. Subjective choices while choosing AOIs cause differences in AOI shape, size, and location. On the other hand, not many guidelines for constructing AOIs, or comparisons between AOI-production methods, are available. In the present study, we addressed this gap by comparing AOI-production methods in face stimuli, using data collected with infants and adults (with autism spectrum disorder [ASD] and matched controls). Specifically, we report that the attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities of AOIs differ between AOI-production methods, and that this matters for statistical comparisons in one of three groups investigated (the ASD group). In addition, we investigated the relation between AOI size and an AOI's attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities, as well as the consequences for statistical analyses, and report that adopting large AOIs solves the problem of statistical differences between the AOI methods. Finally, we tested AOI-production methods for their robustness to noise, and report that large AOIs-using the Voronoi tessellation method or the limited-radius Voronoi tessellation method with large radii-are most robust to noise. We conclude that large AOIs are a noise-robust solution in face stimuli and, when implemented using the Voronoi method, are the most objective of the researcher-defined AOIs. Adopting Voronoi AOIs in face-scanning research should allow better between-group and cross-study comparisons.
Waters, Allison M; Kershaw, Rachel
Anxious children show attention biases towards and away from threat stimuli. Moreover, threat avoidance compared to vigilance predicts a poorer outcome from exposure-based treatments, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), yet the mechanisms underlying this differential response are unclear. Pavlovian fear conditioning is a widely accepted theory to explain the acquisition and extinction of fear, including exposure-based treatments, such as CBT. In typical fear conditioning experiments, anxious children have shown larger physiological responses to an aversive unconditional stimulus (i.e., US on CS+ trials) and to non-reinforced stimuli (CS-) during fear acquisition and to both CSs during fear extinction compared to non-anxious peers. This study examined whether threat avoidance compared to threat vigilance was related to differences in fear acquisition and extinction in anxious children. Thirty-four clinically-anxious children completed a visual probe task including angry-neutral face pairs to determine the direction of threat attention bias as well as a discriminant conditioning and extinction task in which a geometric shape CS+ was paired with an aversive tone US, while the CS- geometric shape was always presented alone during acquisition trials. Both CSs were presented alone during extinction trials. Fear acquisition and extinction were indexed by skin conductance responses (SCR) and subjective measures. Children were classified as threat vigilant (N = 18) and threat avoidant (n = 16) based on the direction of threat attention bias on the visual probe task. During acquisition, threat avoidant relative to threat vigilant anxious children displayed larger orienting SCRs to both CSs during the first block of trials and larger third interval SCRs to the US on CS+ trials as well as on CS- trials. During extinction, threat avoidant anxious children showed delayed extinction of SCRs to both the CS+ and CS- and reported higher subjective anxiety ratings after
Full Text Available It has been proposed that social anxiety disorder (SAD is associated with automatic information processing biases resulting in hypersensitivity to signals of social threat such as negative facial expressions. However, the nature and extent of automatic processes in SAD on the behavioral and neural level is not entirely clear yet. The present review summarizes neuroscientific findings on automatic processing of facial threat but also other disorder-related stimuli such as emotional prosody or negative words in SAD. We review initial evidence for automatic activation of the amygdala, insula, and sensory cortices as well as for automatic early electrophysiological components. However, findings vary depending on tasks, stimuli, and neuroscientific methods. Only few studies set out to examine automatic neural processes directly and systematic attempts are as yet lacking. We suggest that future studies should (1 use different stimulus modalities, (2 examine different emotional expressions, (3 compare findings in SAD with other anxiety disorders, (4 use more sophisticated experimental designs to investigate features of automaticity systematically, and (5 combine different neuroscientific methods (such as functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology. Finally, the understanding of neural automatic processes could also provide hints for therapeutic approaches.
Staugaard, Søren Risløv
A threatening facial expression is a potent social sign of hostility or dominance. During the past 20 years, photographs of threatening faces have been increasingly included as stimuli in studies with socially anxious participants, based on the hypothesis that a threatening face is especially...... salient to people with fears of social interaction or negative evaluation. The purpose of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the accumulated research and suggest possible avenues for further research. The main conclusion is that photographs of threatening faces engage a broad range...... of perceptual processes in socially anxious participants, particularly when exposure times are very short...
Glenn, Catherine R; Lieberman, Lynne; Hajcak, Greg
The potency of an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) can impact the degree of fear learning. One of the most common and effective UCSs is an electric shock, which is inappropriate for certain populations (e.g., children). To address this need, a novel fear learning paradigm was recently developed that uses a fearful female face and scream as the UCS. The present study directly compared the efficacy of the screaming female UCS and a traditional shock UCS in two fear learning paradigms. Thirty-six young adults completed two fear learning tasks and a measure of trait anxiety; fear learning was indexed with fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and self-reported fear ratings. Results indicated comparable FPS across the two tasks. However, larger overall startle responses were exhibited in the shock task, and participants rated the shock UCS and overall task as more aversive than the screaming female. In addition, trait anxiety was only related to FPS in the fear learning task that employed a shock as the UCS. Taken together, results indicate that, although both UCS paradigms can be used for fear conditioning (i.e., to produce differences between CS+ and CS-), the shock UCS paradigm is more aversive and potentially more sensitive to individual differences in anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several event related potential (ERP studies have investigated the time course of different aspects of evaluative processing in social bias research. Various reports suggest that the late positive potential (LPP is modulated by basic evaluative processes, and some reports suggest that in-/outgroup relative position affects ERP responses. In order to study possible LPP blending between facial race processing and semantic valence (positive or negative words, we recorded ERPs while indigenous and non-indigenous participants who were matched by age and gender performed an implicit association test (IAT. The task involved categorizing faces (ingroup and outgroup and words (positive and negative. Since our paradigm implies an evaluative task with positive and negative valence association, a frontal distribution of LPPs similar to that found in previous reports was expected. At the same time, we predicted that LPP valence lateralization would be modulated not only by positive/negative associations but also by particular combinations of valence, face stimuli and participant relative position. Results Results showed that, during an IAT, indigenous participants with greater behavioral ingroup bias displayed a frontal LPP that was modulated in terms of complex contextual associations involving ethnic group and valence. The LPP was lateralized to the right for negative valence stimuli and to the left for positive valence stimuli. This valence lateralization was influenced by the combination of valence and membership type relevant to compatibility with prejudice toward a minority. Behavioral data from the IAT and an explicit attitudes questionnaire were used to clarify this finding and showed that ingroup bias plays an important role. Both ingroup favoritism and indigenous/non-indigenous differences were consistently present in the data. Conclusion Our results suggest that frontal LPP is elicited by contextual blending of evaluative
Full Text Available Anxiety is associated with increased attentional capture by threat. Previous studies have used simultaneous or briefly separated (< 1s presentation of threat distractors and target stimuli. Here, we tested the hypothesis that high trait anxious participants would show a longer time window within which distractors cause disruption to subsequent task processing, and that this would particularly be observed for stimuli of moderate or ambiguous threat value. A novel temporally separated emotional distractor task was used. Face or house distractors were presented for 250ms at short (~1.6s or long (~3s intervals prior to a letter string comprising Xs or Ns. Trait anxiety was associated with slowed identification of letter strings presented at long intervals after face distractors with part surprise / part fear expressions. In other words, these distractors had an impact on high anxious individuals’ speed of target identification seconds after their offset. This was associated with increased activity in the fusiform gyrus and amygdala and reduced dorsal anterior cingulate recruitment. This pattern of activity may reflect impoverished recruitment of reactive control mechanisms to damp down stimulus-specific processing in subcortical and higher visual regions. These findings have implications for understanding how threat-related attentional biases in anxiety may lead to dysfunction in everyday settings where stimuli of moderate, potentially ambiguous, threat value such as those used here are fairly common, and where attentional disruption lasting several seconds may have a profound impact.
Lee, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Tae-Ho; Yoon, So-Jeong; Cho, Yang Seok; Choi, June-Seek; Kim, Hyun Taek
In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the perception of emotion in response to facial stimuli in order to elucidate the extent to which emotional perception is affected by the top-down process. Subjects performed a forced, two-choice emotion discrimination task towards ambiguous visual stimuli consisted of emotional faces embedded in different levels of visual white noise, including white noise-alone stimuli. ERP recordings and behavioral responses were analyzed according to the four response categories: hit, miss, false alarm and correct rejection. We observed enlarged EPN and LPP amplitudes when subjects reported seeing fearful faces and a typical emotional EPN response in the white noise-alone conditions when fearful faces were not presented. The two components of the ERP data which imply the characteristic modulation reflecting emotional processing showed the type of emotion each individual subjectively perceived. The results suggest that top-down modulations might be indispensable for emotional perception, which consists of two distinct stages of stimulus processing in the brain. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Woud, M.L.; Becker, E.S.; Lange, W.G.; Rinck, M.
A growing body of evidence shows that the prolonged execution of approach movements towards stimuli and avoidance movements away from them affects their evaluation. However, there has been no systematic investigation of such training effects. Therefore, the present study compared approach-avoidance
Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A
Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles published January 1970 through September 2012 were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depress...
Shannonhouse, John L; York, Daniel C; Morgan, Caurnel
Latency to feed in a novel environment assesses anxious behavior in rodents, but it is unclear whether it distinguishes anxiety from consumption or appetite. The anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test was used here to assess anxious behavior in Syrian hamsters for which increased cheek-pouching of food, but not overconsumption of it, reflects appetitive drive, and orexigenic stimuli do not increase consumption. The setup of the test prevented cheek-pouching. Latency to approach test food provided an additional control for non-emotional effects of treatments. Feed and approach latencies in the test cage were normalized to those in the home cage to factor out non-emotional effects. Feed latency and the feed latency ratio (test cage/home cage) were reduced by acute treatment with benzodiazepine, diazepam, or beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, or chronic treatment with norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desipramine. Reductions of feed latency and the feed latency ratio were not associated with hyperphagia, and these behaviors were unaltered by acute treatment with opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone. Latency to approach food in the test cage, with and without normalization, was unaltered by these treatments. Finally, overnight fasting elevated feed latency without hyperphagia, and this effect was attenuated by chronic desipramine treatment. These results suggest that the AFEC test assesses anxious, but not appetitive or consummatory, behavior, and that its sensitivity increases with food deprivation of hamsters. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe
In this chapter, we investigate how a face is not a singular, invariable object, but may take on a variety of forms, and how new media has especially created new venues for the moldings of faces. We suggest that faces should be viewed in plural in order to emphasize the many different facial disp...
Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe
for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... displays a single person make use of, and how this ‘pool of faces’ carries sociocultural meaning. While the past decades of swift technological development may seem to have diminished the role of face to face contact, the many new media has – on the contrary – established multiple new and innovative arenas...... forward. Especially the teenage girls engage in manipulating their faces into hideous expressions. However, this type of interaction is not random facial displays, but follow an ‘aesthetics of ugliness’. This aesthetics involve specific ways of looking ugly and is primarily performed by girls who have...
Pause, Bettina M; Lübke, Katrin; Laudien, Joachim H; Ferstl, Roman
The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis). In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order). Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1). The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency) than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.
Bettina M Pause
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.
Mitchell, Jennifer H; Broeren, Suzanne; Newall, Carol; Hudson, Jennifer L
The anxious rearing model of perfectionism development proposes that children develop perfectionism in response to parental worry about their children being imperfect and parental behaviors such as overprotection from mistakes and focus on the negative consequences of mistakes. In the current study, perfectionistic rearing behaviors were experimentally manipulated during a copy task in clinically anxious children (n = 42) and non-anxious children (n = 35). Children were randomized to receive high or non-perfectionistic rearing behaviors from their parents during the copy task designed to elicit child perfectionistic behaviors. Results showed that self-reported self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) was significantly higher in the anxious group compared with the non-anxious group. All children showed an increase in observed SOP in response to high perfectionistic rearing behaviors. Despite this increase in SOP in the high perfectionistic rearing condition, it was children in the non-perfectionistic rearing condition that improved significantly in task accuracy performance. Non-anxious children declined in task-related striving for perfectionism when they experienced non-perfectionistic rearing behaviors from their parents. Anxious children, however, did not show a decline in task-related striving following non-perfectionistic rearing. Results support the perfectionistic rearing model and parental perfectionistic behaviors' impact on children's observed and self-reported SOP and task performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.
With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…
Sandra Cristina Soares
Full Text Available Previous studies in the social anxiety arena have shown an impaired attentional control system, similar to that found in trait anxiety. However, the effect of task demands on social anxiety in socially threatening stimuli, such as angry faces, remains unseen. In the present study, fifty-four university students scoring high and low in the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale (SIPAAS questionnaire, participated in a target letter discrimination task while task-irrelevant face stimuli (angry, disgust, happy, and neutral were simultaneously presented. The results showed that high (compared to low socially anxious individuals were more prone to distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli, particularly under high perceptual load conditions. More importantly, for such individuals, the accuracy proportions for angry faces significantly differed between the low and high perceptual load conditions, which is discussed in light of current evolutionary models of social anxiety.
Queisser, Hans J.
successfully with this crystal growth technique. We were very much impressed by the success in Leningrad. Liquid-phase epitaxy yields, in principle, exceedingly pure crystals, but we were unhappy about the principal lack of direct monitoring during this growth process, which we deemed absolutely necessary for obtaining reproducible heterojunctions with tightly controlled small dimensions. Ultrahigh-vacuum epitaxy seemed to be the inescapable solution. Delicate molecular beams had to be gently used and monitored! What a costly proposition! I clearly remember the day when Mort and I went to the Laboratory director John Galt. A little bit fearful and subdued, we explained our project. No, not expensive, rather a very expensive idea! We anxiously watched John with his usual stern demeanour; he paused and contemplated: 'All right, we do it—go ahead!' Construction for equipment needed for the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) began, and in Al Cho, an excellent new employee was hired for this task. A little later I left Bell Labs, this fabulous 'Mecca of Solid State' for a physics professorship at the Goethe University in Frankfurt-on-the-Main in Germany. Meanwhile, successful work on semiconductor lasers bore ample fruit worldwide. In Frankfurt, I used gas laser sources for photoluminescence diagnostics of elemental and compound semiconductors. With my astute doctoral student 'Teddy' Güttler, for example, we observed impurity photoluminescence in Au-doped silicon and concluded that doping of solar cells with deep impurities would not be beneficial for cell efficiency; just the opposite would happen because of increased carrier recombination . In 1968, Western Germany experienced an ultra-left-wing student rebellion. Frankfurt students violently attacked me and accused me of war research since I used lasers, obviously a deadly weapon of mass destruction. Dieter Bimberg, our co-editor of this Festschrift, will undoubtedly remember those happenings when he was a doctoral candidate
Park, Haeme R P; Kostandyan, Mariam; Boehler, C Nico; Krebs, Ruth M
Although it is clear that emotional and motivational manipulations yield a strong influence on cognition and behaviour, these domains have mostly been investigated in independent research lines. Therefore, it remains poorly understood how far these affective manipulations overlap in terms of their underlying neural activations, especially in light of previous findings that suggest a shared valence mechanism across multiple affective processing domains (e.g., monetary incentives, primary rewards, emotional events). This is particularly interesting considering the commonality between emotional and motivational constructs in terms of their basic affective nature (positive vs. negative), but dissociations in terms of instrumentality, in that only reward-related stimuli are typically associated with performance-contingent outcomes. Here, we aimed to examine potential common neural processes triggered by emotional and motivational stimuli in matched tasks within participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Across tasks, we found shared valence effects in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus (part of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), with increased activity for positive and negative stimuli, respectively. Despite this commonality, emotion and reward tasks featured differential behavioural patterns in that negative valence effects (performance costs) were exclusive to emotional stimuli, while positive valence effects (performance benefits) were only observed for reward-related stimuli. Overall, our data suggest a common affective coding mechanism across different task domains and support the idea that monetary incentives entail signed basic valence signals, above and beyond the instruction to perform both gain and loss trials as accurately as possible to maximise the outcome.
Lazarov, Amit; Abend, Rany; Bar-Haim, Yair
Identification of reliable targets for therapeutic interventions is essential for developing evidence-based therapies. Threat-related attention bias has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. Extant response-time-based threat bias measures have demonstrated limited reliability and internal consistency. Here, we examined gaze patterns of socially anxious and nonanxious participants in relation to social threatening and neutral stimuli using an eye-tracking task, comprised of multiple threat and neutral stimuli, presented for an extended time-period. We tested the psychometric properties of this task with the hope to provide a solid stepping-stone for future treatment development. Eye gaze was tracked while participants freely viewed 60 different matrices comprised of eight disgusted and eight neutral facial expressions, presented for 6000ms each. Gaze patterns on threat and neutral areas of interest (AOIs) of participants with SAD, high socially anxious students and nonanxious students were compared. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Participants did not differ on first-fixation variables. However, overall, socially anxious students and participants with SAD dwelled significantly longer on threat faces compared with nonanxious participants, with no difference between the anxious groups. Groups did not differ in overall dwell time on neutral faces. Internal consistency of total dwell time on threat and neutral AOIs was high and one-week test-retest reliability was acceptable. Only disgusted facial expressions were used. Relative small sample size. Social anxiety is associated with increased dwell time on socially threatening stimuli, presenting a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1 or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2 would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2 would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1 or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2, and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our
Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori
Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attention to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attention to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli), low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.
Full Text Available Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attentional capture to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attentional capture to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli, low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.
Klein, Anke M; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Kangas, Maria; Lyneham, Heidi J; Souren, Pierre M; Rinck, Mike
The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.
The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…
Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits; Prins, Pier J. M.
The child version of the Carver and White (1994) BIS/BAS-scales (Muris et al., 2005) was used to assess sensitivity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System in clinically anxious and non-anxious youth (n = 175, ages 8-18 years, 70 boys). Results supported the hypothesis that
Adolph, Dirk; Meister, Lukas; Pause, Bettina M
During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated. Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA) and low socially anxious (LSA) participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I), and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II) while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while late positive potential (LPP) activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II), as well as larger startle responses toward faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I). Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II). In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information.
Full Text Available During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated.Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA and low socially anxious (LSA participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I, and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while Late Positive Potential (LPP activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II, as well as larger startle responses towards faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I. Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II. In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information.
Shechner, Tomer; Britton, Jennifer C; Ronkin, Emily G; Jarcho, Johanna M; Mash, Jamie A; Michalska, Kalina J; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S
Fear conditioning and extinction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. However, due to ethical and methodological limitations, few studies have examined these learning processes across development, particularly among anxious individuals. The present study examined differences in fear conditioning and extinction in anxious and nonanxious youth and adults using a novel task designed to be more tolerable for children than existing paradigms. Twenty-two anxious adults, 15 anxious youth, 30 healthy adults, and 17 healthy youth completed two discriminative fear-conditioning tasks. A well-validated task paired a woman's fearful face with a scream as the unconditioned stimulus. The novel task paired a bell with an aversive alarm as the unconditioned stimulus. Self-reported fear, skin conductance response, and fear-potentiated startle eye blink were measured. Both tasks were well tolerated and elicited fear responses with moderate stability. Anxious youth and adults reported overall greater fear than healthy participants during the tasks, although no group differences occurred in discriminative fear conditioning or extinction, as assessed by self-report or physiology. The novel bell-conditioning task is potent in eliciting fear responses but tolerable for pediatric and anxious populations. Our findings are consistent with prior studies that have shown comparable fear learning processes in anxious and nonanxious youth, but dissimilar from studies exhibiting between-group differences in extinction. Given the limited research on fear conditioning in youth, methodological issues and suggestions for future work are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fisher, Joscelyn E; Sass, Sarah M; Heller, Wendy; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L; Miller, Gregory A
An individual's self-reported abilities to attend to, understand, and reinterpret emotional situations or events have been associated with anxiety and depression, but it is unclear how these abilities affect the processing of emotional stimuli, especially in individuals with these symptoms. The present study recorded event-related brain potentials while individuals reporting features of anxiety and depression completed an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that anxious apprehension, anxious arousal, and depression were associated with self-reported emotion abilities, consistent with prior literature. In addition, lower anxious apprehension and greater reported emotional clarity were related to slower processing of negative stimuli indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Higher anxious arousal and reported attention to emotion were associated with ERP evidence of early attention to all stimuli regardless of emotional content. Reduced later engagement with stimuli was also associated with anxious arousal and with clarity of emotions. Depression was not differentially associated with any emotion processing stage indexed by ERPs. Research in this area may lead to the development of therapies that focus on minimization of anxiety to foster successful emotion regulation. Copyright 2010 APA
Honig, Alice Sterling; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth
This article explains the causes of children's fears and anxieties in the following age brackets: (1) 0-2 years old; (2) 3-4 years old; and (3) 5-6 years old. It presents situations wherein children develop fears and anxious feelings. It also discusses how to deal and manage these fears and anxieties and enumerates what can be done to make…
Wegbreit, Ezra; Franconeri, Steven; Beeman, Mark
Spatial attention can operate like a spotlight whose scope can vary depending on task demands. Emotional states contribute to the spatial extent of attentional selection, with the spotlight focused more narrowly during anxious moods and more broadly during happy moods. In addition to visual space, attention can also operate over features, and we show here that mood states may also influence attentional scope in feature space. After anxious or happy mood inductions, participants focused their attention to identify a central target while ignoring flanking items. Flankers were sometimes coloured differently than targets, so focusing attention on target colour should lead to relatively less interference. Compared to happy and neutral moods, when anxious, participants showed reduced interference when colour isolated targets from flankers, but showed more interference when flankers and targets were the same colour. This pattern reveals that the anxious mood caused these individuals to attend to the irrelevant feature in both cases, regardless of its benefit or detriment. In contrast, participants showed no effect of colour on interference when happy, suggesting that positive mood did not influence attention in feature space. These mood effects on feature-based attention provide a theoretical bridge between previous findings concerning spatial and conceptual attention.
Lee, Carol S; Wadsworth, Lauren P; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A
Although research indicates that anxious arousal in response to feared stimuli is related to treatment outcome (Heimberg et al., 1990), less is known about the patterns of anxious arousal. We identified patterns of anxious arousal in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) at pre- (n= 61) and posttreatment (n= 40; 12-session CBGT, Heimberg & Becker, 2002), and in non-anxious controls (NACs; n= 31) using an assessment speech task administered at pretreatment (SAD) or the pretreatment equivalent (NACs), as well as at posttreatment (SAD only). We identified nine patterns of anxious arousal across groups that we further clustered into three groups: fear habituation, fear plateau, and fear increase. Chi-square and adjusted standardized residual analyses revealed that individuals in the pretreatment SAD group displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance and the fear plateau patterns significantly less than chance. In contrast, NACs displayed the fear plateau patterns significantly more than chance and the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. At posttreatment, treatment non-responders displayed fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance, whereas treatment responders displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. Findings indicate that fear habituation during an anxiety-provoking assessment task is not necessary for treatment response. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.
Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim...... of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...... (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also...
Gordon, Elizabeth A; Heimberg, Richard G; Montesi, Jennifer L; Fauber, Robert L
Psychological health and interpersonal functioning mutually influence each other. Social anxiety has a pervasive effect on interpersonal functioning, resulting in smaller social networks, increased likelihood of being single or divorced, and less intimacy in relationships. However, little is known about how relationships affect socially anxious individuals in return. We utilized a structured interview to assess how romantic relationships were perceived as influencing three aspects of psychological health (well-being, social anxiety and comfort in social situations) and whether these patterns differed as a function of social anxiety in an undergraduate sample. The perceived importance of several reasons for these effects, including those that could be characterized as both protective and harmful, was also assessed. Relationships were perceived as having contributed positively in each domain. However, when positive and negative reasons were examined separately, socially anxious individuals reported benefiting more from the positive reasons and being harmed more by negative reasons. Further, social anxiety was associated with endorsing certain reasons as important.
Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi
Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca
The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…
Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.
Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman's (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn…
Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.
Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…
de Winter, Remco F. P.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Goekoop, Jaap G.
Anxious-retarded depression is a two-dimensionally defined subcategory of depression based on high scores for both anxiety and retardation. The anxious-retarded subcategory is related to melancholia as defined by DSM-IV. Patients with this diagnosis exhibit elevated plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP)
Anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence have a higher co-occurence than expected by chance only. This association has a double origin, as the presence of alcohol dependence increases by 6 the risk of any anxious disorder, and the presence of an anxious disorder multiply by 3 the risk of alcohol-dependence. Interestingly, a large population-based epidemiological study performed 10 years apart clearly showed that anxiety disorders moderatly increase the risk of regular consumption in non-consumers or irregular drinkers (by 70%), does not increase ther risk of abuse in regular drinkers, but has a strong impact on the risk of alcohol dependence while already an abuser (OR = 2.7). Assessing the kinetic of symptoms of anxiety and focusing on some symptoms that are more specific than others (for example nausea, vomiting and/or shaking hands in the morning, all being relieved by the first drink) is helpful. Treating anxiety symptoms in alcohol dependence means, whatever the type of relationship they have, to begin with a detoxification program. Indeed, antidepresants have a larger liver-toxicity in alcohol dependence, and benzodiazepine loose most of their benefits with high level of alcohol consumption. Furthermore, when benzodiazepines are taken with large doses of alcohol, the risk of severe withdrawal symptoms is increased (such as seizures). The same trend could be proposed for psychotherapy, as cognitive behavioural therapy sollicitates a lot executive functions. The neurotoxicity of alcohol explains the damages on executive functions, CBT therefore should have larger efficacy after the detoxification program, helping to reduce the risk of relapse.
Vervoort, L.; Wolters, L.H.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; de Haan, E.; de Boer, F.; Prins, P.J.M.
The child version of the Carver and White (1994) BIS/BAS-scales (Muris et al., 2005) was used to assess sensitivity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System in clinically anxious and non-anxious youth (n = 175, ages 8-18 years, 70 boys). Results supported the hypothesis that
Bucarelli, Bianca; Purdon, Christine
A growing body of research suggests that the repetition of an action degrades memory for that action, as well as confidence that is has been done correctly. This has important implications for understanding the compulsive repetition of actions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). At this time, though, much of the research has been conducted on analogue or nonclinical OCD samples in comparison to healthy controls and often using virtual, as opposed to actual, threat stimuli. Furthermore, although it has been argued that people with OCD are overly attentive to threat stimuli, the research on actual attention to threat is scant. People with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n = 30) and people with a clinically significant diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, but no OCD (n = 18) completed measures of memory confidence and responsibility and then underwent a stove-checking task in a functioning kitchen while wearing a portable eye tracking device. Pre- and post-task ratings of harm and responsibility were taken, along with post-task ratings of memory and certainty. People with OCD did not exhibit poorer memory confidence than the anxious control (AC) group, but did report greater trait and state responsibility for harm. The OCD group checked longer than did the AC group and check duration predicted post-task ratings of harm, but to the same extent in both groups. People with OCD attended to threat items less than did the AC group. Greater visual attention to the stove during the checking period was associated with greater post-task ratings of responsibility and harm and with less certainty in and memory for the check - but only for the AC group. The sample size was modest, women were over-represented and problems with the eye tracking device reduced the amount of reliable data available for analysis. Compulsions are complex actions that are mediated by many trait, state and contextual factors. People with OCD may be able to circumvent self
Koster, Ernst H W; Rassin, Eric; Crombez, Geert; Näring, Gérard W B
In line with the ironic processing theory of Wegner (Psychol. Rev. 101 (1994) 34), it is often argued that the suppression of anxiety-related thoughts results in a paradoxical increase of anxiety and thought intrusions, both after and during the thought suppression. In a sample of undergraduate students (14 men, 18 women), we investigated the effects of suppressing anxious thoughts about an imminent painful electrocutaneous stimulus. During thought suppression, self-reported anxiety and frequency of anxious thoughts did not increase, and duration of anxious thoughts decreased. After thought suppression, participants experienced an increase in self-reported anxiety and the frequency of anxious thoughts. There was no effect upon thought duration. The results support the idea that suppression of anxiety-related thoughts may result in a paradoxical increase in anxiety, and may cause and/or maintain anxiety problems.
Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan
Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826
Uzbekov, M G; Maximova, N M
Biochemical aspects of the relationship between monoaminergic and hormonal systems in the pathogenesis of anxious depression are analyzed on the basis of literature and own results published earlier. Significant alterations in biogenic monoamine metabolism and changes in the hormonal status, that reflects homeostasis disturbance in whole, are inherent to anxious depression. The biochemical mechanisms of imbalance between serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and a role of cortisol in this process are discussed.
Satoshi F Nakashima
Full Text Available In the current research, we extend past work on the effects of ambient darkness and threat to the domain of memory for expressive faces. In one study, we examined the effects of ambient darkness and individual differences in state anxiety on memory of unfamiliar expressive faces. Here, participants were seated in either a dark or light room and encoded a set of unfamiliar faces with angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. A subsequent recognition task revealed an interactive effect of ambient darkness, anxiety, and target expression. Highly anxious participants in ambient darkness had worse memory for angry faces than did low-anxiety participants. On the other hand, the recognition performance for happy faces was affected neither by the darkness nor state anxiety. The results suggest not only that ambient darkness has its strongest effect on anxious perceivers, but also that person x situation effects should be considered in face recognition research.
Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
Anxious and non-anxious mothers were compared on theoretically derived parenting and family environment variables (i.e., over-control, warmth, criticism, anxious modeling) using multiple informants and methods. Mother-child dyads completed questionnaires about parenting and were observed during an interactional task. Findings revealed that, after controlling for race and child anxiety, maternal anxiety was associated with less warmth and more anxious modeling based on maternal-report. However, maternal anxiety was not related to any parenting domain based on child-report or independent observer (IO) ratings. Findings are discussed in the context of the impact of maternal anxiety on parenting and suggest that child, rather than maternal, anxiety may have a greater influence on parental behavior. PMID:22639487
Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.
Lyudyno, V I; Tsikunov, S G; Abdurasulova, I N; Kusov, A G; Klimenko, V M
Effects of blockage of central galanin receptors on anxiety manifestations were studied in rats with psychogenic trauma. Psychogenic trauma was modeled by exposure of a group of rats to the situation when the partner was killed by a predator. Antagonist of galanin receptors was intranasally administered before stress exposure. Animal behavior was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test, free exploratory paradigm, and open-field test. Psychogenic trauma was followed by an increase in anxiety level and appearance of agitated behavior. Blockage of galanin receptors aggravated behavioral impairment, which manifested in the pathological anxious reactions - manifestations of hypervigilance and hyperawareness. The results suggest that endogenous pool of galanin is involved into prevention of excessive CNS response to stressful stimuli typical of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Edgar, J. Christopher; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Miller, Gregory A.
An individual’s self-reported abilities to attend to, understand, and reinterpret emotional situations or events have been associated with anxiety and depression, but it is unclear how these abilities affect the processing of emotional stimuli, especially in individuals with these symptoms. The present study recorded event-related brain potentials while individuals reporting features of anxiety and depression completed an emotion-word Stroop task. Results indicated that anxious apprehension, ...
Hudson, Jennifer L; Gradisar, Michael; Gamble, Amanda; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rebelo, Ivone
Childhood sleep problems have been associated with a range of adverse cognitive and academic outcomes, as well as increased impulsivity and emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. The aim of the study was to examine subjective reports of sleep-related problems in children with anxiety disorders during school and weekend nights. Thirty-seven children with clinically-diagnosed anxiety disorders and 26 non-clinical children aged 7-12 years completed an on-line sleep diary to track sleep patterns across school nights and weekend nights. Anxious children reported going to bed significantly later (p=0.03) and had significantly less sleep (p=0.006) on school nights compared to non-anxious children. No significant differences in sleep onset latency, number of awakenings or time awake during the night, daytime sleepiness, or fatigue were found between the two groups. On the weekends, anxious children fell asleep quicker and were less awake during the night than on weeknights. School-aged anxiety disordered children showed a sleep pattern that differs from their non-anxious peers. Although the mean 30 min less sleep experienced by anxious children may initially seem small, the potential consequences on daytime performance from an accumulation of such a sleep deficit may be significant, and further investigation is warranted.
Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G
Abstract Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low—compared to high—math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less—a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. PMID:29140499
Palmer, Cara A; Clementi, Michelle A; Meers, Jessica M; Alfano, Candice A
Little is known about the co-sleeping behaviors of school-aged children, particularly among anxious youth who commonly present for the treatment of sleep problems. The current study examined the occurrence of co-sleeping in both healthy and clinically anxious children and its associated sleep patterns. A total of 113 children (ages 6-12), 75 with primary generalized anxiety disorder and 38 healthy controls, participated along with their primary caregiver. Families completed structured diagnostic assessments, and parents reported on their child's co-sleeping behaviors and anxiety severity. Children provided reports of anxiety severity and completed one week of wrist-based actigraphy to assess objective sleep patterns. A significantly greater proportion of anxious youth compared to healthy children co-slept, and greater anxiety severity was related to more frequent co-sleeping. Co-sleeping in anxious youth was associated with a delay in sleep timing and with greater sleep variability (i.e., more variable nightly sleep duration). All analyses controlled for child age, race/ethnicity, family income, and parental marital status. Co-sleeping is highly common in anxious school-aged children, with more than 1 in 3 found to co-sleep at least sometimes (2-4 times a week). Co-sleeping was even more common for youth with greater anxiety severity. Increased dependence on others to initiate and maintain sleep may contribute to poorer sleep in this population via shifted schedules and more variable sleep patterns.
Full Text Available Attentional biases toward threat (ABTs have been described in high anxious individuals and in clinical samples whereas they have been rarely reported in non-clinical samples (Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Cisler and Koster, 2010. Three kinds of ABTs have been identified (facilitation, difficulty of disengagement and avoidance but their mechanisms and time courses are still unclear. This study aimed to understand ABTs mechanisms and timing in low (LTA and high (HTA anxious individuals. In particular, in an exogenous cueing task we used threatening or neutral stimuli as peripheral cues with three presentation times (100, 200 or 500 ms. The main results showed that HTA individuals have an attentional facilitation bias at 100 ms (likely automatic in nature whereas LTA individuals show attentional avoidance and difficulty to disengage from threatening stimuli at 200 ms (likely related to a strategic processing. Such findings demonstrate that threat biases attention with specific mechanisms and time courses, and that anxiety levels modulate attention allocation.
Sagliano, Laura; Trojano, Luigi; Amoriello, Katja; Migliozzi, Michela; D'Olimpio, Francesca
Attentional biases toward threats (ABTs) have been described in high anxious individuals and in clinical samples whereas they have been rarely reported in non-clinical samples (Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Cisler and Koster, 2010). Three kinds of ABTs have been identified (facilitation, difficulty of disengagement, and avoidance) but their mechanisms and time courses are still unclear. This study aimed to understand ABTs mechanisms and timing in low trait anxiety (LTA) and high trait anxiety (HTA) anxious individuals. In particular, in an exogenous cueing task we used threatening or neutral stimuli as peripheral cues with three presentation times (100, 200, or 500 ms). The main results showed that HTA individuals have an attentional facilitation bias at 100 ms (likely automatic in nature) whereas LTA individuals show attentional avoidance and difficulty to disengage from threatening stimuli at 200 ms (likely related to a strategic processing). Such findings demonstrate that threat biases attention with specific mechanisms and time courses, and that anxiety levels modulate attention allocation.
Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori
Although many cognitive models in anxiety propose that an impaired top-down control enhances the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, few studies have paid attention to task-irrelevant stimuli under a cognitive load task. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the working memory load on attention to task-irrelevant stimuli in trait social anxiety. The results showed that as trait social anxiety increased, participants were unable to disengage from task-irrelevant stimuli identical to the memory cue under low and high working memory loads. Impaired attentional disengagement was positively correlated with trait social anxiety. This impaired attentional disengagement was related to trait social anxiety, but not state anxiety. Our findings suggest that socially anxious people have difficulty in disengaging attention from a task-irrelevant memory cue owing to an impaired top-down control under a working memory load. PMID:23071765
Full Text Available Although many cognitive models in anxiety propose that an impaired top-down control enhances the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, few studies have paid attention to task-irrelevant stimuli under a cognitive load task. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the working memory load on attention to task-irrelevant stimuli in trait social anxiety. The results showed that as trait social anxiety increased, participants were unable to disengage from task-irrelevant stimuli identical to the memory cue under low and high working memory loads. Impaired attentional disengagement was positively correlated with trait social anxiety. This impaired attentional disengagement was related to trait social anxiety, but not state anxiety. Our findings suggest that socially anxious people have difficulty in disengaging attention from a task-irrelevant memory cue owing to an impaired top-down control under a working memory load.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 10. Turning a New Leaf H. Y. Mohan Ram talks to Sujata Varadarajan. H Y Mohan Ram Sujata Varadarajan. Face to Face Volume 14 Issue 10 October 2009 pp 1003-1017 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Symmetry and Mathematics: Pioneering Insights into the Structure of Physics. Urjit A Yajnik. Face to Face Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 264-276. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Jungfalk, Michael; Rossen, Svend
Blended learning in education is the combination of face‐to‐face seminars and on‐line work based on the internet. We have investigated which factors that we found were important in designing and conducting face‐to‐face seminars in order to facilitate learning processes in the periods of on...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Do We Learn to See? Torsten Wiesel Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataramani. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 88-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Science is Not a Zero-Sum Game. Devendra Mani. Face to Face Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 471-477. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0471-0477. Author Affiliations.
Feinberg, Leah; Kerns, Caroline; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S
Studies point to parental experiential avoidance (EA) as a potential correlate of maladaptive parenting behaviors associated with child anxiety. However, research has not examined the relationship between EA and parental accommodation of child anxiety, nor the extent to which parental negative beliefs about child anxiety help explain such a relationship. In a sample of mothers (N = 45) of anxious and non-anxious children, the present study investigated the potential link between maternal EA and accommodation of child anxiety and whether this link may be indirectly accounted for via maternal negative beliefs about child anxiety. EA was significantly and positively associated with accommodation of child anxiety, but when negative beliefs about child anxiety were incorporated into the model this direct effect was no longer significant. Findings highlight the contribution of parental emotions and cognitions to behaviors that may exacerbate child anxiety, and may inform treatment and prevention efforts with families of anxious youth.
Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Williams, Elizabeth A; Mills, Rosemary S L; Walker, John R; Feldgaier, Steven; Warren, Michelle; Freeman, Wendy; McIntyre, Michael; Cox, Brian J
The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the experience of parenting kindergarten-aged children who are anxious. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with parents of kindergarten-aged children who expressed interest in a parent-focused early intervention program for child anxiety offered in a local elementary school. Key concerns of the parents included their children's separation anxiety, social anxiety, and oppositional behaviour. The child's anxiety was identified as a stressor on the child, the parent, and the family. Parents utilized a range of parenting responses although they tended to be reactive and did not have a consistent strategy for managing the anxiety. A salient parenting struggle was whether or not to push the child to face challenging situations although there were few descriptions of overprotection or overcontrol. The findings suggest greater attention be given to the strengths of parents of children who are anxious and the ways in which parents may be a positive factor in mitigating the effects of child anxiety. Implications for intervention are discussed.
de Winter, Remco F. P.; van Hemert, Albert M.; DeRijk, Roel H.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Frankhuijzen-Sierevogel, Ank C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Goekoop, Jaap G.
Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is related to melancholic or endogenous depression; however, the strength of this relationship depends on the definition of the specific depression subcategory. A two-dimensionally defined subcategory, anxious-retarded depression, is
Powell, Mary Ann; Harrington, Judy
Teaching circles are an innovative mechanism to support faculty and improve student learning. This article describes the use of instructor teaching circles to support math-anxious students at a mid-sized urban university, including the purposes, formation, and sometimes surprising outcomes associated with using this method. Teaching circles for…
Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.
Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…
Full Text Available Social neuroscience offers a wide range of techniques that may be applied to study the social cognitive deficits that may underlie reduced social functioning—a common feature across many psychiatric disorders. At the same time, a significant proportion of research in this area has been conducted using paradigms that utilize static displays of faces or eyes. The use of point-light displays (PLDs offers a viable alternative for studying recognition of emotion or intention inference while minimizing the amount of information presented to participants. This mini-review aims to summarize studies that have used PLD to study emotion and intention processing in schizophrenia (SCZ, affective disorders, anxiety and personality disorders, eating disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Two main conclusions can be drawn from the reviewed studies: first, the social cognitive problems found in most of the psychiatric samples using PLD were of smaller magnitude than those found in studies presenting social information using faces or voices. Second, even though the information presented in PLDs is extremely limited, presentation of these types of stimuli is sufficient to elicit the disorder-specific, social cognitive biases (e.g., mood-congruent bias in depression, increased threat perception in anxious individuals, aberrant body size perception in eating disorders documented using other methodologies. Taken together, these findings suggest that point-light stimuli may be a useful method of studying social information processing in psychiatry. At the same time, some limitations of using this methodology are also outlined.
Gazelle, Heidi; Ladd, Gary W.
Proposed and tested a diathesis-stress model in which the joint forces of individual vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal adversity (peer exclusion) predict children's depressive symptoms over time. Found that anxious solitude and peer exclusion co-occur in children soon after kindergarten entry and that anxious solitary children who…
Miers, Anne C.; Blote, Anke W.; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Previous studies using adult observers are inconsistent with regard to social skills deficits in nonclinical socially anxious youth. The present study investigated whether same age peers perceive a lack of social skills in the socially anxious. Twenty high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) were recorded giving a 5-min…
Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective Examined the effect of perceived child anxiety status on parental latency to intervene with anxious and non-anxious youth. Method Parents (68) of anxiety-disordered (PAD) and non-anxiety-disordered (56: PNAD) children participated. Participants listened and responded to an audio vignette of a parent-child interaction: half were told the child was anxious and half were given a neutral description. Participants completed measures of anxiety and emotional responding before and after the audio vignette, and signaled when the mother on the vignette should accommodate the child. Results Whereas PNAD responded significantly faster when provided with neutral information about the child than when told the child was anxious, PAD did not differ in response latency. However, PAD exhibited a significant increase in state anxiety and negative affect and a decrease in positive affect after the vignette, whereas PNAD did not. Conclusions Results suggest that PNAD are more flexible and adaptable in their parenting behavior than PAD and that the greater anxiety and emotional lability of PAD may influence their parenting. Suggestions for research are discussed. PMID:22309473
Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg
Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.
Kliegl, Katrin M; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Dürr, Lea; Traue, Harald C; Huckauf, Anke
The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009) reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model's gaze was oriented toward the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry, and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance, and an evolutionary context.
Katrin Martina Kliegl
Full Text Available The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009 reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented towards the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance and an evolutionary context.
Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.
Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl
but the presented work has a new approach to the field by basing itself on the idea of developing a network into which a photo-active polymer is mixed and which function as an adhesive. Upon irradiation with UV-light for a short time a non-adhering inter-penetrating network material would be formed. Two simple......The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...... of the adhesive. This is also known from skin adhesives where it is very undesirable to cause damage to the skin. The overall idea of this project was to resolve this problem by developing a material which could switch between an adhesive and a non-adhesive state. Switchable adhesion is known in the literature...
Dong, Yunying; De Beuckelaer, Alain; Yu, Liang; Zhou, Renlai
Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high test-anxious (HTA) and 22 low test-anxious (LTA) subjects. To determine whether attentional bias to test-related pictures is due to test-anxiety and not to state-anxiety, we also included a third group of 22 subjects with high state-anxiety but low test-anxiety (HSA). The subjects completed a free viewing task (FVT) in which high threat-neutral (HT-N) and low threat-neutral (LT-N) picture pairs were presented for 3 s. The results demonstrated that: (1) HTA subjects showed initial orienting to LT pictures, early attentional engagement with HT pictures later on and avoidance of HT pictures at the very end; (2) LTA subjects showed initial orienting to HT pictures and maintenance of attention on them later on; while (3) HSA subjects showed an initial orientation towards LT pictures and maintenance of attention on LT and HT pictures later on. These results suggest that, (high) test-anxiety is also prone to attentional bias towards test-related threat stimuli. Implications for future research are discussed.
Levens, Sara M.; Gotlib, Ian H.
Difficulties in the ability to update stimuli in working memory (WM) may underlie the problems with regulating emotions that lead to the development and perpetuation of mood disorders such as depression. To examine the ability to update affective material in WM, diagnosed depressed and never-disordered controls performed an emotion 2-back task in which they were presented with a series of happy, sad, and neutral faces and were asked to indicate whether the current face had the same (match-set...
Teetsel, Rebekah N.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly L.
The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers’ parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6–12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children’s dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers’ parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528
Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Westenberg, P Michiel
Previous studies using adult observers are inconsistent with regard to social skills deficits in nonclinical socially anxious youth. The present study investigated whether same age peers perceive a lack of social skills in the socially anxious. Twenty high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) were recorded giving a 5-min speech. Unfamiliar peer observers (12-17 years old) viewed the speech samples and rated four social skills: speech content, facial expressions, posture and body movement, and way of speaking. Peer observers perceived high socially anxious adolescents as significantly poorer than low socially anxious adolescents on all four social skills. Moreover, for all skills except facial expressions, group differences could not be attributed to adolescents' self-reported level of depression. We suggest that therapists take the perceptions of same age peers into account when assessing the social skills of socially anxious youth.
Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Bremmer, Frank
Interaction with the outside world requires the knowledge about where objects are with respect to one's own body. Such spatial information is represented in various topographic maps in different sensory systems. From a computational point of view, however, a single, modality-invariant map of the incoming sensory signals appears to be a more efficient strategy for spatial representations. If such a single supra-modal map existed and were used for perceptual purposes, localization characteristics should be similar across modalities. Previous studies had shown mislocalization of brief visual stimuli presented in the temporal vicinity of saccadic eye-movements. Here, we tested, if such mislocalizations could also be found for auditory stimuli. We presented brief noise bursts before, during, and after visually guided saccades. Indeed, we found localization errors for these auditory stimuli. The spatio-temporal pattern of this mislocalization, however, clearly differed from the one found for visual stimuli. The spatial error also depended on the exact type of eye-movement (visually guided vs. memory guided saccades). Finally, results obtained in fixational control paradigms under different conditions suggest that auditory localization can be strongly influenced by both static and dynamic visual stimuli. Visual localization on the other hand is not influenced by distracting visual stimuli but can be inaccurate in the temporal vicinity of eye-movements. Taken together, our results argue against a single, modality-independent spatial representation of sensory signals.
Sonya Violet Troller-Renfree
Full Text Available Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, highly socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.
Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.
Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,
Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, Carsten N; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias
According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Krebs, Ruth M.; Boehler, Carsten N.; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias
According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory. PMID:24108799
Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura
There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…
Eden, Annuschka S.; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian
Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at 4-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit) memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons. PMID:26347689
Annuschka Salima Eden
Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.
Ringer, Jamie M; Buchanan, Erin E; Olesek, Kyle; Lysaker, Paul H
Having an insecure attachment style in schizophrenia has been linked to treatment response and symptom severity in schizophrenia. This study sought to further examine whether attachment style is related to subjective indicators of recovery including hope and self-esteem, independent of symptom level and secondly, whether attachment style in schizophrenia differs from attachment style of persons facing adversity in the form of a prolonged non-psychiatric medical illness. Participants were 52 men with schizophrenia, and 26 with HIV/AIDS who had no history of experiencing severe mental illness. These groups were compared in terms of their endorsement of attachment style. All participants were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of adult attachment style. The schizophrenia group was also given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to assess self-esteem, the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a measure of hope, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, as an assessment of symptoms. Avoidant attachment in the schizophrenia group was linked with higher levels of hopelessness while anxious attachment was linked to lower levels of self-esteem. The association between anxious attachment and self-esteem persisted after controlling for severity of positive, negative, and depressive symptoms in a stepwise multiple regression analyses. Compared to the HIV/AIDS group, participants with schizophrenia had significantly higher levels of anxious attachment but not avoidant attachment style. Attachment style may impact attainment of key subjective domains of recovery in schizophrenia such as self-esteem, independent of symptom severity. If self-esteem and/or hopelessness are identified as a focus of treatment, focusing on attachment style may be an important treatment component. Therapist understanding of patients' attachment style may allow for a better understanding of resistance in the therapeutic relationship. Helping persons with schizophrenia to recognize and
Kessler, R.C.; Sampson, N.A.; Berglund, P.; Gruber, M.J.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Andrade, L.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Karam, E.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E. Medina; Moskalewicz, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Oakley Browne, Mark A.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Slade, T.; ten Have, M.; Torres, Y.; Vilagut, G.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Shahly, V.; Wilcox, M.A.
AIMS To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74,045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS 45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range [IQR] across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier age-of-onset of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same age-of-onset of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4% vs. 46.0%; χ21=187.0, p<.001) and suicide ideation (19.5% vs. 8.9%; χ21=71.6, p<.001). Significantly more respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD received treatment for their depression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high income countries (68.8% vs. 45.4%; χ21=108.8, p<.001) than low/middle income countries (30.3% vs. 20.6%; χ21=11.7, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people
Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M; Cone, John M; Hendrickson, David L
We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker's face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods.
Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Tone, Erin B.; Jenness, Jessica; Parrish, Jessica M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.
Peer rejection powerfully predicts adolescent anxiety. While cognitive differences influence anxious responses to social feedback, little is known about neural contributions. Twelve anxious and twelve age-, gender- and IQ-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents received "not interested" and "interested" feedback from unknown peers during a…
van der Veen, D.C.; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C
BACKGROUND: Anxiety in depression is challenging as it results in more functional impairment and a worse prognosis. No consensus exists on the definition of anxious depression. METHODS: In 359 older patients with major depressive disorder, we examined the agreement between anxious depression based
van der Veen, D.C.; Comijs, H.C.; van Zelst, W.H.; Schoevers, R.A.; Voshaar, R.C.O.
Background Anxiety in depression is challenging as it results in more functional impairment and a worse prognosis. No consensus exists on the definition of anxious depression. Methods In 359 older patients with major depressive disorder, we examined the agreement between anxious depression based on
Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Bartels, Meike; van der Aa, Niels; Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Objective: To explain the differential course of anxiety and depression in individuals from childhood to adulthood by examining age-related changes in the genetic and environmental etiology of anxious and depressive symptoms. Method: A sample of 1470, 1839, and 2023 Dutch twins aged 12, 14, and 16 years reported on symptoms of anxious depression…
Murray, Lynne; Lau, Pui Yi; Arteche, Adriane; Creswell, Cathy; Russ, Stephanie; Zoppa, Letizia Della; Muggeo, Michela; Stein, Alan; Cooper, Peter
Background: There has been increasing research interest in parenting by anxious adults; however, little is known about anxiety-subtype effects, or effects of the context in which parenting is assessed. Methods: Two groups of anxious mothers, social phobia (N = 50), generalised anxiety disorder (N = 38), and nonanxious controls (N = 62) were…
Hughes, Kathleen; Coplan, Robert J.
The goal of the current study was to examine the complex links among anxious solitude, classroom climate, engagement, achievement, and gender. In particular, drawing upon the differential susceptibility hypothesis (Belsky, 1997), we investigated if children high in anxious solitude were particularly sensitive and responsive to the classroom…
Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher
Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...
Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana
Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it.
Goldberg, David P.; Reed, Geoffrey M.; Robles, Rebeca
Background In this field study of WHO's revised classification of mental disorders for primary care settings, the ICD-11 PHC, we tested the usefulness of two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression to be administered in primary care settings. Methods The study was conducted in primary...... for proposed decision rules in ICD-11 PHC, were administered to 1488 participants. Results A score of 3 or more on one or both screening scale predicted 89.6% of above-threshold mood or anxiety disorder diagnoses on the CIS-R. Anxious depression was the most common CIS-R diagnosis among referred patients...... in primary care settings. Conclusions The two five-item screening scales for anxiety and depression provide a practical way for PCPs to evaluate the likelihood of mood and anxiety disorders without paper and pencil measures that are not feasible in many settings. These scales may provide substantially...
Núñez-Peña, M Isabel; Tubau, Elisabet; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena
The aim of the study was to investigate how high math-anxious (HMA) individuals react to errors in an arithmetic task. Twenty HMA and 19 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a multi-digit addition verification task and were given response feedback. Post-error adjustment measures (response time and accuracy) were analyzed in order to study differences between groups when faced with errors in an arithmetical task. Results showed that both HMA and LMA individuals were slower to respond following an error than following a correct answer. However, post-error accuracy effects emerged only for the HMA group, showing that they were also less accurate after having committed an error than after giving the right answer. Importantly, these differences were observed only when individuals needed to repeat the same response given in the previous trial. These results suggest that, for HMA individuals, errors caused reactive inhibition of the erroneous response, facilitating performance if the next problem required the alternative response but hampering it if the response was the same. This stronger reaction to errors could be a factor contributing to the difficulties that HMA individuals experience in learning math and doing math tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Marie-France Leblanc,1 Sophie Desjardins,1 Alain Desgagné2 1Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, 2Department of Mathematics, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the sleep problems most often encountered by the elderly according to the presence or absence of anxiety and mood disorders. The aim was also to determine whether groups of anxious, depressive, and asymptomatic individuals differ in relation to sleep onset latency; awakenings at night or early in the morning; subjective quality of sleep; taking of sleep medication; and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Structured interviews based on the DSM-IV-TR were administered to a sample of 2,759 seniors aged 65 years and older at the participants’ home by health professionals. Results: Awakening was found to be the most common disturbance. Increased sleep onset latency was the second most frequent sleep difficulty. Taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep was associated with the likelihood of meeting the diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, and even reduced the risk of meeting the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder rather than an anxiety disorder. Awakenings were associated with the probability of suffering from an anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. Quality of sleep, as perceived by the elderly, was not found to be associated with the probability of suffering from a mental disorder. Conclusion: These findings should help to facilitate the practitioner’s diagnosis and add further nuances to be considered when encountering symptoms of an anxious or depressive appearance. All of these data also add fuel to the ongoing debate about whether anxiety and depression are one or two distinct categories of disorders. Keywords: anxiety, awakenings, daytime sleepiness, depression, elderly, quality of sleep, sleep medication, sleep onset latency
Lewis Brooks, Anthony
of such issues as outlined in my opening statement. I suggest that successful design of the future will take much more into account the neural stimuli & potential subliminal synesthesia design aspects as an integrated element of the envisioned Virtual Interactive Space. Keywords: remarkable reductive retraction...
This paper, presented at the Occupational Stress Conference of the Center for Occupational Mental Health, Sept. 22, 1972, discusses the possibility of a relationship between psychosocial stimuli and stress-related disease. Using Selye's understanding of stress, the author views it in relation to non-specific diseases and suggests hypotheses…
Wu, Rachel; Nako, Rebecca; Band, Jared; Pizzuto, Jacquelyne; Ghoreishi, Yalda; Scerif, Gaia; Aslin, Richard
Visual experiences increase our ability to discriminate environmentally relevant stimuli (native stimuli, e.g., human faces) at the cost of a reduced sensitivity to irrelevant or infrequent stimuli (non-native stimuli, e.g., monkey/ape faces)-a developmental progression known as perceptual narrowing. One possible source of the reduced sensitivity in distinguishing non-native stimuli (e.g., one ape face vs. another ape face) could be underspecified attentional search templates (i.e., working memory representations). To determine whether perceptual narrowing stems from underspecified attentional templates for non-native exemplars, this study used ERP (the N2pc component) and behavioral measures in a visual search task, where the target was either an exemplar (e.g., a specific ape face) or a category (e.g., any ape face). The N2pc component, an ERP marker of early attentional selection emerging at 200 msec poststimulus, is typically modulated by the specificity of the target and, therefore, by the attentional template-the N2pc is larger for specific items versus categories. In two experiments using both human and ape faces (i.e., native and non-native stimuli), we found that perceptual narrowing affects later response selection (i.e., manual RT and accuracy), but not early attentional selection relying on attentional templates (i.e., the N2pc component). Our ERP results show that adults deploy exemplar level attentional templates for non-native stimuli (as well as native stimuli), despite poor downstream behavioral performance. Our findings suggest that long-term previous experience with reduced exemplar level judgments (i.e., perceptual narrowing) does not appear to eliminate early attentional selection of non-native exemplars.
Charpentier, Caroline J; Hindocha, Chandni; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J
Pathological anxiety is associated with disrupted cognitive processing, including working memory and decision-making. In healthy individuals, experimentally-induced state anxiety or high trait anxiety often results in the deployment of adaptive harm-avoidant behaviours. However, how these processes affect cognition is largely unknown. To investigate this question, we implemented a translational within-subjects anxiety induction, threat of shock, in healthy participants reporting a wide range of trait anxiety scores. Participants completed a gambling task, embedded within an emotional working memory task, with some blocks under unpredictable threat and others safe from shock. Relative to the safe condition, threat of shock improved recall of threat-congruent (fearful) face location, especially in highly trait anxious participants. This suggests that threat boosts working memory for mood-congruent stimuli in vulnerable individuals, mirroring memory biases in clinical anxiety. By contrast, Bayesian analysis indicated that gambling decisions were better explained by models that did not include threat or treat anxiety, suggesting that: (i) higher-level executive functions are robust to these anxiety manipulations; and (ii) decreased risk-taking may be specific to pathological anxiety. These findings provide insight into the complex interactions between trait anxiety, acute state anxiety and cognition, and may help understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying adaptive anxiety.
Navit, Saumya; Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana
Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham's Picture Test (VPT), Venham's Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group. The conclusion derived from the present study was that audio distraction
Gobbini, Maria Ida; Gors, Jason D.; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Rogers, Courtney; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Hughes, Howard; Cipolli, Carlo
We investigated whether personally familiar faces are preferentially processed in conditions of reduced attentional resources and in the absence of conscious awareness. In the first experiment, we used Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) to test the susceptibility of familiar faces and faces of strangers to the attentional blink. In the second experiment, we used continuous flash interocular suppression to render stimuli invisible and measured face detection time for personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. In both experiments we found an advantage for detection of personally familiar faces as compared to faces of strangers. Our data suggest that the identity of faces is processed with reduced attentional resources and even in the absence of awareness. Our results show that this facilitated processing of familiar faces cannot be attributed to detection of low-level visual features and that a learned unique configuration of facial features can influence preconscious perceptual processing. PMID:23805248
Debruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Smith, Finlay G.; Little, Anthony C.
Women's preferences for male masculinity are highly variable. Although many researchers explain this variability as reflecting systematic individual differences in how women resolve the tradeoff between the costs and benefits of choosing a masculine partner, others suggest that methodological differences between studies are responsible. A recent…
Scott, Brandon G; Pina, Armando A; Parker, Julia H
Guided by social information processing and affective social competence models, the focal objective of this research was to examine the relations among anxious children's cognitive distortions, social skill competence, and reluctance to express emotion. In addition, we explored whether children's attention control played any meaningful role. Using a sample of 111 anxious children (M age = 9.63, SD = 0.73; 75.7% girls; 56% Hispanic/Latino), we found that cognitive distortions were negatively related to social competence. In addition, tests of moderated mediation showed that the negative association between cognitive distortions and social skill competence was indirect via reluctance to express emotion, but this only was the case for anxious children with high attention control and for distortions in the academic domain. The findings of this study may set the stage for new ways to conceptualize the role of higher attention control among anxious youth. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive errors are prevalent in anxious youth Anxious children show socio-emotion deficits What does this study add? Cognitive errors are related to socio-emotion deficits in anxious youth Relations depend on attention control. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
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Wang, Wei; Miao, Danmin; Zhao, Lun
Faces are socially very important visual objects and the detection of a change in faces is an essential evolutionary skill. To investigate whether configural computation of faces automatically occurs under non-attentional condition, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90° vs. 0°) of faces was analyzed using the equi-probable paradigm which eliminated the low-level refractory effects. Fourteen participants were tested and schematic face stimuli were used. In comparison with control face stimuli, the deviant orientation of faces elicited larger N170 and smaller P2. During the time range between 100-300 ms post stimulus onset, face orientation changes elicited occipital-temporal distributed vMMN. The source analysis of face-MMN showed that it was generated in both temporal and frontal lobes. These data supported the hypotheses that the disruption of facial configuration processing caused by inverted faces is relatively independent of attentional resources.
Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Bernard Marius 't Hart
Full Text Available The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces", false positives ("illusory faces" and correctly rejected locations ("non faces". Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.
Lindauer, M S
Physiognomic color responses in perception, imagery, and affect were investigated. Maluma and taketa, nonsense stimuli defined by many investigators as physiognomic, were utilized as prototypical physiognomic stimuli, along with eight other stimuli of various sorts. In Experiment 1, 22 subjects matched the colors of the stimuli; in Experiment 2, 27 subjects reported their imagery to the stimuli; and in Experiment 3, 16 subjects gave their color preferences for the stimuli. The Munsell sets of colors were employed throughout. Significant differences between the physiognomic and other stimuli were found on the brightness and saturation of color matches, images, and preferences. Other differences (e.g., the latency of color images) were also present. Distinctions were also noted between the two physiognomic stimuli. These results support the priority of innate and perceptual processes in physiognomy over those of learning and memory, although some ambiguities still remain.
Feusner, Jamie D; Moller, Hayley; Altstein, Lily; Sugar, Catherine; Bookheimer, Susan; Yoon, Joanne; Hembacher, Emily
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are preoccupied with perceived defects in appearance. Preliminary evidence suggests abnormalities in global and local visual information processing. The objective of this study was to compare global and local processing in BDD subjects and healthy controls by testing the face inversion effect, in which inverted (upside-down) faces are recognized more slowly and less accurately relative to upright faces. Eighteen medication-free subjects with BDD and 17 matched, healthy controls performed a recognition task with sets of upright and inverted faces on a computer screen that were either presented for short duration (500 ms) or long duration (5000 ms). Response time and accuracy rates were analyzed using linear and logistic mixed effects models, respectively. Results indicated that the inversion effect for response time was smaller in BDD subjects than controls during the long duration stimuli, but was not significantly different during the short duration stimuli. Inversion effect on accuracy rates did not differ significantly between groups during either of the two durations. Lesser inversion effect in BDD subjects may be due to greater detail-oriented and piecemeal processing for long duration stimuli. Similar results between groups for short duration stimuli suggest that they may be normally engaging configural and holistic processing for brief presentations. Abnormal visual information processing in BDD may contribute to distorted perception of appearance; this may not be limited to their own faces, but to others' faces as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova
perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...... unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients...... performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...
Jessica L Montoya
Full Text Available Infant cries and facial expressions influence social interactions and elicit caretaking behaviors from adults. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that neural responses to infant stimuli involve brain regions that process rewards. However, these studies have yet to investigate individual differences in tendencies to engage or withdraw from motivationally relevant stimuli. To investigate this, we used event-related fMRI to scan 17 nulliparous women. Participants were presented with novel infant cries of two distress levels (low and high and unknown infant faces of varying affect (happy, sad, and neutral in a randomized, counter-balanced order. Brain activation was subsequently correlated with scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale. Infant cries activated bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri (STG and MTG and precentral and postcentral gyri. Activation was greater in bilateral temporal cortices for low- relative to high-distress cries. Happy relative to neutral faces activated the ventral striatum, caudate, ventromedial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices. Sad versus neutral faces activated the precuneus, cuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex, and behavioral activation drive correlated with occipital cortical activations in this contrast. Behavioral inhibition correlated with activation in the right STG for high- and low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Behavioral drive correlated inversely with putamen, caudate, and thalamic activations for the comparison of high-distress cries to pink noise. Reward-responsiveness correlated with activation in the left precentral gyrus during the perception of low-distress cries relative to pink noise. Our findings indicate that infant cry stimuli elicit activations in areas implicated in auditory processing and social cognition. Happy infant faces may be encoded as rewarding, whereas sad faces activate regions associated with empathic processing. Differences
Ginsburg, Golda S.; Grover, Rachel L.; Cord, Jennalee J.; Ialongo, Nick
This study examined the relation between type of parent–child interaction task and parenting behaviors among a predominantly African American community-based sample. Twenty-five anxious and matched nonanxious (N = 50) mothers were videotaped with their children (Mage = 5.8 years) engaging in both a structured and unstructured task. Blind raters coded 3 parent behaviors hypothesized to play a role in the development of child anxiety: overcontrol, anxious behavior, and criticism. Results indicated that higher levels of overcontrol, anxious behavior, and criticism were found in the structured compared to unstructured task. Levels of criticism, among anxious mothers only, were significantly correlated across tasks. Results suggest that situation specific aspects of parent–child interaction tasks may influence parenting behaviors. These findings help explain variations in observational research in the anxiety literature and highlight the need for careful selection ofparent–child tasks in future research. PMID:16597228
Gazelle, Heidi; Putallaz, Martha; Li, Yan; Grimes, Christina L; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Coie, John D
Cross-situational continuity and change in anxious solitary girls' behavior and peer relations were examined in interactions with familiar versus unfamiliar playmates. Fourth-grade girls (N=209, M age=9.77 years, half African American, half European American) were identified as anxious solitary or behaviorally normative using observed and teacher-reported behavior among classmates. Subsequently, girls participated in 1-hr play groups containing 5 same-race familiar or unfamiliar girls for 5 consecutive days. Results support both cross-situational continuity and change in anxious solitary girls' behavior and peer relations. Although anxious solitary girls exhibited difficulty interacting with both familiar and unfamiliar playmates relative to behaviorally normative girls, elements of their behavior improved in unfamiliar play groups, a context in which they received less peer mistreatment.
Dalili, Michael N; Schofield-Toloza, Lawrence; Munafò, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S
Many cognitive bias modification (CBM) tasks use facial expressions of emotion as stimuli. Some tasks use unique facial stimuli, while others use composite stimuli, given evidence that emotion is encoded prototypically. However, CBM using composite stimuli may be identity- or emotion-specific, and may not generalise to other stimuli. We investigated the generalisability of effects using composite faces in two experiments. Healthy adults in each study were randomised to one of four training conditions: two stimulus-congruent conditions, where same faces were used during all phases of the task, and two stimulus-incongruent conditions, where faces of the opposite sex (Experiment 1) or faces depicting another emotion (Experiment 2) were used after the modification phase. Our results suggested that training effects generalised across identities. However, our results indicated only partial generalisation across emotions. These findings suggest effects obtained using composite stimuli may extend beyond the stimuli used in the task but remain emotion-specific.
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Kenett, Yoed N; Anaki, David; Faust, Miriam
In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks-Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition-and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field (SVF) paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere (RH), unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere (LH). In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized LH was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.
Yoed Nissan Kenett
Full Text Available In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks – Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition – and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere, unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere. In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized left hemisphere was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.
Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark
Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…
Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon
Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599
Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang
Current knowledge about face processing in infancy comes largely from studies using static face stimuli, but faces that infants see in the real world are mostly moving ones. To bridge this gap, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Asian infants (N = 118) were familiarized with either moving or static Asian female faces, and then their face recognition was…
Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Lou, Hans C; Joensson, Morten; Hyam, Jonathan A; Holland, Peter; Parsons, Christine E; Young, Katherine S; Møller, Arne; Stein, Alan; Green, Alex L; Kringelbach, Morten L; Aziz, Tipu Z
Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative) and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms) we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold) processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously) seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms) in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human ACC.
Kristine Rømer Thomsen
Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human
Broeren, Suzanne; Lester, Kathryn J
Attentional biases are most often framed in a threat relevance framework. Alternatively, it could be that not only threat-related stimuli draw attention but also that preferential attention is drawn to all stimuli that have relevance for an individual. We investigated this stimulus relevance theory in primary school-age children by means of a visual search task. As predicted, children displayed attentional biases toward evolutionary and modern threat-related stimuli, such as spiders and guns, but also toward other relevant, positive stimuli (i.e., cakes, gifts, and happy faces). These results suggest that attentional biases are not specific to threat, but seem to apply to all relevant stimuli, both positive and negative in valence, providing first evidence for the stimulus relevance theory of preferential attention in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
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Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...
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Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni
Affective temperaments have been so far understudied in anorexia nervosa (AN) despite the relevance of personality and both affective and anxious comorbidity with regard to vulnerability, course, and outcome of this deadly disorder. Ninety-eight female inpatients diagnosed with AN and 131 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study and completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in addition to assessments of eating psychopathology, depression, and anxiety. AN patients and HCs differed in all affective temperaments. The diagnostic subtypes of AN differed as well with binge-purging individuals being more cyclothymic and anxious than those with restricting-type AN. TEMPS-A scores correlated with body mass index and eating psychopathology but not with duration of illness. Concerning comorbidity, grater scores on the depressive and lower scores on the hyperthymic temperaments were found in depressed patients. Those who had either an anxious or irritable temperament were significantly more diagnosed with an anxious disorder than those who did not show this temperament. When logistic regression was performed, high depressive/low hyperthymic and high irritable/anxious traits resulted to be associated with depressive and anxious comorbidity, respectively, independently of confounding factors. Cross-sectional design, some patients on medications, few baseline clinical differences between diagnostic subtypes, no other personality assessments. An affective continuum strongly associated with mood and anxious comorbidity emerged in AN. Such an evaluation could have several research and clinical implications given the need of improving treatment individualization and early interventions for such a complex disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pan, Xueni; Gillies, Marco; Barker, Chris; Clark, David M.; Slater, Mel
Background Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men. Methodology The scenario was a party with five virtual characters, four sitting at a distance from the participant and talking amongst themselves and one lone woman standing closer. The woman approached the participant, introduced herself and initiated a conversation that was first about mundane matters and then became more personal and intimate. Participants were men who were either relatively socially confident (18) or socially anxious in their relationships with women (18). A second experimental factor was whether or not the other four characters occasionally looked towards the participant. There was a post-trial questionnaire about social anxiety in relation to the experience, and skin conductance and ECG physiological measures were recorded. Our expectation was that the socially anxious participants would show greater anxiety throughout. Conclusions Compared to baseline readings both socially confident and socially anxious groups on average showed signs of significantly increased stress at the initial approach of the virtual woman. The stress then diminished once the conversation entered into the mundane phase and then did not significantly change. Comparing pre- and post-questionnaire anxiety scores there was no change for the more confident participants but a significant decrease in average score amongst the anxious group. The methodology of placing socially anxious participants in a virtual reality where they can gain experience of how to act in a stressful situation promises
Andrew S Fox
Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men. METHODOLOGY: The scenario was a party with five virtual characters, four sitting at a distance from the participant and talking amongst themselves and one lone woman standing closer. The woman approached the participant, introduced herself and initiated a conversation that was first about mundane matters and then became more personal and intimate. Participants were men who were either relatively socially confident (18 or socially anxious in their relationships with women (18. A second experimental factor was whether or not the other four characters occasionally looked towards the participant. There was a post-trial questionnaire about social anxiety in relation to the experience, and skin conductance and ECG physiological measures were recorded. Our expectation was that the socially anxious participants would show greater anxiety throughout. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to baseline readings both socially confident and socially anxious groups on average showed signs of significantly increased stress at the initial approach of the virtual woman. The stress then diminished once the conversation entered into the mundane phase and then did not significantly change. Comparing pre- and post-questionnaire anxiety scores there was no change for the more confident participants but a significant decrease in average score amongst the anxious group. The methodology of placing socially anxious participants in a virtual reality where they can gain experience of how to act in a
Full Text Available Face identity and facial expression are processed in two distinct neural pathways. However, most of the existing face adaptation literature studies them separately, despite the fact that they are two aspects from the same face. The current study conducted a systematic comparison between these two aspects by face adaptation, investigating how top- and bottom-half face parts contribute to the processing of face identity and facial expression. A real face (sad, “Adam” and its two size-equivalent face parts (top- and bottom-half were used as the adaptor in separate conditions. For face identity adaptation, the test stimuli were generated by morphing Adam's sad face with another person's sad face (“Sam”. For facial expression adaptation, the test stimuli were created by morphing Adam's sad face with his neutral face and morphing the neutral face with his happy face. In each trial, after exposure to the adaptor, observers indicated the perceived face identity or facial expression of the following test face via a key press. They were also tested in a baseline condition without adaptation. Results show that the top- and bottom-half face each generated a significant face identity aftereffect. However, the aftereffect by top-half face adaptation is much larger than that by the bottom-half face. On the contrary, only the bottom-half face generated a significant facial expression aftereffect. This dissociation of top- and bottom-half face adaptation suggests that face parts play different roles in face identity and facial expression. It thus provides further evidence for the distributed systems of face perception.
Jeniffer Ortega Marín
Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.
Bernstein, G A; Warren, S L; Massie, E D; Thuras, P D
The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale II (FACES II) was administered to 46 adolescents with comorbid anxiety and major depressive disorders and to their parents in a treatment study of school refusal. FACES II measures cohesion and adaptability dimensions, as well as family type (balanced to extreme). Generally, adolescents and parents reported low cohesion (i.e.. disengagement) and low adaptability (i.e.. rigidity) on FACES II. Adolescents and parents described their ideal families as significantly less disengaged and less rigid than their own families. Fifty percent of adolescents, 38% of fathers, and 24% of mothers classified their families as the extreme type. Adolescents in extreme families, when compared with adolescents in more balanced families, reported significantly higher scores on two of three depression instruments and on a measure of somatic symptoms. Family therapy to improve cohesion and adaptability and treatments focused on improving depression and somatic symptoms may improve family functioning and decrease the severity and course of school refusal.
Isik, Berrin; Baygin, Ozgül; Bodur, Haluk
) sedation of anxious children.
Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Spicuzza, L; Sleight, P
Respiration is a powerful modulator of heart rate variability, and of baro- or chemo-reflex sensitivity. This occurs via a mechanical effect of breathing that synchronizes all cardiovascular variables at the respiratory rhythm, particularly when this occurs at a particular slow rate coincident with the Mayer waves in arterial pressure (approximately 6 cycles/min). Recitation of the rosary prayer (or of most mantras), induces a marked enhancement of these slow rhythms, whereas random verbalization or random breathing does not. This phenomenon in turn increases baroreflex sensitivity and reduces chemoreflex sensitivity, leading to increases in parasympathetic and reductions in sympathetic activity. The opposite can be seen during either verbalization or mental stress tests. Qualitatively similar effects can be obtained even by passive listening to more or less rhythmic auditory stimuli, such as music, and the speed of the rhythm (rather than the style) appears to be one of the main determinants of the cardiovascular and respiratory responses. These findings have clinical relevance. Appropriate modulation of breathing, can improve/restore autonomic control of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in relevant diseases such as hypertension and heart failure, and might therefore help improving exercise tolerance, quality of life, and ultimately, survival.
Full Text Available Depressive and anxious symptoms have a clear impact on the functioning of people. Their appearance seems to be related to the presence of deficits in metacognitive capacities. Mindfulness interventions increase metacognitive awareness through their effect in the decentering capacity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mindfulness and decentering with anxious and depressive symptomatology respectively. The sample consisted of 465 participants contacted through universities and social networks. Results revealed that both mindfulness and the ability to decenter explain the presence of depressive symptoms while only mindfulness explains the presence of anxiety symptoms. These results are encouraging for intervention in mindfulness with anxious and depressive symptoms and stress the importance of metacognitive processes such as decentering in their development.
Schaefer, Stacey M; Lapate, Regina C; Schoen, Andrew J; Gresham, Lauren K; Mumford, Jeanette A; Davidson, Richard J
Abstract Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral and positive pictures presented 2 s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs positive) pictures in the amygdala, dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral visual cortices, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and angular gyrus. Three days after the magnetic resonance imaging scan, participants rated their memory and liking of previously encountered neutral faces. Individuals higher in trait positive affect and emotional reappraisal rated faces as more likable when preceded by emotionally arousing (negative or positive) pictures. In addition, greater amygdala responses to neutral faces preceded by positively valenced pictures were associated with greater memory for these faces 3 days later. Collectively, these results reveal individual differences in how emotions spill over onto the processing of unrelated social stimuli, resulting in persistent and affectively biased evaluations of such stimuli. PMID:29447377
Full Text Available Oxytocin has been shown to promote a host of social behaviors in humans but the exact mechanisms by which it exerts its effects are unspecified. One prominent theory suggests that oxytocin increases approach and decreases avoidance to social stimuli. Another dominant theory posits that oxytocin increases the salience of social stimuli. Herein, we report a direct test of these hypotheses. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined approach-avoidance motor responses to social and non-social emotional stimuli. One hundred and twenty participants self-administered either 24 IU oxytocin or placebo and moved a lever toward or away from pictures of faces depicting emotional expressions or from natural scenes appearing before them on a computer screen. Lever movements toward stimuli decreased and movements away increased stimuli size producing the illusion that stimuli moved away from or approached participants. Reaction time data were recorded. The task produced the effects that were anticipated on the basis of the approach-avoidance literature in relation to emotional stimuli, yet the anticipated speeded approach and slowed avoidance responses to emotional faces by the oxytocin group were not observed. Interestingly, the oxytocin treatment group was faster to approach and avoid faces depicting disgust relative to the placebo group, suggesting a salience of disgust for the former group. Results also showed that within the oxytocin group women's reaction times to all emotional faces were faster than those of men, suggesting sex specific effects of oxytocin. The present findings provide the first direct evidence that intranasal oxytocin administration does not enhance approach/avoidance to social stimuli and does not exert a stronger effect on social vs. non-social stimuli in the context of processing of emotional expressions and scenes. Instead, our data suggest that oxytocin administration increases the salience of certain social stimuli
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada.......Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....
Stewart, Lorna H; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint
It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and that they are likely to be interpretations arising from interactions between the face stimuli and observer-specific traits. Monocularly viewed faces that varied independently along two social dimensions of trust and dominance were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression (CFS) when a flashing pattern was presented to the other eye. Participants pressed a button as soon as they saw the face emerge from suppression to indicate whether the previously hidden face was located slightly to the left or right of central fixation. Dominant and untrustworthy faces took significantly longer time to emerge (T2E) compared with neutral faces. A control experiment showed these findings could not reflect delayed motor responses to conscious faces. Finally, we showed that participants' self-reported propensity to trust was strongly predictive of untrust avoidance (i.e., difference in T2E for untrustworthy vs neutral faces) as well as dominance avoidance (i.e., difference in T2E for dominant vs neutral faces). Dominance avoidance was also correlated with submissive behavior. We suggest that such prolongation of suppression for threatening faces may result from a passive fear response, leading to slowed visual perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Santos, Andreia; Rosset, Delphine; Deruelle, Christine
Increased motivation towards social stimuli in Williams syndrome (WS) led us to hypothesize that a face's human status would have greater impact than face's orientation on WS' face processing abilities. Twenty-nine individuals with WS were asked to categorize facial emotion expressions in real, human cartoon and non-human cartoon faces presented…
Miers, A.C.; Blöte, A.W.; Sumter, S.R.; Kallen, V.L.; Westenberg, P.M.
Previous research found weak correspondence between subjective and objective arousal measures during social-evaluative tasks, particularly in high socially anxious individuals. This study evaluated subjective-objective correspondence in high versus low socially anxious youth (9-17 years). Sixty-six
Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Shiner, Rebecca L.
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1
Prinzie, P.; van Harten, L.V.; Deković, M.; van den Akker, A.L.; Shiner, R.L.
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1
Prinzie, P.; Harten, L. van; Deković, M.; Akker, A.L. van den; Shiner, R.L.
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9–15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1
Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard
This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of…
McNamara, Patrick; Auerbach, Sanford; Johnson, Patricia; Harris, Erica; Doros, Gheorghe
We tested the hypothesis that REM sleep contributes to core features of cognitive dysfunction of anxious depression including negative self-appraisals, biased memory processing and unpleasant dream content. After a habituation night in a sleep lab, a convenience sample of 35 healthy college students and 20 depressed/anxious students were awakened 10 min into a REM sleep episode and then 10 min into a NREM sleep episode. Awakenings were counterbalanced to control circadian effects. After each awakening participants reported a dream and then completed memory recall, mood and self-appraisal tasks. Self-appraisals of depressed/anxious participants were significantly less positive and significantly more negative after awakenings from REM sleep vs NREM sleep. Appraisal of the REM sleep dream self was negative for depressed/anxious subjects only. Recall of negative memories was significantly more frequent after REM vs NREM sleep awakenings for both depress/anxious and healthy participants. REM sleep dreams were associated with greater frequencies of negative emotion, greater aggression and victimization rates than dreams in NREM sleep for depressed/anxious participants. Depressed/anxious participants were classified as such on the basis of mood scales rather than clinical interview. All participants were drawn from a volunteer college student population and thus our results may not be applicable to some elderly clinical populations. REM appears to facilitate cognitive distortions of anxious depression. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle; Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea
This study examined the distinctiveness of and the correlates associated with anxious-withdrawal and unsociability during early adolescence in Finland (N = 384; 12-14 years; 53% girls). As expected, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal and unsociability were distinct and moderately positively correlated constructs. Only…
The reported experiment investigated memory of unfamiliar faces and how it is influenced by race, facial expression, direction of gaze, and observers' level of social anxiety. Eighty- seven Japanese participants initially memorized images of Oriental and Caucasian faces displaying either happy or angry expressions with direct or averted gaze. They then saw the previously seen faces and additional distractor faces displaying neutral expressions, and judged if they had seen them before. Their level of social anxiety was measured with a questionnaire. Regardless of gaze or race of the faces, recognition for faces studied with happy expressions was more accurate than for those studied with angry expressions (happiness advantage), but this tendency weakened for people with higher levels of social anxiety, possibly due to their increased anxiety for positive feedback regarding social interactions. Interestingly, the reduction of the happiness advantage observed for the highly anxious participants was more prominent for the own-race faces than for the other-race faces. The results suggest that angry expression disrupts processing of identity-relevant features of the faces, but the memory for happy faces is affected by the social anxiety traits, and the magnitude of the impact may depend on the importance of the face.
Little, Anthony C; Feinberg, David R; Debruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Exposure, or adaptation, to faces or voices biases perceptions of subsequent stimuli, for example, causing faces to appear more normal than they would be otherwise if they are similar to the previously presented stimuli. Studies also suggest that there may be cross-modal adaptation between sound and vision, although the evidence is inconsistent. We examined adaptation effects within and across voices and faces and also tested whether adaptation crosses between male and female stimuli. We exposed participants to sex-typical or sex-atypical stimuli and measured the perceived normality of subsequent stimuli. Exposure to female faces or voices altered perceptions of subsequent female stimuli, and these adaptation effects crossed modality; exposure to voices influenced judgments of faces, and vice versa. We also found that exposure to female stimuli did not influence perception of subsequent male stimuli. Our data demonstrate that recent experience of faces and voices changes subsequent perception and that mental representations of faces and voices may not be modality dependent. Both unimodal and cross-modal adaptation effects appear to be relatively sex-specific.
Full Text Available The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose.
Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra
The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.
Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…
Rapee, Ronald M.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Kangas, Maria; Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of comorbid disorders on the degree of change and the endpoint of cognitive-behavioral treatment in anxious young people. Method: Data on 750 children 6 to 18 years old were compiled from different samples within one clinic. All children had a primary anxiety disorder and…
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…
Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…
van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to
Paul B. Sharp
Full Text Available Etiological explanations of clinical anxiety can be advanced through understanding the neural mechanisms associated with anxiety in youth prior to the emergence of psychopathology. In this vein, the present study sought to investigate how trait anxiety is related to features of the structural connectome in early adolescence. 40 adolescents (21 female, mean age = 13.49 years underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging scan. We hypothesized that the strength of several a priori defined structural connections would vary with anxious arousal based on previous work in human clinical neuroscience and adult rodent optogenetics. First, connection strength of caudate to rostral middle frontal gyrus was predicted to be anticorrelated with anxious arousal, predicated on extant work in clinically-diagnosed adolescents. Second, connection strength of amygdala to rostral anterior cingulate and to medial orbital frontal cortex would be positively and negatively correlated with anxious arousal, respectively, predicated on rodent optogenetics showing the former pathway is anxiogenic and the latter is anxiolytic. We also predicted that levels of anxiety would not vary with measures of global network topology, based on reported null findings. Results support that anxiety in early adolescence is associated with (1 the clinical biomarker connecting caudate to frontal cortex, and (2 the anxiogenic pathway connecting amygdala to rostral anterior cingulate, both in left but not right hemisphere. Findings support that in early adolescence, anxious arousal may be related to mechanisms that increase anxiogenesis, and not in a deficit in regulatory mechanisms that support anxiolysis.
WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA
Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the
Spangler, Tamara; Gazelle, Heidi
This study examines convergent and divergent validity for middle childhood anxious solitude, unsociability, and peer exclusion as assessed by five informants (peers, teachers, observers, the self, and parents). Participants were 163 (67 male, 96 female) third grade children (M age = 8.70 years). Parent reports were available for a subset of the…
Gazelle, Heidi; Spangler, Tamara
It was hypothesized that the relation between early anxious solitude and subsequent peer relations would be moderated by early relational (maternal sensitivity) and individual factors (child school readiness). Participants were 1364 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…
Kuijsters, A.; Redi, J.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Heynderickx, I.
The persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 minutes with the Self-Assessment Manikin (every 2 minutes) and with recordings of skin
A. Kuijsters (Andre); J.A. Redi (Judith); B. de Ruyter (Boris); I. Heynderickx (Ingrid)
textabstractThe persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 min with the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; every 2 min) and with recordings of
Samelink, E.; Wiers, R.W.
Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term,
Grant, Valerie V; Stewart, Sherry H
The effects of musically-induced positive and anxious mood on explicit alcohol-related cognitions (alcohol expectancy strength) in 47 undergraduate students who consume alcohol either to enhance positive mood states (for enhancement motives) or to cope with anxiety (for anxiety-related coping motives) were investigated. Pre- and post-mood induction, participants completed the emotional reward and emotional relief subscales of the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire - Now. The hypothesis that anxiety-related coping motivated drinkers in the anxious mood condition (but not those in the positive mood condition) would exhibit increases in strength of explicit emotional relief alcohol expectancies after the mood induction was supported. An additional, unanticipated finding was that enhancement-motivated drinkers in the anxious condition also showed significant increases in strength of explicit emotional relief (but not emotional reward) alcohol expectancies. The hypothesis that enhancement-motivated (but not anxiety-related coping motivated) participants would exhibit increases in explicit emotional reward expectancies following exposure to the positive mood induction procedure was not supported. Taken together with past research findings, the current results highlight the importance of distinguishing between subtypes of negative affect (i.e., anxious and depressed affect) in exploring the affective antecedents of explicit alcohol outcome expectancies.
Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.; Nauta, M.H.; de Haan, E.; Ringrose, J.; Appelboom, C.; Brinkman, A.G.; Appelboom-Geerts, K.C.M.M.J.
The objective of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of family cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with individual CBT in children with anxiety disorders. Clinically anxious children (aged 8—18 years) referred for treatment were randomly assigned to family or individual CBT
Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention had been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression change had been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn’t tell them apart. Especially they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP paradigm. Consequently, the performance of BCIs is reduced.New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help subjects to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs. In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s: The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems were whether dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than grey faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy subjects (7 male, aged 21-26 years, mean 24.5±1.25 participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed.Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the grey dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed
Lahaie, A; Mottron, L; Arguin, M; Berthiaume, C; Jemel, B; Saumier, D
Configural processing in autism was studied in Experiment 1 by using the face inversion effect. A normal inversion effect was observed in the participants with autism, suggesting intact configural face processing. A priming paradigm using partial or complete faces served in Experiment 2 to assess both local and configural face processing. Overall, normal priming effects were found in participants with autism, irrespective of whether the partial face primes were intuitive face parts (i.e., eyes, nose, etc.) or arbitrary segments. An exception, however, was that participants with autism showed magnified priming with single face parts relative to typically developing control participants. The present findings argue for intact configural processing in autism along with an enhanced processing for individual face parts. The face-processing peculiarities known to characterize autism are discussed on the basis of these results and past congruent results with nonsocial stimuli.
Thomas, Amy; Lawler, Kathy; Olson, Ingrid R; Aguirre, Geoffrey K
The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery (PFPB) tests four aspects of face perception: discrimination of facial similarity, attractiveness, gender, and age. Calibration with 116 neurologically intact subjects yielded average performance of ~90%. Across subjects, there was a low correlation (perception. There were modest effects of subject demographic factors upon performance, and test-retest reliability scores (between 0.37 and 0.75) were comparable to other neuropsychological batteries. Modification of the stimuli to obscure internal facial features lowered performance on the age, gender, and attractiveness discrimination tests between 2 and 4 standard deviations. The clinical sensitivity of the battery was demonstrated by testing a patient with acquired prosopagnosia. She showed performance impairments of between 2 and 4 standard deviations on all sub-tests. The PFPB is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:18082362
Lester, Kathryn J; Field, Andy P; Oliver, Samantha; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam
Anxiety disorders are known to run in families [Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disorder patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(2), 229-235] and environmental factors may largely account for the concordance between parental and child anxieties. Cognitive psychology models emphasise the importance of interpretive biases towards threat in the maintenance of anxiety and it is well established that anxious adults and children display similar interpretive biases and that these biases in anxious parents and their children are correlated. This raises the question of whether anxious cognitions/cognitive style may be transmitted from parent to child. We propose that this is more likely if anxious parents demonstrate interpretive biases not only about potential threats in their own environment but also about potential threats in their child's environment. Forty parents completed a recognition memory measure of interpretation bias adapted from Eysenck, Mogg, May, Richards, and Mathews (1991) [Bias in interpretation of ambiguous sentences related to threat in anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 144-150] to measure biases in response to potentially threat provoking situations involving themselves and their child. The interpretive biases demonstrated by parents were similar across situations involving themselves and their children. As expected, parental interpretive biases were further modified by anxiety with higher levels of parental anxiety associated with more negative interpretive biases about situations in their own and their child's environment, although this association was significantly stronger for potentially threat provoking situations in their own environment. These results are consistent with parent's interpretive biases extending beyond their own environment into their child's environment, although future research should continue to consider the mechanisms by which
Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T.; Alpers, Georg W.
Abstract The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer—conveyed by facial expression and face direction—amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. PMID:28158672
Brunet, Paul M; Heisz, Jennifer J; Mondloch, Catherine J; Shore, David I; Schmidt, Louis A
Contrary to popular beliefs, a recent empirical study using eye tracking has shown that a non-clinical sample of socially anxious adults did not avoid the eyes during face scanning. Using eye-tracking measures, we sought to extend these findings by examining the relation between stable shyness and face scanning patterns in a non-clinical sample of 11-year-old children. We found that shyness was associated with longer dwell time to the eye region than the mouth, suggesting that some shy children were not avoiding the eyes. Shyness was also correlated with fewer first fixations to the nose, which is thought to reflect the typical global strategy of face processing. Present results replicate and extend recent work on social anxiety and face scanning in adults to shyness in children. These preliminary findings also provide support for the notion that some shy children may be hypersensitive to detecting social cues and intentions in others conveyed by the eyes. Theoretical and practical implications for understanding the social cognitive correlates and treatment of shyness are discussed.
This chapter contains (1) an analysis of commonalities and differences in anxious solitude and social anxiety disorder, and a review of empirical investigations examining (2) correspondence among childhood anxious solitude and anxiety and mood diagnoses and (3) the relation between peer difficulties and temporal stability of anxious solitude and…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supramolecular polymers based on non-covalent interactions can display a wide array of stimuli-responsive attributes. They can be tailored to change shape, actuate...
Yamane, Shogo; Tanabe, Kana; Sagara, Yoshimitsu; Kato, Takashi
We describe mechanochromic and thermochromic photoluminescent liquid crystals. In particular, mechanochromic photoluminescent liquid crystals found recently, which are new stimuli-responsive materials are reported. For example, photoluminescent liquid crystals having bulky dendritic moieties with long alkyl chains change their photoluminescent colors by mechanical stimuli associated with isothermal phase transitions. The photoluminescent properties of molecular assemblies depend on their assembled structures. Therefore, controlling the structures of molecular assemblies with external stimuli leads to the development of stimuli-responsive luminescent materials. Mechanochromic photoluminescent properties are also observed for a photoluminescent metallomesogen and a liquid-crystalline polymer. We also show thermochromic photoluminescent liquid crystals based on origo-(p-phenylenevinylene) and anthracene moieties and a thermochromic photoluminescent metallocomplex.
Nie, Aiqing; Griffin, Michael; Keinath, Alexander; Walsh, Matthew; Dittmann, Andrea; Reder, Lynne
Previous research has suggested that faces and words are processed and remembered differently as reflected by different ERP patterns for the two types of stimuli. Specifically, face stimuli produced greater late positive deflections for old items in anterior compared to posterior regions, while word stimuli produced greater late positive deflections in posterior compared to anterior regions. Given that words have existing representations in subjects׳ long-term memories (LTM) and that face stimuli used in prior experiments were of unknown individuals, we conducted an ERP study that crossed face and letter stimuli with the presence or absence of a prior (stable or existing) memory representation. During encoding, subjects judged whether stimuli were known (famous face or real word) or not known (unknown person or pseudo-word). A surprise recognition memory test required subjects to distinguish between stimuli that appeared during the encoding phase and stimuli that did not. ERP results were consistent with previous research when comparing unknown faces and words; however, the late ERP pattern for famous faces was more similar to that for words than for unknown faces. This suggests that the critical ERP difference is mediated by whether there is a prior representation in LTM, and not whether the stimulus involves letters or faces. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that people process preferentially self-related information such as an image of their own face. Furthermore, people rapidly incorporate stimuli into their self-representation even if these stimuli do not have an intrinsic relation to self. In the present study, we investigated the time course of the processes involved in preferential processing of self-related information. In two EEG experiments three unfamiliar faces were identified with verbal labels as either the participant, a friend, or a stranger. Afterwards, participants judged whether two stimuli presented in succession (ISI = 1500ms matched. In experiment 1, faces were followed by verbal labels and in experiment 2, labels were followed by faces. Both experiments showed the same pattern of behavioral and electrophysiological results. If the first stimulus (face or label was associated with self, reaction times were faster and the late frontal positivity following the first stimulus was more pronounced. The self-association of the second stimulus (label or face did not affect response times. However, the central-parietal P3 following presentation of the second stimulus was more pronounced when the second stimulus was preceded by self-related first stimulus. These results indicate that even unfamiliar faces that are associated to self can activate a self-representation. Once the self-representation has been activated the processing of ensuing stimuli is facilitated, irrespective of whether they are associated with the self.
Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.
Full Text Available How a visual stimulus is initially categorized as a face in a network of human brain areas remains largely unclear. Hierarchical neuro-computational models of face perception assume that the visual stimulus is first decomposed in local parts in lower order visual areas. These parts would then be combined into a global representation in higher order face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Here we tested this view in fMRI with visual stimuli that are categorized as faces based on their global configuration rather than their local parts (2-tones Mooney figures and Arcimboldo’s facelike paintings. Compared to the same inverted visual stimuli that are not categorized as faces, these stimuli activated the right middle fusiform gyrus (Fusiform face area, FFA and superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, with no significant activation in the posteriorly located inferior occipital gyrus (i.e., no occipital face area, OFA. This observation is strengthened by behavioral and neural evidence for normal face categorization of these stimuli in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient (PS whose intact right middle fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus are devoid of any potential face-sensitive inputs from the lesioned right inferior occipital cortex. Together, these observations indicate that face-preferential activation may emerge in higher order visual areas of the right hemisphere without any face-preferential inputs from lower order visual areas, supporting a non-hierarchical view of face perception in the visual cortex.
Yokota, Masao; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Imazeki, Setuko; Shimoda, Aiko
The determinant of preference of premature infant faces was examined. Faces of nine infants (three premature infants and six mature infants) were photographed as stimuli. Forty-five students rated their faces on 22 scales concerning physical appearance, 22 scales concerning personality, and one scale of likeliness. A five-factor solution in physical appearance and a three-factor solution in personality were obtained via factor analysis. Eight factor scores and likeliness scores were compared ...
Mattavelli, Giulia; Andrews, Timothy J; Asghar, Aziz U R; Towler, John R; Young, Andrew W
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated a role for the amygdala in processing the perceived trustworthiness of faces, but it remains uncertain whether its responses are linear (with the greatest response to the least trustworthy-looking faces), or quadratic (with increased fMRI signal for the dimension extremes). It is also unclear whether the trustworthiness of the stimuli is crucial or if the same response pattern can be found for faces varying along other dimensions. In addition, the responses to perceived trustworthiness of face-selective regions other than the amygdala are seldom reported. The present study addressed these issues using a novel set of stimuli created through computer image-manipulation both to maximise the presence of naturally occurring cues that underpin trustworthiness judgments and to allow systematic manipulation of these cues. With a block-design fMRI paradigm, we investigated neural responses to computer-manipulated trustworthiness in the amygdala and core face-selective regions in the occipital and temporal lobes. We asked whether the activation pattern is specific for differences in trustworthiness or whether it would also track variation along an orthogonal male-female gender dimension. The main findings were quadratic responses to changes in both trustworthiness and gender in all regions. These results are consistent with the idea that face-responsive brain regions are sensitive to face distinctiveness as well as the social meaning of the face features. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A
Resurgence refers to the recurrence of an extinguished target behavior following subsequent suspension of alternative reinforcement. Delivery of reinforcers during extinction of alternative behavior has been shown to mitigate resurgence. The present experiment aimed to determine whether delivering stimuli associated with reinforcers during resurgence testing similarly mitigates resurgence. Three groups of rats pressed target levers for food according to variable-interval 15-s schedules during Phase 1. In Phase 2, lever pressing was extinguished, and an alternative nose-poke response produced alternative reinforcement according to a variable-interval 15-s schedule. Food reinforcement was always associated with illumination of the food aperture and an audible click from the pellet dispenser during Phases 1 and 2. Phase 3 treatments differed between groups. For one group, nose poking continued to produce food and food-correlated stimuli. Both of these consequences were suspended for a second group. Finally, nose poking produced food-correlated stimuli but not food for a third group. Target-lever pressing resurged in the group that received no consequences and in the group that received only food-correlated stimuli for nose poking. Resurgence, however, was smaller for the group that received food-correlated stimuli than for the group that received no consequences for nose poking. Target-lever pressing did not increase between phases in the group that continued to receive food and associated stimuli. Thus, delivery of stimuli associated with food reinforcement after suspension of food reduced but did not eliminate resurgence of extinguished lever pressing. These findings contribute to potential methodologies for preventing relapse of extinguished problem behavior in clinical settings. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Axelrod, Vadim; Rees, Geraint
Investigating the limits of unconscious processing is essential to understand the function of consciousness. Here, we explored whether holistic face processing, a mechanism believed to be important for face processing in general, can be accomplished unconsciously. Using a novel "eyes-face" stimulus we tested whether discrimination of pairs of eyes was influenced by the surrounding face context. While the eyes were fully visible, the faces that provided context could be rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. Two experiments with three different sets of face stimuli and a subliminal learning procedure converged to show that invisible faces did not influence perception of visible eyes. In contrast, surrounding faces, when they were clearly visible, strongly influenced perception of the eyes. Thus, we conclude that conscious awareness might be a prerequisite for holistic face processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ashley Nicole Clausen
Full Text Available Background: Prior cognitive research in PTSD has focused on automatic responses to negative affective stimuli, including attentional facilitation or disengagement and avoidance action tendencies. More recent research suggests PTSD may also relate to differences in reward processing, which has lead to theories of PTSD relating to approach-avoidance imbalances. The current pilot study assessed how combat-PTSD symptoms relate to automatic behavioral tendencies to both positive and negative affective stimuli. Method: Twenty male combat veterans completed the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II. During the AAT, subjects pulled (approach or pushed (avoid a joystick in response to neutral, happy, disgust, and angry faces based on border color. Bias scores were calculated for each emotion type (avoid-approach response latency differences. Main and interaction effects for psychological symptom severity and emotion type on bias score were assessed using linear mixed models. Results: There was a significant interaction between PTSD symptoms and emotion type, driven primarily by worse symptoms relating to a greater bias to avoid happy faces. Post-hoc tests revealed that veterans with worse PTSD symptoms were slower to approach as well as quicker to avoid happy faces. Neither depressive nor anger symptoms related to avoid or approach tendencies of emotional stimuli.Conclusion: PTSD severity was associated with a bias for avoiding positive affective stimuli. These results provide further evidence that PTSD may relate to aberrant processing of positively valenced, or rewarding stimuli. Implicit responses to rewarding stimuli could be an important factor in PTSD pathology and treatment. Specifically, these findings have implications for recent endeavors in using computer-based interventions to influence automatic approach-avoidance tendencies.
José Salomão Schwartzman
Full Text Available Objective To compare visual fixation at social stimuli in Rett syndrome (RT and autism spectrum disorders (ASD patients. Method Visual fixation at social stimuli was analyzed in 14 RS female patients (age range 4-30 years, 11 ASD male patients (age range 4-20 years, and 17 children with typical development (TD. Patients were exposed to three different pictures (two of human faces and one with social and non-social stimuli presented for 8 seconds each on the screen of a computer attached to an eye-tracker equipment. Results Percentage of visual fixation at social stimuli was significantly higher in the RS group compared to ASD and even to TD groups. Conclusion Visual fixation at social stimuli seems to be one more endophenotype making RS to be very different from ASD.
Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.
Rolls, Edmund T; Browning, Andrew S; Inoue, Kazuo; Hernadi, Istvan
Neurons were found in the rhesus macaque anterior orbitofrontal cortex that respond to novel but not to familiar visual stimuli. Some of these neurons responded to all novel stimuli, and others to only a subset (e.g., to novel faces). The neurons have no responses to familiar reward- or punishment-associated visual stimuli, nor to taste, olfactory or somatosensory inputs. The responses of the neurons typically habituated with repeated presentations of a novel stimulus, and five presentations each 1s was the median number for the response to reach half-maximal. The neurons did not respond to stimuli which had been novel and shown a few times on the previous day, indicating that the neurons were involved in long-term memory. The median latency of the neuronal responses was 120 ms. The median spontaneous firing rate was 1.3 spikes/s, and the median response to novel visual stimuli was 6.0 spikes/s. These findings indicate that the long-term memory for visual stimuli is information that is represented in a region of the primate anterior orbitofrontal cortex.
Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Boehringer, Jana; Gallucci, Marcello; Girelli, Luisa; Carbon, Claus-Christian
Emotion recognition is mediated by a complex network of cortical and subcortical areas, with the two hemispheres likely being differently involved in processing positive and negative emotions. As results on valence-dependent hemispheric specialisation are quite inconsistent, we carried out three experiments with emotional stimuli with a task being sensitive to measure specific hemispheric processing. Participants were required to bisect visual lines that were delimited by emotional face flankers, or to haptically bisect rods while concurrently listening to emotional vocal expressions. We found that prolonged (but not transient) exposition to concurrent happy stimuli significantly shifted the bisection bias to the right compared to both sad and neutral stimuli, indexing a greater involvement of the left hemisphere in processing of positively connoted stimuli. No differences between sad and neutral stimuli were observed across the experiments. In sum, our data provide consistent evidence in favour of a greater involvement of the left hemisphere in processing positive emotions and suggest that (prolonged) exposure to stimuli expressing happiness significantly affects allocation of (spatial) attentional resources, regardless of the sensory (visual/auditory) modality in which the emotion is perceived and space is explored (visual/haptic).
Li, Haijiang; Yang, Juan
Previous findings are generally consistent with the notion that individuals with low self-esteem tends to easily orient their attention on negative stimuli. The main objective of the present study was to further investigate the time course of attention deployment to positive (happy) and negative (angry) facial expressions in visual probe task using event-related potentials (ERP) technology in 15 high versus 15 low self-esteem participants while they viewed pairs of faces (e.g., happy face paired with neutral face or angry face paired with neutral face) shown for 500 ms and followed by a probe. Behavioral results showed that individuals with low self-esteem simply had faster manual reaction times on the entire task. ERP results showed that individuals with low self-esteem, but not high self-esteem, displayed increased P1 and N1 activity to both happy and angry facial expression. These findings suggest that emotional stimuli (angry faces and happy faces) elicited greater mobilization of attentional resources in individuals with low self-esteem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lorenzo, Rosa A; Carro, Antonia M; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen
This review focuses on the fundamentals of stimuli-responsive materials and their applications to three common separation techniques, namely extraction, chromatography, and electrophoresis. Although still little investigated, materials that switch their affinity for the analyte on and off as a function of tiny changes in physical and biochemical variables offer relevant advantages for analyte extraction, concentration, and separation. Temperature and/or pH-responsive polymers in the form of chains or networks, which are dispersed in the sample as free entities or after being grafted onto beads (which may incorporate magnetic cores), enable quantitative capture and/or elution of the analyte under mild conditions and without needing organic solvents. Regarding liquid-chromatography separation, responsive stationary phases enable the implementation of "all-in-water" procedures in which retention times are modulated by means of temperature or pH gradients. Other stimuli that can be externally applied, for example light or magnetic fields, can also be used for efficient extraction or separation of the target substance without altering the composition of the sample matrix. Moreover, stimuli-responsiveness enables straightforward recycling of solid and/or stationary phases for a prolonged lifetime. Improved understanding of the phase transitions of stimuli-responsive materials and design of suitable formats for analytical applications should enable wider and more successful application of stimuli-responsive materials in analytical separations.
Strauss, Gregory P.; Llerena, Katiah; Gold, James M.
Previous research indicates that abnormal attention-emotion interactions are related to symptom presentation in individuals with schizophrenia. However, the individual components of attention responsible for this dysfunction are unclear. In the current study we examined the possibility that schizophrenia patients with higher levels of negative symptoms (HI-NEG: n = 14) have greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than patients with low negative symptoms (LOW-NEG: n = 18) or controls (CN: n = 27). Participants completed an exogenous emotional cueing task that required them to focus on an initial emotional or neutral cue and subsequently shift attention to a separate location outside of foveal vision to detect a target stimulus (letter). Results indicated that HI-NEG patients had greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli than CN or LOW-NEG patients; however, behavioral performance did not differ among the groups for pleasant stimuli. Higher self-reported trait negative affect was also associated with greater difficulty disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli. Abnormalities in disengaging attention from unpleasant stimuli may thus play a critical role in the formation and maintenance of both negative symptoms and trait negative affect in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:21703824
Singh, Divya; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, Jn; Tripathi, Abhay Mani
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the eff-cacy of 'audio distraction' in anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children were randomly selected and equally divided into two groups of thirty each. The first group was control group (group A) and the second group was music group (group B). The dental procedure employed was extraction for both the groups. The children included in music group were allowed to hear audio presentation throughout the treatment procedure. Anxiety was measured by using Venham's picture test, pulse rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. 'Audio distraction' was found efficacious in alleviating anxiety of pediatric dental patients. 'Audio distraction' did decrease the anxiety in pediatric patients to a significant extent. How to cite this article: Singh D, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Tripathi AM. Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):149-152.
Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O’Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J
Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Low trait anxious human participants matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. High trait anxious individuals showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information. PMID:25730669
Furman, Wyndol; Stephenson, J. Claire; Rhoades, Galena K.
We examined associations between positive interactions and avoidant and anxious representations in relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Two hundred adolescents completed questionnaires, observations, and attachment interviews. From a between-person perspective, those adolescents with more positive interactions overall had less avoidant representations. Within persons, more positive interactions were relative to one’s own average level in relationships, the less avoidant representations were for that type of relationship. Adolescents were less anxious about a particular type of relationship if they have positive interactions in their other types of relationships. Finally, representations were primarily predicted by interactions in the same type of relationship; interactions in other relationships contributed little. The findings underscore the importance of examining representations of particular types of relationships. PMID:26346530
Martinsen, Kristin Dagmar; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C.
Background: Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Methods: Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9–13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-r...
Conclusions: The present results extend our understanding of the development of problematic use of Internet communicative services, based on the framework of the dual factor model of Facebook use and the Self Determination Theory. The fulfillment of an unmet need for self-presentation (i.e. the desire to create a positive impression of one's self in others through SNSs could be one of the possible pathways to GPIU for socially anxious males.
Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.
Atkinson, A.P.; Adolphs, R.
Face processing relies on a distributed, patchy network of cortical regions in the temporal and frontal lobes that respond disproportionately to face stimuli, other cortical regions that are not even primarily visual (such as somatosensory cortex), and subcortical structures such as the amygdala. Higher-level face perception abilities, such as judging identity, emotion and trustworthiness, appear to rely on an intact face-processing network that includes the occipital face area (OFA), whereas...
Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels
Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137
Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia
Following the theoretical frameworks of the dual-factor model of Facebook use and the Self Determination Theory, the present study hypothesizes that the satisfaction of unmet needs through Social Networking Sites (SNSs) may represent a pathway towards problematic use of Internet communicative services (GPIU) for socially anxious people. Four hundred undergraduate students (females = 51.8%; mean age = 22.45 + 2.09) completed three brief scales measuring the satisfaction via SNSs of the need to belong, the need for self-presentation and the need for assertiveness, the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Structural equation modeling was performed separately for males and females. A direct effect of social anxiety on GPIU was found among both genders. Socially anxious males and females tend to use SNSs for self-presentation purposes, as well as for the opportunity to be more assertive. The association between social anxiety and GPIU was partially mediated by the need for self-presentation only among males. The present results extend our understanding of the development of problematic use of Internet communicative services, based on the framework of the dual factor model of Facebook use and the Self Determination Theory. The fulfillment of an unmet need for self-presentation (i.e. the desire to create a positive impression of one's self in others) through SNSs could be one of the possible pathways to GPIU for socially anxious males.
Xu, Mengran; Purdon, Christine; Seli, Paul; Smilek, Daniel
Mind wandering can be costly, especially when we are engaged in attentionally demanding tasks. Preliminary studies suggest that mindfulness can be a promising antidote for mind wandering, albeit the evidence is mixed. To better understand the exact impact of mindfulness on mind wandering, we had a sample of highly anxious undergraduate students complete a sustained-attention task during which off-task thoughts including mind wandering were assessed. Participants were randomly assigned to a meditation or control condition, after which the sustained-attention task was repeated. In general, our results indicate that mindfulness training may only have protective effects on mind wandering for anxious individuals. Meditation prevented the increase of mind wandering over time and ameliorated performance disruption during off-task episodes. In addition, we found that the meditation intervention appeared to promote a switch of attentional focus from the internal to present-moment external world, suggesting important implications for treating worrying in anxious populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniel M Stout
Full Text Available Dispositional anxiety is a well-established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders along the internalizing spectrum, including anxiety and depression. Importantly, many of the maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anxiety, such as anticipatory apprehension, occur when threat is absent. This raises the possibility that anxious individuals are less efficient at gating threat’s access to working memory, a limited capacity workspace where information is actively retained, manipulated, and used to flexibly guide goal-directed behavior when it is no longer present in the external environment. Using a well-validated neurophysiological index of working memory storage, we demonstrate that threat-related distracters were difficult to filter on average and that this difficulty was exaggerated among anxious individuals. These results indicate that dispositionally anxious individuals allocate excessive working memory storage to threat, even when it is irrelevant to the task at hand. More broadly, these results provide a novel framework for understanding the maladaptive thoughts and actions characteristic of internalizing disorders.
Braeken, M A K A; Jones, A; Otte, R A; Widjaja, D; Van Huffel, S; Monsieur, G J Y J; van Oirschot, C M; Van den Bergh, B R H
Altered stress responsiveness is a risk factor for mental and physical illness. In non-pregnant populations, it is well-known that anxiety can alter the physiological regulation of stress reactivity. Characterization of corresponding risks for pregnant women and their offspring requires greater understanding of how stress reactivity and recovery are influenced by pregnancy and women's anxiety feelings. In the current study, women were presented repeatedly with mental arithmetic stress tasks in the first and third pregnancy trimester and reported their trait anxiety using the state trait anxiety inventory. Cardiovascular stress reactivity in late pregnancy was lower than reactivity in the first pregnancy trimester (heart rate (HR): t(197)=4.98, pprogression. Although this is a limitation, the clear differences between anxious and non-anxious pregnant women are important, regardless of the extent to which differing habituation between the groups is responsible. Less dampened stress reactivity through pregnancy may pose long-term risks for anxious women and their offspring. Follow-up studies are required to determine these risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schillani, Giulia; Era, Daniel; Cristante, Tania; Mustacchi, Giorgio; Richiardi, Martina; Grassi, Luigi; Giraldi, Tullio
Difficulties in coping with cancer, and the accompanying anxious and depressive symptoms, have been shown to affect the mood and the quality of life in breast cancer patients. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter Gene-linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) functional polymorphism of serotonin transporter has been shown to influence the adaptation to stressful life events. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to examine the association of 5-HTTLPR with the mental adaptation to cancer diagnosis and treatment. Forty eight consecutive patients with early mammary carcinoma were evaluated at enrolment and at follow up after one and three months. The patients were characterized psychometrically using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC); 5-HTTLPR allelic variants were determined using PCR-based techniques. In women with early breast cancer, the mental adaptation to the disease was associated with high scores of avoidance and anxious preoccupation of Mini-MAC, which decreased with time at follow up. Anxious preoccupation decreased with time less in patients with the S/S and S/L genetic variant of 5-HTTLPR as compared with the L/L carriers (p=0.023), indicating gene - environment interactions. These results indicate that the characterization of 5-HTTLPR allows the identification of breast cancer patients in greater risk of mental suffering, for which specific intervention may be focused; in case of drug therapy, they provide indications for the choice of most appropriate agent in a pharmacogenetic perspective
N. V. Ivanova
Full Text Available Aim. To study antidepressant usage in treatment of anxious and depressive disorders in real internal medicine practice.Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 290 charts of patients, which were observed in Pskov region hospital from 2004 to 2005 was held. All patients suffered from different internal diseases and were treated with antidepressants because of anxious and depressive concomitant disorders.Results. Arterial hypertension observed in 28% of patients, ischemic heart disease – in 20%, heart failure – in 14%, cerebrovascular and peripheral nervous system diseases – in 18% and gastroduodenal diseases – in 20% of patients. Amitriptyline took the first place (49% among antidepressant prescriptions. Next antidepressants according to prescription popularity were paroxetine (22% and tianeptine (12%. Rate of other antidepressant prescriptions were not higher than 5%. There were differences in antidepressant prescriptions between physicians of different specialties.Conclusion. Reasonable approaches should be used to choose antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have benefit for the therapy of concomitant anxious and depressive disorders due to their good tolerability. Nevertheless tricyclic antidepressants are essential in some clinical situations.
Piek, Jan P; Barrett, Nicholas C; Smith, Leigh M; Rigoli, Daniela; Gasson, Natalie
Research has identified a relationship between social-emotional problems and motor impairment in both pre-school and school-age children. The aim of the current study was to determine how motor performance in infancy and early childhood is related to levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology at age 6-12 years. Fifty participants were assessed by their parents 11 times between the ages of 4 months and 4 years using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and once between the age of 6 and 12 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The ASQ scores were used to obtain the stability (variance) of fine and gross motor performance. Once gestational age, sex and age of testing were taken into account, the stability of gross motor scores predicted both the anxiety/depression measure and the anxious score from the CBCL. It appears that how variable a young child's gross motor development is from 4 months to 4 years predicts the level of anxious/depressive symptoms at school age. These findings may assist in the early identification of children at risk of anxiety disorders and depression at school age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.
Cann, A; Ross, D A
Olfactory stimuli were used as context cues in a recognition memory paradigm. Male college students were exposed to 50 slides of the faces of college females while in the presence of a pleasant or an unpleasant odor. During the acquisition phase, ratings of physical attractiveness of the slides were collected. After a 48-hr delay, a recognition test was given using the original 50 slides and 50 new slides. The recognition test was conducted with either the original odor or the alternative odor present. A no-odor control group did not receive olfactory cues. The attractiveness ratings indicated that the odor variations had no effect on these social judgments. Analyses of d' scores, hits, and false alarms for the recognition performance indicated support for the predicted interaction in which presence of the same odor at both sessions led to better overall performance.
Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders
. In this light, investigating face processing in dyslexia, and reading in prosopagnosia becomes interesting: Do deficits in the two domains dissociate? Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a disorder of face processing in the absence of brain injury, and in the context of normal intelligence and general cognitive......Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition...... development. In three experiments, we investigated reading performance in a group of 11 participants with DP and matched controls: First, we examined if reading speed was affected by word length. Secondly, we compared RTs for single word and single letter stimuli. Third, we measured the word superiority...
Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard
This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of classroom emotional climate were conducted at the same time points. Results revealed a positive relation between anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall semester of each grade. However, in classrooms with supportive versus unsupportive emotional climates, this relation demonstrated a different pattern of change from fall to spring semesters. In classrooms with supportive emotional climates, children with high versus low levels of anxious solitude experienced relative elevation in fall peer exclusion, but this disappeared by the spring, such that spring peer exclusion levels were equalized among children who differed in anxious solitude. This result is consistent with hypotheses guided by the Child × Environment model. However, in classrooms with unsupportive emotional climates, results did not conform to expectations that children with high anxious solitude would experience stable or increased peer exclusion over time.
Rusconi, Anna Carlotta; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Carlone, Cristiano; Raimondo, Pasquale; Quartini, Adele; Coccanari de' Fornari, Maria Antonietta; Biondi, Massimo
Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) is an emerging psychiatric disorder, assimilable to impulse control problems and related to maladaptive use of new networks and social and virtual technologies. Our study aims to analyze the presence of IAD among adolescents and to study the correlation with social interaction anxiousness. We investigated also the possibility that the Social Network (SN) represent a source of risk for the development of IAD. The test group was composed of 250 subjects, aged between 14 and 18 years. They were administered: Young's IAT; IAS (Interaction Anxiousness Scale), AAS (Audience Anxiousness Scale) and SISST (Social Interaction Self-Statement Test) to analyze the dimension of social interaction anxiousness. We found a rate of 2% of the IAD. The SN are the most common use of the Net in our sample, but not the most clicked sites by subjects with IAD. It should be noted, finally, a correlation between social interaction anxiety and IAD, but not a significant difference in scores of social anxiousness scales based on the SN use/non-use. The use of SN intended as single variable doesn't correlate with increased risk for IAD, or for increased social interaction anxiousness. However, if associated with prolonged use of the net for 5-6 hours or more, or concomitant use of chat rooms and/or net gambling, we find a more significant risk of psychopathology. The data presented require further investigations, in order to guide new pathogenetic models and appropriate intervention strategies.
Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Shiner, Rebecca L
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 they reported on lower order child personality facets and on their parenting. By means of growth mixture modeling, three developmental trajectories were identified for anxious symptoms: steady low (82%), moderate increasing-decreasing (5.9%), and high declining groups (12.1%). For depressive symptoms, two developmental trajectories were found: steady low (94.1%) and moderate increasing groups (5.9%). Higher shyness, irritability, and altruism predicted membership in more problematic anxious and depressive groups. The personality facets energy, optimism, compliance, and anxiety were unique predictors for class membership for anxious symptoms, and the effects of shyness, irritability, and compliance were moderated by overreactive parenting. Shyness and irritability increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing anxiety trajectory, but only in the context of high or average levels of overreactive parenting. Compliance increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing and high decreasing trajectories in the context of high overreactive parenting. Our results indicate that childhood personality facets differentiate trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms in theoretically compelling ways.
In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different
The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used
Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian
This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…
Lipp, Ottmar V; Kempnich, Clare; Jee, Sang Hoon; Arnold, Derek H
A growing body of evidence suggests that conscious visual awareness is not a prerequisite for human fear learning. For instance, humans can learn to be fearful of subliminal fear relevant images--images depicting stimuli thought to have been fear relevant in our evolutionary context, such as snakes, spiders, and angry human faces. Such stimuli could have a privileged status in relation to manipulations used to suppress usually salient images from awareness, possibly due to the existence of a designated sub-cortical 'fear module'. Here we assess this proposition, and find it wanting. We use binocular masking to suppress awareness of images of snakes and wallabies (particularly cute, non-threatening marsupials). We find that subliminal presentations of both classes of image can induce differential fear conditioning. These data show that learning, as indexed by fear conditioning, is neither contingent on conscious visual awareness nor on subliminal conditional stimuli being fear relevant.
Bolhuis, Jantina; Kolling, Thorsten; Knopf, Monika
Studies showed that individual differences in encoding speed as well as looking behaviour during the encoding of facial stimuli can relate to differences in subsequent face discrimination. Nevertheless, a direct linkage between encoding speed and looking behaviour during the encoding of facial stimuli and the role of these encoding characteristics…
Lebib, Riadh; Papo, David; Douiri, Abdel; de Bode, Stella; Gillon Dowens, Margaret; Baudonnière, Pierre-Marie
Lipreading reliably improve speech perception during face-to-face conversation. Within the range of good dubbing, however, adults tolerate some audiovisual (AV) discrepancies and lipreading, then, can give rise to confusion. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the perceptual strategies governing the intermodal processing of dynamic and bimodal speech stimuli, either congruently dubbed or not. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that non-coherent audiovisual dubbings modulated in amplitude an endogenous ERP component, the N300, we compared to a 'N400-like effect' reflecting the difficulty to integrate these conflicting pieces of information. This result adds further support for the existence of a cerebral system underlying 'integrative processes' lato sensu. Further studies should take advantage of this 'N400-like effect' with AV speech stimuli to open new perspectives in the domain of psycholinguistics.
Kleider-Offutt, Heather M; Bond, Alesha D; Williams, Sarah E; Bohil, Corey J
Prior research indicates that stereotypical Black faces (e.g., wide nose, full lips: Afrocentric) are often associated with crime and violence. The current study investigated whether stereotypical faces may bias the interpretation of facial expression to seem threatening. Stimuli were prerated by face type (stereotypical, nonstereotypical) and expression (neutral, threatening). Later in a forced-choice task, different participants categorized face stimuli as stereotypical or not and threatening or not. Regardless of prerated expression, stereotypical faces were judged as more threatening than were nonstereotypical faces. These findings were supported using computational models based on general recognition theory (GRT), indicating that decision boundaries were more biased toward the threatening response for stereotypical faces than for nonstereotypical faces. GRT analysis also indicated that perception of face stereotypicality and emotional expression are dependent, both across categories and within individual categories. Higher perceived stereotypicality predicts higher perception of threat, and, conversely, higher ratings of threat predict higher perception of stereotypicality. Implications for racial face-type bias influencing perception and decision-making in a variety of social and professional contexts are discussed.
Figueiredo, Bárbara; Pacheco, Alexandra; Costa, Raquel; Conde, Ana; Teixeira, César
Neonates show visual preference for their mother's face/voice and shift their attention from their mother to a stranger's face/voice after habituation. To assess neonate's mother versus stranger's face/voice visual preference, namely mother's anxiety and depression during the third pregnancy trimester and neonate's: 1) visual preference for the mother versus the stranger's face/voice (pretest visual preference), 2) habituation to the mother's face/voice and 3) visual preference for the stranger versus the mother's face/voice (posttest visual preference). Mothers (N=100) filled out the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI) both at the third pregnancy trimester and childbirth, and the "preference and habituation to the mother's face/voice versus stranger" paradigm was administered to their newborn 1 to 5 days after childbirth. Neonates of anxious/depressed mothers during the third pregnancy trimester contrarily to neonates of non-anxious/non-depressed mothers did not look 1) longer at their mother's than at the stranger's face/voice at the pretest visual preference (showing no visual preference for the mother), nor 2) longer at the stranger's face/voice in the posttest than in the pretest visual preference (not improving their attention to the stranger's after habituation). Infants exposed to mother's anxiety/depression at the third gestational trimester exhibit less perceptual/social competencies at birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Duval, Elizabeth R; Lovelace, Christopher T; Gimmestad, Katherine; Aarant, Justin; Filion, Diane L
Affective faces are important stimuli with relevance to healthy and abnormal social and affective information processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of brief presentations of affective faces on attention and emotional state across the time course of stimulus processing, as indexed by startle eyeblink response modulation. Healthy adults were presented with happy, neutral, and disgusted male and female faces that were backward masked by neutral faces. Startle responses were elicited at 300, 800, and 3,500 ms following stimulus presentation to probe early and late startle eyeblink modulation, indicative of attention allocation and emotional state, respectively. Results revealed that, at 300 ms, both face expression and face gender modulated startle eyeblink response, suggesting that more attention was allocated to masked happy compared to disgusted female faces, and masked disgusted compared to neutral male faces. There were no effects of either face expression or face gender on startle modulation at 800 ms. At 3,500 ms, target face expression did not modulate startle, but male faces elicited larger startle responses than female faces, indicative of a more negative emotional state. These findings provide a systematic investigation of attention and emotion modulation by brief affective faces across the time course of stimulus processing. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Full Text Available Emotions are a major part of our subjective experiences of the world. At times, our emotions are not appropriate and require active management. Emotion regulation refers to the various ways of managing or controlling emotional responses. External stimuli play specific role in electing emotions. Pictures and movies elicit emotions and emotional effects of films are believed to exceed that of pictures. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies across emotion induction method (picture and films. Forty participants rated their emotion on Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM ratings for each pictorial and video stimuli while following the emotion regulation instructions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the pictures were more effective in modulating emotions. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction strategies downregulated emotions.
Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J
Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar.
Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu
The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.
White, Lars O; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai; Graneist, Alice; Otto, Yvonne; Hill, Jonathan; Over, Harriet; Fonagy, Peter; Crowley, Michael J
Much is known about when children acquire an understanding of mental states, but few, if any, experiments identify social contexts in which children tend to use this capacity and dispositions that influence its usage. Social exclusion is a common situation that compels us to reconnect with new parties, which may crucially involve attending to those parties' mental states. Across two studies, this line of inquiry was extended to typically developing preschoolers (Study 1) and young children with and without anxiety disorder (AD) (Study 2). Children played the virtual game of toss "Cyberball" ostensibly over the Internet with two peers who first played fair (inclusion), but eventually threw very few balls to the child (exclusion). Before and after Cyberball, children in both studies completed stories about peer-scenarios. For Study 1, 36 typically developing 5-year-olds were randomly assigned to regular exclusion (for no apparent reason) or accidental exclusion (due to an alleged computer malfunction). Compared to accidental exclusion, regular exclusion led children to portray story-characters more strongly as intentional agents (intentionality), with use of more mental state language (MSL), and more between-character affiliation in post-Cyberball stories. For Study 2, 20 clinically referred 4 to 8-year-olds with AD and 15 age- and gender-matched non-anxious controls completed stories before and after regular exclusion. While we replicated the post regular-exclusion increase of intentional and MSL portrayals of story-characters among non-anxious controls, anxious children exhibited a decline on both dimensions after regular exclusion. We conclude that exclusion typically induces young children to mentalize, enabling more effective reconnection with others. However, excessive anxiety may impair controlled mentalizing, which may, in turn, hamper effective reconnection with others after exclusion.
Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.
Manassis, Katharina; Lee, Trevor Changgun; Bennett, Kathryn; Zhao, Xiu Yan; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Duda, Stephanie; Saini, Michael; Wilansky, Pamela; Baer, Susan; Barrett, Paula; Bodden, Denise; Cobham, Vanessa E; Dadds, Mark R; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Ginsburg, Golda; Heyne, David; Hudson, Jennifer L; Kendall, Philip C; Liber, Juliette; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Silverman, Wendy; Siqueland, Lynne; Spence, Susan H; Utens, Elisabeth; Wood, Jeffrey J
Meta-analytic studies have not confirmed that involving parents in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxious children is therapeutically beneficial. There is also great heterogeneity in the type of parental involvement included. We investigated parental involvement focused on contingency management (CM) and transfer of control (TC) as a potential outcome moderator using a meta-analysis with individual patient data. Investigators of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT for anxious children, identified systematically, were invited to submit their data. Conditions in each RCT were coded based on type of parental involvement in CBT (i.e., low involvement, active involvement without emphasis on CM or TC, active involvement with emphasis on CM or TC). Treatment outcomes were compared using a 1-stage meta-analysis. All cases involved in active treatment (894 of 1,618) were included for subgroup analyses. Across all CBT groups, means of clinical severity, anxiety, and internalizing symptoms significantly decreased posttreatment and were comparable across groups. The group without emphasis on CM or TC showed a higher proportion with posttreatment anxiety diagnoses than the low-involvement group. Between posttreatment and 1-year follow-up, the proportion with anxiety diagnoses significantly decreased in CBT with active parental involvement with emphasis on CM or TC, whereas treatment gains were merely maintained in the other 2 groups. CBT for anxious children is an effective treatment with or without active parental involvement. However, CBT with active parental involvement emphasizing CM or TC may support long-term maintenance of treatment gains. RESULTS should be replicated as additional RCTs are published.
Pearcey, Samantha; Alkozei, Anna; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Dodd, Helen; Murayama, Kou; Stuijfzand, Suzannah; Creswell, Cathy
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, yet a significant proportion of children do not benefit from it. CBT for child anxiety disorders typically includes a range of strategies that may not all be applicable for all affected children. This study explored whether there are distinct subgroups of children with anxiety disorders who are characterized by their responses to measures of the key mechanisms that are targeted in CBT (i.e. interpretation bias, perceived control, avoidance, physiological arousal, and social communication). 379 clinically anxious children (7-12 years) provided indices of threat interpretation, perceived control, expected negative emotions and avoidance and measures of heart rate recovery following a speech task. Parents also reported on their children's social communication difficulties using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Latent profile analysis identified three groups, reflecting (i) 'Typically anxious' (the majority of the sample and more likely to have Generalized anxiety disorder); (ii) 'social difficulties' (characterized by high SCQ and more likely to have social anxiety disorder and be male); (iii) 'Avoidant' (characterized by low threat interpretation but high avoidance and low perceived control). Some measures may have been influenced by confounding variables (e.g. physical variability in heart rate recovery). Sample characteristics of the group may limit the generalizability of the results. Clinically anxious children appear to fall in to subgroups that might benefit from more targeted treatments that focus on specific maintenance factors. Treatment studies are now required to establish whether this approach would lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jetha, Michelle K; Zheng, Xin; Schmidt, Louis A; Segalowitz, Sidney J
Although shyness is presumed to be related to an increased sensitivity to detect motivationally salient social stimuli, we know little of how shyness affects the early perception of facial emotions. We demonstrate here that individual differences in normative shyness were related to brain responses to some emotional faces as early as the P1 electrocortical component, 80-130 ms after stimulus onset. High-shy individuals showed reduced P1 amplitude for fearful faces compared to neutral faces. Low-shy individuals processed happy faces faster than other emotions and showed increased P1 amplitudes for happy faces over neutral faces. Regardless of shyness level, participants showed increased amplitudes in the N170 component (130-200 ms) for all emotions over neutral conditions, particularly for the emotion of fear. This study presents the first evidence that shyness is related to early electrocortical responses to the processing of fearful faces, consistent with a fast-path amygdala sensitivity model.
Preiss, Matthew R; Bothun, Geoffrey D
Nanoscale assemblies are needed that achieve multiple therapeutic objectives, including cellular targeting, imaging, diagnostics and drug delivery. These must exhibit high stability, bioavailability and biocompatibility, while maintaining or enhancing the inherent activity of the therapeutic cargo. Liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) combine the demonstrated potential of liposome-based therapies, with functional nanoparticles. Specifically, LNAs can be used to concentrate and shield the nanoparticles and, in turn, stimuli-responsive nanoparticles that respond to external fields can be used to control liposomal release. The ability to design LNAs via nanoparticle encapsulation, decoration or bilayer-embedment offers a range of configurations with different structures and functions. This paper reviews the current state of research and understanding of the design, characterization and performance of LNAs. A brief overview is provided on liposomes and nanoparticles for therapeutic applications, followed by a discussion of the opportunities and challenges associated with combining the two in a single assembly to achieve controlled release via light or radiofrequency stimuli. LNAs offer a unique opportunity to combine the therapeutic properties of liposomes and nanoparticles. Liposomes act to concentrate small nanoparticles and shield nanoparticles from the immune system, while the nanoparticle can be used to initiate and control drug release when exposed to external stimuli. These properties provide a platform to achieve nanoparticle-controlled liposomal release. LNA design and application are still in infancy. Research concentrating on the relationships among LNA structure, function and performance is essential for the future clinical use of LNAs.
Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.
Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.
Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan
Research investigating the effects of action video game experience on cognition has demonstrated a host of performance improvements on a variety of basic tasks. Given the prevailing evidence that these benefits result from efficient control of attentional processes, there has been growing interest in using action video games as a general tool to enhance everyday attentional control. However, to date, there is little evidence indicating that the benefits of action video game playing scale up to complex settings with socially meaningful stimuli - one of the fundamental components of our natural environment. The present experiment compared action video game player (AVGP) and non-video game player (NVGP) performance on an oculomotor capture task that presented participants with face stimuli. In addition, the expression of a distractor face was manipulated to assess if action video game experience modulated the effect of emotion. Results indicate that AVGPs experience less oculomotor capture than NVGPs; an effect that was not influenced by the emotional content depicted by distractor faces. It is noteworthy that this AVGP advantage emerged despite participants being unaware that the investigation had to do with video game playing, and participants being equivalent in their motivation and treatment of the task as a game. The results align with the notion that action video game experience is associated with superior attentional and oculomotor control, and provides evidence that these benefits can generalize to more complex and biologically relevant stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leung, Grace Suk Man; Khor, Su Hean
This study examined the impact of gestalt intervention groups for anxious Chinese parents in Hong Kong. A non-randomized control group pre-test/post-test design was adopted. A total of 156 parents participated in the project. After 4 weeks of treatment, the intervention group participants had lower anxiety levels, less avoidance of inner experiences, and more kindness towards oneself and mindfulness when compared to control group participants. However, the dimension of self-judgment remained unchanged. The adaptation of gestalt intervention to suit the Chinese culture was discussed.
Vilborgardóttir Þórhallsdóttir, Sveindís
Þórhallsdóttir, Sveindís. (2017). Diary of an anxious soul and how pole dancing saved me: An autoethnography. Master’s thesis in sport and exercise psychology. Faculty of Sport Sciences. University of Jyväskylä. 150p. In this thesis, I use narrative reflection from an evocative autoethnographic standpoint to explore the multifaceted interaction between stereotypes, norms and values and their effect on my perception of my own worth, my battle with generalized anxiety disorder and with my c...
Dodd, Helen; Hudson, Jennifer; Lyneham, Heidi; Wuthvich, Viviana; Morris, Talia; Monier, Laurie
The role of state and trait anxiety on observer ratings of social skill and negatively biased self-perception of social skill was examined. Participants were aged between 7 and 13 years (mean=9.65; sd=1.77; N=102), 47 had a current anxiety diagnosis and 55 were non-anxious controls. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low anxiety condition and asked to complete social tasks. Task instructions were adjusted across conditions to manipulate participants’ state anxiety. Observers ra...
Zimmerman, Mark; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Guzman Holst, Carolina; Martin, Jacob
We examined the association between the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) approach to classifying depressed patients into anxious and nonanxious subgroups and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) anxious distress specifier subtyping. Two hundred two depressed patients were interviewed with semistructured diagnostic interviews. Patients were rated on the 17-item HAMD and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and completed the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale. Both approaches toward identifying anxiety in depressed patients resulted in most of the patients meeting the anxiety subtype. Both subtyping methods were significantly correlated with clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety, and scores on the anxiety scales were higher in the patients who met the anxious subtype. However, DSM-5 anxious distress subtyping was only marginally associated with the HAMD anxiety/somatization factor subtyping approach (k = 0.21), and dimensional scores were only moderately correlated (r = 0.50). These findings indicate that the DSM-5 and HAMD approaches toward identifying an anxious subtype of depression are not interchangeable.
Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Okazaki, Sumie; Ryce, Patrice; Sirin, Selcuk R
We conducted a 3-wave, longitudinal study to examine the role of ethnic collective self-esteem and United States (U.S.) collective self-esteem on anxious-depressed symptoms over time among Asian and Latino immigrant-origin adolescents (n = 171). Growth curve analysis revealed that anxious-depressed symptoms first decreased between 10th and 11th grade and then increased over time for both groups. Additionally higher levels of ethnic collective self-esteem were associated with lower levels of anxious-depressed symptoms only for Asian adolescents. There was a differing pattern for U.S. collective self-esteem such that for Latino adolescents, higher U.S. collective self-esteem was associated with higher anxious-depressed symptoms, whereas for Asian adolescents there was an inverse relationship with anxious-depressed symptoms. The results expand the literature on ethnic and U.S. collective self-esteem and their link to mental health. Implications of the findings for research in general, and for counseling immigrant youth and families in particular, are discussed.
Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in twin studies and the stunning amount of research on face recognition, the ability of adult identical twins to discriminate their own faces from those of their co-twins has been scarcely investigated. One's own face is the most distinctive feature of the bodily self, and people typically show a clear advantage in recognizing their own face even more than other very familiar identities. Given the very high level of resemblance of their faces, monozygotic twins represent a unique model for exploring self-face processing. Herein we examined the ability of monozygotic twins to distinguish their own face from the face of their co-twin and of a highly familiar individual. Results show that twins equally recognize their own face and their twin's face. This lack of self-face advantage was negatively predicted by how much they felt physically similar to their co-twin and by their anxious or avoidant attachment style. We speculate that in monozygotic twins, the visual representation of the self-face overlaps with that of the co-twin. Thus, to distinguish the self from the co-twin, monozygotic twins have to rely much more than control participants on the multisensory integration processes upon which the sense of bodily self is based. Moreover, in keeping with the notion that attachment style influences perception of self and significant others, we propose that the observed self/co-twin confusion may depend upon insecure attachment.
Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D
Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L
Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pistorio, Elisabetta; Luca, Maria; Luca, Antonina; Messina, Vincenzo; Calandra, Carmela
To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI) as a new possible biomarker. 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs). The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.
Full Text Available The persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 minutes with the Self-Assessment Manikin (every 2 minutes and with recordings of skin conductance level (SCL and electrocardiography (ECG. The SAM pleasure ratings showed that short and longer film fragments were effective in inducing a longer lasting negative mood, whereas the negative mood induced by the IAPS slideshow was short lived. The induced arousal during the anxious MIPs diminished quickly after the mood induction; nevertheless, the SCL data suggest longer lasting arousal effects for both movies. The decay of the induced mood follows a logarithmic function; diminishing quickly in the first minutes, thereafter returning slowly back to baseline. These results reveal that caution is needed when investigating the effects of the induced mood on a task or the effect of interventions on induced moods, because the induced mood diminishes quickly after the mood induction.
Myers, Samuel G; Wells, Adrian
Metacognition is linked to the etiology and maintenance of negative emotions and psychological disorder in the Self-Regulatory Executive Function Model. Although there is significant evidence supporting the model, little is currently known about the situational factors for developing dysfunctional metacognitions. The current study explored the hypothesis that early aversive experiences might be important and also tested if metacognitions could mediate the relationship between such experiences and psychological symptoms. Three hundred and fifty non-clinical adults completed a retrospective early trauma measure, as well as measures of current metacognitive beliefs, negative affect, and anxious attachment. Early emotional abuse positively and significantly correlated with several metacognitive belief dimensions but other forms of early trauma did not. Metacognition fully mediated the relationship between emotional abuse and negative affect. Anxious attachment was also positively and significantly associated with metacognitive beliefs and specific relationships remained after controlling for early emotional abuse and current negative affect. Findings are consistent with the ideas that: (i) early negative experiences, and emotional abuse in particular, could be a factor in the formation of problematic metacognitions and (ii) these metacognitions may be important in determining the effects of abuse on subsequent psychological symptoms.
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Heering, Sanna; Sawyer, Alice T.; Asnaani, Anu
It has been suggested that reappraisal strategies are more effective than suppression strategies for regulating emotions. Recently, proponents of the acceptance-based behavior therapy movement have further emphasized the importance of acceptance-based emotion regulation techniques. In order to directly compare these different emotion regulation strategies, 202 volunteers were asked to give an impromptu speech in front of a video camera. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The Reappraisal group was instructed to regulate their anxious arousal by reappraising the situation; the Suppression group was asked to suppress their anxious behaviors; and the Acceptance group was instructed to accept their anxiety. As expected, the Suppression group showed a greater increase in heart rate from baseline than the Reappraisal and Acceptance groups. Moreover, the Suppression group reported more anxiety than the Reappraisal group. However, the Acceptance and Suppression groups did not differ in their subjective anxiety response. These results suggest that both reappraising and accepting anxiety is more effective for moderating the physiological arousal than suppressing anxiety. However, reappraising is more effective for moderating the subjective feeling of anxiety than attempts to suppress or accept it. PMID:19281966
Charpentier, Caroline J; De Martino, Benedetto; Sim, Alena L; Sharot, Tali; Roiser, Jonathan P
Adapting behavior to changes in the environment is a crucial ability for survival but such adaptation varies widely across individuals. Here, we asked how humans alter their economic decision-making in response to emotional cues, and whether this is related to trait anxiety. Developing an emotional decision-making task for functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which gambling decisions were preceded by emotional and non-emotional primes, we assessed emotional influences on loss aversion, the tendency to overweigh potential monetary losses relative to gains. Our behavioral results revealed that only low-anxious individuals exhibited increased loss aversion under emotional conditions. This emotional modulation of decision-making was accompanied by a corresponding emotion-elicited increase in amygdala-striatal functional connectivity, which correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Consistent with prior reports of 'neural loss aversion', both amygdala and ventral striatum tracked losses more strongly than gains, and amygdala loss aversion signals were exaggerated by emotion, suggesting a potential role for this structure in integrating value and emotion cues. Increased loss aversion and striatal-amygdala coupling induced by emotional cues may reflect the engagement of adaptive harm-avoidance mechanisms in low-anxious individuals, possibly promoting resilience to psychopathology. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.
Norberg, Melissa M; Crone, Cassandra; Kwok, Cathy; Grisham, Jessica R
Background and aims Most individuals with hoarding disorder (HD) are prone to excessively acquiring new possessions. Understanding the factors that contribute to this collecting behavior will allow us to develop better treatment approaches for HD. The aim of this study was to test our assumption that an anxious attachment style is associated with a tendency to anthropomorphize comforting objects and an inability to tolerate distress, which in turn leads to excessive acquisition. Methods A total of 361 participants with subclinical to clinical acquisition problems (77.8% female) completed a series of self-report measures. Results As expected, greater anxious attachment was related to greater distress intolerance and stronger tendencies to anthropomorphize inanimate objects. In turn, greater distress intolerance and anthropomorphism were related to more excessive buying and greater acquisition of free items. Examination of the pathways and indirect effects showed support for double mediation rather than serial mediation, as distress intolerance did not predict anthropomorphism. Discussion and conclusion These novel findings, if replicated, suggest that adding treatment modules that target improving distress tolerance and reducing anthropomorphism to standard treatment for HD may lead to further reductions in excessive acquiring.
Agustí, Ana I; Satorres, Encarnación; Pitarque, Alfonso; Meléndez, Juan C
Given the contradictions of previous studies on the changes in attentional responses produced in aging a Stroop emotional task was proposed to compare young and older adults to words or faces with an emotional valence. The words happy or sad were superimposed on faces that express the emotion of happiness or sadness. The emotion expressed by the word and the face could agree or not (cued and uncued trials, respectively). 85 young and 66 healthy older adults had to identify both faces and words separately, and the interference between the two types of stimuli was examined. An interference effect was observed for both types of stimuli in both groups. There was more interference on positive faces and words than on negative stimuli. Older adults had more difficulty than younger in focusing on positive uncued trials, whereas there was no difference across samples on negative uncued trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available People obtain a lot of information from visual and auditory sensation on daily life. Regarding the effect of visual stimuli on perception of auditory stimuli, studies of phonological perception and sound localization have been made in great numbers. This study examined the effect of visual stimuli on perception in loudness and pitch of auditory stimuli. We used the image of figures whose size or brightness was changed as visual stimuli, and the sound of pure tone whose loudness or pitch was changed as auditory stimuli. Those visual and auditory stimuli were combined independently to make four types of audio-visual multisensory stimuli for psychophysical experiments. In the experiments, participants judged change in loudness or pitch of auditory stimuli, while they judged the direction of size change or the kind of a presented figure in visual stimuli. Therefore they cannot neglect visual stimuli while they judged auditory stimuli. As a result, perception in loudness and pitch were promoted significantly around their difference limen, when the image was getting bigger or brighter, compared with the case in which the image had no changes. This indicates that perception in loudness and pitch were affected by change in size and brightness of visual stimuli.
Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter
This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised. Results indicated that, compared to parents of non-clinical children, parents of clinically anxious children rated their offspring higher on neuroticism and behavioral inhibition, but lower on extraversion, conscientiousness, and intellect/openness. Further, extraversion emerged as the strongest correlate of an inhibited temperament, and this appeared true for the clinically anxious as well as the non-clinical children. Finally, in both the clinical and non-clinical samples, higher levels of behavioral inhibition and neuroticism were unique and significant predictors of anxiety disorders symptoms.
Shell, Madelynn D; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A
Consistent with a Diathesis × Stress model, it was hypothesized that anxious solitude (individual vulnerability) and the middle school transition (environmental stress) would jointly predict peer exclusion and victimization trajectories. Youth (N = 688) were followed from 3rd through 7th grade, with the middle school transition in 6th grade. Peer-reported peer exclusion and physical victimization trajectories across the middle school transition were modeled with piecewise growth curves. As expected, anxious solitude predicted elevated exclusion and victimization in both elementary and middle school. Nonetheless, exclusion and victimization declined after the transition on average, and anxious solitary youth versus average youth experienced greater relative declines. The pattern of results suggests that the collective renegotiation of peer relations after the transition, rather than posttransition decline in classroom emotional support, contributed to the posttransition decline in peer mistreatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Nash, Kyle; McGregor, Ian; Prentice, Mike
Four studies investigated a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty threat (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) and ideological defense. Participants (N = 444) were randomly assigned to have achievement or relationship goals implicitly primed. The implicit goal primes were followed by randomly assigned achievement or relationship threats that have reliably caused generalized, reactive approach motivation and ideological defense in past research. The threats caused anxious uncertainty (Study 1), reactive approach motivation (Studies 2 and 3), and reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) only when threat-relevant goals had first been primed, but not when threat-irrelevant goals had first been primed. Reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) was eliminated if participants were given an opportunity to attribute their anxiety to a mundane source. Results support a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty, threat, and defense with potential for integrating theories of defensive compensation.
Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel
Language allows us to operate more efficiently in the world. By hearing about others’ experiences, we are able to orient toward things that could be beneficial to us, and avoid hazards. This sharing of experiences is particularly prominent in the social realm. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, ...... to the influence of gossip, an effect of negative social information was measured at 100 ms. after stimulus onset....
Salehi, Sina; Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Esteky, Hossein
The representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex were evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affected the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex. Single-unit recordings from monkey IT cortex revealed that there was a significant match between face space and its neural representation at lower neural dimensions, whereas the optimal match for the non-face objects was observed at higher neural dimensions. There was a statistically significant match between the face and neural spaces only in the face-selective neurons, whereas a significant match was observed for non-face objects in all neurons regardless of their category selectivity. Interestingly, the face neurons showed a higher match for the non-face objects than for the faces at higher neural dimensions. The optimal representation of face space in the responses of the face neurons was a low dimensional map that emerged early (~150 ms post-stimulus onset) and was followed by a high dimensional and relatively late (~300 ms) map for the non-face stimuli. These results support a multiplexing function for the face neurons in the representation of very similar shape spaces, but with different dimensionality and timing scales. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wilkinson, Nick; Paikan, Ali; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Rea, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio
Human expertise in face perception grows over development, but even within minutes of birth, infants exhibit an extraordinary sensitivity to face-like stimuli. The dominant theory accounts for innate face detection by proposing that the neonate brain contains an innate face detection device, dubbed 'Conspec'. Newborn face preference has been promoted as some of the strongest evidence for innate knowledge, and forms a canonical stage for the modern form of the nature-nurture debate in psychology. Interpretation of newborn face preference results has concentrated on monocular stimulus properties, with little mention or focused investigation of potential binocular involvement. However, the question of whether and how newborns integrate the binocular visual streams bears directly on the generation of observable visual preferences. In this theoretical paper, we employ a synthetic approach utilizing robotic and computational models to draw together the threads of binocular integration and face preference in newborns, and demonstrate cases where the former may explain the latter. We suggest that a system-level view considering the binocular embodiment of newborn vision may offer a mutually satisfying resolution to some long-running arguments in the polarizing debate surrounding the existence and causal structure of newborns' 'innate knowledge' of faces. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Benson G Munyan
Full Text Available Exposure therapy (EXP is the most empirically supported treatment for anxiety and trauma-related disorders. EXP consists of repeated exposure to a feared object or situation in the absence of the feared outcome in order to extinguish associated anxiety. Key to the success of EXP is the need to present the feared object/event/situation in as much detail and utilizing as many sensory modalities as possible, in order to augment the sense of presence during exposure sessions. Various technologies used to augment the exposure therapy process by presenting multi-sensory cues (e.g., sights, smells, sounds. Studies have shown that scents can elicit emotionally charged memories, but no prior research has examined the effect of olfactory stimuli upon the patient's sense of presence during simulated exposure tasks.60 adult participants navigated a mildly anxiety-producing virtual environment (VE similar to those used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Participants had no autobiographical memory associated with the VE. State anxiety, Presence ratings, and electrodermal (EDA activity were collected throughout the experiment.Utilizing a Bonferroni corrected Linear Mixed Model, our results showed statistically significant relationships between olfactory stimuli and presence as assessed by both the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ: R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52 = 6.625, p = 0.0007 and a single item visual-analogue scale (R2 = 0.85, (F(3,52 = 5.382, p = 0.0027. State anxiety was unaffected by the presence or absence of olfactory cues. EDA was unaffected by experimental condition.Olfactory stimuli increase presence in virtual environments that approximate those typical in exposure therapy, but did not increase EDA. Additionally, once administered, the removal of scents resulted in a disproportionate decrease in presence. Implications for incorporating the use of scents to increase the efficacy of exposure therapy is discussed.
Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Hovey, Daniel; Zürcher, Nicole; Hippolyte, Loyse; Lemonnier, Eric; Gillberg, Christopher; Hadjikhani, Nouchine
Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other. Results showed that children/adolescents with ASD fixated the mouth of happy and angry faces less than their typically developing (TD) peers, and conversely looked more to the eyes of happy faces. Moreover, while all groups fixated the mouth in happy faces more than in other expressions, children/adolescents with ASD did relatively less so. Correlation analysis showed a similar lack of relative orientation towards the mouth of smiling faces in TD children/adolescents with high autistic traits, as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Among adults, participants with ASD only attended less to the eyes for neutral faces. Our study shows that the emotional content of a face influences gaze behaviour, and that this effect is not fully developed in children/adolescents with ASD. Interestingly, this lack of differentiation observed in the younger ASD group was also seen in younger TD individuals with higher AQ scores. Autism Res 2017, 10: 901-910. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Serpe, Michael J
A variety of stimuli-responsive polymers have been developed and used as actuators and/or artificial muscles, with the movement being driven by an external stimulus, such as electrical potential. This Review highlights actuators constructed from liquid-crystal elastomers, dielectric elastomers, ionic polymers, and conducting polymers. The Review covers recent examples of a variety of actuators generated from these materials and their utility. The mechanism of actuation will be detailed for most examples in order to stimulate possible future research, and lead to new applications and advanced applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dai, Qin; Feng, Zhengzhi
for other faces, smaller P1 amplitude for sad faces in the valid cue condition than for happy faces, bigger P3 amplitude for happy faces in the valid cue condition compared with MDD participants, and bigger P3 amplitude for sad faces in the invalid cue condition compared with other groups. The RMD participants had larger P3 amplitude for sad cue than for other faces, larger P3 amplitude for happy faces in the valid cue condition compared with MDD participants, and smaller P3 amplitude for sad faces in the invalid cue condition compared with NC participants. The MDD participants had larger P1 amplitude for sad cue compared with other groups, larger P3 amplitude for sad cue than for other face cues, smaller P3 amplitude for sad faces in the invalid cue condition compared with NC participants, and smaller P3 amplitude for happy faces in the valid cue condition compared with other groups. It can be concluded that the MDD participants had cue validity and deficient IOR for negative stimuli. The deficient inhibition of negative stimuli renders them unable to eliminate the interference of negative stimuli and causes the maintenance and development of depression. The RMD participants had cue validity and deficient IOR for both positive and negative stimuli, which enables them to perceive positive and negative stimuli sufficiently and to maintain emotional balance.
Daphne J. Holt
Full Text Available Fear generalization is the production of fear responses to a stimulus that is similar – but not identical - to a threatening stimulus. Although prior studies have found that fear generalization magnitudes are qualitatively related to the degree of perceptual similarity to the threatening stimulus, the precise relationship between these two functions has not been measured systematically. Also, it remains unknown whether fear generalization mechanisms differ for social and non-social information.To examine these questions, we measured perceptual discrimination and fear generalization in the same subjects, using images of human faces and non-face control stimuli (blobs that were perceptually matched to the faces. First, each subject’s ability to discriminate between pairs of faces or blobs was measured. Each subject then underwent a Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure, in which each of the paired stimuli were either followed (CS+ or not followed (CS- by a shock. Skin conductance responses (SCRs were also measured. Subjects were then presented with the CS+, CS- and five levels of a CS+-to-CS- morph continuum between the paired stimuli, based on individual discrimination thresholds. Finally, subjects rated the likelihood that each stimulus had been followed by a shock. Subjects showed both autonomic (SCR-based and conscious (ratings-based fear responses to morphs that they could not discriminate from the CS+ (generalization. For both faces and non-face objects, fear generalization was not found above discrimination thresholds. However, subjects exhibited greater fear generalization in the shock likelihood ratings compared to the SCRs, particularly for faces. These findings reveal that autonomic threat detection mechanisms in humans are highly sensitive to small perceptual differences between stimuli. Also, the conscious evaluation of threat shows broader generalization than autonomic responses, biased towards labeling a stimulus as threatening.
Jain, Anil K
.... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...
Gazelle, Heidi; Druhen, Madelynn J.
It was hypothesized that combined individual child vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal stress (peer exclusion) would predict the strongest responses to experimentally manipulated behavioral peer rejection. Results indicated that in a sample of 3rd graders (N = 160, 59% girls), anxious solitary excluded children displayed more…
Chang, Edward C.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Sanna, Lawrence J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Fabian, Cathryn G.
In the present study, we used a top-down approach to examine perfectionism and loneliness as additive sociocognitive predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 121 Latina college students. Consistent with expectations, we found perfectionism and loneliness to be associated with both depressive and anxious symptoms. In addition,…
Full Text Available The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP studies have debated whether two peaks of activity –P1 and N170– are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the face-object sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full-front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of experiment 2 replicated the main findings of experiment 1. We then used face-car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset.
Martinsen, Kristin D; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Holen, Solveig; Waaktaar, Trine; Sund, Anne Mari; Kendall, Philip C
Anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in childhood, however problems in need of intervention may not be identified. Children at risk for developing more severe problems can be identified based on elevated symptom levels. Quality of life and self-esteem are important functional domains and may provide additional valuable information. Schoolchildren (n = 915), aged 9-13, who considered themselves to be more anxious or sad than their peers, completed self-reports of anxiety (Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for children (MASC-C), depression (The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; SMFQ), quality of life (Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen; KINDL) and self-esteem (Beck self-concept inventory for youth (BSCI-Y) at baseline of a randomized controlled indicative study. Using multivariate analyses, we examined the relationships between internalizing symptoms, quality of life and self-esteem in three at-risk symptom groups. We also examined gender and age differences. 52.1 % of the screened children scored above the defined at-risk level reporting elevated symptoms of either Anxiety and Depression (Combined group) (26.6 %), Depression only (15.4 %) or Anxiety only (10.2 %). One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant mean differences between the symptom groups on self-reported quality of life and self-esteem. Regression analysis predicting quality of life and self-esteem showed that in the Depression only group and the Combined group, symptom levels were significantly associated with lower self-reported scores on both functional domains. In the Combined group, older children reported lower quality of life and self-esteem than younger children. Internalizing symptoms explained more of the variance in quality of life than in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression explained more of the variance than anxious symptoms. Female gender was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms, but there was no gender difference in quality of life and self
Varela, B.; Caporale, B.; Galain, A.; Viera, M.; Delgado, L.
The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of coping strategies quality of life of women with breast cancer. patients faced a series of stressful events related to the disease and its treatment. We show some results of a longitudinal study. Patients and Methods: We interviewed and questionnaires applied to 51 patients with positive diagnosis of breast cancer. We apply the questionnaires at week following the surgery, and after completion of the treatments listed chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy. Scales used - the mental adjustment to cancer (Mac, mental adjustment was evaluated to cancer), anxiety and depression through the HADS, and quality of life and S F 36 POMS (profile of mood states). Results: The analysis of the results show this trend, to find the following negative correlations (Spearman r) between coping strategies (Mac) and the domains of the S F-36 Hopelessness with physical function (R.38) and social function (R.44); anxious concern physical role (R.36), general health (R.35) and mental health (R.62); avoidance with role physical (37 r.) and mental health (R.36); fatalism pain (R.37) and vitality (R.41). Hopelessness, anxious worry, anxiety and depression, are psychosocial factors that affect quality of life
Borgsted, Camilla; Ozenne, Brice; Mc Mahon, Brenda
emotional faces BOLD-fMRI paradigm during summer and winter. We computed amygdala activation (SPM5) to an aversive contrast (angry & fearful minus neutral) and angry, fearful and neutral faces, separately. Season-by-group and main effects were evaluated using Generalized Least Squares. In SAD individuals...... individuals showed significantly lower amygdala activation to all faces compared to healthy controls, with no evidence for a season-by-group interaction. Seasonal change in amygdala activation was unrelated to change in SIGH-SAD. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size, lack of positive valence stimuli. CONCLUSIONS...
Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik
human) and its’ Original (the actual human). The emotional judgments were achieved through an online survey with video-stimuli and questionnaires, following a forced-choice design. Analysis of the results indicated that the emotional judgments for the Geminoid-DK highly depend on the emotional judgments...... initially made for the Original, suggesting that androids inherit the same style of facial expression as their originals. Our findings support the case of designing android faces after specific actual persons who portray facial features that are familiar to the users, and also relevant to the notion...
Sergey Victor Fogelson
Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be kept from awareness using various methods. The extent of processing that a given stimulus receives in the absence of awareness is typically used to make claims about the role of consciousness more generally. The neural processing elicited by a stimulus, however, may also depend on the method used to keep it from awareness, and not only on whether the stimulus reaches awareness. Here we report that the method used to render an image invisible has a dramatic effect on how category information about the unseen stimulus is encoded across the human brain. We collected fMRI data while subjects viewed images of faces and tools, that were rendered invisible using either continuous flash suppression (CFS or chromatic flicker fusion (CFF. In a third condition, we presented the same images under normal fully visible viewing conditions. We found that category information about visible images could be extracted from patterns of fMRI responses throughout areas of neocortex known to be involved in face or tool processing. However, category information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFS could be recovered exclusively within occipital cortex, whereas information about stimuli kept from awareness using CFF was also decodable within temporal and frontal regions. We conclude that unconsciously presented objects are processed differently depending on how they are rendered subjectively invisible. Caution should therefore be used in making generalizations on the basis of any one method about the neural basis of consciousness or the extent of information processing without consciousness.
Oehlberg, Katherine A; Revelle, William; Mineka, Susan
Although biased attention to emotional stimuli is considered a vulnerability factor for anxiety and dysphoria, research has infrequently related such attentional biases to dimensional models of vulnerability for anxiety and mood disorders. In two studies (Study 1, n = 64; Study 2, n = 168), we evaluate the differential associations of general negative affectivity, anxiety, and dysphoria with biases in selective attention among nonclinical participants selected to vary in both anxiety and dysphoria. Across both studies, preferential processing of angry faces at a 300-ms exposure duration was associated with a general tendency to experience a range of negative affect, rather than being specific to symptoms of either anxiety or dysphoria. In the second study, we found evidence of a suppressor relationship between anxiety and dysphoria in the prediction of delayed attentional biases (1,000 ms) for sad faces. In particular, dysphoria was specifically associated with biased attention toward sad cues, but only after statistically accounting for anxiety; by contrast, anxiety was specifically associated with attentional avoidance of sad cues, but only after statistically accounting for dysphoria. These results suggest that the specificity of relationships between components of negative affectivity and attention to emotional stimuli varies as a function of the time course at which attentional biases are assessed, highlighting the importance of evaluating both anxiety and dysphoria in research on attentional processing of emotional stimuli.
Frahm, Ken Steffen; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole Kæseler
The exteroceptive sensory system is responsible for sensing external stimuli in relation to time and space. The aim of this study was to investigate the tempo-spatial properties of the exteroceptive system using painful laser heat and non-painful mechanical touch stimulation.Thirteen healthy...
Waters, Allison M; Farrell, Lara J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Milliner, Ella; Tiralongo, Evelin; Donovan, Caroline L; McConnell, Harry; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin; Ollendick, Thomas H
This study examined the efficacy of combining two promising approaches to treating children's specific phobias, namely attention training and one 3-h session of exposure therapy ('one-session treatment', OST). Attention training towards positive stimuli (ATP) and OST (ATP+OST) was expected to have more positive effects on implicit and explicit cognitive mechanisms and clinical outcome measures than an attention training control (ATC) condition plus OST (ATC+OST). Thirty-seven children (6-17 years) with a specific phobia were randomly assigned to ATP+OST or ATC+OST. In ATP+OST, children completed 160 trials of attention training responding to a probe that always followed the happy face in happy-angry face pairs. In ATC+OST, the probe appeared equally often after angry and happy faces. In the same session, children completed OST targeting their phobic situation/object. Clinical outcomes included clinician, parent and child report measures. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in terms of change in attention bias to happy and angry faces and in danger and coping expectancies. Assessments were completed before and after treatment and three-months later. Compared to ATC+OST, the ATP+OST condition produced (a) significantly greater reductions in children's danger expectancies about their feared situations/object during the OST and at three-month follow-up, and (b) significantly improved attention bias towards positive stimuli at post-treatment, which in turn, predicted a lower level of clinician-rated phobia diagnostic severity three-months after treatment. There were no significant differences between ATP+OST and ATC+OST conditions in clinician, parent, or child-rated clinical outcomes. Training children with phobias to focus on positive stimuli is effective in increasing attention towards positive stimuli and reducing danger expectancy biases. Studies with larger sample sizes and a stronger 'dose' of ATP prior to the OST may reveal promising outcomes on clinical measures
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270 was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37 in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA, and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA. Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22 and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons.
Myrick, Jessica Gall; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
This study combined conceptual frameworks from health information seeking, appraisal theory of emotions, and social determinants of health literatures to examine how emotional states and education predict online health information seeking. Nationally representative data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 3) were used to test the roles of education, anxiety, anger, sadness, hope, happiness, and an education by anxiety interaction in predicting online health information seeking. Results suggest that women, tablet owners, smartphone owners, the college educated, those who are sad some or all of the time, and those who are anxious most of the time were significantly more likely to seek online health information. Conversely, being angry all of the time decreased the likelihood of seeking. Furthermore, two significant interactions emerged between anxiety and education levels. Discrete psychological states and demographic factors (gender and education) individually and jointly impact information seeking tendencies.
Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver
Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743
Teresa A Victor
Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a mood-congruent processing bias in the amygdala toward face stimuli portraying sad expressions that is evident even when such stimuli are presented below the level of conscious awareness. The extended functional anatomical network that maintains this response bias has not been established, however.To identify neural network differences in the hemodynamic response to implicitly presented facial expressions between depressed and healthy control participants.Unmedicated-depressed participants with MDD (n=22 and healthy controls (HC; n=25 underwent functional MRI as they viewed face stimuli showing sad, happy or neutral face expressions, presented using a backward masking design. The blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal was measured to identify regions where the hemodynamic response to the emotionally valenced stimuli differed between groups.The MDD subjects showed greater BOLD responses than the controls to masked-sad versus masked-happy faces in the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior inferotemporal cortex. While viewing both masked-sad and masked-happy faces relative to masked-neutral faces, the depressed subjects showed greater hemodynamic responses than the controls in a network that included the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices and anterior temporal cortex.Depressed and healthy participants showed distinct hemodynamic responses to masked-sad and masked-happy faces in neural circuits known to support the processing of emotionally valenced stimuli and to integrate the sensory and visceromotor aspects of emotional behavior. Altered function within these networks in MDD may establish and maintain illness-associated differences in the salience of sensory/social stimuli, such that attention is biased toward negative and away from positive stimuli.
Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter
This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…
Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.
We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…
Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel
The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy
Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C.
The present study evaluated whether 3 indices of friendship adjustment (mutual friendship involvement, friendship stability, friendship quality) are important, but overlooked, moderators of the impact of anxious-withdrawal on trajectories of psychological maladjustment during early adolescence. Participants included 271 young adolescents (51%…
Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.
The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…
Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community sample of 688 children attending public elementary schools. Half of these children were selected because they were identified as anxious solitary by peers and the other half were demographically-matched controls. 192 children provided self reports of social anxiety disorder symptoms on a questionnaire, and 76 of these children and their parent participated in clinical interviews. Results indicate that children identified by their peers as anxious solitary in the fall of 4th grade, compared to control children, were significantly more likely to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and selective mutism based on parent clinical interviews. Additionally, there was a tendency for these children to be diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and post traumatic stress disorder based on parent clinical interviews. Furthermore, children who had been identified as anxious solitary at any time in the 3rd or 4th grades were more likely than control children to report symptoms of social anxiety disorder that fell in the clinical range and to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and dysthymia (both trends) and major depression (a significant effect) according to parental clinical interview.
Shell, Madelynn D.; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.
Consistent with a Diathesis × Stress model, it was hypothesized that anxious solitude (individual vulnerability) and the middle school transition (environmental stress) would jointly predict peer exclusion and victimization trajectories. Youth (N = 688) were followed from 3rd through 7th grade, with the middle school transition in 6th grade.…
Rapee, Ronald M.
Parental overprotection and modeling of fearful behaviors have been proposed to play a central role in the development of anxiety. Yet there have been few longitudinal examinations of these relationships and virtually none focusing on the adolescent period. The current study measured adolescent perceptions of maternal anxious parenting (a…
Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran
The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…
Miers, Anne Claire
This thesis deals with the negative perceptions of socially anxious youth in three different cognitive domains: (a) interpretation of ambiguous social situations, (b) self-evaluation of social skills and nervous behaviors, and (c) perception of physical arousal during social situations. It also
Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…
Cartwright-Hatton, Sam; McNally, Deb; Field, Andy P.; Rust, Stewart; Laskey, Ben; Dixon, Clare; Gallagher, Bridie; Harrington, Richard; Miller, Chloe; Pemberton, Kathryn; Symes, Wendy; White, Caroline; Woodham, Adrine
Objective: Despite recent advances, there are still no interventions that have been developed for the specific treatment of young children who have anxiety disorders. This study examined the impact of a new, cognitive-behaviorally based parenting intervention on anxiety symptoms. Method: Families of 74 anxious children (aged 9 years or less) took…
Manassis, Katharina; Wilansky-Traynor, Pamela; Farzan, Nas; Kleiman, Valery; Parker, Kevin; Sanford, Mark
Children with anxious or depressive symptoms are at risk of developing internalizing disorders and their attendant morbidity. To prevent these outcomes, school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been developed, but few studies include active control conditions. We evaluated a preventive CBT program targeting internalizing symptoms relative to an activity contrast condition post-intervention and at 1-year follow-up. One thousand one hundred and thirty-nine children from Grades 3-6 from a diverse sample of schools, were screened with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children and Children's Depression Inventory. Those with t>60 on either measure were offered participation in a randomized 12-week trial, school-based group CBT versus a structured after-school activity group of equal duration. We explored several therapeutic elements as potential predictors of change. One hundred and forty-eight children participated (84 boys, 64 girls; 78 CBT, 70 contrast; 57% Caucasian) and 145 completed the program. Self-reported anxious and depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time (η(2)=.15 and .133, respectively), with no group by time interaction. There was a trend toward fewer children meeting diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule at 1-year post-CBT than post-contrast (6/76 versus 12/69). Positive reinforcement of child behavior was associated with change in anxiety symptoms; checking homework was understood with change in depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that children with internalizing symptoms may benefit from both school-based CBT and structured activity programs. Replication, longer follow-up, and further studies of therapeutic elements in child CBT are indicated. ISRCTN Registry identifier: ISRCTN88858028, url: http://www.controlled-trials.com/. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies disagree as to whether the processing of emotion-laden visual stimuli is dependent upon the availability of attentional resources or entirely capacity-free. Two main factors have been proposed to be responsible for the discrepancies: the differences in the perceptual attentional demands of the tasks used to divert attentional resources from emotional stimuli and the spatial location of the affective stimuli in the visual field. To date, no neuroimaging report addressed these two issues in the same set of subjects. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high and low attentional load as well as different stimulus locations on face processing in the amygdala using fMRI to provide further evidence for one of the two opposing theories. We were able for the first time to directly test the interaction of attentional load and spatial location. The results revealed a strong attenuation of amygdala activity when the attentional load was high. The eccentricity of the emotional stimuli did not affect responses in the amygdala and no interaction effect between attentional load and spatial location was found. We conclude that the processing of emotional stimuli in the amygdala is strongly dependent on the availability of attentional resources without a preferred processing of stimuli presented in the periphery and provide firm evidence for the concept of the attentional load theory of emotional processing in the amygdala.
Roy E Crist
Full Text Available Human perception of faces is widely believed to rely on automatic processing by a domain-specifi c, modular component of the visual system. Scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP recordings indicate that faces receive special stimulus processing at around 170 ms poststimulus onset, in that faces evoke an enhanced occipital negative wave, known as the N170, relative to the activity elicited by other visual objects. As predicted by modular accounts of face processing, this early face-specifi c N170 enhancement has been reported to be largely immune to the infl uence of endogenous processes such as task strategy or attention. However, most studies examining the infl uence of attention on face processing have focused on non-spatial attention, such as object-based attention, which tend to have longer-latency effects. In contrast, numerous studies have demonstrated that visual spatial attention can modulate the processing of visual stimuli as early as 80 ms poststimulus – substantially earlier than the N170. These temporal characteristics raise the question of whether this initial face-specifi c processing is immune to the infl uence of spatial attention. This question was addressed in a dual-visualstream ERP study in which the infl uence of spatial attention on the face-specifi c N170 could be directly examined. As expected, early visual sensory responses to all stimuli presented in an attended location were larger than responses evoked by those same stimuli when presented in an unattended location. More importantly, a signifi cant face-specifi c N170 effect was elicited by faces that appeared in an attended location, but not in an unattended one. In summary, early face-specifi c processing is not automatic, but rather, like other objects, strongly depends on endogenous factors such as the allocation of spatial attention. Moreover, these fi ndings underscore the extensive infl uence that top-down attention exercises over the processing of
Full Text Available Attribute amnesia is the counterintuitive phenomenon where observers are unable to report a salient aspect of a stimulus (e.g., its colour or its identity immediately after the stimulus was presented, despite both attending to and processing the stimulus. Almost all previous attribute amnesia studies used highly familiar stimuli. Our study investigated whether attribute amnesia would also occur for unfamiliar stimuli. We conducted four experiments using stimuli that were highly familiar (colours or repeated animal images or that were unfamiliar to the observers (unique animal images. Our results revealed that attribute amnesia was present for both sets of familiar stimuli, colour (p < .001 and repeated animals (p = .001; but was greatly attenuated, and possibly eliminated, when the stimuli were unique animals (p = .02. Our data shows that attribute amnesia is greatly reduced for novel stimuli.
Kuhn, Christina D.; Asperud Thomsen, Johanne; Delfi, Tzvetelina
Abstract Recent findings have challenged the existence of category specific brain areas for perceptual processing of words and faces, suggesting the existence of a common network supporting the recognition of both. We examined the performance of patients with focal lesions in posterior cortical...... areas to investigate whether deficits in recognition of words and faces systematically co-occur as would be expected if both functions rely on a common cerebral network. Seven right-handed patients with unilateral brain damage following stroke in areas supplied by the posterior cerebral artery were...... included (four with right hemisphere damage, three with left, tested at least 1 year post stroke). We examined word and face recognition using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm using four different categories of stimuli: cropped faces, full faces, words, and cars. Reading speed and word length effects...
Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K
The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...
Bizley, Jennifer; Wood, Katherine; Freeman, Laura
Observers performed a relative localisation task in which they reported whether the second of two sequentially presented signals occurred to the left or right of the first. Stimuli were detectability-matched auditory, visual, or auditory-visual signals and the goal was to compare changes in performance with eccentricity across modalities. Visual performance was superior to auditory at the midline, but inferior in the periphery, while auditory-visual performance exceeded both at all locations....
Manippa, Valerio; Padulo, Caterina; Brancucci, Alfredo
Previous evidence showed the presence of a straight relationship between feeding behavior and emotions. Despite that, no studies have focused on the influence of emotional faces on food processing. In our study, participants were presented with 72 couples of visual stimuli composed of a neutral, happy, or disgusted faces (5000 ms duration in Experiment 1, adaptation; 150 ms in Experiment 2, priming) followed by a food stimulus (1500 ms). Food stimuli were grouped in pleasant foods, further divided in natural and transformed, and unpleasant rotten foods. The task consisted in judging the food valence (as 'pleasant' or 'unpleasant') by keypress. Results showed a different pattern of response based on the transformation level of food. In general, the evaluation of natural foods was more rapid compared with transformed foods, maybe for their simplicity and healthier perception. In addition, transformed foods yielded incongruent responses with respect to the preceding emotional face, whereas natural foods yielded congruent responses with respect to it. These effects were independent of the duration of the emotional face (i.e., adaptation or priming paradigm) and may depend on pleasant food stimuli salience.
This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be
Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A
Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z
Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.
O'Neil, Edward B; Hutchison, R Matthew; McLean, D Adam; Köhler, Stefan
Studies examining the neural correlates of face perception and recognition in humans have revealed multiple brain regions that appear to play a specialized role in face processing. These include an anterior portion of perirhinal cortex (PrC) that appears to be homologous to the face-selective 'anterior face patch' recently reported in non-human primates. Electrical stimulation studies in the macaque indicate that the anterior face patch is strongly connected with other face-selective patches of cortex, even in the absence of face stimuli. The intrinsic functional connectivity of face-selective PrC and other regions of the face-processing network in humans are currently less well understood. Here, we examined resting-state fMRI connectivity across five face-selective regions in the right hemisphere that were identified with separate functional localizer scans: the PrC, amygdala (Amg), superior temporal sulcus, fusiform face area (FFA), and occipital face area. A partial correlation technique, controlling for fluctuations in occipitotemporal cortex that were not face specific, revealed connectivity between the PrC and the FFA, as well as the Amg. When examining the 'unique' connectivity of PrC within this face processing network, we found that the connectivity between the PrC and the FFA as well as that between the PrC and the Amg persisted even after controlling for potential mediating effects of other face-selective regions. Lastly, we examined the behavioral relevance of PrC connectivity by examining inter-individual differences in resting-state fluctuations in relation to differences in behavioral performance for a forced-choice recognition memory task that involved judgments on upright and inverted faces. This analysis revealed a significant correlation between the increased accuracy for upright faces (i.e., the face inversion effect) and the strength of connectivity between the PrC and the FFA. Together, these findings point to a high degree of functional
Johan D Carlin
Full Text Available The perceptual representation of individual faces is often explained with reference to a norm-based face space. In such spaces, individuals are encoded as vectors where identity is primarily conveyed by direction and distinctiveness by eccentricity. Here we measured human fMRI responses and psychophysical similarity judgments of individual face exemplars, which were generated as realistic 3D animations using a computer-graphics model. We developed and evaluated multiple neurobiologically plausible computational models, each of which predicts a representational distance matrix and a regional-mean activation profile for 24 face stimuli. In the fusiform face area, a face-space coding model with sigmoidal ramp tuning provided a better account of the data than one based on exemplar tuning. However, an image-processing model with weighted banks of Gabor filters performed similarly. Accounting for the data required the inclusion of a measurement-level population averaging mechanism that approximates how fMRI voxels locally average distinct neuronal tunings. Our study demonstrates the importance of comparing multiple models and of modeling the measurement process in computational neuroimaging.
Proverbio, Alice Mado
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and depression are common and treatable risk factors for re-hospitalisation and death in patients with COPD. The degree of lung function impairment does not sufficiently explain anxiety and depression. The BODE index allows a functional classification of COPD beyond FEV1. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (1 to test whether the BODE index is superior to the GOLD classification for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms; and (2 to assess which components of the BODE index are associated with these psychological aspects of COPD. Methods COPD was classified according to the GOLD stages based on FEV1%predicted in 122 stable patients with COPD. An additional four stage classification was constructed based on the quartiles of the BODE index. The hospital anxiety and depression scale was used to assess anxious and depressive symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms was 49% and 52%, respectively. The prevalence of anxious symptoms increased with increasing BODE stages but not with increasing GOLD stages. The prevalence of depressive symptoms increased with both increasing GOLD and BODE stages. The BODE index was superior to FEV1%predicted for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms. Anxious symptoms were explained by dyspnoea. Depressive symptoms were explained by both dyspnoea and reduced exercise capacity. Conclusion The BODE index is superior to the GOLD classification for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms in COPD patients. These psychological consequences of the disease may play a role in future classification systems of COPD.
Matthew J. Facciani
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how multidimensional scaling (MDS can be used for stimuli development. The study described in this paper illustrates this process by developing affective mental imagery stimuli using the circumplex model of affect as a guide. The circumplex model of affect argues that all emotions can be described in terms of two underlying primary dimensions: valence and arousal (Russel, 1980. We used MDS to determine if affective mental imagery stimuli obtained from verbal prompts could be separated by arousal and valence to create four distinct categories (high –positive, low-positive, high-negative, and low-negative as seen in other stimuli. 60 students from the University of South Carolina participated in the first experiment to evaluate three sets of stimuli. After being analyzed using MDS, selected stimuli were then assessed again in a second experiment to validate their robust valence and arousal distinctions. The second experiment was conducted with 34 subjects to validate 40 of the best stimuli from experiment 1. It was found that mental imagery stimuli can produce a reliable affective response for the dimensions of valence and arousal and that MDS can be an effective tool for stimuli development.
Conclusion: Patients with SAD have a positive point of view of their own face and experience self-relevance for the attractively transformed self-faces. This distorted cognition may be based on dysfunctions in the frontal and inferior parietal regions. The abnormal engagement of the fronto-parietal attentional network during processing face stimuli in non-social situations may be linked to distorted self-recognition in SAD.
Laurie R Skelly
Full Text Available Emotionally expressive faces are processed by a distributed network of interacting sub-cortical and cortical brain regions. The components of this network have been identified and described in large part by the stimulus properties to which they are sensitive, but as face processing research matures interest has broadened to also probe dynamic interactions between these regions and top-down influences such as task demand and context. While some research has tested the robustness of affective face processing by restricting available attentional resources, it is not known whether face network processing can be augmented by increased motivation to attend to affective face stimuli. Short videos of people expressing emotions were presented to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Motivation to attend to the videos was manipulated by providing an incentive for improved recall performance. During the motivated condition, there was greater coherence among nodes of the face processing network, more widespread correlation between signal intensity and performance, and selective signal increases in a task-relevant subset of face processing regions, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and right amygdala. In addition, an unexpected task-related laterality effect was seen in the amygdala. These findings provide strong evidence that motivation augments co-activity among nodes of the face processing network and the impact of neural activity on performance. These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains.
Lee H de-Wit
Full Text Available Humans are able to track multiple simultaneously moving objects. A number of factors have been identified that can influence the ease with which objects can be attended and tracked. Here, we explored the possibility that object tracking abilities may be specialized for tracking biological targets such as people.We used the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT paradigm to explore whether the high-level biological status of the targets affects the efficiency of attentional selection and tracking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the tracking of point-light biological motion figures. As controls, we used either the same stimuli or point-light letters, presented in upright, inverted or scrambled configurations. While scrambling significantly affected performance for both letters and point-light figures, there was an effect of inversion restricted to biological motion, inverted figures being harder to track. In Experiment 2, we found that tracking performance was equivalent for natural point-light walkers and 'moon-walkers', whose implied direction was incongruent with their actual direction of motion. In Experiment 3, we found higher tracking accuracy for inverted faces compared with upright faces. Thus, there was a double dissociation between inversion effects for biological motion and faces, with no inversion effect for our non-biological stimuli (letters, houses.MOT is sensitive to some, but not all naturalistic aspects of biological stimuli. There does not appear to be a highly specialized role for tracking people. However, MOT appears constrained by principles of object segmentation and grouping, where effectively grouped, coherent objects, but not necessarily biological objects, are tracked most successfully.
Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R
Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Longo, Matthew R; Lourenco, Stella F; Francisco, Alex
Increasing evidence suggests that common mechanisms underlie the direction of attention in physical space and numerical space, along the mental number line. The small leftward bias (pseudoneglect) found on paper-and-pencil line bisection is also observed when participants 'bisect' number pairs, estimating (without calculating) the number midway between two others. Here we investigated the effect of stimulus motion on attention in numerical space. A two-frame apparent motion paradigm manipulating stimulus size was used to produce the impression that pairs of numbers were approaching (size increase from first to second frame), receding (size decrease), or not moving (no size change). The magnitude of pseudoneglect increased for approaching numbers, even when the final stimulus size was held constant. This result is consistent with previous findings that pseudoneglect in numerical space (as in physical space) increases as stimuli are brought closer to the participant. It also suggests that the perception of stimulus motion modulates attention over the mental number line and provides further support for a connection between the neural representations of physical space and number. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We routinely need to process the identity of many faces around us, and how the brain achieves this is still the subject of much research in cognitive neuroscience. To date, insights on face identity processing have come from both healthy and clinical populations. However, in order to directly compare results across and within participant groups, and across different studies, it is crucial that a standard task is utilised which includes different exemplars (for example, non-face stimuli along with faces, is memory-neutral, and taps into identity recognition across orientation and across viewpoint change. The goal of this study was to test a previously behaviourally tested, optimised face and object identity matching design in a healthy control sample whilst being scanned using fMRI. Specifically, we investigated categorical, orientation, and category-specific orientation effects while participants were focused on identity processing of simultaneously presented exemplar stimuli. Alongside observing category and orientation specific effects in a distributed set of brain regions, we also saw an interaction between stimulus category and orientation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. Generally these clusters showed the pattern of a heightened response to inverted, as opposed to upright faces; and to upright, as opposed to inverted shoes. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies and to potential future research within prosopagnosic individuals.
Zioni, J.; Klein, Y.; Inbar, D.
A scintillation camera has a planar scintillating crystal that produces light events whose spatial distribution corresponds to the spatial distribution of the radiation stimuli causing such events, and a plurality of photomultipliers having photocathodes for receiving light from the crystal through a planar face thereof. Computing circuitry coupled to the photomultipliers computes the projection of a light event in the crystal on a reference axis by forming an analytical function of the outputs of the photomultipliers according to the spatial location of the light event in the crystal
Lier, R.J. van
We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot
Cyrill Guy Martin Ott
Full Text Available Past research has shown that musical training induces changes in the processing of supra-segmental aspects of speech, such as pitch and prosody. The aim of the present study was to determine whether musical expertise also leads to an altered neurophysiological processing of sub-segmental information available in the speech signal, in particular the voice onset time (VOT. Using high-density EEG recordings we analysed the neurophysiological responses to voiced and unvoiced CV syllables and noise analogues in 26 German speaking adult musicians and non-musicians. From the EEG the N1 amplitude of the event-related potential (ERP and two microstates from the topographical EEG analysis (one around the N1 amplitude and one immediately preceding the N1 microstate were calculated to the different stimuli. Similar to earlier studies the N1 amplitude was different to voiced and unvoiced stimuli in non-musicians with larger amplitudes to voiced stimuli. The more refined microstate analysis revealed that the microstate within the N1 time window was shorter to unvoiced stimuli in non-musicians. For musicians there was no difference for the N1 amplitudes and the corresponding microstates between voiced and unvoiced stimuli. In addition, there was a longer very early microstate preceding the microstate at the N1 time window to non-speech stimuli only in musicians. Taken together, our findings suggest that musicians process unvoiced stimuli (irrespective whether these stimuli are speech or non-speech stimuli differently. We propose that musicians utilise the same network to analyse unvoiced stimuli as for the analysis of voiced stimuli. As a further explanation it is also possible that musicians devote more neurophysiological resources into the analysis of unvoiced segments.
Sasson, Noah; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Hurley, Robert; Couture, Shannon M.; Penn, David L.; Adolphs, Ralph; Piven, Joseph
Both autism and schizophrenia feature deficits in aspects of social cognition that may be related to amygdala dysfunction, but it is unclear whether these are similar or different patterns of impairment. We compared the visual scanning patterns and emotion judgments of individuals with autism, individuals with schizophrenia and controls on a task well characterized with respect to amygdala functioning. On this task, eye movements of participants are recorded as they assess emotional content within a series of complex social scenes where faces are either included or digitally erased. Results indicated marked abnormalities in visual scanning for both disorders. Controls increased their gaze on face regions when faces were present to a significantly greater degree than both the autism or schizophrenia groups. While the control and the schizophrenia groups oriented to face regions faster when faces were present compared to when they were absent, the autism group oriented at the same rate in both conditions. The schizophrenia group, meanwhile, exhibited a delay in orienting to face regions across both conditions, although whether anti-psychotic medication contributed to this effect is unclear. These findings suggest that while processing emotional information in social scenes, both individuals with autism and individuals with schizophrenia fixate faces less than controls, although only those with autism fail to orient to faces more rapidly based on the presence of facial information. Autism and schizophrenia may therefore share an abnormality in utilizing facial information for assessing emotional content in social scenes, but differ in the ability to seek out socially relevant cues from complex stimuli. Impairments in social orienting are discussed within the context of evidence suggesting the role of the amygdala in orienting to emotionally meaningful information. PMID:17459428
Merkl, Angela; Ammelburg, Nina; Aust, Sabine; Roepke, Stefan; Reinecker, Hans; Trahms, Lutz; Heuser, Isabella; Sander, Tilmann
Behavioral studies on facial emotion recognition yielded heterogeneous results in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Extrastriate cortex hyperactivation has been demonstrated in imaging studies in patients with BPD during face recognition, but electrophysiological studies are lacking. The aim was to investigate temporal processes following face perception in patients with BPD. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used in eleven non-medicated patients with BPD and nine age-matched healthy subjects. Behavioral responses to visual stimuli and an emotion discrimination task were evaluated. First, participants had to silently watch faces, houses and animals. Emotional expressive faces then had to be judged from two basic emotions in a two-alternative forced choice task. Regional field power (RFP) of MEG signals was obtained from two regions of interest: Temporal and occipital areas. Psychometric assessment was performed. Patients with BPD had significantly reduced RFP amplitudes in the right posterior occipital region of interest, for the time window between 150 and 160 ms, irrespective of the type of visual stimulus or the emotional face category. Patients with BPD had significantly higher error rates for recognition of emotional expressive faces compared to healthy controls though they showed a higher accuracy in detecting fearful faces. Controls improved during face recognition, whereas patients showed no learning effect. This MEG study provides evidence for disturbances in cortical visual perception in BPD patients regardless of emotional salience of the stimulus. In line with previous studies subtle deficits in visual perception might be related to impairment in interpersonal communication in BPD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lara Justine Pierce
Full Text Available Studies employing event-related potentials (ERPs have shown that when participants are monitoring for a novel target face, the presentation of their own face elicits an enhanced negative brain potential in posterior channels approximately 250 ms after stimulus onset. Here, we investigate whether the own-face N250 effect generalizes to other highly familiar objects, specifically, images of the participant’s own dog and own car. In our experiments, participants were asked to monitor for a pre-experimentally unfamiliar target face (Joe, a target dog (Experiment 1: Joe’s Dog or a target car (Experiment 2: Joe’s Car. The target face and object stimuli were presented with non-target foils that included novel face and object stimuli, the participant’s own face, their own dog (Experiment 1 and their own car (Experiment 2. The consistent findings across the two experiments were the following: 1 the N250 potential differentiated the target faces and objects from the non-target face and object foils and 2 despite being non-targets, the own face and own objects produced an N250 response that was equal in magnitude to the target faces and objects by the end of the experiment. Thus, as indicated by its response to personally familiar and recently familiarized faces and objects, the N250 component is a sensitive index of individuated representations in visual memory.
Edson, Julius A.; Kwon, Young Jik
Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Naranjo, C; Kornreich, C; Campanella, S; Noël, X; Vandriette, Y; Gillain, B; de Longueville, X; Delatte, B; Verbanck, P; Constant, E
The processing of emotional stimuli is thought to be negatively biased in major depression. This study investigates this issue using musical, vocal and facial affective stimuli. 23 depressed in-patients and 23 matched healthy controls were recruited. Affective information processing was assessed through musical, vocal and facial emotion recognition tasks. Depression, anxiety level and attention capacity were controlled. The depressed participants demonstrated less accurate identification of emotions than the control group in all three sorts of emotion-recognition tasks. The depressed group also gave higher intensity ratings than the controls when scoring negative emotions, and they were more likely to attribute negative emotions to neutral voices and faces. Our in-patient group might differ from the more general population of depressed adults. They were all taking anti-depressant medication, which may have had an influence on their emotional information processing. Major depression is associated with a general negative bias in the processing of emotional stimuli. Emotional processing impairment in depression is not confined to interpersonal stimuli (faces and voices), being also present in the ability to feel music accurately. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.
Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…
Ansuja Pulickal Mathew
Full Text Available The physiological condition of the human body is a composite of different environments, each with its own parameters that may differ under normal, as well as diseased conditions. These environmental conditions include factors, such as pH, temperature and enzymes that are specific to a type of cell, tissue or organ or a pathological state, such as inflammation, cancer or infection. These conditions can act as specific triggers or stimuli for the efficient release of therapeutics at their destination by overcoming many physiological and biological barriers. The efficacy of conventional treatment modalities can be enhanced, side effects decreased and patient compliance improved by using stimuli-responsive material that respond to these triggers at the target site. These stimuli or triggers can be physical, chemical or biological and can be internal or external in nature. Many smart/intelligent stimuli-responsive therapeutic gene carriers have been developed that can respond to either internal stimuli, which may be normally present, overexpressed or present in decreased levels, owing to a disease, or to stimuli that are applied externally, such as magnetic fields. This review focuses on the effects of various internal stimuli, such as temperature, pH, redox potential, enzymes, osmotic activity and other biomolecules that are present in the body, on modulating gene expression by using stimuli-regulated smart polymeric carriers.
Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.
In an experiment with seventeen subjects interactions of visual roll motion stimuli and vestibular body tilt stimuli were examined in determining the subjective vertical. Interindi-vidual differences in weighting the visual information were observed, but in general visual and vestibular responses
Neimeijer, Renate A.M.; Roefs, Anne; de Jong, Peter J.
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent
Hateren, J.H. van; Rüttiger, L.; Lee, B.B.
This study quantifies the performance of primate retinal ganglion cells in response to natural stimuli. Stimuli were confined to the temporal and chromatic domains and were derived from two contrasting environments, one typically northern European and the other a flower show. The performance of the
The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion. Females tended to be more accurate in emotion identification than males. Voice quality parameters played a role in emotion identification in both genders. The emotional content of the samples was best conveyed by nonsense sentences, better than by prolonged vowels or shared native language of the speakers and participants. Thus, vocal non-verbal communication tends to affect the interpretation of emotion even in the absence of language. The emotional stimuli were better recognized from visual stimuli than auditory stimuli by both genders. Visual information about speech may not be connected to the language; instead, it may be based on the human ability to understand the kinetic movements in speech production more readily than the characteristics of the acoustic cues.
Sturm, Alexandra; Rozenman, Michelle; Piacentini, John C; McGough, James J; Loo, Sandra K; McCracken, James T
Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed. Auditory-verbal working memory speed significantly predicted math computation. A three-way interaction revealed that at low levels of anxious perfectionism, slower processing speed predicted poorer math computation for boys compared to girls. These findings indicate the uniquely predictive values of auditory-verbal working memory and processing speed on math computation, and their differential moderation. These findings provide preliminary support that gender and anxious perfectionism may influence the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and academic achievement.
Poznanski, Bridget; Cornacchio, Danielle; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B; McMakin, Dana L; Comer, Jonathan S
Although recent studies have linked pediatric anxiety to irritability, research has yet to examine the mechanisms through which youth anxiety may be associated with irritability. Importantly, sleep related problems (SRPs) have been associated with both child anxiety and irritability, but research has not considered whether the link between youth anxiety and irritability may be accounted for by SRPs. The present study investigated whether SRPs mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking anxious youth (N = 435; ages 7-19 years, M = 12.7; 55.1% female). Anxiety severity, SRPs and irritability showed significant pairwise associations, and the indirect effect of youth anxiety severity on irritability, via SRPs, was positive and significant. The present analysis is the first to examine youth anxiety, irritability, and SPRs in a single model in a sample of anxious youth, and provides preliminary evidence that SRPs partially mediate links between child anxiety and irritability.
Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H
was not significantly different between the two zones of hyperalgesia. In conclusion, secondary hyperalgesia in man is not restricted to mechanical stimuli, as significant hyperalgesia to heat developed within the zone of secondary hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli. The data, combined with other evidence......The aim of the study was to examine the presence of hyperalgesia to heat stimuli within the zone of secondary hyperalgesia to punctate mechanical stimuli. A burn was produced on the medial part of the non-dominant crus in 15 healthy volunteers with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min......), and assessments were made 70 min and 40 min before, and 0, 1, and 2 h after the burn injury. Hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli were examined by von Frey hairs and contact thermodes (3.75 and 12.5 cm2), and pain responses were rated with a visual analog scale (0-100). The area of secondary hyperalgesia...
Louise Anne Buckley
Full Text Available PICO questionIn fearful or anxious dogs does wearing a pressure vest, compared to not wearing one, result in reduced behavioural and physiological signs of stress? Clinical bottom lineFour studies of variable quality and limitations were identified that investigated the use of pressure vests, using various physiological and behavioural proxy measures of anxiety. Most behavioural outcome measures associated with a positive effect were subjective assessments, with unblinded assessors. Subjectively, many of the owners believed that pressure vests had a positive effect on their dogs’ anxiety levels.The take home message for the veterinary professional is that pressure vests may have small but beneficial effects on canine anxiety click to tweet and that habituating the dog to the vest, assessing for comfort and using repeatedly may improve the likelihood of any benefit. However, the owner should be cautioned that they should not expect their dog’s anxiety to be fully alleviated or prevented, and it may have no beneficial effect at all.
André Luiz Moreno
Full Text Available La preocupación es un proceso cognitivo en forma de pensamientos intrusivos nega - tivos y repetitivos que se refieren a un evento futuro. Hemos adaptado el Anxious Thoughts Inventory (AnTI para su uso en Brasil y probamos sus correlaciones con: Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck (BAI, Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI, Cuestionario de Preocupación Penn State (PSWQ y Cuestionario de Reflexión y Rumiación (QRR. 276 estudiantes brasileños respondieron las medidas. El análisis factorial reveló tres dominios: corporal, ambiental y meta-cognitivo. Se detectó una buena consistencia interna de la versión adaptada (0,86 y se encontraron correlaciones positivas con todas las medidas evaluadas. La versión brasileña de AnTI ( Inventário de Pensamentos Ansiosos - IPAn se presenta como una medida válida para uso con muestras brasileñas, útil en aplicaciones clínicas y experimen - tales. Se alienta a más estudios para fortalecer el proceso de validación, así como proporcionar datos útiles sobre los pensamientos de ansiedad relacionados con otras variables de salud.
Johnco, Carly; Salloum, Alison; De Nadai, Alessandro S; McBride, Nicole; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A
Episodic rage represents an important and underappreciated clinical feature in pediatric anxiety. This study examined the incidence and clinical correlates of rage in children with anxiety disorders. Change in rage during treatment for anxiety was also examined. Participants consisted of 107 children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and their parents. Participants completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaire measures to assess rage, anxiety, functional impairment, family accommodation and caregiver strain, as well as the quality of the child's relationship with family and peers. Rage was a common feature amongst children with anxiety disorders. Rage was associated with a more severe clinical profile, including increased anxiety severity, functional impairment, family accommodation and caregiver strain, as well as poorer relationships with parents, siblings, extended family and peers. Rage was more common in children with separation anxiety, comorbid anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral disorders, but not depressive symptoms. Rage predicted higher levels of functional impairment, beyond the effect of anxiety severity. Rage severity reduced over treatment in line with changes in anxiety symptoms. Findings suggest that rage is a marker of greater psychopathology in anxious youth. Standard cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety appears to reduce rage without adjunctive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.
Stratford, Trisha; Meara, Alan; Psychotherapy, M Gestalt; Lal, Sara
This exploratory study was designed to investigate the link between a client's heart rate variability (HRV) and the forming of a therapeutic alliance (TA) during psychotherapy. Change in HRV is associated with many psychological and physiological situations, including cardiac mortality. Cardiac effects were evaluated during therapy in 30 symptomatically anxious clients using HRV during six weekly 1-hour therapy sessions (S1-S6). Therapeutic index (TI), a measure of TA, was evaluated using skin conductance resonance between client and therapist. The Working Alliance Inventory provides a subjective measure of TA. State and trait anxiety and mood states were also assessed. Most HRV parameters were highest during S4. The sympathovagal balance was highest in S1 but stabilized after S2. In S4, TI was linked to high HRV parameters. Overall higher anxiety levels seem to be associated to lower HRV parameters. Conversely, in S4, high HRV parameters were linked to higher mood scores. This study found that a subjective measure of TA contradicted the physiological outcome. Results suggest that physiological data collected during therapy are a more accurate barometer of TA forming. These research findings suggest a need for further research identifying physiological markers in clients with a variety of mental health disorders over long-term therapy.
Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P
The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.
Patriquin, Michelle A.; Mellman, Thomas A.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Alfano, Candice A.
Background Using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) we recently provided evidence of significantly prolonged sleep onset latency (SOL) and reduced latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep among non-depressed children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to healthy age-matched controls. In the current study we conducted unattended ambulatory PSG in a new sample of children with GAD and controls in order to examine sleeping characteristics in the home environment. Method Thirty-two children (ages of 7–11 years) including 16 children with primary GAD and 16 controls receiving no psychotropic medications were studied. The anxious group had a primary diagnosis of GAD without secondary mood disorders and controls were free of any medical or psychiatric diagnoses. All participants underwent structured diagnostic assessments and completed one night of home-based polysomnography (PSG). Results Children with GAD exhibited significantly higher sleep efficiency (SE) and fewer rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods compared to controls. Self-reported somatic arousal during the pre-sleep period was negatively correlated with the percentage of total REM sleep among controls, but positively correlated with REM sleep percentage in the GAD group. Limitations A small sample size and one night of PSG only. Conclusions Home-based PSG recording do not provide evidence of disrupted sleep patterns in children with GAD. Contextual factors that better elucidate differences between laboratory and home-based sleep findings are suggested as important directions for future research. PMID:24751311
Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Settipani, Cara A.; Read, Kendra L.; Compton, Scott N.; March, John; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Walkup, John; Ginsburg, Golda; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective Examine the therapeutic relationship with cognitive-behavioral therapists and with pharmacotherapists for youth from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS; Walkup et al., 2008). The therapeutic relationship was examined in relation to treatment outcomes. Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat), pharmacotherapy (SRT; sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. The therapeutic relationship was assessed by youth-report at weeks 6 and 12 of treatment using the Child's Perception of Therapeutic Relationship scale. Outcome measures (Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impressions Scales) were completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition. Results For youth who received CBT only, a stronger therapeutic relationship predicted positive treatment outcome. In contrast, the therapeutic relationship did not predict outcome for youth receiving sertraline, combined treatment, or placebo. Conclusions A therapeutic relationship may be important for anxious youth who receive CBT alone. PMID:23750468
Sawyer, Monique C; Nunez, Diane E
Anxiety is the most common mental health problem in children, yet less than one third of children with anxiety disorders seek treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended as a first-line treatment for childhood anxiety. However, current practice generally does not include CBT due to issues of feasibility, affordability, and transportability. The primary purpose of this review was to appraise current literature regarding the effectiveness of individual CBT for childhood anxiety. Secondary purposes were to identify reasons for the discrepancy between current evidence and practice as well as to offer suggestions to overcome this dilemma. A systematic review of the literature published between 2007 and 2012 was conducted, searching four databases--Cochrane, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. In all 10 studies reviewed, individual CBT significantly reduced rates of anxiety diagnoses when compared with controls, and was equally effective or superior to comparison therapies. The only exception was when CBT was compared to a combination of CBT and pharmacological management, in which case the latter was more effective. Each study included in this review employed hour-long sessions over a minimum of 12 visits. In order to meet clinical demands and patient preferences, affordability, and feasibility of CBT interventions must be addressed. A brief, manualized CBT program that can be supported to be clinically effective is proposed as an evidence-based solution for anxious children in outpatient mental health and primary care settings. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin
This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ju Ri Joeng
Full Text Available The data presented in this article are from 473 Korean college students׳ responses to an online survey consisting of measures of anxious and avoidant attachment (the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Scale: ECR-R, self-compassion (Neff׳s Self-Compassion Scale: SCS, depression (the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale: CES-D and anxiety (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-the Trait Anxiety Scale: STAT-T. Each variable was measured by a Korean version of the instrument. Participants were recruited from three universities in South Korea: 288 were men and 185 were women; 199 were undergraduate and 273 were graduate students. The online program used to collect the data prompted for but did not require responses to items; 26 surveys were not completed, and data from these surveys were not included in the dataset. Major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the article “Insecure attachment and emotional distress: Fear of self-compassion and self-compassion as mediators” (Joeng et al., 2017 . The data, an SPSS file, are included as supplementary material.
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex and severe mental disorder triggered by exposure to an extraordinarily traumatic event. Human and animal studies have implied the functional role of the oxytocin system in the development of PTSD (Cochran, Fallon, Hill, & Frazier, 2013; Koch et al., 2014; Olff, 2012. Specification of the role of the oxytocin system in the emergence and progression of PTSD symptomatology would provide evidence to inform both theory and clinical practice. Methods: This study examined the association between oxytocin serum levels and PTSD symptoms. A total of 106 Chinese male adults who suffered from the deadly 2008 Wenchuan earthquake participated in this study. PTSD symptoms were measured with PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5, and serum oxytocin level was determined with ELISA oxytocin kits. Results: The mean score on the PCL-5 was 19.30 (SD=14.50, range: 1–65 in this sample. The mean oxytocin level was 101.59 pg/ml (SD=55.89, range: 31.50–286.71. The results indicated that although the oxytocin was not associated with total PTSD symptoms, it was associated with PTSD's anxious arousal symptoms. Conclusion: These findings support that the oxytocin may play an important functional role in the development of PTSD and contribute to the extant knowledge on the genetic basis of the PTSD symptoms.
Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick
The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA.
Lee, Susanne S; Victor, Andrea M; James, Matthew G; Roach, Lauren E; Bernstein, Gail A
This study examined the long-term outcomes of a nonclinical sample of anxious children (N = 61) who were randomized by school to 9 weeks of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training, or no-treatment control. Parents and children completed measures of anxiety symptoms at baseline, posttreatment, and at 3-, 6-, 12-month, 2-, and 3-year posttreatment follow-ups. Piecewise longitudinal growth curve analyses were applied to the data. When the two CBT groups were combined and compared with control, the combined treatment group showed significantly greater reduction in children's anxiety severity based on the parent ratings in the first longitudinal phase. However, on the parent Clinician Severity Rating, gains were maintained to 3 years. Child report revealed no significant differences between groups on anxiety reduction. This study maintained a small no-treatment control group during the entire follow-up period. From parental perspective only, school-based group CBT appeared to be beneficial in decreasing severity of anxiety symptoms and maintaining gains over time.
Thirlwall, Kerstin; Creswell, Cathy
Controlling parenting is associated with child anxiety however the direction of effects remains unclear. The present study implemented a Latin-square experimental design to assess the impact of parental control on children's anxious affect, cognitions and behaviour. A non-clinical sample of 24 mothers of children aged 4-5 years were trained to engage in (a) controlling and (b) autonomy-granting behaviours in interaction with their child during the preparation of a speech. When mothers engaged in controlling parenting behaviours, children made more negative predictions about their performance prior to delivering their speech and reported feeling less happy about the task, and this was moderated by child trait anxiety. In addition, children with higher trait anxiety displayed a significant increase in observed child anxiety in the controlling condition. The pattern of results was maintained when differences in mothers' levels of negativity and habitual levels of control were accounted for. These findings are consistent with theories that suggest that controlling parenting is a risk factor in the development of childhood anxiety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Commentary contests the increasingly outdated and narrow use of the terminology ?face-to-face? (often abbreviated as F2F) to connote clinical interactions in which both the client and the practitioner are physically present in the same room or space. An expanded definition is necessary because when delivered synchronously via videoconferencing, telehealth also provides face-to-face services (i.e., the practitioner and the client view each other?s faces). Terminology that uses face-to-face...
In this research, it was aimed to analyze the social networking addiction of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables and evaluate the relationship between social networking addiction and loneliness and interaction anxiousness. The research was designed according to the relational screening model. The study sample included 349 pre-service teachers studying at Trakya University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic year fall term. The data were obtained using Facebook Addiction ...
Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia
To acknowledge the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier. From December 1995 to August 2013, 773 psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (CUDOS-A). To examine discriminant and convergent validity, the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-A twice. We compared patients who did and did not meet the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier on indices of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The CUDOS-A subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability; was more highly correlated with other self-report measures of anxiety than with measures of depression, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger; and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of anxiety than depression and irritability. CUDOS-A scores were significantly higher in depressed outpatients with a current anxiety disorder than in depressed patients without a comorbid anxiety disorder (P depressive disorder. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available Macaques are often motivated to perform in neuroscientific experiments by implementing fluid restriction protocols. Daily access to water is controlled and the monkeys are rewarded with droplets of fluid for performing correct trials in the laboratory. Although these protocols are widely used and highly effective, it is important from a 3Rs perspective to investigate refinements that may help to lessen the severity of the fluid restriction applied. We assessed the use of social stimuli (images of conspecifics as rewards for four rhesus macaques performing simple cognitive tasks. We found that individual preferences for images of male faces, female perinea and control stimuli could be identified in each monkey. However, using preferred images did not translate into effective motivators on a trial-by-trial basis: animals preferred fluid rewards, even when fluid restriction was relaxed. There was no difference in the monkeys' performance of a task when using greyscale versus colour images. Based on our findings, we cannot recommend the use of social stimuli, in this form, as a refinement to current fluid restriction protocols. We discuss the potential alternatives and possibilities for future research.
Wilson, F A; Goldman-Rakic, P S
In order to determine the preferences of rhesus monkeys for visual stimuli, their eye movements were measured in response to presentations of complex pictures, fields of uniform colour, and of faces using the scleral search coil technique. The monkeys (n = 4) controlled both the onset and offset of the stimuli by the direction of their gaze. Each stimulus was presented 4 times, with 0 or 2, and 36 or 38 trials between successive presentations. Several trends were apparent in their scanning behaviour: (1) all 4 monkeys spent more time looking at pictures and faces compared to colour fields. As individuals, they differed in their overall propensity in looking at visual stimuli: monkeys that spent the most (or least) time looking at pictures spent the most (or least) time looking at colour fields. (2) Although the monkeys appeared to prefer pictures and faces to colour fields as measured by gaze duration, preferences for individual pictures, faces and colour fields were not evident. (3) Memory for recently presented stimuli substantially affected gaze duration which was significantly longer for the first compared to the second presentation of the pictures and faces, and memory was estimated to influence gaze duration over as many as 38 intervening trials. These effects were not significant in the case of colour fields. (4) There were no significant differences either in the average latencies to initiate eye movements or the number of saccades on the first and second presentations of pictures, colors or faces for the 4 monkeys. However, the average latencies to the first eye movement within a trial were longer for colour fields than for pictures for all 4 monkeys. Individual monkeys differed substantially in their mean latencies for the initiation of the first eye movement within a trial, which ranged from 235 ms to 414 ms in the two extreme cases. (5) At the presentation of faces, the monkeys tended to make saccades to major facial features, and only occasionally to
... several weeks. Keeping your head elevated and applying cold compresses can help. Plan to have your surgery at least 6 weeks before any important social events. Changes in skin sensation. During a face-lift, the repositioning of your ...
Jain, Anil K
This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...
Casey, Sarah J; Newell, Fiona N
Recent studies have suggested that the familiarity of a face leads to more robust recognition, at least within the visual domain. The aim of our study was to investigate whether face familiarity resulted in a representation of faces that was easily shared across the sensory modalities. In Experiment 1, we tested whether haptic recognition of a highly familiar face (one's own face) was as efficient as visual recognition. Our observers were unable to recognise their own face models from tactile memory alone but were able to recognise their faces visually. However, haptic recognition improved when participants were primed by their own live face. In Experiment 2, we found that short-term familiarisation with a set of previously unfamiliar face stimuli improved crossmodal recognition relative to the recognition of unfamiliar faces. Our findings suggest that familiarisation provides a strong representation of faces but that the nature of the information encoded during learning is critical for efficient crossmodal recognition.
Tzschaschel Eva Alica
Full Text Available Shape and texture are an integral part of face identity. In the present study, the importance of face texture for face identification and detection of configural manipulation (i.e., spatial relation among facial features was examined by comparing grayscale face photographs (i.e., real faces and line drawings of the same faces. Whereas real faces provide information about texture and shape of faces, line drawings are lacking texture cues. A change-detection task and a forced-choice identification task were used with both stimuli categories. Within the change detection task, participants had to decide whether the size of the eyes of two sequentially presented faces had changed or not. After having made this decision, three faces were shown to the subjects and they had to identify the previously shown face among them. Furthermore, context (full vs. cropped faces and orientation (upright vs. inverted were manipulated. The results obtained in the change detection task suggest that configural information was used in processing real faces, while part-based and featural information was used in processing line-drawings. Additionally, real faces were identified more accurately than line drawings, and identification was less context but more orientation sensitive than identification of line drawings. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new evidence stressing the importance of face texture for identity encoding and configural face processing.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine why face identity aftereffects are diminished in children with autism, relative to typical children. To address the possibility that reduced face aftereffects might reflect reduced attention to adapting stimuli, we investigated the consequence of controlling attention to adapting faces during a face identity aftereffect task in children with autism and typical children. We also included a size-change between adaptation and test stimuli to determine whether the reduced aftereffects reflect atypical adaptation to low- or higher-level stimulus properties. Results indicated that when attention was controlled and directed towards adapting stimuli, face identity aftereffects in children with autism were significantly reduced relative to typical children. This finding challenges the notion that atypicalities in the quality and/or quantity of children's attention during adaptation might account for group differences previously observed in this paradigm. Additionally, evidence of diminished face identity aftereffects despite a stimulus size change supports an adaptive processing atypicality in autism that extends beyond low-level, retinotopically coded stimulus properties. These findings support the notion that diminished face aftereffects in autism reflect atypicalities in adaptive norm-based coding, which could also contribute to face processing difficulties in this group.
Trapp, Sabrina; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Hayward, William G; Kovács, Gyula
The idea of a "predictive brain"-that is, the interpretation of internal and external information based on prior expectations-has been elaborated intensely over the past decade. Several domains in cognitive neuroscience have embraced this idea, including studies in perception, motor control, language, and affective, social, and clinical neuroscience. Despite the various studies that have used face stimuli to address questions related to predictive processing, there has been surprisingly little connection between this work and established cognitive models of face recognition. Here we suggest that the predictive framework can serve as an important complement of established cognitive face models. Conversely, the link to cognitive face models has the potential to shed light on issues that remain open in predictive frameworks.
Ding, Jinlan; Han, Fang; Wen, Lili; Xiao, Bing; Shi, Yuxiu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be categorised as a disorder of dysregulated fear processing. In the formation and development of PTSD, whether fear/anxious-related memory is regulated by β-arrestin-2, and happened along the signal transduction pathways remains unknown. We used single prolonged stress (SPS) as the animal model of PTSD. Next, elevated plus maze tests (EPM) was performed to examine fear/anxious memory- related behaviors. Then, we detected β-arrestin-2, PDE-4, and signal transduction pathways with immunoﬂuorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, Elisa, western blot, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. Our data indicated that SPS caused fear/anxious memory-related behaviors enhancement. The low expression of β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and their complex on SPS 7d, and high expression of signal transduction pathways on SPS7d in basolateral amygdala (BLA). That indicating that β-arrestin-2 is critical for the formation of abnormal fear/anxious memory in PTSD; and fear/anxious memory occured through signal transduction pathways. Finally, these results suggest that β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and signal transduction pathways may be by influencing the fear/anxious memory thereby involved in the formation and development of PTSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ponsi, Giorgia; Panasiti, Maria Serena; Rizza, Giulia; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria
Members of highly social species decode, interpret, and react to the emotion of a conspecific depending on whether the other belongs to the same (ingroup) or different (outgroup) social group. While studies indicate that consciously perceived emotional stimuli drive social categorization, information about how implicit emotional stimuli and specific physiological signatures affect social categorization is lacking. We addressed this issue by exploring whether subliminal and supraliminal affective priming can influence the categorization of neutral faces as ingroup versus outgroup. Functional infrared thermal imaging was used to investigate whether the effect of affective priming on the categorization decision was moderated by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). During the subliminal condition, we found that stronger SNS activation after positive or negative affective primes induced ingroup and outgroup face categorization, respectively. The exact opposite pattern (i.e. outgroup after positive and ingroup after negative primes) was observed in the supraliminal condition. We also found that misattribution effects were stronger in people with low emotional awareness, suggesting that this trait moderates how one recognizes SNS signals and employs them for unrelated decisions. Our results allow the remarkable implication that low-level affective reactions coupled with sympathetic activation may bias social categorization. © 2017 The Author(s).
Murphy, C; Cain, W S; Gilmore, M M; Skinner, R B
In four experiments, young (18-26 years, M = 21) and elderly (over 65 years, M = 72) people were compared for recognition memory of (a) graphic stimuli (faces of presidents and vice presidents, engineering symbols, and free forms) and (b) everyday odors. On graphic stimuli, the elderly consistently matched the young, but on odors the performance of the elderly was worse. Their poorer olfactory performance was observed after only 26 s, but became truly marked after 1 hr or more. Somewhere between 1 hr and 2 weeks, their odor performance fell to chance, but their graphic performance remained well above chance. Although the young did forget both graphic and odor materials progressively, their performance always stayed above chance over a 6-month period. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that the elderly are less sensitive to odors than the young (with thresholds about 10-fold higher), which may explain, in part, their poorer olfactory memory performance. Knowledge that the subjects brought to the tasks by way of familiarity with and ability to name odors and faces played a positive role in recognition memory. Because of this positive role, together with the negative role played by verbal distraction, we conclude that odor recognition memory depends, perhaps heavily, on semantic processing. Impaired semantic processing may result even when odors are simply rendered desaturated, or pastel because of the weakening of olfactory sensitivity with aging.
Duncum, A J F; Atkins, K J; Beilharz, F L; Mundy, M E
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i.e., increased local processing). Furthermore, we assessed whether this bias appeared for general visual stimuli or specifically for appearance-related stimuli, such as faces and bodies. Participants with high-BIC (n = 25) and low-BIC (n = 30) performed a stimulus discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, scenes, objects, and bodies. Unexpectedly, the high-BIC group showed an increased inversion effect compared to the low-BIC group, indicating perceptual abnormalities may not be present as local processing biases, as originally thought. There was no significant difference in performance across stimulus types, signifying that any visual processing abnormalities may be general rather than appearance-based. This has important implications for whether visual processing abnormalities are predisposing factors for BDD or develop throughout the disorder.
Schomaker, J; Meeter, M
Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Victor H Minces
Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain innervate discrete regions of the cortical mantle, bestowing the cholinergic system with the potential to dynamically modulate sub-regions of the cortex according to behavioral demands. Cortical cholinergic activity has been shown to facilitate learning and modulate attention. Experiments addressing these issues have primarily focused on widespread cholinergic depletions, extending to areas involved in general cognitive processes and sleep cycle regulation, making a definitive interpretation of the behavioral role of cholinergic projections difficult. Furthermore, a review of the electrophysiological literature suggests that cholinergic modulation is particularly important in representing the fine temporal details of stimuli, an issue rarely addressed in behavioral experimentation. The goal of this work is to understand the role cholinergic projections, specific to the sensory cortex, in learning to discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of stimuli. A novel visual Go/No-Go task was developed to assess the ability of rats to learn and discriminate fine differences in the temporal structure of visual stimuli (lights flashing at various frequencies. The cholinergic contribution to this task was examined by selectively eliminating acetylcholine projections to visual cortex (using 192 IgG-saporin, either before or after discrimination training.We find that in the face of compromised cholinergic input to the visual cortex, the rats’ ability to learn to perform fine discriminations is impaired, whereas their ability to perform discriminations remains unaffected.These results suggest that acetylcholine serves the role of facilitating plastic changes in the sensory cortices that are needed for an animal to refine their sensitivity to the temporal characteristics of relevant stimuli.
Bolders, Anna C; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M
To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.
Atchley, Ruth Ann; Chrysikou, Evangelia; Martin, Laura E.; Clair, Alicia A.; Ingram, Rick E.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Savage, Cary R.
Background Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI) and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression. Method Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND) control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning. Results ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum. Conclusions These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments. PMID:27284693
Anna C. Bolders
Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.
Lepping, Rebecca J; Atchley, Ruth Ann; Chrysikou, Evangelia; Martin, Laura E; Clair, Alicia A; Ingram, Rick E; Simmons, W Kyle; Savage, Cary R
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI) and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression. Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND) control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning. ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum. These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments.
Rebecca J Lepping
Full Text Available Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and striatum are part of the emotional neural circuitry implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Music is often used for emotion regulation, and pleasurable music listening activates the dopaminergic system in the brain, including the ACC. The present study uses functional MRI (fMRI and an emotional nonmusical and musical stimuli paradigm to examine how neural processing of emotionally provocative auditory stimuli is altered within the ACC and striatum in depression.Nineteen MDD and 20 never-depressed (ND control participants listened to standardized positive and negative emotional musical and nonmusical stimuli during fMRI scanning and gave subjective ratings of valence and arousal following scanning.ND participants exhibited greater activation to positive versus negative stimuli in ventral ACC. When compared with ND participants, MDD participants showed a different pattern of activation in ACC. In the rostral part of the ACC, ND participants showed greater activation for positive information, while MDD participants showed greater activation to negative information. In dorsal ACC, the pattern of activation distinguished between the types of stimuli, with ND participants showing greater activation to music compared to nonmusical stimuli, while MDD participants showed greater activation to nonmusical stimuli, with the greatest response to negative nonmusical stimuli. No group differences were found in striatum.These results suggest that people with depression may process emotional auditory stimuli differently based on both the type of stimulation and the emotional content of that stimulation. This raises the possibility that music may be useful in retraining ACC function, potentially leading to more effective and targeted treatments.
Crangle, Cassandra J; Hart, Tae L
Couples facing multiple sclerosis (MS) report significantly elevated rates of relationship distress, yet the effects of attachment have never been examined in this population. We examined whether hostile conflict mediated the dyadic effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in couples facing MS and whether these associations were moderated by gender or role. We also explored whether dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between attachment and hostile conflict. The study was cross-sectional and included 103 couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with MS. Participants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Aversive Interactions Scale, as well as demographic variables. We used the actor-partner interdependence model for data analysis. There were significant actor and partner effects of greater anxious attachment and worse dyadic adjustment. Actor and partner effects of anxious attachment were significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Gender significantly moderated the effects between avoidant attachment and dyadic adjustment. The actor effect was significant for males and females; the partner effect was only significant for females. The actor effect for females but not males was significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Role was not a significant moderator. Exploratory analyses also showed that dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and hostile conflict. Findings highlight the important effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in MS couples. Both hostile conflict and dyadic adjustment appear to be mechanisms through which insecure attachment has a detrimental effect. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite higher-than-normal rates of marital distress and separation/divorce, the effects of attachment on relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis have never been examined
Gerlach, Christian; Starrfelt, Randi
There has been an increase in studies adopting an individual difference approach to examine visual cognition and in particular in studies trying to relate face recognition performance with measures of holistic processing (the face composite effect and the part-whole effect). In the present study we...... examine whether global precedence effects, measured by means of non-face stimuli in Navon’s paradigm, can also account for individual differences in face recognition and, if so, whether the effect is of similar magnitude for faces and objects. We find evidence that global precedence effects facilitate...... both face and object recognition, and to a similar extent. Our results suggest that both face and object recognition are characterized by a coarse-to-fine temporal dynamic, where global shape information is derived prior to local shape information, and that the efficiency of face and object recognition...
Müller, Corsin A; Schmitt, Kira; Barber, Anjuli L A; Huber, Ludwig
The question of whether animals have emotions and respond to the emotional expressions of others has become a focus of research in the last decade [1-9]. However, to date, no study has convincingly shown that animals discriminate between emotional expressions of heterospecifics, excluding the possibility that they respond to simple cues. Here, we show that dogs use the emotion of a heterospecific as a discriminative cue. After learning to discriminate between happy and angry human faces in 15 picture pairs, whereby for one group only the upper halves of the faces were shown and for the other group only the lower halves of the faces were shown, dogs were tested with four types of probe trials: (1) the same half of the faces as in the training but of novel faces, (2) the other half of the faces used in training, (3) the other half of novel faces, and (4) the left half of the faces used in training. We found that dogs for which the happy faces were rewarded learned the discrimination more quickly than dogs for which the angry faces were rewarded. This would be predicted if the dogs recognized an angry face as an aversive stimulus. Furthermore, the dogs performed significantly above chance level in all four probe conditions and thus transferred the training contingency to novel stimuli that shared with the training set only the emotional expression as a distinguishing feature. We conclude that the dogs used their memories of real emotional human faces to accomplish the discrimination task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The upsurge of novel nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has inspired the researchers who are striving for designing safer and more efficient drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Stimuli responsive nanomaterial offered an alternative to design controllable drug delivery system on account of its spatiotemporally controllable properties. Additionally, external stimuli (light, magnetic field and ultrasound could develop into theranostic applications for personalized medicine use because of their unique characteristics. In this review, we give a brief overview about the significant progresses and challenges of certain external-stimuli responsive systems that have been extensively investigated in drug delivery and theranostics within the last few years.
Faerber, Stella J; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Leder, Helmut; Martin, Eva Maria; Schweinberger, Stefan R
According to the norm-based version of the multidimensional face space model (nMDFS, Valentine, 1991), any given face and its corresponding anti-face (which deviates from the norm in exactly opposite direction as the original face) should be equidistant to a hypothetical prototype face (norm), such that by definition face and anti-face should bear the same level of perceived typicality. However, it has been argued that familiarity affects perceived typicality and that representations of familiar faces are qualitatively different (e.g., more robust and image-independent) from those for unfamiliar faces. Here we investigated the role of face familiarity for rated typicality, using two frequently used operationalisations of typicality (deviation-based: DEV), and distinctiveness (face in the crowd: FITC) for faces of celebrities and their corresponding anti-faces. We further assessed attractiveness, likeability and trustworthiness ratings of the stimuli, which are potentially related to typicality. For unfamiliar faces and their corresponding anti-faces, in line with the predictions of the nMDFS, our results demonstrate comparable levels of perceived typicality (DEV). In contrast, familiar faces were perceived much less typical than their anti-faces. Furthermore, familiar faces were rated higher than their anti-faces in distinctiveness, attractiveness, likability and trustworthiness. These findings suggest that familiarity strongly affects the distribution of facial representations in norm-based face space. Overall, our study suggests (1) that familiarity needs to be considered in studies of mental representations of faces, and (2) that familiarity, general distance-to-norm and more specific vector directions in face space make different and interactive contributions to different types of facial evaluations.
Jeffrey L Krichmar
Full Text Available The vertebrate neuromodulatory systems are critical for appropriate value-laden responses to environmental challenges. Whereas changes in the overall level of dopamine have an effect on the organism’s reward or curiosity seeking behavior, changes in the level of serotonin can affect its level of anxiety or harm aversion. Moreover, top-down signals from frontal cortex can exert cognitive control on these neuromodulatory systems. The cholinergic and noradrenergic systems affect the ability to filter out noise and irrelevant events. We introduce a neural network for action selection that is based on these principles of neuromodulatory systems. The algorithm tested the hypothesis that high levels of serotonin lead to withdrawn behavior by suppressing dopaminergic action and that high levels of dopamine or low levels of serotonin lead to curious, exploratory behavior. Furthermore, the algorithm tested the idea that top-down signals from the frontal cortex to neuromodulatory areas are critical for an organism to cope with both stressful and novel events. The neural network was implemented on an autonomous robot and tested in an open field paradigm. The open field test is often used to test for models anxiety or exploratory behavior in the rodent and allows for qualitative comparisons with the neurorobot’s behavior. The present neurorobotic experiments can lead to a better understanding of how neuromodulatory signaling affects the balance between anxious and curious behavior. Therefore, this experimental paradigm may also be informative in exploring a wide range of neurological diseases such as anxiety, autism, attention deficit disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Cornacchio, Danielle; Chou, Tommy; Sacks, Hayley; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan
Background In DSM-5, the agoraphobia core symptom criterion has been revised to require fear about multiple situations from across at least two distinct domains in which escape might be difficult or panic-like symptoms might develop. The present study examined patterns and correlates of the recent change in a sample of anxious youth with symptom presentations consistent with the DSM-IV agoraphobia definition and/or specific phobia (SP) to consider how the recent diagnostic change impacts the prevalence and composition of agoraphobia in children and adolescents. Method Analyses (N=151) evaluated impairment and correlates of agoraphobic youth who no longer meet the DSM-5 agoraphobia criteria relative to agoraphobic youth who do meet the new DSM-5 criteria. Secondary analyses compared agoraphobic youth not meeting DSM-5 criteria to SP youth. Results One-quarter of youth with symptom presentations consistent with the DSM-IV agoraphobia definition no longer met criteria for DSM-5 agoraphobia, but showed comparable severity and impairment across most domains to youth who do meet criteria for DSM-5 agoraphobia. Further, these youth showed higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and internalizing psychopathology relative to youth with SP. Conclusions A substantial proportion of impaired youth with considerable agoraphobic symptom presentations have been left without a specified anxiety diagnosis by the DSM-5, which may affect their ability to receive and/or get coverage for services and their representation in treatment evaluations. Future DSM iterations may do well to include a “circumscribed” agoraphobia specifier that would characterize presentations of fear or anxiety about multiple situations, but that do not span across at least two distinct situational domains. PMID:25845579
Servant, D; Germe, A; Autuori, M; De Almeida, F; Hay, M; Douilliez, C; Vaiva, G
The literature data show that relaxation practice is effective in reducing anxiety symptoms. Different techniques such as progressive muscular relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation have been evaluated independently for anxiety disorders. The question is to know whether the combination of various techniques may be of interest in the transdiagnostic treatment of anxiety disorders. The present study assessed the short-term efficacy of a 10-week integrative and transdiagnostic relaxation program for anxiety disorders in outpatients of an anxiety disorders unit. The diagnoses were made according to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI; Sheehan et al., 1998) and completed with an assessment of anxiety and depressive symptoms using: the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y, -S and -T), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Four techniques were integrated into the structured 10-week protocol: breathing control, muscular relaxation, meditation and mental visualization. Twenty-eight patients (12 men and 16 women), mean age (S.D.)=38.82 years (11.57), were included in the study. All the included patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a current diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (n=13) or Panic Disorder (n=15) with or without agoraphobia. At the end of the 10 sessions, we found a significant reduction in mean scores (S.D.) on the STAI-T from 53.179 (6.037) to 49.821 (8.028) (Panxiety, depression and worry. The integrative and transdiagnostic relaxation program could represent an accessible and effective treatment to reduce anxious and depressive symptoms in various anxiety disorders. Future research should address the development of controlled trials assessing the impact of the different dimensions of anxiety and the long-term effects of this protocol. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Carretié, Luis; Kessel, Dominique; Carboni, Alejandra; López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Tapia, Manuel; Mercado, Francisco; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José A
The capacity of the two types of non-symbolic emotional stimuli most widely used in research on affective processes, faces and (non-facial) emotional scenes, to capture exogenous attention, was compared. Negative, positive and neutral faces and affective scenes were presented as distracters to 34 participants while they carried out a demanding digit categorization task. Behavioral (reaction times and number of errors) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials-ERPs) indices of exogenous attention were analyzed. Globally, facial expressions and emotional scenes showed similar capabilities to attract exogenous attention. Electrophysiologically, attentional capture was reflected in the P2a component of ERPs at the scalp level, and in left precentral areas at the source level. Negatively charged faces and scenes elicited maximal P2a/precentral gyrus activity. In the case of scenes, this negativity bias was also evident at the behavioral level. Additionally, a specific effect of facial distracters was observed in N170 at the scalp level, and in the fusiform gyrus and inferior parietal lobule at the source level. This effect revealed maximal attention to positive expressions. This facial positivity offset was also observed at the behavioral level. Taken together, the present results indicate that faces and non-facial scenes elicit partially different and, to some extent, complementary exogenous attention mechanisms.
It would be reasonable to expect that our previous experience regarding a stimulus that predicts harm would make the subsequent identification of that stimulus easier when harm happens again. Forty-eight volunteers were submitted to both phases of this sequence of events: learning of the predictive relationship and later priming. A face with neutral expression (CS+) was paired with a moderately aversive electric shock and another (CS-) with a neutral tone. Subsequently, these two faces, as well as other known and new faces, were presented for familiarity judgments. Both the CS+ and the CS- faces were preceded by an aversive stimulus (aversive prime) in one occasion and by a neutral stimulus (neutral prime) in another. The familiarity judgment regarding the CS+ was faster after the aversive prime than after the neutral prime, but there was no difference regarding the CS-. The differential effect of the aversive prime over the CS+ and the CS- showed a significant but small correlation with the differential skin conductance response to CS+ and CS- (signal learning), and with the differential evaluation of those stimuli in terms of like-dislike (evaluative learning). The scope of these results, as well as the usefulness of this methodological model, is discussed.
Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg
Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stuart, M.A.C.; Genzer, J.; Muller, M.; Ober, C.; Stamm, M.; Sukhorukov, G.B.; Szleifer, I.; Tsukruk, V.V.; Urban, M.; Winnik, F.; Zauscher, S.; Luzinov, I.; Minko, S.
Responsive polymer materials can adapt to surrounding environments, regulate transport of ions and molecules, change wettability and adhesion of different species on external stimuli, or convert chemical and biochemical signals into optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical signals, and vice
Full Text Available Background: Predominant dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by restricted affective responses to positive stimuli. To date, no studies have examined neural responses to a range of emotional expressions in PTSD with high dissociative symptoms. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients with high dissociative symptoms will display increased event-related potential (ERP amplitudes in early components (N1, P1 to threatening faces (angry, fearful, and reduced later ERP amplitudes (Vertex Positive Potential (VPP, P3 to happy faces compared to PTSD patients with low dissociative symptoms. Methods: Thirty-nine civilians with PTSD were classified as high dissociative (n=16 or low dissociative (n=23 according to their responses on the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale. ERPs were recorded, whilst participants viewed emotional (happy, angry, fear and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. Results: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed significantly increased N120 amplitude to the majority of facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry compared to low dissociative PTSD patients under conscious and preconscious conditions. The high dissociative PTSD group had significantly reduced VPP amplitude to happy faces in the conscious condition. Conclusion: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed increased early (preconscious cortical responses to emotional stimuli, and specific reductions to happy facial expressions in later (conscious, face-specific components compared to low dissociative PTSD patients. Dissociation in PTSD may act to increase initial pre-attentive processing of affective stimuli, and specifically reduce cortical reactivity to happy faces when consciously processing these stimuli.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha
Objective To examine how presentation of different stimuli impacts affect in nursing home residents with dementia. Method Participants were 193 residents aged 60 to 101 years from 7 Maryland nursing homes who had a diagnosis of dementia (derived from the medical chart or obtained from the attending physician). Cognitive functioning was assessed via the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and data pertaining to activities of daily living were obtained through the Minimum Data Set. Affect was assessed using observations of the 5 moods from Lawton’s Modified Behavior Stream. Baseline observations of affect were performed for comparisons. During the study, each participant was presented with 25 predetermined engagement stimuli in random order over a period of 3 weeks. Stimuli were categorized as live social, simulated social, manipulative, work/task-related, music, reading, or individualized to the participant’s self-identity. The dates of data collection were 2005–2007. Results Differences between stimulus categories were significant for pleasure (F6,144 = 25.137, P Pleasure and interest were highest for the live social category, followed by self-identity and simulated social stimuli for pleasure, and for manipulative stimuli in terms of the effect on interest. The lowest levels of pleasure and interest were observed for music. Participants with higher cognitive function had significantly higher pleasure (F1,97 = 6.27, P pleasure in response to specific stimuli (interaction effect: F6,92 = 2.31, P effective substitute, and other stimuli should have a role in the activity tool kit in the nursing home. The relative ranking of stimuli was different for interest and pleasure. The findings demonstrate the differential effect of presentation of different types of stimuli on the affect of persons with dementia, and that, while the impact is greater on persons with higher levels of cognitive function, there is a different effect of varying stimuli even in persons with
Wang, Sheng; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan
Both passive targeting and actively enhanced cellular internalization play significant roles in tumor-targeted therapy. Programmed specific targeting, as a novel targeting strategy that exploits stimuli-responsive structures, expects that nanocarriers show high stability during blood circulation for efficient passive targeting, then respond to tumor internal or external stimuli and transform into more cell-interactive forms upon arrival at the tumor tissue for enhanced cellular internalizatio...
Cui, Jian; Popescu, Voicu; Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta; Wagner Cook, Susan; Duggan, Katherine A; Friedman, Howard S
Education research has shown that instructor gestures can help capture, maintain, and direct the student's attention during a lecture as well as enhance learning and retention. Traditional education research on instructor gestures relies on video stimuli, which are time consuming to produce, especially when gesture precision and consistency across conditions are strictly enforced. The proposed system allows users to efficiently create accurate and effective stimuli for complex studies on gesture, without the need for computer animation expertise or artist talent.
Popov, V.I.; Bakhtin, V.N.; Tolkachev, N.I.
A temporary face support is proposed. It includes a beam supported by hydraulic jacks on the housing of the cutter-loader with a working tool and rotary pressure regulator. It differs in that to decrease the volume of unsecured roofing in the face space between the leading edge of the beam and the cutting tool of the cutter-loader, the beam is hinged onto the housing of the rotary pressure regulator by a fastened connecting rod, and the hydraulic jacks are provided with additional powered elements with a mechanism that regulates the length of the cut-off plate of the hydraulic pump when the seam pressure changes.
Full Text Available Recent research on the crossmodal integration of visual and auditory perception suggests that evaluations of emotional information in one sensory modality may tend toward the emotional value generated in another sensory modality. This implies that the emotions elicited by musical stimuli can influence the perception of emotional stimuli presented in other sensory modalities, through a top-down process. The aim of this work was to investigate how crossmodal perceptual processing influences emotional face recognition and how potential modulation of this processing induced by music could be influenced by the subject's musical competence. We investigated how emotional face recognition processing could be modulated by listening to music and how this modulation varies according to the subjective emotional salience of the music and the listener's musical competence. The sample consisted of 24 participants: 12 professional musicians and 12 university students (non-musicians. Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task whilst listening to music by Albeniz, Chopin, or Mozart. The target stimuli were emotionally neutral facial expressions. We examined the N170 Event-Related Potential (ERP and behavioral responses (i.e., motor reaction time to target recognition and musical emotional judgment. A linear mixed-effects model and a decision-tree learning technique were applied to N170 amplitudes and latencies. The main findings of the study were that musicians' behavioral responses and N170 is more affected by the emotional value of music administered in the emotional go/no-go task and this bias is also apparent in responses to the non-target emotional face. This suggests that emotional information, coming from multiple sensory channels, activates a crossmodal integration process that depends upon the stimuli emotional salience and the listener's appraisal.
Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Biehl, Stefanie; Svaldi, Jennifer
Cognitive models of eating disorders propose that attentional biases for disorder-relevant stimuli contribute to eating disorder pathology. Empirical evidence of a contribution of attentional biases for binge eating disorder (BED) is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess attention engagement towards, and disengagement from, food stimuli in overweight females with BED (n = 25) and a group of overweight and obese women without BED (OW; n = 30). Participants completed a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm with food and neutral words as target stimuli. This task can be used to decompose an attentional bias for food stimuli into its stimulus engagement and stimulus disengagement components. Findings indicate that facilitated stimulus engagement for food stimuli over neutral stimuli was more pronounced in the BED group compared to the OW group. Conversely, there were no substantial disengagement effects in either group. Thereby, results support the idea that early attentional processes are biased in BED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeong, Jeong-Won; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Chugani, Carla D; Sinsoongsud, Piti; Muzik, Otto; Behen, Michael E; Chugani, Harry T; Chugani, Diane C
The powerful emotion inducing properties of music are well-known, yet music may convey differing emotional responses depending on environmental factors. We hypothesized that neural mechanisms involved in listening to music may differ when presented together with visual stimuli that conveyed the same emotion as the music when compared to visual stimuli with incongruent emotional content. We designed this study to determine the effect of auditory (happy and sad instrumental music) and visual stimuli (happy and sad faces) congruent or incongruent for emotional content on audiovisual processing using fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal contrast. The experiment was conducted in the context of a conventional block-design experiment. A block consisted of three emotional ON periods, music alone (happy or sad music), face alone (happy or sad faces), and music combined with faces where the music excerpt was played while presenting either congruent emotional faces or incongruent emotional faces. We found activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and fusiform gyrus (FG) to be differentially modulated by music and faces depending on the congruence of emotional content. There was a greater BOLD response in STG when the emotion signaled by the music and faces was congruent. Furthermore, the magnitude of these changes differed for happy congruence and sad congruence, i.e., the activation of STG when happy music was presented with happy faces was greater than the activation seen when sad music was presented with sad faces. In contrast, incongruent stimuli diminished the BOLD response in STG and elicited greater signal change in bilateral FG. Behavioral testing supplemented these findings by showing that subject ratings of emotion in faces were influenced by emotion in music. When presented with happy music, happy faces were rated as more happy (p=0.051) and sad faces were rated as less sad (p=0.030). When presented with sad music, happy faces were rated as less
Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M
Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grillon, Christian; Franco-Chaves, Jose A.; Mateus, Camilo F.; Ionescu, Dawn F.; Zarate, Carlos A.
According to the emotion-context insensitivity (ECI) hypothesis, major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a diminished ability to react emotionally to positive stimuli and with blunting of defensive responses to threat. That defensive responses are blunted in MDD seems inconsistent with the conceptualization and diagnostic nosology of MDD. The present study tested the ECI hypothesis in MDD using a threat of shock paradigm. Twenty-eight patients with MDD (35.5±10.4 years) were compared with 28 controls (35.1±7.4 years). Participants were exposed to three conditions: no shock, predictable shock, and unpredictable shock. Startle magnitude was used to assess defensive responses. Inconsistent with the ECI hypothesis, startle potentiation to predictable and unpredictable shock was not reduced in the MDD group. Rather, MDD patients showed elevated startle throughout testing as well as increased contextual anxiety during the placement of the shock electrodes and in the predictable condition. A regression analysis indicated that illness duration and Beck depression inventory scores explained 37% (p<.005) of the variance in patients’ startle reactivity. MDD is not associated with emotional blunting but rather enhanced defensive reactivity during anticipation of harm. These results do not support a strong version of the ECI hypothesis. Understanding the nature of stimuli or situations that lead to blunted or enhanced defensive reactivity will provide better insight into dysfunctional emotional experience in MDD. PMID:23951057
Full Text Available According to the emotion-context insensitivity (ECI hypothesis, major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with a diminished ability to react emotionally to positive stimuli and with blunting of defensive responses to threat. That defensive responses are blunted in MDD seems inconsistent with the conceptualization and diagnostic nosology of MDD. The present study tested the ECI hypothesis in MDD using a threat of shock paradigm. Twenty-eight patients with MDD (35.5±10.4 years were compared with 28 controls (35.1±7.4 years. Participants were exposed to three conditions: no shock, predictable shock, and unpredictable shock. Startle magnitude was used to assess defensive responses. Inconsistent with the ECI hypothesis, startle potentiation to predictable and unpredictable shock was not reduced in the MDD group. Rather, MDD patients showed elevated startle throughout testing as well as increased contextual anxiety during the placement of the shock electrodes and in the predictable condition. A regression analysis indicated that illness duration and Beck depression inventory scores explained 37% (p<.005 of the variance in patients' startle reactivity. MDD is not associated with emotional blunting but rather enhanced defensive reactivity during anticipation of harm. These results do not support a strong version of the ECI hypothesis. Understanding the nature of stimuli or situations that lead to blunted or enhanced defensive reactivity will provide better insight into dysfunctional emotional experience in MDD.
Baroni, Fabiano; van Kempen, Jochem; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Kovach, Christopher K; Oya, Hiroyuki; Howard, Matthew A; Adolphs, Ralph; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu
Investigations of the neural basis of consciousness have greatly benefited from protocols that involve the presentation of stimuli at perceptual threshold, enabling the assessment of the patterns of brain activity that correlate with conscious perception, independently of any changes in sensory input. However, the comparison between perceived and unperceived trials would be expected to reveal not only the core neural substrate of a particular conscious perception, but also aspects of brain activity that facilitate, hinder or tend to follow conscious perception. We take a step towards the resolution of these confounds by combining an analysis of neural responses observed during the presentation of faces partially masked by Continuous Flash Suppression, and those responses observed during the unmasked presentation of faces and other images in the same subjects. We employed multidimensional classifiers to decode physical properties of stimuli or perceptual states from spectrotemporal representations of electrocorticographic signals (1071 channels in 5 subjects). Neural activity in certain face responsive areas located in both the fusiform gyrus and in the lateral-temporal/inferior-parietal cortex discriminated seen vs. unseen faces in the masked paradigm and upright faces vs. other categories in the unmasked paradigm. However, only the former discriminated upright vs. inverted faces in the unmasked paradigm. Our results suggest a prominent role for the fusiform gyrus in the configural perception of faces, and possibly other objects that are holistically processed. More generally, we advocate comparative analysis of neural recordings obtained during different, but related, experimental protocols as a promising direction towards elucidating the functional specificities of the patterns of neural activation that accompany our conscious experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Face processing is regularly found to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ, thus suggesting that social malfunctioning might be caused by dysfunctional face processing. Most studies focused on emotional face processes, whereas non-emotional face processing received less attention. While current reports on abnormal face processing in SZ are mixed, examinations of non-emotional face processing compared to adequate control stimuli may clarify whether SZ is characterized by a face-processing deficit. Patients with SZ (n = 28 and healthy controls (n = 30 engaged in an fMRI scan where images of non-emotional faces and houses were presented. A simple inverted-picture detection task warranted the participants’ attention. Region of interest (ROI analyses were conducted on face-sensitive regions including the fusiform face area, the occipital face area, and the superior temporal sulcus. Scene-sensitivity was assessed in the parahippocampal place area (PPA and served as control condition. Patients did not show aberrant face-related neural processes in face-sensitive regions. This finding was also evident when analyses were done on individually defined ROIs or on in-house-localizer ROIs. Patients revealed a decreased specificity toward house stimuli as reflected in decreased neural response toward houses in the PPA. Again, this result was supported by supplementary analyses. Neural activation toward neutral faces was not found to be impaired in SZ, therefore speaking against an overall face-processing deficit. Aberrant activation in scene-sensitive PPA is also found in assessments of memory processes in SZ. It is up to future studies to show how impairments in PPA relate to functional outcome in SZ.
If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.
Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...
Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)
Beasley, Conger, Jr.
Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…
Rivers, E A; Strate, R G; Solem, L D
Fabrication of an accurate transparent mask for total contact pressure to the healed burned face proved helpful in controlling scarring. Wearing the mask for 20 hours daily, secured by elastic straps giving 35-mmHG pressure to the scar, can prevent the original facial contours from being distorted by contracting scar tissue.
Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In
Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming
Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.
This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…
Berk, L.; Stewart, J.L.; May, A.C.; Wiers, R.W.; Davenport, P.W.; Paulus, M.P.; Tapert, S.F.
Aims: Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) exhibit hyposensitivity to pleasant internally generated (interoceptive) stimuli and hypersensitivity to external rewarding stimuli. It is unclear whether similar patterns exist for aversive interoceptive stimuli. We compared activation in the
Yang, Shuo; Luo, Ping; Loy, Chen Change; Tang, Xiaoou
We propose a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for face detection leveraging on facial attributes based supervision. We observe a phenomenon that part detectors emerge within CNN trained to classify attributes from uncropped face images, without any explicit part supervision. The observation motivates a new method for finding faces through scoring facial parts responses by their spatial structure and arrangement. The scoring mechanism is data-driven, and carefully formulated considering challenging cases where faces are only partially visible. This consideration allows our network to detect faces under severe occlusion and unconstrained pose variations. Our method achieves promising performance on popular benchmarks including FDDB, PASCAL Faces, AFW, and WIDER FACE.
Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....
Tangen, Jason M; Murphy, Sean C; Thompson, Matthew B
We describe a novel face distortion effect resulting from the fast-paced presentation of eye-aligned faces. When cycling through the faces on a computer screen, each face seems to become a caricature of itself and some faces appear highly deformed, even grotesque. The degree of distortion is greatest for faces that deviate from the others in the set on a particular dimension (eg if a person has a large forehead, it looks particularly large). This new method of image presentation, based on alignment and speed, could provide a useful tool for investigating contrastive distortion effects and face adaptation.
Bigdeli Shamloo, Marzieh Beigom; Zonoori, Sahar; Naboureh, Abbas; Nasiri, Morteza; Bahrami, Hadi; Maneiey, Mohammad; Bayatiani, Fatemeh Allahyari
To assess the effect of face-to-face education on anxiety and pain in children with minor extremity injuries undergoing outpatient suturing. Children in intervention and control groups received face-to-face education (10 minutes) and no specific education, respectively. The anxiety and pain was measured using Modified-Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, and pain by Faces Pain Scale-Revised, respectively in 3 stages viz, pre-procedure and pre-intervention, post-procedure. Children in the intervention group were less anxious than the control at pre-procedure and post-intervention stage (41.1 (13.8) vs. 46.3 (19.1), respectively, P=0.03) and post-procedure and post-intervention stage (32.3 (17.2) vs. 40.2 (12.9), respectively, P=0.01). Children in the intervention group experienced less pain than the control at pre-procedure and post-intervention stage (3.9 (3.8) vs. 4.9 (3.1), respectively, Panxiety and pain in children undergoing suturing in the emergency department.
Shafto, Juliet P; Pitts, Michael A
Previous studies suggest that early stages of face-specific processing are performed preattentively and unconsciously, whereas conscious perception emerges with late-stage (>300 ms) neuronal activity. A conflicting view, however, posits that attention is necessary for face-specific processing and that early-to-mid latency neural responses (∼ 100-300 ms) correspond more closely with perceptual awareness. The current study capitalized on a recently developed method for manipulating attention and conscious perception during EEG recording (modified inattentional blindness paradigm) and used face stimuli that elicit a well known marker of early face processing, the N170 event-related potential (ERP). In Phase 1 of the experiment, subjects performed a demanding distracter task while line drawings of faces and matched control stimuli were presented in the center of their view. When queried, half of the subjects reported no awareness of the faces and were deemed inattentionally blind. In Phase 2, subjects performed the same distracter task, but now consciously perceived the face stimuli due to the intervening questioning. In Phase 3, subjects performed a discrimination task on the faces. Two primary contrasts were made: aware versus unaware (equally task irrelevant) and task-relevant versus task-irrelevant (equally aware). The N170 and a subsequent ERP component, the visual awareness negativity (∼ 260-300 ms), were absent during inattentional blindness and present in the aware conditions. The P3b (> 300 ms) was absent for task-irrelevant faces, even when consciously perceived, and present only when the faces were task relevant. These results inform contemporary theories of conscious face perception in particular and visual attention and perceptual awareness in general. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510940-09$15.00/0.
The premise of parent-centred programmes for parents of anxious children is to educate and train caregivers in the sustainable implementation of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in the home. The existing operationalization of parent involvement, however, does not address the systemic, parent or child factors that could influence this process. The qualitative approach of grounded theory was employed to examine patterns of action and interaction involved in the complex process of carrying out CBT with one's child in one's home. A grounded theory goes beyond the description of a process, offering an explanatory theory that brings taken-for-granted meanings and processes to the surface. The theory that emerged from the analysis suggests that CBT implementation by mothers of anxious children is characterized by the evolution of mothers' perception of their child and mothers' perception of their role as well as a shift from reacting with emotion to responding pragmatically to the child. Changes occur as mothers recognize the crisis, make links between the treatment rationale, child's symptoms and their own parenting strategies, integrate tenets of CBT for anxiety and eventually focus on sustaining therapeutic gains through natural life transitions. The theory widens our understanding of mothers' role, therapeutic engagement, process, and decision-making. The theory also generates new hypotheses regarding parent involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders and proposes novel research avenues that aim to maximize the benefits of parental involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Mothers of anxious youth who take part in parent-centred programmes experience a shift in their perception of the child and of their role. Parental strategy after CBT implementation shifts from emotional empathy to cognitive empathy. Mothers experience significant challenges and require additional support in prevention
Anne M Burrows
Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle
While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly
To enrich our knowledge about membrane domains, new measurement techniques with extended spatial and temporal windows are being vigorously developed by combining various approaches. Following such efforts of the scientific community, we set up fluorescence microspectroscopy (FMS), bridging two well established methods: fluorescence microscopy, which enables imaging of the samples with spatial resolution down to 200 nm, and fluorescence spectroscopy that provides molecular information of the environment at nanometer and nanosecond scale. The combined method therefore allows us to localize this type of information with the precision suitable for studying various cellular structures. Faced with weak available fluorescence signals, we have put considerable efforts into optimization of measurement processes and analysis of the data. By introducing a novel acquisition scheme and by fitting the data with a mathematical model, we preserved the spectral resolution, characteristic for spectroscopic measurements of bulk samples, also at microscopic level. We have at the same time overcome the effects of photobleaching, which had previously considerably distorted the measured spectral lineshape of photosensitive dyes and consequently hindered the reliability of FMS. Our new approach has therefore greatly extended the range of applicable environmentally sensitive probes, which can now be designed to better accommodate the needs of each particular experiment. Moreover, photobleaching of fluorescence signal can now even be exploited to obtain new valuable information about molecular environment of the probes, as bleaching rates of certain probes also depend on physical and chemical properties of the local surroundings. In this manner we increased the number of available spatially localized spectral parameters, which becomes invaluable when investigating complex biological systems that can only be adequately characterized by several independent variables. Applying the developed
The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.
Barratt, D.; Bundesen, Claus
was a standard flanker task with letter stimuli except that the task-neutral flankers were schematic faces that were either positive, negative, or emotionally neutral. In this case, in which faces and emotional expressions were to be ignored, performance seemed entirely unaffected by the faces. This result...... distractors, one on either side (schematic faces that were positive, negative, or neutral). The objective was to identify the central target as quickly as possible. The impact of the flankers depended on their emotional expression. Consistent with a threat advantage hypothesis (negative faces are processed......Attentional capture by schematic emotional faces was investigated in two experiments using the flanker task devised by Eriksen and Eriksen (1974). In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a central target (a schematic face that was either positive or negative) flanked by two identical...
Eckstein, Doris; Henson, Richard N
Reaction times for categorization of a probe face according to its sex or fame were contrasted as a function of whether the category of a preceding, sandwich-masked prime face was congruent or incongruent. Prime awareness was measured by the ability to later categorize the primes, and this was close to chance and typically uncorrelated with priming. When prime faces were never presented as visible probes within a test, priming was not reliable; when prime faces were also seen as probes, priming was only reliable if visible and masked presentation of faces were interleaved (not simply if primes had been visible in a previous session). In the latter case, priming was independent of experimentally induced face-response or face-category contingencies, ruling out any simple form of stimulus-response learning. We conclude that the reliable masked congruency priming reflects bindings between stimuli and multiple, abstract classifications that can be generated both overtly and covertly.
de Heer, Eric W; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M
Patients with widespread pain, such as in fibromyalgia, are vulnerable for depression and anxiety, which composes a relevant public health problem. Identifying risk factors for the onset of depression and anxiety is therefore warranted. Objective of this study was to determine whether severe pain, maladaptive coping, and poor illness perceptions are associated with depressive and anxious symptomatology in fibromyalgia. Consecutive patients referred to an outpatient clinic completed sets of physical and psychological questionnaires at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. A total of 452 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) were eligible for inclusion, and subsequently, 280 patients returned the baseline questionnaire. Depressive and anxious symptomatology was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. To measure pain severity, coping style, and illness perceptions, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Pain Coping Inventory, and the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were used, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, bootstrapping and calibration, were performed to examine the association of pain severity, pain coping, and illness perception with depressive and anxiety symptoms at follow-up, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Initial level of depressive and anxiety symptoms was selected as covariates. Mean age was 42.6 years and 95.4% were female. At 18-month follow-up, 68 (of the 195) patients were depressed and 80 (of the 197) were anxious. Only the IPQ-R subscale "emotional representations" showed a significant positive association with depressive symptoms at follow-up (OR = 1.10), next to the initial level of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.30). In case of anxiety, only the IPQ-R subscale "treatment control" showed a significant negative association with anxiety symptoms at follow-up (OR = 0.87), next to the initial level of anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.45). Our data suggest that not pain severity
Full Text Available Background: Sleep deprivation (SD plagues modern society due to the professional demands. It prevails in patients with mood and neuroinflammatory disorders. Although growing evidence suggests the improvement in the cognitive performance by psychostimulants during sleep-deprived conditions, the impending involved mechanism is rarely studied. Thus, we hypothesized that mood and inflammatory changes might be due to the glial cells activation induced modulation of the inflammatory cytokines during SD, which could be improved by administering psychostimulants. The present study evaluated the role of caffeine/modafinil on SD-induced behavioral and inflammatory consequences.Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were sleep deprived for 48 h using automated SD apparatus. Caffeine (60 mg/kg/day or modafinil (100 mg/kg/day were administered orally to rats once every day during SD. Rats were subjected to anxious and depressive behavioral evaluation after SD. Subsequently, blood and brain were collected for biochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular studies.Results: Sleep deprived rats presented an increased number of entries and time spent in closed arms in elevated plus maze test and decreased total distance traveled in the open field (OF test. Caffeine/modafinil treatment significantly improved these anxious consequences. However, we did not observe substantial changes in immobility and anhedonia in sleep-deprived rats. Caffeine/modafinil significantly down-regulated the pro- and up-regulated the anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus during SD. Similar outcomes were observed in blood plasma cytokine levels. Caffeine/modafinil treatment significantly decreased the microglial immunoreactivity in DG, CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus during SD, however, no significant increase in immunoreactivity of astrocytes was observed. Sholl analysis signified the improvement in the morphological alterations of astrocytes
Wadhwa, Meetu; Chauhan, Garima; Roy, Koustav; Sahu, Surajit; Deep, Satyanarayan; Jain, Vishal; Kishore, Krishna; Ray, Koushik; Thakur, Lalan; Panjwani, Usha
Background : Sleep deprivation (SD) plagues modern society due to the professional demands. It prevails in patients with mood and neuroinflammatory disorders. Although growing evidence suggests the improvement in the cognitive performance by psychostimulants during sleep-deprived conditions, the impending involved mechanism is rarely studied. Thus, we hypothesized that mood and inflammatory changes might be due to the glial cells activation induced modulation of the inflammatory cytokines during SD, which could be improved by administering psychostimulants. The present study evaluated the role of caffeine/modafinil on SD-induced behavioral and inflammatory consequences. Methods : Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were sleep deprived for 48 h using automated SD apparatus. Caffeine (60 mg/kg/day) or modafinil (100 mg/kg/day) were administered orally to rats once every day during SD. Rats were subjected to anxious and depressive behavioral evaluation after SD. Subsequently, blood and brain were collected for biochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular studies. Results : Sleep deprived rats presented an increased number of entries and time spent in closed arms in elevated plus maze test and decreased total distance traveled in the open field (OF) test. Caffeine/modafinil treatment significantly improved these anxious consequences. However, we did not observe substantial changes in immobility and anhedonia in sleep-deprived rats. Caffeine/modafinil significantly down-regulated the pro- and up-regulated the anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus during SD. Similar outcomes were observed in blood plasma cytokine levels. Caffeine/modafinil treatment significantly decreased the microglial immunoreactivity in DG, CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus during SD, however, no significant increase in immunoreactivity of astrocytes was observed. Sholl analysis signified the improvement in the morphological alterations of astrocytes and
Eric W. de Heer
Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with widespread pain, such as in fibromyalgia, are vulnerable for depression and anxiety, which composes a relevant public health problem. Identifying risk factors for the onset of depression and anxiety is therefore warranted. Objective of this study was to determine whether severe pain, maladaptive coping, and poor illness perceptions are associated with depressive and anxious symptomatology in fibromyalgia.MethodConsecutive patients referred to an outpatient clinic completed sets of physical and psychological questionnaires at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. A total of 452 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS were eligible for inclusion, and subsequently, 280 patients returned the baseline questionnaire. Depressive and anxious symptomatology was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. To measure pain severity, coping style, and illness perceptions, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Pain Coping Inventory, and the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R were used, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, bootstrapping and calibration, were performed to examine the association of pain severity, pain coping, and illness perception with depressive and anxiety symptoms at follow-up, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Initial level of depressive and anxiety symptoms was selected as covariates.ResultsMean age was 42.6 years and 95.4% were female. At 18-month follow-up, 68 (of the 195 patients were depressed and 80 (of the 197 were anxious. Only the IPQ-R subscale “emotional representations” showed a significant positive association with depressive symptoms at follow-up (OR = 1.10, next to the initial level of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.30. In case of anxiety, only the IPQ-R subscale “treatment control” showed a significant negative association with anxiety symptoms at follow-up (OR = 0.87, next to the initial level of anxiety symptoms (OR = 1
Mo, Ce; He, Dongjun; Fang, Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are used for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, but investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/inverted face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas primary visual cortex (V1) and the extrastriate cortex (V2 and V3) based on a voxelwise population receptive field model. We characterized the priority map behaviorally as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face-matching task relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face-matching task. We found that the differential first saccadic eye movement pattern between upright/inverted and scrambled faces could be predicted from the reconstructed topographic representations in V1-V3 in humans of either sex. The coupling between the reconstructed representation and the eye movement pattern increased from V1 to V2/3 for the upright faces, whereas no such effect was found for the inverted faces. Moreover, face inversion modulated the coupling in V2/3, but not in V1. Our findings provide new evidence for priority maps of natural stimuli in early visual areas and extend traditional attention priority map theories by revealing another critical factor that affects priority maps in extrastriate cortex in addition to physical salience and task goal relevance: image configuration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prominent theories of attention posit that attention sampling of visual information is mediated by a series of interacting topographic representations of visual space known as
Full Text Available Recent studies have evidenced an increasing interest in sex-related brain mechanisms and cerebral lateralization subserving emotional memory, language processing, and conversational behavior. We used event related potentials (ERP to examine the influence of sex and hemisphere on brain responses to emotional stimuli. Given that the P300 component of ERP is considered a cognitive neuroelectric phenomenon, we compared left and right hemisphere P300 responses to emotional stimuli in men and women. As indexed by both amplitude and latency measures, emotional stimuli elicited more robust P300 effects in the left hemisphere in women than in men, while a stronger P300 component was elicited in the right hemisphere in men compared to women. Our findings show that the variables of sex and hemisphere interacted significantly to influence the strength of the P300 component to the emotional stimuli. Emotional stimuli were also best recalled when given a long-term, incidental memory test, a fact potentially related to the differential P300 waves at encoding. Moreover, taking into account the sex-related differences in language processing and conversational behaviour, in the present study we evaluated possible talkativeness differences between the two genders in the recollection of emotional stimuli. Our data showed that women used a higher number of words, compared to men, to describe both arousal and neutral stories. Moreover, the present results support the view that sex differences in lateralization may not be a general feature of language processing but may be related to the specific condition, such as the emotional content of stimuli.
Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter
This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Hu, Xiaoqing; Nusslock, Robin
Temperamental-traits (e.g. threat/reward-sensitivity) are found to modulate cognitive-control and attentional-processes. Yet, it is unclear exactly how these traits interact with emotional-stimuli in the modulation of cognitive-control, as reflected by the N2 event-related potential (ERP), and attentional-processes, as reflected by the P2 and P3 ERPs. Here in an ERP emotional-Go/NoGo task, 36 participants were instructed to inhibit their response to Fearful- and Happy-faces. Individual-differences in threat-sensitivity, reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality were assessed through self-report. Hypomanic-personality was assessed, given its relationship with reward-sensitivity and relevance to mood-disorder symptoms. Concerning cognitive-control, individuals with elevated threat-sensitivity displayed more-negative N2s to Happy-NoGo (relative to Fearful-NoGo) faces, whereas both individuals with elevated reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality displayed more-negative N2s to Fearful-NoGo (relative to Happy-NoGo) faces. Accordingly, when cognitive-control is required (during Go/NoGo), a mismatch between one's temperament and the valence of the NoGo-stimulus elevates detection of the need for cognitive-control. Conversely, the modulation of attentional-processing was specific to threat-sensitivity, as there was no relationship between either reward-sensitivity or hypomanic-personality and attentional-processing. Elevated threat-sensitivity was associated with enhanced early (P2s) and later (P3s) attentional-processing to Fearful-NoGo (relative to Happy-NoGo) faces. These latter findings support the negative attentional-bias model relating elevated threat-sensitivity with attentional-biases toward negative-stimuli and away from positive-stimuli. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang
Children’s recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Four-, 8-, and 14-year-old Chinese children were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with the faces used as stimuli for one academic year. The results showed that children from all age groups demonstrated an advantage for recognition of t...
Rebecca B. Price
Full Text Available Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts.
Ferri, Jamie; Bress, Jennifer N; Eaton, Nicholas R; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak
Adolescence is associated with the onset of puberty, shifts in social and emotional behavior and an increased vulnerability to social anxiety disorder. These transitions coincide with changes in amygdala response to social and affective stimuli. Utilizing an emotional face-matching task, we examined amygdala response to peer-aged neutral and fearful faces in relation to puberty and social anxiety in a sample of 60 adolescent females between the ages of 8 and 15 years. We observed amygdala activation in response to both neutral and fearful faces compared to the control condition but did not observe differential amygdala activation between fearful and neutral faces. Right amygdala activity in response to neutral faces was negatively correlated with puberty and positively correlated with social anxiety, and these effects were statistically independent. Puberty and social anxiety did not relate to amygdala activation in response to fearful faces. These findings suggest that emotional differentiation between fearful and neutral faces may arise during later pubertal development and may result from decreasing sensitivity to neutral faces rather than increasing sensitivity to threatening faces. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences in social anxiety when examining the neural response to social stimuli in adolescents. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The capacity to recognize perceptually similar complex visual stimuli such as human faces has classically been thought to require a large primate, and/or mammalian brain with neurobiological adaptations. However, recent work suggests that the relatively small brain of a paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, possesses specialized face processing capabilities. In parallel, the honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been shown to be able to rely on configural learning for extensive visual learning, thus converging with primate visual processing. Therefore, the honeybee may be able to recognize human faces, and show sophisticated learning performance due to its foraging lifestyle involving visiting and memorizing many flowers. We investigated the visual capacities of the widespread invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris, which is unlikely to have any specialization for face processing. Freely flying individual wasps were trained in an appetitive-aversive differential conditioning procedure to discriminate between perceptually similar human face images from a standard face recognition test. The wasps could then recognize the target face from novel dissimilar or similar human faces, but showed a significant drop in performance when the stimuli were rotated by 180°, thus paralleling results acquired on a similar protocol with honeybees. This result confirms that a general visual system can likely solve complex recognition tasks, the first stage to evolve a visual expertise system to face recognition, even in the absence of neurobiological or behavioral specialization.
Huber, Ludwig; Racca, Anaïs; Scaf, Billy; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike
Faces are an important visual category for many taxa, and the human face is no exception to this. Because faces differ in subtle ways and possess many idiosyncratic features, they provide a rich source of perceptual cues. A fair amount of those cues are learned through social interactions and are used for future identification of individual humans. These effects of individual experience can be studied particularly well in hetero-specific face perception. Domestic dogs represent a perfect model in this respect, due to their proved ability to extract important information from the human face in socio-communicative interactions. There is also suggestive evidence that dogs can identify their owner or other familiar human individuals by using visual information from the face. However, most studies have used only dogs’ looking behavior to examine their visual processing of human faces and it has been demonstrated only that dogs can differentiate between familiar and unknown human faces. Here, we examined the dog's ability to discriminate the faces of two familiar persons by active choice (approach and touch). Furthermore, in successive stages of the experiment we investigated how well dogs discriminate humans in different representations by systematically reducing the informational richness and the quality of the stimuli. We found a huge inter-individual and inter-stage variance in performance, indicating differences across dogs in their learning ability as well as their selection of discriminative cues. On a group level, the performance of dogs significantly decreased when they were presented with pictures of human heads after having learned to discriminate the real heads, and when – after relearning – confronted with the same pictures showing only the inner parts of the heads. However, as two dogs quickly mastered all stages, we conclude that dogs are in principle able to discriminate people on the basis of visual information from their faces and by making active
Jane Elizabeth Joseph
Full Text Available Although infants demonstrate sensitivity to some kinds of perceptual information in faces, many face capacities continue to develop throughout childhood. One debate is the degree to which children perceive faces analytically versus holistically and how these processes undergo developmental change. In the present study, school-aged children and adults performed a perceptual matching task with upright and inverted face and house pairs that varied in similarity of featural or 2nd order configural information. Holistic processing was operationalized as the degree of serial processing when discriminating faces and houses (i.e., increased reaction time, RT, as more features or spacing relations were shared between stimuli. Analytical processing was operationalized as the degree of parallel processing (or no change in reaction time as a function of greater similarity of features or spatial relations. Adults showed the most evidence for holistic processing (most strongly for 2nd order faces and holistic processing was weaker for inverted faces and houses. Younger children (6-8 years, in contrast, showed analytical processing across all experimental manipulations. Older children (9-11 years showed an intermediate pattern with a trend toward holistic processing of 2nd order faces like adults, but parallel processing in other experimental conditions like younger children. These findings indicate that holistic face representations emerge around 10 years of age. In adults both 2nd order and featural information are incorporated into holistic representations, whereas older children only incorporate 2nd order information. Holistic processing was not evident in younger children. Hence, the development of holistic face representations relies on 2nd order processing initially then incorporates featural information by adulthood.
Truppa, Valentina; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Spinozzi, Giovanna; Bisazza, Angelo
Three experiments were designed to investigate visual processing of global and local dimensions of hierarchical stimuli in fish (Xenotoca eiseni). In the first experiment, fish were trained to discriminate between a circle made of circle elements and a cross made of cross elements (consistent stimuli), and tested with a circle made of crosses and a cross made of circles (inconsistent stimuli) to asses their global/local encoding preferences. Fish were also tested for their ability to discriminate single-element shapes. The second and the third experiments manipulated the density of the local elements (Experiment 2) and the size of the global and local shapes of the stimuli (Experiment 3) to assess whether these variables could affect global or local perception of hierarchical visual patterns in fish. In all the experiments, fish showed a global preference irrespective of the density and the size of the stimuli. This preference was not because of an inability to perceive the local constituents of the stimulus, since both fish trained with consistent and fish trained with inconsistent figures showed a clear capacity to discriminate between single-element shapes. Overall, these results suggest that a global preference is not a unique trait of human beings and that differences among different vertebrate species in the global/local strategies of stimulus encoding may be because of different ecological adaptations making initial elaboration of a visual scene in a global or local way more likely.
Lange, Joachim; Kapala, Katharina; Krause, Holger; Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons
For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation. While rapid recalibration has been demonstrated for audio-visual stimuli, evidence for rapid recalibration of visuo-tactile stimuli is lacking. Here, we investigated rapid recalibration in the visuo-tactile domain. Subjects received visual and tactile stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) and were asked to report whether the visuo-tactile stimuli were presented simultaneously. Our results demonstrate visuo-tactile rapid recalibration by revealing that subjects' simultaneity reports were modulated by the temporal order of stimulation in the preceding trial. This rapid recalibration effect, however, was only significant if the SOA in the preceding trial was smaller than 100 ms, while rapid recalibration could not be demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms. Since rapid recalibration in the audio-visual domain has been demonstrated for SOAs larger than 100 ms, we propose that visuo-tactile recalibration works at shorter SOAs, and thus faster time scales than audio-visual rapid recalibration.
The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.
In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.
The Commentary contests the increasingly outdated and narrow use of the terminology 'face-to-face' (often abbreviated as F2F) to connote clinical interactions in which both the client and the practitioner are physically present in the same room or space. An expanded definition is necessary because when delivered synchronously via videoconferencing, telehealth also provides face-to-face services (i.e., the practitioner and the client view each other's faces). Terminology that uses face-to-face to connote only in-person care is limiting and perpetuates language that is out of line with progressive US regulatory language and broad interpretation within existing regulatory language. It is this author's hope that this commentary will raise awareness of the important policy implications associated with this seemingly minor distinction in terminology and impact the lingering misapplication of the term, face-to-face.
Moulton, Eric A; Pendse, Gautam; Morris, Susie; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David
Though somatotypic representation within the face in human primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to innocuous stimuli is controversial; previous work suggests that painful heat is represented based on an "onion-skin" or segmental pattern on the face. The aim of this study was to determine if face somatotopy for brush stimuli in S1 also follows this segmental representation model. Twelve healthy subjects (nine men: three women) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood oxygen level dependent signals during brush (1 Hz, 15 s) applied to their faces. Separate functional scans were collected for brush stimuli repetitively applied to each of five separate stimulation sites on the right side of the face. These sites were arranged in a vertical, horizontal, and circular manner encompassing the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve. To minimize inter-individual morphological differences in the post-central gyrus across subjects, cortical surface-based registration was implemented before group statistical image analysis. Based on activation foci, somatotopic activation in the post-central gyrus was detected for brush, consistent with the segmental face representation model.
Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T
Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3 years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beckes, Lane; Coan, James A; Morris, James P
Not much is known about the neural and psychological processes that promote the initial conditions necessary for positive social bonding. This study explores one method of conditioned bonding utilizing dynamics related to the social regulation of emotion and attachment theory. This form of conditioning involves repeated presentations of negative stimuli followed by images of warm, smiling faces. L. Beckes, J. Simpson, and A. Erickson (2010) found that this conditioning procedure results in positive associations with the faces measured via a lexical decision task, suggesting they are perceived as comforting. This study found that the P1 ERP was similarly modified by this conditioning procedure and the P1 amplitude predicted lexical decision times to insecure words primed by the faces. The findings have implications for understanding how the brain detects supportive people, the flexibility and modifiability of early ERP components, and social bonding more broadly. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Yang, J.; Cao, Z.; Xu, X.; Chen, G.
The object of this study was to investigate whether the amygdala is involved in affective priming effect after stimuli are encoded unconsciously and consciously. During the encoding phase, each masked face (fearful or neutral) was presented to participants six times for 17 ms each, using a backward masking paradigm. During the retrieval phase,…
Palermo, Romina; Rossion, Bruno; Rhodes, Gillian; Laguesse, Renaud; Tez, Tolga; Hall, Bronwyn; Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta; Irons, Jessica; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Taylor, Libby C; Rivolta, Davide; McKone, Elinor
Diagnosis of developmental or congenital prosopagnosia (CP) involves self-report of everyday face recognition difficulties, which are corroborated with poor performance on behavioural tests. This approach requires accurate self-evaluation. We examine the extent to which typical adults have insight into their face recognition abilities across four experiments involving nearly 300 participants. The experiments used five tests of face recognition ability: two that tap into the ability to learn and recognize previously unfamiliar faces [the Cambridge Face Memory Test, CFMT; Duchaine, B., & Nakayama, K. (2006). The Cambridge Face Memory Test: Results for neurologically intact individuals and an investigation of its validity using inverted face stimuli and prosopagnosic participants. Neuropsychologia, 44(4), 576-585. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.07.001; and a newly devised test based on the CFMT but where the study phases involve watching short movies rather than viewing static faces-the CFMT-Films] and three that tap face matching [Benton Facial Recognition Test, BFRT; Benton, A., Sivan, A., Hamsher, K., Varney, N., & Spreen, O. (1983). Contribution to neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press; and two recently devised sequential face matching tests]. Self-reported ability was measured with the 15-item Kennerknecht et al. questionnaire [Kennerknecht, I., Ho, N. Y., & Wong, V. C. (2008). Prevalence of hereditary prosopagnosia (HPA) in Hong Kong Chinese population. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 146A(22), 2863-2870. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32552]; two single-item questions assessing face recognition ability; and a new 77-item meta-cognition questionnaire. Overall, we find that adults with typical face recognition abilities have only modest insight into their ability to recognize faces on behavioural tests. In a fifth experiment, we assess self-reported face recognition ability in people with CP and find that some people who expect to
Civile, Ciro; Obhi, Sukhvinder S; McLaren, I P L
Perceptual learning of the type we consider here is a consequence of experience with a class of stimuli. It amounts to an enhanced ability to discriminate between stimuli. We argue that it contributes to the ability to distinguish between faces and recognize individuals, and in particular contributes to the face inversion effect (better recognition performance for upright vs inverted faces). Previously, we have shown that experience with a prototype defined category of checkerboards leads to perceptual learning, that this produces an inversion effect, and that this effect can be disrupted by Anodal tDCS to Fp3 during pre-exposure. If we can demonstrate that the same tDCS manipulation also disrupts the inversion effect for faces, then this will strengthen the claim that perceptual learning contributes to that effect. The important question, then, is whether this tDCS procedure would significantly reduce the inversion effect for faces; stimuli that we have lifelong expertise with and for which perceptual learning has already occurred. Consequently, in the experiment reported here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS at Fp3 during an old/new recognition task for upright and inverted faces. Our results show that stimulation significantly reduced the face inversion effect compared to controls. The effect was one of reducing recognition performance for upright faces. This result is the first to show that tDCS affects perceptual learning that has already occurred, disrupting individuals' ability to recognize upright faces. It provides further support for our account of perceptual learning and its role as a key factor in face recognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Silvana A; Pereira Junior, Antônio; Costa, Marcelo F da; Monteiro, Margareth de V; Almeida, Valéria A de; Fonseca Filho, Gentil G da; Arrais, Nívia; Simion, Francesca
Visual preference for faces at birth is the product of a multimodal sensory experience experienced by the fetus even during the gestational period. The ability to recognize faces allows an ecologically advantageous interaction with the social environment. However, perinatal events such as premature birth, may adversely affect the adequate development of this capacity. In this study, we evaluated the preference for facial stimuli in preterm infants within the first few hours after birth. This is a cross-sectional observational study of 59 newborns, 28 preterm and 31 full-term infants. The babies were assessed in the first hours of life, with two white boards in the shape of a head and neck: one with the drawing of a face similar to the human face (natural face), and one with the drawing of misaligned eyes, mouth and nose (distorted face). After the newborn fixated the eyes on the presented stimulus, it was slowly moved along the visual field. The recognition of the stimulus was considered present when the baby had eye or head movements toward the stimulus. The preterm infants, in addition to showing a lower occurrence of orientation movements for both stimuli, on average (1.8±1.1 to natural faces and 2.0±1.2 for distorted ones) also showed no preference for any of them (p=0.35). Full-term newborns showed a different behavior, in which they showed a preference for natural faces (p=0.002) and a higher number of orientations for the stimulus, for both natural (3.2±0.8) and distorted faces (2.5±0.9). Preterm newborns recognize facial stimuli and disclose no preference for natural faces, different from full-term newborns. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Silvana A. Pereira
Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: Visual preference for faces at birth is the product of a multimodal sensory experience experienced by the fetus even during the gestational period. The ability to recognize faces allows an ecologically advantageous interaction with the social environment. However, perinatal events such as premature birth, may adversely affect the adequate development of this capacity. In this study, we evaluated the preference for facial stimuli in preterm infants within the first few hours after birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of 59 newborns, 28 preterm and 31 full-term infants. The babies were assessed in the first hours of life, with two white boards in the shape of a head and neck: one with the drawing of a face similar to the human face (natural face, and one with the drawing of misaligned eyes, mouth and nose (distorted face. After the newborn fixated the eyes on the presented stimulus, it was slowly moved along the visual field. The recognition of the stimulus was considered present when the baby had eye or head movements toward the stimulus. Results: The preterm infants, in addition to showing a lower occurrence of orientation movements for both stimuli, on average (1.8 ± 1.1 to natural faces and 2.0 ± 1.2 for distorted ones also showed no preference for any of them (p = 0.35. Full-term newborns showed a different behavior, in which they showed a preference for natural faces (p = 0.002 and a higher number of orientations for the stimulus, for both natural (3.2 ± 0.8 and distorted faces (2.5 ± 0.9. Conclusion: Preterm newborns recognize facial stimuli and disclose no preference for natural faces, different from full-term newborns.
Guidelines in the Huntington disease genetic counseling community have set a standard for the process of at-risk counseling, recommending the involvement of a multidisciplinary team, which includes a psychiatrist or psychologist. Though most studies have been largely reassuring regarding the psychologic consequences of predictive testing, there are individuals presenting to testing who really want something else other than the test results, who are being pressured by others to obtain results, or who remain deeply ambivalent about testing. Particularly concerning are those testing candidates who are highly anxious or depressed at the time of presentation. Balancing the ethical principles of autonomy with beneficence and nonmaleficence requires careful exploration of the motivations behind testing to ensure that all are fully informed of alternatives, and opportunities for further support are offered when needed. This chapter illustrates 13 areas of focus and inquiry in the psychiatric interview and gives some case examples to illustrate an approach to the psychiatric assessment and counseling of highly anxious individuals seeking genetic testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra
Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.
A Porto, Juliana; L Nunes, Magda; Nelson, Charles A
To describe the main findings of studies of behavioral and neural correlates regarding the development of facial emotion processing during the first year of life in typically developing infants and infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers. Comprehensive, non-systematic review of the literature on studies about individual differences in facial emotion processing by newborns and infants over the first year of life. Maternal stress related to depression and anxiety has been associated to atypical emotional processing and attentional behaviors in the offspring. Recent neurophysiological studies using electroencephalogram and event-related potentials have begun to shed light on the possible mechanisms underlying such behaviors. Infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers have increased risk for several adverse outcomes across the lifespan. Further neurobehavioral investigations and the promotion of clinical and developmental research integration might eventually contribute to refining screening tools, improving treatment, and enabling primary prevention interventions for children at risk. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Silva, Sónia; Moreira, Helena
This study aimed to determine whether marital intimacy mediates the association between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and anxious symptoms in women who had recently completed breast cancer treatments and breast cancer survivors. Forty-eight patients who had completed their treatment six months prior to the study and 46 disease-free survivors who had completed their treatments at least one year prior to the study completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Personal Assessment of Intimacy Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Recently off-treatment patients reported higher levels of intimacy than survivors did. Path analyses showed that higher levels of the Appreciation of Life dimension of PTG were associated with less anxious symptoms through higher levels of marital intimacy. The type of group did not moderate these associations. Regardless of the disease phase, the experience of positive changes after breast cancer in terms of an enhanced appreciation of life seems to be associated with an increased perception of intimacy in the context of a dyadic relationship, which, in turn, is associated with less anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramírez, Carmenza Ricardo; Álvarez, Matilde; Prieto, Germán Valencia; Otálvaro, Felipe Tirado
This study describes prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms together with family, environmental and personal risk factors in a group of adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age in a private school of Medellín. An analytic observational cross sectional study was performed in 152 adolescents, evaluating sociodemographic aspects and prevalence of depressive and anxious symptomatology, as established through BDI-II and BAI. Average age was 15.4 ± 0.9 years old, with a 25% prevalence of anxiety symptoms and 25.7% of depressive symptoms. From the 38 (25%) students with BAI positive, 26 (68.4%) were BDI positive, and from the 39 (25.6%) students with BDI positive, 26 (66.7%) were BAI positive. the risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptomatology were: being a woman, being a victim of bullying and abuse. Having friends was the protective factors for depressive symptomatology. There was a statistical association between self-report of depressive and anxiety symptomatology; between the anxiety self-report and the depressive symptomatology; as well as between depressive and anxiety symptomatology and parents' perception of such symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children′s response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. Study Design: This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.
Kaur, Rajwinder; Jindal, Ritu; Dua, Rohini; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sethi, Kunal; Garg, Sunny
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children's response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.
Maas, Megan K; Vasilenko, Sara A; Willoughby, Brian J
The majority of research on pornography use within committed relationships has found such use to be associated with negative outcomes. However, given the variability in pornography use among couples, the current study sought to examine moderators in the association between pornography use and relationship satisfaction in a large sample of heterosexual matched-paired couples (N = 6,626). Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) revealed that for men who are more anxiously attached, more pornography use is associated with higher relationship satisfaction; whereas for women who are more anxiously attached, more pornography use is associated with lower relationship satisfaction. For men who are more accepting of pornography, more pornography use is associated with more relationship satisfaction; however, for men who are less accepting of pornography, more pornography use is associated with less relationship satisfaction. There was little difference in relationship satisfaction at differing levels of pornography use for women who are high in pornography acceptance. For women who are low in pornography acceptance, pornography use is associated with less relationship satisfaction. Results are discussed and recommendations for practitioners are made through the lens of symbolic interaction theory.
Borsook, D; Moulton, E A; Tully, S; Schmahmann, J D; Becerra, L
Though human pain imaging studies almost always demonstrate activation in the cerebellum, the role of the cerebellum in pain function is not well understood. Here we present results from two studies on the effects of noxious thermal heat and brush applied to the right side of the face in a group of healthy subjects (Group I) and a group of patients with neuropathic pain (Group II) who are more sensitive to both thermal and mechanical stimuli. Statistically significant activations and volumes of activations were defined in the cerebellum. Activated cerebellar structures were identified by colocalization of fMRI activation with the 'MRI Atlas of the Human Cerebellum'. Functional data (obtained using a 3T magnet) were defined in terms of maximum voxels and volume of activation in the cerebellum. Volume maps were then mapped onto two millimeter serial slices taken through the cerebellum in order to identify activation within regions defined by the activation volume. The data indicate that different regions of the cerebellum are involved in acute and chronic pain processing. Heat produces greater contralateral activation compared with brush, while brush resulted in more ipsilateral/bilateral cerebellar activation. Further, innocuous brush stimuli in healthy subjects produced decreased cerebellar activation in lobules concerned with somatosensory processing. The data also suggest a dichotomy of innocuous stimuli/sensorimotor cerebellum activation versus noxious experience/cognitive/limbic cerebellum activation. These results lead us to propose that the cerebellum may modulate the emotional and cognitive experience that distinguishes the perception of pain from the appreciation of innocuous sensory stimulation.
Kirkwood, Brent Christopher
an acoustic head and torso simulator, and 3) diotic presentation of monaurally recorded stimuli. Live presentation of stimuli has already been used by C. Carello, et al. [Psychological Science 9, 211-214 (1998)] to demonstrate that humans can hear reasonably well the length of wooden dowels dropped onto hard...... surfaces. This experiment was performed to assess the significance of the presentation technique and to better understand the underlying acoustic structure important for length perception. Normal-hearing test subjects were seated facing away from an acoustically transparent but visually opaque screen. Test...... subjects listened to recordings presented via headphones and to the live presentation of wooden dowels of various lengths being dropped on a linoleum floor behind the screen. The subjects were asked to produce estimates of the rod lengths by positioning a moveable surface in such a way that it corresponded...
Bergström-Isacsson, Märith; Lagerkvist, Bengt; Holck, Ulla
People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have severe communicative difficulties. They have as well an immature brainstem that implies dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Music plays an important role in their life, is often used as a motivating tool in a variety of situations and activities......, and caregivers are often clear about people with RTTs favourites. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and emotional responses related to six different musical stimuli in people with RTT. The study included 29 participants with RTT who were referred to the Swedish Rett Center for medical......, arousal (alerting) response and unclear response. The results showed that all participants responded to the musical stimuli, but not always in the expected way. It was noticeable that both people with and without RTT responded with an arousal to all musical stimuli to begin with. Even though the initial...
Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki
Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli.
Jacinto, Laís Alves; Ribeiro, Karen Barros; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
To verify the interference of visual stimuli in written production of deaf signers with no complaints regarding reading and writing. The research group consisted of 12 students with education between the 4th and 5th grade of elementary school, with severe or profound sensorineural hearing loss, users of LIBRAS and with alphabetical writing level. The evaluation was performed with pictures in a logical sequence and an action picture. The analysis used the communicative competence criteria. There were no differences in the writing production of the subjects for both stimuli. In all texts there was no title and punctuation, verbs were in the infinitive mode, there was lack of cohesive links and inclusion of created words. The different visual stimuli did not affect the production of texts.
Malik, R; Krasney, M S; Aldworth, B; Ladd, H W
The present study assessed the effectiveness of subliminal psychodynamic stimuli in reducing anxiety. 50 male and 50 female college students were tachistoscopically exposed to one of five stimuli: MOMMY AND I ARE ONE, DADDY AND I ARE ONE, I AM HAPPY WITH MYSELF, ONE, or a control stimulus MYMMO NAD I REA ENO. It was hypothesized that men would show a significant decrease in anxiety to the MOMMY stimulus, while women were expected to respond favorably to either the MOMMY or DADDY stimulus, or to both. Results showed that the subliminal stimuli did not produce differential effects on anxiety. This finding did not support previous claims for subliminal psychodynamic activation that the stimulation of symbiotic fantasy with the maternal figure produces positive behavioral effects. Despite this negative finding women's response to the MOMMY message was predicted by measures of self-perception.
G. Roshan Deen
Full Text Available Stimuli-responsive, smart, intelligent, or environmentally sensitive polymers respond to changes in external stimuli such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, surfactants, pressure, light, biomolecules, and magnetic field. These materials are developed in various network architectures such as block copolymers, crosslinked hydrogels, nanogels, inter-penetrating networks, and dendrimers. Stimuli-responsive cationic polymers and hydrogels are an interesting class of “smart” materials that respond reversibly to changes in external pH. These materials have the ability to swell extensively in solutions of acidic pH and de-swell or shrink in solutions of alkaline pH. This reversible swelling-shrinking property brought about by changes in external pH conditions makes these materials useful in a wide range of applications such as drug delivery systems and chemical sensors. This article focuses mainly on the properties of these interesting materials and their applications in drug delivery systems.
David F Nichols
Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.
Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the conditions in which eye-contact may improve recognition memory for faces. Different stimuli and procedures were tested in four experiments. The effect of gaze direction on memory was found when a simple “yes-no” recognition task was used but not when the recognition task was more complex (e.g., including “Remember-Know” judgements, cf. Experiment 2, or confidence ratings, cf. Experiment 4. Moreover, even when a “yes-no” recognition paradigm was used, the effect occurred with one series of stimuli (cf. Experiment 1 but not with another one (cf. Experiment 3. The difficulty to produce the positive effect of gaze direction on memory is discussed.
Willem J.M.I. Verbeke
Full Text Available We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A or together (T. We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants’ cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T versus A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants’ anxious attachment style.
Brian D. Earp
Full Text Available In cognitive science, there is an ongoing debate about the architecture of the mind: does it consist of a number of mental “organs” each managing a different function in isolation, or is it more of general processor, adaptable to a wide range of tasks? One corner of this debate has centered on face processing. This is because face-perception is crucial to normal human functioning and some evidence shows that faces may be processed by the brain in a privileged way compared to other types of stimuli. For example, in EEG brain recordings, the N170 is a characteristic signal that occurs after a participant is exposed to an image of a face, but it is much less pronounced when other stimuli are shown. More than 15 years of research on the “N170 face effect” have yielded the standard view that the N170 is at the very least face-sensitive, and possibly even face-specific, that is, indexing modular processes tied exclusively to facial geometries. The specificity claim is clearly stronger, and hence subject to significant controversy; while the more conservative “sensitivity” claim had been regarded (until recently as effectively settled. Nevertheless, Thierry and colleagues, in a contentious 2007 article, sought to undermine even this “conservative” consensus: they argued that the apparent face-responsiveness of the N170 in prior research was due to systematic flaws in experimental design. Fiery debate has followed. In this review, we put the debate in its historical and philosophical context, and try to spell out some of the theoretical and logical assumptions that underlie the claims of the competing camps. We then show that the best available evidence counts, at least partially, against the Thierry et al. construal of the N170. Accordingly, it would be premature to abandon the “conservative” account of the N170, according to which it is – minimally – responsive to faces. We conclude by returning to the more controversial claim
Klackl, Johannes; Jonas, Eva; Kronbichler, Martin
According to terror management theory, self-esteem serves as a buffer against existential anxiety. This proposition is well supported empirically, but its neuronal underpinnings are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present neuroimaging study, our aim was to test how self-esteem affects our neural circuitry activation when death-related material is processed. Consistent with previous findings, the bilateral insula responded less to death-related stimuli relative to similarly unpleasant, but death-unrelated sentences, an effect that might reflect a decrease in the sense of oneself in the face of existential threat. In anterior parts of the insula, this 'deactivation' effect was more pronounced for high self-esteem individuals, suggesting that the insula might be of core importance to understanding the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem. In addition, low self-esteem participants responded with enhanced activation to death-related over unpleasant stimuli in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting that regulating death-related thoughts might be more effortful to these individuals. Together, this suggests that the anxiety-buffering effect of self-esteem might be implemented in the brain in the form of both insula-dependent awareness mechanisms and prefrontal cortex-dependent regulation mechanisms. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J
The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.
Howard, James D; Kahnt, Thorsten; Gottfried, Jay A
Perceptually similar stimuli often predict vastly different outcomes, requiring the brain to maintain specific associations in the face of potential ambiguity. This could be achieved either through local changes in stimulus representations, or through modulation of functional connections between stimulus-coding and outcome-coding regions. Here we test these competing hypotheses using classical conditioning of perceptually similar odours in the context of human fMRI. Pattern-based analyses of odour-evoked fMRI activity reveal that odour category, identity and value are coded in piriform (PC), orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortices, respectively. However, we observe no learning-related reorganization of category or identity representations. Instead, changes in connectivity between vmPFC and OFC are correlated with learning-related changes in value, whereas connectivity changes between vmPFC and PC predict changes in perceived odour similarity. These results demonstrate that dissociable neural pathways support associative and perceptual representations of sensory stimuli.
Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D
Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status.
Cassandra A Adduri
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD develop visuospatial difficulties that affect their ability to mentally rotate objects. Surprisingly, the existing literature has generally ignored the impact of this mental rotation deficit on the ability of AD patients to recognize faces from different angles. Instead, the devastating loss of the ability to recognize friends and family members in AD has primarily been attributed to memory loss and agnosia in later stages of the disorder. The impact of AD on areas of the brain important for mental rotation should not be overlooked by face processing investigations -- even in early stages of the disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the sensitivity of face processing in AD, young controls and older non-neurological controls to two changes of the stimuli -- a rotation in depth and an inversion. The control groups showed a systematic effect of depth rotation, with errors increasing with the angle of rotation, and with inversion. The majority of the AD group was not impaired when faces were presented upright and no transformation in depth was required, and were most accurate when all faces were presented in frontal views, but accuracy was severely impaired with any rotation or inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that with the onset of AD, mental rotation difficulties arise that affect the ability to recognize faces presented at different angles. The finding that a frontal view is "preferred" by these patients provides a valuable communication strategy for health care workers.
Brun-Graeppi, Amanda K Andriola Silva; Richard, Cyrille; Bessodes, Michel; Scherman, Daniel; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm
Cell microcarriers and microcapsules have presented a wide range of potential applications. This article overviews their role in biotechnology with focus on the progress accomplished using stimuli-responsive polymers. Key properties of cell microcarriers and microcapsules are identified, followed by a description of the chemistry and gel formation mechanism of some of the stimuli-responsive polymers used to design them. Production methods are introduced and characterization techniques for evaluating such microsystems are equally presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McIntyre, Roger S; Weiller, Emmanuelle; Zhang, Peter; Weiss, Catherine
Anxiety symptoms are prevalent in major depressive disorder (MDD) and are associated with greater illness severity, suicidality, impaired functioning and poor response to antidepressant treatment (ADT). The efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole - a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator - as adjunctive treatment in patients with MDD was recently evaluated in two phase 3 studies. We here present a post-hoc analysis of the efficacy of adjunctive brexpiprazole in patients with MDD and symptoms of anxious distress, defined using proxies for DSM-5 criteria. Eligible patients were randomized to 2mg brexpiprazole+ADT or placebo+ADT (NCT01360645); or 1mg brexpiprazole+ADT, 3mg brexpiprazole+ADT, or placebo+ADT (NCT01360632), respectively. Patients were defined as having anxious distress if they had ≥2 of the symptoms tension (MADRS item 3 score ≥3), restlessness (IDS item 24 score ≥2), concentration (MADRS item 6 score ≥3), or apprehension (HAM-D item 10 score ≥3). Primary efficacy endpoint was change in MADRS total score from baseline to Week 6. 55% of the patients had anxious distress at baseline. Adjunctive brexpiprazole showed greater improvement than adjunctive placebo on the primary efficacy endpoint in both patients with (least square mean difference to placebo+ADT: 2mg+ADT: -2.95, p=0.0023; 3mg+ADT: -2.81, p=0.0027); and without anxious distress (1mg+ADT: -2.37, p=0.0093; 3mg+ADT: -2.23, p=0.0131). Brexpiprazole in patients with anxious distress was not associated with an increased incidence of activating adverse events (e.g., akathisia). Adjunctive brexpiprazole 2-3mg may be efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and is well tolerated, in patients with MDD and anxious distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit
's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...
Wallentin, Mikkel; Skakkebæk, Anne; Bojesen, Anders
response to motor output in primary motor cortex and an increased response to auditory stimuli in auditory cortices, but no difference in primary visual cortices. KS displayed a diminished response to written visual stimuli in secondary visual regions near the Visual Word Form Area, consistent....... No effects of testosterone level or brain volume were found. In sum, the present findings suggest that auditory and motor systems in KS are selectively affected, perhaps as a compensatory strategy, and that this is not a systemic effect as it is not seen in the visual system....... as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and adaptation effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying “GREEN” or “RED” had the same distribution, making it possible to study effects of perceptual modality as well as Frequency effects across modalities. We found that KS had an increased...
Brunyé, Tad T; Moran, Joseph M; Holmes, Amanda; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A
The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0.5mA versus 1.5mA intensity; a separate control group received no stimulation. Participants completed a working memory task for face and house stimuli, varying in memory load from 1 to 4 items. Individual differences measures assessed trait-based differences in facial recognition skills. Results showed 1.5mA intensity stimulation (versus 0.5mA and control) increased performance at high memory loads, but only with faces. Lower overall working memory capacity predicted a positive impact of tDCS. Results provide support for the notion of functional specialization of the right fusiform regions for maintaining face (but not non-face object) stimuli in working memory, and further suggest that low intensity electrical stimulation of this region may enhance demanding face working memory performance particularly in those with relatively poor baseline working memory skills. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Menzel, Claudia; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Redies, Christoph; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula
The presence of noise usually impairs the processing of a stimulus. Here, we studied the effects of noise on face processing and show, for the first time, that adaptation to noise patterns has beneficial effects on face perception. We used noiseless faces that were either surrounded by random noise or presented on a uniform background as stimuli. In addition, the faces were either preceded by noise adaptors or not. Moreover, we varied the statistics of the noise so that its spectral slope either matched that of the faces or it was steeper or shallower. Results of parallel ERP recordings showed that the background noise reduces the amplitude of the face-evoked N170, indicating less intensive face processing. Adaptation to a noise pattern, however, led to reduced P1 and enhanced N170 amplitudes as well as to a better behavioral performance in two of the three noise conditions. This effect was also augmented by the presence of background noise around the target stimuli. Additionally, the spectral slope of the noise pattern affected the size of the P1, N170 and P2 amplitudes. We reason that the observed effects are due to the selective adaptation of noise-sensitive neurons present in the face-processing cortical areas, which may enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.