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Sample records for anxious children preliminary

  1. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Patrick K; Francisco ePons; Harris, Paul L.; Barbara H. Esbjørn; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30–40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sam...

  2. Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L

    2015-01-01

    Children's understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, eight girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  3. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children: A preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K. Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys was assessed for emotion understanding (Test of Emotion Comprehension, anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and attachment security (Security Scale. Children who reported more overall anxiety also reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding. Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.

  4. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise;

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada.......Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  5. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    (Test of Emotion Comprehension), anxiety (Screening for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised and Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and attachment security (Security Scale). Children who reported more overall anxiety also...... of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...... reported greater difficulties in regulating their emotions, and were less securely attached to their parents. The results also showed that more specific symptoms of anxiety (i.e., OCD and PTSD) correlated not only with emotion dysregulation and attachment insecurity but also with emotion understanding...

  6. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A.; Layne, Ann E.; Egan, Elizabeth A.; Tennison, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three school-based interventions for anxious children: group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training group, and no-treatment control. Method: Students (7-11 years old) in three elementary schools (N = 453) were screened using the Multidimensional…

  7. Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P M; Rapee, R M; Dadds, M M; Ryan, S M

    1996-04-01

    Previous research has shown that anxious adults provide more threat interpretations of ambiguous stimuli than other clinic and nonclinic persons. We were interested in investigating if the same bias occurs in anxious children and how family processes impact on these children's interpretations of ambiguity. Anxious, oppositional, and nonclinical children and their parents were asked separately to interpret and provide plans of action to ambiguous scenarios. Afterwards, each family was asked to discuss two of these situations as a family and for the child to provide a final response. The results showed that anxious and oppositional children were both more likely to interpret ambiguous scenarios in a threatening manner. However, the two clinic groups differed in that the anxious children predominantly chose avoidant solutions whereas the oppositional children chose aggressive solutions. After family discussions, both the anxious children's avoidant plans of action and the oppositional children's aggressive plans increased. Thus, this study provides the first evidence of family enhancement of avoidant and aggressive responses in children. These results support a model of anxiety that emphasizes the development of an anxious cognitive style in the context of anxiety-supporting family processes.

  8. Assessment of life interference in anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapee, Ronald; Thastum, Mikael; Chavira, Denise

    life interference derived from symptoms of anxiety. Broader and more general life interference measures tend to have minimal relevance for children with anxiety disorders. The current paper will describe two measures of life interference that have been developed at the Centre for Emotional Health...... directed at children and adolescents. One measure, the Children's Anxiety Life Interference Scale (CALIS) was developed to assess interference directly associated with symptoms of anxiety in children and adolescents, while the other, the Adolescent Life Interference Scale (ALIS) is a broader measure....... This imbalance has particularly characterised research on child anxiety where few studies have examined either the impact of anxiety disorders on children's lives or the effects of treatments on life interference. To some extent this lack of attention has come from a lack of well developed measures to assess...

  9. Threat-based cognitive biases in anxious children: comparison with non-anxious children before and after cognitive behavioural treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Wharton, Trisha A; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Craske, Michelle G

    2008-03-01

    Attention and interpretation biases for threat stimuli were assessed in 19 anxious (ANX) children before and after cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and compared with responses from 19 non-anxious (NA) control children collected over the same period. Attentional bias was assessed using a picture version of the visual probe task with threat, neutral and pleasant pictures. Threat interpretation bias was assessed using both a homographs task in which children used homograph words in a sentence and their neutral or threatening meaning was assessed, and a stories task in which children rated their negative emotion, danger judgments, and influencing ability in ambiguous situations. ANX children showed attention biases towards threat on the visual probe task and threat interpretation biases on the stories task but not the homographs task at pre-treatment in comparison with NA children. Following treatment, ANX children's threat interpretation biases as assessed on the stories task reduced significantly to within levels comparable to NA children. However, ANX children continued to show larger attentional biases towards threat than pleasant pictures on the visual probe task at post-treatment, whereas NA children did not show attentional biases. Moreover, a residual threat interpretation style on the stories task at post-treatment was associated with higher anxiety symptoms in both ANX and NA children.

  10. Socially anxious mothers’ narratives to their children, and their relation to child representations and adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Lynne; Pella, Jeff; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Arteche, Adriane; Pass, Laura; Percy, Ray; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Anxious mothers’ parenting, particularly transfer of threat information, has been considered important in their children’s risk for social anxiety disorder (SAnxD), and maternal narratives concerning potential social threat could elucidate this contribution.\\ud Maternal narratives to their pre-school 4-5 year-old children, via a picture book about starting school, were assessed in socially anxious (N=73), and non-anxious (N=63) mothers. Child representations of school were assessed via Doll P...

  11. Types of parental involvement in CBT with anxious youth : A preliminary meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manassis, Katharina; Lee, Trevor Changgun; Bennett, Kathryn; Zhao, Xiu Yan; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Duda, Stephanie; Saini, Michael; Wilansky, Pamela; Baer, Susan; Barrett, Paula; Bodden, Denise; Cobham, Vanessa E; Dadds, Mark R; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Ginsburg, Golda; Heyne, David; Hudson, Jennifer L; Kendall, Philip C; Liber, Juliette; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Silverman, Wendy; Siqueland, Lynne; Spence, Susan H; Utens, Elisabeth; Wood, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Meta-analytic studies have not confirmed that involving parents in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxious children is therapeutically beneficial. There is also great heterogeneity in the type of parental involvement included. We investigated parental involvement focused on contingen

  12. Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

  13. Anxiety and quality of life: clinically anxious children with and without autism spectrum disorders compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; C.D. Dirksen

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid

  14. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  15. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to asses

  16. Parent-directed cognitive behavioral therapy for young anxious children: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van der Bruggen, C.O.; Brechman-Toussaint, M.L.; Thissen, M.A.P.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was delivere

  17. Costs and cost-effectiveness of family CBT versus individual CBT in clinically anxious children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Bodden; C.D. Dirksen; S.M. Bögels; M.H. Nauta; E. de Haan; J. Ringrose; C. Appelboom; A.G. Brinkman; K.C.M.M.J. Appelboom-Geerts

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of family cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with individual CBT in children with anxiety disorders. Clinically anxious children (aged 8—18 years) referred for treatment were randomly assigned to family or individual CBT

  18. Self-statements of test-anxious children: thought-listing and questionnaire approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, P J; Hanewald, G J

    1997-06-01

    Two methods of assessing cognition in high, moderate, and low test-anxious children, thought listing and self-statement questionnaire approaches, were investigated under naturalistic test-taking conditions. The amount of cognition, its content, and its relation to level of anxiety and task performance were examined. States of mind (SOM) analyses were performed. Furthermore, the comparability of findings from both methods was examined. Results showed that, relative to the questionnaire method, the thought-listing procedure underestimated positive and coping cognition. The benefits of the questionnaire approach were seen in the power of its scores to predict task performance. Implications for cognitive assessment and treatment of anxious children are discussed.

  19. Sensitivity of Gray’s behavioral inhibition system in clinically anxious and non-anxious children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Wolters, L.H.; Hogendoorn, S.M.; de Haan, E.; de Boer, F.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The child version of the Carver and White (1994) BIS/BAS-scales (Muris et al., 2005) was used to assess sensitivity of the Behavioral Inhibition and the Behavioral Activation System in clinically anxious and non-anxious youth (n = 175, ages 8-18 years, 70 boys). Results supported the hypothesis that

  20. Perception of Threat in Children with Social Phobia: Comparison to Nonsocially Anxious Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Rio; Ost, Lars-Goran

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated interpretation bias and reduced evidence for danger (RED) bias in 49 children with social phobia and 49 nonsocially anxious children between the ages of 8 and 14 years, using an ambiguous stories task. A posttreatment and follow-up measure was included for 26 of the socially phobic children to examine whether there…

  1. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children: 3-, 6-, and 12-Month Follow-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A.; Bernat, Debra H.; Victor, Andrea M.; Layne, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    The study followed participants aged 7 to 11 years from a previous study that compared three school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions for anxious children to determine long-term post-treatment benefits. Results indicate school-based CBT decreases anxiety symptoms up to 12 months post-treatment.

  2. Socially anxious mothers' narratives to their children and their relation to child representations and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Pella, Jeff E; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Arteche, Adriane; Pass, Laura; Percy, Ray; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter J

    2014-11-01

    Anxious mothers' parenting, particularly transfer of threat information, has been considered important in their children's risk for social anxiety disorder (SAnxD), and maternal narratives concerning potential social threat could elucidate this contribution. Maternal narratives to their preschool 4- to 5-year-old children, via a picture book about starting school, were assessed in socially anxious (N = 73), and nonanxious (N = 63) mothers. Child representations of school were assessed via doll play (DP). After one school term, mothers (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) and teachers (Teacher Report Form) reported on child internalizing problems, and child SAnxD was assessed via maternal interview. Relations between these variables, infant behavioral inhibition, and attachment, were examined. Socially anxious mothers showed more negative (higher threat attribution) and less supportive (lower encouragement) narratives than controls, and their children's DP representations SAnxD and CBCL scores were more adverse. High narrative threat predicted child SAnxD; lower encouragement predicted negative child CBCL scores and, particularly for behaviorally inhibited children, Teacher Report Form scores and DP representations. In securely attached children, CBCL scores and risk for SAnxD were affected by maternal anxiety and threat attributions, respectively. Low encouragement mediated the effects of maternal anxiety on child DP representations and CBCL scores. Maternal narratives are affected by social anxiety and contribute to adverse child outcome.

  3. Patterns of postural sway in high anxious children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dokkum Elisabeth H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that elevated levels of anxiety have a negative impact on the regulation of balance. However, most studies to date examined only global balance performance, with little attention to the way body posture is organized in space and time. The aim of this study is to examine whether posturographic measures can reveal (subclinical balance deficits in children with high levels of anxiety. Methods We examined the spatio-temporal structure of the centre-of-pressure (COP fluctuations in children with elevated levels of anxiety and a group of typically developing children while maintaining quiet stance on a force plate in various balance challenging conditions. Balance was challenged by adopting sensory manipulations (standing with eyes closed and/or standing on a foam surface and using a cognitive manipulation (dual-tasking. Results Across groups, postural performance was strongly influenced by the sensory manipulations, and hardly by the cognitive manipulation. We also found that children with anxiety had overall more postural sway, and that their postural sway was overall less complex than sway of typically developing children. The postural differences between groups were present even in the simple baseline condition, and the group differences became larger with increasing task difficulty. Conclusion The pattern of postural sway suggests that balance is overall less stable and more attention demanding in children with anxiety than typically developing children. The findings provide further evidence for a neuro-behavioral link between psychopathology and the effectiveness of postural control.

  4. Putting Ostracism into Perspective: Young Children Tell More Mentalistic Stories after Exclusion, But Not When Anxious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lars O; Klein, Annette M; von Klitzing, Kai; Graneist, Alice; Otto, Yvonne; Hill, Jonathan; Over, Harriet; Fonagy, Peter; Crowley, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about when children acquire an understanding of mental states, but few, if any, experiments identify social contexts in which children tend to use this capacity and dispositions that influence its usage. Social exclusion is a common situation that compels us to reconnect with new parties, which may crucially involve attending to those parties' mental states. Across two studies, this line of inquiry was extended to typically developing preschoolers (Study 1) and young children with and without anxiety disorder (AD) (Study 2). Children played the virtual game of toss "Cyberball" ostensibly over the Internet with two peers who first played fair (inclusion), but eventually threw very few balls to the child (exclusion). Before and after Cyberball, children in both studies completed stories about peer-scenarios. For Study 1, 36 typically developing 5-year-olds were randomly assigned to regular exclusion (for no apparent reason) or accidental exclusion (due to an alleged computer malfunction). Compared to accidental exclusion, regular exclusion led children to portray story-characters more strongly as intentional agents (intentionality), with use of more mental state language (MSL), and more between-character affiliation in post-Cyberball stories. For Study 2, 20 clinically referred 4 to 8-year-olds with AD and 15 age- and gender-matched non-anxious controls completed stories before and after regular exclusion. While we replicated the post regular-exclusion increase of intentional and MSL portrayals of story-characters among non-anxious controls, anxious children exhibited a decline on both dimensions after regular exclusion. We conclude that exclusion typically induces young children to mentalize, enabling more effective reconnection with others. However, excessive anxiety may impair controlled mentalizing, which may, in turn, hamper effective reconnection with others after exclusion.

  5. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  6. Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program in Portuguese Schools: Study with a Sample of Highly Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.

    2014-01-01

    The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…

  7. Parent-directed cognitive behavioral therapy for young anxious children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van der Bruggen, Corine O; Brechman-Toussaint, Margaret L; Thissen, Michèl A P; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was delivered exclusively to parents of 26 children with anxiety symptoms ages 4-7 years. The intervention consisted of four 2-hour group sessions of four to six parents (couples). These group sessions were followed by four individual telephone sessions, once per week across a 4-week period. The pre- and postintervention assessment involved measures of multiple constructs of child anxiety (anxiety symptoms, children's fears, behavioral inhibition, and internalizing symptoms) from multiple informants (parents, children, and teachers). Parents also reported parenting strategies they were likely to use to manage their children's anxiety pre- and postintervention. Results indicated a significant decrease in child anxiety and behavioral inhibition as reported by parents and teachers. Furthermore, mothers reported significant increases in their use of positive reinforcement, and modeling and reassurance, and a significant decrease in their use of reinforcement of dependency directly after treatment. Taken together, parent-directed CBT appears to be an effective approach for treating children ages 4-7 years with anxiety symptoms. Limitations of the current research are discussed.

  8. Efficacy of Family Anxiety Management Training with Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of family management training in reducing anxiety difficulties in preschool children (4 to 6 years old in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: The present research is a pilot study with pre-test/post-test control group design. A total of 50 mothers whose children scored 1.0 standard deviation above the mean on Spence’s children anxiety scale (parent report form were randomly chosen and then divided into experimental and control groups. According to the treatment plan, the participants underwent ten 120-minute sessions of family anxiety management training. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance demonstrates that experimental intervention is efficient in reduction of children anxiety (p=0.03. Following up the experimental group for a course of one month show that intervention impact can last over the time. Conclusion: The results indicate that family anxiety management training has been effective in reduction of anxiety disorders in anxious children (4 to 6 years old, studying at kindergartens within Ahvaz. Therefore, it can be useful strategy as an educational and preventive program in pre-school and school children.

  9. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  10. Anxious/Depressed Symptoms are Linked to Right Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Maturation in Healthy Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Simon; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Truong, Catherine; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Almli, C. Robert; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Pike, G. Bruce; Collins, D. Louis; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between anxious/depressed traits and neuromaturation remains largely unstudied. Characterizing this relationship during healthy neurodevelopment is critical to understanding processes associated with the emergence of child/adolescent onset mood/anxiety disorders. In this study, mixed-effects models were used to determine longitudinal cortical thickness correlates of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Young Adult Self Report Anxious/Depressed scores in healthy children. Analyses included 341 subjects from 4.9 to 22.3 year-old with repeated MRI at up to 3 time points, at 2-year intervals (586 MRI scans). There was a significant “CBCL Anxious/Depressed by Age” interaction on cortical thickness in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), including the medial orbito-frontal, gyrus rectus, and subgenual anterior cingulate areas. Anxious/Depressed scores were negatively associated with thickness at younger ages (<9 years), but positively associated with thickness at older ages (15–22 years), with the shift in polarity occurring around age 12. This was secondary to a slower rate of vmPFC cortical thinning in subjects with higher scores. In young adults (18–22 years), Anxious/Depressed scores were also positively associated with precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical thickness. Potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying this maturation pattern are proposed. These results demonstrate the dynamic impact of age on relations between vmPFC and negative affect in the developing brain. PMID:23749874

  11. The impact of maternal control on children's anxious cognitions, behaviours and affect: an experimental study.

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    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Creswell, Cathy

    2010-10-01

    Controlling parenting is associated with child anxiety however the direction of effects remains unclear. The present study implemented a Latin-square experimental design to assess the impact of parental control on children's anxious affect, cognitions and behaviour. A non-clinical sample of 24 mothers of children aged 4-5 years were trained to engage in (a) controlling and (b) autonomy-granting behaviours in interaction with their child during the preparation of a speech. When mothers engaged in controlling parenting behaviours, children made more negative predictions about their performance prior to delivering their speech and reported feeling less happy about the task, and this was moderated by child trait anxiety. In addition, children with higher trait anxiety displayed a significant increase in observed child anxiety in the controlling condition. The pattern of results was maintained when differences in mothers' levels of negativity and habitual levels of control were accounted for. These findings are consistent with theories that suggest that controlling parenting is a risk factor in the development of childhood anxiety.

  12. Perceived control in clinically anxious and non-anxious children indirectly measured with the Implicit Association Procedure (IAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, S.M.; Vervoort, L.; Wolters, L.H.; Prins, P.J.M.; de Haan, E.; Hartman, C.A.; Nauta, M.H.; Boer, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perceived control is thought to play an important role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children. The objective of the present study was to further investigate the Perceived Control Implicit Association Procedure (IAP, Hogendoorn et al., 2008) as an indirect mea

  13. The role of perfectionism in cognitive behaviour therapy outcomes for clinically anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer H; Newall, Carol; Broeren, Suzanne; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether pre-treatment levels of child perfectionism impacted on anxiety treatment outcomes for school-aged children. In addition, it was investigated whether child perfectionism decreased following treatment for anxiety. Participants were sixty-seven clinically anxious children aged 6-13 years (female = 34; majority Caucasian) who were enrolled in a group-based cognitive behaviour therapy program, and their parents. They completed self-report questionnaires on anxiety and depressive symptoms and were administered a diagnostic interview to determine the type and clinician rated severity of anxiety and related disorders pre- and post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Self- and parent-rated perfectionism were also measured pre-treatment, while a subset of children completed perfectionism measures post-treatment as well. Self-Oriented Perfectionism, but not Socially Prescribed Perfectionism, predicted poorer self-reported treatment outcome (higher levels of anxiety symptoms) immediately following treatment and at 6-month follow-up when using a multi-informant approach. Additionally, both Self-Oriented and Socially Prescribed child perfectionism significantly reduced immediately following treatment. Despite reductions in child perfectionism following anxiety treatment, higher Self-Oriented Perfectionism may impact negatively on child anxiety treatment outcome.

  14. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety.

  15. Widespread reduction in sleep spindle activity in socially anxious children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ines; Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto

    2017-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases typically emerging during childhood and adolescence. Biological vulnerabilities such as a protracted maturation of prefrontal cortex functioning together with heightened reactivity of the limbic system leading to increased emotional reactivity are discussed as factors contributing to the emergence and maintenance of SAD. Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz) and sleep spindle activity (9-16 Hz) reflect processes of brain maturation and emotion regulation. We used high-density electroencephalography to characterize sleep SWA and spindle activity and their relationship to emotional reactivity in children and adolescents suffering from SAD and healthy controls (HC). Subjectively rated arousal was assessed using an emotional picture-word association task. SWA did not differ between socially anxious and healthy participants. We found a widespread reduction in fast spindle activity (13-16 Hz) in SAD patients compared to HC. SAD patients rated negative stimuli to be more arousing and these arousal ratings were negatively correlated with fast spindle activity. These results suggest electrophysiological alterations that are evident at an early stage of psychopathology and that are closely linked to one core symptom of anxiety disorders such as increased emotional reactivity. The role of disturbed GABAergic neurotransmission is discussed as an underlying factor.

  16. Preliminary Efficacy of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Anxious Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence; Oswald, Donald; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety is a commonly occurring psychiatric concern in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a manual-based intervention targeting anxiety and social competence in four adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Anxiety and social functioning were assessed at baseline, midpoint,…

  17. Targeted Reactivation during Sleep Differentially Affects Negative Memories in Socially Anxious and Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Sabine; Preiss, Andrea; McMakin, Dana L; Rasch, Björn; Walitza, Susanne; Huber, Reto; Wilhelm, Ines

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive models propose a negative memory bias as one key factor contributing to the emergence and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The long-term consolidation of memories relies on memory reactivations during sleep. We investigated in SAD patients and healthy controls the role of memory reactivations during sleep in the long-term consolidation of positive and negative information. Socially anxious and healthy children and adolescents learnt associations between pictures showing ambiguous situations and positive or negative words defining the situations' outcome. Half of the words were re-presented during postlearning sleep (i.e., they were cued). Recall of picture-word associations and subjective ratings of pleasantness and arousal in response to the pictures was tested for cued and uncued stimuli. In the morning after cueing, cueing facilitated retention of positive and negative memories equally well in SAD patients and healthy controls. One week later, cueing led to reduced ratings of pleasantness of negative information in SAD but not in healthy controls. Coincidental to these findings was more pronounced EEG theta activity over frontal, temporal and parietal regions in response to negative stimuli in SAD patients. Our findings suggest that the preferential abstraction of negative emotional information during sleep might represent one factor underlying the negative memory bias in SAD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We aim to uncover mechanisms underlying the characteristic negative memory bias in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The formation of long-lasting memories-a process referred to as memory consolidation-depends on the reactivation of newly acquired memories during sleep. We demonstrated that experimentally induced memory reactivation during sleep renders long-term memories of negative experiences more negative in SAD patients but not in healthy controls. We also found in SAD patients that the reactivation of negative experiences coincided with more

  18. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  19. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  20. The effect of targeting tolerance of children's negative emotions among anxious parents of children with anxiety disorders: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Apetroaia, Adela; Clarke, Kiri; Hughes, Zoe; Orchard, Faith; Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Following cognitive behavioural therapy for child anxiety a significant minority of children fail to lose their diagnosis status. One potential barrier is high parental anxiety. We designed a pilot RCT to test claims that parental intolerance of the child's negative emotions may impact treatment outcomes. Parents of 60 children with an anxiety disorder, who were themselves highly anxious, received either brief parent-delivered treatment for child anxiety or the same treatment with strategies specifically targeting parental tolerance of their child's negative emotions. Consistent with predictions, parental tolerance of the child's negative emotions significantly improved from pre- to post-treatment. However, there was no evidence to inform the direction of this association as improvements were substantial in both groups. Moreover, while there were significant improvements in child anxiety in both conditions, there was little evidence that this was associated with the improvement in parental tolerance. Nevertheless, findings provide important clinical insight, including that parent-led treatments are appropriate even when the parent is highly anxious and that it may not be necessary to adjust interventions for many families.

  1. Parental Responses to Positive and Negative Emotions in Anxious and Nonanxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Comer, Jonathan S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of multiple children's emotions and parental anxiety during parent-child interactions of anxiety disordered (AD) and nonanxious (NA) children ages 7 to 13 years. Families (mother, father, child) each discussed three recent and real separate situations in which the child experienced anxiety, anger, and happiness.…

  2. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  3. Heightened Test Anxiety among Young Children: Elementary School Students' Anxious Responses to High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segool, Natasha K.; Carlson, John S.; Goforth, Anisa N.; von der Embse, Nathan; Barterian, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and low-stakes testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in young students' reported test anxiety between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) achievement testing and classroom testing. Three hundred…

  4. “Medicated oxygen” – the wonder drug for anxious children

    OpenAIRE

    Niekla S Andiesta; Zeinab Abbas Hasan; Chooi Gait Toh

    2013-01-01

    Pain and anxiety management is of paramountimportance in dentistry especially for child patients.The term “Medicated Oxygen” or “Magic Air” refersto a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen gases that iscommonly used for partial sedation in pediatric dentalpopulations. The gas is colorless and virtually odorlesswith a faint, sweet smell. Nitrous oxide sedation isadministered by inhalation, absorbed by diffusionthrough the lungs, and eliminated via respiration.In children, sedation may accelerate...

  5. “Medicated oxygen” – the wonder drug for anxious children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niekla S Andiesta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pain and anxiety management is of paramountimportance in dentistry especially for child patients.The term “Medicated Oxygen” or “Magic Air” refersto a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen gases that iscommonly used for partial sedation in pediatric dentalpopulations. The gas is colorless and virtually odorlesswith a faint, sweet smell. Nitrous oxide sedation isadministered by inhalation, absorbed by diffusionthrough the lungs, and eliminated via respiration.In children, sedation may accelerate the delivery ofdental treatment that requires patient serenity and mayallow the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures byreducing anxiety, discomfort, or pain.

  6. A Preliminary Study of Perfectionism and Loneliness as Predictors of Depressive and Anxious Symptoms in Latinas: A Top-Down Test of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Sanna, Lawrence J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Fabian, Cathryn G.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we used a top-down approach to examine perfectionism and loneliness as additive sociocognitive predictors of depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 121 Latina college students. Consistent with expectations, we found perfectionism and loneliness to be associated with both depressive and anxious symptoms. In addition,…

  7. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment.

  8. Parental Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Anxious Children: Parents' In-Session and Out-Session Activities and Their Relationship with Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Mendonça, Denisa; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Ana Rita; Marques, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The present study explored the role of parents' in-session and out-session involvement in CBT for anxious children. Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with a principal DSM-IV anxiety disorder participated in a group CBT program. Parental involvement in the therapy was assessed by the clinician and the children and parents completed a standardized anxiety scale as the main therapy outcome measure, at pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the parents completed questionnaires to evaluate a number of possible correlates of parental involvement, namely, child's anxiety symptoms intensity and interference, parental beliefs about anxiety, expectancies regarding the efficacy of the intervention, and parental anxiety. The results indicated that the parents were moderately involved in the therapy and that socio-economic status and parental beliefs about anxiety were significant correlates of parental involvement. Finally, partial support was found for the idea that parents' involvement in the therapy might have a positive impact on therapy outcome.

  9. Children's anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K; Halpern, Leslie F; Dangman, Barbara C; Giramonti, Karla M; Kogan, Barry A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures.

  10. Effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT manualized program for clinically anxious children: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Jansen Mélou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, the prevalence of anxiety disorders is 20%; and children with anxiety are at increased risk for psychopathology throughout adulthood. Recently, a revised version of a cognitive behavioral therapy manualized program called 'Thinking + Doing = Daring' (TDD was developed for children between 8 and 12 years old with an anxiety disorder. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of TDD. Methods/Design The CBT program will be tested with a RCT with 120 clinically anxious children (8-12 years old referred to one of three mental health care agencies. Children will be randomly assigned to the experimental (N = 60, TDD or to the control condition (N = 60, treatment as usual. The primary outcome measure will be the child's anxiety symptoms level. Secondary outcome measures will be externalizing (e.g. aggression and internalizing problems (e.g. depression. Two potential mediators of change will be examined in the current study: therapeutic alliance and parenting. Mother and child in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline, post treatment and after 6 and 12 months (follow-up. It is hypothesized that children in the experimental condition will show a stronger decrease in anxiety symptoms compared to children that receive treatment as usual. Moreover, we expect that a strong therapeutic alliance and decreases in parental control and rejection will contribute to treatment success. Discussion Early treatment for anxiety problems has the potential to not only result in anxiety reductions, but also to prevent future problems such as substance abuse and psychopathology throughout adulthood. Our results will be immediately relevant to practice, since we are partnering with 'real world' community agencies. If the CBT program proves more effective than treatment as usual, it could be implemented in community mental health care

  11. Children Who are Anxious in Silence: A Review on Selective Mutism, the New Anxiety Disorder in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-06-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a relatively rare childhood disorder characterized by a consistent failure to speak in specific settings (e.g., school, social situations) despite speaking normally in other settings (e.g., at home). The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) lists SM among the anxiety disorders. This makes sense as the current review of the literature confirms that anxiety is a prominent symptom in many children suffering from this condition. Further, research on the etiology and treatment of SM also corroborates the conceptualization of SM as an anxiety disorder. At the same time, critical points can be raised regarding the classification of SM as an anxiety disorder. We explore a number of such issues in this review. Recommendations for dealing with this diagnostic conundrum are made for psychologists, psychiatrists, and other mental health workers who face children with SM in clinical practice, and directions for future research are highlighted.

  12. Anxious mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, E B; McNally, R; Murdock, T B

    1989-01-01

    Influenced by Bower (Am. Psychol. 36, 129-148, 1981) and Lang (Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1985), we tested three hypotheses concerning anxious mood and memory: (1) the mood state dependent hypothesis which states that memory retrieval will be greater when mood at encoding and at recall are the same than when they are different: (2) the encoding mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at encoding is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at encoding; and (3) the recall mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at recall is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at recall. We induced anxiety in speech anxious students by informing them that they would be delivering a speech during the experiment. Mood could be either anxious or nonanxious at encoding, recall, both, or neither. Hence, there were four groups: Anxiety-Anxiety, Anxiety-Nonanxiety, Nonanxiety-Anxiety, and Nonanxiety-Nonanxiety. Subjects were asked to rate the self-descriptiveness of anxiety (e.g. NERVOUS) and nonanxiety adjective (e.g. POLITE) during the encoding phase, and to recall them later. Anxious mood was measured by self-report scales and by heart rate. No support was obtained for any of the three hypotheses. However, post-hoc analyses indicated that anxiety words were recalled least often in subjects whose heart rate increased from encoding to recall. This suggests that attention to threat information may diminish in aroused nonclinical subjects.

  13. Orofacial Muscle Activity of Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ellen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This preliminary investigation of stuttering development and maturation of speech motor processes recorded the electromyographic activity of the orofacial muscles of nine children who stuttered. Results suggest that the emergence of tremor-like instabilities in the speech motor processes of stuttering children may coincide with aspects of general…

  14. A Cost of Illness Study of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders as Compared to Clinically Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…

  15. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children: A preliminary report

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    Ahmad A. Elderwy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The recurrence of pediatric nephrolithiasis, the morbidity of repeated open surgical treatment as well as our experience in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL in adult patients, all derived us to shift to PNL for managing renal stones >1.5 cm in pediatric patients. Our aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PNL in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: During the period of the month between May 2011 and April 2013, 38 children (47 renal units underwent PNL for renal stones 1.5-5 cm in length. Patient demographics, stone characteristics, and clinical outcome were prospectively studied. Data of those who underwent conventional and tubeless PNL were compared. Median follow-up period was 12 months (range: 6-24. Results: The median age at presentation was 8-year (range: 3-12. The operative time ranged from 30 to 120 min (median 90. Overall stone clearance rate was 91.5% after single PNL. The median hospital stay was 3 days. Auxiliary procedures were successful for the remaining 4 patients (nephroscopic clearance in one and shockwave lithotripsy in 3. Tubeless PNL was performed in 17 renal units with a comparable outcome to conventional ones. The perioperative complications were noted in 5/47 (10.6% of all procedures (Clavien Grade II in 4 and Clavien Grade IIIa in 1 and were managed conservatively. Conclusions: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones in pediatric patients is safe and feasible if performed by a well-experienced endourologist. Tubeless PNL is a better choice for children.

  16. Neurobiology of anxious depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-04-01

    Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles, published January 1970 through September 2012, were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depression neurobiology, and anxious melancholia neurobiology. Despite a general dearth of neurobiological research, the results suggest that anxious depression-when defined either syndromally or dimensionally-has distinct neurobiological findings that separate it from nonanxious depression. Structural neuroimaging, EEG, genetics, and neuropsychiatric studies revealed differences in subjects with anxious depression compared to other groups. Endocrine differences between individuals with anxious depression and those with nonanxious depression have also been noted, as evidenced by abnormal responses elicited by exogenous stimulation of the system. Despite these findings, heterogeneity in the definition of anxious depression complicates the results. Because exploring the neurobiology of this depressive subtype is important for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, enrichment strategies to decrease heterogeneity within the field should be employed for future research.

  17. Self-speech and self-regulation of high- and low-anxious children in the dental situation: An interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Prins

    1985-01-01

    Assessed 40 8-12 yr old children's self-speech and self-regulation during a dental visit. Ss, who were interviewed individually in the dental clinic, included 20 children with high, phobiclike dental fear and 20 with low dental fear. Results show that two-thirds of Ss, equally distributed over the h

  18. Faces in a crowd: high socially anxious individuals estimate that more people are looking at them than low socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia C Bolt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention. METHOD: Forty-eight high and 48 low socially anxious participants performed a "faces in a crowd" computer task during which they briefly saw matrices of faces, which varied in terms of the proportion of people who were looking at them. Participants estimated the proportion of people who were looking at them. The task was performed once with mirrors present (to induce an enhanced self-focused state and once without mirrors present (neutral state. RESULTS: Participants' subjective estimates and the objective proportion of faces looking towards them were strongly correlated in both the high and low socially anxious groups. However, high socially anxious participants estimated that more people were looking at them than low socially anxious participants. In the first phase of the experiment, but not in the later phases, this effect was magnified in the mirror condition. DISCUSSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of a social anxiety related perceptual difference that may be amplified by self-focused attention. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive problems during the transition from childhood to adolescence: Personality × Parenting interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Harten, L. van; Deković, M.; Akker, A.L. van den; Shiner, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9–15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 th

  20. Developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive problems during the transition from childhood to adolescence : Personality x Parenting interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Shiner, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 th

  1. Developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive problems during the transition from childhood to adolescence: personality x parenting interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; van Harten, L.V.; Deković, M.; van den Akker, A.L.; Shiner, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 th

  2. Emotional intelligence: painting different paths for low-anxious and high-anxious psychopathic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Sarah; Skeem, Jennifer; Camp, Jacqueline

    2010-04-01

    Psychopathic individuals may be disaggregated into low-anxious (emotionally stable "primary psychopaths") and high-anxious (emotionally disturbed "secondary psychopaths") variants that may differ in their capacity for adaptive behavior. In turn, the skills encompassed by emotional intelligence (EI) predict social and business success. Based on a sample of 188 male undergraduates, we evaluate the performance of low-anxious psychopathic, high-anxious psychopathic, and low psychopathic comparison groups on a measure of EI. High-anxious psychopaths manifested significantly lower EI than the other two groups, particularly with respect to managing emotions and facilitating thoughts. In contrast, low-anxious psychopaths manifested intact EI, with skill in facilitating thoughts. High-anxious (but not low anxious) psychopaths were more likely than low psychopathic comparisons to manifest violence. These results are consistent with the notion that primary psychopaths have greater capacity to attain success in traditional society than secondary psychopaths, and invite a direct test of this hypothesis in future research.

  3. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  4. Objective assessment of the influence of the parental presence on the fear and behavior of anxious children during their first restorative dental visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Sharat C.; AlAnazi, Ghazi S.; AlBaragash, Abdulrahman; AlMosaihel, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Parents play an important role in the dental behavior of a child patient. This study aimed to assess the effect of parental presence on the behavior of the child and objectively measure the behavior using pulse oximetry. Materials and Methods: The study was registered with the clinical trials registry of the National Institutes of Health (NCT02619981). The children were divided into three groups, those who had no accompanying parent, those accompanied by their fathers, and those accompanied by their mothers. The Venham anxiety and behavior scores were used for subjective measurements whereas the objective measurement of fear was done by measuring the heart rate using a portable pulse oximeter at six critical clinical situations. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM corp. Armonk, NY, USA). Results: One hundred and twenty two children aged between 6 years and 8 years completed the study. Most of the children accompanied by fathers were males while most of the children accompanied by their mother were females. It was seen that females showed a higher mean heart rate than males at all steps. Children who had their parents outside the operatory exhibited lower anxiety and behavior scores than those whose parents were present; however, they showed a significantly higher pulse rate at all procedures. Boys had higher anxiety and behavior scores than girls, however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the presence of the parent in the operatory reduces the physiological manifestations of anxiety in children in their first restorative dental visit. PMID:27652248

  5. Dynamically Tracking Anxious Individuals' Affective Response to Valenced Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fua, Karl C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-30

    Past research has shown that an individual's feelings at any given moment reflect currently experienced stimuli as well as internal representations of similar past experiences. However, anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of interrelated valenced information (vs. reactions to static stimuli that are arguably less ecologically valid) are rarely tracked. The present study provided a first examination of the newly developed Tracking Affect Ratings Over Time (TAROT) task to continuously assess anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of information that systematically change valence. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) completed the TAROT task in which they listened to narratives containing positive, negative, and neutral physically- or socially-relevant events, and indicated how positive or negative they felt about the information they heard as each narrative unfolded. The present study provided preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the task. Within scenarios, participants higher (vs. lower) in anxiety showed many expected negative biases, reporting more negative mean ratings and overall summary ratings, changing their pattern of responding more quickly to negative events, and responding more negatively to neutral events. Furthermore, individuals higher (vs. lower) in anxiety tended to report more negative minimums during and after positive events, and less positive maximums after negative events. Together, findings indicate that positive events were less impactful for anxious individuals, whereas negative experiences had a particularly lasting impact on future affective responses. The TAROT task is able to efficiently capture a number of different cognitive biases, and may help clarify the mechanisms that underlie anxious individuals' biased negative processing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Fox

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  7. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions.

  8. The role of dental therapists in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of anxious and phobic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeavey, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Dental Therapists are in a prime position to be involved with the management of anxious and phobic patients. They earn less than dentists and are therefore a more cost-effective way of providing specialised care for anxious patients. Dental Therapists can spend more time educating and acclimatising these patients, do most if not all of the patient's treatment, only referring back to the dentist for RCT, crown/bridgework/dentures and permanent extractions. Ultimately this means that the patient receives high quality continuity of care. Treating anxious and phobic patients is time-consuming but ultimately very rewarding. If handled correctly and sensitively the anxious and phobic patient will not always be anxious or phobic, in the same way that children won't always be children. Dental Therapists can now extend their duties to include Relative Analgesia. This should enhance their employability and role within the dental team especially in the management of anxious and phobic patients. Employing a therapist with a toolbox of techniques at their disposal can be seen as part of a long-term practice plan to ensure that anxious and phobic patients become rehabilitated, happy, compliant and loyal to the practice! In fact .... the sort of patients every dentist really wants to see.

  9. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  10. Predictors of Change Following Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Children with Anxiety Problems: A Preliminary Investigation on Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; den Adel, Madelon; Roos, Tamara; van Wamelen, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate negative automatic thoughts and anxiety control as predictors of change produced by cognitive-behavioral treatment of youths with anxiety disorders. Forty-five high-anxious children aged between 9 and 12 years who were selected from the primary school population, received a standardized CBT…

  11. Anxious depression: clinical features and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sanjai; Zisook, Sidney

    2009-12-01

    Anxious depression has been conceptualized in at least two related but separate ways: 1) major depressive disorder with at least one comorbid Axis I anxiety disorder and 2) major depressive disorder with a high level of anxiety with or without one or more comorbid Axis I anxiety disorders. Using either definition, patients with anxious depression seem to have a more chronic course of illness, an increased incidence of suicidal thoughts and behavior, greater functional and occupational impairment, and poorer response to treatment. Multiple classes of medications are used to treat anxious depression, most commonly first- and second-generation antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines. Certain patients with anxious depression may require lower starting doses, more gradual dose escalations, higher end point doses, longer duration of treatment, and/or early augmentation with other agents. Nonpharmacologic treatments such as targeted psychotherapy and preventative stepped-care approaches also may be effective. Well-conceived, randomized controlled treatment trials are necessary to make further gains in the management of patients with anxious depression.

  12. Research Handbook on Children's Language Learning. Preliminary Edition. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Daniel P.

    This handbook serves as an introduction to the study of children's language development and as a supplementary aid in the training of research workers in the field of children's language learning. As a teaching aid, it is suggested this work be used with a film entitled "Psycholinquistic Research Techniques: Children's Language." Major chapters…

  13. Positive thinking in anxiety disordered children reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Nauta, Maaike H; Hartman, Catharina A; Moorlag, Harma; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Negatively valenced thoughts are assumed to play a central role in the development and maintenance of anxiety. However, the role of positive thoughts in anxiety is rather unclear. In the current study we examined the role of negative and positive self-statements in the anxiety level of anxious and non-anxious children. Participants were 139 anxiety disordered children and 293 non-anxious children (8-18 years). Compared to non-anxious children, anxious children reported more negative thoughts, less positive thoughts and lower State of Mind (SOM) ratios (ratio of positive to negative thoughts). Negative thoughts and SOM ratios were the strongest predictors of anxiety level in anxious children; whereas both negative and positive thoughts were the strongest predictors of anxiety level in non-anxious children. To conclude, a lack of positive thoughts might be more than just an epiphenomenon of anxiety level and might deserve a place in the cognitive model of anxiety.

  14. Variation in Children's Understanding of Fractions: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Tran, Dung; Elliott, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This research targets children's informal strategies and knowledge of fractions by examining their ability to create, interpret, and connect representations in doing and communicating mathematics when solving fractions tasks. Our research group followed a constant comparative method to analyze clinical interviews of children in grades 2-6 solving…

  15. Do anxious parents interpretive biases towards threat extend into their child's environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Field, Andy P; Oliver, Samantha; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2009-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are known to run in families [Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disorder patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(2), 229-235] and environmental factors may largely account for the concordance between parental and child anxieties. Cognitive psychology models emphasise the importance of interpretive biases towards threat in the maintenance of anxiety and it is well established that anxious adults and children display similar interpretive biases and that these biases in anxious parents and their children are correlated. This raises the question of whether anxious cognitions/cognitive style may be transmitted from parent to child. We propose that this is more likely if anxious parents demonstrate interpretive biases not only about potential threats in their own environment but also about potential threats in their child's environment. Forty parents completed a recognition memory measure of interpretation bias adapted from Eysenck, Mogg, May, Richards, and Mathews (1991) [Bias in interpretation of ambiguous sentences related to threat in anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 144-150] to measure biases in response to potentially threat provoking situations involving themselves and their child. The interpretive biases demonstrated by parents were similar across situations involving themselves and their children. As expected, parental interpretive biases were further modified by anxiety with higher levels of parental anxiety associated with more negative interpretive biases about situations in their own and their child's environment, although this association was significantly stronger for potentially threat provoking situations in their own environment. These results are consistent with parent's interpretive biases extending beyond their own environment into their child's environment, although future research should continue to consider the mechanisms by which

  16. Vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block in children: a preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose Maria, B. de; Tielens, L.K.P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus blockade is a well-established technique in upper limb surgery. Among the infraclavicular approaches, the vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus (VIP) block is easy to perform and has a large spectrum of nerve blockade. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine

  17. Children's strategies to solving additive inverse problems: a preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meixia; Auxter, Abbey E.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies show that elementary school children generally "lack" formal understanding of inverse relations. This study goes beyond lack to explore what children might "have" in their existing conception. A total of 281 students, kindergarten to third grade, were recruited to respond to a questionnaire that involved both contextual and non-contextual tasks on inverse relations, requiring both computational and explanatory skills. Results showed that children demonstrated better performance in computation than explanation. However, many students' explanations indicated that they did not necessarily utilize inverse relations for computation. Rather, they appeared to possess partial understanding, as evidenced by their use of part-whole structure, which is a key to understanding inverse relations. A close inspection of children's solution strategies further revealed that the sophistication of children's conception of part-whole structure varied in representation use and unknown quantity recognition, which suggests rich opportunities to develop students' understanding of inverse relations in lower elementary classrooms.

  18. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  19. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    , being young, and having a high PTSD score at baseline predicted a probable PTSD diagnosis post-treatment. Conclusion The present study provides preliminary evidence of feasibility and that the treatment program described may help to alleviate PTSD symptoms children with chronic PTSD symptoms...

  20. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  1. Developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive problems during the transition from childhood to adolescence: personality × parenting interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Shiner, Rebecca L

    2014-11-01

    This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 they reported on lower order child personality facets and on their parenting. By means of growth mixture modeling, three developmental trajectories were identified for anxious symptoms: steady low (82%), moderate increasing-decreasing (5.9%), and high declining groups (12.1%). For depressive symptoms, two developmental trajectories were found: steady low (94.1%) and moderate increasing groups (5.9%). Higher shyness, irritability, and altruism predicted membership in more problematic anxious and depressive groups. The personality facets energy, optimism, compliance, and anxiety were unique predictors for class membership for anxious symptoms, and the effects of shyness, irritability, and compliance were moderated by overreactive parenting. Shyness and irritability increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing anxiety trajectory, but only in the context of high or average levels of overreactive parenting. Compliance increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing and high decreasing trajectories in the context of high overreactive parenting. Our results indicate that childhood personality facets differentiate trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms in theoretically compelling ways.

  2. Comparisons between anxiety tests for selection of anxious and non anxious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do-Rego, Jean-Claude; Viana, Alice F; Le Maître, Erwan; Deniel, Audrey; Rates, Stela M K; Leroux-Nicollet, Isabelle; Costentin, Jean

    2006-05-15

    Male Swiss albinos mice were submitted to two behavioural tests intended to determine their anxiety level: the elevated plus-maze test as well as the black and white compartments test. In addition they were submitted to the hole-board test. It was observed: (i) that the correlation between scores in the two first tests was weak, suggesting that they explore different components of anxiety; (ii) that the score on the latter test was better correlated with the response in the elevated plus-maze test than in the black and white compartments test. From these data three groups of animals were constituted, considered, respectively, as anxious, non anxious and intermediates. It was observed that both horizontal and vertical locomotion in an unfamiliar environment differed between groups, with higher activity in non anxious than in anxious. In the hole-board test, only animals classified as anxious displayed an obvious response to the anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.5mg/kg). Finally in the forced-swimming test, the three groups demonstrated a similar immobility time, suggesting that the operated segregation was not depending on a helpless component. It is proposed that the selection of mice from a combination of either elevated plus-maze and black and white compartments tests or a combination of hole-board test and black and white compartments test, allows to distinguish high or low anxiety animals among a population of mice.

  3. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  4. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.

  5. Child Versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth : An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Nauta, Maaike H.; De Haan, Else; Ringrose, Jaap; Appelboom, Carla; Brinkman, Andries G.; Appelboom-Geerts, Karen C. M. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age. Method: Clinically referred children with anxiety disorder

  6. Child Versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth: An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodden, D.H.M.; Bögels, S.M.; Nauta, M.H.; Haan, E. de; Ringrose, J.; Appelboom, C.; Brinkman, A.G.; Appelboom-Geerts, K.C.M.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and partial effectiveness of child-focused versus family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for clinically anxious youths was evaluated, in particular in relation to parental anxiety disorders and child's age. Method: Clinically referred children with anxiety disorder

  7. A Preliminary Report on the English Phonology of Typically Developing English-Mandarin Bilingual Preschool Singaporean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Lydea Gn Wei; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no published data on typical phonological development for Singaporean children. There is therefore the risk that children's speech in Singapore may be misdiagnosed or that clinicians may set goals erroneously. Aims: This paper reports a preliminary study on the English phonology of typically developing 4;0-4;5-year-old…

  8. Classification of Speech and Language Profiles in 4-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Gorton, Kristin; Lee, Jimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors proposed and tested a preliminary speech and language classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Method: Speech and language assessment data were collected in a laboratory setting from 34 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 18 male, 16 female) with a mean age of 54 months (SD = 1.8). Measures of…

  9. No threat-related processing bias in low trait-anxious high state-anxious novice parachuters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M; Arntz, A; Janssen, S; de Jong, Peter; Pool, K

    1998-01-01

    Earlier studies found that processing bias in anxious patients as measured by the modified Stroop task is reduced after behavior therapy. This suggests that threat interference reflects an anxious state rather than a stable trait. Others (e.g., Matthews & Macleod, 1994), however have proposed that i

  10. Will environmental interventions affect the level of mastery motivation among children with disabilities? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim

    2015-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation.

  11. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  12. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-03-01

    The article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the preliminary development of a new tool to screen for Asperger syndrome (AS) and related social and communication conditions (the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, CAST) in children aged 4-11 years, in a non-clinical setting. In the pilot study, parents of 13 children with AS and of 37 typically developing children completed the CAST. There were significant differences between the AS and typical sample means. The pilot was used to establish preliminary cut-off scores for the CAST. In the main study, parents of 1150 primary-school-age children were sent the CAST, and 174 took part in the full data analysis. Results suggest that compared with other tools currently available, the CAST may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream non-clinical sample. Further research is ongoing.

  13. [Implementation of a psychological support program for children with cancer in Poland. Preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardakiewicz, M; Kowalczyk, J; Antonowicz, M; Budzińska-Skowronska, U; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Mazurowa, M; Mazur, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Bukowska-Posadzy, A; Kołecki, P; Maroczkaniec, E; Slazak, D; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Szweda, E; Armata, J; Budziński, W; Balcerska, A

    2000-01-01

    Intensive chemotherapy programme in children with cancer may result in psychological mal adjustment. Treatment facilities as well as psychological support are of great importance to minimize these side effects. In 1998 the programme of psychological support was introduced in 7 Polish paediatric haematology / oncology centres. Psychological adjustment of patients treated in each centre was examined 5 yrs after the termination of therapy. At the same time children with new diagnosis of cancer were monitored psychologically along with the psychological support programme. Psychological status of each patient was examined with the following tests: Cattell's questionnaires (CPQ, HSPQ), Manifest Anxiety Scale, Spielberger's inventories (STAI, STAIC), Wechsler Intelligence Scale. The programme of psychological support was based on guidelines of SIOP Psychosocial Committee and included such elements as informing about diagnosis and treatment, explaining any doubt, maintaining an open communication, educational care in the periods of treatment, encouraging to activity even during periods of discomfort. The analysis showed that most of the participating centres could only provide some elements of the support programme. The main problem was to convince medical staff to inform children on diagnosis and treatment plans. Preliminary results of the study indicate that full psychological support for children with cancer and their families from the beginning of therapy can result in improvement in psychological adjustment. During the ensuing period, patients and their parents appreciate the possibilities to contact a psychologist.

  14. Association of Different Human Rhinovirus Species with Asthma in Children: A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhao; Wen-Jing Zhu; Yuan Qian; Yu Sun; Ru-Nan Zhu; Jie Deng; Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are divided into three genetic species:HRV-A,HRV-B,and HRV-C.The association of different HRV species with asthma in children in China has not yet been evaluated.This preliminary study aimed to assess the associations between different HRV species,particularly HRV-C,and asthma in young children in China.Methods:A total of 702 nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 155 children with asthma (asthma group),461 children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) without asthma (nonasthma ARI group),and 86 children from the control group.Semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HRVs,and PCR products were sequenced for species identification.Epidemiological characteristics of HRV-positive cases were analyzed.Results:HRVs were the most common pathogen (15.4%;108/702) in the patients in this study.The prevalence of HRV was significantly different (F =20.633,P =0.000) between the asthma (25.8%) and nonasthma ARI groups (11.1%).Phylogenetic analysis indicated that in the 108 cases positive for HRVs,41 were identified as HRV-A,8 as HRV-B,and 56 as HRV-C.Comparing the asthma with the nonasthma ARI group,Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed an association between HRV-A (P < 0.05) and C (P < 0.01) and asthma,confirmed by regression analysis,with odds ratios of 2.2 (HRV-A) and 4.2 (HRV-C).Conclusions:Our data revealed a high prevalence of HRVs in children in China,regardless of clinical status.HRV-C was the dominant species and may be one of the key factors in the association of HRVs with asthma.

  15. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  16. Structured narrative retell instruction for young children from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a preliminary study of feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; McLeod, Angela N; Leftwich, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, "structured narrative retell instruction" (SNRI), and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children's books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI). Each group received 12, 40-min instructional sessions over 6 weeks. Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on 4 of the 7 meaning-related measures (p < 0.10). In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on 2 of 7 meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  17. Preliminary Findings of a Format-based Foreign Language Teaching Method for School Children in the Basque Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpillaga, Beronika; Arzamendi, Jesus; Etxeberria, Feli; Garagorri, Xabier; Lindsay, Diana; Joaristi, Luis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the preliminary findings in the Basque Country of a project shared by four European countries to teach a second language or a foreign language to preschool and school-age children. The method used to teach the foreign language--English--is based on the use of dramatized formats. Examines level of language proficiency achieved with each…

  18. Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt Test performance: a pilot study and preliminary norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Serap

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD = 3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD = 3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.

  19. Structured Narrative Retell Instruction for Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Adlof

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, structured narrative retell instruction (SNRI, and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children’s books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI. Each group received 12, 40-minute instructional sessions over six weeks. Pre- and posttests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on four of the seven meaning-related measures (p < .10. In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on two of seven meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  20. A Preliminary Multiple Case Report of Neurocognitive Training for Children With AD/HD in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary multiple case study examined the behavioral outcomes of neurocognitive training on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD in China, as well as parent acceptance of the treatment. The training approach targeted working memory, impulse control, and attention/relaxation (via brain electrical activity. Outcome measures included overt behavior as rated by parents and teachers, AD/HD symptom frequency, and parent opinion/feedback. Training was completed by five individuals and delivered via a themed computer game with electroencephalogram (EEG input via a wireless, single-channel, dry-sensor, portable measurement device. The objective (i.e., training outcomes and EEG and subjective (i.e., parent ratings/feedback and teacher ratings data suggested that use of the neurocognitive training resulted in reduced AD/HD behaviors and improvement in socially meaningful outcomes. The parents expressed satisfaction with the training procedure and outcomes. It is concluded that the innovative neurocognitive training approach is effective for improving behavior and reducing symptoms of AD/HD for children in China.

  1. Cognitive content structure of anxious and depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Zdenka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There were three aims of the study: to determine psychometric properties of Serbian translation of Beck's Cognition Check List, to analyze factor structure of both subscales of Check List and to check the relationship among determined dimensions of the subscales. Patients with depressive anxiety and mixed diagnoses participated. Results suggest that subscale of depressive cognitions is of satisfactory reliability and both concurrent and divergent validity. Subscale of anxious cognitions has satisfactory internal consistency, but is weakly correlated with anxiety symptoms and is not discriminatively valid. Principal components analysis of depressive cognitions subscale yielded three factors that corresponded to the elements of Beck's "Negative Cognitive Triad". Analysis of anxious subscale did not provided dimensions hypothesized by Beck, but three dimensions, which correspond to three groups of anxious symptoms, where identified. Results indicate possibility of applying Beck’s Content Specificity Hypothesis on separation of specific anxiety or phobic disorders.

  2. Clinical interventions for late-life anxious depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Goethe, John

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety symptoms are frequently present in patients with late-life depression. The designation "anxious depression" has been used to describe major depressive disorder (MDD) accompanied by clinically significant but subsyndromal anxiety symptoms. MDD may also present comorbid with diagnosable anxiety disorders, although this presentation is less common in late life. Diagnosis of anxious depression in the elderly is complicated by several factors (eg, their tendency to experience and report psychiatric symptoms as somatic illness) and is associated with a more severe clinical presentation, increased risk for suicidal ideation, increased disability, and poorer prognosis. Standard pharmacotherapy for depression may be sufficient but for many patients must be modified or augmented. Psychosocial interventions may also be an important component in the treatment of these patients, although no specific psychosocial treatments have been developed for late-life anxious depression.

  3. Anxious attachment and psychological distress in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Sarah Rose, M; Brewis, C S

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychologically distressed and non-psychologically distressed cardiac patients. Attachment is a biologically based behavioral system in which proximity to a special other is sought or maintained to achieve a sense of safety and security. Anxious attachment, as the name denotes, fails to achieve the function of attachment in the sense of individuals having little or no confidence in the availability of their attachment figures. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking and separation protest) capture the features of anxious attachment as elaborated by Bowlby. These scales were administered to 178 cardiac rehabilitation patients drawn from the cardiac rehabilitation program of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that feared loss and proximity seeking differentiated psychologically distressed from non-psychologically distressed patients. The implications of this finding for the understanding of psychologically distressed cardiac patients are discussed.

  4. Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Tripathi, Abhay Mani

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the eff-cacy of ‘audio distraction’ in anxious pediatric dental patients. Materials and methods: Sixty children were randomly selected and equally divided into two groups of thirty each. The first group was control group (group A) and the second group was music group (group B). The dental procedure employed was extraction for both the groups. The children included in music group were allowed to hear audio presentation throughout the treatment procedure. Anxiety was measured by using Venham's picture test, pulse rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. Results: ‘Audio distraction’ was found efficacious in alleviating anxiety of pediatric dental patients. Conclusion: ‘Audio distraction’ did decrease the anxiety in pediatric patients to a significant extent. How to cite this article: Singh D, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Tripathi AM. Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):149-152. PMID:25709291

  5. Intensified neuronal investment in the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals in non-socially anxious and socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M Pause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.

  6. Performance of Spanish/English bilingual children on a spanish-language neuropsychological battery: preliminary normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Navarrete, M Gina; Matute, Esmeralda

    2010-05-01

    Despite a population of close to 40 million Hispanics/Latinos in the USA who have at least some level of Spanish/English bilingualism, there are few neuropsychological tests and norms available for this group, especially when assessing Spanish/English bilingual children. The purpose of the present research was to provide preliminary normative data for a bilingual population on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery developed for Spanish-speaking children (Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil). Norms by age are presented on the performance of 108 Spanish/English bilingual children (ages 5-14 years) and are expected to be useful when testing other Spanish/English bilingual children in the USA.

  7. Reactive Aggression and Suicide-Related Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Review and Preliminary Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Chelsey M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Castellanos, Daniel

    2017-01-03

    The empirical literature on the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents was reviewed. A narrative review of seven studies that met inclusion/exclusion criteria is followed by a preliminary meta-analysis to provide insight into the strength of the association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors. Each of the seven studies reported a statistically significant association between reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors, including suicide, nonfatal suicide attempt, and suicide ideation. Results from the meta-analysis indicated a consistent, medium-sized association (k = 7; N = 4,693; rbar = .25). The narrative review and results of the preliminary meta-analysis support the promise of pursuing future research on reactive aggression and suicide-related behaviors in children and adolescents. A theoretical model is proposed to guide the development of future research.

  8. Clinical evaluation of children testing positive in screening tests for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skounti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Screening tests are of great diagnostic value in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, however final diagnosis relies on a clinical examination by an expert. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate children who had been screened positive for ADHD through both a parent and a teacher questionnaire. Methods: Parent interview and child behavior checklist and clinical assessment were used to confirm the preliminary diagnosis in 42 children aged 8 years, who have been screened positive for ADHD out of 1,708 children, in a large, two-setting screening study conducted in Crete, Greece. Results: The diagnosis of ADHD was confirmed for 31 children (74%. In the remaining 11 children, ADHD manifestations were attributed to other primary disorders. None of the 42 children was classified as lacking symptoms suggesting ADHD. Among the 31 children with confirmed ADHD, only 2 had been diagnosed prior to the screening test. Conclusions: Although clinical evaluation is the golden standard for diagnosis of ADHD, two-setting screening questionnaires by parent and teacher are useful tools in identifying children who need further investigation and intervention.

  9. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Gazendam; J.H. Kamphuis; M. Kindt

    2012-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current stud

  10. Comparison of Cognitive Assessment Methods With Heterosocially Anxious College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszka, Michael T.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated comparability of self-statements generated by different cognitive assessment methods; effect of an assessment delay on cognitive phenomena; and interrelationships among different cognitive variables. Subjects were heterosocially anxious women (N=64) who engaged in a conversation with a male confederate. Self-statements generated by…

  11. Agoraphobia and anxious-ambivalent attachment: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that internal working models of attachment, that is, mental representations of attachment relationships, are shaped in childhood experiences with primary caregivers. It is hypothesized that an anxious-ambivalent internal working model of attechment is a risk factor for the

  12. Anxious attachment as a determinant of adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Rose, M S; Sheldon, A

    1993-07-01

    Traditionally, an excess of interpersonal dependency has been used to characterize disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults. This approach stands in sharp contrast to that of attachment theorists who conceptualize attachment as functionally distinct from dependency. Attachment theory focuses on anxious attachment in the definition and dynamics of disturbed adult interpersonal relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychiatric outpatients from nonpatients. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking, and separation protest) measure the components of anxious attachment as defined by Bowlby. The scales were administered to two research samples. Sample 1 was composed of 136 respondents to a survey within the Calgary community. Sample 2 consisted of 110 psychiatric outpatients drawn from the psychotherapy clinic of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that the three components of anxious attachment offer a clinically relevant system for differentiating between psychiatric outpatients and nonpatients. Of these three components, feared loss has the predominant effect. The implications of this finding for the delineation of disturbed interpersonal relationships in adults is discussed.

  13. Parenting behaviors and anxious self-talk in youth and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiaying; Cummings, Colleen M; Villabø, Marianne A; Kendall, Philip C

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the association between parental anxious self-talk, parenting behaviors, and youth anxious self-talk. Parents and youth ages 7 to 14 (M = 10.17; N = 208; 53% male) seeking treatment for anxiety were evaluated for anxiety symptoms, youth anxious self-talk, parental anxious self-talk, and youth-perceived parenting behavior. Youth and parental anxious self-talk were assessed by both child and parent self-reports; youth-perceived parenting behaviors were assessed by youth-reports. Parenting behaviors included separate ratings of paternal and maternal (a) acceptance, (b) psychological control, and (c) firm/behavioral control. Correlational analyses revealed that maternal anxious self-talk, but not paternal anxious self-talk, was significantly associated with youth's anxious self-talk. Maternal anxious self-talk had an inverse association with youth-perceived maternal acceptance, but was not associated with youth-perceived maternal psychological or behavioral control. Higher youth-perceived maternal acceptance was significantly associated with lower youth anxious self-talk. Youth-perceived maternal acceptance partially mediated the association between mother's anxious self-talk and youth's anxious self-talk. However, this mediation effect disappeared when taking into account youth depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in relation to clinical implications and future directions in research.

  14. Preliminary evidence that different mechanisms underlie the anger superiority effect in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eIsomura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that angry faces capture humans’ attention more rapidly than emotionally positive faces. This phenomenon is referred to as the anger superiority effect (ASE. Despite atypical emotional processing, adults and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have been reported to show ASE as well as typically developed (TD individuals. So far, however, few studies have clarified whether or not the mechanisms underlying ASE are the same for both TD and ASD individuals. Here, we tested how TD and ASD children process schematic emotional faces during detection by employing a recognition task in combination with a face-in-the-crowd task. Results of the face-in-the-crowd task revealed the prevalence of ASE both in TD and ASD children. However, the results of the recognition task revealed group differences: In TD children, detection of angry faces required more configural face processing and disrupted the processing of local features. In ASD children, on the other hand, it required more feature-based processing rather than configural processing. Despite the small sample sizes, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with ASD, in contrast to TD children, show quick detection of angry faces by extracting local features in faces.

  15. A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is not the sole reason for fear of dentistry. Anxiety or the fear of unknown during dental treatment is a major factor and it has been the major concern for dentists for a long time. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the two distraction techniques, viz, audio distraction and audiovisual distraction, in management of anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children aged between 4-8 years were divided into three groups. Each child had four dental visits - screening visit, prophylaxis visit, cavity preparation and restoration visit, and extraction visit. Child′s anxiety level in each visit was assessed using a combination of four measures: Venham′s picture test, Venham′s rating of clinical anxiety, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation. The values obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that audiovisual distraction technique was more effective in managing anxious pediatric dental patient as compared to audio distraction technique.

  16. Can Parents Treat their Anxious Child using CBT? A Brief Report of a Self-Help Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Christiansen, Bianca Munkebo; Walczak, Monika Anna;

    2016-01-01

    , and Cool Kids manuals for parents and children. The sample consisted of 20 families, and 17 completed treatment. Results: After treatment, intent-to-treat analyses indicated that 65% of the children were free of all anxiety disorders. The corresponding figure for completers was 76.5%. Conclusion: Our......Objective: We developed and tested a self-help program with minimal therapist involvement for parents of anxious children. Method: The program focused on transfer of control from therapist to parents of children with moderate anxiety, and consisted of two therapist-led workshops, a Facebook group...... results suggest that parent-based self-help groups focusing on transfer of control may be a cost-effective way of providing treatment to children with moderate anxiety...

  17. Parent-based prevention program for the children of mothers with eating disorders: Feasibility and preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Zubery, Eynat; Mankovski, Esty; Steiner, Evelyne; Lock, James D

    2016-01-01

    The children of mothers with eating disorders are at high risk of feeding and eating problems and broader developmental difficulties. The Parent-Based Prevention (PBP) of eating disorders targets risk factors and facilitates behavioral change in parents to mitigate potentially negative outcomes of their children. This pre/post uncontrolled study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of PBP. PBP was found to be a feasible intervention for mothers with eating disorders and their spouses, with satisfactory retention rates. A total of 16 intact families were assessed at three measurement points for parents' feeding practices, child outcomes, and maternal functioning. Both parents reported improved feeding practices as well as more positive perceptions of their children in comparison to baseline. These pilot findings suggest that PBP is linked with decreased risk of eating and mental problems among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders.

  18. Working with anxious or fearful patients: a training tool for the medical practice staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2007-01-01

    Every medical practice must work with at least some patients who are fearful or anxious. This article explores the seven most common root causes of patient fear and anxiety and offers practical suggestions for avoiding or minimizing these fears. It addresses, in particular, the patient's fear of the unknown, of being humiliated, of reenacting a medical legend or horror story, and of being vulnerable and helpless. It also explores the patient's fear of high medical fees or being unable to pay, a poor or disappointing clinical outcome, and being in a hospital-like environment. The author suggests that the medica lpractice staff may wish to seek training in fear control and includes practical how-to strategies for minimizing fear when working with children.

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs. PMID:27999683

  20. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  1. Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachha Behroze

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB/SH are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB/SH. Methods Twenty six children with SB/SH and 26 controls (age: 7 – 16 y with average intelligence, and monolingual English-speaking backgrounds participated in the study. Exclusion criteria for the SB/SH group were: prior history of shunt infection, history of seizure or shunt malfunction within the previous three months, prior diagnoses of attention disorders and/or clinical depression. Children were presented lists of words with equal exemplars each of two distinct semantic categories (e.g. fruits, animals, and told to make as high a score as possible by learning the words. The value of the words was designated by category membership (e.g. animals = low value; fruits = high value. The total number of words learned across three learning trials was used to determine memory span. Selective learning efficiency (SLE was computed as the efficiency with which items of greater value were selectively learned across three trials. Results Children with SB/SH did worse than controls on memory span (P Conclusion Success in school is often dependent on the ability to recall important facts selectively and ignore less important information. Children with SB/SH in our study had a poor memory span and were unable to monitor and report an efficient and workable metacognitive strategy required to remember a list of words. Preliminary findings may begin to explain our previous clinical and research findings wherein children with SB/SH often focus on extraneous details, but demonstrate difficulty remembering the main gist of a story/event.

  2. A Measure of Engagement for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Early Childhood Settings: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Yuriko; Kemp, Coral

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of engagement that could be used in practice with children with disabilities, including children with severe intellectual disabilities. Method: The "Individual Child Engagement Record" (ICER) was designed to observe and record the engagement of individual children in order to identify…

  3. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  4. Oral use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in children with secretory otitis media: preliminary results of a pilot, uncontrolled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Di Pasquale, Daniele; Di Cicco, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Secretory otitis media (SOM) remains a common disease among children. Although its cause is not yet perfectly established, the pathology, often a sequel of acute otitis media (AOM), is mainly characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear cavity. Twenty-two children with a diagnosis of SOM were treated daily for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®). After treatment, the children were evaluated for AOM episodes and subjected to tone audiometry, tympanometry, endonasal endoscopy, otoscopy, and tonsillar examination. Subject compliance and probiotic tolerability and side effects have also been evaluated. Our results indicate a good safety profile, a substantial reduction of AOM episodes, and a positive outcome from the treatment for all of the clinical outcomes tested. We conclude that strain K12 may have a role in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of SOM in children. From our perspective, this study constitutes a starting point toward the organization of a more extensive placebo-controlled study aimed at critically appraising our preliminary observations. PMID:26396541

  5. Oral use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in children with secretory otitis media: preliminary results of a pilot, uncontrolled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Daniele Di Pasquale,2 Maurizio Di Cicco2 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2ORL Department, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Ca’ Grande IRCCS, Milan, Italy Abstract: Secretory otitis media (SOM remains a common disease among children. Although its cause is not yet perfectly established, the pathology, often a sequel of acute otitis media (AOM, is mainly characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear cavity. Twenty-two children with a diagnosis of SOM were treated daily for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®. After treatment, the children were evaluated for AOM episodes and subjected to tone audiometry, tympanometry, endonasal endoscopy, otoscopy, and tonsillar examination. Subject compliance and probiotic tolerability and side effects have also been evaluated. Our results indicate a good safety profile, a substantial reduction of AOM episodes, and a positive outcome from the treatment for all of the clinical outcomes tested. We conclude that strain K12 may have a role in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of SOM in children. From our perspective, this study constitutes a starting point toward the organization of a more extensive placebo-controlled study aimed at critically appraising our preliminary observations. Keywords: BLIS K12, Bactoblis®, acute otitis media, exudative otitis media

  6. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Nerium indicum in anxious rats

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Suresh Mohale; Alok Shiomurthi Tripathi; Abhijit V Shrirao; Amol G Jawarkar; Chandewar, Anil V.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the ethyl acetate extract of Nerium indicum (NIE) flower for its antioxidant effect in anxious Sprague–Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6) and treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o. of NIE for 21 days to assess its preventive and curative effects. Anxiety was induced by isolating animals socially for 21 days. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and light and dark model were used for measuring anxiety in animals....

  8. Ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children: A preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-An Zhu; Bing Hu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children.METHODS: Twenty-eight children with liver cirrhosis of various etiologies were examined by routine ultrasonography.A percutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound was also performed on each patient, and the results of liver biopsy and ultrasonography were compared.RESULTS: When compared with the biopsy results,ultrasonography in combination of clinical and laboratory findings gave accurate diagnoses of children liver cirrhosis.Although ultrasound imaging of children with liver cirrhosis revealed abnormal characteristics, these images were not specific to this disease, thus reinforcing the necessity of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is reliable in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis, and its usefulness should be stressed in the screening and follow-up of high-risk pediatric patients.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Educational Attainment of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tors, Barbara

    The total number of children affected by divorce has more than tripled since 1960, even though the total number of children has declined from the 1970s to the 1980s. In 1988 female-headed households with children and no spouse present constituted 44.7 percent of all families at or below the poverty level. The purpose of this paper is to show that…

  10. Bibliotherapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders Using Written Materials for Parents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Abbott, Maree J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.

    2006-01-01

    The current trial examined the value of modifying empirically validated treatment for childhood anxiety for application via written materials for parents of anxious children. Two hundred sixty-seven clinically anxious children ages 6-12 years and their parents were randomly allocated to standard group treatment, wait list, or a bibliotherapy…

  11. Spontaneous Regulation of Emotions in Preschool Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Walden, Tedra A.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Emotional regulation of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS) was assessed through use of a disappointing gift (DG) procedure (P. M. Cole, 1986; C. Saarni, 1984, 1992). Method: Participants consisted of 16 CWS and CWNS (11 boys and 5 girls in each talker group) who were 3 to 5 years of age. After…

  12. Preliminary evaluation of a multidisciplinary pain management program for children and adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Blecourt, A. C. E.; Schiphorst Preuper, H. R.; Van der Schans, C. P.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reneman, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the outcome of a multidisciplinary pain management program for children and adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods. Study design: exploratory retrospective cohort study. The study sample consisted of a cohort of 70 children and adolescents ( age: 8 - 21 years) wi

  13. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  14. Fathers with Joint Physical Custody of Young Children: A Preliminary Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Carol A; Goldenberg, Irene

    1986-01-01

    Fathers with joint physical custody of children under age six report that this custody arrangement is of great benefit to the children, especially in circumstances where mothers have initiated the divorce and have sought less childcare responsibility. Joint physical custody fathers are highly available and provide closeness as the sole parent in…

  15. Children's Foreign Language Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Güzel, Serhat; Ustuk, Özgehan; Savran Çelik, Seyda; Genç, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA), which constitutes a serious problem in the foreign language learning process, has been mainly seen as a research issue regarding adult language learners, while it has been overlooked in children. This is because there is no an appropriate tool to measure FLA among children, whereas there are many studies on the…

  16. Spelling Processes of Children With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karen Shi Mei; Young, Selena Ee-Li; Liow, Susan Jane Rickard; Purcell, Alison Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective :  To compare the cognitive-linguistic processes underlying spelling performance of children with cleft lip and/or palate with those of typically developing children. Design :  An assessment battery including tests of hearing, articulation, verbal short-term and working memory, and phonological awareness, as well as word and nonword spelling, was administered to both groups. Participants :  A total of 15 children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were case-matched by age and sex to 15 typically developing children. The children were aged between 6 and 8 years and were bilingual, with English the dominant language. Results :  Wilcoxon signed-rank tests revealed that the performance of children with cleft lip and/or palate was significantly poorer on phoneme deletion and nonword spelling (P spelling measures for the cleft lip and/or palate and typically developing groups. Conclusions :  Children with cleft lip and/or palate underachieve in phonological awareness and spelling skills. To facilitate early intervention for literacy problems, speech-language pathologists should routinely assess the cognitive-linguistic processing of children with cleft lip and/or palate, especially phonological awareness, as part of their case management protocols.

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD in Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick; Yule, William; Perrin, Sean; Tranah, Troy; Dagleish, Tim; Clark, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of individual trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and young people. Method: Following a 4-week symptom-monitoring baseline period, 24 children and young people (8-18 years old) who met full "DSM-IV" PTSD diagnostic criteria after…

  18. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and…

  19. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Developmental Criteria for Young Children: A Preliminary Psychometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Faridah

    2014-01-01

    Authentic assessment approach applies naturalistic observation method to gather and analyse data about children's development that are socio-culturally appropriate to plan for individual teaching and learning needs. This article discusses the process of adapting an authentic developmental instrument for children of 3-6 years old. The instrument…

  20. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  1. The Effects of Sleep Disturbance on School Performance: A Preliminary Investigation of Children Attending Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Laura; Guarnera, Manuela; Mazzone, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders in children are common. Sleep plays an important role in children's development and sleep disorders can have a substantial impact on their quality of life. Indeed, sleep is crucial for physical growth, behavior, and emotional development and it is also closely related to cognitive functioning, learning and attention, and therefore…

  2. Preliminary Observations on Safety of Children Whose Mother Use Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate During Lactation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小菲; 雷贞武; 袁晓蓉; 杜桂来; 李梅; 赵玉琼; 刘光海; 吴尚纯

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of the children breast-fed by the mothers receiving depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) during lactation Methods A total of 180 children were divided into two groups. The children in the experimental group (n= 90) included those whose mothers were given DMPA injection during lactation while mothers of the children in the control group (n = 90), at the same time, did not use DMPA. The body weight, height, head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral adaptation of children in the two groups were measured and compared.Results There were no significant differences (P> 0. 05) in the body weight, height,head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral in two groups.Conclusion DMPA can be safely used in breast-feeding women without harmful effects on physical and intellectual developments and behavioral adaptation of their offspring.

  3. Becoming Therapeutic Agents: A Grounded Theory of Mothers' Process When Implementing Cognitive Behavioural Therapy at Home with an Anxious Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishva, Rana

    2016-09-29

    The premise of parent-centred programmes for parents of anxious children is to educate and train caregivers in the sustainable implementation of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in the home. The existing operationalization of parent involvement, however, does not address the systemic, parent or child factors that could influence this process. The qualitative approach of grounded theory was employed to examine patterns of action and interaction involved in the complex process of carrying out CBT with one's child in one's home. A grounded theory goes beyond the description of a process, offering an explanatory theory that brings taken-for-granted meanings and processes to the surface. The theory that emerged from the analysis suggests that CBT implementation by mothers of anxious children is characterized by the evolution of mothers' perception of their child and mothers' perception of their role as well as a shift from reacting with emotion to responding pragmatically to the child. Changes occur as mothers recognize the crisis, make links between the treatment rationale, child's symptoms and their own parenting strategies, integrate tenets of CBT for anxiety and eventually focus on sustaining therapeutic gains through natural life transitions. The theory widens our understanding of mothers' role, therapeutic engagement, process, and decision-making. The theory also generates new hypotheses regarding parent involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders and proposes novel research avenues that aim to maximize the benefits of parental involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Rachel; Edwards, Katie; King, John; Luzon, Olga; Evangeli, Michael; Stark, Daniel; McFarlane, Fiona; Heyman, Isobel; İnce, Başak; Kodric, Jana; Murphy, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed.

  5. A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie

    2010-10-01

    Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.

  6. Preliminary evidence of improved gaze stability following exercise in two children with vestibular hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Jennifer; Rine, Rose Marie

    2006-11-01

    Despite impaired gaze stability and reading in children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and vestibular hypofunction (VH), there are no reports of intervention. We examined the effect of visual-vestibular exercises in two children on dynamic visual acuity (DVA), critical print size (CPS) and reading acuity (RA) using an ABA design. Improvement in CPS and RA was seen in both subjects. DVA improved only in the subject with acquired versus congenital VH. These results suggest that although exercise improves reading acuity, age at the time of lesion affects the improvement of DVA in children with SNHL and BVH.

  7. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the Fit4Fun Intervention for Improving Physical Fitness in a Sample of Primary School Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based physical fitness intervention (Fit4Fun) on the physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels of primary school children. Methods: A group-randomized controlled trial with a 3-month wait-list control group was conducted in…

  8. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  9. Description and Preliminary Evaluation of a Curriculum for Teaching Conversational Skills to Children with High-Functioning Autism and Other Social Cognition Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Cannon, Lynn R.; Kornblum, Courtney; Clark, Jonna; Powers, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to provide (a) a detailed description of a school-based intervention designed to teach children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASDs) and other social cognition challenges both the "how" and the "why" of conversation and (b) a preliminary evaluation of…

  10. Parenting by Anxious Mothers: Effects of Disorder Subtype, Context and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Lau, Pui Yi; Arteche, Adriane; Creswell, Cathy; Russ, Stephanie; Zoppa, Letizia Della; Muggeo, Michela; Stein, Alan; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing research interest in parenting by anxious adults; however, little is known about anxiety-subtype effects, or effects of the context in which parenting is assessed. Methods: Two groups of anxious mothers, social phobia (N = 50), generalised anxiety disorder (N = 38), and nonanxious controls (N = 62) were…

  11. Defining anxious depression in later life: a scaring heterogeneity in results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety in depression is challenging as it results in more functional impairment and a worse prognosis. No consensus exists on the definition of anxious depression. METHODS: In 359 older patients with major depressive disorder, we examined the agreement between anxious depression based o

  12. Parenting Practices of Anxious and Nonanxious Mothers: A Multi-Method, Multi-Informant Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2011-01-01

    Anxious and nonanxious mothers were compared on theoretically derived parenting and family environment variables (i.e., overcontrol, warmth, criticism, anxious modeling) using multiple informants and methods. Mother-child dyads completed questionnaires about parenting and were observed during an interactional task. Findings reveal that, after…

  13. Heritability of Anxious-Depressive and Withdrawn Behavior: Age-Related Changes during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Bartels, Meike; van der Aa, Niels; Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explain the differential course of anxiety and depression in individuals from childhood to adulthood by examining age-related changes in the genetic and environmental etiology of anxious and depressive symptoms. Method: A sample of 1470, 1839, and 2023 Dutch twins aged 12, 14, and 16 years reported on symptoms of anxious depression…

  14. Association of Different Human Rhinovirus Species with Asthma in Children: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data revealed a high prevalence of HRVs in children in China, regardless of clinical status. HRV-C was the dominant species and may be one of the key factors in the association of HRVs with asthma.

  15. Outcomes of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media in Children Treated for Dental Malocclusion: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bernkopf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of dental malocclusion treatment in the outcomes of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media (RAOM. Materials and Methods. The clinical outcome (number of acute recurrences in 12 months of 61 consecutive children treated medically for RAOM was analysed. Children underwent an odontostomatologic evaluation, a fiberoptic endoscopy, and skin-prick tests. Results. 32 children (group A were diagnosed with dental malocclusion and treated with a mandibular repositioning plate. Dental malocclusion was ruled out in the other 29 patients with RAOM, and they were used as controls (group B. The two groups were homogeneous in terms of sex, exposure to RAOM risk factors, skin test results, and adenoid hypertrophy, while age was significantly higher in group A. Age, sex, exposure to RAOM risk factors, adenoid hypertrophy, and skin test results were not associated with RAOM outcome. Children in group A treated for dental malocclusion were strongly associated with a lower number of acute episode recurrences at both univariate (p<0.0001 and multivariate analysis (p=0.001. Conclusions. RAOM showed better outcomes in children with dental malocclusion wearing a mandibular repositioning device. Dental malocclusion in children with RAOM may play a role in the pathogenesis of Eustachian tube dysfunction.

  16. Ecological assessment of heart rate complexity: Differences between high- and low-anxious adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornas, Xavier; Balle, Maria; De la Torre-Luque, Alejandro; Fiol-Veny, Aina; Llabrés, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear measures can capture the complex structure of the heart beating, and recordings taken while the individual performs daily activities may help to understand the cardiac system's output in natural conditions. As healthy systems are characterized by having highly complex outputs, we hypothesized that the cardiac output from high anxious adolescents should be less complex than the output from their low anxious counterparts. In this study ECG was recorded for two hours in 50 adolescents while they performed regular school activities. Fractal dimension (FD), scaling exponents and multiscale entropy were calculated on the interbeat intervals time series. Both FD and entropy were significantly lower in the high-anxious group than the low-anxious group. These results suggest different heart-related regulation in adolescents who suffered from high anxious symptomatology.

  17. Metacognition in Pathological Gambling and Its Relationship with Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Urbiola, Irache; Estevez, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed. The sample comprised 124 pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and 204 participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology. Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it.

  18. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  19. Outcomes of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media in Children Treated for Dental Malocclusion: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkopf, Edoardo; Bernkopf, Giulia; Giacomelli, Luciano; De Vincentis, Giovanni Carlo; Macrì, Francesco; de Filippis, Cosimo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the role of dental malocclusion treatment in the outcomes of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media (RAOM). Materials and Methods. The clinical outcome (number of acute recurrences in 12 months) of 61 consecutive children treated medically for RAOM was analysed. Children underwent an odontostomatologic evaluation, a fiberoptic endoscopy, and skin-prick tests. Results. 32 children (group A) were diagnosed with dental malocclusion and treated with a mandibular repositioning plate. Dental malocclusion was ruled out in the other 29 patients with RAOM, and they were used as controls (group B). The two groups were homogeneous in terms of sex, exposure to RAOM risk factors, skin test results, and adenoid hypertrophy, while age was significantly higher in group A. Age, sex, exposure to RAOM risk factors, adenoid hypertrophy, and skin test results were not associated with RAOM outcome. Children in group A treated for dental malocclusion were strongly associated with a lower number of acute episode recurrences at both univariate (p malocclusion wearing a mandibular repositioning device. Dental malocclusion in children with RAOM may play a role in the pathogenesis of Eustachian tube dysfunction. PMID:27965974

  20. Overweight and obesity among Hispanic children entering foster care: a preliminary examination of polyvictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) in Hispanic foster children aged 2-18 years in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression was used for boys and girls separately to analyze polyvictimization (i.e., one vs. two or more types of maltreatment), type of maltreatment (abuse vs. neglect), and age-group as risk factors for overweight and obesity. Almost 40% of participants were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence (47.7%) observed among children aged 12-18. Children aged 6-18 were at an increased risk of overweight/obesity and obesity compared with children aged 2-5. Although polyvictimization has been shown to have adverse health effects, in this study, it was related to slightly lower odds of obesity for boys but was unrelated to high weight for girls. Addressing the obesity epidemic among Hispanic foster children is vital to preventing continued obesity and the development of obesity-related health problems, especially by focusing on important community and family influences.

  1. Metric characteristics of Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kozina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to introduce the Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS and to present its metric characteristics. The questionnaire is based on parental styles of D. Baumrind (1967 and 3D model of parental styles developed by Milivojević and others (2004. The questionnaire was developed under assumption that relationship between children and their parents influences educational achievement of children. Results on convenience sample (N = 333 of seventh, eighth and ninth grade students in Slovenia show a three dimensional structure of the questionnaire: (a authoritative parental style and autonomy, (b authoritarian parental style and (c rewarding. Questionnaires' reliability in terms of internal consistency (,72 > α < ,95 as well as sensitivity (average r = ,67 proved to be sufficient. Our results show significant gender differences in perceived authoritative parental style and autonomy as well as low association between school grades and the perceived relationship.

  2. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L

    2003-03-01

    Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.

  3. Preliminary study of novel, timed walking tests for children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Lanovaz, Joel; Bisaro, Derek; Oates, Alison; Musselman, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Walking assessment is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice; yet, clinicians have few psychometrically sound options for evaluating walking in highly ambulatory children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of two new measures of walking function—the Obstacles and Curb tests—relative to the 10-Meter Walk test and Timed Up and Go test in children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy. Methods: A total of 16 ambulatory children with spina bifida (n=9) or cerebral palsy (n=7) (9 boys; mean age 7years, 7months; standard deviation 3years, 4months) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children participated. Children completed the walking tests, at both self-selected and fast speeds, twice. To evaluate discriminative validity, scores were compared between typically developing and spina bifida/cerebral palsy groups. Within the spina bifida/cerebral palsy group, inter-test correlations evaluated convergent validity and intraclass correlation coefficients evaluated within-session test–retest reliability. Results: At fast speeds, all tests showed discriminative validity (p<0.006 for typically developing and spina bifida/cerebral palsy comparisons) and convergent validity (rho=0.81–0.90, p⩽0.001, for inter-test correlations). At self-selected speeds, only the Obstacles test discriminated between groups (p=0.001). Moderately strong correlations (rho=0.73–0.78, p⩽0.001) were seen between the 10-Meter Walk test, Curb test, and Timed Up and Go test. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.97, with higher test–retest reliability for tests performed at fast speeds rather than self-selected speeds. Conclusion: The Obstacles and Curb tests are promising measures for assessing walking in this population. Performing tests at fast walking speeds may improve their validity and test–retest reliability for children with spina bifida/cerebral palsy. PMID:27493754

  4. Behavioral and Developmental Characteristics of Children with Inversion of Chromosome 9 in Korea: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-won; Lee, Jun-young; Hwang, Jun-won; Hong, Kang-E Michael

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the behavioral and developmental characteristics of children with inv(9). This case control study included 12 inv(9) subjects and 45 normal students. All of the subjects, together with their parents, underwent a psychiatric interview and parent questionnaire consisting of a Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).…

  5. Troublesome Tinnitus in Children: Epidemiology, Audiological Profile, and Preliminary Results of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bartnik

    2012-01-01

    Results. The study showed that 41.3% of the children suffered from bothersome tinnitus. In this group 44.1% of the patients demonstrated normal hearing. The success of the therapy after 6 months was estimated on 81.4% of significant improvement. Conclusions. It is recommended that a questionnaire include an inquiry about the presence of tinnitus during hearing screening tests.

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of Phonological Encoding Skills in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Brady, Alison; Stein, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated phonological encoding skills in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not (CNS). Participants were 9 CWS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5) and 9 age and sex matched CNS (M=11.8 years, SD=1.5). Method: Participants monitored target phonemes located at syllable onsets and offsets of bisyllabic words. Performance in…

  7. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  8. The "RAPID" Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program for Inattentive Children: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-C Questionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to…

  9. Physical Activity as Reinforcement for Classroom Calmness of ADHD Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Vinas, Veronica; Ehle, Christopher T.

    2007-01-01

    Contingent reward procedures have been found beneficial in improving classroom conduct of ADHD children. Based on the conceptualization of the Premack Principle, a previous single-subject study of an ADHD Autistic child suggested the novel use of physical activity availability as a reinforcer for attentive calmness of the Attention Deficit…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Communication Skills among Rural Hawaiian Children. Technical Report No. 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciborowski, Tom; Price-Williams, D.

    Fifty-six bidialectical rural Hawaiian children participated in a study to determine whether they possessed comparable communicative competence in both dialects (Hawaiian-Creole English and standard English). The subjects, selected from kindergarten, first, third, and sixth grades, worked in groups of two to complete a communication task. Half of…

  11. Renal elasticity quantification by acoustic radiation force impulse in children born preterm: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaffanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An emerging hypothesis from the recent literature describes how specific adverse factors related to growth retardation and low birth weight might influence renal development during fetal life and the insurgence of relevant pathologies in adulthood. Preterm births and related perinatal events can affect the mechanical proprieties of kidneys in childhood. We retrieved the laboratory medical records of 3 children born preterm, all in good condition, and investigated the elastic properties of their kidneys using the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI technique. Shear wave velocity (SWV obtained by the ARFI technique depends on the elasticity of a parenchymatous tissue.Medical records of case patient 1 showed a shorter right kidney (5th percentile, a greater protein/creatinine ratio and higher α1-microglobulin in the urine spot if compared with controls. Patients 2 and 3 had unremarkable laboratory results. Moreover, compared with the same results of healthy full-term normal children obtained from a previous study of ours, we observed higher SWV values (m/s for the left kidney in patients 1 and 3; patient 2 had lower SWV values in both kidneys. The altered SWV values, measured in these children born preterm, may be correlated with a possible underlying renal pathology (for instance, disruption of the renal histology. Altered SWV values are generally observed also in 2 out of 3 children with a history of normal laboratory markers of renal function. Further studies are needed on larger cohorts of patients.

  12. Dismissing Children's Perceptions of Their Emotional Experience and Parental Care: Preliminary Evidence of Positive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; David, Daryn H.; Crowley, Michael J.; Snavely, Jonathan E.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The tendency to perceive caregivers in highly positive terms and to perceive the self as strong and problem-free are two facets of the positive bias characteristic of a dismissing attachment classification in adulthood. However, this link has not yet been examined in children. We evaluated the association between dismissing attachment and positive…

  13. Behavioral and neural correlates of emotional development: typically developing infants and infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Porto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the main findings of studies of behavioral and neural correlates regarding the development of facial emotion processing during the first year of life in typically developing infants and infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers. Sources: Comprehensive, non-systematic review of the literature on studies about individual differences in facial emotion processing by newborns and infants over the first year of life. Summary of the findings: Maternal stress related to depression and anxiety has been associated to atypical emotional processing and attentional behaviors in the offspring. Recent neurophysiological studies using electroencephalogram and event-related potentials have begun to shed light on the possible mechanisms underlying such behaviors. Conclusions: Infants of depressed and/or anxious mothers have increased risk for several adverse outcomes across the lifespan. Further neurobehavioral investigations and the promotion of clinical and developmental research integration might eventually contribute to refining screening tools, improving treatment, and enabling primary prevention interventions for children at risk.

  14. Emotion Socialization in Anxious Youth: Parenting Buffers Emotional Reactivity to Peer Negative Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Waller, Jennifer M; Ryan, Neal D; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Sheeber, Lisa; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Anxious youth exhibit heightened emotional reactivity, particularly to social-evaluative threat, such as peer evaluation and feedback, compared to non-anxious youth. Moreover, normative developmental changes during the transition into adolescence may exacerbate emotional reactivity to peer negative events, particularly for anxious youth. Therefore, it is important to investigate factors that may buffer emotional reactivity within peer contexts among anxious youth. The current study examined the role of parenting behaviors in child emotional reactivity to peer and non-peer negative events among 86 anxious youth in middle childhood to adolescence (Mean age = 11.29, 54 % girls). Parenting behavior and affect was observed during a social-evaluative laboratory speech task for youth, and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods were used to examine youth emotional reactivity to typical daily negative events within peer and non-peer contexts. Results showed that parent positive behaviors, and low levels of parent anxious affect, during the stressful laboratory task for youth buffered youth negative emotional reactivity to real-world negative peer events, but not non-peer events. Findings inform our understanding of parenting influences on anxious youth's emotional reactivity to developmentally salient negative events during the transition into adolescence.

  15. Cognitive Therapy Alone and in Combination with Antidepressants for Anxious Depression: A STAR*D Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabaugh, Amy; Alpert, Jonathan; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Otto, Michael W.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Perlis, Roy; Friedman, Edward S.; Nyer, Maren; Bitran, Stella; Balasubramani, G.K.; Inamori, Aya; Trivedi, Madhukar; Thase, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Anxious depression, defined as MDD with high levels of anxiety, has been associated with lower rates of antidepressant response and remission as well as greater chronicity, suicidality and antidepressant side-effect burden. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cognitive therapy (CT) alone or in combination with medications for anxious versus non-anxious depression. Methods We assessed the STAR*D study participants who were partial or non-responders to citalopram. Subjects were then either switched (n = 696) to a new antidepressant or to CT alone, or they were kept on citalopram and augmented (n = 577) with another antidepressant or CT. We compared response and remission rates of those who met criteria for anxious depression to those who did not across treatment conditions. Results Those with anxious depression had significantly lower remission rates based on the QIDS, whether assigned to switch or augmentation, compared to those with non-anxious depression. Those with anxious depression, compared to those without, had significantly lower response rates based on the QIDS only in the switch group. There was no significant interaction between anxious depression and treatment assignment. Limitations Limitations include the use of citalopram as the only Level 1 pharmacotherapy and medication augmentation option, depression-focused CT rather than anxiety-focused CT, and focus on acute treatment outcomes. Conclusions Individuals with anxious depression appear to experience higher risk of poorer outcome following pharmacotherapy and/or CT after an initial course of SSRI, and continued efforts to target this challenging form of depression are needed. PMID:22877961

  16. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

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    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  17. Stigma in an era of medicalisation and anxious parenting: how proximity and culpability shape middle-class parents' experiences of disgrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Ara

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the stigma experiences of middle-class parents whose children have physical, psychological and behavioural problems. Qualitative interviews with 34 mothers and 21 fathers demonstrate that parents experience two types of stigma: courtesy stigma and the stigma of being a bad parent. While the former stems from close social proximity to stigmatised children, the latter stems from ostensible culpability for children's problems. Both characteristics are social constructs embedded in the larger contexts of an anxious, intensive parenting culture and the problematisation and medicalisation of childhood. As a consequence, mothers, parents whose children have invisible disabilities, and the parents of young children are particularly susceptible to negative labelling. These findings highlight the constructed and political nature of parents' stigmatisation.

  18. Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kor, Yilmaz; Geyikli, Iclal; Keskin, Mehmet; Akan, Muslum

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 gir...

  19. Electrical impedance myography for the assessment of children with muscular dystrophy: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkove, S. B.; Darras, B. T.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) provides a non-invasive approach for quantifying the severity of neuromuscular disease. Here we determine how well EIM data correlates to functional and ultrasound (US) measures of disease in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and healthy subjects. Thirteen healthy boys, aged 2-12 years and 14 boys with DMD aged 4-12 years underwent both EIM and US measurements of deltoid, biceps, wrist flexors, quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. EIM measurements were performed with a custom-designed probe using a commercial multifrequency bioimpedance device. US luminosity data were quantified using a gray-scale analysis approach. Children also underwent the 6-minute walk test, timed tests and strength measurements. EIM and US data were combined across muscles. EIM 50 kHz phase was able to discriminate DMD children from healthy subjects with 98% accuracy. In the DMD patients, average EIM phase measurements also correlated well with standard functional measures. For example the 50 kHz phase correlated with the Northstar Ambulatory Assessment test (R = 0.83, p = 0.02). EIM 50 kHz phase and US correlated as well, with R = -0.79 (p muscular dystrophy severity.

  20. Contrastive voicing acquisition in 2-year-old children: Preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Koenig, Laura L.

    2004-05-01

    Earlier studies using voice-onset time (VOT) as the acoustic marker of contrastive voicing acquisition in English have differed widely in method and statistical procedures. Research in this area has shown three primary patterns of voicing acquisition for English stop consonants. One report indicates children demonstrate discrete voicing categories with adult-like VOT values as early as 2 years old. Other reports suggest a subperceptual distinction of the voicing contrast, followed by an exaggerated voicing contrast with evidence of more adult-like discrete categories by 3 years old. Still other reports suggest no distinction between the voicing categories until approximately 3 years. This work investigates voicing acquisition in three typically developing, English-speaking 2-year-old children. The subjects were recorded every 2 weeks for 4-6 months. Approximately 15-20 tokens were elicited for four target utterances containing initial /b p t d/. Frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, and skewness will be calculated for every recording session of each child. Discussion will focus on the development of contrastive VOT categories and their stability over time. These data will contribute to our understanding of laryngeal timing for English stop consonants in young children.

  1. Psychological and environmental correlates of HPA axis functioning in parentally bereaved children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Shapiro, Danielle N; Wardecker, Britney M; Howell, Kathryn H; Abelson, James L; Worthman, Carol M; Prossin, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    This study examined bereaved children's HPA-axis functioning (cortisol awakening response; CAR) in relation to psychological distress, coping, and surviving parents' grief reactions. Participants included 38 children (20 girls) with recent parental loss (previous 6 months) and 28 of their surviving caregivers (23 women) who were assessed using self-report instruments and in-person, semistructured interviews. Interviews involved discussions about the child's thoughts and feelings related to the loss. Participants provided 3 saliva samples at home (awakening, 30 minutes later, and evening) over 3 successive days, beginning on the day following the interview. Results show a significant relation between dampening of the child's Day 1 CAR and more symptoms of anxiety (r = -.45), depression (r = -.40), posttraumatic stress (r = -.45), and maladaptive grief (r = -.43), as well as higher levels of avoidant coping (r = -.53). Higher levels of parental maladaptive grief were also associated (r = -.47) with a dampening of the child's Day 1 CAR. Our results raise the possibility that blunted CAR may be a result of accumulating allostatic load and/or a result of emotionally challenging events (discussions regarding the deceased) and their subsequent processing (or lack thereof) within the family, which may be particularly stressful for those bereaved children experiencing high levels of psychological distress, avoidant coping, and parental maladaptive grief.

  2. Slow cortical potential Neurofeedback and self-management training in outpatient care for children with ADHD: study protocol and first preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eChristiansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD today is predominantly pharmacological. While it is the most common treatment, it might not always be the most appropriate one. Moreover, long term effects remain unclear. Behavior therapy and non-pharmacological treatments such as neurofeedback (NF are promising alternatives, though there are no routine outpatient care/effectiveness studies yet that have included children with medication or changes in medication.Methods/design: This paper presents the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a Slow Cortical Potential (SCP NF protocol with self-management (SM in a high frequent outpatient care setting. Both groups (NF/SM receive a total of 30 high frequent therapy sessions. Additionally, 6 sessions are reserved for comorbid problems. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of ADHD core symptoms according to parent and teacher ratings.Preliminary Results: Untill now 58 children were included in the study (48 males, with a mean age of 8.42 (1.34 years, and a mean IQ of 110 (13.37. Conners-3 parent and teacher ratings were used to estimate core symptom change. Since the study is still ongoing, and children are in different study stages, pre-post and follow-up results are not yet available for all children included. Preliminary results suggest overall good pre-post effects, though. For parent and teacher ratings an ANOVA with repeated measures yielded overall satisfying pre-post effects (η2 .175 to .513. Differences between groups (NF vs. SM could not yet be established (p = .81.Discussion: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a NF protocol in a high frequent outpatient care setting that does not exclude children on or with changes in medication. First preliminary results show positive effects. The rationale for the trial, the design, and the strengths and limitations of the study are

  3. Effects of Perceptual and Conceptual Similarity in Lexical Priming of Young Children Who Stutter: Preliminary Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Hartfield, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conceptual and perceptual properties of words on the speed and accuracy of lexical retrieval of children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during a picture-naming task. Participants consisted of 13 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS. All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within normal limits, with the exception of stuttering for CWS. Both talker groups participated in a picture-naming tas...

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of an Arts Education Program on Executive Function, Behavior, and Brain Structure in a Sample of Nonclinical School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Jong-Min; Baik, Young; Kim, Kihyun; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Kwon, Hunki; Jung, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2015-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of arts education on cognition, behavior, and brain of children. Twenty-nine nonclinical children participated in a 15-week arts education program that was composed of either creative movement or musical arts. Children completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, clinical scales, and brain magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention. Following program completion, performances on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Children's Depression Inventory scores, and conduct disorder scores were significantly improved. Furthermore, cortical thickness in the left postcentral gyrus and superior parietal lobule were increased, and the mean diffusivity values in the right posterior corona radiate and superior longitudinal fasciculus were decreased. Positive correlations between changes in cognitive measurements and changes in cortical thickness were observed. This preliminary study suggests a positive effect of arts education on executive functions in association with brain changes. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution due to the noncomparative study design.

  5. Preliminary study towards the development of copying skill assessment on dyslexic children in Jawi handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Kartini Abdul; Kahar, Rosmila Abdul; Khalid, Halimi Mohd.; Salleh, Rohayu Mohd; Hashim, Rathiah

    2015-05-01

    Recognition of Arabic handwritten and its variants such as Farsi (Persian) and Urdu had been receiving considerable attention in recent years. Being contrast to Arabic handwritten, Jawi, as a second method of Malay handwritten, has not been studied yet, but if any, there were a few references on it. The recent transformation in Malaysian education, the Special Education is one of the priorities in the Malaysia Blueprint. One of the special needs quoted in Malaysia education is dyslexia. A dyslexic student is considered as student with learning disability. Concluding a student is truly dyslexia might be incorrect for they were only assessed through Roman alphabet, without considering assessment via Jawi handwriting. A study was conducted on dyslexic students attending a special class for dyslexia in Malay Language to determine whether they are also dyslexia in Jawi handwriting. The focus of the study is to test the copying skills in relation to word reading and writing in Malay Language with and without dyslexia through both characters. A total of 10 dyslexic children and 10 normal children were recruited. In conclusion for future study, dyslexic students have less difficulty in performing Jawi handwriting in Malay Language through statistical analysis.

  6. Effects of early spasticity treatment on children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a preliminary study

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    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare motor and functional performance of two groups of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP. Only the study group (SG received early treatment of spasticity with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BXT-A. Methods Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, functional performance (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory - PEDI, range of movement, gait pattern (Physician Rating Scale - PRS and the speed of hand movements were considered. Results The SG, composed of 11 HCP (45.64±6.3 months, was assessed in relation to the comparison group, composed of 13 HCP (45.92±6.4 months. SG showed higher scores in four of the five GMFM dimensions, which included scores that were statistically significant for dimension B, and higher scores in five of the six areas evaluated in the PEDI. Active wrist extension, the speed of hand movements and PRS score were higher in the SG. Conclusion Children who received early BXT-A treatment for spasticity showed higher scores in motor and functional performance.

  7. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Femke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Kindt, Merel

    2013-02-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current study therefore assessed fear learning across multiple response domains and multiple test phases in a two-day discriminative fear-conditioning paradigm. We tested whether trait anxiety is associated with deficient safety learning, by comparing HTA individuals (N=20) and healthy Controls (N=22). HTA participants showed stronger fear on the startle response and distress ratings to the safety (CS(-)) but not to the threat stimulus (CS(+)) during acquisition, along with impaired extinction and re-extinction. Trait anxiety did not affect skin conductance responses and effects on UCS-expectancy were limited. We conclude that high trait anxiety may be characterized by deficient safety learning which in turn may promote persistent and generalized fear responses.

  8. Tibial lengthening over nails in children using modified Ender nails: preliminary results of a new treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraph, Vinay; Roposch, Andreas; Zwick, Ernst-Bernhard; Linhart, Wolfgang E

    2004-11-01

    Tibial lengthening over nails, using modified Ender nails, was performed in nine children whose mean age at surgery was 12.8 years. The prerequisite for using this technique was the absence of axial malalignment and an indication for tibial lengthening only. Lengthening was not performed in one case due to the development of a compartment syndrome after the tibial osteotomy. Breakage of one interlocking screw without loss of alignment or length was observed in one case. Superficial pin tract infections were observed in two cases. An average of 4.1 cm (range 3-4.5 cm) lengthening of the tibia was achieved in eight of the nine cases. The modified Ender nails used permitted locking at both ends after achieving the desired distraction and permitted early removal of the external fixator. The advantage of this technique is that it permits early removal of the fixator and thus decreases the incidence of fixator related problems and facilitates early rehabilitation.

  9. Entanglement: A Preliminary Study of a Philippine Puppet Sinakulo for Children

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    Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Staged annually at the Amelia Lapeña-Bonifacio Papet Teatro-Museo, Papet Pasyon is the only sinakulo in the Philippines performed in puppetry to date. In this essay, the puppet play is proposed to be an entanglement of three cultural forms: the literary form of the pasyon, the theatre form of the sinakulo, and the art of puppetry. The bases for the text of this puppet play are foreign sources namely a children’s Bible from Europe, the passion play from Oberammergau in Germany, and the dramatic tradition of the Western musical. Though originally a Western-based text, Lapeña-Bonifacio crafted and encapsulated the puppet play into an hour and a half show that highlights the story of Christ’s passion, is written in a Philippine language, and is understandable to young audiences. Its manner of presentation, on the other hand, was inspired by the very rich puppet traditions of Asia, particularly the Japanese bunraku and the Indonesian wayang golek. The essay begins exploring this proposal of entanglement by introducing Amelia Lapeña-Bonifacio, founder of Teatrong Mulat, and her vision of a children’s theatre in the archipelago with productions based on and inspired by local folktales and various theatrical forms in the Asian region. This is then followed by a narrative on the genesis of Papet Pasyon, which like most Teatrong Mulat productions, is a product of mixing and matching local and foreign influences. The bulk of the paper is a preliminary analysis and a close reading of Papet Pasyon as a cultural text and performance of entanglement because, generally, the play is a concatenation of the pasyon, the sinakulo, and various forms of puppetry.

  10. Parenting Practices, Interpretive Biases, and Anxiety in Latino Children

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane

    2013-01-01

    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionna...

  11. Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, C J; Hooe, E S; David, C F; Kistner, J A

    1999-06-01

    The positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) framework that is embodied in the tripartite model of anxiety and depression has proved useful with adult populations; however, there is as yet little investigation with children concerning either the measurement of PA and NA or the relation between PA and NA and levels of adjustment. A confirmatory factor analysis was used in this study to examine the structure of self-reported affect and its relation to depressive and anxious symptoms in school children (4th to 11th grade). Results supported a 2-factor orthogonal model that was invariant across age and sex. Support for the expected pattern of relations between NA and PA with symptoms of depression and anxiety was strong for the older sample (M = 14.2 years) but weaker for the younger sample (M = 10.3 years). Results also provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for children.

  12. Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Kor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 girls and 30 healthy control subjects (17 boys and 13 girls participated in the study. All patients followed in Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit of Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine and also control subjects had no hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and infection. Blood samples were collected during routine analysis, after overnight fasting. Serum melatonin levels were analyzed with ELISA. Results: There were no statistically significant differences related with age, sex, BMI distribution between diabetic group and control group. Mean diabetic duration was 2.89 ± 2.69 years. The variables were in the equation. Mean melatonin level in diabetic group was 6.75 ± 3.52 pg/ml and mean melatonin level in control group was 11.51 ± 4.74 pg/ml. Melatonin levels were significantly lower in diabetic group compared to controls (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Melatonin was associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus significantly. Because of the varied roles of melatonin in human metabolic rhythms, these results suggest a role of melatonin in maintaining normal rhythmicity. Melatonin may play role in preventing process of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  13. Food allergy among Iranian children with inflammatory bowel disease: A preliminary report

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    Farid Imanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence has shown a link between allergic disease and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. We investigated food allergy in Iranian pediatric IBD patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a consecutive sample of children with newly diagnosed IBD referring to Mofid Children′s University Hospital in Tehran (Iran between November 2013 and March 2015. Data on age, gender, history of cow′s milk allergy (CMA, IBD type, routine laboratory tests, and colonoscopic and histopathological findings were gathered. Food allergy was assessed with the skin prick test (SPT. Results: A total of 28 patients including 19 ulcerative colitis (UC, 7 Cronh′s disease (CD, and two with unclassified colitis with a mean age of 8.3 ± 4.4 years. (57.1% females, 42.9% were studied. History of CMA was present in eight patients (28.6%. Seventeen patients (60.7% had at least one food allergy (68.4% of UC vs. 42.9% of CD, P = 0.230. Ten patients (35.7% had multiple food allergies (36.8% of UC vs. 42.9% of CD, P > 0.999. Common allergic foods were cow′s milk (28.6%, beef, seafood, albumen, wheat, and walnuts (each 10.7%, and peanuts and chestnuts (each 7.1%. The SPT showed CMA in 68.4% (8/17 of UC but none of the CD patients (P = 0.077. Conclusion: Food allergy is frequent in Iranian pediatric IBD patients with CMA being the most common observed allergy. The CMA seems to be more frequent in UC than in CD patients.

  14. A preliminary evaluation of the Well-Being Picture Scale-Children's Version (WPS-CV) in a sample of fourth and fifth graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Susan H; Gueldner, Sarah H; Bronstein, Laura

    2012-04-01

    In this paper the authors report the development and preliminary evaluation of the Rogerian-based Well-Being Picture Scale-Children's Version in a sample of 19 fourth and fifth grade students. Data was collected in conjunction with a larger study that examined childhood overweight and depression, and other measurements in the data set included the Child Depression Inventory. Scores on the Child Depression Inventory indicated that 20% of the children in the study were at risk for depression. A significant statistical inverse correlation (p < .05) was found between the post-test scores on the Well-Being Picture Scale-Children's Version and the Child Depression Inventory indicating that as depression scores increase well-being scores decrease.

  15. Usability Design Strategies for Children: Developing Children's Learning and Knowledge in Decreasing Their Dental Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an example of how usability design strategies for children can be designed into educational material using CD-ROM based multimedia application for assisting parents and teachers to develop children's learning and knowledge in decreasing as well as motivate children aged 7-9 years old to reduce their anxious feelings towards…

  16. The role of mindfulness and decentering in depressive and anxious symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Linares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive and anxious symptoms have a clear impact on the functioning of people. Their appearance seems to be related to the presence of deficits in metacognitive capacities. Mindfulness interventions increase metacognitive awareness through their effect in the decentering capacity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mindfulness and decentering with anxious and depressive symptomatology respectively. The sample consisted of 465 participants contacted through universities and social networks. Results revealed that both mindfulness and the ability to decenter explain the presence of depressive symptoms while only mindfulness explains the presence of anxiety symptoms. These results are encouraging for intervention in mindfulness with anxious and depressive symptoms and stress the importance of metacognitive processes such as decentering in their development.

  17. Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peker Kadriye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties. Methods The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS. Results The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and

  18. Anxious symptomatic volunteers in the Twin Cities: sociodemographic description and MMPI psychodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F O; Abuzzahab, F S

    1979-01-01

    This paper underscores the need for true sample selection before statistical inference of any value can be made. Its findings suggest that the sample selection strategy of symptomatic volunteers can produce samples of anxious subjects with remarkable demographic similarity across the country. Anxiety as a constitutional rather than pathognomonic symptom is illustrated by the heterogeneity of its psychometric evaluation in our volunteers. Expecting a drug to safely relieve the anxiety of all anxious symptomatic volunteers is akin to expecting a drug to safely relieve the headaches of all headache sufferers. We feel that careful psychodiagnosis remains the best sample selection strategy.

  19. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term.

  20. Examining the Distinctiveness and the Socio-Emotional Correlates of Anxious-Withdrawal and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle; Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the distinctiveness of and the correlates associated with anxious-withdrawal and unsociability during early adolescence in Finland (N = 384; 12-14 years; 53% girls). As expected, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal and unsociability were distinct and moderately positively correlated constructs. Only…

  1. Development and Initial Validation of the Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children: A Preliminary Investigation Using School-Based Asian Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Yusof, Noradlin

    2006-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children (NPQC) is a brief self-report scale for measuring narcissism in children. In Study 1, a factor analysis on 370 children's NPQC scores revealed four factors that were labeled superiority, exploitativeness, self-absorption, and leadership. Study 2 established convergent and discriminant…

  2. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  3. The anxiolytic effect of the novel antipsychotic ziprasidone compared with diazepam in subjects anxious before dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Keith D; Anziano, Richard J; Johnson, Arlene C; Miceli, Jeffrey J; Fricke, James R; Titus, Cynthia K

    2002-04-01

    The novel atypical antipsychotic ziprasidone has a pharmacologic profile notable for potent agonism of serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors, antagonism at 5-HT1D receptors, and reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine. 5-HT1A receptor agonism, in particular, suggests anxiolytic activity, and ziprasidone has shown preliminary efficacy in treating the symptoms of anxiety associated with psychotic disorders. In this study, the anxiolytic efficacy of ziprasidone was evaluated in nonpsychotic subjects who were anxious before undergoing minor dental surgery. We compared a single oral dose of 20 mg ziprasidone (N = 30) with that of 10 mg diazepam (N = 30) and placebo (N = 30) in a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind study. The peak anxiolytic effect of ziprasidone compared with that of placebo was similar to that of diazepam but had a later onset. At 3 hours postdose, the anxiolytic effect of ziprasidone was significantly greater than that of placebo (p diazepam. Diazepam showed a significantly greater anxiolytic effect than placebo at 1 hour (p diazepam was significantly greater than that of placebo 1 to 1.5 hours postdose. Ziprasidone was generally well tolerated. Only one patient reported treatment-related adverse events (nausea and vomiting) and, unlike diazepam, ziprasidone did not cause reductions in blood pressure. Dystonia, extrapyramidal syndrome, akathisia, and postural hypotension were not seen with ziprasidone. Thus, ziprasidone may possess anxiolytic effects in addition to its antipsychotic properties.

  4. Impact of comorbidity on three month follow-up outcome of children with ADHD in a child guidance clinic: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangan Srinivasaraghavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the common neurodevelopmental disorders. Aims: Study objective is to report impact of comorbidities on short-term outcome in children with ADHD followed in a child guidance clinic. Settings and Design: This was done in a child guidance clinic run jointly by the pediatric and psychiatry department at a tertiary teaching hospital. This is a 3 month prospective follow-up study to assess the outcome in ADHD children. Materials and Methods: Children attending pediatric department with behavioral problems or poor scholastic performance were screened for ADHD and further confirmation of diagnosis was done by semistructured interview of the child and parent. Children functional assessment and ADHD symptom profile was compared at baseline and at follow-up. We screened for and excluded those showing autistic spectrum disorder and having worse than mild mental retardation. Baseline variables were compared between improved and not improved subgroups and impact of these variables on outcome at 3-month follow-up was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 25 children completing the study, at the end of 3 months, 15 improved (not fulfilling criteria for ADHD and 10 did not improve. Applying Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS for diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidities, six had associated psychiatric comorbidities. This was significantly higher in those who did not improve. Conclusions: Presence of comorbidities at baseline was found to affect outcome at 3 month assessment in this preliminary study. Future studies with larger sample and longer follow-up are needed for finding the predictors of outcome in ADHD children in developing nations.

  5. Cognitive bias for pictorial and linguistic threat cues in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Hoekzema, B.; de Jong, P.; Kindt, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the conditions under which threat-related cognitive bias can be observed in anxious children. Measures of cognitive bias for threatening words and pictures were obtained from 55 spider fearful children and 58 non-fearful children (aged 8-11 yrs) in the 1st expe

  6. Cognitive bias for pictorial and linguistic threat cues in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M; van den Hout, M; de Jong, Peter; Hoekzema, B

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the conditions under which threat-related cognitive bias can be observed in anxious children. Measures of cognitive bias for threatening words and pictures were obtained from spider fearful children (N = 55) and non-fearful children (N = 58) aged 8-11 in the fi

  7. Contentment Duration Mediates the Associations between Anxious Attachment Style and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Man; Hou, Wai Kai

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the emotional processes underlying the association between adult attachment styles and psychological distress. This study aims to examine the role of contentment in terms of intensity and duration in the positive associations between anxious and avoidant attachment styles and psychological distress. A sample of 284 Chinese university students completed a self-reported questionnaire on attachment styles, intensity and duration of contentment, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of contentment mediated the positive associations of anxious attachment style with anxiety symptoms [β = 0.05, p = 0.004; BC 95% CI (0.02,0.11)] and depressive symptoms [β = 0.04, p = 0.03; BC 95% CI (0.003,0.09)], model fit: χ2(259) = 455.06, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07. Participants with higher anxious attachment style were more likely to report shorter duration of contentment, which was, in turn, associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results suggest a positive emotional pathway underlying the association between anxious attachment style and psychological distress. Implications based on the findings are discussed. PMID:28275363

  8. Microinterventions targeting regulatory focus and regulatory fit selectively reduce dysphoric and anxious mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauman, Timothy J; Socolar, Yvonne; Kwapil, Lori; Cornwell, James F M; Franks, Becca; Sehnert, Steen; Higgins, E Tory

    2015-09-01

    Depression and generalized anxiety, separately and as comorbid states, continue to represent a significant public health challenge. Current cognitive-behavioral treatments are clearly beneficial but there remains a need for continued development of complementary interventions. This manuscript presents two proof-of-concept studies, in analog samples, of "microinterventions" derived from regulatory focus and regulatory fit theories and targeting dysphoric and anxious symptoms. In Study 1, participants with varying levels of dysphoric and/or anxious mood were exposed to a brief intervention either to increase or to reduce engagement in personal goal pursuit, under the hypothesis that dysphoria indicates under-engagement of the promotion system whereas anxiety indicates over-engagement of the prevention system. In Study 2, participants with varying levels of dysphoric and/or anxious mood received brief training in counterfactual thinking, under the hypothesis that inducing individuals in a state of promotion failure to generate subtractive counterfactuals for past failures (a non-fit) will lessen their dejection/depression-related symptoms, whereas inducing individuals in a state of prevention failure to generate additive counterfactuals for past failures (a non-fit) will lessen their agitation/anxiety-related symptoms. In both studies, we observed discriminant patterns of reduction in distress consistent with the hypothesized links between dysfunctional states of the two motivational systems and dysphoric versus anxious symptoms.

  9. The importance of personality and life-events in anxious depression : from trait to state anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. METHOD: Baseline data of the Netherlands S

  10. Negative emotional primes and attentional bias towards alcohol in high anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Samelink; R.W. Wiers

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term, pro

  11. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  12. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: The Inner Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…

  13. Foreign Language Anxiety's Forgotten Study: The Case of the Anxious Preservice Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tum, Danyal Oztas

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that nonnative preservice teachers are just as susceptible to foreign language anxiety as are inexperienced language learners, a claim carrying important implications for the EFL classroom. The results of the study described in this article indicate that anxious preservice teachers experience significant levels of language…

  14. Relation between Cognitions and Performance in Math Anxious Students: A Failure of Congitive Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Katherine F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared the cognitions of high and low math anxious undergraduates (N=71) who were asked to think aloud while solving mathematical problems. Results showed no anxiety-related differences for either performance or 11 categories of cognitions, and no sex differences in performance or for a linear combination of cognitions. (JAC)

  15. Imaging the structure of the human anxious brain: a review of findings from neuroscientific personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Markett, Sebastian; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-01-01

    The emotion of anxiety represents one of the most studied topics in the neurosciences, in part due to its relevance for understanding the evolutionary development of the human brain and its role in the pathogenesis of psychopathological conditions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has enabled mapping of the anxious human brain and has contributed substantially to the understanding of anxiety. Alongside the fields of clinical psychology/psychiatry, personality psychology aims to support the research endeavor of mapping the anxious brain and has found that individual differences in anxiety-related personality dimensions such as Neuroticism or Harm Avoidance (measured by self-report) are correlated with gray and white matter volumes in different areas of the human brain. This review reveals that structures including parts of the frontal cortex (e.g., the orbitofrontal cortex) and the temporal lobe (e.g., the hippocampus) are often associated with trait anxiety, and it points out the inconsistencies that exist in the personality-sMRI literature on human anxiety. Consequently, we suggest new research strategies to overcome the inconsistencies. This review outlines how results from animal research can guide scientists in developing testable hypotheses in search of the anxious brain. Moreover, genetic imaging is presented as an interesting approach to mapping the anxious brain.

  16. A cognitive-behavioral group treatment for test-anxious adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA

    1994-01-01

    Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the

  17. Common and Specific Emotion-Related Predictors of Anxious and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Hoffman, Brian; Zeman, Janice L.; Thomassin, Kristel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether specific emotion-related constructs may be uniquely related to anxious or depressive symptoms in youth. Although anxiety and depression are comorbid in both youth and adult populations, delineation of these disorders is a worthwhile endeavor given that such differentiation may lead to a clearer conceptualization of the…

  18. Shyness-Anxiousness and Receptive Language Skills Development in Spanish- and English-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…

  19. Interactions between transient and sustained neural signals support the generation and regulation of anxious emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H; Wagner, Dylan D; Wig, Gagan S; Moran, Joseph M; Whalen, Paul J; Kelley, William M

    2013-01-01

    Anxious emotion can manifest on brief (threat response) and/or persistent (chronic apprehension and arousal) timescales, and prior work has suggested that these signals are supported by separable neural circuitries. This fMRI study utilized a mixed block-event-related emotional provocation paradigm in 55 healthy participants to simultaneously measure brief and persistent anxious emotional responses, testing the specificity of, and interactions between, these potentially distinct systems. Results indicated that components of emotional processing networks were uniquely sensitive to transient and sustained anxious emotion. Whereas the amygdala and midbrain showed only transient responses, the ventral basal forebrain and anterior insula showed sustained activity during extended emotional contexts that tracked positively with task-evoked anxiety. States of lesser anxiety were associated with greater sustained activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, ventromedial prefrontal recruitment was lower in individuals with higher scores on intolerance of uncertainty measures, and this hyporecruitment predicted greater transient amygdala responding to potential threat cues. This work demonstrates how brain circuitries interact across temporal scales to support brief and persistent anxious emotion and suggests potentially divergent mechanisms of dysregulation in clinical syndromes marked by brief versus persistent symptoms of anxiety.

  20. High Math-Anxious Female College Freshmen: What Do They Have in Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Marylou; Austin-Martin, George

    Presented is a study which investigated the relationship of mathematics anxiety to mathematics attitudes and mathematics achievement for 62 high math-anxious female college freshmen. Subjects were given the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Inventory, including a mathematics anxiety scale, and a mathematics achievement test. High math-anxious…

  1. Lived experiences of self-reported science-anxious students taking an interdisciplinary undergraduate science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Mark Austin

    Having fears and frustrations while studying science topics can lead to science anxiety for some individuals. For those who experience science learning anxiety, the reality is often poor performance, lowered self-esteem, anger, and avoidance of further science courses. Using an interpretive approach, this study captures the experiences of five self-reported science anxious students as they participate in an interdisciplinary science course at the University of Minnesota. A series of three in-depth interviews were conducted with five students who were enrolled in the "Our Changing Planet" course offered at the University of Minnesota. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed thematically. Four major themes emerged from the interviews. Two of the themes involve the realities of being a science anxious student. These focus on participants' experiences of feeling frustrated, anxious and incompetent when studying both math and science; and the experiences of trying to learn science content that does not seem relevant to them. The last two themes highlight the participants' perceptions of their experiences during the "Our Changing Planet" course, including how the course seemed different from previous science courses as well as their learning experiences in cooperative groups. After presenting the themes, with supporting quotations, each theme is linked to the related literature. The essence of the participants' science anxiety experiences is presented and practical implications regarding science anxious students are discussed. Finally, insights gained and suggestions for further research are provided.

  2. The Impact of Anxious and Calm Emotional States on Color Usage in Pre-Drawn Mandalas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Andrea; van der Vennet, Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this single-subject experiment was to test whether a link exists between emotional state and color usage in a common art therapy technique. The researchers hypothesized that when coloring a pre-drawn mandala, participants would choose warm colors when they were anxious and cool colors when they were calm. The non-random sample…

  3. Anxious Solitude/Withdrawal and Anxiety Disorders: Conceptualization, Co-Occurrence, and Peer Processes Leading toward and Away from Disorder in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This chapter contains (1) an analysis of commonalities and differences in anxious solitude and social anxiety disorder, and a review of empirical investigations examining (2) correspondence among childhood anxious solitude and anxiety and mood diagnoses and (3) the relation between peer difficulties and temporal stability of anxious solitude and…

  4. Attachment styles in maltreated children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, R; Cohen, O; Sapir, Y; Weizman, A

    2000-01-01

    The study compares the emotional impact of maltreatment on the attachment styles in three groups of children aged 6-12 years: children of drug-user fathers (n = 76), physically abused children (n = 41), neglected children (n = 38); non-abused/non-neglected children (n = 35)--control group. The secure style characterized 52% of the children of drug-user fathers and the insecure style characterized the other 48% (anxious/ambivalent or avoidant); physically abused children were characterized mainly by the avoidant attachment style, and neglected children by the anxious/ambivalent style. The conclusion is that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and sustained suspicion towards others; neglected children are at risk of social withdrawal, social rejection and feelings of incompetence, and children of drug-user fathers may be at risk of behavioral problems and drug use in adolescence.

  5. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program in Relation to Children's Language and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrett, Gill; White, Roxanne; Spreckley, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in children's language skills and parenting stress following participation in the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (PCMGP). The intervention group consisted of 29 parents (age range 24 to 43 years, "M" = 33.5, SD = 4.1) and 30 children (18 females and 12 males) with ages ranging from 1 to 46 months…

  6. Challenging Behavior Training for Teaching Staff and Family Carers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Nick; Umizawa, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    Training programs on the topic of challenging behaviors have often been offered to teaching staff and family carers of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). These efforts have been found to be effective in bringing about positive changes for both children with ID and those who support them. Generally, such training has been offered to…

  7. The Effects of Non-Maternal Care in the First Twelve Months of Life on Children in the First Year of School: Preliminary Findings from a Two Stage Study (The Australian Early Childhood Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiltree, Gay; Edgar, Don

    This paper, which presents preliminary analysis of data from stage one of the Australian Early Childhood study, examined the effects of nonmaternal care in the first year of life on children in their first year of school. The author tested the hypothesis, proposed by John Bowlby and others, that long periods of nonmaternal care in the first 12…

  8. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality.

  9. Characteristics of drug-abusing women with children in residential treatment: a preliminary evaluation of program retention and treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Lori

    2008-01-01

    An ex post facto study was conducted to investigate treatment outcomes for 80 women and 168 children admitted into a residential substance-abuse treatment program. The results indicated childhood emotional neglect is a barrier for remaining in and completing treatment for African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders but not for those with crack cocaine dependent disorders. African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders were also three times more likely to dropout of treatment. In addition, there were relatively few differences for between drug-exposed and nonexposed children. However, the results indicated that children of substance-abusing women who completed treatment were more likely to have behavioral problems, to receive early intervention services, and to have mothers as legal guardians by the end of treatment. Implications for gender-specific interventions for African-American women and their children in residential treatment are discussed.

  10. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Valentina F.; Cinzia Nasuti; Marco Piangerelli; Luísa Correia-Sá; Alessandro Ghezzo; Marina Marini; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Paola Visconti; Marcello Giustozzi; Gerardo Rossi; Rosita Gabbianelli

    2016-01-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass det...

  11. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Valentina F; Nasuti, Cinzia; Piangerelli, Marco; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M; Visconti, Paola; Giustozzi, Marcello; Rossi, Gerardo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2016-04-01

    The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides) as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR) children, aged 5-12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054). Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC) analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  12. Multi-method psycho-educational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: preliminary results at post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, R A; Shelton, T L; Crosswait, C; Moorehouse, M; Fletcher, K; Barrett, S; Jenkins, L; Metevia, L

    2000-03-01

    Annual screenings of preschool children at kindergarten registration identified 158 children having high levels of aggressive, hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive behavior. These "disruptive" children were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions lasting the kindergarten school year: no treatment, parent training only, full-day treatment classroom only, and the combination of parent training with the classroom treatment. Results showed that parent training produced no significant treatment effects, probably owing largely to poor attendance. The classroom treatment produced improvement in multiple domains: parent ratings of adaptive behavior, teacher ratings of attention, aggression, self-control, and social skills, as well as direct observations of externalizing behavior in the classroom. Neither treatment improved academic achievement skills or parent ratings of home behavior problems, nor were effects evident on any lab measures of attention, impulse control, or mother-child interactions. It is concluded that when parent training is offered at school registration to parents of disruptive children identified through a brief school registration screening, it may not be a useful approach to treating the home and community behavioral problems of such children. The kindergarten classroom intervention was far more effective in reducing the perceived behavioral problems and impaired social skills of these children. Even so, most treatment effects were specific to the school environment and did not affect achievement skills. These findings must be viewed as tentative until follow-up evaluations can be done to determine the long-term outcomes of these interventions.

  13. [Features of therapy for chronic pancreatitis associated with anxious depressive disorders in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Lubavskaya, S S; Batishcheva, G A; Chernov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    The article presents data on peculiarities of chronic pancreatitis course in railway transport workers (engine operators, engine operator assistants, dispatchers) with anxious depressive disorders. Pain and dyspepsia in patients with affective disorders appeared to be constant and more intense than in the patients without concomitant anxious depression. Psychophysiologic tests in 83% of patients with comorbid conditions revealed significant psychomotor dullness manifested in reliable lower speed of visual motor reactions. Pharmacologic correction via anxiolytics (Adaptol, Afobasol) combined with standard therapy for chronic pancreatitis exacerbation enabled to improve clinical symptoms, but Adaptol appeared to slow simple visual motor reactions, therefore has to be ruled out in engine operators. Pharmacotherapy of chronic pancreatitis, that included Afobasol in addition to standard treatment, promoted reliable improvement of occupationally important psychophysiologic functions. This study received a patent.

  14. A multilevel analysis of the interpersonal behavior of socially anxious people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jonathan; Gifford, Shannon; Chlebowsky, Natasha

    2003-06-01

    We investigate the interpersonal behavior of socially anxious (SA) and non-socially anxious (NSA) individuals at three different levels of analysis, focusing on the dimensions of warmth and dominance. Study 1 examines self-reported general interaction styles, Study 2 explores behavior occurring within the context of a single interaction, and in Study 3 we focus on the performance of a single conversational act (a disagreement). Studies 1 and 2 adopt the framework of Interpersonal Circumplex Theory (IPC; Kiesler, 1983), which is well suited for studying trait-level and interaction-level social behaviors, while Study 3 is grounded in Politeness Theory (PT; Brown & Levinson, 1987), which can be used to analyze individual acts at the microstructural level. The potential mutual relevance of PT and IPC is also discussed.

  15. [Profile of social problem solving and coping profile in anxious and depressed Chileans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    According to the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, in 2020, depression will become the second cause of disability worldwide. In Chile, anxiety and depressive disorders account for almost 28% of the total years of healthy life lost due to illness. This research seeks to explore a profile of social problem solving and coping present in people who suffer from anxious and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1179 analogous Chilean participants (55.9% women), with a mean of 22.23 years (range between 18-48 years). The results suggest statistically significant differences for all social problem solving and coping strategies evaluated. Thus, if anxious or depressive symptoms increase, social problem solving or coping strategies become less adaptive.

  16. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality.

  17. Recent depressive and anxious symptoms predict cortisol responses to stress in men

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Kathryn P.; Robles, Theodore F.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder show blunted cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors, but the extent to which this pattern of dampened responding characterizes individuals experiencing sub-clinical levels of depressive symptoms is unknown. This study investigated whether self-reports of depressive and anxious symptoms over the previous two weeks were associated with cortisol responses to a laboratory social stress task. In addition, we tested whether these associations were me...

  18. Effect of diazepam on anxiety, sexual motivation, and blood testosterone in anxious male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amikishieva, A V; Semendyaeva, S N

    2005-12-01

    The effects of diazepam on anxious behavior, sexual motivation, and blood level of testosterone in the presence of a female were studied in male mice with elevated anxiety. Diazepam produced an anxiolytic effect in novel environment, but was ineffective during social contacts. The drug potentiated the primary sexual interest, but failed to correct exhaustion of sexual motivation. The drug produced no effect on blood testosterone.

  19. Self-Disclosure and Mental Health Service Use in Socially Anxious Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Colognori, Daniela; Esseling, Petra; Stewart, Catherine; Reiss, Philip; Lu, Feihan; Case, Brady; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is highly prevalent in adolescence, persistent into adulthood, and associated with multiple impairments. Despite the development of efficacious treatments for socially anxious youth, few affected adolescents receive such treatment. This study examined service use in a sample of high school students (n = 1,574), as well as predictors of treatment delay and factors associated with adolescents’ disclosure of social difficulties. Self-report measures of social anxiety and ...

  20. PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF ANTIDEPRESSANT USAGE IN PATIENTS WITH ANXIOUS AND DEPRESSIVE SYNDROMES IN INTERNAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Ivanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study antidepressant usage in treatment of anxious and depressive disorders in real internal medicine practice.Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 290 charts of patients, which were observed in Pskov region hospital from 2004 to 2005 was held. All patients suffered from different internal diseases and were treated with antidepressants because of anxious and depressive concomitant disorders.Results. Arterial hypertension observed in 28% of patients, ischemic heart disease – in 20%, heart failure – in 14%, cerebrovascular and peripheral nervous system diseases – in 18% and gastroduodenal diseases – in 20% of patients. Amitriptyline took the first place (49% among antidepressant prescriptions. Next antidepressants according to prescription popularity were paroxetine (22% and tianeptine (12%. Rate of other antidepressant prescriptions were not higher than 5%. There were differences in antidepressant prescriptions between physicians of different specialties.Conclusion. Reasonable approaches should be used to choose antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have benefit for the therapy of concomitant anxious and depressive disorders due to their good tolerability. Nevertheless tricyclic antidepressants are essential in some clinical situations.

  1. PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF ANTIDEPRESSANT USAGE IN PATIENTS WITH ANXIOUS AND DEPRESSIVE SYNDROMES IN INTERNAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Ivanova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study antidepressant usage in treatment of anxious and depressive disorders in real internal medicine practice.Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 290 charts of patients, which were observed in Pskov region hospital from 2004 to 2005 was held. All patients suffered from different internal diseases and were treated with antidepressants because of anxious and depressive concomitant disorders.Results. Arterial hypertension observed in 28% of patients, ischemic heart disease – in 20%, heart failure – in 14%, cerebrovascular and peripheral nervous system diseases – in 18% and gastroduodenal diseases – in 20% of patients. Amitriptyline took the first place (49% among antidepressant prescriptions. Next antidepressants according to prescription popularity were paroxetine (22% and tianeptine (12%. Rate of other antidepressant prescriptions were not higher than 5%. There were differences in antidepressant prescriptions between physicians of different specialties.Conclusion. Reasonable approaches should be used to choose antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have benefit for the therapy of concomitant anxious and depressive disorders due to their good tolerability. Nevertheless tricyclic antidepressants are essential in some clinical situations.

  2. Environmental Unpredictability in Childhood Is Associated With Anxious Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-03-27

    Human life history theory describes how resources are allocated among conflicting life tasks, including trade-offs concerning reproduction. The current research investigates the unique importance of environmental unpredictability in childhood in association with romantic attachment, and explores whether objective or subjective measures of environmental risk are more informative for testing life history hypotheses. We hypothesize that (1) unpredictability in childhood will be associated with greater anxious attachment, (2) anxious attachment will be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (3) anxious attachment will mediate the relationship between unpredictability in childhood and IPV perpetration. In two studies (totaln= 391), participants in a heterosexual, romantic relationship completed self-report measures of childhood experiences, romantic attachment, and IPV perpetration. Study 1 provides support for Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1 is replicated only for men, but not women, in Study 2. Results of Study 2 provide support for Hypothesis 2 for men and women, and Hypothesis 3 was supported for men but not women. The findings contribute to the literature addressing the association of environmental risk in childhood on adult romantic relationship outcomes.

  3. Failure to filter: Anxious individuals show inefficient gating of threat from working memory

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    Daniel M Stout

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispositional anxiety is a well-established risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders along the internalizing spectrum, including anxiety and depression. Importantly, many of the maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anxiety, such as anticipatory apprehension, occur when threat is absent. This raises the possibility that anxious individuals are less efficient at gating threat’s access to working memory, a limited capacity workspace where information is actively retained, manipulated, and used to flexibly guide goal-directed behavior when it is no longer present in the external environment. Using a well-validated neurophysiological index of working memory storage, we demonstrate that threat-related distracters were difficult to filter on average and that this difficulty was exaggerated among anxious individuals. These results indicate that dispositionally anxious individuals allocate excessive working memory storage to threat, even when it is irrelevant to the task at hand. More broadly, these results provide a novel framework for understanding the maladaptive thoughts and actions characteristic of internalizing disorders.

  4. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

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    MACARENA eSUÁREZ PELLICIONI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA and 20 low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias towards math-related words in HMA individuals.

  5. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related - neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals.

  6. Differentiating anxious and depressive self-statements in youth: factor structure of the Negative Affect Self-Statement Questionnaire among youth referred to an anxiety disorders clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, J; Safren, S A; Henin, A; Warman, M; Heimberg, R G; Kendall, P C

    1999-03-01

    Conducted a factor analysis on the items from the Negative Affect Self-Statement Questionnaire (NASSQ; Ronan, Kendall, & Rowe, 1994). This analysis yielded 4 factors (Depressive Self-Statements, Anxiety/Somatic Self-Statements, Negative Affect Self-Statements, and Positive Affect Self-Statements) broadly consistent with both the content-specificity hypothesis (Beck & Clark, 1988) and L. A. Clark and Watson's (1991b) tripartite model of anxiety and depression. The association between children's self-talk and measures of trait anxiety and depression was also examined. Self-statements with content theoretically specific to depression were the best predictors of self-reported depressive symptoms, but the results were less clear for trait anxiety. Overall, these results provide evidence for the discriminability of anxious and depressive self-talk in youth and for the utility of the NASSQ as a cognitive assessment instrument.

  7. Adverse Prenatal, Perinatal and Neonatal Experiences in Children with Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Lewin, Adam B; Salloum, Alison; Murphy, Tanya K; Crawford, Erika A; Dane, Brittney F; McBride, Nicole M; Storch, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the incidence of adverse prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal experiences amongst children with anxiety disorders, and the relationship to clinical symptomology and functional impairment in treatment-seeking children (N = 107) with a primary anxiety disorder. Anxious children had higher rates of reported maternal prescription medication use during pregnancy, maternal smoking and illness during pregnancy and neonatal complications (including neonatal intensive care and feeding issues) compared with population base rates and non-affected children. Almost one-third had early problems with sleep. Developmental problems were common with more than half having at least one area of delay. More than three quarters of anxious children had a first-degree family member with a psychiatric history. There were several associations between neonatal complications and subsequent clinical symptomology, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and depressive comorbidity, anxiety severity and functional impairment. Findings suggest higher rates of perinatal complications in anxious children.

  8. El Sistema-inspired ensemble music training is associated with changes in children's neurocognitive functional integration: preliminary ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Nina; Schibli, Kylie; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2016-12-01

    Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated. Intensive ensemble music training, we suggest, may be associated with neuroplastic changes facilitating integration of neural information.

  9. Pyrethroid Pesticide Metabolite in Urine and Microelements in Hair of Children Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

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    Valentina F. Domingues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of children affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD is dramatically increasing as well as the studies aimed at understanding the risk factors associated with the development of ASD. Since the etiology of ASD is partly genetic and partly environmental, factors (i.e., heavy metals, pesticides as well as lifestyle seem to have a key role in the development of the disease. ASD and Control (CTR children, aged 5–12 years, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled with trap mass detector was used to measure the level of 3-PBA, the main pyrethroid metabolite in urine in a group of ASD patients, while optical emission spectrometry analysis was employed to estimate the level of metals and microelements in hair in a different group of ASD children. The presence of 3-PBA in urine seems to be independent of age in ASD children, while a positive correlation between 3-PBA and age was observed in the control group of the same age range. Urine concentration of 3-BPA in ASD children had higher values than in the control group, which were marginally significant (p = 0.054. Mg results were significantly decreased in ASD with respect to controls, while V, S, Zn, and Ca/Mg were marginally increased, without reaching statistical significance. Results of Principal Component (PC analysis of metals and microelements in hair were not associated with either age or health status. In conclusion, 3-PBA in urine and Mg in hair were changed in ASD children relative to control ones.

  10. Impact of infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV on the risk of cancer among children in Malawi - preliminary findings

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    Batumba Mkume

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of infection with HIV on the risk of cancer in children is uncertain, particularly for those living in sub-Saharan Africa. In an ongoing study in a paediatric oncology centre in Malawi, children (aged ≤ 15 years with known or suspected cancers are being recruited and tested for HIV and their mothers or carers interviewed. This study reports findings for children recruited between 2005 and 2008. Methods Only children with a cancer diagnosis were included. Odds ratios (OR for being HIV positive were estimated for each cancer type (with adjustment for age ( Results Of the 586 children recruited, 541 (92% met the inclusion criteria and 525 (97% were tested for HIV. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 10%. Infection with HIV was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (29 cases; OR = 93.5, 95% CI 26.9 to 324.4 and with non-Burkitt, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (33 cases; OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.9 but not with Burkitt lymphoma (269 cases; OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 6.4. Conclusions In this study, only Kaposi sarcoma and non-Burkitt, non-Hodgkin lymphoma were associated with HIV infection. The endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma, which is relatively frequent in Malawi, was not significantly associated with HIV. While the relatively small numbers of children with other cancers, together with possible limitations of diagnostic testing may limit our conclusions, the findings may suggest differences in the pathogenesis of HIV-related malignancies in different parts of the world.

  11. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

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    Simona Gatti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  12. Preliminary Findings on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents in an Inpatient Secure Adolescent Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jenny; Wheatley, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    To date there is limited research examining the use of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) with adolescents in secure care. The aim of this article is to examine the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and clinical utility of HoNOSCA in an adolescent secure psychiatric unit. Twenty-four…

  13. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

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    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  14. Language Processing in Children with Cochlear Implants: A Preliminary Report on Lexical Access for Production and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Steinman, Susan; Ying, Elizabeth; Mystal, Elana Ying; Houston, Derek M.

    2013-01-01

    In this plenary paper, we present a review of language research in children with cochlear implants along with an outline of a 5-year project designed to examine the lexical access for production and recognition. The project will use auditory priming, picture naming with auditory or visual interfering stimuli (Picture-Word Interference and…

  15. Opinions of Turkish Parents and Teachers about Safety Skills Instruction to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Nursinem; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Safety skills instruction should be regarded as one of the important teaching areas. A descriptive study was designed to reveal the opinions of Turkish parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders regarding safety skills instruction. Data were collected through interview and analyzed descriptively. Findings showed that (a) both…

  16. The Effects of Interpolated Reinforcement on Resistance to Extinction in Children Diagnosed with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Thomas S.; Carr, James E.; Patel, Meeta R.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated use of the interpolation of reinforcement effect, which combines intermittent (INT) and continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedules, with four young children with autism using a free-operant preparation. Results suggest that responding may be less resistant to extinction following interpolated CRF reinforcement than following INT…

  17. A Preliminary Evaluation of a Massage Program for Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused and Their Nonabusing Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lesley; Cheshire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot evaluation of the Mosac Massage Program, a novel program that uses massage to address some of the difficulties faced by children who have been sexually abused and their nonabusing parents. Interviews were conducted with four participating mothers immediately before and after the program. Benefits…

  18. Children are highly exposed to physical violence between parents: a preliminary report emphasizing the need for intervention

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    Ali Fakhari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic violence is still common all around the world and children are directly or indirectly victimized. This study investigates the exposure of children to interparental physical violence. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of randomly selected university students. Information was collected on any experience of exposure to violence between parents, the type, frequency and duration of violent acts. Results: From a total of 177 students, 31.5% of females and 46.6% of males have experienced interparental violence (IPV, and most of them (66.7% directly witnessed it. The intimate violence was by fathers in 62.3%. The most frequent types were slamming a door and slapping (20.3%. Almost 40.0% of violent experiences began during pre-school age of the child, and a same number were still experiencing such events. Rate was higher reported by males and less educated parents. Males had a higher odds ratio (OR of exposure to physical violence, as well as violence by fathers only. Conclusion: This report emphasizes the high rate of children witnessing violence between their parents. Beside proper and in time intervention to reduce the psychological harm in these children, educational programs to increase social skills and problem-solving methods will improve the quality of relations within families.

  19. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  20. Parenting and Social Anxiety: Fathers' versus Mothers' Influence on Their Children's Anxiety in Ambiguous Social Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogels, Susan; Stevens, Juliette; Majdandzic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of parenting in child social anxiety was examined in an information processing experiment. We tested the relative weight that children in general, and high versus low socially anxious children in particular, put on fathers' versus mothers' signal about whether a social situation is safe or a threat. Method: Children aged 8-12…

  1. Behavioral Distress in Children with Cancer Undergoing Medical Procedures: Developmental Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ernest R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The amount of anxiety suggested the need for clinical intervention to reduce procedure-related distress in children with cancer. Younger children exhibited consistently higher levels of distress than older children and displayed a greater variety of anxious responses over a longer time span. (Author/BEF)

  2. Inpatient Opioid Withdrawal Management of Street Children and Adolescents Admitted to Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Ward: A Preliminary Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Firouzkouhi Moghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background About 10 million children worldwide live or work on the street. International reports estimate the prevalence of substance use among street children to be between 25% - 90%, which is who were referredntal disorders and high-risk behaviors. Objectives The objective of this study was to report the outcomes of assisted withdrawal of opioid-dependent vulnerable children and adolescents who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospital, an academic hospital in Zahedan city. Methods Clinical chart abstractions were performed on a convenience sample of 40 serial opioid-dependent street children and adolescents (mean age: 11.14 ± 3.6 years who were referred to child and adolescent psychiatric ward of Ali Ebne Abitaleb treatment and research center from November 2014 to May 2015. The demographic data, drug use history, comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions, symptomatology of opioid withdrawal syndrome, pharmacotherapies and psychosocial services, length of hospital stay, and any adverse events were extracted from the patients’ files using a checklist developed by the authors. Results Twenty-four (60% patients were male, and 16 (40% were female. The main drug used by all patients was opioids. Heroin Kerack (which has a street name of crystal in southeast Iran was the most common (75% drug of use, followed by opium (10% and opium residue (7.5%. None of the participants self-reported using injected drugs. The high rate of a lack of eligibility for guardianship was documented among parents (87.5% mainly due to their use of illegal drugs. Musculoskeletal pain and diarrhea were the most common withdrawal symptoms of the patients upon admission. The mean length of stay was 10.8 (± 7.30 days, and no significant adverse events were reported during the symptomatic treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the safety and feasibility of

  3. Parenting practices, interpretive biases, and anxiety in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane

    2013-03-01

    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance.

  4. Development and preliminary evaluation of the Child Feeding Guide website and app: A tool to support caregivers with promoting healthy eating in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haycraft

    2015-10-01

    benefit from it. Health professionals and caregivers with young children were asked to use the newly-developed Child Feeding Guide and provide feedback on its usability, content, appearance and novelty. Results: Over 85% of health professionals agreed that the Child Feeding Guide contains useful information, is a beneficial resource, and is easy to use. 95% would recommend it to the families that they work with. 80% of caregivers reported that using it helped them to better understand their children’s eating behaviour. Caregivers commented that using the Child Feeding Guide had made them aware of how their feeding behaviours can inadvertently affect their child. Other features of the Child Feeding Guide were identified as beneficial, such as: the provision of advice alongside practical and realistic methods for improving mealtimes; tips for not using food for rewards or for comfort; information on common feeding pitfalls. Caregivers also reported finding the Child Feeding Guide novel, interesting and educational, and easy to use. Conclusions: Preliminary user feedback suggests that the Child Feeding Guide is filling a critical gap in available support resources. Caregivers and health professionals report that it is easy to use, helpful and accessible. While initial user testing of the Child Feeding Guide confirms its value, further formal testing of this resource is required prior to wider-scale roll-out.

  5. Preliminary comparison of scores of special education and regular students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrata, J L

    1997-02-01

    The scores were compared for 11 students from Special Education and 15 from the regular program on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for Children. Analysis showed that the students in Special Education obtained lower scores on Extraversion and higher ones on Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and the Lie Scale. An intervention to promote relaxation and improve self-esteem, communication, and cooperation of the students was proposed. The Special Education sample was small, so another study with a larger more representative sample was recommended.

  6. Evaluation of the functional effects of a course of Bobath therapy in children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Virginia; Evans, Andrew Lloyd

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate functional effects of Bobath therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifteen children with a diagnosis of CP were recruited (9 males, 6 females; mean age 7 years 4 months, SD 2 years 8 months; age range 2 to 12 years). Types of motor disorder were as follows: spastic quadriplegia (n=9); spastic diplegia (n=4); athetoid quadriplegia (n=1), and ataxia (n=1). Participants were distributed across the following Gross Motor Function Classification levels: level I, n=1; level II, n=4; level III, n=5; level IV, n=4; and level V, n=1. Children awaiting orthopaedic intervention were excluded. A repeated measures design was used with participants tested with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) at 6-weekly intervals (baseline, before and after Bobath therapy, and follow-up). As the data were of ordinal type, non-parametric statistics were used, i.e. Wilcoxon's test. Participants showed a significant improvement in scores in the following areas following Bobath therapy compared with the periods before and after Bobath therapy: GMFM total score (p=0.009); GMFM goal total (p=0.001); PEDI self care skills (p=0.036); and PEDI caregiver assistance total score (p=0.012). This demonstrates that in this population, gains were made in motor function and self care following a course of Bobath therapy.

  7. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  8. Anxious Attachment Style and Salivary Cortisol Dysregulation in Healthy Female Children and Adolescents

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    Oskis, Andrea; Loveday, Catherine; Hucklebridge, Frank; Thorn, Lisa; Clow, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attachment style has been linked with basal cortisol secretion in healthy adult women. We investigated whether dysregulation in basal cortisol secretion may be evident in younger healthy females. Methods: Sixty healthy females aged 9-18 years (mean 14.16, SD [plus or minus] 2.63 years) participated in the Attachment Style Interview…

  9. Working Memory Training and CBT Reduces Anxiety Symptoms and Attentional Biases to Threat: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Julie A; Richards, Helen J

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that cognitive processes linked to the detection of threat stimuli are associated with poor attentional control, placing children and adolescents at increased risk for the development of anxious affect. The current study aimed to provide preliminary data to assess whether an intervention designed to improve attentional control (via working memory; WM) would lead to better performance in tests of WM and would be associated with positive changes in symptoms of trait and test anxiety, increased inhibitory control and reduced attention to threat. Forty adolescents aged 11-14 years who reported elevated anxiety and low attentional control were randomly allocated to a WM training or an active cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) control group. Post intervention, WM training was associated with greater improvements (versus. CBT) in trained WM tasks. Both groups, however, reported fewer anxiety symptoms, demonstrated increased inhibitory control and a reduction in attentional biases to threat post intervention and these results were maintained at follow up. The study provides indicative evidence which suggests that WM training has similar benefits to a more traditional CBT intervention on reduced anxiety and attentional biases for threat. Future research should aim to replicate the findings in a large sample size and explore the broader impact of training on day-to-day functioning. In addition, further research is needed to identify which participants benefit most from different interventions (using baseline characteristics) on treatment compliance and outcome.

  10. Don't Forget to Pack My EpiPen[R] Please: What Issues Does Food Allergy Present for Children's Starting School?

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    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy impairs the health-related quality of life of both the affected children and their families. In particular, parents and children become anxious about the potential risks and consequences of food allergy, including disruptions in families' and children's social activities, the need for constant vigilance, children's safety, and the…

  11. Polymorphism of CD36 gene, carbohydrate metabolism and plasma CD36 concentration in obese children. A preliminary study 

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    Monika E. Rać

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:CD36 may play an important role in removal of oxidized LDLs from plasma, protein glycation, the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Some reports have pointed to decreased expression of macrophages in association with mutations of the CD36 gene in hyperglycemic and obese subjects. The aim of the study was to search for an association between CD36 gene polymorphism and carbohydrate metabolism disturbances or variability of plasma soluble CD36 concentrations in obese children.Material/Methods:The study included 60 children aged 10 to 15 years: 30 with (study group and 30 without (control group obesity. Each patient’s glycated hemoglobin, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, BMI, WHR and MAP were calculated, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed with glucose and insulin concentration measurements. Amplicons of exons 4–6 of CD36 were studied using DHPLC technique. The PCR products with alterations were bidirectionally sequenced. Plasma concentrations of human antigen CD36 was measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results:We found two intronic alterations: IVS3-6 T/C (rs3173798 and IVS4-10 G/A (rs3211892, one nonsynonymous substitution: G367A (Glu123Lys, rs183461468 in exon 5 and two synonymous transitions in exon 6: G573A (Pro191Pro, rs5956 and A591T (Thr197Thr, rs141680676. There were no significant differences in any biochemical or morphometric parameters between genotype groups.Discussion:The polymorphisms of the studied fragment of CD36 are not associated with carbohydrate metabolism disturbances or the variability of plasma soluble CD36 concentrations in obese children, but further research is necessary to assess their functional implications. 

  12. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

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    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  13. Validation of the “Anxious Thoughts Inventory” for use in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Moreno; William Barbosa Gomes; Luciana Karine de Souza; Gustavo Gauer

    2014-01-01

    La preocupación es un proceso cognitivo en forma de pensamientos intrusivos nega - tivos y repetitivos que se refieren a un evento futuro. Hemos adaptado el Anxious Thoughts Inventory (AnTI) para su uso en Brasil y probamos sus correlaciones con: Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck (BAI), Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI), Cuestionario de Preocupación Penn State (PSWQ) y Cuestionario de Reflexión y Rumiación (QRR). 276 estudiantes brasileños respondieron las medidas. El análisis factori...

  14. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Brain Activity of Neural Reward Processing in Children and Adolescents with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

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    Tomoda, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases risks for psychopathology, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Especially, exposure to parental verbal abuse (PVA) or interparental violence during childhood is associated with negative outcomes such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and reduced cognitive abilities. Other forms of childhood maltreatment have been associated with brain structure or developmental alteration. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects of PVA and witnessing domestic violence during childhood on brain morphology, including gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in the corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that sensory cortices are highly plastic structures. Using tasks with high and low monetary rewards while subjects underwent functional MRI, we also examined whether neural activity during reward processing was altered, or not, in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Significantly reduced activity in the caudate and nucleus accumbens was observed during a high monetary reward condition in the RAD group compared to the typically developed group. The striatal neural reward activity in the RAD group was also markedly decreased. The present results suggest that dopaminergic dysfunction occurred in the striatum in children and adolescents with RAD, potentially leading to a future risk of psychiatric disorders such as dependence.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of Nintendo Wii Fit PlusTM training in children with migraine without aura: a preliminary study

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    Esposito M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Maria Ruberto,2 Francesca Gimigliano,1,2 Rosa Marotta,3 Beatrice Gallai,4 Lucia Parisi,5 Serena Marianna Lavano,3 Michele Roccella,5 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, 2Department of Odonto-Stomathologic Disciplines, Pathology – Orthopedic Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 4Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 5Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: Migraine without aura (MoA is a painful syndrome, particularly in childhood; it is often accompanied by severe impairments, including emotional dysfunction, absenteeism from school, and poor academic performance, as well as issues relating to poor cognitive function, sleep habits, and motor coordination.Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 71 patients affected by MoA (32 females, 39 males (mean age: 9.13±1.94 years; the control group consisted of 93 normally developing children (44 females, 49 males (mean age: 8.97±2.03 years recruited in the Campania school region. The entire population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visual-motor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance, the later using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. Children underwent training using the Wii-balance board and Nintendo Wii Fit Plus™ software (Nintendo Co, Ltd, Kyoto, Japan; training lasted for 12 weeks and consisted of three 30-minute sessions per week at their home.Results: The two starting populations (MoA and controls were not significantly different for age (P=0.899 and sex (P=0.611. M-ABC and VMI performances at baseline (T0 were significantly different in dexterity

  16. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

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    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate brain-behavior relationships between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in a well-characterized population of autistic children. Volumes for the amygdala, hippocampus, and whole brain were obtained from three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs) captured from 42 children who met the criteria for autistic disorder. Anxious/depressed symptoms were assessed in these children by the Anxious/Depressed subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. To investigate the association between anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and amygdala volume, data were analyzed using linear regression methods with Pearson correlation coefficients. A multivariate model was used to adjust for potential covariates associated with amygdala volume, including age at MRI and total brain size. We found that anxious/depressed symptoms were significantly correlated with increased total amygdala volume (r = .386, P = .012) and right amygdala volume (r = .469, P = .002). The correlation between anxious/depressed symptoms and left amygdala volume did not reach statistical significance (r = .249, P = .112). Child Behavior Checklist anxious/depressed scores were found to be a significant predictor of amygdala total (P = .014) and right amygdala (P = .002) volumes. In conclusion, we have identified a significant brain-behavior relationship between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in our autistic cohort. This specific relationship has not been reported in autism. However, the existing literature on human psychiatry and behavior supports our reported evidence for a neurobiologic relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression with amygdala structure and function. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in autism. The abundance of inconsistent findings in the published literature on autism might reflect

  17. Attentional bias towards threatening stimuli in children with anxiety: A meta-analysis.

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    Dudeney, Joanne; Sharpe, Louise; Hunt, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that anxious adults show selective attention to threatening stimuli, research investigating attentional bias in children with anxiety has produced mixed results. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of studies investigating attentional bias in children with anxiety. Using a systematic search for articles which included both children with anxiety and reported data suitable for a meta-analysis, 38 articles were identified involving 4221 subjects (anxiety n=2222). We used a random effects meta-analysis with standardized mean difference as our primary outcome to estimate between- and within-group effects of attentional bias towards threat-related information in children with anxiety. Overall, children with anxiety showed a significantly greater bias to threat-related stimuli, compared to controls (d=0.21). Children with anxiety also showed a significant bias to threat-related stimuli, over neutral stimuli (d=0.54), which was greater than the bias shown by control children (d=0.15). Specific variables in attentional bias were also explored, with varying results. The review concluded that anxious children do show a similar bias towards threatening stimuli as has been documented in adults, albeit to a lesser degree and this bias is moderated by age, such that the difference between anxious and control children increases with age. Given the small number of studies in some areas, future research is needed to understand the precise conditions under which anxious children exhibit selective attentional biases to threat-related stimuli.

  18. Aims, methods and preliminary findings of the Physical Activity, Nutrition and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens (PANACEA epidemiological study

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    Papadimitriou Anastasios

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a sample of Greek children aged 10–12 years, and to evaluate these rates in relation to anthropometric, lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits. Methods During 2006, 700 schoolchildren (323 male and 377 female, aged 10–12 years (4th to 6th school grade, were selected from 18 schools located in the greater Athens area. The schools were randomly selected from a list provided by the regional educational offices. To achieve a representative sample the schools enrolled were selected from various region of the Athens area. For each child a questionnaire was completed that was developed for the purposes of the study to retrieve information on: age, sex, school class, other socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary habits (through a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity status; the presence of asthma and allergies was assessed by the standard ISAAC questionnaire. Results The prevalence of wheezing in the past was 25% in boys and 19% in girls, while the prevalence of current wheezing was 9.0% in boys and 5.8% in girls. The prevalence of any asthma symptoms was 27.6% in boys and 20.4% in girls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased body weight and sedentary lifestyle is associated with asthma symptoms only in boys. Conclusion The present cross-sectional study cannot establish causal relationships between asthma and increased body weight of schoolchildren; however, our findings underline the associations between asthma, increased body weight, and physical activity at population level, and urge for actions that should be taken by public health policy makers in order to prevent these conditions among children.

  19. [Preliminary analysis on respiratory syncytial virus identified in children with acute respiratory infections in Tibet Autonomous Region, China].

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    Deng, Jie; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Qian, Yuan; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Wang, Fang; Wu, Hong; Shan, Min-Na; Deji, Mei-Duo

    2012-03-01

    To understand the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Tibet Autonomous Region and the contribution of two major groups of RSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from hospitalized children with ARI in Department of Pediatrics, Tibet People's Hospital in Lasa, Tibet from April to July in 2011 and tested for seven common respiratory viruses and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). Total RNAs were extracted from RSV positive samples by DFA and reverse transcripted to cDNA. Nested-PCR was employed to determine the genogroups of RSV, which were confirmed by real time-PCR and sequence analysis for G protein encoding gene. The Characteristics and variations of G genes from RSV in this project were identified by sequence comparison with those G genes in GenBank. Out of 167 samples, 65 were positive for respiratory viruses with a total positive rate of 38.9%, including 45 (69.2%, 45/65)positive samples for RSV. Among 42 samples that were positive for RSV and genotyped, 40 were identified as group A and 2 as group B. Sequence analysis of full-length G genes for 7 RSV of group A indicated that all of these belonged to subgroup GA2. The nucleotide identities between RSVs from Tibet and prototype A2 strain were 90.7%-91.8%, with 86.5%-87.2% identities of amino acid. The mutations of amino acids were mainly located in both ends of a highly conserved region in the ectodomain of the G proteins. The data indicated that RSV was the most important viral etiologic agent of ARI in spring of 2011 in Tibet and group A of RSV was predominant during the study period. High divergence existed in the ectodomain of G proteins of RSVs from Tibet.

  20. Threat and defense as goal regulation: from implicit goal conflict to anxious uncertainty, reactive approach motivation, and ideological extremism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kyle; McGregor, Ian; Prentice, Mike

    2011-12-01

    Four studies investigated a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty threat (Gray & McNaughton, 2000) and ideological defense. Participants (N = 444) were randomly assigned to have achievement or relationship goals implicitly primed. The implicit goal primes were followed by randomly assigned achievement or relationship threats that have reliably caused generalized, reactive approach motivation and ideological defense in past research. The threats caused anxious uncertainty (Study 1), reactive approach motivation (Studies 2 and 3), and reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) only when threat-relevant goals had first been primed, but not when threat-irrelevant goals had first been primed. Reactive ideological conviction (Study 4) was eliminated if participants were given an opportunity to attribute their anxiety to a mundane source. Results support a goal regulation view of anxious uncertainty, threat, and defense with potential for integrating theories of defensive compensation.

  1. Mixed-grade rejection and its association with overt aggression, relational aggression, anxious-withdrawal, and psychological maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between mixed-grade rejection (rejection by peers in a different school grade), anxious-withdrawal, aggression, and psychological adjustment in a middle school setting. Participants were 181 seventh-grade and 180 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.20 years, SD = 0.68 years) who completed peer nomination and self-report measures in their classes. Analyses indicated that in general, same- and mixed-grade rejection were related to overt and relational aggression, but neither type was related to anxious-withdrawal. Mixed-grade rejection was associated uniquely and negatively with self-esteem for seventh-grade boys, while increasing the loneliness associated with anxious-withdrawal. The results suggest that school-wide models of peer relations may be promising for understanding the ways in which different peer contexts contribute to adjustment in middle school settings.

  2. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Angels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  3. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

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    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  4. Salivary oxytocin in clinically anxious youth: Associations with separation anxiety and family accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; McDonald, Nicole; Silverman, Wendy K

    2016-03-01

    Clinical anxiety disorders in youth are common and associated with interpersonal behaviors including reliance on parents for family accommodation, or changes that parents make to their own behaviors to help the youth avoid anxiety related distress. The neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with the regulation of anxiety and of close interpersonal behavior leading to the hypothesis that oxytocinergic functioning plays a role in youth anxiety and its disorders, and the resulting family accommodation. To test this hypothesis salivary OT from 50 youth with primary DSM-5 anxiety disorders was assayed. A multi-source/multi-method anxiety assessment including semistructured interviews with youth and mothers, rating scales, and behavioral observations was used to assess anxiety disorders and symptoms, and family accommodation. Youth with separation anxiety disorder had significantly lower salivary OT levels than clinically anxious youth not diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. Salivary OT levels were significantly negatively correlated with separation anxiety symptoms based on both youth- and mother-ratings. Anxious behavior displayed by youth during interactions with their mothers was associated with lower salivary OT levels in youth. Maternal ratings of family accommodation were negatively associated with salivary OT levels in youth. Results support the role of the oxytocinergic system in youth anxiety and its disorders and in parental involvement in youth anxiety through family accommodation. OT may be particularly important for diagnoses and symptoms of separation anxiety, which is inherently interpersonal in nature. Findings have potentially important implications for assessment and treatment of anxiety in youth.

  5. Moderate threat causes longer lasting disruption to processing in anxious individuals

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    Sophie eForster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is associated with increased attentional capture by threat. Previous studies have used simultaneous or briefly separated (< 1s presentation of threat distractors and target stimuli. Here, we tested the hypothesis that high trait anxious participants would show a longer time window within which distractors cause disruption to subsequent task processing, and that this would particularly be observed for stimuli of moderate or ambiguous threat value. A novel temporally separated emotional distractor task was used. Face or house distractors were presented for 250ms at short (~1.6s or long (~3s intervals prior to a letter string comprising Xs or Ns. Trait anxiety was associated with slowed identification of letter strings presented at long intervals after face distractors with part surprise / part fear expressions. In other words, these distractors had an impact on high anxious individuals’ speed of target identification seconds after their offset. This was associated with increased activity in the fusiform gyrus and amygdala and reduced dorsal anterior cingulate recruitment. This pattern of activity may reflect impoverished recruitment of reactive control mechanisms to damp down stimulus-specific processing in subcortical and higher visual regions. These findings have implications for understanding how threat-related attentional biases in anxiety may lead to dysfunction in everyday settings where stimuli of moderate, potentially ambiguous, threat value such as those used here are fairly common, and where attentional disruption lasting several seconds may have a profound impact.

  6. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

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    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  7. Anxious, threatened, and also unethical: how anxiety makes individuals feel threatened and commit unethical acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Desai, Sreedhari D

    2015-03-01

    People often experience anxiety in the workplace. Across 6 studies, we show that anxiety, both induced and measured, can lead to self-interested unethical behavior. In Studies 1 and 2, we find that compared with individuals in a neutral state, anxious individuals are more willing (a) to participate in unethical actions in hypothetical scenarios and (b) to engage in more cheating to make money in situations that require truthful self-reports. In Studies 3 and 4, we explore the psychological mechanism underlying unethical behaviors when experiencing anxiety. We suggest and find that anxiety increases threat perception, which, in turn, results in self-interested unethical behaviors. Study 5 shows that, relative to participants in the neutral condition, anxious individuals find their own unethical actions to be less problematic than similar actions of others. In Study 6, data from subordinate-supervisor dyads demonstrate that experienced anxiety at work is positively related with experienced threat and unethical behavior. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.

  8. Motor unit loss estimation by the multipoint incremental MUNE method in children with spinal muscular atrophy--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Malgorzata; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Lusakowska, Anna; Jedrzejowska, Maria; Ryniewicz, Barbara; Lipowska, Marta; Gawel, Damian; Kaminska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative EMG reflects denervation of muscles after lower motor neuron degeneration in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) but does not reflect actual motor unit loss. The aim of our study was to assess the value of the multipoint incremental motor unit number estimation (MUNE) method in the modification by Shefner in estimating motor unit loss in SMA. The number of motor units, the mean amplitude of an average surface-detected single motor unit potential (SMUP), and the amplitude of compound motor action potentials (CMAP) were estimated in 14 children with SMA in the abductor pollicis brevis (ABP). Significant differences in MUNE values and SMUP and CMAP amplitude were found between the SMA and control groups (P < 0.0001). MUNE values correlated with Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS) scores (P < 0.05). Increased SMUP amplitude values correlated with decreased HFMS scores (P < 0.05). The study confirms that MUNE method in the modification by Shefner is a useful tool reflecting motor unit loss in SMA, and it is easy to perform and well tolerated. MUNE and SMUP amplitude seemed to be sensitive parameters reflecting motor dysfunction in SMA but a longitudinal study in a larger number of subjects is needed.

  9. Tipepidine in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 4-week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Keiko Okawada,1 Maki Ishikawa,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,3 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–31Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, JapanBackground: Tipepidine (3-[di-2-thienylmethylene]-1-methylpiperidine has been used solely as a nonnarcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959. The safety of tipepidine in children and adults has already been established. It is reported that tipepidine inhibits G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK-channel currents. The inhibition of GIRK channels by tipepidine is expected to modulate the level of monoamines in the brain. We put forward the hypothesis that tipepidine can improve attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms by modulating monoaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of GIRK channels. The purpose of this open-label trial was to confirm whether treatment with tipepidine can improve symptoms in pediatric patients with ADHD.Subjects and methods: This was a 4-week, open-label, proof-of-efficacy pilot study for pediatric subjects with ADHD. Ten pediatric ADHD subjects (70% male; mean age, 9.9 years; combined [inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive] subtype, n=7; inattentive subtype, n=3; hyperimpulsive subtype, n=0 received tipepidine hibenzate taken orally at 30 mg/day for 4 weeks. All subjects were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS, Japanese version, and the Das–Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS, Japanese version.Results: A comparison of baseline scores and 4-week end-point scores showed that all the ADHD-RS scores (total scores, hyperimpulsive subscores, and inattentive subscores

  10. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy affec

  11. Effects of positive attitude toward giving a speech on cardiovascular and subjective fear responses during speech in anxious subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Romans-Kroll, J M

    1995-10-01

    40 speech-anxious subjects were asked to deliver four speeches during the experiment. The conditions varied according to whether the subjects maintained a positive or neutral attitude toward speech prior to each presentation. Heart rate and self-reports of fear were measured during the experiment. Maintaining a positive attitude prior to delivering a speech reduced both subjective anxiety and cardiovascular responses.

  12. Bias or reality? : negative perceptions of ambiguous social cues, social performance and physical arousal in socially anxious youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miers, Anne Claire

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the negative perceptions of socially anxious youth in three different cognitive domains: (a) interpretation of ambiguous social situations, (b) self-evaluation of social skills and nervous behaviors, and (c) perception of physical arousal during social situations. It also addr

  13. Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety : differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of negative self-image in social phobia. Participants were 19 high and 19 low socially anxious women. Because self-report measures of self-esteem are sensitive to self-presentation and impression management strategies, an implicit association test (IAT

  14. Math Anxiety Workshop, 1993: A Program Developed for the Math Anxious Student at All Levels, but Predominantly at Developmental Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisse, Wulf Hinrich

    Research among college students has shown that the study of mathematics generates anxiety reactions among students who are not necessarily highly anxious in other situations. Because high levels of anxiety can devastate a student's ability to perform, a math anxiety workshop was field tested in 1993 at the Mohave Valley Campus of the Mohave…

  15. Anxious Solitude and the Middle School Transition: A Diathesis × Stress Model of Peer Exclusion and Victimization Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Madelynn D.; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with a Diathesis × Stress model, it was hypothesized that anxious solitude (individual vulnerability) and the middle school transition (environmental stress) would jointly predict peer exclusion and victimization trajectories. Youth (N = 688) were followed from 3rd through 7th grade, with the middle school transition in 6th grade.…

  16. Modification of Anxious Behavior after Psychogenic Trauma and Treatment with Galanin Receptor Antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyudyno, V I; Tsikunov, S G; Abdurasulova, I N; Kusov, A G; Klimenko, V M

    2015-07-01

    Effects of blockage of central galanin receptors on anxiety manifestations were studied in rats with psychogenic trauma. Psychogenic trauma was modeled by exposure of a group of rats to the situation when the partner was killed by a predator. Antagonist of galanin receptors was intranasally administered before stress exposure. Animal behavior was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test, free exploratory paradigm, and open-field test. Psychogenic trauma was followed by an increase in anxiety level and appearance of agitated behavior. Blockage of galanin receptors aggravated behavioral impairment, which manifested in the pathological anxious reactions - manifestations of hypervigilance and hyperawareness. The results suggest that endogenous pool of galanin is involved into prevention of excessive CNS response to stressful stimuli typical of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. A Preliminary Study of Screening for Risk of Autism in Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Testing Two Risk Cut-Offs for the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambler, D. J.; Hepburn, S. L.; Hagerman, R. J.; Rogers, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Risk criteria for the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) and modified risk criteria (i.e. the Denver Criteria) were compared in a group of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism. Method: Participants were 17 children aged 2-4 years with DNA confirmation of FXS. Four children had autism and 13 children did not. Results:…

  18. BODE index versus GOLD classification for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms in patients with COPD – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burghuber Otto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and depression are common and treatable risk factors for re-hospitalisation and death in patients with COPD. The degree of lung function impairment does not sufficiently explain anxiety and depression. The BODE index allows a functional classification of COPD beyond FEV1. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (1 to test whether the BODE index is superior to the GOLD classification for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms; and (2 to assess which components of the BODE index are associated with these psychological aspects of COPD. Methods COPD was classified according to the GOLD stages based on FEV1%predicted in 122 stable patients with COPD. An additional four stage classification was constructed based on the quartiles of the BODE index. The hospital anxiety and depression scale was used to assess anxious and depressive symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms was 49% and 52%, respectively. The prevalence of anxious symptoms increased with increasing BODE stages but not with increasing GOLD stages. The prevalence of depressive symptoms increased with both increasing GOLD and BODE stages. The BODE index was superior to FEV1%predicted for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms. Anxious symptoms were explained by dyspnoea. Depressive symptoms were explained by both dyspnoea and reduced exercise capacity. Conclusion The BODE index is superior to the GOLD classification for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms in COPD patients. These psychological consequences of the disease may play a role in future classification systems of COPD.

  19. "Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity": Correction to Mandel et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity" by Tobey Mandel, David M. Dunkley and Molly Moroz (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62[4], 703-717). In the article, there were errors in Table 1. The corrected version of Table 1 appears in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-32534-001.) This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists

  20. Maternal dental anxiety as a risk factor for dental caries in children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem S. Ain

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded that occurrence of dental caries was more in children of highly anxious mother's and hence there exists the association between the mother's dental anxiety and their children's dental caries prevalence. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4867-4872

  1. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy affect relationship quality differently and do so differently for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Among heterosexuals and especially gay men--but not among lesbians--anxious jealousy was negatively related to relationship quality. In contrast, among heterosexuals--but not among gay men or lesbians--reactive jealousy was positively related to relationship quality. The present study shows that distinguishing between different types of jealousy is necessary to entangle the diverse effects of jealousy on the quality of homosexual and heterosexual relationships.

  2. Show-that-I-Can (Homework) in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxious Youth: Individualizing Homework for Robert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C.; Barmish, Andrea J.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been reviewed and described as an empirically supported treatment for anxious youth. One component of CBT is the use of out-of-session "Show That I Can" tasks (STIC; i.e., homework tasks). STIC tasks vary in content and are to be completed between sessions. We discuss homework in CBT for Robert, a 13-year-old…

  3. Comparative evaluation of oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery with or without oral conscious sedation in anxious patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Context: Stress and anxiety during dental procedure can alter respiratory rate and thereby alter oxygen saturation in the blood, leading to emergencies like syncope. It can be prevented by preoperative intravenous sedation. However, it can lead to respiratory depression. Hence, this study was carried out to analyze the effect of oral conscious sedation on oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery in anxious patients. Aim: The aim was to compare the oxygen saturation levels during periodont...

  4. Psychophysiological activation during preparation, performance, and recovery in high- and low-anxious music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA.

  5. Effect of a new benzodiazepine derivate, clobazam, in anxious patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudano, O; Peralta, M; Lujan, L; Aparicio, N; Moizeszowicz, J

    1977-07-01

    Thirty-four anxious patients with gastrointestinal disorders were studied in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a new 1,5-benzodiazepine antianxiety agent (HR 376). The disorders were classified as organic or functional according to the presence or absence of radiologic signs of ulcer. Dietetic measures, gastric antacids, anticholinergic agents, and antianxiety treatment were applied for six weeks. Anxiolytic treatment consisted of 30 mg/day clobazam (HR 376) or 15 mg/day diazepam, given in a randomized, double-blind manner. Clinical follow-up was performed with the PEN Personality Inventory (PEN), Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS), and Wittenborn Psychiatric Rating Scales (WPRS). The score of the psychoticism dimension of the PEN inventory was significantly higher in organic than in functional patients. Significant differences occurred in the reduction of the rating scores of HAS and WPRS before/after treatment in the clobazam and diazepam groups. This would express a modification of state anxiety. The TMAS, which evaluates trait anxiety, disclosed statistically significant improvement in the clobazam group. This group showed an early reduction of the HAS and TMAS scores, which would suggest an early onset of action.

  6. Heart rate variability and the anxious client: cardiac autonomic and behavioral associations with therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Trisha; Meara, Alan; Psychotherapy, M Gestalt; Lal, Sara

    2014-08-01

    This exploratory study was designed to investigate the link between a client's heart rate variability (HRV) and the forming of a therapeutic alliance (TA) during psychotherapy. Change in HRV is associated with many psychological and physiological situations, including cardiac mortality. Cardiac effects were evaluated during therapy in 30 symptomatically anxious clients using HRV during six weekly 1-hour therapy sessions (S1-S6). Therapeutic index (TI), a measure of TA, was evaluated using skin conductance resonance between client and therapist. The Working Alliance Inventory provides a subjective measure of TA. State and trait anxiety and mood states were also assessed. Most HRV parameters were highest during S4. The sympathovagal balance was highest in S1 but stabilized after S2. In S4, TI was linked to high HRV parameters. Overall higher anxiety levels seem to be associated to lower HRV parameters. Conversely, in S4, high HRV parameters were linked to higher mood scores. This study found that a subjective measure of TA contradicted the physiological outcome. Results suggest that physiological data collected during therapy are a more accurate barometer of TA forming. These research findings suggest a need for further research identifying physiological markers in clients with a variety of mental health disorders over long-term therapy.

  7. Training Approach-Avoidance of Smiling Faces Affects Emotional Vulnerability in Socially Anxious Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eRinck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.

  8. PROCESSING OF MULTI-DIGIT ADDITIONS IN HIGH MATH-ANXIOUS INDIVIDUALS: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ISABEL eNÚÑEZ-PEÑA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA and low-math anxious (LMA individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. They also took longer and made more errors than their LMA peers. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources towards emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may invest more attentional resources during the arithmetical

  9. Analyzing the relationship between social networking addiction, interaction anxiousness and levels of loneliness of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Özgür

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to analyze the social networking addiction of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables and evaluate the relationship between social networking addiction and loneliness and interaction anxiousness. The research was designed according to the relational screening model. The study sample included 349 pre-service teachers studying at Trakya University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic year fall term. The data were obtained using Facebook Addiction Scale, Interaction Anxiousness Scale, the UCLA-Loneliness Scale III and personal information form. In analysis of data, descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H and correlation tests were benefited. The research findings revealed that social networking addiction of pre-service teachers was at a low level, the relationship between interaction anxiousness and social networking addiction was high, and the relationship between the level of loneliness and social networking addiction was at a mid-level. Moreover, in the research a statistically significant difference was obtained between the variables of social networking addiction and frequency of using social networking, gender and the level of grade they study.

  10. [A preliminary analysis of oral morbidity in the children of Byelarus after the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, E M; Leus, L I; Gorbacheva, K A; Belik, L P; Gul'ko, E M; Ostromentskaia, T K; Pyleva, O V; Shuglia, L V

    1993-01-01

    Presents the data of analysis of medical files of therapeutic institutions, of questionnaires distributed among dentists, and the results of examinations of 883 children aged 3 to 6, living in 19 towns of Byelorussia. The incidence and clinical picture of a number of dental diseases were found changed in the children living in the regions contaminated with radionuclides, as well as the general well-being of these children.

  11. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.C.; Wang, R.Y.; Cheng, C.F.; Wei, W.S.; Tang, L.M.; Wang, Q.S.; Tang, D.X.; Liu, G.W.; He, G.D.; Li, S.L.

    2008-04-15

    The Chinese Binet IQ Test was used to investigate the IQs of 7-13 year old children suffering from dental fluorosis, living and attending school in an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. The average IQ of these children was found to be markedly lower than in the control area, and the number of children classified as having low intelligence was significantly higher. For both groups, IQ and serum fluoride show a negative correlation (r = -0.205).

  12. The prevalence of psychiatric disease in the significant others of patients with known mood and anxious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corea Salvatore

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Information about the Significant Others (S.O. of 530 patients with mood and anxious spectrum disorders has been tabulated in this multicentre, retrospective, clinical observational study in order to learn the prevalence of the same mood and/or anxious spectrum diseases in the S.O. of the patients. Methods - The 530 outpatients (of age range from 18 to 70 years with mood and anxious spectrum disorders have been treated by the authors, observed for a seven year period (from January 1995 until May 2003. The patients live in 16 different Italian provinces, but are predominantly from Lombardia and Veneto. Mood disease (includes substance abuse was present in 72% of the patients and anxious disease was present in 28% (DSM-IV diagnoses based upon clinical interviews. The S.O. (various heterosexual long-term relationships of each patient was interviewed for this study to establish a DSM-IV diagnosis of any psychiatric disease that might be present. In cases in which the patient had no S.O. or in which information about the S.O. was unavailable, that information was collected. As data was collected, 10 item report was completed for each patient and the respective S.O. Results - Patients had an S.O. with a similar mental disease to their own in 41% of cases; only 16% of the patients chose their S.O. with no mental disease; 18% of the patients did not have any S.O. and in 26% of the cases the health of the S.O. was unknown. Conclusion - In this multicentre, retrospective, clinical observational study, the corresponding Significant Others of 530 patients with mood and anxious spectrum disorders presented with a high percentage of similar disease to the patients. These findings suggest that it may be appropriate to counsel our patients with these diseases to encourage their respective S.O. to undergo a psychiatric evaluation for possible treatable disease: the first objective of an S.O. is preventive care, secondarily the well-being of

  13. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  14. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  15. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  16. A Neurorobotic Platform to Test the Influence of Neuromodulatory Signaling on Anxious and Curious Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Krichmar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate neuromodulatory systems are critical for appropriate value-laden responses to environmental challenges. Whereas changes in the overall level of dopamine have an effect on the organism’s reward or curiosity seeking behavior, changes in the level of serotonin can affect its level of anxiety or harm aversion. Moreover, top-down signals from frontal cortex can exert cognitive control on these neuromodulatory systems. The cholinergic and noradrenergic systems affect the ability to filter out noise and irrelevant events. We introduce a neural network for action selection that is based on these principles of neuromodulatory systems. The algorithm tested the hypothesis that high levels of serotonin lead to withdrawn behavior by suppressing dopaminergic action and that high levels of dopamine or low levels of serotonin lead to curious, exploratory behavior. Furthermore, the algorithm tested the idea that top-down signals from the frontal cortex to neuromodulatory areas are critical for an organism to cope with both stressful and novel events. The neural network was implemented on an autonomous robot and tested in an open field paradigm. The open field test is often used to test for models anxiety or exploratory behavior in the rodent and allows for qualitative comparisons with the neurorobot’s behavior. The present neurorobotic experiments can lead to a better understanding of how neuromodulatory signaling affects the balance between anxious and curious behavior. Therefore, this experimental paradigm may also be informative in exploring a wide range of neurological diseases such as anxiety, autism, attention deficit disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

  17. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being.

  18. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children and adolescents with cancer in the Asociacion de Hemato-Oncologia Pediatrica de Centro America (AHOPCA) countries: preliminary results from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Alessandra; Rossi, Emanuela; Antillon, Federico

    2008-02-01

    More than 50% of children with cancer in Guatemala have some degree of malnutrition at diagnosis. In particular, the proportions of patients with non-lymphoblastic leukemias and myelodysplasia (MDS) with moderate and severe malnutrition were 73% and 9% respectively; higher than that in the population with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), P = 0.0493. There was no relationship of nutritional status to gender. Children with ALL and other leukemias + MDS who had severe malnutrition were significantly younger than such malnourished children with solid tumors (P = 0.0003). The relationship of malnutrition to race was mixed, perhaps reflecting the frequent difficulty of accurately categorizing race.

  19. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Warner, Carrie Masia; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate…

  20. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.;

    Nordic Diet (NND) school meals with two weekly fish servings affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and bone in children. Methods The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy NND) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomized controlled cross......-over intervention. A total of 784 third and fourth graders received NND school meals for 3 months and habitual packed lunch for 3 months. Dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D was measured, and DXA-scans performed, at baseline and after each dietary period. Results Intake of fatty fish (? 3.6-7.2 g/d) and vitamin D (? 0...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (pschool meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  1. A preliminary study of the effect of restricted gastrocnemius length on foot kinematics and plantar pressure patterns during gait in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek

    2008-01-01

      Summary/conclusion Kinematic foot modelling and pedobarography are complementary measurement methods for measuring foot biomechanics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Pedobarography appears to be the most sensitive instrument measuring significantly decreased hindfoot and increased lateral ...

  2. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  3. Immediate Effect of Postural Insoles on Gait Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Preliminary Randomized Controlled Double-blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Duarte, Natália Almeida Carvalho; Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Improved gait efficiency is one of the goals of therapy for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Postural insoles can allow more efficient gait by improving biomechanical alignment. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of postural insoles on gait performance of children with CP classified as levels I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). [Subjects and Methods] the study was a randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. After meeting the legal aspects and the eligibility criteria, 10 children between four and 12 years old were randomly divided into a two groups: a control group (n=5), and an experimental group (n=5). Children in the control group used a placebo insoles, and children in the experimental group used postural insoles. Evaluation consisted of three-dimensional gait analysis under three conditions: barefoot, shoes without insoles and shoes with postural insoles or shoes with placebo insoles. [Results] Regarding the immediate effects of insole use, significant improvements in gait velocity and cadence were observed in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. [Conclusion] The use of postural insoles led to improvements in gait velocity and cadence of the children with cerebral palsy classified as levels I or II of the GMFCS.

  4. Relationship between caesium (137Cs) load, cardiovascular symptoms, and source of food in 'Chernobyl' children -- preliminary observations after intake of oral apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandazhevskaya, G S; Nesterenko, V B; Babenko, V I; Yerkovich, T V; Bandazhevsky, Y I

    2004-12-18

    Seventeen years after the nuclear power accident at Chernobyl, most of the radio-contamination among the population of Southern Belarus is caused by incorporation of long-lived radioisotopes. The varying levels of 137Cs observed among children in this area are explained by the source of their food, especially by the consumption of contaminated milk produced privately. We stratified children from rural areas of Belarus (caesium [137Cs] contamination >5 Ci/km(2)) by their 137Cs loads into three distinct groups (group 1, <5 Bq/kg body weight [BW]; group 2, 38.4 +/- 2.4 Bq/kg BW; group 3, 122 +/- 18.5 Bq/kg BW). We determined the relationship between the 137Cs load and the children's main source of food and recorded their cardiovascular symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms, ECG alterations, and arterial hypertension were significantly more frequent in children with high 137Cs burden than in children with very low 137Cs burden. Children with moderate and high 137Cs loads (groups 2 and 3) received apple pectin, a food additive, for 16 days. Apple pectin significantly decreased 137Cs loads in these groups (39% and 28%, respectively). ECG alterations improved, while cardiovascular symptoms and hypertension did not change in any group.

  5. An Innovative Treatment Approach for Children with Anxiety Disorders and Medically Unexplained Somatic Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, Laura C.; Fisher, Paige H.; Cutler, Cynthia; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are largely undetected and the majority of youth do not receive services. Given the deleterious consequences of anxiety disorders, early identification and intervention have public health implications. In order to increase identification and treatment of anxious youth, expansion to nonpsychiatric…

  6. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  7. Work-Family Relations among Mothers of Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali

    2008-01-01

    The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…

  8. Predictive validity of BODE index for anxious and depressive symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li; LIN Ying-xiang; YANG Ting; ZHANG Hong; JIAO Xia; ZHANG Shu; CHANG Xiao-hong; WANG Zhao-mei; WANG Chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression are two of the commonest and most modifiable comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have an independent effect on health and prognosis. FEV1% has been shown to be a poor predictor of anxiety and depression. The body mass index, degree of airflow obstruction, dyspnea,and exercise capacity (BODE) index is a multidimensional assessment system which may predict health outcome in COPD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of the BODE index for anxious and depressive symptoms in COPD patients.Methods This was a multicenter prospective cross-sectional study in 256 patients with stable COPD. Anxious and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The relationships between anxiety, depression and potential predictors (including the BODE index) were analyzed by a binary Logistic regression model. Results Subjects who were anxious and depressive walked a shorter six-minute walking distance (6MWD), had more dyspnea, a higher BODE index, and lower health-related quality of life (P <0.01). Anxiety and depression score was significantly correlated with BODE index, respectively (r=0.335, P <0.001; r=0.306, P <0.001). The prevalence of anxiety and depression increased with BODE stage increasing (P <0.05). On the basis of binary Logistic regression, the BODE index was a good and independent predictor of anxiety and depression because it comprised dyspnea and 6MWD, which were shown to be the main determinants.Conclusions The predictive validity of the BODE index for anxiety and depression was demonstrated. We propose that the BODE index should be included in assessment of COPD severity.

  9. Preliminary Findings: Neural Responses to Feedback Regarding Betrayal and Cooperation in Adolescent Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Nawa, Norberto Eiji; Nelson, Eric E.; Detloff, Allison M.; Fromm, Stephen; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This study examined patterns of neural response to feedback received during simulated interpersonal interactions in adolescents with anxiety disorders and healthy peers. To this aim, behavioral and neural responses during the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game, an economic exchange task, were compared between adolescents with anxiety disorders (N=12) and healthy controls (n=17). Participants were deceived to believe that their co-player (a pre-programmed computer algorithm) was another study participant. Anxious participants and controls differed significantly in patterns of neural activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ACC, precuneus, insula, and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) when receiving feedback about co-player defection or cooperation. Groups also differed significantly in post-feedback behavior; specifically anxious adolescents were more likely than controls to cooperate following trials when the co- player betrayed them. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that, in social situations, anxious adolescents may not only behave differently than healthy peers, but they may also engage neural resources in different ways. These findings constitute a first step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying social impairment in youth with internalizing disorders. PMID:21516543

  10. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimu Alissa Rehbein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.

  11. The anxious wait: assessing the impact of patient accessible EHRs for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiljer David

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal health records (PHRs provide patients with access to personal health information (PHI and targeted education. The use of PHRs has the potential to improve a wide range of outcomes, including empowering patients to be more active participants in their care. There are a number of widespread barriers to adoption, including privacy and security considerations. In addition, there are clinical concerns that patients could become anxious or distressed when accessing complex medical information. This study assesses the implementation of a PHR, and its impact on anxiety levels and perceptions of self-efficacy in a sample of breast cancer patients. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was used to collect data from participants to evaluate the use of the PHR. Study participants completed background and pre-assessment questionnaires and were then registered into the portal. By entering an activation key, participants were then able to review their lab results and diagnostic imaging reports. After six weeks, participants completed post-assessment questionnaires and usability heuristics. All data were collected using an online survey tool. Data were cleaned and analyzed using SAS v9.1. Results A total of 311 breast cancer patients completed demographic and pre-assessment questionnaires, 250 registered to use the online intervention, and 125 participants completed all required study elements. Matching the pre- and post-anxiety scores demonstrated a decrease in mean anxiety scores (-2.2, p = 0.03; the chemotherapy sub-group had a statistically insignificant mean increase (1.8, p = .14. There was no mean change in self-efficacy scores. Conclusions Participants generally found the portal easy to use; however, the perceived value of improved participation was not detected in the self-efficacy scores. Having access to personal health information did not increase anxiety levels. While these results suggest that the use

  12. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. Methods The responses of children (7–10 years) and adolescents (13–16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Results Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. Conclusions The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. PMID:26363617

  13. I am resting but rest less well with you. The Moderating Effect of Anxious Attachment Style on Alpha Power during EEG Resting State in a Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem J.M.I. Verbeke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A or together (T. We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants’ cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T versus A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants’ anxious attachment style.

  14. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Willem J M I; Pozharliev, Rumen; Van Strien, Jan W; Belschak, Frank; Bagozzi, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants' cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T vs. A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants' anxious attachment style.

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of the Prevalence of Corporal Punishment of Children and Selected Co-occurring Behaviours in Households on New Providence, The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adderley, Latanya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the link between violence in homes, focusing on corporal punishment of children as a means of discipline, and other behaviours (including sexual abuse, illegal drug use, domestic violence, hitting of pets which may be a cause for concern. This paper reports the results of a survey of 933 people and 12 case studies. Violence, physical or domestic, occurred in 62% of survey participants’ homes. The survey indicated that in respondents’ homes many children were physically hurt as a means of discipline. Children were spanked in 77% of homes with children, pets were hit in 25% of homes with pets, and domestic violence was found in 23% of homes. These findings suggest that those who use violence in their homes may not understand the wider and longer-term consequences of their actions for both victims and society. Case study participants seemed to view only severe physical violence as abuse. They also appeared reluctant to report abuse to the authorities which can hamper the efforts to curb violence in homes.

  16. Reliability of the modified Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with both Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Cerebral Visual Impairment : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; Looijestijn, P. L.; Maathuis, C. G. B.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to adapt the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) and to determine the test-retest and interobserver reliability of the adapted version. Method: Sixteen paediatric physical therapists

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among caretakers of children attending day-care centers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.

  18. Number and Controllability of Reinforcers as Predictors of Individual Outcome for Children with Autism Receiving Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall, Lars; Eikeseth, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Although Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for many children with autism, there is a substantial individual difference in outcome. This study was designed to investigate whether treatment gains were associated with the number and type of stimuli that function as reinforcers for 21 preschool-aged children…

  19. Medium-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic agent in children with migraine: A preliminary placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K.J. Bruijn (Jacques); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. Passchier (Jan); H. Locher (Heiko); N. Dijkstra (Natascha); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Riboflavin seems to have a promising effect on migraine in adults. The present study examines whether riboflavin has a prophylactic effect on migraine in children. Objective: To investigate whether riboflavin in a dosage of 50 mg/day has a prophylactic effect on migraine atta

  20. [Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR in children, less than five years of age with diarrhea, in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho Mora, Angela; Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Arraiz, Nailet; Villalobos, Rafael; Urdaneta, Haydee

    2013-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica as a producer of diarrhea, a study was conducted in children, less than five years of age, with diarrhea who attended several out patient clinics of the Servicio Aut6nomo Hospital Universitario, Maracaibo, Venezuela. A macroscopic and microscopic examination with physiological saline, lugol and Kinyoun staining were performed to the stool samples obtained. The remainder of the sample was frozen until DNA extraction, and PCR amplification was performed separately for E. histolytica and E. dispar. Microscopic examination showed no trophozoites and/or cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, or intestinal coccidians in any of the 50 samples analyzed. Parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (6%), Blastocystis sp. (4%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). By PCR, six samples (12%) had DNA of E. dispar and two (4%) had DNA from E. histolytica; no child showed association of both amoebae. The two children who had E. histolytica were one-year-old. E. dispar was detected in younger children. We suggest that the prevalence of E. histolytica in children under five years is really low.

  1. Imitation (Rather than Core Language) Predicts Pragmatic Development in Young Children with ASD: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study Using CDI Parental Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Rudling, Maja; Råstam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Johnels, Jakob Åsberg

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research in the last decades has clearly pointed to the important role of language and communicative level when trying to understand developmental trajectories in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Aims: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether (1) "core language skills", measured as…

  2. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Performing Eye-Hand Integration Tasks: Four Preliminary Studies with Children Showing Low-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Trubia, Grazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Musso, Sabrina; Alagona, Giovanna; Di Guardo, Giuseppe; Barone, Concetta; Gaglione, Maria P.; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    This report, based on four studies with children with low-functioning autism, aimed at evaluating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered on the left and right premotor cortices on eye-hand integration tasks; defining the long-lasting effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; and…

  3. [Acute alcohol intoxication among children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice during 2000-2010--preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Halla; Agnieszka, Zachurzok-Buczyńska; Gawlik, Aneta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents. Ten-year retrospective study includes investigation of patients medical records from the Department of Pediatrics. Among 8048 patients hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics between the years 2000-2010, 220 (2.7%) cases of acute alcohol poisoning occurred The detailed data analysis from 139 patients [66 (47.5%) girls, 73 (52,5%) boys] was done. In the years 2006-2010 the number of girls admitted to the department increased in comparison to boys. The largest group of patients was at age between 14 and 16 years [61 (44%) children]. The blood alcohol concentration at the moment of admission to the hospital was 0.1 to 4.0 per thousand. In most cases (92.8%) the alcohol intoxication was intentional. Five percent of them were suicide attempts. In the youngest group of children alcohol abuse was unintentional. 23 (16.5%) of patients initially needed admission to the intensive care unit. In 30 (21.6%) patient the family was incomplete and five times more often father was absent. The alcohol addiction occurs in 18 (13.0%) fathers and 10 (7.2%) mothers of our patients. It is concluded that over the last decade the number of girls admitted due to alcohol abuse increased. Children at school grade between 7-9 are intoxicated most often. One six of intoxicated patents needed hospitalization at intensive care unit.

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and high oleic acid safflower oil in the treatment of children with HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis: a randomized, double-blinded and crossover preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Louise

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is the mainstay therapy for HPV-induced laryngeal papillomatosis (LP and adjuvant therapies are palliative at best. Research revealed that conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA may improve the outcome of virally-induced diseases. The effects of Clarinol™ G-80 (CLA and high oleic safflower oil (HOSF on children with LP (concomitant with surgery were evaluated. Design A randomized, double-blinded, crossover and reference-oil controlled trial was conducted at a South African medical university. Study components included clinical, HPV type/load and lymphocyte/cytokine analyses, according to routine laboratory methods. Participants Overall: ten children enrolled; eight completed the trial; five remained randomized; seven received CLA first; all treatments remained double-blinded. Intervention Children (4 to 12 years received 2.5 ml p/d CLA (8 weeks and 2.5 ml p/d HOSF (8 weeks with a washout period (6 weeks in-between. The one-year trial included a post-treatment period (30 weeks and afterwards was a one-year follow-up period. Main outcome measures Changes in numbers of surgical procedures for improved disease outcome, total/anatomical scores (staging system for papillomatosis prevention/viral inhibition, and lymphocyte/cytokine counts for immune responses between baselines and each treatment/end of trial were measured. Findings After each treatment all the children were in remission (no surgical procedures; after the trial two had recurrence (surgical procedures in post-treatment period; after the follow-up period three had recurrence (several surgical procedures and five recovered (four had no surgical procedures. Effects of CLA (and HOSF to a lesser extent were restricted to mildly/moderately aggressive papillomatosis. Children with low total scores (seven/less and reduced infections (three/less laryngeal sub-sites recovered after the trial. No harmful effects were observed. The number of surgical procedures during the trial

  5. What are the active ingredients in cognitive and behavioral psychotherapy for anxious and depressed children? A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Pasek, Leigh F; McFall, Joseph P

    2007-06-01

    Prior meta-analytic reviews have indicated that cognitive and behavioral treatments are efficacious in treating child and adolescent depression and anxiety. Further, a meta-analysis has suggested that behavioral treatments are superior to nonbehavioral treatments for treating anxiety and depression in youth. However, the prior meta-analysis did not examine direct comparisons between cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) and non-CBT treatments, leaving open the possibility that their results were artifactual. The present meta-analysis aggregated results of studies in which CBT treatments were compared with either other bona fide treatments (including other CBT therapies) or non-bona fide therapies. The heterogeneity of the distribution of differences between bona fide treatments as well as a comparison of full (e.g. CBT+Parent training) versus component treatments (e.g., CBT only) were examined. The results indicated that: (a) CBT was more efficacious than non-bona fide therapies; (b) CBT was no more efficacious than bona fide non-CBT treatments (c) the differences between bona fide treatments were homogenously distributed around zero; and (d) full CBT treatments offered no significant benefit over their components. The results strongly suggest that the theoretically purported critical ingredients of CBT are not specifically ameliorative for child and adolescent depression and anxiety.

  6. Social Anxiety Symptoms in Young Children: Investigating the Interplay of Theory of Mind and Expressions of Shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Nikolić, Milica; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-24

    Children's early onset of social anxiety may be associated with their social understanding, and their ability to express emotions adaptively. We examined whether social anxiety in 48-month-old children (N = 110; 54 boys) was related to: a) a lower level of theory of mind (ToM); b) a lower proclivity to express shyness in a positive way (adaptive); and c) a higher tendency to express shyness in a negative way (non-adaptive). In addition, we investigated to what extent children's level of social anxiety was predicted by the interaction between ToM and expressions of shyness. Children's positive and negative expressions of shyness were observed during a performance task. ToM was measured with a validated battery, and social anxiety was assessed using both parents' reports on questionnaires. Socially anxious children had a lower level of ToM, and displayed more negative and less positive shy expressions. However, children with a lower level of ToM who expressed more positive shyness were less socially anxious. Additional results show that children who displayed shyness only in a negative manner were more socially anxious than children who expressed shyness only in a positive way and children who did not display any shyness. Moreover, children who displayed both positive and negative expressions of shyness were more socially anxious than children who displayed shyness only in a positive way. These findings highlight the importance of ToM development and socio-emotional strategies, and their interaction, on the early development of social anxiety.

  7. Cognitive behavioral group intervention for pain and well-being in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a study of feasibility and preliminary efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Johanne Jeppesen; Thastum, Mikael; Christensen, Anne Estmann

    2015-01-01

    % of the invited families participated. However, the participants rated the intervention's credibility and satisfaction with the intervention as high. The dropout rate was low and attendance rate high. Increased quality of life and improvements in adaptive pain cognitions was reported in the intervention condition......BACKGROUND: Pain is still a part of everyday living for several children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) despite improvement in treatment. Psychological interventions may contribute to diminish pain complaints and improve well-being in children with JIA. Only few studies have investigated...... the severity of the disease status increased, an increase in quality of life, reduction in pain catastrophizing, and an improvement in adaptive pain cognitions (the beliefs in controlling pain and self-efficacy) were seen in the intervention condition. The study highlights the importance of considering...

  8. Preliminary Study on Personality Characteristics of Abused Children%受虐儿童个性特征初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世昌; 张亚林; 曹玉萍; 黄国平; 郭果毅

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the personality characteristics of abused children in order to reduce the incidence of child abuse.Methods Two hundred and ninty five middle school students were investigated with general questionnaire and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire of children. Eighty six students experiencing child abuse (CA) last year as study group and one hundred and ninety six non-abuse children as controls (NCA) were analyzed by means of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire of children.Results The score of neuroticism in CA group was significantly higher than that in the control group (55.62±10.60/52.65±10.98,t=-2.114 P=0.035). The score of lie in CA group was significantly lower than that in control group (42.21±9.87/46.04±9.20,t=3.184 P=0.002). On the impact of different sex, the psychoticism score of male was significantly higher than that in the control group(52.37±11.49/48.04±9.97,t=-2.227 P=0.028), and the lie score was significantly lower than that in control group(41.03±9.18/46.18±8.79,t=3.125 P=0.002).The scores of those in the female were not significant.Conclusions There is a close association between the unstable emotion and child abuse in children, so training emotional self-control and emotional expression of children might be a intervention strategy in the future. In addition, the frequency of lie in children is probably one of factors that determine whether children are abused or not.%目的探讨受虐儿童的个性特征,以期减少儿童受虐事件发生.方法采用自编一般资料问卷和儿童受虐筛查表、艾森克个性问卷(儿童版),对随机抽取湘潭某工厂子弟中学二年级学生282名施测.结果 1年内遭受虐待儿童86 名, 未曾遭受虐待196名;受虐组N分值(情绪不稳分)高于非受虐组[(55.62±10.60)/(52.65±10.98)],(t=-2.114 P=0.035),而受虐组L分值("掩饰"倾向)低于非受虐组[(42.21±9.87)/(46.04±9.20)],(t=3.184 P=0.002),均存在差异显著性;两组男童中受虐

  9. Preliminary evidence for cell membrane amelioration in children with cystic fibrosis by 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation: a single arm trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scambi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is one of the most common fatal autosomal recessive disorders in the Caucasian population caused by mutations of gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. New experimental therapeutic strategies for CF propose a diet supplementation to affect the plasma membrane fluidity and to modulate amplified inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation for ameliorating cell plasma membrane features in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single arm trial was conducted from April 2004 to March 2006 in an Italian CF care centre. 31 children with CF aged from 3 to 8 years old were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, chronic infections of the airways and regular antibiotics intake. Children with CF were supplemented for 24 weeks with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 7.5 mg /day and vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/day. Red blood cells (RBCs were used to investigate plasma membrane, since RBCs share lipid, protein composition and organization with other cell types. We evaluated RBCs membrane lipid composition, membrane protein oxidative damage, cation content, cation transport pathways, plasma and RBCs folate levels and plasma homocysteine levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation. In CF children, 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation (i increased plasma and RBC folate levels; (ii decreased plasma homocysteine levels; (iii modified RBC membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition; (iv increased RBC K(+ content; (v reduced RBC membrane oxidative damage and HSP70 membrane association. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: 5-MTHF and vitamin B12 supplementation might ameliorate RBC membrane features of children with CF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730509.

  10. Mediators of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered children and adolescents : cognition, perceived control, and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H; Garst, Harry; Hartman, Catharina A; de Haan, Else

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). P

  11. Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy among 8-Year-Old Children in 2010 and Preliminary Evidence of Trends in Its Relationship to Low Birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Maureen S.; Benedict, Ruth E.; Christensen, Deborah; Dubois, Lindsay A.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Kirby, Russell S.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Wingate, Martha S.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2017-01-01

    Background The public health objective for cerebral palsy (CP) in the United States is to reduce the percentage of children with CP who were born low birthweight (LBW, public health objective. Methods Data on children with CP at age 8 years were ascertained by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, a population-based surveillance system that monitored CP in four areas of the United States. Results CP prevalence in 2010 was 2.9 per 1000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6, 3.2], down from 3.5 (95% CI 3.2, 3.9) in the same surveillance area in 2006. Among CP cases with no documented postneonatal aetiology, 49.1% (95% CI 42.9, 55.2) were born LBW in 2010 compared with 54.3% (95% CI 48.4, 60.1) in 2006. In 2010, 28.1% (95% CI 22.9, 30.4) were born very low birthweight (VLBW, relative risks for associations between CP and both LBW and VLBW also declined, though not significantly, during the study period. Conclusions Declines in the associations between CP and LBW categories may have contributed to declines during the study period in both the prevalence of CP and the percentage of children with CP who were born LBW or VLBW. Ongoing monitoring of these trends is warranted. PMID:27215680

  12. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Selective Alpha-Blockers in the Treatment of Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction--Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Paweł; Gajewska, Ewa; Zachwieja, Jacek; Sobieska, Magdalena; Mańkowski, Przemysław

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of selective α1-blockers in children with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions and increased leak point pressure (LPP). 14 children from age 6 to 16 years with neurogenic urinary tract dysfunctions (neurogenic bladder) and LPP > 40 cm H₂O were enrolled in the study. All patients received a selective α1-blocker (doxazosin) for 6-8 weeks with an initial dosage of 0.03 mg/kg. During the observation period the continuation of oral anticholinergics, Clean Intermittent Catheterization (CIC), observation of "urinary dryness" and urinary incontinence periods were recommended. Patients were scheduled for a follow-up visit and urodynamic investigation after 6-8 weeks after the doxazosin therapy was started. In 4 patients, urine leakage occurred at lower pressures; in 9 patients, no significant changes in urine leak point pressures were detected; in 3 patients, there was a significant increase in the bladder capacity; in one patient, deterioration in continence was noted. The differences both in LPP and LPV before and after the treatment were not statistically significant. Our observations are consistent with the conclusions from other studies and showed no evident efficacy of doxazosin in children with neurogenic bladder.

  13. [A comparison of teenage and adult mothers with mental diseases. Preliminary results of the project "chances for children of parents with mental diseases and/or addiction problems"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, S; Stern, K; Trebes, J; Freyberger, H-J

    2010-11-01

    This study enrolled mentally ill mothers from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, with children between the ages of 0 and 3 years. Using different self and expert ratings, psychological symptoms, social support, parental stress, and behavior of the children were assessed. Teenage mothers and adult mothers were compared using the mean values of the data. The data of 104 mothers were included; 46.1% of the mothers were younger than 20 years of age when they gave birth. All mothers show a variety of psychological problems. While adult mothers had significantly more affective and anxiety disorders, teenage mothers had significantly more eating disorders and sexual abuse in their histories. Young mothers reported subjectively significantly less social support and more parenting stress than older mothers. The children in both subgroups are described as unremarkable. More than 80% of the mothers had at least one contact with youth welfare, a general practitioner, or a pediatrician, while only 23% used psychiatric or psychological help. The data show a high level of stress in both groups and there is a great need for support from the medical sector as well as from youth welfare.

  14. Parental Socialization, Vagal Regulation, and Preschoolers' Anxious Difficulties: Direct Mothers and Moderated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; Sullivan, Caroline; McShane, Kelly E.; Coplan, Robert J.; Utendale, William T.; Vyncke, Johanna D.

    2008-01-01

    Parental supportiveness and protective overcontrol and preschoolers' parasympathetic regulation were examined as predictors of temperamental inhibition, social wariness, and internalizing problems. Lower baseline vagal tone and weaker vagal suppression were expected to mark poorer dispositional self-regulatory capacity, leaving children more…

  15. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...

  16. Sedative Effect Of Oral Diazepam And Chloral Hydrate In The Dental Treatment Of Children

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose was to evaluate two sedation protocols during dental sessions in anxious children. Materials and Methods : It was a randomized and double-blind study, with each individual being his/her own control within each protocol. Furthermore, the two protocols were compared. Twenty children (36 to 84 months old) who exhibited "definitely negative" behavior according to the Frankl scale were assigned to receive oral chloral hydrate (40 mg/kg) (Group I) or Diazepamβ (5 mg) (Gr...

  17. Comparative study of efficacy of artesunate plus cotrimoxazole and artesunate plus chloroquine in the treatment of malaria in Nigerian children: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Fehintola, S.T. Balogun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of cotrimoxazole plusartesunate and to compare the efficacy of this combination with that of artesunate plus chloroquinein the treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children.Methods: Children aged between 0.5 and 12 yr with clinical and parasitological evidence ofPlasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized to receive either artesunate plus cotrimoxazoleor artesunate plus chloroquine. They were followed-up with clinical and parasitological assessmentfor a period of 14 days.Results: In all, 57 out of 81 (31 in the artesunate plus cotrimoxazole group and 26 in artesunateplus chloroquine group completed the study as per protocol and were evaluated. Pre-treatmentclinical and parasitological parameters were similar in the two treatment groups. The time to clearfever and other symptoms were similar in the two groups 1.0 + 0 vs 1.14 + 0.38 (p > 0.05.Parasite clearance times were also similar; 1.65 + 0.49 days vs 1.58 + 0.67 days respectively forartesunate plus cotrimoxazole and artesunate plus chloroquine (p > 0.05. The cure rates on Day14 were 100% for both artesunate plus cotrimoxazole and artesunate plus chloroquine groups.Both drug combinations were well-tolerated in the small population of children.Conclusion: These results indicate that artesunate plus cotrimoxazole has similar efficacy toartesunate plus chloroquine in the treatment of acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria inchildren resident in an endemic area of south-west Nigeria.

  18. Vitamin D status and association to bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish school children: preliminary results from the Opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    PTH (P=0.012) concentrations than boys. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with iPTH without, and with, adjustment for age, gender, pubertal stage, month and ethnicity (Pcontent (BMC) without, nor with, adjustment...... for bone area (BA), age, height, weight, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and physical activity. Likewise, no associations were found between serum 25(OH)D and BA or BMD. Conclusion: A substantial number of Danish children did not reach the recommended level of 25(OH)D (>50 nmol/l) during autumn. Despite...

  19. A Preliminary Approach to Children's Separation Anxiety Caused by Entering Kindergarten%幼儿的入园分离焦虑初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡力英

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic connotation of chil-dren's separation anxiety caused by entering kindergarten, ana-lyzes its negative influences and causes, and proposes the strate-gies of alleviating it.%本文介绍了幼儿的入园分离焦虑的基本概念,分析了其消极影响以及成因,并在此基础上提出了缓解幼儿入园分离性焦虑的策略。

  20. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  1. Manipulating Attention to Nonemotional Distractors Influences State Anxiety: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Low- and High-Anxious College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Moran, Tim P; Leber, Andrew B

    2015-11-01

    Anxious individuals have difficulty inhibiting attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli. The exact nature of this relationship remains unclear, however. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increasing attention to salient, but nonemotional, distracting stimuli would lead to increases in state anxiety by manipulating attentional strategies during a visual search task. We randomly assigned students low and high in trait anxiety to either a 1-session singleton detection training group or a feature search group. Singleton detection training increases distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli whereas feature search training protects attention against distracting stimuli. Findings revealed that singleton detection training not only increased distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli but also increased state anxiety. Moreover, this increase in state anxiety was most pronounced among high trait-anxious individuals. In contrast, feature search training protected attention against distracting stimuli and against increases in state anxiety, particularly in the high trait-anxious individuals. Together, the current findings provide initial support for the notion that distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli can increase state anxiety levels. Furthermore, these results suggest that individuals already vulnerable to experience anxiety are most likely to be affected by distraction by salient, nonemotional stimuli, and that training anxious individuals to focus on specific shape features may be a viable attention modification intervention.

  2. Socially anxious individuals get a second chance after being disliked at first sight: The role of self-disclosure in the development of likeability in sequential social contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, M.J.; Dijk, K.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals (SAs) not only fear social rejection, accumulating studies show that SAs are indeed judged as less likeable after social interaction with others. This study investigates if SAs already make a more negative impression on others in the very first seconds of contact. The st

  3. Estudo do efeito do Cidofovir na papilomatose laríngea recorrente em crianças: relato preliminar Cidofovir effects on recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis in children: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. G. Avelino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar o efeito do uso do Cidofovir (aplicações locais em crianças com papilomatose laríngea recorrente (PLR, respeitando um protocolo adotado desde 2002 na Disciplina de Otorrinolaringologia Pediátrica da UNIFESP. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Preliminar/clínico-prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram incluídas inicialmente 5 crianças portadoras de PLR acompanhadas no nosso ambulatório de laringologia pediátrica. Estas já haviam sido submetidas há no mínimo 3 cirurgias prévias ao uso do Cidofovir, com confirmação anatomopatológica de papilomatose (critérios inclusão e não apresentavam alterações renais ou hepáticas (critérios de exclusão. O protocolo consistia em exérese das lesões e aplicação de até 3ml Cidofovir (7,5mg/ml. O ciclo de tratamento consistia de, no mínimo, 3 aplicações, e a qualquer sinal de recidiva iniciava-se novo ciclo de aplicações. RESULTADOS: Observamos nas 5 crianças estudadas que as recidivas das lesões (antes do Cidofovir ocorreram em intervalos muito curtos (1 a 3 meses necessitando de intervenção cirúrgica. Após inclusão no protocolo ocorreu mudança na evolução da doença nas 5 crianças, pois permanecem por período de no mínimo 1 ano sem necessidade de cirurgia. Nenhuma criança apresentou nenhum tipo de alteração nos exames laboratoriais, e nenhum tipo de efeito colateral local ou sistêmico com a injeção local de Cidofovir. Os resultados deste estudo preliminar nos permitem observar que a aplicação local de cidofovir utilizado em crianças com PLR, respeitando o protocolo adotado, demonstrou um bom controle das recidivas das lesões durante o período estudado.AIM: To demonstrate the effects of local application of Cidofovir in children with recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP, according to our 2002 institutional protocol for RLP management. STUDY DESIGN: Preliminary/clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Our series included 5 RLP pediatric patients

  4. Mental Health on the Go: Effects of a Gamified Attention Bias Modification Mobile Application in Trait Anxious Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy A.; O’Toole, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the use of mobile technology to deliver mental health services has grown in light of the economic and practical barriers to treatment. Yet, research on alternative delivery strategies that are more affordable, accessible, and engaging is in its infancy. Attention bias modification training (ABMT), has potential to reduce treatment barriers as a mobile intervention for stress and anxiety, but the degree to which ABMT can be embedded in a mobile gaming format and its potential for transfer of benefits is unknown. The present study examined effects of a gamified ABMT mobile application in highly trait anxious participants (N = 78). A single session of the active compared to placebo training reduced subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity. Critically, the long (45 minutes) but not short (25 minutes) active training condition reduced the core cognitive process implicated in ABMT (threat bias) as measured by an untrained, gold-standard protocol. PMID:26029490

  5. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD...

  6. Using CBT with Anxious Language Learners: The Potential Role of the Learning Advisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Curry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Anxiety (FLA can be a crippling condition for many students, preventing them from taking an active part in the classroom, and also retarding their L2 use in wider communicative situations. Providing learners with the tools to overcome anxiety on an individual basis is an area which needs further investigation. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT is a widespread counselling practice used to treat anxieties. It shares similarities with some techniques employed in Advising in Language Learning (ALL for helping students with language goals, and it is worthwhile investigating and raising awareness of how it can be used for FLA. The article describes major characteristics of FLA and also CBT, and then describes four functions which CBT and ALL share: goal-setting, guided discovery, Socratic questioning and use of reflection. Preliminary research also demonstrates how some of the practices associated with CBT could be applied by Learning Advisors to help students to overcome FLA.

  7. Acute toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in the anxious mood of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suxia Li; Jing Li; Xue Wang; Weihong Kuang; Zugui Peng; Mingsheng Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) mainly caused by repeated exposure to MDMA or a single big dose of MDMA, which results in degeneration of serotonin terminal of central nervous system, and someone believe that the great release of serotonin transmitter in central nervous system will lead to anxious mood.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of anxiety related behaviors in rats after single administration of different doses of MDMA.DESIGN: A randomized control study.SETTING: Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.MATERIALS: Thirty male adult Wistar rats, weighing (251.3±18.34) g, were used. MDMA were obtained from the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, and dissolved in saline. All the doses of the drug were administered in a volume of 1 mg/kg.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University in July 2003. ①The rats were randomly divided into control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=24), and then those in the latter were randomly assigned into four subgroups of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg groups, with 6 rats in each, which were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively, and those in the control group were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of saline of the same volume. ② The open field test,elevated plus-maze test and social interaction test were performed immediately after administration. For the open field test, the apparatus was situated in a darkened room, illuminated by a single 60 W white light bulb located approximately 60 cm above the center of the open field. Before administration, all the rats were placed into the open field to be familiar with the open field for 5 minutes. They were observed for 45 minutes after administration. The

  8. Quiet eye training aids the long-term learning of throwing and catching in children: Preliminary evidence for a predictive control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C A L; Wood, G; Vine, S J; Vickers, J N; Wilson, M R

    2017-02-01

    Quiet eye training (QET) may be a more effective method for teaching children to catch than traditional training (TT) methods, but it is unclear if the benefits accrued persist in the long term. Thirty children were randomly allocated into a QET or TT group and, while wearing a mobile eye tracker, underwent baseline testing, training and two retention tests over a period of eight weeks, using a validated throw and catch task. During training, movement-related information was provided to both groups, while the QET group received additional instruction to increase the duration of their targeting fixation (QE1) on the wall prior to the throw, and pursuit tracking (QE2) period on the ball prior to catching. In both immediate (R1) and delayed (R2, six weeks later) retention tests, the QET group had a significantly longer QE1 duration and an earlier and longer QE2 duration, compared to the TT group, who revealed no improvements. A performance advantage was also found for the QET compared to the TT group at both R1 and R2, revealing the relatively robust nature of the visuomotor alterations. Regression analyses suggested that only the duration of QE1 predicted variance in catch success post-training, pointing to the importance of a pre-programming visuomotor strategy for successful throw and catch performance.

  9. Preliminary identification of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and juvenile idiopathic arthritis%儿童急性淋巴细胞白血病和幼年特发性关节炎的初步鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琛(综述); 曹兰芳; 薛海燕(审校)

    2014-01-01

    部分急性淋巴细胞白血病患儿以骨骼肌肉表现为首发症状,这些患儿中有一部分会被误诊为幼年特发性关节炎,如何早期区分这些患儿对于及时治疗、改善预后很有意义。该文根据病史及常规的实验室检查和影像学检查,提出在疾病早期如何通过分析有关节症状患儿关节肿痛、血象及影像学特点初步鉴别儿童急性淋巴细胞白血病和幼年特发性关节炎,降低误诊率。%With acute lymphoblastic leukemia in skeletal muscle symptom,part of these patients may be misdiagnosed as juvenile idiopathic arthritis. How to distinguish these children has significance for the timely and proper treatment and good prognosis. This article from the history and routine laboratory examination and ima-ging examination put forward early in the disease through the analysis of joint symptoms from juvenile joint pain,blood and imaging characteristics and preliminary identification of childhood leukemia from juvenile idio-pathic arthritis in order to decrease the rate of misdiagnosis.

  10. Cytometric analysis of perforin expression in NK cells, CD8+, and CD4+ lymphocytes in children with autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, Katarzyna; Osińska, Iwona; Kucharska, Anna; Demkow, Urszula

    2015-07-01

    Perforin plays an essential role in cytotoxicity of natural killers (NK) and CD8+ lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity of T and NK cells is one of the mechanisms of destruction of cells in Hashimoto's disease (HD). The aim of this study was analysis of the expression of perforin in CD8+, CD4+, and NK cells and cytotoxic abilities of these cells in children with HD compared to healthy controls. The expression of perforin and surface antigens, as well as cytotoxicity were analyzed with a flow cytometry. Lower expression of perforin in CD8+ and NK was found in HD compared to controls (p=0.01; p=0.004). A significant correlation between perforin expression in CD8+ lymphocytes and in NK was observed (p=0.05). The spontaneous cytotoxicity of NK was significantly higher in HD compared to controls (p=0.04). Our results suggest that perforin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  11. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  12. Variations in the influence of parental socialization of anxiety among clinic referred children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Lindsay E; Pina, Armando A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relations between parental socialization of child anxious behaviors (i.e., reinforcement, punishment, modeling, transmission of information) and child anxiety and related problems at varying child sensitivity levels. Data corresponding to 70 clinic-referred children (M age = 9.86 years; 50% girls; 49% Hispanic/Latino, 51% Caucasian) showed that for children with low (but not high) anxiety sensitivity, anxiety-related parental socialization behaviors were associated with more child anxiety and depression symptoms. Findings also indicated that parental socialization of anxious behaviors and anxiety sensitivity functioned similarly in the prediction of anxiety and depression across Caucasian and Hispanic/Latino children. There were no significant mean level variations across child sociodemographic characteristics in general, but anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors were twice as high in Hispanic/Latino compared to Caucasian families.

  13. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  14. Delighted when Approved by Others, to Pieces when Rejected: Children's Social Anxiety Magnifies the Linkage between Self- and Other-Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Thomaes, Sander; Boelen, Paul; van der Schoot, Menno; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Telch, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Socially anxious children tend to attach great importance to others' evaluations of them. However, the extent to which they base their momentary feelings of self-worth (i.e., state self-esteem) on social (dis)approval is unclear. It is also unclear whether this exceedingly approval-based self-esteem is a common correlate of social…

  15. De dynamiek van cognitie en emotie in de ontwikkeling van angststoornissen bij kinderen. / The dynamics of cognition and emotion in the development of anxiety disorders in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses distorted cognitions and dysfunctional cognitive processes, such as biased attention and memory, which appear to be associated with anxiety problems in children. Research on the specificity of this association is analyzed. Further, studies on the development of an anxious cognitive style,

  16. The effects of methylphenidate on the classroom behavior of elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J; Tervo, Raymond C; Kim, Ockjean; Hoch, John

    2007-01-01

    High- and low-dose methylphenidate administration was evaluated prospectively for 3 elementary school-age children with cerebral palsy, cognitive impairments, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using single-case, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled designs. An observational time sampling protocol was used to directly measure and quantify classroom behavior. Summary level analysis showed that (1) low-dose (0.3 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with clinically significant (>50%) reductions in stereotyped and disruptive behavior relative to baseline and placebo conditions, (2) high-dose (0.5 mg/kg/dose) administration was associated with exacerbated amounts of stereotyped and disruptive behavior, and (3) no changes were directly observed for task-related behavior at either dose. Results are discussed with respect to previous research with methylphenidate administration and cerebral palsy, and the suggestion is made that further work using larger, randomly selected study samples with complementary measures of behavior and performance appears warranted.

  17. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  18. Measuring social skills of children and adolescents in a Chinese population: Preliminary evidence on the reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Siu, Andrew M H; Brown, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; Gresham & Elliott, 2008) are designed to assist in the screening and classification of students (aged 5-18 years) who are suspected of presenting with social skills deficits and to offer guidelines in the development of interventions to remediate those types of problems. The objective of this study is to examine the preliminary reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the SSIS-RS, referred to as the SSIS-RS-C. In this study, parent-reported social skills and problem behaviors among students with typical development (n=79) were compared with those of age- and gender-matched students with a known developmental disability (n=79) using the SSIS-RS-C. The results indicated that the SSIS-RS-C subscale scores in all the disability groups were significantly different except for those in the Assertion scale for one disability group. Furthermore, the normative sample of typically developing children and adolescents (aged 5-12 and 13-18 years, n=567) from Hong Kong was established to improve the psychometric properties of the SSIS-RS-C. There were moderate to strong relationships between the common subscales across all forms of the SSIS-RS-C. Acceptable to excellent levels of internal consistency across all common subscales was also obtained. The scores for the Hong Kong sample (n=567) derived from the use of the SSIS-RS-C were then compared to the normative sample scores from the American version of the SSIS-RS. It was found that there were statistically significant differences on five out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skill subscales for children aged 5-12 years and on four out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skills subscales for the adolescent group (aged 13-18 years). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the American and Hong Kong samples on all of the SSIS-RS-C Problem Behavior scale scores. It was concluded that the SSIS-RS-C is a promising instrument for clinicians

  19. Dealing with Risk in Child and Family Social Work: From an Anxious to a Reflexive Professional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Vyvey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric of risk has become a prominent issue in the field of child and family social work. As a consequence, an emerging politics of fear has re-oriented this field towards managing, controlling, and securing social work practice against risk, rather than responding meaningfully to the needs and concerns of children and families. In the available body of research, it is argued that this general tendency creates “anxious” professionals. As a response, different scholars refer to the need to “speak back to fear”. In this article, we analyze this claim in the context of a currently ongoing large-scale policy reform, named Integrated Youth Care (IYC, in the field of child welfare and protection in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. The debate on dealing with risk is often limited to an organizational and methodological discussion. We assert that we should reorient this debate and make a plea for a radical approach of applying a welfare perspective in child welfare and protection.

  20. Less precise representation of numerical magnitude in high math-anxious individuals: an ERP study of the size and distance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Peña, M Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-12-01

    Numerical comparison tasks are widely used to study the mental representation of numerical magnitude. In study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 26 high math-anxious (HMA) and 27 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with pairs of single-digit Arabic numbers and were asked to decide which one had the larger numerical magnitude. The size of the numbers and the distance between them were manipulated in order to study the size and the distance effects. The results showed that both distance and size effects were larger for the HMA group. As for ERPs, results showed that the ERP distance effect had larger amplitude for both the size and distance effects in the HMA group than among their LMA counterparts. Since this component has been taken as a marker of the processing of numerical magnitude, this result suggests that HMA individuals have a less precise representation of numerical magnitude.

  1. 单切口改良Nuss手术矫治儿童漏斗胸%Modified Single-incision Nuss Procedure for Pectus Excavatum in Children: Preliminary Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶麒麟; 贾兵; 闫宪刚; 张惠锋

    2016-01-01

    目的 总结单切口改良Nuss手术矫治儿童漏斗胸的手术方法、临床经验及早期效果. 方法 2013年5月~2014年12月,选择性采用单切口改良Nuss手术治疗65例儿童漏斗胸,平均年龄5 .3岁( 4~12岁). 根据Park分型,对称型41例,不对称型24例. 术前胸部CT测量Haller指数3.21~12.54(4.65 ±1.56). 手术采用新型钛合金支架,支架前端为圆钝收窄的穿通段,具有穿通胸骨后及肋间隙的功能. 手术仅做一处右侧胸壁2 cm横行小切口,置入支架及胸腔镜,已塑型的支架凸面朝下由右侧肋弓最高点经胸骨最低点至左侧肋弓最高点穿出,支架翻转后前端置于左侧胸壁皮下,皮下保留2~3 cm. 右侧切口内放入固定片,以螺丝与支架固定. 根据术后Haller指数及随访结果评价手术效果. 结果 全组手术顺利,采用胸腔镜辅助手术63例. 手术时间19~45 min,平均26 min. 全组均植入1根矫形支架. 术后并发气胸1例、胸腔积液1例、切口感染1例. 术后3个月胸部CT测量Haller指数2.21~3.12(2.48 ±0.36),术后6个月2.18~3.24(2.45 ±0.32),与术前相比均有显著差异(t=6.286、6.487,P=0.000、0.000). 所有患儿随访9~28个月,矫形效果满意,无支架移位、获得性脊柱侧弯、金属过敏等并发症,未出现支架前端横向移位脱入胸腔. 结论 在低龄以及稍大龄轻症漏斗胸患儿中使用新型单孔钛合金支架施行单切口改良Nuss手术,安全可行,矫形效果满意,而且切口更美观,操作更简化,手术更微创.%Objective To summarize the clinical experience and evaluate the early outcomes of modified single-incision Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum in children. Methods A total of 65 children with pectus excavatum who were chosen to undergo modified single-incision Nuss procedure from May 2013 to December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients' age ranged from 4 to 12 years old (mean, 5.3 years old).According to the Park classification, there were

  2. A method for biomarker measurements in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from anxious and depressed mice: β-arrestin 1 protein levels in depression and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira eMENDEZ-DAVID

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A limited number of biomarkers in the central and peripheral systems which are known may be useful for diagnosing major depressive disorders and predicting the effectiveness of antidepressant treatments. Since 60% of depressed patients do not respond adequately to medication or are resistant to antidepressants, it is imperative to delineate more accurate biomarkers. Recent clinical studies suggest that β-arrestin 1 levels in human mononuclear leukocytes may be an efficient biomarker. If potential biomarkers such as β-arrestin 1 could be assessed from a source such as peripheral blood cells, then they could be easily monitored and used to predict therapeutic responses. However, no previous studies have measured β-arrestin 1 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in anxious-depressive rodents.This study aimed to develop a method to detect β-arrestin protein levels through immunoblot analyses of mouse PBMCs isolated from whole blood. In order to validate the approach, β-arrestin levels were then compared in naïve, anxious/depressed mice, and anxious/depressed mice treated treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; fluoxetine, 18 mg/kg/day in the drinking water. The results demonstrated that mouse whole blood collected by submandibular bleeding permitted isolation of enough PBMCs to assess circulating proteins such as β-arrestin 1. β-arrestin 1 levels were successfully measured in healthy human subject and naïve mouse PBMCs. Interestingly, PBMCs from anxious/depressed mice showed significantly reduced β-arrestin 1 levels. These decreased β-arrestin 1 expression levels were restored to normal levels with chronic fluoxetine treatment. The results suggest that isolation of PBMCs from mice by submandibular bleeding is a useful technique to screen putative biomarkers of the pathophysiology of mood disorders and the response to antidepressants. In addition, these results confirm that β-arrestin 1 is a potential

  3. Leaves on a stream: The effectiveness of a mindfulness-based exercise on the frequency, and difficulty in "letting go" of, anxious self-statements

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnett, Daniel; Carr, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effect of a brief mindfulness- based intervention on the frequency, and difficulty in "letting go" of anxious self- statements. Each day for a week participants in the treatment group (n = 28) listened to the Leaves on a Stream mindfulness exercise (LeJeune, 2012), while those in the control group (n = 29) listened to a passage of prose of equal duration. The mean scores of both groups improved from pre- to post-intervention. ...

  4. 'I often get that anxious feeling': language shift in English schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusef De Klerk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the experiences and attitudes of Alrikaans-speaking parents who have recently chosen to send their children to English-medium schools in Grahamstown (Eastern Cape, South Africa. The research was carried out during 1998, and the project was a multi-faceted quantitative and qualitative longitudinal stuc(v involving responses to a postal questionnaire sent to all non-English parents at English-medium schools in the town, and/allow-up interviews with 26 parents. The aim of the project as a whole was to observe whether there is any evidence of a process of language shift taking place from Afrikaans to English, both on an individual level and on a hroader societal basis, to assess (from the parents' perspective the linguistic and psycho- social effects on individuals who move to English-medium schools, and to monitor changing perceptions, language loyalty and attitudes over this period In hierdie artikel word verslag gelewer oar navorsing wat in 1998 gedoen is oor die ondervindings en houdings van Afrikaanssprekende ouers wat hulle kinders redelik onlang na Engelsmediumskole in Grahamstad (Oos-Kaap, Suid-Afrika oorgeplaas het. Die projek was 'n veelfasettige kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe longitudinale studie. As deel van die projek is vraelyste per pos aan al die nie-Engelsprekende ouers van kinders in Engelsmediumskole in die stad gestuur en is dit opgevolg deur onderhoude met 26 ouers te voer. Die doel van die projek was om vas te stel cldaar hewyse is dat 'n taalverskuiwing van Afrikaans na Engels plaasgevind het op die vlak van so weI die individu as die hreer samelewing am te hepaal (vanuit die ouers se per.lpektie/J wat die linguistiese en psigo-sosiale uitwerking is op die indidue wat na Englesmediumskole verskuifword en IJIIl veranderende persepsies, taallojaliteit en houdings gedurende the betrokke tydperk te monitor.

  5. Applying social learning theory to children with dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Catherine

    2004-02-15

    Through a review of the literature dental anxiety has been found to be prevalent and problematic within the child population. Dentists are forced to treat the dentally anxious child in such ways that do little to reduce the anxiety of the child and in some cases cause dental anxiety to increase. This article seeks to apply Albert Bandura's social learning theory to reduce dental anxiety in children, in a preventative nature. A description of the social learning theory is offered as well as evidence indicating the effectiveness of applying the social learning theory to dental anxiety in children. Finally, suggestions for applications within the dental office are discussed.

  6. Study of anxious and depressive emotion of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with oppositional defiant disorder%伴对立违抗性障碍的注意缺陷多动障碍儿童焦虑抑郁情绪分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄广文; 苏林雁; 马敏; 何满芬; 谢高梅

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the emotional problem of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). [Methods] 55(59. 14%) ADHD children with ODD,38(40. 86%) ADHD children without ODD, 93 children were evaluated with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and Depression Self-rating Scale for Children (DSRSC),and 93 parents completed family information. Anxious and depressive emotion problems were compared with two groups. [Result] The ADHD with ODD group showed significantly higher somatization/panic, general anxiety, separated anxiety, socialization phobia, school phobia and anxiety total score,depression total score U=2. 105~5. 145,P<0. 001~0. 05). [Conclusions] Children of ADHD with ODD have much more anxious and depressive emotion problems than simply ADHD. More attention should be paid to intervene the e-motional problem of children with ADHD and ODD.%[目的]了解伴与不伴对立违抗性障碍(oppositional defiant disorder,ODD)的注意缺陷/多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)情绪问题. [方法]对门诊就诊儿童以DSM-IV中ADHD和ODD诊断标准进行诊断,得到ADHD伴ODD者55例(占总数中59.14%),ADHD不伴ODD者38例(占总数中40.86%).采用自行编制的家庭情况调查表,调查每一患儿情况.采用儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查表、儿童抑郁障碍自评量表评估儿童焦虑抑郁情绪.对两组儿童的焦虑抑郁情绪问题进行比较分析. [结果]ADHD+ ODD组在躯体/惊恐、广泛焦虑、分离焦虑、社交恐怖、学校恐怖及焦虑总分、抑郁总分得分均显著高于ADHD组(t=2.105~5.145,P<0.001~0.05). [结论]伴ODD的ADHD儿童比单纯ADHD儿童存在更为明显的焦虑抑郁性情绪问题.应注重ADHD、ODD儿童情绪问题干预.

  7. Effects of state and trait anxiety on selective attention to threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Marín, Jeniffer; Jiménez Solanilla, Karim; Acosta Barreto, Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110) using the dot-probe task. This study d...

  8. Children's cognitive performance and selective attention following recent community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C Cybele; Sharkey, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Research has shown robust relationships between community violence and psychopathology, yet relatively little is known about the ways in which community violence may affect cognitive performance and attention. The present study estimates the effects of police-reported community violence on 359 urban children's performance on a computerized neuropsychological task using a quasi-experimental fixed-effects design. Living in close proximity to a recent violent crime predicted faster but marginally less accurate task performance for the full sample, evolutionarily adaptive patterns of "vigilant" attention (i.e., less attention toward positive stimuli, more attention toward negative stimuli) for children reporting low trait anxiety, and potentially maladaptive patterns of "avoidant" attention for highly anxious children. These results suggest that community violence can directly affect children's cognitive performance while also having different (and potentially orthogonal) impacts on attention deployment depending on children's levels of biobehavioral risk. Implications for mental health and sociological research are discussed.

  9. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  10. Child versus Family Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Clinically Anxious Youth: An Efficacy and Partial Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Denise H. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Nauta, Maaike H.; De Hann, Else; Ringrose, Jaap; Appelboom, Carla; Brinkman, Andries G.; Appelboom-Geerts, Karen C. M. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Child-focused and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for 128 children with clinical anxiety disorders and their parents were compared in terms of efficacy and partial effectiveness. Results indicate that 53% of the children under the child CBT became free of anxiety disorders at posttreamtent compared to only 28% under family CBT.…

  11. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...

  12. Delay discounting without decision-making: Medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala activations reflect immediacy processing and correlate with impulsivity and anxious-depressive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eLudwig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans value rewards less when these are delivered in the future as opposed to immediately, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. While delay discounting has been studied during the anticipation of rewards and in the context of intertemporal decision-making, little is known about its neural correlates in the outcome phase (during reward delivery and their relation to personality. Personality traits that have been associated with increased delay discounting include impulsivity and, potentially, anxious-depressive traits. Here we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 72 healthy participants while they carried out a monetary incentive delay task with a delay manipulation. In sixty percent of the experimental trials, participants won rewards that differed in magnitude (0.05€, 0.50€ or 1€ and delay until delivery (immediately, 10 days, or 100 days. A factor analysis on questionnaires yielded two factors reflecting Impulsivity and Anxiety/Depression, which we used to examine potential relationships between personality and delay discounting. When winning a reward, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC activation was higher for immediate compared to delayed rewards. Moreover, amygdala activation correlated with reward magnitude for immediate but not for delayed rewards. Amygdala activation to winning immediate rewards was higher in more impulsive participants, while mPFC activation to winning immediate rewards was higher in more anxious-depressed participants. Our results uncover neural correlates of delay discounting during reward delivery, and suggest that impulsivity and subclinical anxious-depressive traits are related to stronger neural responses for winning immediate relative to delayed rewards.

  13. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Veale, MD, FRCPsych

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures. Veale D, Miles S, Read J, Troglia A, Wylie K, and Muir G. Sexual functioning and behavior of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared with men anxious about penis size and with controls: A cohort study. Sex Med 2015;3:147–155.

  14. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D; Miles, S; Read, J.; Troglia, A.; Wylie, K.R.; Muir, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. Aim: To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. Methods: An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recru...

  15. Counseling the Math Anxious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)

  16. Feeling Anxious or Worried

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on for too long, you may need treatment. Treatment for anxiety disorders may include medicines or therapy . Treatment can work very well, and you can feel better. Anxiety disorders that aren't treated can get worse, though. You ... out about treatment by talking with your parents or another trusted ...

  17. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety.

  18. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  19. Experimental Use of Signed Presentations of the Verbal Scale of the WISC-R with Profoundly Deaf Children: A Preliminary Report of the Sign Selection Process and Experimental Test Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margery Silberman

    The paper provides a theoretical framework for the inclusion of a verbal intelligence test as part of the psychodiagnostic assessment battery used with deaf children. Descriptions are provided for three selected sign language varieties being used in a study designed to examine performance of 30 deaf children (9-16 years old) on signed…

  20. Children's responses to mother-infant and father-infant interaction with a baby sibling: jealousy or joy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; Yu, Tianyi; Gonzalez, Richard; Kennedy, Denise E; Rosenberg, Lauren; Oh, Wonjung

    2014-10-01

    Firstborn children's reactions to mother-infant and father-infant interaction after a sibling's birth were examined in an investigation of 224 families. Triadic observations of parent-infant-sibling interaction were conducted at 1 month after the birth. Parents reported on children's problem behaviors at 1 and 4 months after the birth and completed the Attachment Q-sort before the birth. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 4 latent classes (behavioral profiles) for mother-infant and father-infant interactions: regulated-exploration, disruptive-dysregulated, approach-avoidant, and anxious-clingy. A fifth class, attention-seeking, was found with fathers. The regulated-exploration class was the normative pattern (60%), with few children in the disruptive class (2.7%). Approach-avoidant children had more behavior problems at 4 months than any other class, with the exception of the disruptive children, who were higher on aggression and attention problems. Before the birth, anxious-clingy children had less secure attachments to their fathers than approach avoidant children but more secure attachments to their mothers. Results underscore individual differences in firstborns' behavioral responses to parent-infant interaction and the importance of a person-centered approach for understanding children's jealousy.

  1. Anxiousness, Frustration, and Effortful Control as Moderators of the Relation between Parenting and Adjustment in Middle-Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions among multiple dimensions of child temperament and parenting were tested as predictors of change in child adjustment problems using a community sample (N = 188) of children (8-12 years). Significant interactions suggested that the effect of parenting on changes in problems were dependent upon temperament and, in some cases, child sex.…

  2. Cognitive bias modification for attention and interpretation reduces trait and state anxiety in anxious patients referred to an out-patient service: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosan, Lee; Hoppitt, Laura; Shelfer, Lorna; Sillence, Alison; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2011-09-01

    It is well established that anxious individuals show biases in information processing, such that they attend preferentially to threatening stimuli and interpret emotional ambiguity in a threatening way. It has also been established that these biases in attention and interpretation can causally influence anxiety. Recent advances in experimental work have involved the development of a paradigm known as Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a constellation of procedures which directly modify bias using computerised tasks. Excitingly, these procedures have been shown to reduce bias in attention to threat (CBM-A), and to promote a positive interpretive bias (CBM-I) in anxious populations; furthermore, these modifications are associated with reductions in anxiety. We believe that these techniques have the potential to create a real clinical impact for people with anxiety. Initial studies involved volunteer participants who reached criteria for clinical diagnoses to be made, but emerging evidence suggests that patients referred for therapy also benefit. For the purposes of experimentation researchers have normally looked at one procedure at a time. In order to try to maximise the potential clinical impact we wished to investigate whether the combination of the procedures would be more effective than either alone. We also wished to investigate whether the procedures could be carried out in routine clinical settings with patients referred to an out-patient psychological treatment service. We therefore carried out a pilot study using a combined approach of CBM-A and CBM-I with a sample of 13 anxious patients referred to an out-patient psychology service for cognitive therapy. The results showed successful reductions in threat related attentional and interpretive bias, as well as reductions in trait and state anxiety. Participant reports describe the procedures as acceptable, with the attentional task experienced as boring, but the interpretive one experienced as helpful. While

  3. A longitudinal analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and their relationship with Fear and Anxious-Misery disorders: implications for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Parslow, Ruth; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Silove, Derrick; Shalev, Arieh

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the hypothesis that PTSD-unique symptom clusters of re-experiencing, active avoidance and hyperarousal were more related to the fear/phobic disorders, while shared PTSD symptoms of dysphoria were more closely related to Anxious-Misery disorders (MDD/GAD). Confirmatory factor and correlation analyses examining PTSD, anxiety and mood disorder data from 714 injury survivors interviewed 3, 12 and 24-months following their injury supported this hypothesis with these relationships remaining robust from 3-24 months posttrauma. Of the nine unique fear-oriented PTSD symptoms, only one is currently required for a DSM-IV diagnosis. Increasing emphasis on PTSD fear symptoms in DSM-V, such as proposed DSM-V changes to mandate active avoidance, is critical to improve specificity, ensure inclusion of dimensionally distinct features and facilitate tailoring of treatment.

  4. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...

  5. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-10-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  6. Specific Learning Disorders: A Look Inside Children's and Parents' Psychological Well-Being and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  7. Validación Preliminar de la Escala Infantil de Síntomas del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (Child PTSD Symptom Scale, CPSS en Niños/as y Adolescentes Víctimas de Violencia Sexual Preliminary Validation of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Children and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bustos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la validación preliminar en Chile de la Escala Infantil de Síntomas del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático, desarrollada por Foa, Johnson, Feeny y Treadwell (2001 para evaluar el trastorno en niños/as y adolescentes expuestos a situaciones traumáticas, con arreglo a criterios DSM-IV. La muestra fue de 75 niños y adolescentes chilenos de la región del Bío Bío que sufrieron abuso sexual o violación. Los resultados indican una alta consistencia interna, medida con alfa de Cronbach, de 0,916. Asimismo, la consistencia interna de cada subescala es alta. La validez convergente con el criterio de juicio experto es adecuada, con puntuaciones significativas en la escala y todas las subescalas.The preliminary validation in Chile of the Infantile Scale of Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPSS is presented. This instrument was developed by Johnson, Feeny, and Treadwell (2001 to evaluate PTSD in children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria. The sample consisted of 75 Chilean children and adolescents of the Bio Bio region of Chile who suffered sexual abuse or rape. The results indicate high internal consistency, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 0.916. The convergent validity with the criterion of expert judgment is also adequate, with significant punctuations in the scale and all the subscales.

  8. The extended Kasai portoenterostomy for biliary atresia: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In 1955, Professor Morio Kasai first performed a hepatic portoenterostomy. Since then, the procedure has changed the lives of children with biliary atresia (BA. We report our initial experience in performing "extended" Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE, a modification of the original procedure. Materials and Methods: Since 2013, we have used the technique of "extended KPE" and prospectively recorded data on all children undergoing this operation. Data on demographics, clinical features, liver function tests, and perioperative cholangiogram findings were collected. Outcome of KPE was measured by Jaundice Disappearance Rate (JDR and Native Liver Survival Rate (NLSR. We present our preliminary results from a 30-month period (February 2013 to May 2015. Results: Thirty-one children underwent KPE during this period (19 males and only 1 child had biliary atresia splenic malformation (BASM. The mean age at KPE was 73 ΁ 24 days. Five (16.1% children were more than 90 days old at the time of KPE. Fourteen children cleared jaundice (JDR 45.2%. Eleven (35.5% children developed episodes of cholangitis, of whom 8 had early cholangitis (within 3 months of the operation. The proportion of children who survived with their own liver 6 months after KPE (NLSR was 84.2%. Of those children older than 90 days, 2 cleared jaundice and have survived with their native livers for more than 16 months. Conclusion: In our preliminary report of 31 children, we conclude that the extended KPE leads to increased jaundice clearance and improved NLSR in children with BA.

  9. Estudo longitudinal das crianças nascidas em 1982 em Pelotas, RS, Brasil: metodologia e resultados preliminares Study in length of children born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1982: metodology and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gomes Victora

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Tentou-se acompanhar a morbi-mortalidade e o crescimento de uma coorte de 6.011 crianças urbanas nascidas em 1982 nos hospitais de Pelotas, RS, através de visitas domiciliares aos 12 meses (para uma amostra de 30% das crianças e aos 20 meses (para toda a população. Estas crianças representaram mais de 99% de todos os nascimentos urbanos naquele ano. Foi possível localizar 81% das crianças aos 12 meses e 86% aos 20 meses, devido a uma mudança na estratégia de trabalho de campo. A metodologia empregada e as principais dificuldades encontradas são descritas e as características ao nascer das crianças localizadas no acompanhamento são comparadas com as características das crianças não localizadas. A potencialidade de uso dos dados coletados é exemplificada através de alguns resultados preliminares mostrando as associações entre o peso ao nascer, a renda familiar e o estado nutricional aos 12 meses. O estudo mostra que é possível acompanhar, com uma perda relativamente pequena, uma coorte de crianças com base populacional em uma cidade brasileira de tamanho médio.A cohort of 6,011 urban children born in 1982 in the hospitals of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, was followed up so that their morbidity, mortality and growth could be assessed. These children accounted for over 99% of all births in the city. A 30% sample of the children were visited at home when approximately 12 months old, and the whole population was visited at about 20 months of age. It was possible to locate 81% of the children at 12 months. This proportion increased to 86% at 24 months, due to a change in the logistics of the field work which then included visiting all 69,000 households in the city to locate children whose families had moved within the urban area. The methodology and main difficulties encountered are discussed, and the characteristics at birth of children who were located at the first follow-up visit was compared to those of children lost to

  10. PReS-FINAL-2148: Rheumates@work a cognitive behavioural internet based intervention promoting physical activity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Preliminary results of a randomized clinical trail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J; Armbrust, W.; Geertzen, J.; Sauer, P.; Dijkstra, P.; Van Brussel, M.; Cappon, J.; Lelieveld, O.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a chronic disease in which periods of active inflammation alternate with periods of inactive disease in an unpredictable way. Although impairments are most pronounced in children with disease activity, deficits like fatigue, decreased physical act

  11. Computer Programming by Kindergarten Children Using LOGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro-Mavrias, Sandra

    Conservation ability, spatial motor ability, age, and gender were used as predictive variables in a study of 26 kindergarten children's computer programming ability. A preliminary pilot study with first graders had suggested that programming success was related to the ability to reverse thought processes. In both studies, children were taught to…

  12. Learning Physics by Listening To Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Danielle B.; Otero, Valerie K.

    2005-09-01

    This paper examines the role that physics subject matter knowledge plays in one aspect of elementary teaching: listening to children's science ideas. Preliminary results of this study show that prospective teachers use their conceptual understanding of physics to analyze the "physics talk" of elementary students. This is demonstrated by their restatements of the children's ideas about physics phenomena.

  13. 略论汉语拼音与海外儿童汉语教学%A preliminary study of the role of the Chinese Pinyi in the teaching of Chinese to overseas children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彩华; 刘璟之

    2016-01-01

    Though the Chinese Pinyin plays a key role in the teaching of Chinese to overseas chil‐dren ,its theoretical research is inadequate .This paper discusses the following problems :1 .the cogni‐tive function of the Chinese Pinyin in the teaching of Chinese to overseas children ,and the distinction between the“teaching” and the“learning” of the Chinese Pinyin;2 .the major bilingual learning theo‐ries concerning the overseas children's learning of Chinese as well as the teaching of the Chinese Pinyin in the perspective of biliteracy ;3 .the current situation of the teaching of Chinese characters to overseas children and the integrated teaching of the Chinese Pinyin and Chinese characters .It also discusses the final goal of the teaching of Chinese to overseas children ,w hich includes the training of their spoken Chinese and Chinese‐character w riting ,because the younger the children ,the better they can learn spo‐ken Chinese ,while the older the children ,they can receive more training .Thus ,the training of the communicative ability of the children's spoken Chinese relies on their long training of the Chinese Pi‐nyin .%汉语拼音在海外儿童汉语教学中的作用举足轻重,然而其相关理论研究却十分缺乏。本文探讨了与此相关的几个问题:(1)汉语拼音在海外儿童汉语教学中的认知功能,提出对汉语拼音“教学”和“学习”加以区分;(2)儿童双文学习优势理论以及双文学习视阈下的汉语拼音教学;(3)海外儿童汉字教学现状及汉语拼音与汉字的衔接问题。最后讨论海外儿童汉语教学的总目标,提出总目标应同时包含口语交际和汉字能力培养两方面。儿童年龄越小前者内容越多;随着儿童年龄增大后者的强度可逐渐增大;儿童汉语口语交际能力的培养应以长期扎实的汉语拼音学习为基础。

  14. On Preliminary Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  15. Bullying Experiences among Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated bullying experiences among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, preliminary research suggests that children with ASD are at greater risk for being bullied than typically developing peers. The aim of the current study was to build an understanding of bullying experiences among children with…

  16. The preliminary relationship between breastfeeding duration and undernutrition in the children under 24 months%24月龄以下儿童母乳喂养时间与营养不良相关性的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雯; 万青青; 余思洋; 胡太芬; 赵江; 万蓉

    2012-01-01

    目的 初步探讨2岁以下儿童母乳喂养时间与营养不良之间的关系,为进一步研究二者之间的关联程度提出病因假设.方法 采用WHO制定的儿童生长参考标准对营养不良进行评价,单因素分析采用单因素Logistic回归分析,多因素分析采用多因素Logistic回归,对调查时已经断奶的婴幼儿的母乳喂养时间与HAZ评分和WAZ评分进行相关分析,采用Pearson积差相关系数.结果 控制住混杂因素影响后,母乳喂养时间在6~12月的发生生长迟缓的风险为6月以下的0.142倍(P=0.026),超过12月的为6月以下的0.184倍(P=0.035).母乳喂养时间在6~12月的发生低体重的风险为6月以下的0.126倍(P=0.035).母乳喂养时间与HAZ评分的相关系数r=-0.189,P=0.007;母乳喂养时间与WAZ评分的相关系数r=-0.192,P=0.006.结论 母乳喂养时间可能与儿童营养状况有关,需要进行前瞻性研究,进一步证实二者之间的关联程度.%OBJECTIVE To explore the preliminary relationship between breastfeeding and undernutrition in the children under 24 months so as to provide scientific bases for making relevant measures. METHODS WHO standards was adopt to measure undernourished. Univariate Logistic regression and multivariate Logistic regression test were used to analysis. For the weaned children at the time of investigating, the relationship between the breastfeeding duration and HAZ and WAZ scores was evaluated by Coefficient of product-moment correlation. RESULTS As controlling confounding, the risk for children breastfeeded 6-12 months happened stunting was 0.142 times more than the children breastfeeded less than 6 months (P = 0.026). More than 12 months was 0.126 times more than the children breastfeeded less than 6 months (P = 0.035). The risk for children breastfeeded 6-12 months happened underweight was 0.126 times more than the children breastfeeded less than 6 months (P = 0.035). HAZ score and breastfeeding duration were

  17. 神经系统疾病儿童的血铅水平调查:单中心初步研究%Blood lead levels in children with neurological disorders: a single centre preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN; Mohamadreza MODARESI; Ali ZAREI; Parinaz POURSAFA; Roya KELISHADI

    2009-01-01

    目的 儿童铅中毒具有很大的潜在危害.慢性低水平铅暴露会导致学习障碍及行为问题,如腹痛,失眠,多动,生长发育落后,听力损失,上肢无力.该研究旨在调查神经系统疾病儿童的血铅水平,并与健康儿童作比较.方法 100名患有神经系统疾病的1~10岁儿童作为研究对象.100名年龄和性别匹配的健康儿童作为对照.采用火焰原子吸收光谱法检测血铅含量.结果 神经系统疾病组儿童的平均血铅含量显著高于对照组,差异有显著性(113.2±47.5μ/L VS 84.7±38.0μg/L;P<0.01).神经系统疾病组和对照组分别有44%和19%的儿童血铅超标(100μg/L).结论 儿童血铅水平增高可能与神经系统疾病有关.建议对患神经系统疾病的儿童常规作血铅测定.%Objective Lead poisoning is a potentially devastating problem among young children. Chronic low level lead exposure can lead to learning disabilities and behavior changes such as colic, insomnia, hyperactivity, impaired growth, hearing loss and upper extremity weakness. The purose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the blood lead level in children with neurological disorders in comparison with healthy controls. Methods Blood lead concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in 100 children aged 1-10 years and suffering from various neurological disorders. One hundred age-and sex-matched healthy children served as controls. Results The mean blood lead concentration was higher in children with neurological disorders than in controls ( 113.2±47.5 μg/L vs 84.7± 38.0 μg/L; P<0.01). Overall, 44% of children with neurological disorders and 19% of controls were found to have increased blood lead levels, i.e. 100 μg/L. Conclusions An increase in blood lead level in children might be related to neurological disorders. The measurement of blood lead level might be included in diagnostic eveluation of children with neurological disorders.

  18. A Preliminary Exploration on the Application of Montes-sori Mathematics Teaching in the Teaching of Children in Bottom Classes%蒙氏数学教学在小班幼儿教学中的运用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余碧凤

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical thinking lays emphasis on logic concepts and its is highly abstract, which is a great challenge to bottom class children who are still at the stage of action based on intu-itive thinking. Considering the shortcomings of traditional mathe-matics teaching for bottom classes as well as the important signif-icance of Montessori mathematics teaching, the writer specifically applied Montessori teaching in the teaching of children in bottom classes and have achieved favorable effect, children's learning enthusiasm and interest has been stimulated and their ability to actively obtain mathematics knowledge has been cultivated.%数学思维强调逻辑概念,抽象性比较强,这对尚处于直觉行动思维水平的小班幼儿来说具有很大的挑战性。考虑到小班传统数学教学的不足,以及蒙氏数学教学的重要意义,笔者在幼儿小班教学中具体应用了蒙氏数学,取得了很好的效果,激发了幼儿的学习热情和兴趣,也培养了其主动获取数学知识的能力。

  19. Teaching English to Migrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, E. Hector

    The purpose of this manual is to assist the teacher in improving his teaching of English-as-a-second-language. It is particulary recommended for teachers of children whose mother tongue is Spanish. A preliminary test for teachers on English phonemes and identification of articulatory organs is included. The English sound system is described,…

  20. The prevalence of nursing caries in 18 to 60 months old children in Qazvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gh H; Norozi, A; Valael, N

    2003-03-01

    The study was carried out to establish the prevalence of Nursing Caries and its relation and caustive factors in children aged 18 to 60 months coming to Health Care Center weighing more than 2.5 kg. A total of 544 children (314 boys and 230 girls) were included in this study. The prevalence of Nursing Caries in girls was 23.5%, in boys 16.5% and in both sexes 19.5%. In affected children dmft was 3.8 times more than the unaffected children and DMFT of their mothers was higher too. Bottle feeding specially during sleep showed statistically significant increase in nursing caries and so did the duration of feeding with mother's milk. The results agree with those obtained in similar populations and showed that the prevalence of nursing caries is anxiously high.

  1. [Separation anxiety disorder in a sample of children of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés Amorós, Mireia; Espada Sánchez, José Pedro; Méndez Carrillo, Xavier

    2008-08-01

    Anxiety in children through separation from parents is one of the most frequent psychological problems in the infantile population. Children of divorce are more vulnerable to suffer this disorder due to the abrupt separation from one of the parents after the break-up, which they may experience as a traumatic event that predisposes them to react anxiously in daily separations. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence of symptoms of separation anxiety and general anxiety in a Spanish sample of 95 students of ages between 8 and 12 years. They were compared to a group of children of similar ages and sex whose parents are not divorced. The results show that children of divorce present higher levels of separation anxiety than the children whose parents remain together. Moreover, they show significant levels of generalized anxiety, but similar to that of the other group of children (undivorced parents). The clinical implications of these findings are discussed, emphasizing the importance of cooperation and frequent contact of the children with both parents to promote their security and autonomy.

  2. Association between actual weight status, perceived weight and depressive, anxious symptoms in Chinese adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Huiping

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud The purpose of this study was to describe actual measured weight and perceived weight and to explore associations with depressive, anxiety symptoms in school adolescents in China. Methods A sample of 1144 Chinese adolescents was randomly selected from four schools in Wuhan, China, including 665 boys and 479 girls with ages ranging between 10 and 17 years. Actual measured weight and height and perceived weight status were compared to anxiety and depressive symptoms measured using the revised Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Children's Depression Inventory. A general linear model was used to compare differences in psychological symptoms among the teenagers with different measured and perceived weights. Results When compared with standardized weight tables (WHO age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI cutoffs (2007 reference, girls were more likely to misperceive themselves as overweight, whereas more boys misclassified their weight status as underweight. The adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight were more likely to experience depressive and anxiety symptoms (except girls than those who perceived themselves as normal and/or underweight. However, no significant association was found between depressive and anxiety symptoms actual measured weight status. Conclusions Perceived weight status, but not the actual weight status, was associated with psychological symptoms.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  5. Relationship among college freshmen's anxious status in testing and studying behaviors and studying result%大专新生考试焦虑水平与学习行为、效果的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军; 胡昌标; 胡昌军; 杨渊; 刘立亚

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解大学生考试焦虑状态与学习行为和学习效果的关系.方法 焦虑程度 评价采用TAS焦虑状态自测量表,通过问卷调查大学生的学习行为并统计学习成绩,结果 用SPSS 统计软件分析.结果 不同专业TAS评分和焦虑程度构成差异均有统计学意义.性别、家庭经济状况、居住环境对TAS评分和焦虑构成的影响没有统计学意义.焦虑程度越高,学习成绩越低,而 补考率却越高.考试焦虑程度还与某些学习行为有关.结论 大学新生考试焦虑现象有较明显的 专业差异,与某些学习行为有关,并影响学习效果.%Objective To understand the relationship among junior college students' anxious status in testing and studying behaviors and studying result. Methods TAS anxiety scale was used for the evaluation of anxious status, and data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Statistical significance was observed among different specialties. Sex, socioeconomic status and living environment did not affect TAS score. The higher the anxious status was, the worse the studying results will be. The anxious status was associated with some studying behaviors. Conclusions Anxiety was correlated with specialities and studying behaviors, and affected studying result.

  6. Not all anxious individuals get lost: Trait anxiety and mental rotation ability interact to explain performance in map-based route learning in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, John C; Francelet, Rebecca; Coltekin, Arzu; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I; Sandi, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Navigation through an environment is a fundamental human activity. Although group differences in navigational ability are documented (e.g., gender), little is known about traits that predict these abilities. Apart from a well-established link between mental rotational abilities and navigational learning abilities, recent studies point to an influence of trait anxiety on the formation of internal cognitive spatial representations. However, it is unknown whether trait anxiety affects the processing of information obtained through externalized representations such as maps. Here, we addressed this question by taking into account emerging evidence indicating impaired performance in executive tasks by high trait anxiety specifically in individuals with lower executive capacities. For this purpose, we tested 104 male participants, previously characterised on trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, on a newly-designed map-based route learning task, where participants matched routes presented dynamically on a city map to one presented immediately before (same/different judgments). We predicted an interaction between trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, specifically that performance in the route learning task would be negatively affected by anxiety in participants with low mental rotation ability. Importantly, and as predicted, an interaction between anxiety and mental rotation ability was observed: trait anxiety negatively affected participants with low-but not high-mental rotation ability. Our study reveals a detrimental role of trait anxiety in map-based route learning and specifies a disadvantage in the processing of map representations for high-anxious individuals with low mental rotation abilities.

  7. Failure to capitalize on sharing good news with romantic partners: Exploring positivity deficits of socially anxious people with self-reports, partner-reports, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Ferssizidis, Patty; Farmer, Antonina S; Adams, Leah M; McKnight, Patrick E

    2013-10-01

    Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples (average age of 21.5 with 58.3% identifying as Caucasian), greater social anxiety was associated with the provision and receipt of less supportive responses to shared positive events as measured by trait questionnaires, partner reports, and behavioral observations in the laboratory. In longitudinal analyses, individuals in romantic relationships with socially anxious partners who experienced inadequate capitalization support were more likely to terminate their relationship and report a decline in relationship quality six months later. As evidence of construct specificity, social anxiety effects were independent of depressive symptoms. Taken together, social anxiety influenced a person's ability to receive and provide support for shared positive events; these deficits had adverse romantic consequences. Researchers and clinicians may better understand social anxiety by exploring a wider range of interpersonal contexts and positive constructs. The addition of capitalization support to the social anxiety literature offers new insights into interpersonal approaches and treatments.

  8. Interpretative biases for positive faces in high socially anxious individuals%高社交焦虑个体对正性面孔的解释偏差

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚泥沙; 李松蔚; 钱铭怡; 余红玉; 林沐雨; 王小玲; 杨鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To figure out whether high socially anxious individuals interpreted positive faces in a biased way, and how they interpreted positive facial stimuli, through which we could learn more about socially-anxious individuals'cognitive processing pattern towards positive social information. Methods: The current study consisted of a single factor design, and group type was the between-subject factor. Before the experiment, 60 participants form Peking University firstly finished the social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS). Participants who scored the highest 27% were the high social anxiety group, and those who scored the lowest 27% were the low social anxiety group. Then the positive facial stimuli were presented separately under different social situations. Each of the positive faces was followed by three alternatives. Two of the alternatives involved a positive and a negative interpretation of the faces, and the remaining one involved a neutral interpretation. By means of self-report, participants scoring high and low on SIAS were instructed to rate each alternative interpretations separately in terms of the likelihood of each interpretations coming to mind. Then, participants were asked to rank order the three alternative explanations based on how much they believe different explanations of a positive face. Results: Compared to lower socially anxious group, individuals with higher social anxiety were less likely to think about positive interpretations (P <0. 001), and were more likely to think about negative interpretations for positive social stimuli (P <0. 001). Also, compared to positive interpretations, higher socially anxious individuals regard negative interpretations for posi- tive faces as more believable (P <0. 001). Conclusion: Compared to lower social anxiety group, higher social anxiety participants are characterized by an interpretative bias towards positive faces. It suggests that lack of positive thinking and the outright negative

  9. Parental Involvement in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Breinholst, Sonja;

    2016-01-01

    Parental factors have been linked to childhood anxiety, hence, parental involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious children has been examined. However, findings do not consistently show added effects of parent-enhanced CBT, longitudinal investigations are scarce and long......-term effects unclear. In the present study, 40 out of 54 families who, 3 years previously, completed one of two types of CBT treatment: with limited or active parental involvement, were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Diagnostic status at 3-years follow-up was compared between groups...

  10. Dominican Children with HIV Not Receiving Antiretrovirals: Massage Therapy Influences their Behavior and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez-Reif

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight children (M age = 4.8 years infected with HIV/AIDS and living in the Dominican Republic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a play session control group. The children in the massage therapy group received two weekly 20-min massages for 12 weeks; the children in the control group participated in a play session (coloring, playing with blocks for the same duration and length as the massage therapy group. Overall, the children in the massage therapy group improved in self-help abilities and communication, suggesting that massage therapy may enhance daily functioning for children with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the HIV infected children who were six or older also showed a decrease in internalizing behaviors; specifically depressive/anxious behaviors and negative thoughts were reduced. Additionally, baseline assessments revealed IQ equivalence below normal functioning for 70% of the HIV infected children and very high incidences of mood problems (depression, withdrawn for 40% of the children and anxiety problems for 20% of the children, suggesting the need for better monitoring and alternative interventions in countries with limited resources to improve cognition and the mental health status of children infected with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity of school-age children with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary and clinic-based study%学龄Asperger综合征儿童精神共患病初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑超群; 唐春; 邹小兵; 李建英; 邓红珠

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 初步探讨学龄Asperger综合征(Asperger syndrome,AS)儿童共患精神疾病的模式,为系统评估及合适的干预计划提供依据. [方法] 对11 7例门诊确诊为Asperger综合征(采用DSM-Ⅳ标准)的学龄儿童进行回顾性分析,调查他们共患其它精神障碍的模式及有关因素. [结果] 发现超过一半以上患者(59.8%)共患至少一种精神疾病,其中以ADHD最常见,占87.1%,而且共患病往往是多重的,占22.9%.无精神共患病的AS儿童其平均VIQ、FIQ(分别106.1±18.2;99.3±18.6)显著高于有精神共患病的AS儿童平均VIQ、PIQ(分别96.6士19.7;89.5±19.6)(P<0.05),两者的PIQ差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论] AS患者共患其它精神疾病是一个普遍现象,临床中对AS儿童应常规进行精神共患病筛查以便得到及时有效的治疗.%[ObjectiveJ To study the pattern of psychiatric comorbidity in school-age children with Asperger syn-drome which may provide evidence for making a comprehensive intervention plans for them. [Methods] A follow-up study of a clinic sample of 117 school-age children with Asperger syndrome was conducted a retrospective review to examine the psychiatric disorders associated with them. [Results] More than half (59. 8%)had at least one another psychiatric disorder diagnosis in which attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was the most common which accounted for 87. 1 %, and 22. 9% of the comorbid psychiatric disorders were multiple. There were significant differences in VIQ,FIQ but not in PIQ between children with and without psychiatric comorbidity. No statistically significant difference was found with respect to gender whether the psychiatric comorbidity was diagnosed. [Conclusion] Psychiatric comorbidity in Asperger syndrome is very common, routine evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity in children with AS is necessary so that they can get appropriate treatments.

  12. Totally absorbable screws in fixation of subtalar extra articular arthrodesis in children with spastic neuromuscular disease: preliminary report of a randomized prospective study of fourteen arthrodeses fixed with absorbable or metallic screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partio, E K; Merikanto, J; Heikkilä, J T; Ylinen, P; Mäkelä, E A; Vainio, J; Törmälä, P; Rokkanen, P

    1992-01-01

    Seven patients with spastic neuromuscular disease and severe hindfoot valgus deformity were treated by subtalar arthrodesis. Arthrodesis was performed in both feet at the same operation and fixed on one side with a self-reinforced poly-L-lactide (SR-PLLA) screw, and with a standard AO screw on the other side. The functional status state was improved, and radiographic union of the arthrodesis occurred in all feet. The radiograph showed better solid fusion in five feet treated with PLLA screws, similar fusion in both sides in one patient, and one slower fusion in the side treated initially with a PLLA screw. Totally absorbable SR-PLLA screws appear to be firm enough for fixation of subtalar extraarticular arthrodesis in children.

  13. A preliminary application of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in children with spastic cerebral palsy%体外冲击波治疗对痉挛型脑瘫儿童足背屈角的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳; 王冰; 王刚; 贾飞勇; 冯俊燕; 单玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨体外冲击波治疗对痉挛型脑瘫儿童足背屈角的改善效果。方法将痉挛型脑瘫患儿随机分为综合康复对照组和体外冲击波治疗组,综合康复对照组只接受常规的综合康复训练进行治疗,体外冲击波治疗组则在综合康复训练的同时进行体外冲击波治疗,应用被动足背屈角对两组患儿进行评价,比较两组患儿治疗1个月和3个月后的被动足背屈角变化有无统计学差异,分别比较治疗组初始治疗时、治疗1个月和3个月后当次治疗前后的被动足背屈角变化有无统计学差异,以此观察体外冲击波治疗的治疗效果。结果治疗1个月后和3个月后,治疗组患儿被动足背屈角的缩小均优于对照组(P<0.05),治疗组患儿初始治疗、治疗后1个月和治疗后3个月的当次治疗后足背屈角的缩小均优于当次治疗前(P<0.05)。结论体外冲击波治疗可以有效缩小痉挛型脑瘫儿童的足背屈角,即时效果明确,并在3个月内持续出现。%Objective To investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on foot dorsiflexion angle of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Methods The children with spastic cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups, control group and treatment group. The control group only accepted conventional comprehensive rehabilitation and the treatment group accepted extracorporeal shock wave therapy during comprehensive rehabilitative training. Evaluating children with passive foot dorsiflexion angle after the first month and the third month, comparing the difference of improvement in passive foot dorsiflexion angle between two groups, respectively comparing the difference of improvement in passive foot dorsiflexion angle between pre-therapy and post-treatment every time in the beginning, the first month and the third month in treatment group, to observe the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy

  14. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses, and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with...

  15. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  16. Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy in Children and Adolescents: Preliminary Results of the 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, Tobias, E-mail: Tobias.Boelling@uni-muenster.de [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Paracelsus Clinic Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck (Germany); Geisenheiser, Alina [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Pape, Hildegard [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Martini, Carmen [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Homburg/Saar, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Timmermann, Beate [Center for Proton Radiation Therapy, Paul-Scherrer-Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Fischedick, Karin [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Gerss, Joachim; Koch, Raphael [Department of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Center for Clinical Trials, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK) has been established to prospectively characterize dose-volume effects of radiation in terms of side effects. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the function of the thyroid gland after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck region in children and adolescents. Methods and Materials: Detailed information regarding radiation doses to at-risk organs has been collected across Germany since 2001. Thyroid function was evaluated by blood value examinations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Information regarding thyroid hormone substitution was requested from the treating physicians. Results: Until May 2009, 1,086 patients from 62 centers were recruited, including 404 patients (median age, 10.9 years) who had received radiotherapy to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis. Follow-up information was available for 264 patients (60.9%; median follow-up, 40 months), with 60 patients (22.7%) showing pathologic values. In comparison to patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (median dose, 12 Gy), patients with radiation doses of 15 to 25 Gy to the thyroid gland had a hazard ratio of 3.072 (p = 0.002) for the development of pathologic thyroid blood values. Patients with greater than 25 Gy to the thyroid gland and patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation had hazard ratios of 3.768 (p = 0.009) and 5.674 (p < 0.001), respectively. The cumulative incidence of thyroid hormone substitution therapy did not differ between defined subgroups. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid function impairment, including damage to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis, can frequently be observed after radiotherapy in children. A structured follow-up examination is advised.

  17. 伴与不伴焦虑症状抑郁症患者的自杀风险%Risk factors of suicidality in major depressive disorder patients with and without anxious characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛立敏; 方贻儒; 陆铮; 杨海晨; 胡建; 陈致宇; 黄颐; 孙静; 王小平; 李惠春; 张晋碚; 陈林; 司天梅; 吉振鹏; 张索远; 王君; 刘艳红; 陈大方; 杨甫德; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the suicidality risk in major depressive disorder (MDD)patients with and without anxious characteristics,and analyze the risk factors of suicidality in MDD patients. Methods:This was a secondary analysis of the data from the Diagnostic Assessment Service for people with Bipolar Disorders in China (DASP),which was initiated by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP),from September 1,2010 to February 28, 201 1. Based on the anxious module and suicide module of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M. I. N. I),1 172 MDD patients were classified as suffering from anxious MDD (n=728,62. 1%)and non-anxious MDD(n=444,37. 9%). Logistic regression was employed to examine the risk factors of suicidality in MDD pa-tients. Results:Among the anxious MDD patients,331 (45. 5%)of them had suicidality risk. And 54(12. 2%)of non-anxious MDD patients had suicidality risk. Compare to the non-anxious group,the anxious MDD patients had significantly higher suicidality risk (P<0. 00 1 ). Logistic regression analysis showed that more frequent depressive episodes (OR=2. 07 ),depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms (OR=2. 0 1 ),comorbid with anxious charac-teristics (OR=3. 18)or melancholic characteristics (OR=2. 90)were associated with suicidality risk in patients with MDD. Conclusion:It indicates that the anxious MDD patients may have higher suicidality risk than non-anx-ious MDD patients,and more frequent depressive episodes,depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms,comorbid with anxious characteristics or melancholic characteristics may be risk factors of suicidality in patients with MDD.%目的:比较伴与不伴焦虑症状抑郁症患者的自杀风险,分析抑郁症患者自杀风险的危险因素。方法:对2010年9月1日至2011年2月28日“中国双相情感障碍患者诊断评估服务”研究项目的数据进行二次分析,纳入分析的抑郁症患者共1172例,根据简明国际神经精神访谈(M. I. N. I)焦虑

  18. 护理本科生社会技能与交往焦虑的相关分析%A correlative study on social skills and interaction anxiousness of college nursing students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧爽

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨提高护理本科生社会技能的途径,发掘避免产生交往焦虑的方法 .方法 使用社会技能量表和交往焦虑量表对护理专业247名护理本科生进行调查,并对结果 进行分析.结果 三个年级的护理本科生的社会技能评分、交往焦虑评分差异无显著性(P>0.05);护理本科生社会技能有待提高,其社会适应、社会知觉、社会自信、社会表达、印象管理5个分量表条目均分分别为(1.67±0.44)分、(2.12±0.61)分、(2.17±0.62)分、(1.98±0.63)分、(1.89±0.68)分;交往焦虑程度中等,量表的条目均分为(2.79±0.55)分.社会技能各分量表与交往焦虑程度具有显著的相关性(P<0.05).结论 可以通过提升护理本科生的社会技能减轻其在社会交往过程中的焦虑程度.%Objective To analyze the relationship between social skills and interaction anxiousness of college nursing students, and to find ways of improving their social skills and avoiding interaction anxiousness. Methods 247 college nursing students were investigated by adopting social skill questionnaire and interaction anxiousness questionnaire, and analyze the results. Results There was no obvious difference in the score of their social skills and interaction anxiousness among 3 grades (P > 0.05 ). The social skills of college nursing students need to be further improved, what's more, their social adaptation, social perception, social confidence, social expression,and impression management scores were respectively 1.67 ± 0.44,2.12 ± 0.61,2.17 ± 0.62,1.98 ± 0.63,1.89±0.68. Their interaction anxiousness was moderate, and the average score of each item was 2.79 ± 0.55. There was conspicuously correlative relationship between the subsidiary of social skills and the level of interaction anxiousness (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion It is possible to relieve the extent of interaction anxiousness of nursing students by improving their social skills.

  19. Thermal energy storage in aquifiers: preliminary information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.

    1979-12-01

    Topics discussed include: conceptual designs; numerical modelling; field experiments; relevant technical information; feasibility studies; preliminary aquifer selection considerations; and preliminary design and operating considerations. (TFD)

  20. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  1. Desarrollo y validación preliminar de escalas para la evaluación de la competencia motriz acuática en escolares de 4 a 11 años. Development and preliminary validation of an aquatic competence scale for children 4 to 11 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objeto de este trabajo es la creación y validación de unas escalas para medir la competencia motriz acuática de los 4 a los 11 años. Para ello se utiliza una muestra de 645 niños con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y los 11 años. Se aplicó un análisis factorial exploratorio, quedando constituida por cuatro escalas, compuestas a su vez por dos factores cada una de ellas, una referida a la familiarización con el medio acuático, y otro factor referido a las acciones donde es necesario producir una inmersión. El número de ítems que componen las escalas son de 16 ítems para las edades de 4-5 y 6-7 años, 14 ítems para las edades de 8-9 años y 10 ítems para las edades de 10-11 años. Estos instrumentos mostraron poseer unas propiedades psicométricas adecuadas tanto para la escalas totales (coeficiente alpha = .92, .95, .95 y .87, respectivamente como para las dos subescalas: familiarización (coeficiente alpha=.96, .96, .96 y .88, respectivamente e inmersión (coeficiente alpha=.85, .88, .87 y .83, respectivamente. Las Escalas de Competencia Motriz Acuática (ECMA podrían ser consideradas como unos instrumentos de interés para la investigación y la aplicación práctica de los educadores acuáticos, al objeto de conocer la competencia motriz acuática de sus alumnos.AbstractThe main objective of this study has been the development and preliminary validation of several scales for the assessment of aquatic competence in children ages 4 to 11 years. Six hundred and forty-five children participated and were observed in different situations in the swimming pool. Analysis of this observation permitted to establish four scales composed by two main dimensions each one. One dimension about familiarity with the aquatics medium, and the other activities where the immersion is a key element. The number of items of each scale is of sixteen for the 4 to 5 yr. and 6 to 7 yr. scales; fourteen items in the 8-9 yr. scale and ten items for

  2. 城市学龄前儿童运动发育家庭环境量表的初步编制%Preliminary compilation of Family Environment Scale on Motor Development for Pre-school Urban Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花静; 张郦君; 古桂雄; 秦志强; 孟炜; 吴擢春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop the Family Environment Scale on Motor Development for Pre-school urban Children( FESMDPU ) in order to provide a quantization tool for studying the correlation between the family environment and children' s motor development. Methods Based on HOME and AHEM D-SR blueprints, 71 items were developed. The critical ratio, Pearson correlation and exploratory factor analysis were used to delete inappropriate items. Results All items were retained according to the results of Critical Ratio Analysis. Fifteen items were deleted according to the results of correlation coefficient between the score of each item and total score. Five items were deleted according to the results of the first and second exploratory factor analysis. In addition, seven factors were extracted which were defined as outside space, inside space, fine motor toy, toy of space and color, warmth/encouragement and care routines respectively according to the results of exploratory factor analysis. Conclusion Fifty-one items are identified at last which will be used in the further investigation and provide the basis for the further study on application of the scale.%目的 编制城市学龄前儿摩家庭运动环境评价量表(Family Environment Scale On Motor Development for Pre-school Urban Children,FESMDPU),为家庭环境与儿童运动发育的关联性研究提供量化工具.方法 以HOME和AHEMD-SR量表为蓝本,在确立71个初始条目的 基础上,运用临界比、相关分析和探索性因素分析的结果对条目进行删减.结果 根据各条目临界比保留伞部条目,根据各条目与总分的相关系数删减15个条目,最后通过第1次和第2次探索性因素分析结果删除5个条目,最后共保留51个条目.此外,探索件因素分析提取了户外运动空间、户内运动空间、精细运动玩具、大运动玩具、空间色彩类玩具、温暖/鼓励、口常生活照顾7个因子.结论 保留51个条目作为FESMDPU进一步研究的

  3. 健康教育在儿童口腔保健中应用的初步探讨%Preliminary Discussion on the Application of Health Education on Oral Health in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彩燕

    2013-01-01

    children mean knowledge,the average awareness rate health education after the children’s dental calculus detection rate,rate of dental caries,gingivitis and plaque incidence index were significantly improved.Conclusion:Health education of oral health care for children can improve children’s health knowledge awareness rate of health habits,correct mistakes,to improve the oral health of children,guiding significance,it is worthy of popularization and application.

  4. Maternal separation in early life modifies anxious behavior and Fos and glucocorticoid receptor expression in limbic neurons after chronic stress in rats: effects of tianeptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Verónica; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2016-01-01

    Early-life adversity can lead to long-term consequence persisting into adulthood. Here, we assess the implications of an adverse early environment on vulnerability to stress during adulthood. We hypothesized that the interplay between early and late stress would result in a differential phenotype regarding the number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptor (GR-ir) and neuronal activity as assessed by Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in brain areas related to stress responses and anxiety-like behavior. We also expected that the antidepressant tianeptine could correct some of the alterations induced in our model. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h during the first 3 weeks of life. As adults, the rats were exposed to chronic stress for 24 d and they were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or vehicle (isotonic saline). Fos-ir was increased by MS in all structures analyzed. Chronic stress reduced Fos-ir in the hippocampus, but increased it in the paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, chronic stress increased GR-ir in hippocampus (CA1) and amygdala in control non-MS rats. By contrast, when MS and chronic stress were combined, GR-ir was decreased in these structures. Additionally, whereas tianeptine did not affect Fos-ir, it regulated GR-ir in a region-dependent manner, in hippocampus and amygdala opposing in some cases the stress or MS effects. Furthermore, tianeptine reversed the MS- or stress-induced anxious behavior. The interplay between MS and chronic stress observed indicates that MS rats have a modified phenotype, which is expressed when they are challenged by stress in later life.

  5. The Williams syndrome chromosome 7q11.23 hemideletion confers hypersocial, anxious personality coupled with altered insula structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kippenhan, J Shane; Kohn, Philip; Marenco, Stefano; Mervis, Carolyn B; Morris, Colleen A; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Berman, Karen Faith

    2012-04-03

    Although it is widely accepted that genes can influence complex behavioral traits such as human temperament, the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Williams syndrome (WS), a rare disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23, including genes important for neuronal migration and maturation (LIMK1 and CLIP2), is typified by a remarkable hypersocial but anxious personality and offers a unique opportunity to investigate this open issue. Based on the documented role of the insula in mediating emotional response tendencies and personality, we used multimodal imaging to characterize this region in WS and found convergent anomalies: an overall decrease in dorsal anterior insula (AI) gray-matter volume along with locally increased volume in the right ventral AI; compromised white-matter integrity of the uncinate fasciculus connecting the insula with the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex; altered regional cerebral blood flow in a pattern reminiscent of the observed gray-matter alterations (i.e., widespread reductions in dorsal AI accompanied by locally increased regional cerebral blood flow in the right ventral AI); and disturbed neurofunctional interactions between the AI and limbic regions. Moreover, these genetically determined alterations of AI structure and function predicted the degree to which the atypical WS personality profile was expressed in participants with the syndrome. The AI's rich anatomical connectivity, its transmodal properties, and its involvement in the behaviors affected in WS make the observed genetically determined insular circuitry perturbations and their association with WS personality a striking demonstration of the means by which neural systems can serve as the interface between genetic variability and alterations in complex behavioral traits.

  6. Whole-body MR imaging in children with suspected osteonecrosis after intensive chemotherapy: preliminary results; Ganzkoerper-MRT bei Kindern mit Verdacht auf Osteonekrose nach intensiver Chemotherapie: Erste Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, M.; Stenzel, M.; Darge, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Girschick, H.; Schlegel, P.G. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Kinderklinik

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: use of multidrug chemotherapy poses the risk of avascular osseous necroses in children. Depiction of the whole body, including clinically non-apparent sites is mandatory for starting early and proper treatment, including surgical approaches in lesions near the joints. We analyzed the value of whole-body MRI in the detection of osteonecrosis, (1) in relation to conventional X-ray imaging and clinical symptoms, (2) using different MRI sequences, (3) with follow-up examinations. Materials and methods: 5 patients suffering from an oncological disease, 13 to 16 years old (3 x ALL, 1 x medulloblastoma, 1 x CML), and recently developing bone pain were examined with X-ray imaging of the particular region and a whole-body MRI (T2w TIRM, T1w TSE sequences, pre- and post-contrast GD-DTPA, including fat suppression techniques). Neck/thorax/abdomen/pelvis, and upper and lower extremities were acquired in the coronal plane, and the feet in sagittal orientation. 4 of 5 patients had at least one follow-up examination (in the mean after 10 {+-} 4 months). Results: none of the initial X-ray images revealed an abnormal finding. The whole-body MRI showed in 4 of 5 children bone marrow lesions compatible with osteonecrosis. The locations were around the knee joints (n = 3) and the tibiae/ankle joints (n = 4). In addition to the symptomatic sites, MRI revealed additional lesions at the following sites: humerus (n = 5), hip joints (n = 4), knee joints (n = 6), ankle joints (n = 4). The size varied from small focal lesions to lesions measuring 90% of the whole transverse diameter of the bone. The lesions were able to be detected most easily with heavily T2-weighted (TIRM) sequences, and the diagnosis was most easily established using the non-enhanced TSE T1-weighted sequences. As a consequence of the results of the whole-body MRI, all patients with lesions compatible with osteonecrosis received symptomatic (n = 2) or specific (n = 2) therapy. In the follow-up examinations, a

  7. Preliminary analysis of emotion recognition in children aged 7-14 years%7~14岁儿童情绪识别特点初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵迎春; 张劲松

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of emotion recognition in children aged 7-14 years. Methods Nine hundred and sixty-one students aged 7-14 years were enrolled to rate the emotion dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance with the scale of Native Chinese Affective Picture System for Children. The relationship among scores of each emotion dimension was analysed, and the differences in age and gender of each emotion dimension were determined. Results For positive pictures (score of valence >6), the score of valence was positively related to that of arousal and dominate (r=0.56, r=0.40, P6),愉悦度与唤醒度和优势度评分呈显著正相关(r=0.56,r=0.40,P<0.01);对于中性图片(愉悦度评分4~6),愉悦度与唤醒度评分呈显著负相关(r=-0.70,P<0.01),与优势度评分呈显著正相关(r=0.69,P<0.01);对于负性图片(愉悦度评分<4),唤醒度与优势度评分呈显著负相关(r=-0.95,P<0.01).不同性别受试者情绪各项维度评分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同年龄受试者唤醒度和优势度评分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);年龄与唤醒度评分呈弱负相关(r=-0.18,P<0.01),与优势度评分呈弱正相关(r=0.10,P<0.01).结论 儿童的情绪识别存在性别和年龄的差异,不同性质图片的情绪维度评定亦不相同,需在今后相关研究中考虑这些因素的影响.

  8. 湖北赤壁市农村儿童感染贾第虫的初步分析%Preliminary analysis of Giardia infection in children from rural areas of Chibi City, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁忠英; 姜岩岩; 何祖安; 王丽; 张荣; 曹建平; 沈玉娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the Giardia infection in chidren from rural areas of Chibi City and analyze the subtype of Giardia based on the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene so as to provide the evidence for the prevention and treatment of Giardia.Methods A total of 20 human fecal specimens were randomly selected from the samples of an investigation on Cryptosporidium from rural children in Chibi City.The DNA of stool samples was extracted and Giardia was detected through nested-PCR of Giarida tpi gene.Results The results of PCR detection identified one case as Giardia infection.By blasting sequence,it belonged to assemblage A,99% homology with the 1503 isolate of wastewater samples in USA.Conclusion Giardia infection occurred in rural children in the investigated region where the detection of Giardia infection and health education should be strengthened.%目的 评估湖北省赤壁市农村儿童感染贾第虫情况,并初步进行类型分析,为加强贾第虫病的防治提供依据. 方法 从赤壁市进行隐孢子虫调查的儿童粪便样本中,随机抽取20份样本,基于贾第虫磷酸丙糖异构酶(triosephosphate isomerase,tpi)基因,采用巢式PCR检测粪便标本中的贾第虫,对阳性样本的tpi基因片段进行测序,与GenBank中参考序列进行同源性比对分析,确定贾第虫的集聚体类型. 结果 PCR检测结果显示,1份样本为贾第虫阳性,测序后经分析鉴定为集聚体A,与美国威斯康辛州的污水厂污水分离株1503同源性为99%. 结论 该地区农村儿童存在贾第虫感染,应加强贾第虫感染检测和卫生宣教.

  9. Cognitive and behaviour dysfunction of children with neurocysticercosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajniti; Shambhavi; Mishra, Om P; Upadhyay, Shashi K; Singh, Tej B; Singh, Utpal Kant

    2014-10-01

    Eighty-three confirmed cases of neurocysticercosis diagnosed as per modified delBrutto criteria were enrolled in the study (Group-I) to observe cognitive and behavioural changes. Controls consisted of two groups: children with idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (Group-II) and normal children with non-specific cough (Group-III). Cases and controls were subjected to cognitive and behaviour assessment. There was significant difference in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of cases in domains of visual perception, immediate recall, analysis synthesis and reasoning, verbal ability, memory and spatial ability. In the age group of 6-18 years, cases had significantly more behaviour problems than control without seizure, in domains of anxious depressed, withdrawn depressed, somatic problems, social problems and rule-breaking behaviour. Neurocysticercosis causes decline in cognitive function and behaviours in older children, which should be recognized early for appropriate management and to avoid undue parental anxiety.

  10. The role of attachment in predicting CBT treatment outcome in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie

    2015-01-01

    ’s attachment to parents, and parental attachment in predicting treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Method: A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were diagnosed at intake and post-treatment, using Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Silverman and Albano......Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children......, 1996). In addition, children’s attachment to both parents was assessed using the Friends and Family Interview (Steele, Steele & Kriss, 2009) and Security Scale Revised (Kerns, Aspelmeier, Gentzler, & Grabill, 2001). Parents filled in the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (Fraley, Waller...

  11. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2017-01-01

    by the reasons why the Court after an oral hearing held in the presence of the parties and eight intervening Member States, and after hearing the Advocate General did not deliver one. The comment examines the legal framework, as well as the detailed procedural rules and guidelines that govern the cooperation...... of national courts in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference – the culture of sincere cooperation and litigation, efficient communication and flexible procedural rules – are in place....

  12. The Preliminary Analysis of Microflora in Dental Plaque of Twin Children by PCR-DGGE%PCR-DGGE初步分析双胞胎儿童牙菌斑细菌群落组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑; 相艳; 李宇红; 杜民权

    2012-01-01

    目的:应用PCR-DGGE技术对双胞胎儿童牙菌斑细菌群落组成进行初步分析.方法:牙菌斑样本取自6对双胞胎儿童,年龄3.5~5.5岁,共17份.分别提取细菌总DNA,PCR扩增16S rDNA V3可变区,产物经DGGE指纹图谱分析其组成.结果:DGGE图谱显示,无龋和患龋双胞胎儿童牙菌斑菌属分布存在差异.结论:PCR-DGGE技术可较直观、灵敏地反应牙菌斑菌属的组成情况.%Objective: To detect bacterial community in dental plaque of twin children by PCR-DGGE. Methods: A total of 17 samples were collected from 6 twins. PCR - based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis surveys mi-crobial diversity by displaying PCR-generated 16S rDNA V3 fragment that migrate at different distances, reflecting the differences sequence of the fragment. Result: DGGE fingerprint patterns of dental plaque samples showed variation among them. Conclusion: PCR-DGGE method is a sensitive and effective approach to resolve the microflora structure of dental plaque.

  13. Meta-worry, worry, and anxiety in children and adolescents: relationships and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjørn, B H; Lønfeldt, N N; Nielsen, S K; Reinholdt-Dunne, M L; Sømhovd, M J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2015-01-01

    The metacognitive model has increased our understanding of the development and maintenance of generalized anxiety disorders in adults. It states that the combination of positive and negative beliefs about worry creates and sustains anxiety. A recent review argues that the model can be applied to children, but empirical support is lacking. The aim of the 2 presented studies was to explore the applicability of the model in a childhood sample. The first study employed a Danish community sample of youth (n = 587) ages 7 to 17 and investigated the relationship between metacognitions, worry and anxiety. Two multiple regression analyses were performed using worry and metacognitive processes as outcome variables. The second study sampled Danish children ages 7 to 12, and compared the metacognitions of children with a GAD diagnosis (n = 22) to children with a non-GAD anxiety diagnosis (n = 19) and nonanxious children (n = 14). In Study 1, metacognitive processes accounted for an additional 14% of the variance in worry, beyond age, gender, and anxiety, and an extra 11% of the variance in anxiety beyond age, gender, and worry. The Negative Beliefs about Worry scale emerged as the strongest predictor of worry and a stronger predictor of anxiety than the other metacognitive processes and age. In Study 2, children with GAD have significantly higher levels of deleterious metacognitions than anxious children without GAD and nonanxious children. The results offer partial support for the downward extension of the metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorders to children.

  14. [Self-reported Anxiety and Regulation Strategies in Primary School-age Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Yvonne; Kolmorgen, Katja; Andreas, Anna; Köppe, Claudia; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the self-reported anxiety in different situations (social anxiety, cognitive fears, fears of injury) and the use of regulation strategies (problem orientation, problem avoidance and seeking social support) in a sample of N=175 primary school children (mean age 8 years 4 months). At time of recruitment we oversampled for children with internalizing symptoms. In addition, mothers rated the overall anxiety of their children. According to their mothers 14.3% of the children showed anxiety symptoms in an abnormal range which is comparable to prevalence rates of children from population samples. 19.4% of the children described themselves as being anxious in an abnormal range. The correlations between different measures of children's self-reported anxieties were low to moderate. We found no significant correlations between mothers' and children's reports. The higher children's self-reported overall and cognitive anxiety, the more frequently they reported seeking social support in frightening situations. Girls reported more frequently pm cognitive fears than boys. Regarding regulation strategies we found that boys reported more problem orientation than girls whereas girls reported more social support seeking than boys. The results are discussed and practical implications are outlined.

  15. Preliminary reference Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  16. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  17. O reconto de histórias em crianças do espectro autístico: um estudo preliminar Retelling a story in autistic spectrum children: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Onofre de Lira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: verificar a habilidade de crianças diagnosticadas como autistas ou com Síndrome de Asperger em recontar uma história. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados quatro meninos verbais, com idade entre cinco e dez anos, diagnosticados por equipe multidisciplinar com Autismo Infantil (2 e Síndrome de Asperger (2 e atendidos no Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica - Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento - Departamento de Fonoaudiologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP. Foi utilizada a história "Urubu e as pombas", proposta por Golden revisada e adaptada por Antunes e col, que deveria ser reproduzida após a narrativa realizada pela avaliadora. A análise do desempenho lingüístico foi dividida em quantitativa através do número total de sentenças (nodos reproduzidas (14 no total, e qualitativa pelo reconto dos temas centrais da história e a ocorrência de distorções (as alterações que podem ocorrer no reconto da história. RESULTADOS: foi verificado que o número de sentenças reproduzidas foi sete, em média. No entanto, é interessante notar que nem todos os nodos considerados tema central foram recontados. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados sugerem que a habilidade de memória textual evidenciada nos índices de reprodução das orações não foi suficiente para garantir compreensão da história, dada ausência de alguns nodos dos temas centrais no reconto realizado pelos sujeitos.PURPOSE: to check the capacity of story retelling in children with PDD. METHODS: the sample consisted of four verbal boys, 5 to 10-year old, diagnosed in multidisciplinary team with PDD and attended in the Department of Speech Therapy of the Federal University of São Paulo. For analyzing the linguistic performance, we used the history "The crow and the doves", proposed by Golden, reviewed / adapted by Antunes et. al. This story should be individually reproduced by each child after researcher's narrative. The recount was analyzed in a

  18. Preliminary Study on the Structure of Self-supporting Behavior in Children Aged 3 to 6%3-6岁儿童自立行为结构的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌辉; 张建人; 钟妮; 阳子光; 易艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:对3-6岁儿童自立行为的结构进行初步探讨.方法:运用开放式问卷对幼儿园教师与幼儿家长共82人进行深度访谈,对访谈结果进行内容分析.结果:①从自立的3个功能维度来看,3-6岁儿童自我行动功能维度的反应显著多于自我决断功能维度的反应,而自我负责功能维度上没有反应次数.②从领域维度来看,3-6岁儿童日常自立的反应显著多于社会自立、心理自立和学业自立的反应,没有出现道德自立的反应.③在自我行动功能维度上,5-6岁组儿童的学业自立显著多于3-4岁和4-5岁组儿童.从具体反应项目来看,3-4岁儿童在“能独立上厕所”、“情绪比较稳定,很少因一点小事哭闹不止”条目上的反应显著多于4-5岁和5-6岁组儿童,在“能自己吃饭、喝水,不需要喂食”条目上的反应显著多于5-6岁组儿童;5-6岁组儿童在“会自己叠被子、铺床”、“能独立洗澡”条目上的反应显著多于3-4岁和4-5岁组儿童,在“每天上学前能主动做好准备,如整理书包之类”、“上课很认真听讲,积极参与课堂活动”、“主动帮助他人”三个条目上的反应显著多于3-4岁组儿童.结论:①3-4岁儿童的自立行为主要表现为基本的日常自立和心理自立.②随着年龄的发展,5-6岁儿童的自立行为不仅表现出更高的日常自立和社会自立,还开始出现学业自立的内容.③3-6岁儿童的自立行为可能是单维(主要表现在自我行动功能维度)多领域(日常自立、社会自立、心理自立和学业自立)的结构,自我决断功能维度尚处于萌芽阶段.%Objective:To explore the structure of self-supporting behavior in children aged 3 to 6.Methods:82 parents and kindergarten teachers were assessed by an open questionnaire.Content analyses were applied to the results of the interviews.Results:①From the 3 dimensions of self-supporting behavior,the response frequencies on

  19. Arapahoe NWR diversion reconstruction : Preliminary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary plan for a diversion reconstruction for Hubbard #2. Oklahoma #1, Dryer, Hill and Crowder sites on the Arapahoe National Wildlife Refuge.

  20. Children’s Foreign Language Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Selami; Harputlu, Leyla; Güzel, Serhat; Uştuk, Özgehan; Savran Çelik, Şeyda; Genç, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA), which constitutes a serious problem in the foreign language learning process, has been mainly seen as a research issue regarding adult language learners, while it has been overlooked in children. This is because there is a lack of appropriate tools to measure FLA among children, whereas there are many studies on the scales that aim to measure anxiety levels among adult learners. Thus, the current study aims to conduct the preliminary tests of reliability and va...

  1. Eat or heat? The effects of poverty on children's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, there were 46.2 million people in the US in poverty (15 percent of the population). The rate for children under 18 years of age was 22 percent, the highest of all age groups. Poverty is strongly linked to adverse socio-emotional outcomes and poor health in children, which influence adult socioeconomic advancement. It affects specific neurocognitive processes disproportionately such as working memory, cognitive control, and especially language and memory. Poor children are frequently exposed to household chaos, maternal depression, neighborhood violence, food insecurity and housing instability. They also experience little social support and have parents who are less responsive, more authoritarian and less involved in school activities than those of higher socioeconomic levels. Their diet is rich in sugar, which may contribute to behavioral disturbances. Children from a disadvantaged background have a poor ability to cope with stress and tend to show aggressive, withdrawn and anxious/depressive behaviors as well as poor academic outcomes. Dental professionals who care for poor children must understand they live under stressful physical and emotional conditions, which will impact their behavior in the dental office.

  2. Social Skills and Social Acceptance in Children with Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Beidel, Deborah C

    2015-01-01

    Whereas much is known about the deficits in social behaviors and social competence in youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD), less is known about those characteristics among youth with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This study aimed to better elucidate the social repertoire and peer acceptance of youth with SAD and youth with GAD, relative to normal control (NC) youth. The sample consisted of 58 primarily Caucasian children, ages 6 to 13 years: 20 SAD (12 female), 18 GAD (12 female), and 20 NC (9 female). Diagnoses were based on Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Children and Parent Versions interviews. A multimodal assessment strategy included parent and child reports, observer ratings of social performance, computer-based analysis of vocal qualities of speech, and peer ratings of likeability and friendship potential. Whereas self- and parental report did not differentiate the two diagnostic groups, differences on observable behaviors were apparent. Children with SAD exhibited anxious speech patterns, extended speech latencies, a paucity of speech, few spontaneous vocalizations, and ineffective social responses; they were perceived by peers as less likeable and socially desirable. Children with GAD had typical speech patterns and were well liked by their peers but displayed fewer spontaneous comments and questions than NC children. Parent and child reports are less sensitive to what could be important differences in social skill between youth with SAD and GAD. Direct observations, computer-based measures of speech quality, and peer ratings identify specific group differences, suggesting the need for a comprehensive evaluation to inform treatment planning.

  3. Ultrastructure of hairs in healthy children during development: a preliminary study%健康儿童发育过程中头发超微结构的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯华; 刘铁兵; 胡亚红; 王婷琳; 徐宏俊; 王剑磊; 林秋兰; 王琪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the morphology and structure of hair surtaces and cross sections in children of different ages,and to understand the development and maturation processes and status of hairs in terms of ultrastructure in healthy children after birth.Methods Ninety healthy child volunteers were equally classified into 3 groups:infancy group (aged less than 1 year),toddler group (aged 1-2 years),and preschool-age group (aged 3-5 years).Hair samples were collected from the vertex,tempus,and occiput of each child.Field emission scanning electron microscopy was performed to obtain morphological data on surfaces and cross sections of hairs,including minimal and maximal hair diameters,hair index (the ratio of minimal to maximal diameter of hairs),hair cuticle thickness (measured on hair cross sections,each hair has 5-10 layers of cuticles),hair cuticle count (the number of cuticles per 100 μm length of hair shaft) and pattern (flat waveform or irregular shape).Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance,t test,chi-square test,and least significant difference (LSD) test with SPSS19.0 software.Results The minimal and maximal cross-sectional diameters of hairs significantly differed between the three age groups at the same anatomic site (vertex:F =39.67,28.32,respectively,both P < 0.01;tempus:F =13.12,11.91,respectively,both P < 0.01;occiput:F =18.41,16.43,respectively,both P < 0.01),and increased with age,while no significant changes occurred in hair index with age.Meanwhile,significant differences were observed between the three age groups in the thickness of hair cuticles on the vertex (F =6.15,P < 0.01),and in the number of hair cuticles on the vertex,tempus,and occiput (F=3.29,3.36 and 3.48 respectively,all P< 0.05).LSD test showed a significant difference in minimal and maximal hair diameters between the infancy group and toddler group and between the infancy group and preschool-age group (all P < 0.001),an elevation in the

  4. Anxious and depresive rating in patients with facuma cerebri infarction%腔隙性脑梗塞病人的焦虑和抑郁评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱卫娟; 喻东山; 彭昌孝

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate anxious and depressive symptoms in patientswith lacuma cerebri infarction(LCI).Method It was estimated for Hamilton rating scale for depression(HAMD),Center for epidemiotogical survey,depression scale(CES-D) and Hamilton rating scale for anxiety(HAMA)in 35 patients with LCI when admitted hospital for one week.LCI group compared with normal control group from refernce in rating scores.Results HAMD total score was no different between LCI group(8.23±5.58)and normal control group(7.63±3.42)(P>0.05);CES-D total score was significantly higher in LCI group(16.2±9.67) than in normal control group(8.23±7.75)(P0.05).Conclusion ①It existed a subsyndrome depression in patients with LCI.②It was easier detecting subsyndrome depression using CES-D than using HAMD.③It was not found for anxiety in patients with LCI when admitted hospital for one week.%目的 评定腔隙性脑梗塞病人的焦虑和抑郁。方法 病人于住院1周时评定抑郁量表(HAMD)、抑郁自评量表(CES-D)和焦虑量表(HAMA),并与正常对照比较。结果 病人HAMD总分(8.23±5.58分)与对照组(7.63±3.42分)无显著差异;CES-D总分(16.2±9.67分)比对照组(8.23±7.75分)显著为高;HAMA总分(5.93±3.83分)与对照组(5.94±4.11分)无显著差异。结论 腔隙性脑梗塞病人存在不足综合征的抑郁;用CES-D比用HAMD更易检出不足综合征的抑郁;腔隙性脑梗塞病人在住院1周时未检出明显焦虑。

  5. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghaderi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental setting. Materials and Method: A total of 158 children with at least one primary mandibular molar needing class I restoration were selected. Children were classified based on the ordinal position; first, middle, or last child as well as single child. A blinded examiner recorded the pain perception of children during injection based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Sound, Eye and Movement (SEM scale. To assess the child's anxiety, the questionnaire known as “Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule” (CFSS-DS was employed. Results: The results showed that single children were significantly less cooperative and more anxious than the other children (p<0.001. The middle children were significantly more cooperative in comparison with the other child's position (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Single child may behave less cooperatively in dental setting. The order of child birth must also be considered in prediction of child’s behavior for behavioral management.

  6. Behavioral and emotional adjustment, family functioning, academic performance, and social relationships in children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H; Patel, Sejal

    2004-11-01

    This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of 52 community controls, 52 children with SM were more anxious, obsessive, and prone to somatic complaints. In contrast, children with SM were less oppositional and evidenced fewer attentional difficulties at school. We found no group differences in family structure, economic resources, family functioning, maternal mood difficulties, recreational activities, or social networks. While parents reported no differences in parenting strategies, children with SM were described as less cooperative in disciplinary situations. The academic (e.g., reading and math) and classroom cooperative skills of children with SM did not differ from controls. Parents and teachers reported that children with SM had significant deficits in social skills. Though teachers and parents rated children with SM as less socially assertive, neither teachers nor parents reported that children with SM were victimized more frequently by peers.

  7. Exposure of Danish children to traffic exhaust fumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Olsen, J H; Hertel, O

    1996-01-01

    marker of the exposure of the child living at the address. The study includes 100 children living on streets with dense traffic in central parts of Copenhagen and 100 children living in rural areas. Preliminary results, based on 25% of the study subjects, suggest that both the outdoor NO2-concentration...

  8. Fostering Families' and Children's Rights to Family Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2011-01-01

    Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family…

  9. Parents and children: facts and fallacies about attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barett, Helen

    2006-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory has had a profound effect on the way we think about parent-child relationships and the way young babies are cared for. Bowlby observed that children appear to do better if they grow up with a sense that someone cares about them and that someone will be there to help them when they are anxious or distressed. He explained why attachment relationships are so important for social and emotional wellbeing, and argued that good maternal care was essential for psychological health. Bowlby's ideas have been gaining strong support again recently, although it is important to distinguish between what he actually wrote and the many myths and misunderstandings about his work.

  10. "I Can Draw a Happy Face for You": Coping Strategies of Homeless Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisosky, Joanne M.

    This qualitative study examined the ways in which homeless children cope with their environment. Preliminary data were gathered by observing homeless children at a homeless shelter day care center in a medium-sized midwestern city. As many as 12 children, aged 2 to 6 years, were observed in the day care setting on three different weekday mornings.…

  11. Aquatic Physical Therapy for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7…

  12. Service Coordination and Children's Functioning in a School-Based Intensive Mental Health Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddy, Richard W.; Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Hambrick, Erin P.

    2012-01-01

    Coordination of mental health services in children with serious emotional disturbance (SED) has shown a preliminary relationship to positive outcomes in children. Yet, research in this area is sparse. Therefore, the relation between service coordination activities and adaptive functioning was examined for 51 children SED who were treated in the…

  13. Effects of state and trait anxiety on selective attention to threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Ortega Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional biases, consisting of a preferential processing of threatening stimuli, have been found in anxious adults as predicted by several cognitive models. However, studies with non-clinical samples of children have provided mixed results. therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effects of state and trait anxiety on the selective attention towards threatening stimuli in a non-clinical sample of school children (age: 8 to 13, n = 110 using the dot-probe task. This study did not reveal an effect of trait anxiety on selective attention towards threatening stimuli. However, a significant difference was found between participants with low state anxiety and high state anxiety. Nevertheless, the effect size was small. Specifically, participants with low state anxiety showed a bias towards threatening stimuli. Overall, the findings of this research with a non-clinical sample of school children suggest that attentional biases towards threatening information, which has been repeatedly found in anxious adults, are not necessarily inherent to non-clinical anxiety in children and on the other hand, the relationship between attentional biases and anxiety in this population might be moderated by other cognitive processes.

  14. 职业倦怠对精神科护士焦虑、抑郁的影响研究%Study on the Influence of Job Burnout on the Anxious or Depressive Symptoms of Psychiatric Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇丽; 金玉莲; 杨亚芳

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨职业倦怠、职业压力对温州市精神病专科医院与综合医院护士焦虑、抑郁情绪影响的差别。方法应用护士职业压力源量表、职业倦怠量表、焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表对温州市110名精神专科医院护士和103名综合医院护士进行问卷调查,采用多元分层回归探讨职业压力对焦虑、抑郁情绪的影响,验证工作倦怠在职业压力对焦虑、抑郁症状影响中的中介作用。结果1、在专科医院护士群体中,职业倦怠在护理专业及工作、病人护理、管理及人际关系对抑郁症状关系中起完全中介作用,在工作环境及资源对焦虑症状关系中起不完全中介作用,在病人护理对焦虑症状关系中起完全中介作用;2、在综合医院护士群体中,职业倦怠在护理专业及工作、病人护理、管理及人际关系对抑郁症状关系中起不完全中介作用,在工作量及时间分配对焦虑症状关系中起不完全中介作用,在管理及人际关系对焦虑症状关系中起完全中介作用。结论护士职业压力、职业倦怠与焦虑/抑郁症状密切相关,职业倦怠在职业压力对焦虑/抑郁情绪影响中起中介作用。%Objective To explore the difference of the influence of nurses' occupational stress and job burnout on their anxious or depressive symptoms between psychiatric specialized hospital and general hospital. Methods Conducted questionnaire survey on 110 nurses from specialized hospitals and 103 nurses from general hospitals with pressure source scale,Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression Scale. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis was used to explore the influence of occupational stress on anxious or depressive symptoms and verified the mediating effects of job burnout between occupational stress and anxious or depressive symptoms.Results 1. For nurses in psychiatric specialized

  15. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS): self- and parent-report versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Diogo A; Pereira, Anderson S; Petersen, Circe S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) self- and parent-report versions in a community (n=712) and a clinical (n=70) sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted in the community sample provided support to the original six correlated factors model of the SCAS. Moreover, the SCAS demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and a significant informant effect on the total score with higher anxiety levels in the self-report than in the parent-report version. Considering the clinical sample, we could demonstrate that the SCAS total scores have good discriminant validity differentiating: (a) anxious, community, and negative screening groups; and (b) children diagnosed with different severity levels of anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that the SCAS (self- and parent-report versions) is suitable for assessing anxiety symptoms in Brazilian children and adolescents in community and clinical settings.

  16. Evaluation of children's dental anxiety levels at a kindergarten and at a dental clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Gulser; Akay, Aynur; Eden, Ece; Sevinç, Nilgün; Ellidokuz, Hülya

    2016-08-18

    This study evaluated the dental anxiety levels of preschool children at a kindergarten and at a dental clinic. The anxiety levels of ninety 4-6-year-old (4.99 ± 0.81) preschool children were evaluated according to pulse rates, the facial image scale (FIS), the Venham picture test (VPT), and the Frankl behavior rating scale. The children's mothers were asked to complete the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) forms 1 and 2 (STAI 2 and STAI 2). The sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson's correlation test were used. A statistically significant difference was observed between the children's pulse rates when measured at the dental clinic and those when measured at the kindergarten (p kindergarten when assessed using FIS and VPT (p = 0.090 and p = 0.108, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the transient anxiety levels (STAI 1) of mothers and the VPT scores of their children evaluated at the dental clinic (r = 0.506, p kindergarten, their anxiety levels seemingly increased as they arrived at the dental clinic. The significant increase observed in the children's pulse rates was a physical indicator that their anxiety levels had increased. It can be concluded that the children felt more anxious at the dental clinic that at the kindergarten.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF PRELIMINARY RULINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  18. Families with special needs children: family health, functioning, and care burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There are 11.2 million children with special health care needs in the United States or one in five households caring for a special needs child. A small group of children who need continuous medical, nursing, therapeutic services that enable them to survive is growing in numbers. This study examined physical health (physical functioning), mental health (emotional, social, and cognitive functioning; communication; and worry), family functioning (daily activities, family relationships), and care burden (caregiver employment, caregiving time, travel time, health-related out-of-pocket expenditures) of parent caregivers for medically complex, medical technology-dependent children. Data were collected once a month for 5 months on 84 parents recruited in South Florida using the Pediatric Quality of Life Family Impact Module. Physically, parents were tired when they woke up: too tired to do the things they liked to do and with little energy for chores or social activities. Mentally, they were frustrated, anxious, and angry; felt helpless and hopeless; had cognitive problems remembering and focusing on tasks; were worried about the child's medications, treatments, side effects; and were anxious about child's future and effect of the child's condition on other family members. Socially, they felt isolated and that people did not understand their family situation; they found it hard to talk with others including physicians and nurses. Average weekly hours of direct care was 33.0 (SD = 30.4 hours); average monthly out-of-pocket expenditures was $348.78 (SD = $623.34). It is essential to assess parents' physical and mental health and functioning and to provide interventions to improve health and functioning for both the parents and the children for whom they are caring.

  19. Children Teaching Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pia

    2007-01-01

    This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…

  20. Risk factors of suicidal attempt in major depressive disorder patients with anxious characteristics%伴焦虑症状抑郁症患者自杀未遂的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛立敏; 胡建; 陈致宇; 黄颐; 孙静; 王小平; 李惠春; 张晋碚; 司天梅; 陈林; 杨甫德; 张索远; 王君; 王刚; 方贻儒; 陆铮; 杨海晨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics related to sui⁃cidal attempt in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with anxious characteristics. Methods Based on the anxious module of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a total of 728 anxious MDD patients from 13 major men⁃tal health centers in China were classified as suicidal and non-suicidal attempt groups. Further analyses regarding risk factors of suicidal attempt in anxious MDD patients were performed by the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Re⁃sults Among the 728 patients with anxious MDD analyzed, 135 (18.5%) of them had suicidal attempt and 593 (81.5%) had non-suicidal attempt. Compared to the non-suicidal attempt group, patients with suicidal attempt had significantly earlier age onset[(32.3 ± 11.9) vs. (35.3 ± 13.1)], more lifetime depression episodes (median:2 vs. 2), more number of ad⁃missions (median: 1 vs. 0), more frequent depressive episodes (14.8% vs. 7.4%), more atypical characteristics (25.9%vs.15.0%), more suicidal ideation (78.5%vs. 50.3%) and more antidepressant use (81.5%vs. 71.2%). Logistic regression analysis showed that number of admissions (OR=1.18, 95%CI:1.02~1.37), frequent depressive episodes (OR=2.10, 95%CI:1.14~3.68), depressive episodes with suicidal ideation (OR=3.55, 95%CI:2.28~5.54) were associated with suicidal at⁃tempt in MDD patients with anxious characteristics (P<0.05). Conclusions More number of admissions, more frequent depressive episodes, comorbid suicidal ideation may be risk factors of suicidal attempt in anxious MDD patients.%目的:分析伴焦虑症状抑郁症患者自杀未遂的人口学资料及临床特征方面的危险因素。方法来自全国13个中心的728例伴有焦虑症状抑郁症患者,根据简明国际神经精神访谈(mini international neuropsy⁃chiatric interview,MINI)5.0中文版自杀模块,评估其是否有自杀未遂行为。采用多因

  1. Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Jennifer Y F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with anxiety show biased categorization and avoidance of threats. Such biases may emerge through complex interplay between genetics and environments, occurring early in life. Research on threat biases in children has focuses on a restricted range of biases, with insufficient focus on genetic and environmental origins. Here, we explore differences between children with and without anxiety problems in under-studied areas of threat bias. We focused both on associations with anxious phenotype and the underlying gene-environmental correlates for two specific processes: the categorisation of threat faces and avoidance learning. Method Two-hundred and fifty 10-year old MZ and DZ twin pairs (500 individuals completed tasks assessing accuracy in the labelling of threatening facial expressions and in the acquisition of avoidant responses to a card associated with a masked threatening face. To assess whether participants met criteria for an anxiety disorder, parents of twins completed a self-guided computerized version of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA. Comparison of MZ and DZ twin correlations using model-fitting were used to compute estimates of genetic, shared and non-shared environmental effects. Results Of the 500 twins assessed, 25 (5% met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety disorder. Children with anxiety disorders were more accurate in their ability to recognize disgust faces than those without anxiety disorders, but were commensurate on identifying other threatening face emotions (angry, fearful, sad. Children with anxiety disorders but also more strongly avoided selecting a conditioned stimulus than non-anxious children. While recognition of socially threatening faces was moderately heritable, avoidant responses were heavily influenced by the non-shared environment. Conclusion These data add to other findings on threat biases in anxious children. Specifically, we found biases in the labelling of

  2. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The El-Paso-Ciudad Juarez area is one of the largest metropolitan areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Sources of air pollutants inlcude the more than 18 million vehicles, which annually cross between the two cities, heavily traveled roads and interstate freeways, and local indust...

  3. Preliminary definitions for the sonographic features of synovitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Johannes; Ravagnani, Viviana; Backhaus, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) has the potential to be an important tool in the assessment of disease activity in childhood arthritides. To assess pathology, clear definitions for synovitis need to be developed first. The aim of this study was to develop and validate these defini......Objectives Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) has the potential to be an important tool in the assessment of disease activity in childhood arthritides. To assess pathology, clear definitions for synovitis need to be developed first. The aim of this study was to develop and validate...... these definitions through an international consensus process. Methods The decision on which US techniques to use, the components to be included in the definitions as well as the final wording were developed by 31 ultrasound experts in a consensus process. A Likert scale of 1-5 with 1 indicating complete...... disagreement and 5 complete agreement was used. A minimum of 80% of the experts scoring 4 or 5 was required for final approval. The definitions were then validated on 120 standardized US images of the wrist, MCP and tibiotalar joints displaying various degrees of synovitis at various ages. Results B...

  4. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.

  5. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  6. Psychologists in preoperative programmes for children undergoing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria Cristina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to verify whether psychologists and game activities could reduce preoperative anxiety and promote compliance in paediatric patients. More specifically, we sought to evaluate whether it would be better to propose contextualized games or just distracting activities. A total of 104 children undergoing surgery were assigned to the following 4 conditions of treatment: (1) contextual games and psychological accompaniment, (2) only contextual games, (3) distracting activities, and (4) only psychological accompaniment. Observed children's anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and compliant behaviours with modified form of Induction Compliance Checklist. Children in the first condition (complete intervention - contextual games and psychological accompaniment) were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during the induction of anaesthesia than in the other three conditions. In particular, contextual activities (second condition) were found to be more efficient than psychological accompaniment (fourth condition), whereas the worst condition was proposing only distracting activities (third condition). In order to help young hospitalized patients in paediatric surgery structures, it is necessary to propose games that can prepare them for what will happen as well as the support of a psychologist.

  7. Wednesday's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The author of "Jacob Have I Loved" and "Come Sing, Jimmy Jo" describes the characters in books she has written who are like "Wednesday's children"--full of woe. Discusses dealing with tragedy in children's books. (EL)

  8. Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  9. Female vulnerability to the development of depression-like behavior in a rat model of intimate partner violence is related to anxious temperament, coping responses and amygdala vasopressin receptor 1a expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L Poirier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to violence is traumatic and an important source of mental health disturbance, yet the factors associated with victimization remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors related to vulnerability to depression-like behaviors in females. An animal model of intimate partner violence, which was previously shown to produce long-lasting behavioral effects in females as a result of male partner aggression, was used. The associations among the degree of partner aggression, the long-term consequences on depressive-like behavior, and the impact of the anxious temperament of the female were examined. In a separate group, pre-selected neural markers were evaluated in the amygdala and the lateral septum of females. Expression was examined by analyses of targeted candidate genes, serotonin transporter (slc6a4, vasopressin receptor 1a, (avpr1a, and oxytocin receptor (oxtr. Structural equation modeling revealed that the female’s temperament moderated depressive-like behavior that was induced by cohabitation aggression from the male partner. More specifically, increased floating in the forced swim test following male aggression was most apparent in females exhibiting more anxiety-like behavior (i.e., less open arm exploration in an elevated plus-maze prior to the cohabitation. Aggression reduced slc6a4 levels in the lateral septum. However, the interaction between partner aggression and the anxious temperament of the female affected the expression of avpr1a in the amygdala. Although aggression reduced levels of this marker in females with high anxiety, no such pattern was observed in females with low anxiety. These results identify important characteristics in females that moderate the impact of male aggression. Furthermore, these results provide potential therapeutic targets of interest in the amygdala and the lateral septum to help improve post-stress behavioral pathology and increase resilience to social

  10. Biomusic: An auditory interface for detecting physiological indicators of anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Cheung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety that if left unmanaged, can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called Biomusic, maps physiological signals to music (i.e. electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a whooshing embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation. The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n=10 and children with autism spectrum disorders (n=5 during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n=16 were then asked to identify anxious or relaxed states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% (standard error (SE = 2.3%, 84.9% (SE = 3.0%, and 76.8% (SE = 3.9%, respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 seconds (SE = 0.7 seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e. < 10 minutes and no contextual information. Biomusic holds promise for monitoring, communication, and biofeedback systems for anxiety management.

  11. Impact on children of a parent with ALS: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eCalvo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have explored how patients and their caregivers cope with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but the literature completely lacks research on the psychological impact of the disease on patients’ children. The aim of our study was to investigate the emotional and psychological impact of a parent with ALS on school-age children and adolescents in terms of problem behavior, adjustment, and personality characteristics.Methods: The study involved 23 children (mean age = 10.62 years, 6 females with a parent suffering from ALS, and both their parents. Children were matched for age, gender, and birth-order with a control group of children with healthy parents. They were administered the Youth Self Report (YSR questionnaire and the Rorschach Comprehensive System, and their healthy parent completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL.Results: Findings clearly showed that, compared with controls, children with a parent who had ALS had several clinically significant adverse emotional and behavioral consequences, with emotional and behavioral problems, internalizing problems, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Children of a parent with ALS scored higher than controls for the Total Problems, Internalizing Problems, Anxious/Depressed and Withdrawn/Depressed scales in the YSR. A relevant percentage of children fell within the clinical range (42.9% and borderline range (28.6% for Internalizing Problems. The Rorschach CS confirmed the substantial impact of ALS in a parent on their offspring in terms of internalizing behavior and depression, with adjustment difficulties, psychological pain, and thought problems.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that school-aged children and adolescents with a parent who has ALS are vulnerable and carry a substantially higher risk of internalizing behavior, depressive symptoms, and reactive problems than children with healthy parents. Families affected may need support to cope with such an overwhelming

  12. Likeable children, uneasy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Sally Dean

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...

  13. An experience of science theatre: Earth Science for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Lanza, Tiziana; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    The present paper describes an experience of science theatre addressed to children of primary and secondary school, with the main purpose of explaining the Earth interior while raising awareness about natural hazard. We conducted the experience with the help of a theatrical company specialized in shows for children. Several performances have been reiterated in different context, giving us the opportunity of conducting a preliminary survey with public of different ages, even if the show was conceived for children. Results suggest that science theatre while relying on creativity and emotional learning in transmitting knowledge about the Earth and its hazard has the potential to induce in children a positive attitude towards the risks

  14. Preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el jardín de Freud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud se encuentra indexada en el IBN-Publindex (Colciencias, en categoría C, y en Latindex. También se encuentra en las siguientes bases de datos y catálogos: ebsco, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj y e-Revistas.

  15. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  16. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  17. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for children with epilepsy and anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Fujikawa, Mayu; Sung, Connie; Jackson, Daren C; Jones, Jana E

    2013-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent in children with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, adaptability, and feasibility of a manual-based, computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy. Fifteen anxious youth (aged 8-13 years) with epilepsy completed 12 weeks of manualized computer-assisted CBT. The children and parents completed a semi-structured interview at baseline, and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were completed prior to treatment, at treatment midpoint, after treatment completion, and at three months posttreatment. There were significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression reported by the children at completion of the intervention and at the three-month follow-up. Similarly, the parents reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and a reduction in behavior problems. No adverse events were reported. This CBT intervention for children with epilepsy and anxiety disorders appears to be safe, effective, and feasible and should be incorporated into future intervention studies.

  18. A preliminary study looking at parental emotions following cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Flora; Graham, John; Crocker, Susan

    2007-06-01

    This preliminary research investigated the emotions of parents with cochlear implanted children. The object for the research was first to compare four emotions engendered in parents of deaf children before and after cochlear implantation. Second, to monitor changes in these emotions during a period of up to four years after implantation. Third, to see whether any of the emotions studied was significantly more prominent than the others, and fifth to identify any differences in emotions that were related to the gender of parents. A self-report questionnaire was given to 112 participants of whom 53 replied. There were equal groups of parents in two categories, those with children up to two years after implantation, and those two to four years after implantation. The responses were interpreted using parametric statistics. The results highlight that grief is the strongest emotional condition that parents experience before and up to two years after implantation, alongside family adjustments. Parents of the up to two years after implantation group generally have stronger feelings and are less satisfied than parents in the over two years implanted group. Finally, fathers use denial more than mothers. Considerations for future research and implications for paediatric cochlear implant teams will be discussed.

  19. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.