... anxiety disorder. As many as 14% of older adults have anxiety disorders. These disorders are more common among older women than older men. In later life, people may develop anxiety disorders during stressful events such as a serious illness, the loss of ...
... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...
... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...
... press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults Click for more information Studies estimate that anxiety ... anxiety symptoms or make them worse. In older adults, anxiety disorders often occur at the same time as depression, ...
... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...
Performance anxiety is an important professional matter effecting the musicians. In this article, with the reasons of performance anxiety, methods and techniques used to relieve the anxiety are discussed and some suggestions are introduced.
... Therapies Join a Study Learn More Anxiety Disorders Definition Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. ... and sharing their problems and achievements with others. Internet chat rooms might also be useful, but any ...
Klein, Rachel G.
Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…
... Databases International Annual Meeting Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students ... Information Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It ...
... which may include: Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle Genetics. Anxiety disorders may run in families. Traumatic events. Experiencing abuse, an attack, or sexual assault can lead to serious health problems, including ...
... situation, and affects a person's daily life and happiness. Symptoms of an anxiety disorder can come on ... letting go of worry allows space for more happiness and fun. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD ...
This article explores how the concept of genre can enrich our understanding of gender inequality in media industries. All media work takes place within genre-specific production worlds, which seem to be gender-segregated. By examining the gendered and gendering ideology of genres, an outcome of g...... anxiety and constrains female travel writers’ biographical identity work. By treating genres as mediators of work experiences and practices, I elucidate how contemporary female travel writers experience and cope with genre-induced anxiety....
... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life, ... Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce Your Anxiety Anxiety and Stress in the Workplace Exercise for Stress and Anxiety ...
Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.
Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…
Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used. PMID:20623894
Ghadirian, A M
Although anxiety constitutes the chief symptom of neuroses and functional psychoses, there is little agreement on its definition. This article reviews such definitions, the epidemiology of anxiety, and distinguishes between anxiety, depression and stress.
Ely, Mark C.
Discusses how teachers can help music students overcome performance anxiety. Divides performance anxiety into four major components: physiological, cognitive, behavioral, and psychological. Suggests fighting anxiety with relaxation techniques, imagery, cognitive statements, positive thinking, practice, and preparation. Discourages use of…
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. How Separation Anxiety Develops Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. ...
Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety
... anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...
... and Thrive Managing Anxiety Exercise for Stress and Anxiety Main navigation Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce ... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part ...
Jackson, P.; Everts, J.
This paper advances a theory of anxiety as social practice. Distinguishing between individual anxieties and anxiety as a social condition, the paper suggests that anxiety has not been subject to the same level of theoretical scrutiny as related concepts such as risk, trust, or fear. Drawing on the existential philosophy of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger, the paper shows how contemporary anxieties involve the recognition of our own mortality and the destabilisation of established system...
Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan; Carli, Vladimir
This review summarises current understanding and research on the association between anxiety and outpatient hysteroscopy. Women undergoing hysteroscopy suffer from significant levels of anxiety, with repercussions on pain perception, success rates and satisfaction. Using validated tools such as the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) or the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the outpatient hysteroscopy setting, average state anxiety scores similar or greater than those m...
The communication process that influences human lives is negatively affected by social anxiety. There have been many studies conducted and perspectives introduced about social anxiety. The purpose of this study is to explain social anxiety through examining approaches regarding social anxiety and investigate the sufficiency of those approaches. In this study, approaches about social anxiety are categorized in five groups. These categories are biological approach, psychological approach, cult...
Arya Ashwani; Kumar Tarun; Malik Ajay; Hooda Anil
Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher prepo...
Walsh, K; Bennett, G
There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...
Stacey A. Hofflich
Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 714 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.
... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...
Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.
Martens, Rainer; And Others
This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…
Marly de Albuquerque
Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.
The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…
Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk
Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, “normal anxiety” does not equal “pathological anxiety” although many phenomena are evident in ...
Bouayed, Jaouad; Rammal, Hassan; Soulimani, Rachid
High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal ...
This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.
Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seung Ae; Jung, Keun-Hwa
The present study was to set out in efforts to determine the effect of electrocardiographic (ECG) feedback on the performance in speech anxiety. Forty-six high school students participated in a speech performance educational program. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group with ECG feedback (N = 21) and a control group (N = 25). Feedback was given with video recording in the control, whereas in the experimental group, an additional ECG feedback was provided. Speech performance was evaluated by the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) speech ability test, which determines the 10 different speaking categories. ECG was recorded during rest and speech, together with a video recording of the speech performance. Changes in R-R intervals were used to reflect anxiety profiles. Three trials were performed for 3-week program. Results showed that the subjects with ECG feedback revealed a significant improvement in speech performance and anxiety states, which compared to those in the control group. These findings suggest that visualization of the anxiety profile feedback with ECG can be a better cognitive therapeutic strategy in speech anxiety. PMID:22714138
Anita Vulić-Prtorić; Slavka Galić; Renata Coha; Marina Grubić; Josip Lopižić; Patricija Padelin
The aim of this study was to examine the different aspects of anxiety symptoms: separation anxiety, social anxiety, test anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, worry, anxiety sensitivity, somatic symptoms in four groups of subjects: 1) children with headaches in pediatric care, 2) nonclinical headachers, 3) subjects with anxiety disorders, and 4) healthy controls. The sample consisted of 187 schoolchildren: 43 patients with headaches as a primary complaint, 59 headachers recruited from th...
Huberty, Thomas J.
Test and performance anxiety is not recognized easily in schools, in large part because adolescents rarely refer themselves for emotional concerns. Not wanting to risk teasing or public attention, anxious adolescents suffer in silence and under perform on school-related tasks. In school, anxiety is experienced often by students when being…
... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...
Huizink, A.C.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Robles de Medina, P.G.R.; Visser, G.H.A.
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of general anxiety during pregnancy may underestimate anxiety specifically related to pregnancy. Pregnancy anxiety rather than general anxiety has been shown to predict birth outcome and neuroendocrine changes during pregnancy. Therefore, a questionnaire on pregnancy anxieties
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
Mathew, Roy J.
Anxiety disorders are some of the commonest psychiatric disorders and anxiety commonly co-exists with other psychiatric conditions. Anxiety can also be a normal emotion. Thus, study of the neurobiological effects of anxiety is of considerable significance. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMR) serve as indices of brain function. CBF/CMR research is expected to provide new insight into alterations in brain function in anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disord...
Cogan, Rosemary; Larrabee, Linda K; Wyatt, Ian M; Ontiberoz, Amanda; Waters, Stephanie K; Werner, Mitzi L; Miller, Andrea L; Lovelady, Adrianne C; Hurt, Tilmon J; Hardin, Edward D; Gonzalez, Patricia M
Based on Freud's case study of "Little Hans," the authors tested the hypothesis that men with phobias would score higher on castration anxiety than men without phobias. College men with either average or high scores on the Fears Scale of the MMPI-2 (n = 10 men in each group) responded to the Thematic Apperception Test, which was scored for castration anxiety. Men with high scores on the Fears Scale had higher scores on castration anxiety than men with average scores on the Fears Scale. The findings are consistent with Freud's hypothesis about phobias. PMID:12585544
Horwitz, Elaine K.
The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Stein MB, Stein DJ. Social anxiety disorder. Lancet . 2008;371:1115- ...
... expect. For instance, a person who has generalized anxiety disorder may constantly worry about a child who is perfectly healthy. About 4 million adults in the United States have GAD. Women are ...
... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...
Abusin, K.A.; Zainab, A.N.; Abdul Karim, Noor Harun
Library anxiety is manifested in the form of negative feelings, fear, stress, distress, confusion and has debilitating effects on students’ academic performance, which makes it a serious phenomenon for investigation. This study explores library anxiety amongst Sudanese university students and identifies factors that contribute to this phenomenon. The factors were identified using the diary approach collected from 51 third year undergraduate students who were taking the research method course ...
Background Anxiety disorders are common and a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to conventional treatments such as SSRIs or CBT. Capsulotomy is a neurosurgical treatment for treatment refractory patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders. The aim of this thesis was to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of capsulotomy. Methods and results In Study I, 26 consecutive patients who underwent capsulotomy from 1975-...
Avakyan, Tamara; Volikova, Svetlana
Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanag...
Kupfer, David J
The DSM-5 process, and the publication of DSM-5 in 2013, have had a considerable impact on the classification of anxiety disorders. Major changes included the reorganization of the chapter structure, individual groupings of disorders within each chapter from a life span viewpoint, and the use of specifiers. The DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders does not include obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The chapter itself now reflects a developmental approach. The text ...
Schmidt, Norman B.; Keough, Meghan E.; Mitchell, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Lejuez, C. W.
Emerging evidence suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) predicts subsequent development of anxiety symptoms and panic attacks as well as clinical syndromes in adult samples. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether AS similarly acts as a vulnerability factor in the pathogenesis of anxiety symptoms among youth in early adolescence (ages 9-13). A large nonclinical community sample of youth (N = 277) was prospectively followed over one year. The Childhood Anxiety Sensitivit...
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.
To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that ...
... Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress Main navigation Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce Your Anxiety Anxiety and Stress in the Workplace Exercise for Stress and Anxiety ...
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin
Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…
Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.
To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…
... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...
R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz
The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-ind...
García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; Moreno-García, Elena; Santana-Villegas, Josefina del Carmen
The aim of this research is to test whether anxiety toward mathematics is made up of a five-factor structure: anxiety toward evaluation, anxiety toward temporality, anxiety toward understanding of mathematical problems, anxiety toward numbers and operations, and anxiety toward mathematical situations in real life. Our study sample was formed of…
Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer
Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…
Williams, Amanda S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.
Hartman, Jackie L.; LeMay, Elaine
All business communication professors struggle with anxiety-ridden students when discussing public speaking. To alleviate students' fears of speaking in public a process was designed to allow business communication students to acknowledge, address, and annul their presentation fears. A six-year comparative study using qualitative methods and…
Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva
The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...
Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars;
Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were...
Salim, Samina; Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad
The idea of the existence of an interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) has prompted extensive research interest into the subject of "Psychoneuroimmunology" taking the field to an interesting level where new hypotheses are being increasingly tested. Specifically, exactly how the cross talk of pathways and mechanisms enable immune system to influence our brain and behavior is a question of immense significance. Of particular relevance to this topic is the role of cytokines in regulating functions within the CNS that ultimately modulate behavior. Interestingly, psychological stress is reported to modulate cytokine production, suggesting potential relevance of this mediator to mental health. In fact, cytokine signaling in the brain is known to regulate important brain functions including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, as well as the neural circuitry of mood. It is rather obvious to expect an aberrant behavioral outcome as a result of a dysregulation in cytokine signaling which might lead to occurrence of depression, anxiety, and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system influences behavior would reveal targets for potential therapeutic development as well as strategies for the prevention of neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, the presence of inflammatory responses and the crucial role of cytokines in depression have received most attention. However, considering a big socioeconomic impact due to an alarming increase in anxiety disorder patients, there is an urgent research need for a better understanding of the role of cytokines in anxiety. In this review, we discuss recent research on the role of neuroimmunology in anxiety. At the end, we offer an "oxidative stress theory," which we propose works perhaps as a "sensor of distress," the imbalance of which leads to neuroinflammation and causes anxiety disorders. Much research is needed to extensively
Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter; Allen, John
Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The ...
Mohale Deepak S.
Full Text Available Anxiety can be a core symptom of various mental/ behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorder, adaptive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social withdrawal disorder, and various phobias. The neuroanatomic circuits that support fear and anxiety behavior are modulated by a variety of neurochemicals, these include the peptidergic neurotransmitters, Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF, neuropeptide Y (NPY, and substance P, the monoaminergic transmitters, Norepinephrine (NE, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT, and dopamine (DA, and the amino acid transmitters, Gamma Aminobuteric Acid (GABA and glutamate and many more. These neurochemical systems subserve important adaptive functions in preparing the organism for responding to threat or stress, by increasing vigilance, modulating memory, mobilizing energy stores, and elevating cardiovascular function. Nevertheless, these biological responses to threat and stress can become maladaptive if they are chronically or inappropriately activated.
Gonca Karakus; Zehra Ozturk; Lut Tamam
Although death and life concepts seem so different from each other, some believe that death and life as a whole that death is accepted as the goal of life and death completes life. In different cultures, societies and disciplines, there have been very different definitions of death which changes according to personality, age, religion and cultural status of the individual. Attitudes towards death vary dramatically according to individuals. As for the death anxiety, it is a feeling which start...
This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...
Researches show that language class can be anxiety-provoking for students. This paper discusses from a general explanations of language anxiety, to five potential sources of students for language anxiety, to an argument of ways in which anxiety is manifested in learners, and finally to list of suggestions for reducing anxiety.
Carlos Montero Carretero
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff;
The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training in a...... Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009 and...
Hicks, J A; Jenkins, J G
Preoperative anxiety was assessed using the hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale, multiple affect adjective check list (MAACL) and linear analogue anxiety scale (LAAS) in 100 consecutive day case patients undergoing termination of pregnancy. The HAD scale, a recently introduced self assessment scale comprising 7 multiple choice questions, was readily accepted and easily understood by patients. There was a high degree of correlation between the HAD scale and both the MAACL (correlation ...
T K Mishra; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; P.K. Srivastava
SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...
The present study examined the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among people with migraine. To obtain a spectrum of migraine experience two potentially different samples were identified: over 600 patients attending migraine clinics and 87 migraine sufferers in the general population. International Headache Society criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of migraine. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and studies using th...
Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Patino, Luis R.; Doyle, Christopher D.; Picard, Lara S.; Phan, K. Luan
While the fear-based anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and separation anxiety disorder) are among the most common psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents, only recently has an integrated understanding of the neurobiology of these disorders developed. In this regard, both structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated neuroanatomic and functional abnormalities within the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in youth with fear-based anxi...
Donka G. Kirova
Dental anxiety and dental fear are major factors causing much troubles for the people attending to their own personal health. Statistics show that the 25-26-year-olds experience higher dental anxiety than others. This can be accounted for by the diverse, intense effects of a number of psychological factors in this age range that can cause dental fear and dental anxiety.The aim of the present study was to survey the dental anxiety levels among the students of the Faculty of Dentistry in Plovd...
... Anxiety in Migraine Patients Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, PhD and Steven M. ... health care provider if you experience these symptoms. Migraine, Depression, and Anxiety Many migraine patients suffer from ...
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Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex. PMID:23722398
Pantić Marina; Latas Milan; Obradović Danilo
Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to a...
This paper is a review literature on language anxiety. It begins with a discussion of the concepts of general anxiety and language anxiety, and then continues with an introduction of the techniques for identifying language anxiety. Subsequently, litera-ture on the relationships of language anxiety to learner variables and language learning/using are covered. Finally the dispute and theories concerning language anxiety are presented.
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Fein, Greta G.; And Others
Examined antecedents of maternal separation anxiety in 83 Italian mothers prior to their infants or toddlers entering group care. Mothers' anxiety did not vary with the child's age. Anxious mothers were younger and less educated, received less support, had temperamentally negative infants, and provided less varied stimulation in the home. (MM)
Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.
J.A.J. Smits; A.C. Berry; D. Rosenfield; M.B. Powers; E. Behar; M.W. Otto
Background: Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related conditio
Learning a second language is a tough journey which can be hindered by many factors. Anxiety is one of them. In order to improve the learning effect and benefit the learners, it is of great necessity to study learners’ anxiety during the second language learning process.
Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.
S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt
The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.
Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
C.M. Mathyssek (Christina)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders
Williams, Amanda S.
Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…
Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu
The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service…
Morissette, Sandra Baker; Tull, Matthew T.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Zimering, Rose T.
Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety,…
Brown, H. M.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Woods, H.; Lester, K.J.
Background: Childhood anxiety and depression frequently co-occur. Exploring specificity in cognitive processes for anxiety and depression in childhood can provide insight into cognitive vulnerabilities contributing to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders and inform targeted psychological interventions. Anxiety sensitivity and rumination are robust cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety and depression, respectively. However, despite conceptual similarities, they are rarely consid...
Douglas Rhein; Parisa Sukawatana
This study explores how early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) contribute to the development of anxiety symptomologies among college undergraduates (N=110). The study was conducted by assessing the correlations between 18 schemas derived from Young’s model of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and anxiety symptoms using Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), self-reported anxiety assessment arranging severity into 4 indexes ranging from normal range, minimal to moderate anxiety, marked to severe anxie...
Siepmann, Martin; Joraschky, Peter
Animal behavioural profiles are commonly employed to investigate new therapeutic agents to treat anxiety disorders as well as to investigate the mechanism of action of anxiolytic drugs. However, many clinically important symptoms of anxiety can not be modelled directly in animals. Human models of anxiety should bridge between animal models and anxiety disorders. Experimental anxiety states in humans can be induced by either pharmacological means such as CO2 inhalation or psychological means s...
Background: This paper reports the co-occurrence of heritable anxiety-related disorders and awake bruxism in a family and discusses the heritability of anxiety and implications of awake bruxism as comorbidity to anxiety disorders. Subjects: Ten out of 14 members of an extended family reported having a professionally diagnosed anxiety-related disorder. All individuals with anxiety disorders also showed intraoral signs of wear from bruxism and reported being aware of grinding their teeth whi...
Lesté, A; Rust, J
The study investigated the effects of modern dance on anxiety. State anxiety was assessed before and after a 3-mo. education programme, using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The target group followed a class in modern dance. Control groups were (1) a physical education group to control for the effects of exercise, (2) a music group to control for aesthetic sensitivity training, and (3) a mathematics group. Several concomitant variables were measured: age, sex, attitude towards dance, and previous experience in sport, dance, and relaxation. Dance training significantly reduced anxiety, but no control activities did so. Examination of the concomitant variables showed that the result could not be accounted for by any obvious artifacts. PMID:6473025
Alladin, Assen; Amundson, Jon K
The self-wounds model of anxiety disorders based on the work of Wolfe (2005, 2006) is delineated here. The focal point of this model is the concept of wounded self or early unresolved emotional injuries. According to this view, anxiety disorders represent a chronic struggle with painful experiences. These emotional experiences are driven by two interrelated layers of psychological processes which arise from the wounded self. While the first layer of this process entails conscious awareness of symptoms resulting from cognitive distortions, the second layer comprises implicit or unconscious interpretations of what the symptoms mean to the patient. This article describes the components of the self-wounds model of anxiety disorders, which offers an integrative perspective on the development, onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. This model can be easily adapted to the understanding and treatment of other emotional disorders. PMID:27196008
Botta, Paolo; Demmou, Lynda; Kasugai, Yu; Markovic, Milica; Xu, Chun; Fadok, Jonathan P; Lu, Tingjia; Poe, Michael M; Xu, Li; Cook, James M; Rudolph, Uwe; Sah, Pankaj; Ferraguti, Francesco; Lüthi, Andreas
Aversive experiences can lead to complex behavioral adaptations including increased levels of anxiety and fear generalization. The neuronal mechanisms underlying such maladaptive behavioral changes, however, are poorly understood. Here, using a combination of behavioral, physiological and optogenetic approaches in mouse, we identify a specific subpopulation of central amygdala neurons expressing protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) as key elements of the neuronal circuitry controlling anxiety. Moreover, we show that aversive experiences induce anxiety and fear generalization by regulating the activity of PKCδ(+) neurons via extrasynaptic inhibition mediated by α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Our findings reveal that the neuronal circuits that mediate fear and anxiety overlap at the level of defined subpopulations of central amygdala neurons and demonstrate that persistent changes in the excitability of a single cell type can orchestrate complex behavioral changes. PMID:26322928
Anxiety is one of the affective factors which are connected with second language learning. It has negative affects in learning language. It is necessary to know why it happens and how to solve it.
Linden, M; Muschalla, B
Work is an important aspect of life. Problems at the workplace must therefore have negative consequences on the mental status and mental problems will interfere with the working place. The relation between anxiety and the workplace is especially important because the workplace causes anxiety due to its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general, and work related anxieties in particular, are workplace phobias, with panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This is a serious complication with negative consequences for the further course of illness. It makes special therapeutic intervention necessary. This paper describes the phenomenon of workplace related anxieties and phobia and provides a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:17106728
An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled stu...
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying . The ...... transformative effects of the many entangling forces that are involved in the enactment of bullying practices, and the chapter ends with a description of a few of these forces and how they may entangle.......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying . The...... concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces...
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is not a rare psychiatric disorder, and the recent World Mental Health Japan Survey, Second (WMHJ2) reported the possibility that the twelve-month prevalence of SAD has increased from 0.7 to 2.3% over the last ten years. However, ten years have already passed since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) were approved for the treatment of SAD in Japan, and not only laypersons but also mental health professionals still misunderstand SAD as public speech phobia. As a result, the boundary between normal shyness and SAD and threshold to start pharmacotherapy have been debated. Participants in most double-blind studies of SSRI were limited to those with a generalized subtype of SAD. While benzodiazepine led to a significantly more favorable response and symptom improvement and the effect size of benzodiazepine was larger than those of SSRI, it did not lead to a "cure" and is sometimes deleterious for atypical SAD patients. To sum up, a psychotherapeutic approach including cognitive behavioral therapy is suggested as first-line treatment for non-generalized SAD according to the NICE guidelines. On the other hand, patients with generalized SAD and secondary depression are still misunderstood (and under-recognized) as those with "treatment-resistant depression", and they suffer from severe impairment of the psycho-social function, including absences or withdrawal from working or schooling. They need more effective combination treatment of SSRI and cognitive behavioral therapy as generalized SAD patients. PMID:26524840
Fredrikson, Mats; Faria, Vanda
Neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate neurofunctional and neurochemical alterations related to the generation and control of affect in patients with anxiety disorders are reviewed. We performed a meta-analysis of symptom provocation studies, where neural activity was measured using fMRI, PET or SPECT to test the hypothesis that prefrontal regions modulate amygdala activity. Data revealed that reactivity in the amygdala was enhanced in patients with phobia as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was activated in concert with the amygdala, both in PTSD and in phobic states, suggesting a role in fear expression, rather than emotional control. Activity in emotion-regulating areas in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and the medial orbitofrontal cortex was compromised in the symptomatic state in PTSD and phobic disorders, respectively. Increased amygdala reactivity was restored with psychological treatment. Treatment effects across different modalities including pharmacological and psychological interventions as well as with placebo regimens support that reduction of neural activity in the amygdala may be a final common pathway for successful therapeutic interventions irrespective of method, thereby linking neurotransmission to plasticity in a pivotal node of the core fear network of the brain. PMID:25225017
Prima Vitasari; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Othman; Muhammad Ghani Awang
Anxiety is one of the wide varieties of emotional and behaviour disorders, it is a major predictor of low academic performance. To this, anxiety should be taken seriously. Students needed some intervention to reduce anxiety in improving academic performance. Study anxiety intervention is designed to help students handling the problem regarding of their study process. In this paper, the study anxiety intervention to manage study anxiety in order to increase academic performance among students ...
Masoomeh Salehi; Fahimeh Marefat
This study aimed at investigating the effects of foreign language anxiety and test anxiety on foreign language test performance. Another purpose of this study was to see whether there is any relationship between foreign language anxiety and test anxiety. Two hundred students of English as a foreign language at pre-intermediate (Pre 1) level participated in this study. In the present study, the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale and the Test Anxiety Scale were used to measure foreign lan...
Domschke, Katharina; Dannlowski, Udo
Anxiety disorders are frequent and burdensome psychiatric diseases. Despite their moderate to strong heritabilities, the search for candidate genes has been limited by methodological shortcomings hitherto, e.g., the use of clinically defined, but neurobiologically heterogeneous categorical phenotypes. Investigating neurobiological response patterns associated with fear processing as an intermediate phenotype might aid in overcoming these difficulties. The existing imaging literature on the neurobiological correlates of fear processing and anxiety disorders points to a pivotal role of the amygdala in the human fear circuit. Therefore, amygdala responsiveness to anxiety-related stimuli was suggested as an intermediate phenotype for anxiety disorders. The present article provides an overview of imaging genetic studies investigating genetic effects on amygdala responsiveness with particular emphasis on recent imaging genetic findings in anxiety-related traits, panic disorder and social phobia. The existing studies consistently reveal strong genetic effects on the responsiveness of the fear circuit, particularly of genetic variants previously discussed as potential susceptibility variants for anxiety, e.g., the COMT 158val allele or the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Further research will be necessary involving larger sample sizes to allow for investigating gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. More evolved statistical and neuroimaging methods such as effective connectivity measures could lead to a better understanding of imaging endophenotypes and the nature of gene-brain relationships. Longitudinal studies in patient samples will be required to elucidate how genetically influenced neurobiological intermediate phenotypes are associated with subtype, severity and the course of anxiety disorders, thereby having the potential for developing individualized therapy regimes derived from neurobiological research. PMID:19944771
Rankin, M; Borah, G L
Surgery is a stressful event, with the potential for profound disturbance to the patient's psychological and physiologic homeostasis. Cosmetic surgery is a particularly intense psychological experience because, in addition to the usual concerns about surgical side effects, cosmetic patients bring their hopes and expectations for improved self-image, putting them at risk for the added anxiety of disappointment. High levels of anxiety coupled with the perception of vulnerability or threat to self can cause significant psychological reactions complicating care for the plastic surgical patient. This paper outlines the diagnostic features of the common types of anxiety disorders seen in plastic surgical patients, and it offers treatment strategies for the practitioner, delineating when referral to a mental health expert is advised. Specific clinical case studies of panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder, and acute stress disorder are presented to illustrate the variety of abnormal anxiety responses that may be encountered in the perioperative setting. Interventions for the anxious patient are part science and part art. Careful questioning and psychosocial assessment can identify those patients who are at greater risk for psychological problems after surgery. However, some patients may mask or keep secret their concerns, which can be manifested with resulting anger and hostility. Plastic surgeons must use appropriate indicators of psychological anxiety and measure a specific patient's reactions to surgery to make the diagnosis of abnormal anxiety. Close follow-up by the plastic surgical team is an essential part of the anxiety disorder patient's psychological treatment, but it is imperative that these problematic patients be referred promptly to a qualified mental health professional to limit their adverse experience and promote their well-being. Patients who are less anxious during the perioperative period report less emotional distress and fewer defensive
Full Text Available Introduction. Anxiety, as a primary symptom, includes all conditions of indefinite fear and psychic disorders dominated by fear. All dialysis patients suffer from anxiety as an independent phenomenon, or as part of another disease. Material and Methods. This study included 753 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H in the period 1999-2004. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 348 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, and the control group included 405 patients with other diagnoses causing renal insufficiency (N18. The study was designed as a comparative cross sectional study, and patients were tested using questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and general mental health status. Statistical analysis was done using standard descriptive and analytical methods. Results. Socio-demographic data showed highly significant differences between BEN and N18 in relation to place of residence (urban/rural (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; in the incidence of renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; familial renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; and migrations (c2 = 4.874 p<0.01. Beck Anxiety Inventory Scores were highly significantly different between the two groups p<0.001, in regard to the incidence and variables. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale demonstrated a group significance p<0.001, and variables pointed to somatization, general anxiety and depression. This was confirmed by mini-mental state examination pointing to generalmental weakness. Conclusion. Anxiety appeared in all tested dialysis patients. It may be independent, somatized as part of another mental disorder or reinforced by a cognitive damage. Structured anxiety and depression result in pre-suicidal risk. .
Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda
Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety
Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia
Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results. PMID:23045843
Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.
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Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam
Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229
Hughes, Alicia A.; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica D.; Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.
Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in…
Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki
Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…
Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.
This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…
Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.
Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a focus on clarifying the role of gender. Participants were 138 adoles...
Zavos, Helena M.S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C
Anxiety sensitivity is associated with both anxiety and depression and has been shown to be heritable. Little, however, is known about the role of genetic influence on continuity and change of symptoms over time. The authors’ aim was to examine the stability of anxiety sensitivity during adolescence. By using a genetically sensitive design, the authors were also able to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence anxiety sensitivity over time. Self-reports of a...
textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression in older adults. In particular, comorbidity, health care use, cortisol and atherosclerosis and genetic factors are studied in relation to anxiety and...
Trepka, Chris; Laing, Ingrid; Smith, Stan
This study examined the effects on anxiety levels and primary care team workload of group psychological treatment for anxiety compared with individual treatment. Patients making high demands on primary care services were selected for group treatment, following which demands for services were considerably reduced. Two types of group treatment were used: the anxiety support group required less staff time to run than the anxiety management group but neither treatment had a clinically significant...
SUMMARY The current psychobiology and the therapeutic principles of anxiety states have been reviewed. The seprohippocampal system probably operates as the organ of match-mismatch comparator. A dysfunction of this internal comparator could possibly be the source of anxiety. There seem to be two distinct psychobiologic models for pain disorder and chronic anxiety state. The therapeutic responses of panic disorder to TCA and MAOI and the response to the chronic anxiety state to benzodiazepines ...
Zaitsu Takashi; Ueno Masayuki; Shinada Kayoko; Wright Fredrick A; Kawaguchi Yoko
Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who...
Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, affecting 7-13% of subjects in the community at some time in their lives. Despite being eminently treatable, it remains largely under-recognised and, therefore, undertreated. The disorder is characterized by a fear of scrutiny by others, with sufferers experiencing excessive anxiety in social and performance situations. This excessive anxiety usually leads to avoidance behaviour that can seve...
in this paper, I meant to bring out problems about morality and anxiety through the point of view of Contradiction, to study Morality and Anxiety together, and at the same time we try to elucidate the essence of Morality and Anxiety and the rationality and value of their existence. In order to deal with the dilemma of Morality and Anxiety, we propose to seek the equivalence between man, society and nature with aesthetic attitude and the mental state of Wuwo.
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders most commonly have their onset at an early age, and they are the most frequent mental health problem in children and adolescents. The aim of this thesis is to further our knowledge of the developme...
Simon, Ellin; Bögels, Susan Maria
Abstract Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have negative consequences on individual and societal level. This study examined the usefulness of screening for anxiety disorders in primary school children. More specifically, the value of the screening method to discriminate between and to predict anxiety disorders was studied. Children and their parents were selected if the children had self-reported scores on the screening questionnaire Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotio...
Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Hamm, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan
Functional neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in fear and threat processing systems in youth with anxiety disorders; however, the structural neuroanatomy of these systems in children and adolescents remains largely unknown. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), gray matter volumes were compared between 38 medication-free patients with anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder; social phobia; separation anxiety disorder, mean age: 14.4 ± 3 years) and 27 comp...
Academic anxiety interferes with achievement and performance, as well as social and psychological development among children and adults. Although the writings of Michel Foucault do not address anxiety directly, his themes of knowledge and power have been applied to education and describe relationships that are likely to create anxiety among some…
Rhein, Douglas; Sukawatana, Parisa
This study explores how early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) contribute to the development of anxiety symptomologies among college undergraduates (N = 110). The study was conducted by assessing the correlations between 18 schemas derived from Young's model of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and anxiety symptoms using Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale…
Marinelli, Robert P.; Kelz, James W.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between attitudes toward visibly disabled persons and both trait and state anxiety. Results indicated that persons whose attitudes toward the cosmetically disabled were more negative showed more state anxiety in the interaction and more trait anxiety as measured by the MAS than students…
Schulz, Richard; Aderman, David
It was shown that terminal patients of physicians with high death anxiety survive longer during their final hospital stay than terminal patients of physicians with low death anxiety. Physicians high in death anxiety seem to be less willing to accept patients' terminality and use heroic measures to keep them alive. (Author)
Cowden, Peter A.
Humans experience social anxiety to different degrees and in different areas. In school settings, this can be a barrier to learning. The school is a social place and to experience anxiety around peers can be challenging, especially if the student also has a learning disability. Social anxiety problems are often associated with learning…
Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean
High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…
Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…
Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland
We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…
Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver
The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…
Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia
Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders an
Zavos, Helena M. S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.
Anxiety sensitivity is associated with both anxiety and depression and has been shown to be heritable. Little, however, is known about the role of genetic influence on continuity and change of symptoms over time. The authors' aim was to examine the stability of anxiety sensitivity during adolescence. By using a genetically sensitive design, the…
Lowry, Christopher A; Johnson, Philip L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;
anxiety-related circuits. In particular, we explore the possibility that the regulation of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior by serotonergic systems is dependent on a specific, topographically organized mesolimbocortical serotonergic system that originates in the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal...
Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.
Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity...
Wagner Renate; Marnane Claire L; Silove Derrick M; Manicavasagar Vijaya L; Rees Susan
Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety...
Beesdo, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Pine, Daniel S.
This review summarizes findings on the epidemiology and etiology of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents including separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, also highlighting critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Childhood and adolescence is the core risk phase for the development of anxiety symptoms and syndromes, ranging from transient mild symptoms to full-blown anxiety disorde...
Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne
The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings we...
Osborne, Jason W.
Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…
Elisabete Rabaldo BOTTAN
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the percentage of students with dentalanxiety.Method: A transversal exploratory study was designed involving976 schoolchildren aged 9 to 17 years from three public schoolslocated in the urban perimeter of the city of Campos Novos (SC.Data collection instruments were questionnaires adapted from theDental Anxiety Scale (DAS and Dental Fear Survey (DFS.Results: 84% of the subjects manifested anxiety, most of thembeing classified as low-anxiety individuals. Girls were a little moreanxious than boys (87% versus 81%. The relationship betweenage group and percentage of anxious patients indicates a decreasein the frequency for older individuals. The most frequently mentionedphysiological responses were accelerated heart beat and tremors.The triggering factors were “to see” or “to hear the noise of” thedental bur and anesthesia. Most subjects (84.5% affirmed to havevisited a dental office in the past two years and 63.5% of themreported that the dental appointments were scheduled for restorativepurposes.Conclusion: Dental anxiety was present in this population in ahigh percentage.
Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J
In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression. PMID:3998984
Muntingh, Anna D. T.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.
Background: Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (so
Brandt, Christian; Mula, Marco
Anxiety disorders are frequent, though probably underdiagnosed, comorbidities in epilepsy. Epilepsy and anxiety may share common neurobiological correlates as shown in animal models and suggested by studies demonstrating anxiety disorders before the manifestation of epilepsy. Comorbid anxiety disorders have a major impact on the affected patients' quality of life and may increase the risk for suicidality. Successful treatment of the epilepsy may alleviate anxiety symptoms. Treatment of anxiety is based on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines (although only as second-line choices), and psychotherapy. Specific AEDs (especially pregabalin) have been shown to have anxiolytic properties. This paper is aimed at reviewing anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy discussing current scientific evidence about pathophysiology, clinical aspects, and treatment strategies. PMID:27116536
Lars eSchulze; Babette eRenneberg; Lobmaier, Janek S.
Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhance...
İnci, Figen; Öz, Fatma
Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses' death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together ...
Figen Inci; Fatma Oz
Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses’ death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together with a dy...
Acute and chronic stress, as well as accompanying changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect cognitive processes, including memory. In professional musicians occupational stress and music performance anxiety (MPA) are a major source of concern during a musical career, whereas a boost is to a certain extent necessary for a musical performance. ---------- A protocol was successfully designed to induce acute stress in healthy students while measuring electro-encephalography...
van der Feltz-Cornelis Christina M; Muntingh Anna DT; van Marwijk Harm WJ; Spinhoven Philip; Penninx Brenda WJH; van Balkom Anton JLM
Abstract Background Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder), depressive disorders or no disorder (controls). Methods Participants were 1601 primary...
Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa
To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety.
Plake, Barbara S.; And Others
The concurrent validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) and its factor structure are investigated to provide empirical evidence about the quality of AAT. State and trait anxiety were measured by State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), mathematics anxiety was assessed by a 24-item revised version of the 98-item Mathematics Anxiety Rating…
P. Muris; M. Kindt; S. Boegels; H. Merckelbach; B, Gadet; V. Moulaert
Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat perce
Beikmoradi, Ali; NAJAFI, Fatemeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratallah; Pour Esmaeil, Zahra; Khatibian, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Alireza
Background: Anxiety has negative effects on mental and physical performance, quality of life, duration of hospitalization, and even on the treatment of patients with cancer. Objectives: Today acupressure is widely used to treat anxiety. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of acupressure on anxiety in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 85 patients hospitalized with 3 groups including acupressure group (n = ...
Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim
In several developmental theories separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate sepa...
Tannock Rosemary; Rubinsten Orly
Abstract Background Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD) by using a ...
Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter
Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear . Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...
OBJECTIVE: To present an approach to intervention in childhood anxiety disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for recent literature on childhood anxiety disorders and on my experience as a child psychiatrist and researcher in a specialized anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN MESSAGE: Children with symptoms of high sympathetic arousal; persistent worries or intrusive thoughts; and extreme clinging, avoidance, or repetitive behaviours that i...
Zerrin Binbay; Ahmet Koyuncu
Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subseq...
Sakineh - Mofrad; Rohani - Abdullah; Ikechkwu - Uba
Literature suggests that child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns related differently to separation anxiety symptoms (fear of being alone, and fear of abandonment). Three attachment patterns assessed were secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment. Findings indicated that ambivalent attachment was most consistently related with higher separation anxiety symptom. And also, different associations were found bet...
Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam
Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals , as observed by behavioral manifestations , physiological responses , and gene conservation . Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a cho...
High rates of comorbidity were found between alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder in epidemiologic studies. Although many studies show strong relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder diagnosis, inconsistency about the causal relationship still remains. High rates of comorbidity is a subject of concern since patients with both alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder show more severe symptoms and more functional impairment than those patients w...
Pinto, Anthony; Phillips, Katharine A.
Although clinical impressions suggest that patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) experience distress in social situations, social anxiety in BDD has received little investigation. This study examined social anxiety in 81 patients with BDD and change in social anxiety with pharmacotherapy. Subjects completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) and were assessed with measures of BDD symptomatology. Participants in a placebo-controlled fluoxetine trial completed measures at bas...
Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.
The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. Afte...
Using the proven techniques of cognitive behavioural therapy, this book will show you how to manage your anxiety, in whatever form it appears, from phobias to panic attacks and general anxiety disorder. You will receive support for understanding with and coping with different types of anxiety, using CBT to manage your symptoms and alleviate much of your distress. You will also learn how to be more resilient and accepting of all your thoughts, fears and emotions, and discover new, healthier wa...
Anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder (PD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias are common psychiatric disorders, characterized by exaggerated, prolonged and debilitating levels of anxiety. They are complex diseases with onset influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but so far little progress has been made in identifying solid susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to shed light on the genetic basi...
Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique
The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is hi...
Ya-Chin Tsai; Yi-Chih Li
Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assesse...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearsons product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.
Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader
Cognitive models of social anxiety predict that interpretation bias mediates the relationship between level of social anxiety and state anxiety in response to social-evaluative threat. We tested this prediction in 67 socially anxious undergraduates. Participants completed self-report measures of social anxiety and interpretation bias, and two days later they completed an impromptu speech. Mediational analyses supported the hypothesis that interpretation bias mediates the effect of social anxi...
Aims: To study the impact of a treatment programme for flight anxiety on other anxiety symptoms, and to assess the impact of previous nervous problems and previous contact with a psychiatrist/psychologist on the degree of anxiety. Methods: The study followed a prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental design. There were 295 women and 128 men included in the study. The subjects for this cognitive behavioural treatment programme for flight anxiety were recruited by an advertisement in the...
Cooper, P. J.; Gallop, C.; Willetts, L.; Creswell, C
An examination was made of the extent to which maternal anxiety predicted response to treatment of children presenting with an anxiety disorder. In a sample of 55 children referred to a local NHS CAMH service for treatment of an anxiety disorder, systematic mental state interview assessment was made of both mothers and children, and both completed self-report questionnaires to assess aspects of anxiety, both immediately before the children received treatment and following treatment. Children ...
Sandra Björg Sigurjónsdóttir 1985
Studies on the proposed link between separation anxiety disorder in childhood (SAD) and panic disorder (PD) have yielded mixed results, suggesting that there is perhaps a missing link between these disorders. We examined whether anxiety sensitivity could be a potential key element in the relationship between SAD and PD. Anxiety sensitivity levels of three hundred and fifteen clinic-referred children (ages 6-17) were evaluated, using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI). One hundred ...
Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Catharine
Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a so...
Koychev, Ivan; Ebmeier, Klaus P
Anxiety disorder in the elderly is twice as common as dementia and four to six times more common than major depression. Anxiety is associated with poorer quality of life, significant distress and contributes to the onset of disability. Mortality risks are also increased, through physical causes, especially cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Diagnosing anxiety disorders in older adults remains a challenge because of the significant overlap in symptoms between physical disorders (shortness of breath; abdominal and chest pain; palpitations) and depression (disturbed sleep; poor attention, concentration and memory; restlessness). Good history taking is crucial in elucidating whether the complaint is of new onset or a recurrence of a previous disorder. The presence of comorbid depression should be clarified. If present, its temporal relationship with the anxiety symptoms will indicate whether there is an independent anxiety disorder. A medication review is warranted, as a number of drugs may be causative (calcium channel blockers, alpha- and beta-blockers, digoxin, L-thyroxine, bronchodilators, steroids, theophylline, antihistamines) or may cause anxiety in withdrawal (e.g. benzodiazepines). Substance and alcohol abuse should be excluded, as withdrawal from either may cause anxiety. A new or exacerbated physical illness may be related to anxiety. Medical investigations will help clarify the extent to which a particular somatic symptom is the result of anxiety. PMID:27180498
We always acquire knowledgeby reading,so reading plays a vital role in our daily life of language learning.But we found that it's difficult to improve your reading ability during English learning,There are many factors believed to influence reading efficiency.Among them,anxiety is considered to be one of the most significant factors.This paper analyzes the causes ofthe students'anxiety,puts forward some proper adjustments to reduce the anxiety and finally to achieve the aim of helping learners reduce their anxiety and promote their reading efficiency.
in this paper,I meant to bring out problems about morality and anxiety through the point of view of Contradiction,to study Morality and Anxiety together,and at the same time we try to elucidate the essence of Morality and Anxiety and the rationality and value of their existence.In order to deal with the dilemma of Morality and Anxiety,we propose to seek the equivalence between man,society and nature with aesthetic attitude and the mental state of Wuwo.
Brown, H. M.; Waszczuk, M.A.; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Trzaskowski, M; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.
Background The classification of anxiety and depressive disorders has long been debated and has important clinical implications. The present study combined a genetically sensitive design and multiple time points to investigate cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms across anxiety sensitivity dimensions, a cognitive distortion implicated in both disorders. Method Phenotypic and genetic correlations between anxiety sensitivity dimensions, anxiety and depre...
Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.
This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…
Onyeizugbo, Euckay U.
Introduction: Test anxiety inhibits students from performing according to their full potential in academic setting. Objectives: This study investigated self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Method: Two hundred and forty nine (249) psychology majors drawn from a university in Eastern Nigeria participated in the…
Seng, Ernest Lim Kok
This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…
In this study of the interaction between anxiety trait (A-trait), anxiety state (A-state), and dogmatism in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), subjects were selected on the basis of extreme scores on a measure of anxiety and on a measure of dogmatism. The subjects were presented with a CAI task consisting of difficult mathematical problems. The…
M. Kindt; S.M. Bögels; M. Morren
The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co
Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.
Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…
Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.
There has been significant interest in the role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis, we empirically evaluate differences in AS between anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and nonclinical controls. A total of 38 published studies (N = 20,146) were included in the analysis. The results yielded a large effect…
There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…
This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…
Villafuerte, Sandra; Burmeister, Margit
As is the case for normal individual variation in anxiety levels, the conditions panic disorder, agoraphobia and other phobias have a significant genetic basis. Recent reports have started to untangle the genetic relationships between predispositions to anxiety and anxiety disorders.
... separation anxiety disorder. The potential long-term effects (anxiety and panic disorder as an adult) are serious for a child who has persistent separation anxiety and does not receive professional assistance. The child ...
... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Understanding Anxiety Disorders When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm Many ... or help us focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, they can be overwhelming. Anxiety disorders affect ...
... to have GAD? For More Information Share Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). What is ...
Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda
Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety characteristics with several inflammatory markers. For this purpose, persons (18-65 years) with a current (N = 1273) or remitted (N = 459) anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social ph...
McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Anxiety sensitivity represents a robust risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms among both adolescents and adults. However, the development of anxiety sensitivity among adolescents remains inadequately understood. In this study, the authors examined the role of stressful life events as a risk factor for the development of elevated anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety sensitivity was then examined in a longitudinal design as a mechanism linking stressful life events to changes in anxiety s...
Prima Vitasari; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Othman; Muhammad Ghani Awang
University students suffer to some levels of study anxiety, such as; have new experiences, environment and situation. Study anxiety is a real phenomenon. Campus environment has universal access to increase study anxiety among students. The prevalence of study anxiety has been acknowledged by students and educators. However, no current researches exist to identify the study anxiety sources among university students. In this research, we present a survey aimed to identify of study anxiety sourc...
Kuan, Foo Lay; Tek, Ong Eng
This paper reports a causal-comparative study of science anxiety among Form Four students in Penang. The Wynstra's (1991) Science Anxiety Inventory (SAI), which consists of six factors (i.e., danger anxiety, science test anxiety, math and problem-solving anxiety, squeamish anxiety, performance anxiety, and science classroom anxiety), was…
Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder
Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.
Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…
Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…
Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.
The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…
Wristen, Brenda G.
Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…
K. Hek (Karin)
textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e
Little attention has been paid to the demotivating potential of new technologies in foreign language research. Thus, this study aims to investigate Internet anxiety among foreign language learners and to determine the relationships between Internet anxiety and certain variables. A background questionnaire, an Internet information test, and an…
Labelle, A.; Lapierre, Y. D.
Anxiety disorders often take second priority in clinical practice because many physicians do not understand them or their treatment. This paper reviews the diagnostic groupings of anxiety disorders according to the American Psychiatric Association's Revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 3-R) and discusses differential diagnosis and treatment.
van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A.; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, of
... of these conditions: Panic Disorder: "For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart ... / Studying Anxiety Disorders / Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ...
Harris, Albert L.; Harris, Jacqueline M.
Student, teacher, and teaching causes of mathematics anxiety are discussed. Computer-assisted instruction can reduce mathematics anxieties due to lack of confidence, negative attitudes, teacher bias, authoritarian teaching, lack of variety, lack of relationship with the real world, emphasis on memorization or on speed, or computer phobia. (MNS)
Taylor, Bret A.; Fraser, Barry J.
We investigated relationships between the learning environment and students' mathematics anxiety, as well as differences between the sexes in perceptions of learning environment and anxiety. A sample of 745 high-school students in 34 different mathematics classrooms in four high schools in Southern California was used to cross-validate the What Is…
Ballash, Natalie; Leyfer, Ovsanna; Buckley, Amy F.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent forms of adult and childhood psychiatric disorders, and they are highly familial. However, the mechanisms of transmission remain unclear. One familial characteristic that may promote the development of anxiety is the construct of parental control. This paper provides a conceptual overview of the…
Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater
Bodas, Jaee; Ollendick, Thomas H.
The present paper examines test anxiety from a cross-cultural perspective with specific reference to the Indian and American cultures. The construct of test anxiety has been examined in many cultures all over the world. In this review, the importance of understanding and incorporating contextual factors in cross-cultural research is emphasized.…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the level and predictors of research-related anxiety among graduate ELT students in the Turkish context. 81 MA and PhD students from 14 universities offering graduate programs in ELT responded to a background questionnaire, a research anxiety scale, and a research self-efficacy survey. The analysis of…
Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew
The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…
Practical Implications: Anxiety disorders are highly related to suicidal behaviors, particularly in children and adolescents. Additionally, awaken bruxism can often serve as an indicator of anxiety or stress. By recognizing bruxism as a possible manifestation of psychological distress, the dental practitioner may be able to direct patients to life-saving services like psychologists and crisis hotlines when appropriate.
Vila, G; Nollet-Clémençon, C; de Blic, J; Falissard, B; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P
The study's objective was to determine whether the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Trait version (STAIC), is suitable for the assessment of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in asthmatic children and adolescents. Ninety-two outpatients were given a semistructured diagnostic interview. They completed STAIC; another questionnaire about anxiety, the Echelle Comportementale d'Anxiété et de Peurs (ECAP); and the Child Depression Inventory. The parents filled in the Child Behavior Check-List (CBCL) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). A group of healthy children was assessed with STAIC. Thirty asthmatic children had anxiety disorders. They had significantly higher STAIC scores than the nonanxious asthmatic and the nonasthmatic children. STAIC scores were independent of age and sex and were correlated with ECAP, CPRS anxiety subscore, CBCL total score, internalizing score, and CBCL anxiety-depression subscore. Internal consistency was 0.75. With a threshold value of 34 for anxiety disorders, this method had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 70%. STAIC was thus a useful method for anxiety disorder screening in a pediatric population. PMID:10479945
Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hasrul; Ibrahim, Noraniza; Yunus, Melor Md; Ishak, Noriah Mohd
Language anxiety has significantly sparked great concern in the second and foreign language learning world. Researches have found negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement of English language learners; and, most of the studies focus on average school students and tertiary level students. This paper, however, explores…
Simon, Neil G; Kiernan, Matthew C
The goal of this study is to define the clinical features, pathogenesis and key investigation findings of fasciculation anxiety syndrome in clinicians (FASICS). Twenty consecutive clinicians presenting with fasciculations were prospectively assessed with serial clinical and neurophysiological evaluations. Clinicians with fasciculations formed three groups: 70 % of clinicians experienced symptomatic fasciculations and anxiety about the possibility of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), termed FASICS; a further 15 % of clinicians experienced fasciculations associated with cramps and consistent with cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS). The final 15 % of clinicians presented with fasciculations associated with sensory symptoms or muscle weakness and were diagnosed with neuropathy (10 %) and ALS (5 %). In FASICS, fasciculations most often involved the lower limbs, without evidence of muscle weakness on clinical examination. Exercise, stress, fatigue and caffeine consumption were identified as common exacerbating factors. Neurophysiological studies confirmed normal nerve conduction studies and the presence of simple fasciculations, without acute denervation or neurogenic motor unit changes. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels were assayed in each clinician and were not detected, and systemic autoantibodies were detected only in clinicians with features of CFS. FASICS is a disorder common among physicians presenting for evaluation of fasciculations. The present study delineates the diagnostic features of FASICS and contrasts the clinical presentation with other causes of fasciculations in clinicians. PMID:23400500
Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Joshua P. Smith; Miller, Peter M.
There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g. the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between...
Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.
This study tested the associations of both resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress with anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression among 80 youth (aged 11-17 years). Measures included physiological assessments of emotion regulation along with youth self-report of anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression and caregiver reports of their child's anxiety and aggression. Resting vagal tone was positively related to anxiety control beliefs, but negatively associated with anxiet...
Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oort, Floor V. A.
We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], sep...
Michel, Natalie M; Rowa, Karen; Young, Lisa; McCabe, Randi E
Emotional distress tolerance (EDT) has increasingly been recognized as a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor. However, research assessing EDT in anxiety disorder populations is lacking. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining EDT in a sample of outpatients with panic, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or obsessive compulsive disorders (n=674), and by assessing its relationship to symptom severity and impairment. Results showed that poor EDT was common across diagnostic groups. However, correlation and regression analyses suggested that although EDT was associated with symptom severity and impairment, it did not account for unique variance in scores beyond the effect of negative affect, stress, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS). IU and AS had a stronger relationship with overall symptom severity and impairment in the regression models. Together, findings suggest that although EDT may be transdiagnostic, IU and AS are more relevant to our understanding of anxiety disorders. PMID:27161839
Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole;
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS: To...... assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years. The...... risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...
E. Aktar; M. Majdandžić; W. de Vente; S.M. Bögels
Background: Anxiety runs in families. Observational learning of anxious behavior from parents with anxiety disorders plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety. We investigated the link between parental anxiety (parental lifetime anxiety disorders and expressed parental
Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc
Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J
Anxiety disorders are a group of crippling mental diseases affecting millions of Americans with a 30% lifetime prevalence and costs associated with healthcare of $42.3 billion. While anxiety disorders show high levels of co-morbidity with smoking (45.3% vs. 22.5% in healthy individuals), they are also more common among the smoking population (22% vs. 11.1% in the non-smoking population). Moreover, there is clear evidence that smoking modulates symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders. In order to better understand this relationship, several animal paradigms are used to model several key symptoms of anxiety disorders; these include fear conditioning and measures of anxiety. Studies clearly demonstrate that nicotine mediates acquisition and extinction of fear as well as anxiety through the modulation of specific subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain regions involved in emotion processing such as the hippocampus. However, the direction of nicotine's effects on these behaviors is determined by several factors that include the length of administration, hippocampus-dependency of the fear learning task, and source of anxiety (novelty-driven vs. social anxiety). Overall, the studies reviewed here suggest that nicotine alters behaviors related to fear and anxiety and that nicotine contributes to the development, maintenance, and reoccurrence of anxiety disorders. PMID:26231942
Full Text Available Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses’ death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together with a dying patient. In terms of the end of life, it is expected that the nurse stands by patient’s family to help them in sustaining their psychosocial wellness. In order to meet this expectation, nurses should get a qualitative training for end of life care along with good interpersonal communication skills and coping strategies.
Nardi Antonio E.
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a marked and persistent fear of doing almost everything in front of people due to concerns about being judge by others. An up-to-date review is needed in order to reach a practical judgement of all psychopharmacological data. Case reports, open and double-blind trials with SAD were described and commented upon from a clinical point of view. The MEDLINE system was searched from 1975 to 2001. The references from the selected papers were also used as a source. MAOIs (fenelzine, tranylcypromine, reversible monoamino oxidase-A inhibitors (moclobemide, brofaromine, SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and some other antidepressants (venlafaxine, nefazodone have proven effective in several studies with various methodologies. The MAOIs have more serious adverse effects and the SSRIs have the best tolerance. SSRIs are efficacious and the first choice of treatment.
Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F
Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755
Selma Arzu Vardar
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance
Full Text Available Social anxiety in adolescence is one of the most important factors of social and psychological maladjustment. The data of Russian and international research of the differences in the severity of social anxiety in boys and girls is not uniform. In a study conducted by the authors, participants were 183 adolescents aged 12-16 years (90 boys and 93 girls, students of VII-X grades. We measured the level of social anxiety and defined the type of gender identity. The results showed that biological sex does not influence the severity of social anxiety: there were no differences in this indicator between boys and girls. The factor influencing the level of social anxiety was gender identity, and gender identity types (masculinity, femininity, androgyny have approximately the same distributions in both boys and girls. The level of social anxiety shows inversed connection with level of masculinity in adolescents of both sexes and direct connection with femininity index. The magnitude of the gap between the real and the ideal of masculinity of the Self is more pronounced in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.
Pavlova T.S.,; Kholmogorova A.B.
Social anxiety in adolescence is one of the most important factors of social and psychological maladjustment. The data of Russian and international research of the differences in the severity of social anxiety in boys and girls is not uniform. In a study conducted by the authors, participants were 183 adolescents aged 12-16 years (90 boys and 93 girls), students of VII-X grades. We measured the level of social anxiety and defined the type of gender identity. The results showed that biological...
Grant, Joe E.; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence
those without an anxiety disorder. There are numerous risk factors implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, including low self-esteem, family history of depression, female sex, childhood sexual abuse, White race, years of education, number of traumatic experiences, and disturbed family...... (Baxter et al. 2013 ). Per year, the estimated cost (directly and indirectly) of anxiety disorders in the United States alone is over $42 billion (Greenberg et al. 1999 ). More than 50 % of these expenses are due to clinical care stemming from misdiagnosis, inadequate treatment, and emergency care...
A Study reveals that anxiety level of college male & fame students, the present study attempts that level of anxiety among college students the study shows that females have more anxiety then the male. The male have less anxiety then the Female.
Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.
Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…
Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a training program mindfulness to reduce anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 20 participants suffering from anxiety and high scores on ASI-3 and subscale of anxiety from SCL-90. A quasi-experimental comparison group design with pretest-posttest measurement with an experimental group and a control group with 10 participants each group was performed. As instruments of assessment questionnaires ASI-3, MAAS, and SCL-90 were used. Statistical analyzes show a reduction in all in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity factor and anxiety subscale of the SCL-90 once the interventions as well as improvement in the ability to be present or mindfulness measured by the MAAS scale. The results are consistent with other research which has show the effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in improving the symptoms of anxiety
Grossbard, Joel R; Smith, Ronald E; Smoll, Frank L; Cumming, Sean P
The age-appropriate Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2; Smith, Smoll, Cumming, & Grossbard, 2006) was used to assess levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety among male and female youth sport participants. Confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of 9-14 year old athletes (N=1038) supported the viability of a three-factor model of anxiety involving somatic anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption previously demonstrated in high school and college samples. Tests for factorial invariance revealed that the three-factor model was an equally good fit for 9-11 year olds and 12-14 year olds, and for both males and females. Gender and age were modestly related to anxiety scores. Worry about performing poorly was highest in girls and in older athletes, whereas boys reported higher levels of concentration disruption in competitive sport situations. Implications for emotional perception and for the study of competitive anxiety in young athletes are discussed. PMID:18937102
Castillo, M. I.; Cooke, M. L.; Macfarlane, B; Aitken, L. M.
Objective: To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Patients: Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, understand En...
The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the present study set out to investigate the learners‟ attitudes towards academic writing courses that they have to take as part of their curriculum, whether they experience second language writing anxiety and what reasons they report for their anxiety and failure in academic writing courses. Second, the study aimed to develop a selfreport measure of second language writing anxiety reasons
Sepideh Moradpour; Mohsen Rostamy-Malkhalifeh; Mohammad Hassan Behzadi; Ahmad Shahvarani
Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at fir...
Keough, Meghan E.; Timpano, Kiara R; Riccardi, Christina J.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Suppression is a commonly used strategy to manage unwanted thoughts by attempting to actively remove them from awareness. However, research has shown that this cognitive strategy often results in the paradoxical effect of increasing the frequency of unwanted thoughts. While the association between thought suppression and mood and anxiety symptoms has been repeatedly demonstrated, relations between this cognitive strategy and other anxiety risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity (AS) are unex...
Johannessen, Tina Døvle
The current report examined if symptoms of anxiety and/or depression in parents could affect how the parents reported their adolescents anxiety symptoms, and if parental symptoms of depression and/or anxiety could affect the degree of agreement between parents and adolescents. The sample comprised 456 adolescents, 369 fathers and 481 mothers from the sixth round of collecting data in the Tracing Opportunities and Problem in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) study. The data used in this report...
Wei, Chiaying; Hoff, Alexandra; Villabø, Marianne A.; Peterman, Jeremy; KENDALL, Philip C.; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda; Keaton, Courtney
The present study examined the psychometric properties, including discriminant validity and clinical utility, of the youth self-report and parent-report forms of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among youth with anxiety disorders. The sample included parents and youth (N= 488, 49.6% male) ages 7 – 17 who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Although the typical low agreement between parent and youth self-reports was found, the MASC eviden...
Cowart, Maria Jane Whitmore
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is defined by persistent, irrational anxiety in social situations while generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry unrelated to any specific situation. These two disorders share some features and are frequently comorbid in children and adults. The current study sought to examine this comorbidity and compare the disorders on a number of dimensions in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. It was hypothesized that SAD would be...
Full Text Available Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at first grade of high school at zone one of Tehran. Among population, 97 students and their mothers are chosen. Data of this research are collected by Cattell standard questionnaire for studying mothers' anxiety and standard questionnaire of mathematics anxiety for studying mathematics anxiety and a math exam for studying of students' performance. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics anxiety and performance of students. Also it indicated that there is significant difference between students with high and low mathematics anxiety in term of mathematics performance.
Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu; Said Bodur
AIM: This study was aimed to determine effect of education on anxiety level in the parents with mentally handicapped children. METHOD: The quasi-experimental field study was performed on parents of 91 mentally handicapped children who are between 6-15 ages and live in the center of Karaman. State and Trait Anxiety Scale was applied before and after informing. RESULTS: Average age of mothers was 36.5±7.2, average state anxiety point was 47.2±13.4 and average trait anxiety point was 5...
Melita Puklek Levpušček
In the last decade studies of social anxiety have focused on research of social anxiety in childhood and adolescence. They showed that social anxiety was related to negative self-perceptions and lower social adaptation. The research question not yet answered considers the developmental trend of social anxiety in various periods of adolescence. In the study we proposed that at least social anxiety in its cognitive form (i.e., worries and fear of negative social evaluation) would decrease from ...
Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie
Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorde...
Walter, Stefan; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan; Liang, Liming; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Cornelis, Marilyn; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Rimm, Eric; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.
Context Anxiety disorders are common, with a lifetime prevalence of 20% in the U.S., and are responsible for substantial burdens of disability, missed work days and health care utilization. To date, no causal genetic variants have been identified for anxiety, anxiety disorders, or related traits. Objective: To investigate whether a phobic anxiety symptom score was associated with 3 alternative polygenic risk scores, derived from external genome-wide association studies of anxiety, an internal...
Full Text Available The paper focus on Freud’s studies on anxiety and highlights Lacan’s contributions to the subject. It emphasizes the clinical importance of freudian distinction between anxiety as a signal and realistic – or automatic – anxiety in order to answer the question: assuming that, concerning neurosis, what causes repression is a signal of anxiety, could it also be said that, in psychosis, it is realistic anxiety that produces foreclosure?
Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy
Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication ...
Lader, M; Bruce, M
Syndromes of anxiety include generalized anxiety states, various forms of phobic disorder and panic attacks. It is unclear whether panic attacks are a separate syndrome from anxiety states or a more severe form. Drug-induced states of anxiety should provide useful models of the mechanisms of anxiety and its treatment. High-risk populations might be identifiable. Catecholamine infusions produce marked peripheral changes without fully reproducing the central feelings. Lactate infusions also pro...
Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van
Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. PMID:27448713
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Barbosa, Filipe; Freitas, João; Barbosa, António
Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a frequently disabling disease with a negative influence on the quality of life, and can cause psychopathological symptoms, such as anxiety. Our aim is to study further anxiety symptoms on CIU patients. Both CIU patients and the control group were studied by means of validated scales for psychopathology symptoms, psychological variables and quality of life. In this study, we reported high levels of anxiety symptoms. We found statistically significant correlations between anxiety symptoms, some personality dimensions, insecure attachment styles, alexithymia and with some quality of life dimensions. CIU patients exhibit high levels of psychological distress that could potentiate difficulties at several domains, namely social, emotional, general health perception and interpersonal relationships. PMID:21459916
Kuniyoshi, M; Arikawa, K; Miura, C; Inanaga, K
We observed a case of withdrawal after abrupt discontinuation of mianserin. A 41-year-old woman was treated according to a diagnosis of depression, which was her 6th episode. Mianserin 30 mg/day, etizolam 1 mg/day and flunitrazepam 1 mg/day were administered. When the patient discontinued taking the drugs by herself because of subsiding of these symptoms, severe panic anxiety appeared. This panic anxiety was not relieved by taking etizolam and flunitrazepam again, but subsided rapidly by the re-administration of mianserin 30 mg/day, and because of that the depressive symptom also disappeared. From these experiences panic anxiety seemed to be a withdrawal symptom, and involvement of the noradrenergic system in panic anxiety as well as serotonergic system was suggested. PMID:2796025
Arun Kandasamy; D Srinath
Fluoroquinolones can cause adverse neuropsychiatric side effects, which are more common in older age. We present three cases of levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia in young adults. In all the cases, discontinuation of levofloxacin immediately lead to remission.
Full Text Available Systematic approach of anxiety in non-psychiatric patients contributes significantly to the effective treatment. At first, is essential to explore the biological causes and afterwards the possibility that anxiety is a manifestation of a psychiatric disorder. Furthermore, when anxiety is diagnosed as patient's response to the disease, it is crucial to explore the psychological mechanisms that the patient mobilizes in order to defend it, the psycho-social problems of the patient, the supportive network, personality and the personal meaning that the patient gives to the disease. The most effective treatment of anxiety is the combination of medication therapy (benzodiazepines, antidepressants with psychological therapies such as cognitive- behavioral psychotherapy that aim to change patterns of thought, behavior and belief.
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Wittig, Arno F.
Subjects classified into one of five sex-role endorsement categories were tested for competitive trait anxiety. Results showed "masculine" males less anxious than other subjects, "feminine" males more anxious, and no significant differences among female groups. (CMG)
Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Caspar Thygesen, Lau; Hastrup Svendsen, Jesper;
BACKGROUND: Although highly effective in preventing arrhythmic death, patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may still experience psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and reduced quality of life. The objectives of this study were to describe patient...... receiving ICD between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2011 (n = 499). The following instruments were used: SF-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HeartQoL, EQ-5D, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. RESULTS: The response rate was 72%. Mean age was 65.5 years and 82% patients were males. Fifty...... perceived health, quality of life, and fatigue; for example, physical health 39.8 versus 44.3 points, compared to secondary prevention indication. Anxiety, poor perceived health, fatigue, and low quality of life were all predictors of mortality, anxiety being the strongest with an adjusted odds ratio of 4...
Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who had score 2 or higher by the organoleptic test were diagnosed as genuine halitosis patients. Gas chromatography (GC was conducted before and after oral malodor treatment for the oral malodor measurement. Based on their risk of social anxiety disorder, subjects were divided into low- and high-risk groups using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. The questions related to oral malodor and the clinical oral examination were both conducted before oral malodor treatment. The level of anxiety before and after oral malodor treatment was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale of Anxiety (VAAS. Results More than 20% of subjects had a score of 60 or more on the LSAS (high LSAS group. The mean age and the percentage of females were significantly higher in the high LSAS group compared to the low LSAS group. The high LSAS group was more likely to have problems associated with oral malodor and to adopt measures against oral malodor compared to the low LSAS group. The mean concentrations of H2S and CH3SH by GC significantly decreased after the oral malodor treatment in both LSAS groups. VAAS scores also significantly decreased after treatment in both LSAS groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the high LSAS group had a 2.28 times higher risk of having a post-VAAS score of 50 or more compared to the low LSAS group. Conclusions This study revealed that genuine halitosis patients with a strong trait of social anxiety disorder have difficulty
Epidemiological studies show that anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and an important cause of functional impairment; they constitute the most frequent menial disorders in the community. Phobias are the most common with the highest rates for simple phobia and agoraphobia. Panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are less frequent (2% lifetime prevalence), and there are discordant results for social phobia (SP) (2%-16%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (3%-30%). Th...
T Taghavi Larijani; ** ND (MSc.) Sharifi Neiestanak; *** M (MSc.) Aghajani; A Mehran
Background & Objective: High levels of assertiveness and low levels of anxiety are important factors that result in suitable communication. They also increase intellectual abilities, abstract thought, power & autonomy, and personal well-being among nursing and midwifery students. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between assertiveness and anxiety among midwifery and nursing students. Methods & Materials: In this correlational, cross-sectional stud...
Bystritsky, Alexander; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cameron, Michael E.; Schiffman, Jason
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health conditions. Although they are less visible than schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, they can be just as disabling. The diagnoses of anxiety disorders are being continuously revised. Both dimensional and structural diagnoses have been used in clinical treatment and research, and both methods have been proposed for the new classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-5). However, each of t...
Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania
The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...
Tessa eMarzi; Antonio eRegina; Stefania eRighi
The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase,...
Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem, which is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry, problems that are difficult to control. In the general population, the 12-month prevalence of GAD is 2-3%, with the lifetime prevalence being about 5%. However, GAD is more prevalent among primary care utilizers i.e. approximately 5-8% of them suffer from this disorder. Earlier studies have revealed GAD to be associated with a high utilization of health care resou...
Rosana Shuhama; Cristina M Del-Ben; Loureiro, Sônia R; Graeff, Frederico G.
Anxiety disorders are classified according to symptoms, time course and therapeutic response. Concurrently, the experimental analysis of defensive behavior has identified three strategies of defense that are shared by different animal species, triggered by situations of potential, distal and proximal predatory threat, respectively. The first one consists of cautious exploration of the environment for risk assessment. The associated emotion is supposed to be anxiety and its pathology, Generali...
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Elizabeth A. Mundy; Joshua Curtiss
Although exposure-based treatments and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Interestingly, combining these two modalities is usually not more effective than the monotherapies. Recent translational research has identified a number of novel approaches for treating anxiety disorders using agents that serve as neuroenhancers (also known as cognitive enhancers). Several of these agents have ...
Ana E. Barbar; José A. Crippa; Osório, Flávia L.
Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Result...
Selma Arzu Vardar; Levent Öztürk; Cem Kurt; Erdogan Bulut; Necdet Sut; Erdal Vardar
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1) following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements), (2) following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3) following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before ...
Stoeber, Joachim; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
Anxiety, Stress, & Coping provides a forum for scientific, theoretically important, and clinically significant research reports and conceptual contributions. It deals with experimental and field studies on anxiety dimensions and stress and coping processes, but also with related topics such as the antecedents and consequences of stress and emotion. Welcome are papers contributing to the understanding of the relationship between psychological and physiological processes, specific for stress an...
Richards, Caroline; Moss, Jo; O'Farrell, Laura; Kaur, Gurmeash; Oliver, Chris
In this study we assessed the behavioral presentation of social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) using a contrast group of Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS). Behaviors indicative of social anxiety were recorded in twelve children with CdLS (mean age = 11.00; SD = 5.15) and twelve children with CdCS (8.20; SD = 2.86) during social…
LAYNE, ANN E.; Bernstein, Gail A.; March, John S.
The present study aimed to determine which anxiety symptoms in children are associated with teacher awareness and whether teacher awareness differs according to student age and gender. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) was completed by 453 second through fifth grade students and teachers nominated the three most anxious students in their classrooms. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted with MASC scale scores as the dependent variables. Children identified by ...
Fathi, Mehdi; Alavi, Seyed Mostafa; Joudi, Marjan; Joudi, Mitra; Mahdikhani, Helia; Ferasatkish, Rasool; Bakhshandeh, Houman; Jabbari Nooghabi, Mehdi
Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate preoperative anxiety and its predisposing factors in a group of adult patients who were candidate for any kind of heart surgery. Methods: We evaluated preoperative anxiety in 300 patients undergoing heart surgery whose ages ranged between 18-65 years. Relationship of probable demographic factors like gender, educational level, marital status, number of children, family support, opium addiction, occupational status, and left ventricular ejectio...
Karimollahi Mansoureh; Aghamohammadi Kalkhoran Masoomeh
Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious belief...
Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.
Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy....
Campos, Alline C; Manoela V. Fogaca; Daniele C. Aguiar; Guimaraes, Francisco S.
Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mecha...
KENDALL, Philip C.; Compton, Scott N.; Walkup, John T.; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Bergman, Lindsey; Sakolsky, Dara; Suveg, Cindy; Iyengar, Satish
Reports the characteristics of a large, representative sample of treatment seeking anxious youth (N =488). Participants, aged 7–17 years (mean 10.7 yrs), had a principal DSM-IV diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social phobia (SP). Although youth with a co-primary diagnosis for which a different disorder-specific treatment would be indicated (e.g., major depressive disorder, substance abuse) were not included, there were few other exclusion ...
Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.
Although individual differences exist in how people respond to positive affect (PA), little research addresses PA regulation in people with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to provide information about responses to PA in people with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The tendency to dampen PA and the ability to savor PA were examined in an undergraduate sample. Analyses examined the unique links...
Dernovšek, Mojca Zvezdana; Šprah, Lilijana
A diagnosis of psychosis has tended to discount the considerable degree of emotional disorder associated with it, in a manner that may also inform psychological treatment options. Depression and anxiety are often associated with schizophrenia. Up to 40% of people have clinical levels of depression and anxiety symptoms could occur in 60% of patients with chronic psychotic disorder. Among emotional problems depression and depressive symptoms are well recognised and treated with success, whereas...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.
O Donnchadha, Seán
BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.
Abebaw M. Yohannes
Full Text Available Under-recognised and untreated depression and anxiety symptoms have deleterious effects on physical functioning and social interaction increasing fatigue and healthcare utilisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Depression and anxiety are challenging to identify and treat because their symptoms often overlap with those of COPD. The cause(s of depression and anxiety symptoms are multifactorial and include behavioural, social and biological factors. Less than one-third of COPD patients with comorbid depression or anxiety symptoms are receiving appropriate treatment. Factors that contribute to the lack of provision of treatment are varied, they include patient perceived barriers, for example lack of knowledge and reluctance to receive antidepressant drug therapy; poor treatment compliance and lack of a standardised diagnostic approach; and scarcity of adequate resources for mental health treatment. The evidence for the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy in patients with COPD with comorbid depression and anxiety is inconclusive. There are some promising findings regarding pulmonary rehabilitation, psychological therapy and the collaborative care model in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with COPD, but these findings are limited by short-term follow-up periods. Further work is required to examine the efficacy of these interventions in randomised controlled trials with larger samples and long-term follow-up.
Yohannes, Abebaw M; Alexopoulos, George S
Under-recognised and untreated depression and anxiety symptoms have deleterious effects on physical functioning and social interaction increasing fatigue and healthcare utilisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Depression and anxiety are challenging to identify and treat because their symptoms often overlap with those of COPD. The cause(s) of depression and anxiety symptoms are multifactorial and include behavioural, social and biological factors. Less than one-third of COPD patients with comorbid depression or anxiety symptoms are receiving appropriate treatment. Factors that contribute to the lack of provision of treatment are varied, they include patient perceived barriers, for example lack of knowledge and reluctance to receive antidepressant drug therapy; poor treatment compliance and lack of a standardised diagnostic approach; and scarcity of adequate resources for mental health treatment. The evidence for the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy in patients with COPD with comorbid depression and anxiety is inconclusive. There are some promising findings regarding pulmonary rehabilitation, psychological therapy and the collaborative care model in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with COPD, but these findings are limited by short-term follow-up periods. Further work is required to examine the efficacy of these interventions in randomised controlled trials with larger samples and long-term follow-up. PMID:25176970
Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent. PMID:27503572
Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela; Laino, Daniela; Minna, Maria; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrotti, Alberto; Bech, Per
Background Anxiety and depression have been considered to be neglected disorders in epilepsy. Because panic disorder is one of the most important anxiety disorders, it has been problematic to use very comprehensive anxiety questionnaires in epilepsy patients, as panic attacks and epileptic seizures, although two distinct clinical entities from a diagnostic point of view, show a significant overlap of symptoms. Aims We have focused on single items for anxiety and depression as screening candidates in adolescent epilepsy. Methods The individual panic attack item in the Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Scale (SCARED) and the single depression item in the Kellner Symptom Questionnaire were tested. Our samples consisted of adolescent patients with epilepsy and a matched control group with healthy participants, as well as two numerical groups acting as controls. Results The single panic attack item identified panic anxiety in 24.1% in the group of patients with epilepsy and 0.0% in the matched control group (p = 0.01). The single depression item identified 52.2% with depression in the epilepsy group and 6.2% in the matched control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion As screening instruments, single items of panic attack and depression are sufficient to screen for these affective states in adolescent epilepsy. The clinical implications are that it is important to be quite specific when screening for depression and panic attacks in adolescent patients with epilepsy. PMID:26906494
Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.
Ana E. Barbar
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Results: Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001, and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.
Full Text Available Anxiety is most common among Alzheimer's disease (AD patients with an age at onset under age 65. Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4 is a risk factor for developing AD at an earlier age and might contribute to this effect. In mice, apoE plays a role in the regulation of anxiety, which might involve histamine receptor-mediated signaling and steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. In addition, human apoE isoforms have differential effects on anxiety in adult mice lacking apoE and probable AD patients. Compared to wild-type mice, mice lacking apoE and apoE4 mice showed pathological alterations in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which is involved in regulation of anxiety. ApoE4, but not mice lacking apoE, or apoE3 mice showed impaired dexamethasone suppression of plasma corticosterone. Understanding how apoE modulates measures of anxiety might help the developments of therapeutic targets to reduce or even prevent measures of anxiety in health and in dementing illnesses.
Horikawa, Masami; Yagi, Akihiro
The present study examined how the level of trait anxiety, which is a personality characteristic, influences state anxiety and penalty shoot-out performance under pressure by instruction. The high and low trait anxiety groups were selected by using Spielberger's Trait Anxiety Scale, with trait anxiety scores, and control and pressure conditions manipulated by instructions. The participants were two groups of eight university male soccer players. They individually performed 20 shots from the p...
Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter
Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...
Thaler, Nicholas S.; Kazemi, Ellie; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Youth with learning disabilities (LD) are at an increased risk for anxiety disorders and valid measures of anxiety are necessary for assessing this population. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC; March in Multidimensional anxiety scale for children. Multi-Health Systems, North Tonawanda, 1998) in 41 adolescents (ages 11– 17 years) with LD. Youth and parents completed the MASC and were administered the semi-structured Anxiety Di...
Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu
Full Text Available AIM: This study was aimed to determine effect of education on anxiety level in the parents with mentally handicapped children. METHOD: The quasi-experimental field study was performed on parents of 91 mentally handicapped children who are between 6-15 ages and live in the center of Karaman. State and Trait Anxiety Scale was applied before and after informing. RESULTS: Average age of mothers was 36.5±7.2, average state anxiety point was 47.2±13.4 and average trait anxiety point was 51.9±10.1; their fathers average age was 40.2±8.6, average state anxiety point was 35.9±6.5 and average trait anxiety point was 41.3±6.2. Anxiety points of mothers are higher. Mothers who are graduated from primary school, younger than 35 age, have a boy or child younger than 12 age, have social assurance, do not take institutional service, have low family income, and whose first or last child is mentally handicapped, whose husband do not help with caring child have significant decrease in anxiety points after informing. In the fathers, only a decrease in the trait anxiety level was significant. CONCLUSION: Education decreases the parents anxiety level. Institutional services have to contain all of the mentally handicapped children and should be educated the parents by nurses periodically to decrease their anxiety. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 405-412
Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael
Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–1...
Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette
Joaquín Hernández-Palazón; Diego Fuentes-García; Luis Falcón-Araña; Antonio Rodríguez-Ribó; Carlos García-Palenciano; María José Roca-Calvo
Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitu...
Cobham, Vanessa E.; Dadds, Mark R.; Spence, Susan H.; McDermott, Brett
This study reports on the results of a long-term follow-up of 60 (29 girls and 31 boys, all of Caucasian ethnicity) children and adolescents diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and treated 3 years earlier with child-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or child-focused CBT plus parental anxiety management (PAM). Sixty-seven children aged 7 to…
A.J. van Wijk; A. de Jongh; J.A. Lindeboom
PURPOSE: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms resulting from beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social, or psychological consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS can predict both anticipated and experienced pain and
Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…
KOETER, MWJ; VANDENBRINK, W
The question of the relationship between anxiety and depression remains to be solved. The fact that clinical pictures show substantial overlap makes it difficult, using conventional instruments, to distinguish between the co-occurrence of anxiety and depression and overlap in definitions and measure
Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Bai, Heesoon
In this article we are calling for an interlayered and cross-dimensional approach to understanding and working with anxiety, especially as manifested in English as an additional language (EAL) teaching and learning environments. We aim to understand the phenomenon of anxiety from the multidimensional perspectives of physiology, psychology, and…
The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation among test anxiety (TA), foreign language anxiety (FLA) and language achievement of university preparatory students learning English as a foreign language. The sample of the research consisted of 301 (211 females, 90 males) attending a one-year EFL preparatory school at Ondokuz Mayis…
Keeley, Jared; Zayac, Ryan; Correia, Christopher
This study examined the possibility of a curvilinear relationship between statistics anxiety and performance in a statistics course. Eighty-three undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory course completed measures of statistics anxiety and need for achievement at seven points during the semester in conjunction with six tests. Statistics…
Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.
The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…
Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose
The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…
Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S
The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Panxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. PMID:22126716
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard
), specific phobia (SP), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD and PTSD), although the latter three are technically no longer categorised as anxiety disorders according to DSM-5. This chapter......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...... provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation of...
The relation between anxiety and cortical activity was compared in two samples of normal volunteers. One group was studied with the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the other with positron emission tomography (PET) using 18Flurodeoxyglucose (18FDG) for measuring cerebral metabolic rates (CMR) for glucose. The inhalation technique produced less anxiety than the PET procedure, and for low anxiety subjects, there was a linear increase in CBF with anxiety. For higher anxiety subjects, however, there was a linear decrease in CBF with increased anxiety. The PET group manifested a linear decrease in CMR with increased anxiety. The results indicate that anxiety can have systematic effects on cortical activity, and this should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different procedures. They also suggest a physiologic explanation of a fundamental behavioral law that stipulates a curvilinear, inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance
Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie
Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorders have been demonstrated. There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years. In cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable. It is more likely that this heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences. Anxiety disorders follow a chronic course; however, there is a natural decrease in prevalence rates with older age. Anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders. PMID:26487813
Longley, Susan L; Watson, David; Noyes, Russell; Yoder, Kevin
A dimensional and psychometrically informed taxonomy of anxiety is emerging, but the specific and nonspecific dimensions of panic and phobic anxiety require greater clarification. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses of data from a sample of 438 college students were used to validate a model of panic and phobic anxiety with six content factors; multiple scales from self-report measures were indicators of each model component. The model included a nonspecific component of (1) neuroticism and two specific components of panic attack, (2) physiological hyperarousal, and (3) anxiety sensitivity. The model also included three phobia components of (4) classically defined agoraphobia, (5) social phobia, and (6) blood-injection phobia. In these data, agoraphobia correlated more strongly with both the social phobia and blood phobia components than with either the physiological hyperarousal or the anxiety sensitivity components. These findings suggest that the association between panic attacks and agoraphobia warrants greater attention. PMID:16332429
Full Text Available A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems. The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.
Beer, B; Chasin, M; Clody, D E; Vogel, J R
Drugs that reduce anxiety may be mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the brain because (i) potent anxiety-reducing drugs are also potent inhibitors of brain phosphodiesterase activity; (ii) dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate has the ability to reduce anxiety; (iii) the methylxanthines show significant anxiety-reducing effects; (iv) theophylline and chlordiazepoxide produce additive anxiety-reducing activity; and (v) there is a significant correlation between the anxiety-reducing property of drugs and their ability to inhibit phosphodiesterase activity in the brain. PMID:4402069
Vogelzangs, N; de Jonge, P; Smit, J H; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W
Recent studies have suggested that immune function may be dysregulated in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders. Few studies examined the expression of cytokines in response to ex vivo stimulation of blood by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to study the innate production capacity of cytokines in depression and anxiety. To investigate this, baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including persons (18-65 years; 66% women) with current (that is, past month; N=591) or remitted (N=354) DSM-IV depressive or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (N=297). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by means of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Using Multi-Analyte Profiling technology, plasma levels of 13 cytokines were assayed after whole blood stimulation by addition of LPS. Basal plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were also available. A basal and a LPS summary index were created. Results show that LPS-stimulated inflammation was associated with increased odds of current depressive/anxiety disorders (odds ratio (OR)=1.28, P=0.009), as was the case for basal inflammation (OR=1.28, P=0.001). These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle and health (OR=1.13, P=0.21; OR=1.07, P=0.45, respectively). After adjustment for lifestyle and health, interleukin-8 was associated with both remitted (OR=1.25, P=0.02) and current (OR=1.28, P=0.005) disorders. In addition, LPS-stimulated inflammation was associated with more severe depressive (β=0.129, PIDS: interleukin (IL)-8, MCP-1, MMP2; BAI: LPS index, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, MCP-1, MMP2, TNF-β). To conclude, lifestyle and health factors may partly explain higher levels of basal, as well as LPS-stimulated inflammation in persons with depressive and anxiety disorders. However, production capacity of several cytokines was positively associated with severity
Harrison, Ben J; Fullana, Miquel A; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Via, Esther; Pujol, Jesus; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Tinoco-Gonzalez, Daniella; Davey, Christopher G; López-Solà, Marina; Pérez Sola, Victor; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcís
Advances in the neuroscientific understanding of bodily autonomic awareness, or interoception, have led to the hypothesis that human trait anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of bodily autonomic arousal-is primarily mediated by the anterior insular cortex. Despite broad appeal, few experimental studies have comprehensively addressed this hypothesis. We recruited 55 individuals exhibiting a range of AS and assessed them with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during aversive fear conditioning. For each participant, three primary measures of interest were derived: a trait Anxiety Sensitivity Index score; an in-scanner rating of elevated bodily anxiety sensations during fear conditioning; and a corresponding estimate of whole-brain functional activation to the conditioned versus nonconditioned stimuli. Using a voxel-wise mediation analysis framework, we formally tested for 'neural mediators' of the predicted association between trait AS score and in-scanner anxiety sensations during fear conditioning. Contrary to the anterior insular hypothesis, no evidence of significant mediation was observed for this brain region, which was instead linked to perceived anxiety sensations independently from AS. Evidence for significant mediation was obtained for the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex-a finding that we argue is more consistent with the hypothesized role of human cingulofrontal cortex in conscious threat appraisal processes, including threat-overestimation. This study offers an important neurobiological validation of the AS construct and identifies a specific neural substrate that may underlie high AS clinical phenotypes, including but not limited to panic disorder. PMID:26147233
Shear, M Katherine; Bjelland, Ingvar; Beesdo, Katja; Gloster, Andrew T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Anxiety disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), comprise a relatively heterogeneous group of clinical conditions that range from specific phobias to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The grouping under one heading refers to the fact that these seemingly heterogeneous disorders share a number of common psychopathological features and also share at least some common principles in treatment. Among the shared elements are broadly defined prototypical anxiety reactions, panic attacks, anticipatory anxiety, avoidance behaviour, a predominantly early onset, and relatively high persistence rates over time. Many of the shared diagnostic features of anxiety disorders are by their nature dimensional, and hundreds of psychometric scales have been developed to measure these diagnostic constructs across anxiety disorder and for specific diagnostic classes. This paper explores different types of dimensional approaches used in the literature and discusses how an integrated categorical/dimensional strategy might enhance the usefulness of the DSM-V. We suggest the use of cross-cutting dimensional ratings that might ultimately lead to an improved classification model. We also suggest that a staging approach to illness, based upon supplementary dimensional rating could provide useful information for clinical and research purposes. PMID:17623395
Stephan, Walter G
This article reviews studies of intergroup anxiety and places them in the context of a theoretical model that specifies categories of antecedents and consequences of intergroup anxiety. It is proposed that intergroup anxiety is comprised of three interrelated components: an affective component, a cognitive component, and a physiological component. The potential causes of intergroup anxiety include personality traits (e.g., social dominance orientation, attributional complexity), attitudes and related cognitions (e.g., negative expectations, stereotypes), personal experience (e.g., negative contact), and situational factors (e.g., the presence of linguistic barriers, structured vs. unstructured interactions). The potential consequences include attitudes and other cognitions (e.g., stereotypes, negative expectations), affect (e.g., fear, anger), and behavior (e.g., avoidance, negative behaviors). Theory and research on the reduction of intergroup anxiety (e.g., intergroup contact, direct or indirect cross-group friendships) are also presented. The discussion explores the implications of these studies for theory, research, and practice. PMID:24815215
Gordon JG Asmundson
Full Text Available Clinicians often encounter patients who present with both chronic pain and elevated levels of anxiety. In some cases, the source of the anxiety is vague and diffuse. For others, there is an identifiable precipitating object, event or situation. For example, some patients with chronic pain are able to attribute their anxiety to the possibility of not regaining lost functional abilities, financial difficulties, feelings of social inadequacy, or uncertainty about the meaning and consequences of pain. The association between chronic pain and anxiety may not be particularly surprising when one considers that, in the acute phase, both pain and target-oriented anxiety (or fear motivate actions that serve to minimize the threat and maximize the likelihood of successful escape. As well, their neurobiology, while distinct, interacts in the reticular system (1. Evaluations of the association between chronic pain and fear-relevant constructs were initiated in the 1960s and 1970s (2,3. It has only been of late, however, that theorists and researchers have begun to focus their attention on delineating the precise nature of the relationship and its specific implications for the assessment and management of pain.
Seligman, Martin E P; Schulman, Peter; Tryon, Alyssa M
To prevent depression and anxiety, we delivered a brief, classroom-based cognitive-behavioral workshop along with ongoing Web-based materials and e-mail coaching to college students at risk for depression. At risk was defined as having mild to moderate depressive symptoms on a self-report measure of depression. Two hundred forty students were randomized into either an eight-week workshop that met in groups of 10, once per week for 2 h or into an assessment-only control group. We plan to track participants for 3 years after the workshop and here we report the 6 month preventive effects on depression and anxiety. The workshop group had significantly fewer depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms than the control group, but there was no significant difference between the conditions on depression or anxiety episodes at 6 month follow up. The workshop group had significantly better well being than the control group, and the workshop group had significantly greater improvement in optimistic explanatory style than the control group. Improved explanatory style was a significant mediator of the prevention effects from pre- to post-workshop for depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as for improved well being. PMID:17074301
Full Text Available In this paper we try to define anxiety (anguish. Through short etymologic and content analysis we find out that the word anxiety has stronger component of bodily sensations and stronger emphasis on 'pain' than the word anguish. Anguish is a broader concept than anxiety. The latter refers to more concrete in comparison with anguish. Anxiety is usually used in empirical, whereas anguish is used in philosophical discourse. However, the identity of these two concepts and the underlying phenomenon is so overlapping, that they may be used as synonyms in less formal discurse situations. After the 'affirmative definition' we continue, in dialectial fashion, with 'negative definition' and establish the boundaries between anxiety and anxiety-like structures. We find out that anxiety and fear, and anxiety and panic share the same content, but they differ in form. Anxiety and depression share the same form, however they differ in content. While generalized anxiety is a manifestation of free-floating anxiety, phobia is a manifestation of object-bound anxiety. Worry, though, is a cognitive component of anxiety.
Mercer, Gary J.
This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender.
Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Winefield, Helen R;
The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity...... personality traits were differentially associated with post-cardiac surgery morbidity outcomes independent of cardiac surgery morbidity risk factors. Concurrent investigation of depression and anxiety with respect to cardiac outcomes warrants further research........ Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom...
Gonca Gul Celik
Full Text Available Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine (NE inhibitor, is introduced as a safe non-stimulant alternative treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, especially co-morbid ADHD and anxiety disorder and/or Tourette syndrome. Generally known side effects were including weight loss, decrease appetite, nausea and somnolence, exacerbation of tics. In this paper, we want to present an adolescent case with ADHD-inattention type who developed separation anxiety during Atomoxetine treatment. It will be discussed in light of current knowledge about possible neurotransmitter systems associated with side effects of Atomoxetine. Consequently, atomoxetine treatment may trigger anxiety or obsessional thoughts although without any premorbid psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether effects of genetic, gender or adolescence period are associated with this. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 503-505
Christensen, Thomas Emil; Bang, Lia E; Holmvang, Lene;
) patients, and III) Age, gender and geographically matched individuals from the background population. The following questionnaires were used in the survey: the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, Eysenck's Neuroticism Scale, the Major Depression Inventory, and the anxiety subscale of Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90...... STEMI patients, but the level of anxiety was higher in the TTC patients. There was a negative correlation between the time since TTC admission and the total scores on the psychopathology rating scales. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with TTC reported significantly higher anxiety levels compared to both STEMI...... patients and background controls. However, unlike the STEMI patients, the TTC patients appeared to improve psychologically during the post-recovery phase. This may be a consolation for TTC patients in acute psychological distress....
Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. PMID:26253552
There are many patients with anxiety for radiotherapy though it is one of most important treatments for cancer, to which attention has not been fully paid. Authors investigated this anxiety to classify and quantitatively evaluate the problems. Firstly they asked 48 patients with various cancers about the concrete anxiety items related with radiotherapy, and the items were examined by the expert doctor of consultation-liaison psychiatry and of radiology to make up questions of 25 items about radiotherapy. Then those questions together with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) were asked to in-(52 subjects) and out-(133) patients (106 males and 79 females of the mean age 62.58 years) to classify anxiety and to see the reliability and validity of items included. Factor analysis of the results revealed that three kinds of anxiety, i.e., adverse effects of radiation, environments at irradiation and effect of radiotherapy, were significant. Based on this, authors arranged the Categorical Anxiety Scale about Radiotherapy composed from 17 items, of which reliability and validity in contents and in parallelism with HAD had been assured. (T.I.)
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Straten, A.H.M.; Van de Ven, P.; Langerak, W.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.
BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cu...
Frazier, Leslie D; Waid, Lisa D; Fincke, Candy
The goal of this study was to determine how older adults cope with three forms of anxiety, and potential avenues for applied interventions. Although the findings shed light on some interesting findings with potential psychosocial applications, several limitations need to be noted. First, this study was based on two assumptions. The assumption, based on earlier work (Carver et al., 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996), that certain coping strategies are more effective than others, and an assumption of the direction of influence in which anxiety is a precursor of coping strategies. Because this was an exploratory study, the research questions did not directly test these assumptions. Second, this study is correlational in nature. Therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn about the causality of these associations. Third, as with any self-report data and self-selected sample, one needs to interpret the findings with caution. Similarly, for the purposes of the study, a non-clinical sample of older adults was examined using three distinct conceptualizations of anxiety. Suggestions for future research include: Replication of this study using a multidimensional measure of anxiety appropriate for clinical samples. A longitudinal replication of this study identifying patterns of coping that facilitate adjustment over time. Finally, a more general purpose of this study was to focus attention on a neglected issue in gerontology--the experience of anxietY in later life (Frazier & Waid, 1999; Gatz, 1995; Rabins, 1992; Shamoian, 1991; Sheikh, 1992; Smyer, 1995; Stanley & Beck, 1998), and, most importantly, the role of gerontological nurses in early assessment and intervention for successful treatment of anxiety in older adults. PMID:12567825
Demet Gulec Oyekcin
Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiologic data suggests an association between obesity and depression. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity who applied to the endocrinology department and to determine the pattern of the depression and anxiety symptom levels in obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis.Materials and Methods: 62 patients with obesity (obesity group and 27 control subjects (control group attending the endocrinology outpatient clinic were included in the study. Body mass index was calculated and diagnostic psychiatric assessment carried out for all patients. All participants were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HAM-A].Results: Total scores obtained both from HAM-D and HAM-A were significantly greater in the obesity group than in the control group. The most common psychiatric diagnose among obese patients was depression. Nearly more than half of the obese patients without any psychiatric diagnosis marked one of the HAM-D items which describes depressed mood, guilt feeling, somatic anxiety, work and activity loss and general somatic symptoms as well as the items within the HAM-A scale which describes anxious mood, tension, cognitive difficulties, insomnia, depressed mood, somatic anxiety, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and autonomic symptoms.Conclusion: Most common psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity was major depressive disorder. Obese patients who have not been diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder also show certain anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients having any psychiatric disorder may be due to the psychosocial effects of obesity and these symptoms should be followed up in obese patients so that
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.
Franco, Ximena; Saavedra, Lissette; Silverman, Wendy K.
To evaluate the external validity of comorbid patterns of anxiety disorders among youth who presented to an anxiety disorders clinic, comorbid cases were compared to “pure” anxiety disorder cases. Children and adolescents (N = 329; mean age = 10.04 years) and parents were administered structured interviews and four groups were formed, Pure Anxiety, Anxiety + Anxiety, Anxiety + Externalizing, and Anxiety + Depressive, and compared along 4 external validation criteria: sociodemographics, clinic...
Fernandez, Katya C; Gordon, Elizabeth A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G
The current study used computerized linguistic analysis of stories about either going on a date or taking a walk down a street to examine linguistic correlates of social anxiety in a sample of undergraduate students. In general, linguistic analysis revealed associations of social anxiety with several linguistic variables, including negative emotion, affect, and anxiety words. Participants higher in social anxiety wrote fewer affect words. The relationship between social anxiety and anxiety words depended on gender, whereas the relationship between social anxiety and negative emotion words depended on both gender and the nature of primes (supraliminal vs. subliminal) received. Overall, our findings highlight the potential utility and benefits of using linguistic analysis as another source of information about how individuals higher in social anxiety process romantic stimuli. PMID:27216791
Objective To explore the social and psychological risk factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents,and to screen protective factors and risk factors and establish the prediction model.Methods The Screen for Child Anxiety
Maner, Jon K; Gailliot, Matthew T; Menzel, Andrew J; Kunstman, Jonathan W
A growing body of research demonstrates that power promotes a fundamental orientation toward approach and agency. The current studies suggest that this tendency is moderated by dispositional anxiety. In two experiments, high levels of dispositional anxiety blocked the psychological effects of power. Although people low in anxiety responded to a power prime with greater willingness to take risks, those high in anxiety did not (Experiment 1). Similarly, whereas those low in social anxiety responded to power with increased sexual attraction toward a confederate, individuals high in social anxiety failed to show the same effect (Experiment 2). In both studies, the interaction between power and anxiety was statistically mediated by perceptions of reward. Although power enhanced people's perceptions of reward, this effect was eliminated by high levels of dispositional anxiety. This research provides insight into how, and in whom, power promotes approach and agentic behavior. PMID:22854791
Conclusions: Pranayama seems to have a significant positive effect on test anxiety and test performance. It could be used as an important technique by students prior to their examinations, to reduce their test anxiety and increase their test performance.
Manassis, Katharina; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Webb, Alicia; Albano, Anne Marie
Theoretical models of childhood anxiety have emphasized temperamental vulnerability, principally behavioral inhibition, and its interaction with various environmental factors promoting anxiety (for example, overprotective parenting, insecure attachment, life stress). Although clearly establishing the importance of both nature and nurture in…
Walton, Joseph M.
The proposed model defines teacher anxiety as a teacher's somatic reactions and psychological state that, in the face of threat recognition, becomes defensive. An individual approach to teacher anxiety using biofeedback techniques, relaxation training, and systematic desensitization is proposed. (RC)
... Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety Email Facebook Twitter October 25, 2013 A recent ... relationship between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). The findings affirmed that a significant ...
Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Al-Awaida, Wajdy
Objective To investigate if salivary nitrate correlates to the daily psychological stress and anxiety in a group of human subjects. Methods The convenient sample recruitment method was employed; data from seventy three subjects were analyzed. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) inventories were used to determine stress and anxiety scores respectively. Salivary nitric oxide was measured through nitrate (NOx) levels using the Griess reaction method. Results Although stress and anxiety were correlated. No significant correlation exists between salivary nitrate and daily psychological stress and anxiety in the study's participants. Conclusion While all previous studies focused NOx levels in acute stress models. This is the first study to investigate the correlation between salivary nitrates and daily psychological stress and anxiety. Although stress and anxiety were correlated, there is no correlation between salivary nitrates and daily psychological stress and anxiety. Further studies are required to investigate this correlation using other biological samples such as plasma. PMID:27247597
Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bev Bramble; Jeff Landine
Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian university. Results of this study indicated that 38.5% of students (30.0 % of males, 46.3 % of females) suffered from self-reported TA at some point over...
Ennaceur, A.; Chazot, P L
Abstract The current tests of anxiety in mice and rats used in preclinical research include the elevated plus‐maze (EPM) or zero‐maze (EZM), the light/dark box (LDB), and the open‐field (OF). They are currently very popular, and despite their poor achievements, they continue to exert considerable constraints on the development of novel approaches. Hence, a novel anxiety test needs to be compared with these traditional tests, and assessed against various factors that were identified as a sourc...
Mathematics anxiety has been the subject of several books and numerous research papers, suggesting that it is a significant issue for many people. Children and adults develop strategies to cope with this anxiety, one of which is avoidance. This paper presents data taken from over 2500 mathematics test papers in order to compare the levels of accuracy and the frequency of the use of the “no attempt” strategy, that is, avoidance, for arithmetic problems given to children aged from 10 years to a...
Fairbrother, Nichole; Young, Allan H.; Janssen, Patricia; Antony, Martin M.; Tucker, Emma
Background Mood and anxiety and related disorders (AD) account for a significant proportion of mental health conditions, with close to 30 % of the population (28.8 %) suffering from an AD at some time in their life, and over fifteen percent (16.2 %) suffering from a mood disorder. The existing empirical literature leaves a number of important gaps with respect to our understanding of mood, anxiety and stress related difficulties among pregnant and postpartum women. The objective of this resea...
Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Landgraf, Rainer; Kimura, Mayumi
Background There is accumulating evidence that anxiety impairs sleep. However, due to high sleep variability in anxiety disorders, it has been difficult to state particular changes in sleep parameters caused by anxiety. Sleep profiling in an animal model with extremely high vs. low levels of trait anxiety might serve to further define sleep patterns associated with this psychopathology. Methodology/Principal Findings Sleep-wake behavior in mouse lines with high (HAB), low (LAB) and normal (NA...
This paper analyzes the relationship between communication apprehension and language anxiety from the perspective of gender. As virtually no empirical studies have addressed the explicit influence of gender on language anxiety in communication apprehensives, this paper proposes that females are generally more sensitive to anxiety, as reflected in various spheres of communication. For this reason, language anxiety levels in communication apprehensive females should be higher, ...
Ali Nikibakht; Farah Moayedi2; Shahram Zare; Hamidreza Mahboobi; Sedighe Banaei; Tahereh Khorgoei; Keramat Allah Jahanshahi
Anxiety and depression are more common among diabeticpatients than general population and can impact ontreatment. The aim of this study is to screen a randomselection of diabetic patients attending the diabetes clinic ofShahid Mohammadi hospital, Iran for anxiety and depression.100 patients were surveyed using a valid and reliable measurefor anxiety and depression. Data analyzed using SPSS 13software. Prevalence of depression and anxiety was 50 and 67percent respectively. Both depression and ...
Whiteman, V L; Shorkey, C T
This article reports significant test-retest reliability scores for the Ego and Discomfort Anxiety Inventory. Positive significant correlations with the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale supported the construct validity of the Ego Anxiety Scale. Positive significant correlations with the Costello-Comrey Anxiety Scale supported the construct validity of the Discomfort Anxiety Scale. The sample included 28 graduate social work students in a research methods class and 28 undergraduate students in an introductory social work class at Michigan State University. PMID:7809312
Devapriya Appukuttan; Sangeetha Subramanian; Anupama Tadepalli; Lokesh Kumar Damodaran
Background: Dental anxiety is a major barrier for dental care utilization. Hence, identifying anxious individuals and their appropriate management becomes crucial in clinical practice. Aim: The study aims to assess dental anxiety, factors influencing dental anxiety, and anxiety towards tooth extraction procedure among patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1,148 consecutive patients aged 18-70 years. The assessment tools consisted o...
POPESCU, SANDA MIHAELA; DASCĂLU, IONELA TEODORA; SCRIECIU, MONICA; MERCUŢ, VERONICA; MORARU, IREN; ŢUCULINĂ, MIHAELA JANA
Background: Dental anxiety is a condition that causes a decrease in population addressability to the dentist with adverse consequences for long-term oral health. Assessment of behavioral factors that correlate with dental anxiety is important for accurate evaluation of dental fear. Its diagnosis in childhood is important for establishing therapeutic management strategies to reduce anxiety and promote oral health. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental anxiety in a group of Romanian ...
Marianna de Abreu Costa; Giovanni Abrahão Salum Junior; Luciano Rassier Isolan; Jandira Rahmeier Acosta; Rafaela Behs Jarros; Carolina Blaya; Lísia Von Diemen; Gisele Gus Manfro
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, affecting approximately 10% of individuals throughout life; its onset can be detected since early childhood or adolescence. Studies in adults have shown that anxiety disorders are associated with alcohol abuse, but few studies have investigated the association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early ages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use in young subjects. METHODS: A...
Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T.; Kraft, Robert A.; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.
Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; be...
Tarazona Alvarez, Beatriz; Tarazona Álvarez, Pablo; Peñarrocha Oltra, David; Rojo Moreno, Juan; Peñarrocha Diago, María
Objetives: Assess levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety and dental anxiety before extraction of lower third molars and check the correlation and reliability of the scales used for the measurement of preoperative anxiety. Study Design: A prospective study of patients treated with extraction of a lower third molar between September 2010 to December 2010 was carried out. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. All of them were patients of the Oral Surgery and Implantology Department...
Jawad Kiani; Urooj Bakht Khuwaja; Umber Zaheer Khan; Farooq Hasan Khan; Talha Khawar; Abaseen Khan Afghan; Haider Ali Naqvi; Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi; Hadi Mohammad Khan
Different individuals use different coping styles to cope with their problems. In patients with anxiety and/or depression, these have important implications. The primary objective of our study was to estimate the frequency of different coping mechanisms used by patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted and patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression were identified using the Aga Khan University’s Anxiety and Depression Scale (AK...
Marker, Craig D.; Carmin, Cheryl N.; Ownby, Raymond L.
Many studies have shown that cardiac anxiety when occurring in the absence of coronary artery disease is common and quite costly. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is an 18 item self-report measure that assesses anxiety related to cardiac symptoms. In order to better understand the construct of cardiac anxiety, a factor analysis was conducted on CAQ data from 658 individuals who were self- or physician- referred for electron beam tomographic screening to determine whether clinically sig...
Dodd, Helen; Schniering, Carolyn; Porter, Melanie
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals with WS aged 12-28 years completed the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS). Their responses were ...
Language anxiety is one of the most common elements that influence language learning. Based on a questionnaire in⁃vestigation, university students’trait anxiety and environmental anxiety in English classes will be analyzed and discussed. The two types of anxiety are positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with the students’oral English ability. Results of this analysis will help promote the teachers’understanding of the classroom environment and create a favorable teaching cir⁃cumstance.
Anxiety has an important influence on two language learning as one of the affective factors in language learning. Peo-ple usually think that excessive anxiety can interfere with the learning of English, especially the spoken English. This paper mainly studies the reasons of causing anxiety, strategies of solving speaking anxiety and help students overcome affective barriers, enhanc-ing the level of spoken english.
Three instruments are adopted including the Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scales (FLLAS), a listening metacog⁃nitive strategy-use questionnaire and a CET-4 listening test. The results indicate that a large proportion of students report experi⁃encing listening anxiety. There is significantly negative correlation between listening anxiety and listening proficiency and there is significant difference in the use of metacognitive strategies across three listening anxiety levels.
Kiyohara Leandro Yoshinobu; Kayano Lilian Kakumu; Oliveira Lorena Marçalo; Yamamoto Marina Uemori; Inagaki Marco Makoto; Ogawa Nilson Yuji; Gonzales Polo Eduardo San Martin; Mandelbaum Rosana; Okubo Sílvio Tanaka; Watanuki Thaís; Vieira Joaquim Edson
PURPOSE: Patients preparing to undergo surgery should not suffer needless anxiety. This study aimed to evaluate anxiety levels on the day before surgery as related to the information known by the patient regarding the diagnosis, surgical procedure, or anesthesia. METHOD: Patients reported their knowledge of diagnosis, surgery, and anesthesia. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure patient anxiety levels. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine patients were selec...
Osborn, Timothy M.; Sandler, Noah A.
Anxiety is known to cause feelings of uneasiness, tension, and nervousness, and previous studies have noted that anxiety and its effects may have an effect on out-patient sedation for patients undergoing surgical procedures. In this study, we assess the effects of anxiety on 25 outpatients undergoing intravenous sedation for third molar extraction. Before the procedure, subjects completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and intraoperative patient movement was assessed using a subjective sc...
Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill
Forty to sixty percent of all children having surgery experience preoperative anxiety. Preoperative anxiety is a risk factor for negative behavioural changes postoperative. It is of importance to find strategies in the interaction with the child to reduce anxiety. The overall aim was to describe CRNA's interaction with the child in relation to anxiety during anaesthesia induction and to describe the translation process of m-YPAS into Swedish and the testing of the psychometric properties in a...
Goetz, Thomas; Bieg, Madeleine; Luedtke, Oliver; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.
Two studies were conducted to examine gender differences in trait (habitual) versus state (momentary) mathematics anxiety in a sample of students (Study 1: N = 584; Study 2: N = 111). For trait math anxiety, the findings of both studies replicated previous research showing that female students report higher levels of anxiety than do male students. However, no gender differences were observed for state anxiety, as assessed using experience-sampling methods while students took a math test (Stud...
Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J.
Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigat...
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bögels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.
The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed questionnaires that assessed child anxiety (SCARED-71) and children’s ASD symptoms. Results revealed that children with anxiety disorders had higher scores t...
Kuusikko-Gauffin, S. (Sanna)
Abstract The primary aim of the current study was to examine social anxiety symptoms in high-functioning children and adolescents, ages eight to 17 years old with autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS). The second aim was to study emotion recognition skills in children and adolescents with HFA/AS. In addition, two internationally used social anxiety questionnaires (The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and; The Social Anxiety Scale for Children -revised) were translated int...
Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Met...
Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…
Penninx, B.W.; Nolen, W.A.; Lamers, F.; Zitman, F.G.; Smit, J.H.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; de Jong, P.J.; van Marwijk, H.W.; van der Meer, K.; Verhaak, P.; Laurant, M.G.; de Graaf, R.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; van der Wee, N.; Ormel, J.; van Dyck, R.; Beekman, A.T.
Background: Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course trajecto
Rao, A V; Potash, H M
Hutt's hypothesis that anxiety is reflected by absolute size deviations on reproduced Bender-Gestalt figures was investigated by administering the test to 40 subjects (half under anxiety-arousing and half under non-anxiety-arousing conditions). Measures of trait anxiety and defensive style were found to be intercorrelated significantly and to interact significantly with anxiety condition. Under the non-anxiety-arousing condition repressers (low trait anxious subjects) had fewer size distortions than sensitizers (high trait anxious subjects). However, situationally induced anxiety reversed this effect, whereby sensitizers had greater size distortions than repressers. Situationally induced anxiety heightened the performance of sensitizers, while it interfered with the test protocols of repressers by producing greater size deviations on the Bender-Gestalt. PMID:4078010
Damer, Diana E.; Melendres, Lauren T.
Test anxiety is ubiquitous on college campuses and negatively impacts academic progress as well as overall mental and physical health. Some students develop test anxiety due to poor study skills, while others experience debilitating anxiety despite adequate preparation. In this article, a session-by-session description of a 4-week group…
Thompson, E. Heather; Robertson, Phyllis; Curtis, Russ; Frick, Melodie H.
Anxiety is one of the most pervasive mental health concerns affecting students, yet a significant number of students with anxiety disorders remain underserved. If left untreated, anxiety can hinder students' personal/social, academic, and career development. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with helpful…
Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating the level of writing anxiety of the Iranian EFL students with different proficiency levels. To do so, 45 students (elementary, intermediate, and advanced learners studying in Azad University of Ilam, Iran were selected based on random sampling. Second, Language Writing Anxiety Inventory SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 was used to measure anxiety. Both descriptive and inferential statistics including One-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The results of the study indicated that the selected Iranian EFL students majoring in English language teaching experienced a high level of anxiety. In addition, students with elementary level were found to suffer higher level of English writing anxiety than the students with intermediate and advanced levels. Finally, based on the findings, cognitive anxiety was the most common type of anxiety, followed by somatic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. The results also highlighted the fact that foreign and second language teachers should be cautious of the dangers of anxiety and try to make the atmosphere of class as stress-free as possible in order to improve students’ performance.Keywords: Writing Anxiety, EFL Students, Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, Avoidance
Harris, Henry L.; Coy, Doris R.
One of the most threatening events that causes anxiety in students today is testing. When students develop an extreme fear of performing poorly on an examination, they experience test anxiety. Test anxiety is a major factor contributing to a variety of negative outcomes including psychological distress, academic underachievement, academic failure,…
OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical approach to recognition, assessment, and treatment of adolescent anxiety disorders complicated by avoidance or oppositional behaviour. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders, focusing on epidemiology, clinical presentations in adolescence, and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment. In addition, internationally accepted diagnostic criteria, curren...
Anxiety, an important psychological phenomenon in English learning, will be discussed in this paper. Anxiety is a key motivational element in classroom behaviors and achievements. Anxiety also draws back communication in the English foreign language classroom in various ways. So, some suggestions for teachers are given in this article.
YONG LI; CHENG-YE JI; JIONG QIN; ZHI-XIANG ZHANG
Objective To investigate the prevalence of parental anxiety associated with epileptic children, and to explore whether and how this specific condition affects children's quality of life (QOL), and what are the significant determinants for parental anxiety. Methods Three hundred and forty parents whose children were affected with known epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Questionnaires for quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE), and hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) of parents were used to collect demographic data of both children and their parents, as well as clinical manifestations of epilepsy and family status. Results Parental anxiety (of any severity) was observed in 191 subjects at interview, giving a prevalence rate of 56.2%. Of the 191 subjects, 18.5% reported mild anxiety, 24.4% moderate anxiety, and 13.2% severe anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety included frequency of seizure in children, average monthly income per person and parents' knowledge about epilepsy (P<0.05). Parental anxiety significantly (P=0.000) correlated with quality of life of children with epilepsy. Conclusion Parents of children with epilepsy are at high risk of having anxiety. Factors associated with parental anxiety originate both from children and from parents. Parental anxiety is significantly related with children's QOL. It is important for experts concerned to recognize such a relationship to improve the QOL of children and their parents.
The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…
Sumer, Seda; Poyrazli, Senel; Grahame, Kamini
The role of gender, age, race/ethnicity, length of stay, social support, and proficiency in English in the variance in depression and anxiety among international students revealed that social support was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety among international students. Age significantly contributed to the variance in anxiety, and…
Lee, Scott W.
This study examined Library Anxiety in a cohort of developmental English students. Levels of anxiety were measured in 191 students using Bostick's Library Anxiety Scale. Thirteen of those students were then interviewed about their use, knowledge and valuation of their campus library. The results of the interviews were compared against the measured…
Sime, Wesley E.; And Others
Administered the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to Introductory Statistics college students. A high mathematics anxiety was associated with lower performance on a statistics examination. Classroom stress-coping intervention reduced anxiety and physiological stress responses, but did not improve academic performance. (Author/KS)
This article critically reviews the literature that examines the anxiety phenomenon in the field of second/foreign language learning. A major theme that runs through this review is how anxiety comes into play in second/foreign language learning, and whether it is a central construct or only an add-on element that is negligible. Anxiety is defined…
Tully, Phillip J.; Edwards, Christopher J.
This case study reports the outcomes of cognitive therapy for social anxiety in a 45-year-old man with a 27-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. The intervention targeted the overlapping and interrelated symptoms of social anxiety and delusional beliefs. After 11 sessions of treatment, the patient showed no improvement in social anxiety,…
von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Mata, Andrea D.; Segool, Natasha; Scott, Emma-Catherine
In an era of test-based accountability, there has been a renewed interest in understanding the relationship between test anxiety and test performance. The development and validation of test anxiety scales have grown with the rise of test anxiety research. Research is needed to critically examine the psychometric properties of these scales prior to…
McCarthy, Wanda C.; Widanski, Bozena Barbara
Chemistry anxiety encompasses apprehension regarding learning chemistry, evaluation in chemistry courses, and fears about handling chemicals. Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of these three types of anxiety in college students enrolled in a two-year college. In our sample, chemistry-evaluation provoked the most chemistry anxiety followed…
S.M. Bögels; S. Knappe; L.A. Clark
Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed
Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…
S. Rietveld; P.J.M. Prins; I van Beest
Examined whether negative thoughts are different in anxious, depressed, and chronically ill children. Screening of 1,316 children on anxiety, depression, and asthma resulted in the selection of 118 children (aged 12-15 yrs). Four groups were formed: (1) a high anxiety group, (2) a high anxiety/depre
Bowman, Noah; Driscoll, Richard
This study was undertaken to replicate prior research in which a brief counter-conditioning and confidence training program was found to reduce anxiety and raise test scores. First-semester college students were screened with the Westside Test Anxiety Scale, and the 25 identified as having high or moderately-high anxiety were randomly divided…
Harrigan, J A; Harrigan, K M; Sale, B A; Rosenthal, R
Defensive individuals have been shown to differ from nondefensive individuals on a number of physiological and behavioral measures. We report two studies on observers' inferences of defensiveness, and the contribution of communication channels in the inference of defensiveness. Observers judged high and low state anxious segments of high and low trait anxious defensive and nondefensive individuals. Accurate assessments were made of (a) defensiveness, (b) state anxiety, and (c) trait anxiety: Individuals with higher levels of each variable were perceived as more anxious compared with the lower level. Effects for defensiveness and state anxiety were greater in audio-only segments, while effects for trait anxiety were greater in video-only segments. Inferences of defensiveness were greater at higher levels of state anxiety and trait anxiety. Low trait anxious defensive individuals were perceived as more anxious than the true low trait anxious. Results for defensiveness and trait anxiety were replicated in Study 2, and observers' perceptions of state anxiety matched individuals' self-reports: Defensive individuals with maximal differences between high and low state anxiety were seen as more anxious in high state anxiety, while defensive individuals with minimal differences between high and low state anxiety were regarded as less anxious in high state anxiety. PMID:8776883
Schatz, David Beck; Rostain, Anthony L.
Objective/Method: ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with rates approaching 25% in many samples. This current review's goal is to examine the literature on ADHD with comorbid anxiety from 1998 to the present. Results: Recent studies indicate that anxiety in ADHD may a) partially inhibit the impulsivity and response inhibition deficits,…
Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, we examined among 1322 participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of depression or anxiety: (i) whether positive and negative life events influence 1-year course of anxiety and depressive symptoms; (ii) whether personality traits (neuroticis
Tenenbaum, Gershon; Milgram, Roberta M.
Examined trait anxiety in three groups of Israeli physical education students (N-251) competitors in individual sports, in team sports, and noncompetitors. The measure was the Spielberger, Gorsuch, and Lushene Trait Anxiety Scale (1970). Additionally, two groups of competitive athletes were compared on State Anxiety as measured by the Spielberger…
Martens, Rainer; Simon, Julie A.
Research supports previous findings in which situation-specific anxiety trait instruments have been shown to be better predictors of behavior than general anxiety trait instruments or coaches' subjective ratings, and it support the predictive and construct validity of the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT). (MB)
The author adopted an empirical quantitative method by employing Horwitz's Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale (TFLAS)to determine the anxiety level of ninety teacher participants from Tianjin Foreign Studies University.SPSS11.5 was used for data analysis and the results showed that no one experienced high level's anxiety and student teachers were commonly more anxious than in-service teachers.
Wright, Kristi D.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Finley, G. Allen; Buffett-Jerrott, Susan E.
Preoperative anxiety (anxiety regarding impending surgical experience) in children is a common phenomenon that has been associated with a number of negative behaviors during the surgery experience (e.g., agitation, crying, spontaneous urination, and the need for physical restraint during anesthetic induction). Preoperative anxiety has also been…
Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Milam, Adam J.; Young, Kevin C.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W.
This investigation examined the relationship between living in disordered neighborhoods during childhood and anxiety 1 year later. Objective measures of neighborhood environment and individual data from a study of mental health in suburban children were utilized. Linear regression models were used to assess relationships between neighborhood hazard and anxiety. Childhood neighborhood disorder was inversely associated with generalized anxiety (β = 0.037, p
Baloglu, Mustafa; Abbasi, Amir; Masten, William G.
A number of studies have continued to investigate cross-cultural differences in anxiety. However, the cross-national research on anxiety is still far less advanced than other psychological constructs such as schizophrenia or depression. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare and contrast the levels of anxiety experienced by …
Cassidy, Jude; Lichtenstein-Phelps, June; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Charles L., Jr.; Borkovec, Thomas D.
Even though generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common of the anxiety disorders, relatively little is known about its precursors. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a framework within which these precursors can be considered. According to Bowlby, adult anxiety may be rooted in childhood experiences that leave a child uncertain…
Rubinchik, Sofya M.; Kablinger, Anita S.; Gardner, J. Suzette
Objective: Approximately 30% of women experience some type of anxiety disorder during their lifetime. In addition, some evidence exists that anxiety disorders can affect pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the literature on the course of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period and presents guidelines for management.
KANEDA, Yasuhiro; FUJII, Akira
Objective:We investigated the associations between anxiety and depressive symptoms in normal subjects and patients with mood and/or anxiety disorders, using the Japaneses version of Spielberger's STAI and the Zung SDS. Methods:The subjects for the present study were 60 normal subjects, 15 patients with anxiety disorders and, 12 patients with mood disorders meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Results:1) Both the mean total state-anxiety (S-a...
Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated ...
This study examined the impact of writing anxiety and computer anxiety on language learning for 45 ESL adult learners enrolled in an English grammar and writing course. Two sections of the course were offered in a traditional classroom setting whereas two others were given in a hybrid form that in-volved distance learning. Contrary to previous research, writing anxiety showed no correlation with learning performance, whereas computer anxie-ty only yielded a positive correlation with performan...
The present study investigated the effects of state and trait anxiety and personality in an anxiety reducing intervention program. The anxiety reduction program consisted of effective goal setting, relaxation techniques and a gratitude diary was designed specifically to help those cricket players who suffered from anxiety. The subjects were male and female current members of the Edinburgh University Cricket Club who were separated into control and intervention groups using the results of the ...
Uhmann, S.; Beesdo-Baum, K.; Becker, E.S.; Hoyer, J.
We examined the diagnostic specificity of interpersonal problems (IP) in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We expected generally higher interpersonal distress, and specifically higher levels of nonassertive, exploitable, overly nurturant, and intrusive behavior in n = 58 patients with Diagnostic a
The present study examined the relationship between college students' willingness to delay gratification, motivation, self-regulation of learning, and their level of test anxiety (N = 364). Academic delay of gratification refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing academic…
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze images, anxieties, and attitudes towards mathematics in order to foster meaningful teaching and learning of mathematics. Images of mathematics seem to be profoundly shaped by epistemological, philosophical, and pedagogical perspectives of one who views mathematics either as priori or a…
Balaban, Carey D.
This communication provides an update of our understanding of the neurological bases for the close association between balance control and anxiety. New data suggest that a vestibulo-recipient region of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) contains cells that respond to body rotation and position relative to gravity. The PBN, with its reciprocal relationships with the extended central amygdaloid nucleus, infralimbic cortex, and hypothalamus, appears to be an important node in a primary network that processes convergent vestibular, somatic, and visceral information processing to mediate avoidance conditioning, anxiety, and conditioned fear responses. Noradrenergic and serotonergic projections to the vestibular nuclei also have parallel connections with anxiety pathways. The coeruleo-vestibular pathway originates in caudal locus coeruleus (LC) and provides regionally specialized noradrenergic input to the vestibular nuclei, which likely mediate effects of alerting and vigilance on the sensitivity of vestibulo-motor circuits. Both serotonergic and nonserotonergic pathways from the dorsal raphe nucleus and the nucleus raphe obscurus also project differentially to the vestibular nuclei, and 5-HT(2A) receptors are expressed in amygdaloid and cortical targets of the PBN. It is proposed that the dorsal raphe nucleus pathway contributes to both (a) a tradeoff between motor and sensory (information gathering) aspects of responses to self-motion and (b) a calibration of the sensitivity of affective responses to aversive aspects of motion. This updated neurologic model continues to be a synthetic schema for investigating the neurological and neurochemical bases for comorbidity of balance disorders and anxiety disorders.
... the problem manifests in school avoidance, the initial goal will be to get the youngster back to school as soon as possible. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy In many cases, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy techniques are effective in addressing adolescent anxiety disorders. ...
A.J. van Wijk; J. Hoogstraten
Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the relationship between anxiety and pain felt during a dental injection in a sample of ‘normal’ patients about to undergo ‘invasive’ dental treatment. Methods: Duration and intensity of pain during a dental injection were measured within a sample of 24
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), also known as Social Phobia, is now recognised as a chronicand disabling psychiatric condition. The high prevalence and clinical significance of the disease emphasize the need for early recognition and effective treatment. The main current treatment will be presented paying special attention to meta-analyses and studies, which try to differentiate types of interventions, by their efficacy.
Alline C. Campos
Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents. The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as “ethological” the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field, whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as “conditioned operant conflict tests” (such as the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning. Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress, physical (restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress.
High, Robert V.
A survey instrument was developed to identify sources of mathematics anxiety among undergraduate business students in a statistics class. A number of statistics classes were selected at two colleges in Long Island, New York. A final sample of n=102 respondents indicated that there was a relationship between the mathematics grade in prior…
Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones can cause adverse neuropsychiatric side effects, which are more common in older age. We present three cases of levofloxacin-induced acute anxiety and insomnia in young adults. In all the cases, discontinuation of levofloxacin immediately lead to remission.
... of their personal needs such as bathing or eating. Anxiety disorders may be hard to diagnose. It may be ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
This paper reports a study that investigates and compares the effects of foreign language proficiency, social status of a learner’s family, self-esteem, and competitiveness on FL anxiety. Chinese university students (N = 146), who were learning Japanese and English, participated in this study. Socia
Riley, Jessica M.
This article offers a brief overview of the causes and manifestations of performance anxiety and suggests methods for professors to combat it in the studio setting. The topics of mentoring, physical and mental relaxation, dietary health, and imaging are explored. Primary source material is referred to throughout the article, so readers can easily…
Thergaonkar, Neerja R.; Wadkar, A. J.
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between test anxiety and parenting style. Method: Democratic attitude of parents, acceptance of parents by the child, parental attitude regarding academics, parental expectations and gender stereotyped perceptions of parents regarding academics were evaluated in the domain…
Van der Zwaag, M.; Tijs, T.J.W.; Westerink, J.H.D.
Patient anxiety is a frequently occurring concern as it decreases patient satisfaction, increases consultation duration, and can influence successful medical outcome. To illustrate, for some diagnosis methods as PET scans patients need to be relaxed for successful medicaloutcome. Music can possibly
Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.
Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)
Driscoll, Richard; Evans, Ginger; Ramsey, Gary; Wheeler, Sara
Nursing programs can be highly stressful, and the investigation was undertaken to see if nursing students are more test anxious than students in other fields. The Westside Test Anxiety Scale has administered to 298 nursing students at two colleges, and to a comparison group of 471 high school and college students. Fully 30% of nursing students…
Morris, Tracy L.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Henin, Aude; Storch, Eric A.
Social anxiety affects children across the developmental spectrum. Early-onset social phobia may be particularly impairing because of its disruptive effects on social and academic functioning during a child's formative years and because of the elevated risks of childhood adversity in anxious individuals. Unfortunately, little attention has been…
Einbinder, Susan Dana
Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…
... fears that stem from childhood experiences. An adult's fear of public speaking may be the result of embarrassment in front of peers many years before. It's important for parents to recognize and identify the signs and symptoms of kids' anxieties so that fears don't get in the way of everyday ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Methods Participants (12 children with DD and 11 typically-developing peers completed a novel priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative or related to mathematics. Children were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication or division was true or false. Typically, people respond to target stimuli more quickly after presentation of an affectively-related prime than after one that is unrelated affectively. Result Participants with DD responded faster to targets that were preceded by both negative primes and math-related primes. A reversed pattern was present in the control group. Conclusion These results reveal a direct link between emotions, arithmetic and low achievement in math. It is also suggested that arithmetic-affective priming might be used as an indirect measure of math anxiety.
Barker, Larry L.; And Others
The purposes of this paper are (1) to review the background and nature of hypnosis, (2) to synthesize research on hypnosis related to speech communication, and (3) to delineate and compare two potential techniques for reducing speech anxiety--hypnosis and systematic desensitization. Hypnosis has been defined as a mental state characterised by…
... is social phobia? What are the signs and symptoms of social phobia? What causes social phobia? How is social phobia treated? What is it like having social phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order a ...
Warnecke, Ashlee J.; Baum, Caitlyn A.; Peer, Jennifer R.; Goreczny, Anthony J.
Previous research has shown five characteristics correlate highly with anxiety and with each other; these are self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC), subjective happiness, life satisfaction, and optimism (Mills, Pajares, & Herron, 2006; Park, Beehr, Han, & Grebner, 2012), but most studies have examined these factors in business…
Tatyana Gratsiyevna Voznesenskaya
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly diagnosed and inadequately treated by general practitioners. The paper considers the major diagnostic signs of GAD, its differential diagnosis, prevalence, etiology, and pathogenesis. Antidepressants from a group of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in combination with psychotherapy are the drugs of first choice.
Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.
Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...
Settipani, Cara A.; Puleo, Connor M.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; KENDALL, Philip C.
There is limited information about the nature of anxiety among youth with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined (a) differences in the clinical characteristics of anxious youth with and without symptoms of ASD and (b) the symptoms of anxiety that best distinguish between these groups. Results indicated that anxious youth with elevated ASD symptoms had significantly more diagnoses (e.g., specific phobias), and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for so...
Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Panayiotou, Margarita
Using mediated and moderated regression, this study examined the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity, the tendency to be concerned about anxiety symptoms, and behavioral inhibition, the tendency to withdraw from novel and potentially dangerous stimuli, predict social anxiety indirectly through experiential avoidance as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II and self-consciousness, as measured by the Self-Consciousness Scale. Behavioral inhibition and anxiety sensitivity are operationalized as temperamental traits, while experiential avoidance and self-consciousness are seen as learned emotion regulation strategies. Study 1 included college student groups from Cyprus scoring high and low on social anxiety (N=64 and N=63) as measured by the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Study 2 examined a random community sample aged 18-65 (N=324) treating variables as continuous and using the Psychiatric Disorders Screening Questionnaire to screen for social anxiety. Results suggest that experiential avoidance, but not self-consciousness mediates the effects of anxiety sensitivity on predicting social anxiety status, but that behavioral inhibition predicts social anxiety directly and not through the proposed mediators. Moderation effects were not supported. Overall, the study finds that social anxiety symptomatology is predicted not only by behavioral inhibition, but also anxiety sensitivity, when individuals take actions to avoid anxious experiences. Modifying such avoidant coping approaches may be more beneficial for psychological treatments than attempts to change long-standing, temperamental personality traits. PMID:25214373
Caporino, Nicole E.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T.
Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting treatment response and remission among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study…
Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate
Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…
Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…
Full Text Available Previous work has documented that attachment security is systematically linked with child adjustment and academic competence. This study aims to examine the associations between parents' own report of anxious and avoidant attachment and their children's report of trait anxiety and academic self-efficacy in math and Turkish literature courses. Mothers (N=1539 and fathers (N=1436 from four cities in Turkey, separately completed the measures of attachment orientations, and their children (N=1877, attending 4th and 5th grades, completed the measures of trait anxiety and academic self-concept on math and literature courses in their school. Regression analyses showed that whereas mother attachment anxiety predicted boys' trait anxiety, father attachment avoidance predicted girls' anxiety. In predicting academic self-efficacy, mother attachment avoidance predicted their son's and father attachment anxiety predicted their daughter's academic self-efficacy in both math and literature courses. Our results confirmed the importance of having a warm and secure romantic attachment between spouses in marriage, not only for their relationship satisfaction and happiness, but also for their children's emotional adjustment and academic competence.
Hollenbach, Pamela M
Nursing students are known to have increased anxiety levels when they provide patient care during clinical rotations. The use of simulation as a teaching strategy for nursing students has been documented both for clinicians and nursing students. In spring 2013, two cohorts of junior-level baccalaureate nursing students participated in a simulation workshop. Anxiety levels were measured using the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory before and after a simulation workshop and one week later before an initial clinical experience. Anxiety levels were lower after the workshop but anxiety levels were unchanged or higher before initial obstetric clinical experiences. PMID:27164778
This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...... of dental education and necessary changes in dental practice....
Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the information seeking anxiety construct as a phenomenon among postgraduate students. It also presents the Information Seeking Anxiety Scale (ISAS as a valid and reliable instrument. Further, the current study investigates the prevalence of information seeking anxiety among postgraduate students at a research-intensive university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results of the study revealed that while information seeking anxiety is present among the studied students, the overall level is not high. Additionally, Different levels (low, mild, moderate and severe levels of the information seeking anxiety construct were reported to have experienced by 96.5% of the postgraduate students at the sampled university.
Foreign language learning is influenced by anxiety,one of the main blocking affective factors.Research indicated that anxiety could interfere with the acquisition.retention and production of the new language.It also indicated that serious language anxiety might cause other related problems with self-esteem,self-confidence,risk-taking ability,and ultirately hampered proficiency in foreign language.This paper discusses the main anxiety-generating factors.Basing on the conclusions of the discussion,we put forward somecountermeasures to reduce learners'anxiety,and hence optimize teaching methods and techniques.
Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
Anxiety disorders are very common and the primary feature is abnormal or inappropriate anxiety. Fear and anxiety is often mediated by the amygdala, a brain structure rich in substance P (SP) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. To learn more about how the human amygdala is modulated by fear and anxiety in event-triggered anxiety disorders and to investigate if the SP/NK1 receptor system is affected, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ([15O]-water; Study I and II) and the SP/NK1 receptor system ...
Coleman, Victoria H; Carter, Michele M; Morgan, Maria A; Schulkin, Jay
As obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) take on a greater role in women's healthcare, it is important that they are aware of the high prevalence of anxiety disorders in their patient population. Anxiety disorders present during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on both mother and child. In this study, we queried 1,193 ob-gyns on their screening rates, practice patterns, training, and knowledge as they relate to anxiety disorders during pregnancy. We achieved a 44% response rate (n=397) after three mailings. Physicians reported a moderate interest in screening for and diagnosing anxiety, but less interest in treatment. Only 20% of respondents (n=79) screen for anxiety during pregnancy, and they typically refer anxiety-disordered patients to mental health professionals. Ob-gyns with comprehensive or adequate training were significantly more likely to screen than those who stated that their training was inadequate. Having a friend who has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder also significantly increased both the likelihood that these physicians would screen and the reported level of interest in screening of anxiety disorders during pregnancy. At present, the majority of ob-gyns feel that their training in this area was barely adequate to inadequate. Specifically, generalized anxiety disorder may be the least understood. Increased training in this area would allow ob-gyns to overcome what they list as the primary barrier to anxiety screening during pregnancy--that is, inadequate training about anxiety disorders. PMID:17326098
Özyurt, Gonca; Öztura, İbrahim; Alkın, Tunç; Özerdem, Ayşegül
Epileptic patients present with psychiatric disorders more frequently than the general population and patients with other chronic medical conditions. Psychiatric disorders can co-occur with epilepsy and can be caused by epilepsy. Personality changes, as well as psychosis, and mood or anxiety disorders can occur in association with epilepsy. Anxiety disorders due to epilepsy can manifest as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. The risk of an anxiety disorder is higher in patients with focal epilepsy, especially those with temporal lobe epilepsy, but an anxiety disorder can also occur in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy or generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy. Herein we present a 41-year-old female patient with comorbid anxiety disorder and epilepsy that improved following initiation of antiepileptic medication. The patient's EEG showed abnormalities, particularly in the frontal lobe. Epileptic activation-associated anxiety disorder presented as phobia of swallowing and the patient exhibited features of generalized anxiety disorder. Following initiation of antiepileptic medication, the seizures stopped and the symptoms of anxiety disappeared in two weeks. The patient was receiving psychotherapy once every 2 weeks. The patient remained asymptomatic during 2-years of follow-up. This case highlights the importance of differential diagnosis of underlying epilepsy in patients with acute severe anxiety and the efficacy of proper medical treatment, which was given in the presented case for the underling pathology of anxiety. PMID:25742040
Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK
Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.
Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.
Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Many studies have shown that the level of postoperative distress and anxiety in children is associated with the amount of anxiety during the pre operative period. In this study, we compared the effect of pre-operational attending in a playroom and using play activities on the level of anxiety increment after surgery in an intervention and a control group of Iranian children. "n "nMethod: In a clinical trial, 75 children aged 5 to 12 enrolled in the intervention and the control group. The anxiety symptoms were assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Yale modified Pre operative Anxiety Scale. The mean differences of pre and post operative anxiety scores were calculated and compared using the ANCOVA statistical method. "n "nResults: The two groups had similar demographic characteristics except for age which was higher in the control group. The baseline anxiety score was lower in the intervention compare to the control group and was statistically significant. There was a significant reduction in the trend of anxiety increment after surgery in the intervention group in comparison to the control group. "n "nConclusion: Attending in playrooms and using play activities may reduce the trend of increment in the anxiety level induced by surgical procedures.
Dowker, Ann; Sarkar, Amar; Looi, Chung Yen
The construct of mathematics anxiety has been an important topic of study at least since the concept of “number anxiety” was introduced by Dreger and Aiken (1957), and has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on what research has revealed about mathematics anxiety in the last 60 years, and what still remains to be learned. We discuss what mathematics anxiety is; how distinct it is from other forms of anxiety; and how it relates to attitudes to mathematics. We discuss the relationships between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. We describe ways in which mathematics anxiety is measured, both by questionnaires, and by physiological measures. We discuss some possible factors in mathematics anxiety, including genetics, gender, age, and culture. Finally, we describe some research on treatment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what still needs to be learned. PMID:27199789
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated symptoms of anxiety and depression in relatives of patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit and determined whether these symptoms were associated to the seriousness of the patients' condition. Metodology: A total of 102 patients' relatives were surveyed during the study. They were given a self-report questionnaire in order to assess demographic data, anxiety and depression symptoms. The symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Patient's condition was evaluated with A.P.A.CH.E II Score. Results: More than 60% of patients' relatives presented severe symptoms of anxiety and depression. No relation was found between symptoms of anxiety and depression of the relatives of patients and patients' condition of health. On the contrary, these feelings used to exist regardless of the seriousness of patient's condition. Conclusions: The assessment of these patients is recommended in order serious problems of anxiety and depression to be prevented.
Sáiz Martínez, Pilar Alejandra; Jimenez Treviño, Luis; Díaz Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla González, M Paz; Marina González, Pedro; Al-Halabí, Susana; Szerman, Néstor; Bobes García, Julio; Ruiz, Pedro
Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are highly comorbid (between 18% and 37%), and such comorbidity complicates treatment and worsens prognosis (including higher suicide risk). There are not many research works on the specific pharmacologic treatment of dual comorbid anxiety disorders. Most authors recommend a simultaneous approach of both, anxiety and substance use, disorders. Research data on pharmacotherapy suggest that psychotropics used in the treatment of anxiety disorders are also effective in dual diagnosis. SSRIs are considered first-line therapy in the treatment of dual anxiety while benzodiacepines should be avoided. New generation antiepileptic have shown efficacy in case series and open label studies in the latest years, thus being a promising treatment option for dual comorbid anxiety disorders, specially pregabalin in generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:25314041
Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D
Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders. PMID:26713718
Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa
The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes. PMID:20869282
Confidence and anxiety are important variables that underlie the experience of flow in sport. Specifically, research has indicated that confidence displays a positive relationship and anxiety a negative relationship with flow. The aim of this study was to assess potential direct and indirect effects of confidence and anxiety dimensions on flow state in tennis competition. A sample of 59 junior tennis players completed measures of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2d and Flow State Scale-2. Following predictive analysis, results showed significant positive correlations between confidence (intensity and direction) and anxiety symptoms (only directional perceptions) with flow state. Standard multiple regression analysis indicated confidence as the only significant predictor of flow. The results confirmed a protective function of confidence against debilitating anxiety interpretations, but there were no significant interaction effects between confidence and anxiety on flow state. PMID:24050472
Language anxiety is the anxiety or disconcerted feeling felt by language learners when they need to express in foreign languages or second foreign language. Anxiety is very important emotional barrier in language learning, and it has important im⁃pact on language learning, especially on spoken language learning. The general lack of spoken language capacity in university stu⁃dents is an incontrovertible fact, and language anxiety is one of the important reasons that cause the imperfect effect of spoken lan⁃guage teaching. This article generally talks about the main reasons for language anxiety, which include the barrier by self-esteem, risk-taking, competitiveness to spoken language learning of university students. This article also discusses a series of countermea⁃sure to ease the language anxiety, so as to reduce the anxiety effectively to promote the teaching of university spoken English.
Gülay Taşdemir Yiğitoğlu
Full Text Available Aim: The descriptive study has been done in order to determination thoughts, feelings and death anxiety in health school students.Methods: The descriptive study has been done in order to determination death anxiety in students. This study includes 330 students attending Pamukkale University Denizli School of Health. Sample is comprised of 244 students who accepted to enrolled in the study between 01st-31th of May, 2009. Data have been collected with using a questionnaire and “Thorson-Powell Death Anxiety Scale”, T-Test, One-Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-Tests.Results: Average age of students who enrolled in the study was 21.44 ± 2.11. 65.6% of the students were girls, 26.6% were in 3rd class, 28.3% were seeing death as “ceasing to exist/ending”, 35.2% were feeling pain/sadness/anxiety when facing death. 63.1% had cared a dying patient, 17.2% felt sadness when they died, 23.0% continued caring in order to cope with death when they did, 43.9% didn’t felt himself enough when caring, 58.2% didn’t wan’t to take care of a dying patient, 63.9% didn’t have enough training at school in order to take care of a dying patient. There were significant relationship between death anxiety point average and students’ age groups, gender, attending class, perception of death, feelings/thoughts about death, feelings during care and wish to again take care of dying patient (p<0.05. In conclusion, male students, attending 3rd class, admitting to have felt helpless and feeling nothing while caring, students feeling adequate, willing to take care of another dying patient were found to have higher death anxiety. As a result of the study approached patients and their families with death while talking to students in addition to, the granting of student consulting services and topics with discussion of concrete cases has been proposed.
Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C
The associations between sleep problems, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and attributional style were examined in self-report data from 79 children aged 8–11 years. Total anxiety score was associated with different types of sleep problems (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety and nightmares). Conversely, total sleep problem score was associated with different sub-scales of anxiety (from r(78) = 0.15, p = NS to r(79) = 0.47, p < 0.01). Symptoms of anxiety correlated significantly with anxiety sensit...
Bára Fanney Hálfdanardóttir 1988
This study examined symptoms of general anxiety, sport performance anxiety and depression among 117 basketball players in the top league in Iceland. Furthermore, stigma towards anxiety and depression problems was explored. The Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS-2) was used to measure sport performance anxiety. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure symptoms for general anxiety and depression. The Depression Stigma Scale was used to measure both personal and perceived stigm...
Schreier, Andrea; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind
The relationship between DSM-IV anxiety disorders and their clinical characteristics in mothers and anxiety in offspring was examined in 933 mother-child pairs from a longitudinal community study. Offspring of mothers with an anxiety disorder had an elevated risk of developing any anxiety disorder, compared with offspring of mothers with no anxiety disorder. Increased risk of anxiety in the offspring was especially associated with maternal social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder, and w...
Erik Hedman; Mats Lekander; Brjánn Ljótsson; Nils Lindefors; Christian Rück; Gerhard Andersson; Erik Andersson
Background Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) and the Whiteley Index (WI). Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on thes...
Temmingh, Henk; Stein, Dan J
Anxiety symptoms can occur in up to 65 % of patients with schizophrenia, and may reach the threshold for diagnosis of various comorbid anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, neurobiology, and management of anxiety in patients with schizophrenia, with a particular focus on pharmacotherapy. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder (at syndrome level) in schizophrenia is estimated to be up to 38 %, with social anxiety disorder (SAD) being the most prevalent. Severity of positive symptoms may correlate with severity of anxiety symptoms, but anxiety can occur independently of psychotic symptoms. While anxiety may be associated with greater levels of insight, it is also associated with increased depression, suicidality, medical service utilization, and cognitive impairment. Patients with anxiety symptoms are more likely to have other internalizing symptoms as opposed to externalizing symptoms. Diagnosis of anxiety in schizophrenia may be challenging, with positive symptoms obscuring anxiety, lower levels of emotional expressivity and communication impeding diagnosis, and conflation with akathisia. Higher diagnostic yield may be achieved by assessment following the resolution of the acute phase of psychosis as well as by the use of screening questions and disorder-specific self-report instruments. In schizophrenia patients with anxiety, there is evidence of underactive fear circuitry during anxiety-provoking stimuli but increased autonomic responsivity and increased responsiveness to neutral stimuli. Recent findings implicate the serotonin transporter (SERT) genes, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) genes, and the serotonin 1a (5HT1a) receptor, but are preliminary and in need of replication. There are few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy for anxiety symptoms or disorders in schizophrenia. For pharmacotherapy, data from a few
Asendorpf, J B; Scherer, K R
This study examined the notion that personality questionnaires can be used to predict different styles of coping with anxiety as expressed by individual differences in patterns of autonomic, verbal, and nonverbal reactions. In line with earlier modifications of the repression-sensitization concept, the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS) were used to select four groups of 12 subjects each from a pool of 206 male students in Germany: low-anxious subjects (low MAS, low SDS), repressors (low MAS, high SDS), high-anxious subjects (high MAS, low SDS), and defensive high-anxious subjects (high MAS, high SDS). Several measures of autonomic arousal, facial activity, and self-reported affect were obtained during a potentially anxiety-arousing free-association task and during a number of control conditions, including a funny film. Significant differences in baseline-corrected heart rate and self-reported anxiety as well as rated facial anxiety all indicated that repressors exhibited a discrepancy between low self-reported anxiety and high heart rate and facial anxiety; low-anxious subjects reported an intermediate level of anxiety, although they showed low heart rate and facial anxiety; high-anxious subjects had consistently high values on all three variables; and the defensive high-anxious group showed an intermediate level of anxious responding. These group differences were specific to the task of freely associating to phrases of mixed (sexual, aggressive, neutral) content (but not to other experimental situations) and to self-reported anxiety (but not to other self-rated emotions or task difficult), indicating that they reflect individual differences in coping with anxiety. PMID:6663446
一、概念及分类焦虑症是一种伴有显著与持续心理与身体焦虑症状的状态，且非其它疾病造成的。分为持续症状（广泛性焦虑症generalized anxiety disorder）与阵发症状两类。后者再分成因在特殊状态下阵发的焦虑（畏惧焦虑症phobic anxiety disorders）与任何情况下都可能发生的焦虑（恐慌症panic disorder）。畏惧焦虑症又再分成单纯畏惧症（simple phobia），社交畏惧症（social phobia）与惧旷症（agora phobia）。
East, Allison J; Berman, Mitchell E; Stoppelbein, Laura
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental (biological mother and father) and adult-offspring anxiety sensitivity (AS), and to determine whether parental AS is related to psychopathology in offspring. We obtained offspring (N=174) self-ratings of anxiety, mood, and stress symptoms, and assigned psychiatric diagnoses using a semistructured clinical interview. Biological mothers, fathers, and offspring independently completed a self-report measure of AS. We hypothesized that (1) there would be a positive relation between parental and offspring AS, and (2) AS in parents would be positively associated with psychopathology in offspring. Results indicated that paternal (but not maternal) AS was associated with offspring AS and psychopathology. PMID:17004235
Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized most commonly as a diffuse, unpleasant, vague sense of apprehension, often accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as headache, perspiration, palpitations, tightness in the chest, mild stomach discomfort and restlessness, indicated by an inability to sit or stand still for long. Anxiety disorder is one of important cause of development of hypertension, although it is multifactorial. It increases sympathetic nervous system which causes hypertension due to alterations in baro reflex and chemo reflex pathways at both peripheral and central level. It also increases norepinephrine which acts on β1 receptor (in brain, myocardium and kidney and increases cardiac force, rate of contraction, renin release and β2 receptor (in pulmonary system and blood vessels and decreases resistance of pulmonary airway and blood vessels-leading to hypertension.
Craske, Michelle G; Waters, Allison M
This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias. PMID:17716087
Grassi, Alessandra; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe
A Stress Inoculation Training-based protocol tested if multimedia audio-video content induced emotional changes and reduced exam anxiety in university students. Seventy-five participants took part in six experimental sessions consisting of viewing multimedia content and performing relaxation exercises. Participants were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: 1) audio and video narrative on mobile phone (UMTS); 2) audio and video narrative on DVD (DVD), 3) audio narrative on MP3 player (M3), 4) audio narrative on CD (CD), 5) control group (CTRL). Results showed that audio/video content induced a significant reduction in exam anxiety and an increase of relaxation in students, compared to the audio-only contents. PMID:21685642
Busch, Fredric N; Sandberg, Larry S
Somatic or emotional experience that has not been symbolically represented, referred to as unmentalized experience, has been given an increasingly prominent role in understanding psychopathology. Panic and anxiety disorders provide a useful model for exploring these factors, as the affective and bodily symptoms can be understood in part as unmentalized experience. The authors explore models of Freud's actual neurosis, Marty and DeM'uzan's pensee operatoire, Klein's unconscious fantasy, Bion's alpha function, Bucci's multiple code system, and relational models to describe how somatic and affective experiences can be translated into symbolic representations, and what factors can interfere with these processes. Approaches to unmentalized aspects of panic and anxiety include symbolizing somatic symptoms, identifying emotional states, and identifying contextual and traumatic links to symptoms. PMID:24828589
Telles-Correia, Diogo; Barbosa, António
Anxiety and depression are very common in patients with medical illness and can be associated to a reduction in quality of life and a poor clinical evolution. The actual concept of anxiety is based on many theoretical models as Goldstein's anxiety model, State/trate anxiety model, Lazarus' transactional stress model. The concept of depression is based on models such as Beck's Cognitive Model and Seligman's learned helplessness model of depression. The link between anxiety/depression and medical illness can be of two kinds: biological (immunological, neuroendocrine, inflammatory systems) and behavioural (coping strategies, adherence to medical advice and prescription, etc). The evaluation of anxiety and depression in medical patient can be done by many ways: taxonomic VS dimensional approach, auto VS heteroevaluation; specific instruments VS nonespecific instruments. All of these approaches are explored in this article. The only instruments used to evaluate anxiety and depression validated to the Portuguese population are: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), o Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (BDI) e o State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The only scale validated exclusively in the medical population, and that can overcome the influence that medical disease can have in depression and anxiety is HADS. PMID:19341597
Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278
West, Tessa V; Pearson, Adam R; Stern, Chadly
Intergroup interactions are often anxiety provoking, and this can lead members of both majority and minority groups to avoid contact. Whereas negative consequences of experiencing intergroup anxiety are well documented, the role of perceived anxiety has received substantially less theoretical and empirical attention. We demonstrate in 3 experiments that the perception of anxiety in others can undermine intergroup interactions even when the anxiety can be attributed to a source that is unrelated to the interaction. Participants who learned that a cross-race partner's anxiety could be attributed to an upcoming evaluation (Study 1) or a stimulant (i.e., caffeine, Studies 2 and 3) expressed less interest in continuing an interaction (Studies 1 and 2), showed less self-disclosure (Study 2), and increased physical distance between themselves and their partner (Study 3) than did those given no source information and participants who interacted with a same-race partner. Moreover, compared to control participants, perceivers who were given an incidental explanation for their partner's anxiety perceived outgroup, but not ingroup, partners as more anxious (Studies 1 and 3) and showed heightened accessibility of anxiety words (Study 3), indicating that incidental source information enhanced accessibility of intergroup (but not intragroup) anxiety at early stages of information processing. Theoretical and practical implications for combating paradoxical effects of perceived anxiety in intergroup interactions are considered. PMID:25347129
Full Text Available Research has shown that mathematics achievement in students is influenced by psychological factors such as mathematics anxiety. Weaknesses among students in learning mathematics in particular will affect the efforts of various sectors in making Malaysia a fully developed nation by 2020. The purpose of this study was to determine mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement among secondary school students in Selangor, Malaysia. The research examined the differences in mathematics anxiety according to gender as well as the differences in mathematics achievement of students based on the level of mathematics anxiety. The study involved195 Form Four students (86 male and 109 female. The instrument used to measure differences was adapted from the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scale. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS to determine the mean, frequency, t-test and one-way ANOVA. The findings of the study indicated that there is mathematics anxiety among secondary school students. The t-test showed that the mean difference between mathematics anxiety and gender is not significant. The ANOVA test showed that there were significant differences in achievement based on the level of mathematics anxiety. Thus, math anxiety is one factor that affects student achievement. Therefore, teachers should strive to understand mathematics anxiety and implement teaching and learning strategies so that students can overcome their anxiety.
Soraya Coelho Leal; Danielle Matos de Menezes Abreu; FRENCKEN, Jo. E.
Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is considered to be well accepted, both by children and by adult patients. The objective of this review is to present and discuss the evidence regarding the acceptability of ART, from the patient's perspective. Aspects related to dental anxiety/fear and pain/discomfort have been highlighted, to facilitate better understanding and use of the information available in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: The ART approach has been shown to cause less discomfort than...
Payne, Peter; Crane-Godreau, Mardi A.
This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM) and its effects on anxiety, depression, and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception, and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung) and Taijiquan (Tai Chi), some forms of Yoga, and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuse...
This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM) and its effects on anxiety, depression and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung) and Taijiquan (Tai Chi), some forms of Yoga and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuses...
Hirsch, Colette R.; Mathews, Andrew; Lequertier, Belinda; Perman, Gemma; Hayes, Sarra
Background & objectives Groups of clients and community volunteers with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and clients with Panic Disorder were compared to a group with elevated worry but without GAD on a range of measures, to identify individual differences beyond a high propensity to worry. Method Participants completed standardised questionnaires and a behavioural worry task that assesses frequency and severity of negative thought intrusions. Results Relative to high worriers, clients with...
In Eating Anxiety, Chad Lavin argues that our culture's obsession with diet, obesity, meat, and local foods enacts ideological and biopolitical responses to perceived threats to both individual and national sovereignty. Using the occasion of eating to examine assumptions about identity, objectivity, and sovereignty that underwrite so much political order, Lavin explains how food functions to help structure popular and philosophical understandings of the world and the place of humans within it...
Pallanti Stefano; Quercioli Leonardo
Abstract Background Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a common disorder and its high prevalence and lifelong chronicity are such that it represents a substantial public health problem. The observation that serotonergic agents appear to be effective for its treatment suggests that patients may have abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission within the central nervous system. We investigated the efficacy of Escitalopram in treatment resistant patients with SAD. Method Twenty-nine adult outpatients ...
Zwaag, M. van der; Tijs, T.J.W.; Westerink, J.H.D.
Patient anxiety is a frequently occurring concern as it decreases patient satisfaction, increases consultation duration, and can influence successful medical outcome. To illustrate, for some diagnosis methods as PET scans patients need to be relaxed for successful medicaloutcome. Music can possibly reduce patients stress. However, hospital selected music has not always shown its effectiveness, and patient selected music has shown it could be arousing instead of relaxing.In two experiments the...
Oliveira, Marcelo Tomás; Bittencourt, Sandra Teixeira; Karina MARCON; Samia DESTRO; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo
This study evaluated the association of level of anxiety in children with and without sleep bruxism (SB). The study was performed with 84 six- to eigth-years-old children, divided into two groups: with bruxism (BG) and without bruxism (CG). Following the criteria purposed by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to determine SB, the presence of tooth wear has been verified through clinical examinations, and the parents have answered a questionnaire about their children’s behavior and habi...
Erickson, Shanna Lin
This dissertation explores the connections among metacognition, math ability, and math anxiety, predominantly within an educational context. An ultimate goal is to improve student success in math by first addressing student misconceptions of self-ability that drive study habits.To inform later discussions of these connections, I first provide supporting groundwork research for each of these cognitive functions separately in Chapters 1-3. In Chapter 1, background information on math cognitio...
Fluvoxamine is a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has proved effective in large double-blind, randomized, controlled trials involving patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder. Improvements have also been demonstrated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as those with a range of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and bod...
Höfling, S; Hutner, G; Ott, H; Fichte, K; Doenicke, A
The role of preoperative anxiety in perioperative adaptation is viewed in two different ways. Janis suggested that anxiety is a drive that evokes the cognitive work of worrying. Leventhal stresses the importance of coping behavior for adaptation, while anxiety may or may not accompany this coping process. Both theories have empirical support. The aim of this study was to determine whether both theories could show empirical support because the scientists chose different methods: Janis used interviews, Leventhal and Lazarus anxiety scales. The study analyzed the pre- and postoperative emotional reactions of surgical patients with three different methods of anxiety measurement: an anxiety scale, a fear thermometer, and a psychoanalytic interview (Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis method). The different methods were compared and related to the adaptation behavior (Table 3). The data showed a clear interaction between the selected methods and respective theories about the effects of preoperative anxiety on intra- and postoperative adaptation. The anxiety scales showed no correlation with adaptation behavior (blood pressure and heart rate during surgery; postoperative pain medication) and were not related to the anxiety scores obtained from the interview (content analysis). On the other hand, the interview anxiety measurements showed a clear relationship between separation anxiety (and also shame anxiety), physiological excitement during surgery (increase in heart rate), and postoperative medication (increased analgesics and tranquilizers). The patients who worried about the risks of surgery (Verletzungsangst, see Fig. 3) had very good perioperative adjustment, so that the quality of anxiety measured in the interview was very important for the prediction of adaptation. PMID:3407901
Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression, with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress-anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these