WorldWideScience

Sample records for anxiety multimodal study

  1. Pilot multimodal twin imaging study of generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, John M; Kettenmann, Birgit; Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep; McCarthy, Christopher; Kates, Wendy R; Schmitt, James E; Silberg, Judy L; Neale, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Fatouros, Panos

    2012-03-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is relatively understudied compared to other psychiatric syndromes. Neuroimaging studies have begun to implicate particular neural structures and circuitry in its pathophysiology; however, no genetically informative research has examined the potential sources of reported brain differences. We acquired spectroscopic, volumetric, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data from a pilot study of 34 female subjects selected from monozygotic twin pairs based upon their affection status for GAD, and examined brain regions previously implicated in fear and anxiety for their relationship with affection status and genetic risk. Lifetime GAD associated with increased creatine levels in the amygdala, smaller left hippocampal volume, and lower fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus which connects amygdala and frontal cortex. In addition, GAD genetic risk predicted increases in myo-inositol in the amygdala and, possibly, glutamate/glutamine/GABA alterations in the hippocampus. The association of lifetime GAD with smaller hippocampal volume was independent of major depression and might represent a common genetic risk marker for internalizing disorders. These preliminary data suggest that GAD and its genetic risk factors are likely correlated with volumetric and spectroscopic changes in fear-related limbic structures and their connections with the frontal cortex. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  3. Multimodality in organization studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This afterword reviews the chapters in this volume and reflects on the synergies between organization and management studies and multimodality studies that emerge from the volume. These include the combination of strong sociological theorizing and detailed multimodal analysis, a focus on material...

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30…

  5. Family accommodation of anxiety symptoms in youth undergoing intensive multimodal treatment for anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Nature, clinical correlates, and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Buissonnière-Ariza, Valérie; Schneider, Sophie C; Højgaard, Davíð; Kay, Brian C; Riemann, Bradley C; Eken, Stephanie C; Lake, Peter; Nadeau, Joshua M; Storch, Eric A

    2018-01-01

    Family accommodation is associated with a range of clinical features including symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment response. However, most previous studies in children and adolescents investigated family accommodation in samples of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or anxiety disorders receiving non-intensive outpatient services. In this study, we aimed to investigate family accommodation of anxiety symptoms in a sample of youth with clinical anxiety levels undergoing an intensive multimodal intervention for anxiety disorders or OCD. We first assessed the internal consistency of the Family Accommodation Scale - Anxiety (FASA). We next examined family accommodation presentation and correlates. The FASA showed high internal consistency for all subscales and total score, and good item and subscale correlations with the total score. All parents reported at least mild accommodation, and the mean levels of family accommodation were particularly high. Child age, anxiety severity, and comorbid depressive symptoms predicted baseline accommodation. However, the association between anxiety severity and family accommodation no longer remained significant after adding the other factors to the model. In addition, family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment. Finally, post-treatment changes in family accommodation predicted changes in symptom severity and functional impairment. These findings suggest the FASA is an appropriate tool to assess family accommodation in intensive treatment samples. Further, they underline the importance of addressing family accommodation in this population given the particularly high levels of accommodating behaviors and the evidence for adverse outcomes associated with this feature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics and consequences of the co-occurrence between social anxiety and pain-related fear in chronic pain patients receiving multimodal pain rehabilitation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Matilda; Edlund, Sara; Tillfors, Maria; Boersma, Katja

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pain problems are related to specific pain related fears and maladaptive pain-coping but also commonly co-occur with other anxiety problems. Shared emotional vulnerability factors may explain this comorbidity and may influence treatment outcome. Indeed, pain patients going through multimodal pain treatment are a heterogeneous group and treatment results vary. One understudied anxiety disorder co-occurring with pain is social anxiety. This may be relevant as many pain-related challenges are situated in social contexts. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of subgroups with differential patterns of social anxiety and pain related fear in a sample of chronic pain patients who receive multimodal pain treatment. The aim is also to study the characteristics of these potential subgroups and the consequences of different patterns of social anxiety and pain related fear. 180 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain answered questionnaires before and after a multimodal pain treatment in a hospital rehabilitation setting in middle Sweden. A cluster analysis using pre-treatment scores on the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia was performed. Subgroups were thereafter validated and compared on impairment due to social anxiety, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, subgroups were described and compared on vulnerability factors (anxiety sensitivity, negative affect) and outcome factors (pain intensity, pain interference, and return to work self-efficacy). Four distinct clusters emerged: (1) low scores, (2) pain-related fear only, (3) social concern only, and (4) high social anxiety and pain-related fear. Patients high on social anxiety and pain-related fear had significantly higher levels of anxiety sensitivity, negative affect, and higher general emotional symptomatology. They also had remaining problems posttreatment. A subgroup of patients with clinical levels of social anxiety has suboptimal

  7. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    on their teaching and learning situations. The choices they make involve e-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very......In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal' communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia'. While multimedia...... useful for developing pedagogies where a synergy of different symbol systems facilitates new and flexible learning situations that can meet different needs of different learners. The present paper includes an example from a Danish university program...

  8. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    and learning situations. The choices they make involve E-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very useful......In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal’ communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia’. While multimedia...... for developing pedagogies where a synergy of different symbol systems facilitates new and flexible learning situations that can meet different needs of different learners. The present paper includes an example from a Danish university program....

  9. Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, H

    1990-03-01

    The analysis is a study of the nature of anxiety in human experience. The author reviews the work of theologian Paul Tillich and psychologist Rollo May and clarifies the role of anxiety in life. The article reflects the need for a basic religious affirmation as one faces the anxiety of life which comes from the many threats to human existence.

  10. Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... physical and psychological stress, and diet. 5 Major Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) : chronic anxiety, exaggerated ...

  11. A Plurisemiotic Study of Multimodal Interactive Teaching through Videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Tatiana; Celik, Christelle Combe

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyze webcam pedagogical communication between a French Foreign Language tutor and two students during seven online classes. It tries to answer the following question: how does the tutor in a multimodal learning environment change her semio-discursive behavior from the first to the last session? We analyze…

  12. [Anxiety in eating disorders: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Pinto, Natalia; Cano Vindel, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature shows that anxiety is an important factor in eating disorders. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the anxiety manifestations obtained by means of the Anxiety Situations and Responses Inventory of in a clinical sample of 74 females (46, anorexia nervosa; 28, bulimia) to those obtained by a control group (130 girls without disorders). The between-group ANOVA results showed higher anxiety scores in the clinical group with a medium effect size for the anxiety trait, finding a flat profile (within-group ANOVA) for the three response systems (cognitive, physiological and motor) and the four specific anxiety traits (test, interpersonal, phobic, and daily life situations). Moreover, high scores in anxiety involved a greater risk of being diagnosed with an eating disorder in the 8 bivariate comparisons. The estimations were more precise for cognitive anxiety and for the specific interpersonal anxiety trait.

  13. A Multimodal Search Engine for Medical Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eduardo; Godinho, Tiago; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The use of digital medical imaging systems in healthcare institutions has increased significantly, and the large amounts of data in these systems have led to the conception of powerful support tools: recent studies on content-based image retrieval (CBIR) and multimodal information retrieval in the field hold great potential in decision support, as well as for addressing multiple challenges in healthcare systems, such as computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). However, the subject is still under heavy research, and very few solutions have become part of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in hospitals and clinics. This paper proposes an extensible platform for multimodal medical image retrieval, integrated in an open-source PACS software with profile-based CBIR capabilities. In this article, we detail a technical approach to the problem by describing its main architecture and each sub-component, as well as the available web interfaces and the multimodal query techniques applied. Finally, we assess our implementation of the engine with computational performance benchmarks.

  14. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  15. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders: A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, M.; Batelaan, N.M.; van Megen, H.J.G.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cath, D.C.; van Hout, M.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  16. Pilot study of a multimodal intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary Ellen; Hovgaard, Doris; Boesen, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Substantial physical and functional deconditioning and diminished psychological wellbeing are all potential adverse effects of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and benefits (physical and functional capacity) of a 4......-6 week supervised and structured mixed-type exercise, progressive relaxation and psychoeducation programme in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Nineteen patients were randomized to an intervention or a conventional care group (CC) and were tested for physical and functional capacity before admission...... muscle strength, and minimizing loss of physical and functional capacity in patients undergoing allo-HSCT....

  17. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  18. Sharing a Multimodal Corpus to Study Webcam-Mediated Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a methodology to create a multimodal corpus that can be shared with a group of researchers in order to analyze synchronous online pedagogical interactions. Epistemological aspects involved in studying online interactions from a multimodal and semiotic perspective are addressed. Then, issues and challenges raised by corpus…

  19. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollahi Mansoureh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.

  20. Anxiety and depression in patients with advanced ovarian cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Piotr; Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Kozaka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Survival of ovarian cancer patients is still unsatisfactory despite the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Women with advanced ovarian cancer with long-term survival are at persistent risk of anxiety and reactive depression due to poor prognosis and risk of burdensome symptoms. The aim of the study was to assess changes in anxiety and depression during multimodality ovarian cancer treatment and to identify correlates of anxiety and depression. The study included 106 consecutive patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Mean age of the study group was 53.9 years (SD = 10.8, range: 23-79). The participants completed Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory four times: prior to and one week after surgery, and before the second and the fourth course of adjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent determinants of distress at various stages of treatment. The level of anxiety and the prevalence of pathological anxiety (74%) were the highest prior to surgery and gradually decreased thereafter. Irrespective of the treatment stage, the level of anxiety was higher than the corresponding level of depression. History of abortion, presence of intestinal stoma, poor general status, residual disease and time from the initial diagnosis were the main determinants of distress in ovarian cancer patients. Significant changes in the level of anxiety and slight fluctuations in the depression level experienced during ovarian cancer treatment are mostly determined by clinical variables. Identification of individuals with psychological comorbidities is a vital component of patient-oriented multidisciplinary care.

  1. Nuclear anxiety: a test-construction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Anxiety Scale was administered to 263 undergraduate and graduate studies (on eight occasions in December, 1985 and January, 1986). (1) The obtained alpha coefficient was .91. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated that the scale was internally homogeneous and consistent. (2) Item discrimination indices (point biserial correlation coefficients) computered for the thirty (30) items yielded a range of .25 to .64. All coefficients were significant at the .01 level, and all 30 items were retained as demonstrating significant discriminability. (3) The correlation between two administrations of the scale (with a 48-hour interval) was .83. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated test-retest reliability and stability over time. (4) The point-biserial correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale, and the students' self-report of nuclear anxiety as being either a high or low ranked stressor, was .59. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated concurrent validity. (5) The correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, A-Trait, (1970), was .41. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated convergent validity. (6) The correlation coefficient between positively stated and negatively stated items (with scoring reversed) was .76. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated freedom from response set bias

  2. Influence of maternal anxiety on child anxiety during dental care: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Paloma; Garbín, Raíssa Rigo; Santos, Catielma Nascimento; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Rigo, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is usually classified as a disorder of neurotic nature and is often related to contexts of stress, which may include worries, motor tension and autonomic hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of mothers' anxiety on their children's anxiety during dental care. Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at in a private dentistry school in the south of Brazil. Convenience sampling was used. All mothers of children undergoing treatment were invited to participate in this study. Data to investigate anxiety related to dental treatment among the children were collected through applying the Venham Picture Test (VPT) scale. For the mothers, the Corah scale was applied. A self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire with questions about demographic, behavioral, oral health and dental service variables was also used. 40 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The results showed that 40% of the children were anxious and 60% of the mothers were slightly anxious. Local anesthesia was the procedure that caused most anxiety among the mothers, making them somewhat uncomfortable and anxious (60%). Family income higher than R$ 1,577.00 had an influence on maternal anxiety (75.6%). Maternal anxiety had an influence on child anxiety (81.3%). Most of the children showed the presence of anxiety, which ranged from fear of dental care to panic, inferring that maternal anxiety has an influence on children's anxiety. Dental procedures did not interfere with the mothers' anxiety, but caused positive feelings, whereas they affected the children more.

  3. Development of a multimodal transportation educational virtual appliance (MTEVA) to study congestion during extreme tropical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    In this study, a prototype Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is developed to assist in transportation and cyberinfrastructure undergraduate education. This initial version of the MTEVA provides a graphical user interface...

  4. Noncontact Sleep Study by Multi-Modal Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku-young Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polysomnography (PSG is considered as the gold standard for determining sleep stages, but due to the obtrusiveness of its sensor attachments, sleep stage classification algorithms using noninvasive sensors have been developed throughout the years. However, the previous studies have not yet been proven reliable. In addition, most of the products are designed for healthy customers rather than for patients with sleep disorder. We present a novel approach to classify sleep stages via low cost and noncontact multi-modal sensor fusion, which extracts sleep-related vital signals from radar signals and a sound-based context-awareness technique. This work is uniquely designed based on the PSG data of sleep disorder patients, which were received and certified by professionals at Hanyang University Hospital. The proposed algorithm further incorporates medical/statistical knowledge to determine personal-adjusted thresholds and devise post-processing. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is highlighted by contrasting sleep stage classification performance between single sensor and sensor-fusion algorithms. To validate the possibility of commercializing this work, the classification results of this algorithm were compared with the commercialized sleep monitoring device, ResMed S+. The proposed algorithm was investigated with random patients following PSG examination, and results show a promising novel approach for determining sleep stages in a low cost and unobtrusive manner.

  5. Experimental Study on Bioluminescence Tomography with Multimodality Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Lv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the influence of a priori information on the nonuniqueness problem of bioluminescence tomography (BLT, the multimodality imaging fusion based BLT experiment is performed by multiview noncontact detection mode, which incorporates the anatomical information obtained by the microCT scanner and the background optical properties based on diffuse reflectance measurements. In the reconstruction procedure, the utilization of adaptive finite element methods (FEMs and a priori permissible source region refines the reconstructed results and improves numerical robustness and efficiency. The comparison between the absence and employment of a priori information shows that multimodality imaging fusion is essential to quantitative BLT reconstruction.

  6. The Impact of Multimodal Texts on Reading Achievement: A Study of Iranian Secondary School Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Baharani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of multimodal text on reading comprehension test performance of Iranian intermediate learners. A total of 80 students participated in this study. All of them were Iranian female EFL learners with the age ranging from 16 to 18. They were selected from a boarding high school in Nasr Abad, Torbat Jam in Khorasan e Razavi, Iran. The students were randomly settled in four groups, who received different instructional approaches through using linear texts, multimodal printed texts, non-printed multimodal texts, and both multimodal printed and non-printed texts.  A pre-test and post-test were used to find out the differences before and after the experimental treatment.  The results reflected that the printed and non-printed multimodal texts had significant impact on reading comprehension test performance. In contrast, applying linear texts or traditional texts did not exert significant influence on reading comprehension ability of the participants. The findings provide useful hints for language instructors to improve effectiveness of instructional reading curriculums and reading ability of language learners. The participants who learned reading comprehension through using multimodal printed and non-printed texts enjoy reading programs and develop their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for improving reading ability.

  7. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.W.; Branje, S.J.T.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Frijns, T.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239

  8. The challenge of simple graphics for multimodal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian Mosbæk

    2018-01-01

    This article suggests that a Multimodal Social Semiotics (MSS) approach to graphics is severely challenged by structurally very simple texts. Methodologically, MSS favours the level at which elements from discrete modes are integrated grammatically into texts. Because the tradition has this focus...... as typically understood by MSS. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the approach, the article carries out a comparative reading of two logos for Scandinavian fuel retail companies: Norwegian Statoil Fuel and Retail ASA and Swedish Preem AB....

  9. The role of attachment insecurity in the emergence of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with migraine: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Riccardo; Leone, Luigi; Faedda, Noemi; Natalucci, Giulia; Bellini, Benedetta; Salvi, Elisa; Verdecchia, Paola; Cerutti, Rita; Arruda, Marco; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    It is widely recognised that there are associations between headache, psychiatric comorbidity and attachment insecurity in both adults and children. The aims of this study were: 1) to compare perceived attachment security and anxiety in children and adolescents with migraine without aura and a healthy control group; 2) to test whether the child's perceived security of attachment to the mother and the father mediated the association between migraine and anxiety. One hundred children and adolescents with Migraine without Aura were compared with a control group of 100 children without headache. The Security Scale (measures perceived security of attachments) and the Self-Administered Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents, a measure of anxiety symptoms, were administered to all participants. The clinical group had lower attachment security than the control group and higher scores on all anxiety scales. Anxiety was negatively correlated with attachment. Children's attachment to their mother mediated the increase in global anxiety in the clinical group. Insecure paternal attachment was associated with greater insecurity in maternal attachment, suggesting that there is a complex pathway from migraine to anxiety symptoms mediated by perceived insecurity of paternal attachment and hence also by perceived insecurity of maternal attachment. These results suggest that insecure parental attachment may exacerbate anxiety in children and adolescents with migraine and point to the importance of multimodal interventions, perhaps taking account of family relationships, for children and adolescents with migraine.

  10. Anxiety or neurosis: case report study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Third Edition (DSM-III in 1980, anxiety disorder was first identified as a diagnostic entity. A new theoretical approach regarding aetiology of anxiety disorders came next into the view, far from Freud’s psychoanalytical pathways. The consequences were new therapeutic guidelines, including psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy.Methods: The paper presents a case report study of a patient with social phobia. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve Axis I symptoms, is described.Conclusions: In spite of new therapeutic guidelines there is still a certain population of patients with the need for psychoanalytical oriented psychotherapy. If we are to surrender the Freud’s legacy to the medical history, we will weaken psychiatry as a science and will narrow our therapeutic field.

  11. The Study of the Relationship between Mothers' Anxiety with the Mathematical Performance and Students' Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Moradpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at first grade of high school at zone one of Tehran. Among population, 97 students and their mothers are chosen. Data of this research are collected by Cattell standard questionnaire for studying mothers' anxiety and standard questionnaire of mathematics anxiety for studying mathematics anxiety and a math exam for studying of students' performance. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics anxiety and performance of students. Also it indicated that there is significant difference between students with high and low mathematics anxiety in term of mathematics performance.

  12. Influence of maternal anxiety on child anxiety during dental care: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Busato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety is usually classified as a disorder of neurotic nature and is often related to contexts of stress, which may include worries, motor tension and autonomic hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of mothers’ anxiety on their children’s anxiety during dental care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at in a private dentistry school in the south of Brazil. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used. All mothers of children undergoing treatment were invited to participate in this study. Data to investigate anxiety related to dental treatment among the children were collected through applying the Venham Picture Test (VPT scale. For the mothers, the Corah scale was applied. A self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire with questions about demographic, behavioral, oral health and dental service variables was also used. RESULTS: 40 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The results showed that 40% of the children were anxious and 60% of the mothers were slightly anxious. Local anesthesia was the procedure that caused most anxiety among the mothers, making them somewhat uncomfortable and anxious (60%. Family income higher than R$ 1,577.00 had an influence on maternal anxiety (75.6%. Maternal anxiety had an influence on child anxiety (81.3%. CONCLUSION: Most of the children showed the presence of anxiety, which ranged from fear of dental care to panic, inferring that maternal anxiety has an influence on children’s anxiety. Dental procedures did not interfere with the mothers’ anxiety, but caused positive feelings, whereas they affected the children more.

  13. Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples...... of recent work in the critical analysis of multimodal discourse....

  14. A comparative study of anxiety among HIV seropositive individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the negative influence of long standing anxiety, the present study attempts to find an answer regarding the possible differences between the prevalence and impact of anxiety in HIV seropositive individuals, cancer patients and individuals from the normative population. Anxiety is a major health harzard in HIV ...

  15. A comparative study of anxiety among HIV seropositive individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumali

    Conclusion:The findings of the present study reveal that HIV+ individuals and cancer patients have higher levels of anxiety than individuals from the normative population. Anxiety is also found to be positively correlated with physical illness behavior. This indicates that high level of anxiety and physical illness behavior seem ...

  16. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…

  17. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...

  18. Study of internalization and viability of multimodal nanoparticles for labeling of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B in culture media for cell labeling, and to establish a study of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B detection at labeled cells evaluating they viability at concentrations of 10 μg Fe/mL and 100μg Fe/mL. Methods: We performed the analysis of stability of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B in different culture media; the mesenchymal stem cells labeling with multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B; the intracellular detection of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B in mesenchymal stem cells, and assessment of the viability of labeled cells by kinetic proliferation. Results: The stability analysis showed that multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B had good stability in cultured Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's-Low Glucose medium and RPMI 1640 medium. The mesenchymal stem cell with multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B described location of intracellular nanoparticles, which were shown as blue granules co-localized in fluorescent clusters, thus characterizing magnetic and fluorescent properties of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles Rhodamine B. Conclusion: The stability of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B found in cultured Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's-Low Glucose medium and RPMI 1640 medium assured intracellular mesenchymal stem cells labeling. This cell labeling did not affect viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells since they continued to proliferate for five days. (author)

  19. A Case Study of Struggle and Success: Profiling a Third Grader's Reading and Writing in a Multimodal Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Angela M.; Pendleton, Melissa; Christiansen, Christine; Nesheim, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article reports findings on a case study of Ellie as she participates in a language arts curriculum that incorporates multimodal literacy practices--including photography, drama, and art--to teach reading and writing. Our study was informed by the theoretical framework of multimodal social semiotics, which provides insight into how…

  20. The challenge of simple graphics for multimodal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian Mosbæk

    2018-01-01

    This article suggests that a Multimodal Social Semiotics (MSS) approach to graphics is severely challenged by structurally very simple texts. Methodologically, MSS favours the level at which elements from discrete modes are integrated grammatically into texts. Because the tradition has this focus......, the analytical description of the expression plane of many modes is underdeveloped. In the case of graphics, we have no descriptive or explanatory readiness for graphic form. The article aims to remedy this problem by combining (i) a small inventory of formal dichotomies for graphic shape features at a general...... level of delicacy with (ii) a fractalderived understanding of composition as a nested hierarchy of traces from articulatory events on different time scales. In combination, the two approaches cast light on the meaning potential of texts that are too simple to specify lexico-grammatical meaning potential...

  1. Multimodal and widespread somatosensory abnormalities in persistent shoulder pain in the first 6 months after stroke: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosink, M.; van Dongen, R.T.; Buitenweg, J.R.; Renzenbrink, G.J.; Geurts, A.C.H.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roosink M, Van Dongen RT, Buitenweg JR, Renzenbrink GJ, Geurts AC, IJzerman MJ. Multimodal and widespread somatosensory abnormalities in persistent shoulder pain in the first 6 months after stroke: an exploratory study. OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of multimodal and widespread somatosensory

  2. Photolithographic Polymerization of Diacetylene-Containing Phospholipid Bilayers Studied by Multimode Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Schönherr, Holger; Frank, Curtis W.; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Photopolymerization of the diacetylene-containing phospholipid 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1) in substrate-supported planar lipid bilayers (SPBs) has been studied by using multimode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Monolayers and bilayers of 1 have been transferred onto

  3. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  4. Studying the coupled eigenoscillations of an axisymmetric tower-elevated tank system by the multimodal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, I.; Hermann, M.; Trotsenko, Yu.; Timokha, A.

    2013-10-01

    Employing the virtual work variational principle and the linear multimodal method for the liquid sloshing in an axisymmetric tank, we study coupled eigenoscillations of a tower and an elevated tank partially filled by a liquid. An emphasis is placed on the case of an upright circular cylindrical tank. Theoretical results are compared with known experimental data.

  5. Double-Wavelet Approach to Studying the Modulation Properties of Nonstationary Multimode Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik; Pavlov, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of double-wavelet analysis, the paper proposes a method to study interactions in the form of frequency and amplitude modulation in nonstationary multimode data series. Special emphasis is given to the problem of quantifying the strength of modulation for a fast signal by a coexisting...

  6. Dispersion Studies on Multimode Polymer Spiral Waveguides for Board-Level Optical Interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian; Bamiedakis, Nikos; Edwards, Tom J.; Brown, Christian T. A.; Penty, Richard V.; White, Ian H.

    2016-01-01

    The authors thank EPSRC for supporting the work. Dispersion studies are conducted on 1m long multimode polymer spiral waveguides with different refractive index profiles. Bandwidth-length products >40GHz×m are obtained from such waveguides under a 50/125 μm MMF, indicating the potential of this technology. Postprint

  7. A Case Study of Diverse Multimodal Influences on Music Improvisation Using Visual Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study employed multimodal methods and visual analysis to explore how a young multilingual student used music improvisation to form a speech rap. This student, recently arrived in Australia from Ethiopia, created piano music that was central to his music identity and that simultaneously, through dialogue with his mother, enhanced his…

  8. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  9. Multimodal hard x-ray imaging with resolution approaching 10 nm for studies in material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hanfei; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Huang, Xiaojing; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Xu, Weihe; Cocco, Alex P.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Chu, Yong S.

    2018-03-01

    We report multimodal scanning hard x-ray imaging with spatial resolution approaching 10 nm and its application to contemporary studies in the field of material science. The high spatial resolution is achieved by focusing hard x-rays with two crossed multilayer Laue lenses and raster-scanning a sample with respect to the nanofocusing optics. Various techniques are used to characterize and verify the achieved focus size and imaging resolution. The multimodal imaging is realized by utilizing simultaneously absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast mechanisms. The combination of high spatial resolution and multimodal imaging enables a comprehensive study of a sample on a very fine length scale. In this work, the unique multimodal imaging capability was used to investigate a mixed ionic-electronic conducting ceramic-based membrane material employed in solid oxide fuel cells and membrane separations (compound of Ce0.8Gd0.2O2‑x and CoFe2O4) which revealed the existence of an emergent material phase and quantified the chemical complexity at the nanoscale.

  10. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  11. Friendship Experiences and Anxiety Among Children: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Catherine Serra; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) whether, in line with a gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for anxiety puts children at risk of having anxious friends or having no reciprocal friends; (b) to what extent these friendship experiences are related to anxiety symptoms, when controlling for sex and genetic disposition for this trait; and (c) the additive and interactive predictive links of the reciprocal best friend's anxiety symptoms and of friendship quality with children's anxiety symptoms. Using a genetically informed design based on 521 monozygotic and ic twins (264 girls; 87% of European descent) assessed in Grade 4 (M age = 10.04 years, SD = .26), anxiety symptoms and perceived friendship quality were measured with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that, in line with rGE, children with a strong genetic disposition for anxiety were more likely to have anxious friends than nonanxious friends. Moreover, controlling for their genetic risk for anxiety, children with anxious friends showed higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children with nonanxious friends but did not differ from those without reciprocal friends. Additional analyses suggested a possible contagion of anxiety symptoms between reciprocal best friends when perceived negative features of friendship were high. These results underline the importance of teaching strategies such as problem solving that enhance friendship quality to limit the potential social contagion of anxiety symptoms.

  12. Analyzing International Students' Study Anxiety in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshlessan, Rezvan; Das, Kumer Pial

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore international students' study anxiety in a mid-sized public four-year university in Southeast Texas by comparing their existing study anxiety along lines of nationality, gender, age, major, degree, and stage of education. The subjects were selected using a convenience sample during the Spring of 2013. The…

  13. Study of internalization and viability of multimodal nanoparticles for labeling of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells; Estudo de internalizacao e viabilidade de nanoparticulas multimodal para marcacao de celulas-tronco mesenquimais de cordao umbilical humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi [Faculdade de Enfermagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel, E-mail: tatianats@einstein.br [Instituto do Cerebro - InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: To analyze multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B in culture media for cell labeling, and to establish a study of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B detection at labeled cells evaluating they viability at concentrations of 10 {mu}g Fe/mL and 100{mu}g Fe/mL. Methods: We performed the analysis of stability of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B in different culture media; the mesenchymal stem cells labeling with multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B; the intracellular detection of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B in mesenchymal stem cells, and assessment of the viability of labeled cells by kinetic proliferation. Results: The stability analysis showed that multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B had good stability in cultured Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's-Low Glucose medium and RPMI 1640 medium. The mesenchymal stem cell with multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B described location of intracellular nanoparticles, which were shown as blue granules co-localized in fluorescent clusters, thus characterizing magnetic and fluorescent properties of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles Rhodamine B. Conclusion: The stability of multimodal magnetic nanoparticles-Rhodamine B found in cultured Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's-Low Glucose medium and RPMI 1640 medium assured intracellular mesenchymal stem cells labeling. This cell labeling did not affect viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells since they continued to proliferate for five days. (author)

  14. Long-term Results from the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth Program, a Multimodal School-Based Approach, Show Marked Reductions in Suicidality, Depression, and Anxiety in 6,227 Students in Grades 6–12 (Aged 11–18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Silverstone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on findings from a 15-month follow-up of a school-based program called Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Toward Healthy Youth (EMPATHY. This was primarily intended to reduce suicidal thinking in pre-teens, adolescents, and youth students aged 11–18 in middle schools (Grades 6–8 and high SCHOOLS (Grades 9–12. It also aimed to reduce depression and anxiety. The EMPATHY multimodal program consisted of repeated data collection, identification of a high-risk group, a rapid intervention for this high-risk group including offering supervised online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program, a universal CBT intervention for those in Grades 6–8, a variety of interactions with trained staff (“Resiliency Coaches”, and referral to external medical and psychiatric services where appropriate. There were four time-points at which assessments were made: baseline, 3, 7, and 15 months. Here, we report cross-sectional findings over 15 months in a total of 6,227 students who were assessed at least once during the study period. Additionally, we report longitudinal findings from the 1,884 students who completed all 4 assessments. Our results found highly statistically significant decreases in suicidality rates, with the percentage of the total school population who were actively suicidal decreasing from 4.4% at baseline (n = 143 of 3,244 to 2.8% at 15 months (n = 125 of 4,496 (p < 0.001. There were also highly statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety scores at each time-point. Thus, Mean Depression scores at baseline for the entire student population were 3.73 ± 3.87 (n = 3,244 at baseline and decreased to 3.22 ± 3.52 (n = 4,496 (p < 0.001. Since most students were not depressed, whole population changes such as this may indicate impact in many areas. In the longitudinal analysis of students who completed all four assessments, there were also highly statistically significant

  15. Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Study of Chinese Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Chinese Language Speaking Anxiety and its associated factors among college-level students who learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL in the U.S. Although the Speaking Anxiety scores of the participants were not high on average, but frequency analyses showed that quite a number of learners experienced high levels of anxiety when speaking Chinese. The results of ANOVA analyses indicated that gender had a significant effect on Speaking Anxiety, but proficiency level and the elective-required status did not. Correlation and multiple regression results showed that perceived difficulty level of the Chinese language, self-perceived language learning ability, and self-perceived achievement in Chinese classes were significant predictors of Speaking Anxiety and altogether accounted for 21.4% of the variance in Speaking Anxiety.

  16. Anxiety and depression in patients receiving radiotherapy. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Chandra, P.S.; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Anantha, N.; Reddy, B.K.M.; Sharma, S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) prospectively in patients receiving Radiotherapy (RT) during and after treatment. 140 consecutive cancer patients referred for radiotherapy and their care givers were included. All patients were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) conducted at intake, just before starting RT, after finishing the course of RT, and at 3-4 months follow-up. Anxiety and depression are detected frequently in patients receiving RT both prior to treatment and later during follow-up

  17. A study of exam related anxiety amongst medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pahwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study focuses on pre-examination anxiety amongst medical students & its personality co-relates. Material & Method : 91 medical students were administered Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to determine predominant personality trait if any and Beck′s Anxiety Inventory. Results : There was an increase in anxiety levels prior to exam, more so in females and in students with neuroticism and extraversion temperaments. Conclusion: Anxiety levels increase in medical students prior to exams and are associated with certain personality traits, though the difference is not statistically significant.

  18. Study on Writing Anxiety among Iranian EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Jebreil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating the level of writing anxiety of the Iranian EFL students with different proficiency levels. To do so, 45 students (elementary, intermediate, and advanced learners studying in Azad University of Ilam, Iran were selected based on random sampling. Second, Language Writing Anxiety Inventory SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 was used to measure anxiety.  Both descriptive and inferential statistics including One-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The results of the study indicated that the selected Iranian EFL students majoring in English language teaching experienced a high level of anxiety. In addition, students with elementary level were found to suffer higher level of English writing anxiety than the students with intermediate and advanced levels. Finally, based on the findings, cognitive anxiety was the most common type of anxiety, followed by somatic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. The results also highlighted the fact that foreign and second language teachers should be cautious of the dangers of  anxiety  and try  to  make  the  atmosphere  of  class  as  stress-free  as possible  in  order  to  improve  students’ performance.

  19. Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…

  20. All anxiety is not created equal: Correlates of parent/youth agreement vary across subtypes of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Emily M.; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Kendall, Philip C.; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2016-01-01

    Research has examined patterns and correlates of parent/youth informant discrepancies in the reporting of youth anxiety. However, little work has examined whether it is better to conceptualize patterns and correlates of informant disagreement across anxiety broadly, or more useful to consider disagreement on specific symptom clusters. Using data from the Child Adolescent/Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS; N = 488; Walkup et al., 2008), the current study applied the most recent recommended analyt...

  1. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  2. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A. C.; Menting, B.; De Moor, M. H.M.; Verhage, M. L.; Kunseler, F. C.; Schuengel, C.; Oosterman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child’s early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were

  3. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety? A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vennet, Renee; Serice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study replicated Curry and Kasser's (2005) research that tested whether coloring a mandala would reduce anxiety. After inducing an anxious mood via a writing activity, participants were randomly assigned to three groups that colored either on a mandala design, on a plaid design, or on a blank paper. Anxiety level was measured…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  5. Multimodal MRI for early diabetic mild cognitive impairment: study protocol of a prospective diagnostic trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediary state between normal cognition and dementia, often occurs during the prodromal diabetic stage, making early diagnosis and intervention of MCI very important. Latest neuroimaging techniques revealed some underlying microstructure alterations for diabetic MCI, from certain aspects. But there still lacks an integrated multimodal MRI system to detect early neuroimaging changes in diabetic MCI patients. Thus, we intended to conduct a diagnostic trial using multimodal MRI techniques to detect early diabetic MCI that is determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In this study, healthy controls, prodromal diabetes and diabetes subjects (53 subjects/group) aged 40-60 years will be recruited from the physical examination center of Tangdu Hospital. The neuroimaging and psychometric measurements will be repeated at a 0.5 year-interval for 2.5 years’ follow-up. The primary outcome measures are 1) Microstructural and functional alterations revealed with multimodal MRI scans including structure magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pCASL); 2) Cognition evaluation with MoCA. The second outcome measures are obesity, metabolic characteristics, lifestyle and quality of life. The study will provide evidence for the potential use of multimodal MRI techniques with psychometric evaluation in diagnosing MCI at prodromal diabetic stage so as to help decision making in early intervention and improve the prognosis of T2DM. This study has been registered to ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02420470) on April 2, 2015 and published on July 29, 2015

  6. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, pAdolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, panxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.

  7. Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.

  8. A multimodal communication program for aphasia during inpatient rehabilitation: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah E; Purdy, Mary; Skidmore, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Communication is essential for successful rehabilitation, yet few aphasia treatments have been investigated during the acute stroke phase. Alternative modality use including gesturing, writing, or drawing has been shown to increase communicative effectiveness in people with chronic aphasia. Instruction in alternative modality use during acute stroke may increase patient communication and participation, therefore resulting in fewer adverse situations and improved rehabilitation outcomes. The study purpose was to explore a multimodal communication program for aphasia (MCPA) implemented during acute stroke rehabilitation. MCPA aims to improve communication modality production, and to facilitate switching among modalities to resolve communication breakdowns. Two adults with severe aphasia completed MCPA beginning at 2 and 3 weeks post onset a single left-hemisphere stroke. Probes completed during each session allowed for evaluation of modality production and modality switching accuracy. Participants completed MCPA (10 and 14 treatment sessions respectively) and their performance on probes suggested increased accuracy in the production of various alternate communication modalities. However, increased switching to an alternate modality was noted for only one participant. Further investigation of multimodal treatment during inpatient rehabilitation is warranted. In particular, comparisons between multimodal and standard treatments would help determine appropriate interventions for this setting.

  9. A Multimodal Communication Program for Aphasia during Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah E.; Purdy, Mary; Skidmore, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Communication is essential for successful rehabilitation, yet few aphasia treatments have been investigated during the acute stroke phase. Alternative modality use including gesturing, writing, or drawing has been shown to increase communicative effectiveness in people with chronic aphasia. Instruction in alternative modality use during acute stroke may increase patient communication and participation, therefore resulting in fewer adverse situations and improved rehabilitation outcomes. OBJECTIVE The study purpose was to explore a multimodal communication program for aphasia (MCPA) implemented during acute stroke rehabilitation. MCPA aims to improve communication modality production, and to facilitate switching among modalities to resolve communication breakdowns. METHODS Two adults with severe aphasia completed MCPA beginning at 2 and 3 weeks post onset a single left-hemisphere stroke. Probes completed during each session allowed for evaluation of modality production and modality switching accuracy. RESULTS Participants completed MCPA (10 and 14 treatment sessions respectively) and their performance on probes suggested increased accuracy in the production of various alternate communication modalities. However, increased switching to an alternate modality was noted for only one participant. CONCLUSIONS Further investigation of multimodal treatment during inpatient rehabilitation is warranted. In particular, comparisons between multimodal and standard treatments would help determine appropriate interventions for this setting. PMID:25227547

  10. Experimental and numerical study on refractive index sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings inscribed in multimode fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe Kuhne, Jean; Rocha, Ana Maria; de Oliveira, Valmir; José Kalinowski, Hypolito; Canute Kamikawachi, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    In this work is reported the experimental and numerical results of the refractive index response of etched fibre Bragg gratings written in a graded index multimode fibre. The responses of the modes coupled by the grating inscribed in a multimode fibre are compared with the mode coupled by a grating inscribed in single mode fibre. The results of this study show that the refractive index sensitivity and the dynamical range of etched fibre Bragg gratings written in multimode fibres are higher than the ones verified in single-mode fibres. The determination of oil-biodiesel blend concentrations are also compared as an example of practical applications. It is shown that a greater core diameter of the multimode fibre enables the Bragg gratings to exhibit enhanced sensitivity without requiring further fibre diameter reduction.

  11. Language Classroom Anxiety: A Comparative Study of ESL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voviana Zulkifli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia decided use English as the medium of instruction at university level beginning 2002 and much debate has surfaced since then. English has also increased in importance in the People’s Republic of China (PRC since the nation joined the World Trade Organization (WTO and implemented an Open Door Policy. This study compares perceived second language anxiety and attempts to identify significant differences in the level of anxiety of male and female ESL university students at Stamford College, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia and from the PRC Malaysia. It also attempts to identify the factors that could contribute to language classroom anxiety. Although the study did not control for factors that may influence language apprehension, the results suggest that nearly half of the total number of respondents are anxious about learning the English language. The English Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (ELCAS with 32 items was constructed and used for the purpose of the study which was adapted from the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS (Horwitz et al. 1986. Findings show that gender is of slight significance but nationality is an important variable in identifying the anxiety level with the various factors that may contribute to English language classroom anxiety.

  12. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  13. Prospective study of anxiety in patients undergoing an outpatient colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Grilo Bensusan

    Full Text Available Background: Undergoing a colonoscopy can cause anxiety in patients and this is something which has not been closely studied. Objective: To determine the frequency and intensity of anxiety prior to a colonoscopy and the factors which are related to the procedure. Methods: This is a prospective study of patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy in our hospital. Anxiety was assessed using a visual analogue scale of 0 to 100. The severity of anxiety was rated as mild (1-29, moderate (30-79 or severe (80-100. Results: Three hundred and twenty-seven patients completed the study, of whom 154 (47.1% were men with a median age of 54 years (p25-75: 45-65. Three hundred and nine (94.5% patients were found to suffer a certain degree of anxiety. The median value on the visual analogue scale was 31 (p25-75: 10-53. Anxiety levels were mild in 136 patients (44%, moderate in 141 (45.6% and severe in 32 (10.4%. Greater anxiety was associated with female patients (mean 40.38 vs 31.99, p = 0.01 and a poorly tolerated previous colonoscopy (mean 50.67 vs 28.44, p = 0.01 and correlated inversely with age (r = -0.170, p = 0.02. Conclusions: Colonoscopy causes some degree of anxiety in most patients. Being female, younger and having experienced poor tolerance to a previous scan are associated with greater degrees of anxiety. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of measures to improve the quality and tolerance of colonoscopy.

  14. DENTAL ANXIETY AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THEIR FIELD OF STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Omari, Wael Mousa; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud Khalid

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels among university students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In addition, the present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety and the impact of gender on the perceived dental anxiety and the correlation between field of study and dental anxiety level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale was used to measure dental anxiety among the study...

  15. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Huizink, A.C.; Menting, B.; De Moor, M.H.M.; Verhage, M. L.; Kunseler, F.C.; Schuengel, C.; Oosterman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child’s early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations2, which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out t...

  16. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders: total population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra M.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Laursen, Thomas M.; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. Aims To assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. Method We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. Results In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years. The risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20–2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had comorbid diagnoses of depression (MRR = 11.72, 95% CI 10.11–13.51). Conclusions Anxiety disorders significantly increased mortality risk. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders and depression played an important part in the increased mortality. PMID:27388572

  17. Finding the FOO: A Pilot Study for a Multimodal Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perzanowski, Dennis; Brock, Derek; Adams, William; Bugajska, Magdalena; Schultz, Alan C; Trafton, J. G; Blisard, Sam; Skubic, Majorie

    2003-01-01

    .... As a preliminary step to evaluate their approach and to identify practical areas for future work, they conducted a Wizard-of-Oz pilot study with five participants who each collaborated with a robot...

  18. Multiscale and Multimodal Approaches to Study Autophagy in Model Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marion

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a catabolic process used by eukaryotic cells to maintain or restore cellular and organismal homeostasis. A better understanding of autophagy in plant biology could lead to an improvement of the recycling processes of plant cells and thus contribute, for example, towards reducing the negative ecological consequences of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agriculture. It may also help to optimize plant adaptation to adverse biotic and abiotic conditions through appropriate plant breeding or genetic engineering to incorporate useful traits in relation to this catabolic pathway. In this review, we describe useful protocols for studying autophagy in the plant cell, taking into account some specificities of the plant model.

  19. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospitals of Mashhad in 2014. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg accompanied with urinary protein excretion more than 300 mg per 24 hours. The cutoff point for the presence of anxiety was the score of ≥8; the score of 8-9 was mild anxiety and the score of 20 was very severe anxiety. Data collection tools included the form of demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory signs of preeclampsia, and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS 21. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16 and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and logistic regressions model. P Results: We found significant relationship between anxiety and preeclampsia (P

  20. Two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninx, Brenda W J H; Nolen, Willem A; Lamers, Femke; Zitman, Frans G; Smit, Johannes H; Spinhoven, Philip; Cuijpers, Pim; de Jong, Peter J; van Marwijk, Harm W J; van der Meer, Klaas; Verhaak, Peter; Laurant, Miranda G H; de Graaf, Ron; Hoogendijk, Witte J; van der Wee, Nic; Ormel, Johan; van Dyck, Richard; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2011-09-01

    Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course trajectories, and examines clinical prognostic factors. Data are from 1209 depressive and/or anxiety patients residing in primary and specialized care settings, participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Diagnostic and Life Chart Interviews provided 2-year course information. Course was more favorable for pure depression (n=267, median episode duration = 6 months, 24.5% chronic) than for pure anxiety (n=487, median duration = 16 months, 41.9% chronic). Worst course was observed in the comorbid depression-anxiety group (n=455, median duration > 24 months, 56.8% chronic). Independent predictors of poor diagnostic and symptom trajectory outcomes were severity and duration of index episode, comorbid depression-anxiety, earlier onset age and older age. With only these factors a reasonable discriminative ability (C-statistic 0.72-0.77) was reached in predicting 2-year prognosis. Depression and anxiety cases concern prevalent - not incident - cases. This, however, reflects the actual patient population in primary and specialized care settings. Their differential course trajectory justifies separate consideration of pure depression, pure anxiety and comorbid anxiety-depression in clinical practice and psychiatric nosology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. PMID

  2. The Significance of Person-Centered Information on Dental Anxiety – a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Lanna; Jumaa, Hifi

    2014-01-01

    Dental anxieties are one of the most common forms of anxieties today and represent an obstacle for both the patients and the therapists. The aim of this study was twofold; first, to describe experiences of and assess dental anxiety among patients, and second, based on this develop, implement and evaluate a person-centered information program to decrease experiences of dental anxiety. Our hypothesis was that person-centered information reduces dental anxiety estimated by the Dental Anxiety Sca...

  3. Sensitivity to carbon dioxide and translational studies of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco

    2017-03-27

    Heightened concentrations of CO 2 in inhaled air provoke temporary acidification of the brain, followed by compensatory hyperventilation and increased arousal/anxiety. These responses are likely to map a basic, latent general alarm/avoidance system that is largely shared across mammals, and are sources of individual differences. By showing paroxysmal respiratory and emotional responses to CO 2 challenges, humans with panic and separation anxiety disorders lie at one extreme of the distribution for CO 2 sensitivity. This is also a developmental trait, sensitive to interference with parental cares. By sharing CO 2 sensitivity with humans, rodents constitute a valuable resource to model panic and separation anxiety in the laboratory. Advantages of modeling CO 2 sensitivity in rodents include non-inferential measurements (e.g. respiratory readouts) as proxies for human conditions, unbiased investigation of gene-environment interplays, and flexible availability of tissues for mechanistic studies. Data in humans and animals such as those reported in this issue of Neuroscience begin to reveal that CO 2 -driven behavioral responses stem from anatomo-physiological systems that are relatively separated from those subserving general dispositions to anxiety. This supports the notion that sensitivity to suffocative stimuli and ensuing human panic are significantly independent from trait/cognitive anxiety, and corroborates newer conceptualizations that distinguish between fear and anxiety circuitries. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  5. Feasibility study to damp power system multi-mode oscillations by using a single FACTS device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, W.; Wu, X. [School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wang, H.F. [School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Dunn, R. [University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    To damp power system multi-mode oscillations, the commonly-used method is to arrange multiple decentralized stabilizers, such as PSS (Power System Stabilizer) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) stabilizers. In order to overcome the problem of interactions between stabilizers, coordinated design of multiple decentralized stabilizers has been proposed to simultaneously set parameters of all stabilizers. However, in practice it could be very difficult to implement the coordinated design of multiple stabilizers. This is because those stabilizers are often at different geographical locations in a power system and cross-location simultaneous field tuning of stabilizers' parameters is a tremendous task due to their interactions. Hence this paper proposes a novel scheme of damping power system multi-mode oscillations by using a single FACTS device and presents the results of feasibility study of the proposed scheme. It is demonstrated that multiple stabilizers can be arranged in a single FACTS device to effectively damp power system multi-mode oscillations. Under this scheme, multiple stabilizers are at a same geographical location in the power system and hence their parameters can be tuned simultaneously in coordination in the field. In the paper, three examples of multi-machine power systems installed with a UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller), a STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator)/BESS (Battery Energy Storage System) and a MUPFC (Multiple-terminal UPFC) respectively are presented. Parameters of multiple stabilizers are designed in coordination by using a newly appeared method of optimisation-artificial fish swarm algorithm. Simulation results in the paper are compared with those obtained from applying the conventional scheme of decentralized control involving multiple PSSs. They demonstrate and confirm the feasibility of proposed scheme in the paper. (author)

  6. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mutian; Huang Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ling, C Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A; Humm, John L; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S; Martin, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ∼0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ∼0.8 mm could be obtained.

  7. Pilot study of digital tools to support multimodal hand hygiene in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirkell, Gary; Chambers, Joanne; Gilbart, Wayne; Thornhill, Kerrill; Arbogast, James; Lacey, Gerard

    2018-03-01

    Digital tools for hand hygiene do not share data, limiting their potential to support multimodal programs. The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom, worked with GOJO (in the United States), MEG (in Ireland), and SureWash (in Ireland) to integrate their systems and pilot their combined use in a clinical setting. A 28-bed medical oncology unit piloted the system for 5 weeks. Live data from the tools were combined to create a novel combined risk status metric that was displayed publicly and via a management Web site. The combined risk status reduced over the pilot period. However, larger and longer duration studies are required to reach statistical significance. Staff and especially patient reaction was positive in that 70% of the hand hygiene training events were by patients. The digital tools did not negatively impact clinical workflow and received positive engagement from staff and patients. The combined risk status did not change significantly over the short pilot period because there was also no specific hand hygiene improvement campaign underway at the time of the pilot study. The results indicate that integrated digital tools can provide both rich data and novel tools that both measure impact and provide feedback to support the implementation of multimodal hand hygiene campaigns, reducing the need for significant additional personnel resources. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions—A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Andreas; Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat; Stock, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue ® perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  9. Multimodal ultrasonographic characterisation of parotid gland lesions-A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopf, Andreas, E-mail: a.knopf@lrz.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Mansour, Naglaa; Chaker, Adam; Bas, Murat [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hals-Nasen-Ohrenklinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Stock, Konrad [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Nephrologie der II. Medizinischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: Lesions of the major salivary glands represent a heterogeneous group comprising infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The reliable pre-operative assessment of the lesional dignity might reduce patient's morbidity preventing re-surgery. To date, there exists no imaging technique which reliably distinguishes tumour entities. Methods: 35 parotid lesions were analysed in this study. B-mode ultrasound, colour duplex imaging and contrast enhanced ultrasound were applied for all patients. After fractionated boli of 4.8 ml SonoVue{sup Registered-Sign} perfusion kinetics, time to peak (TP) and mean transit time (MTT), were analysed for intraparotideal lesion and were normalised by circumjacent parotid tissue. Ultrasonographic data was structured in a multimodal diagnostic pathway. Results: B-mode ultrasound identifies six lymphoepithelial lesions due to Sjoegren's syndrome (p: 0.0001). CDS further differentiates hypovascularised pleomorphic adenoma from hypervascularised Warthin's tumours, monomorphic adenomas, and carcinomas (p < 0.0001). Application of CEUS detected Warthin's tumours being significantly hypervascularised compared to monomorphic adenomas (MTT, p < 0.05) and carcinomas (MTT, p < 0.02). Conclusions: A multimodal diagnostic pathway unifies different ultrasonographic techniques and identifies pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin's tumours and carcinomas with sensitivities of 100%. Further studies have to be performed to validate this diagnostic approach and to specify monomorphic adenomas.

  10. Deep assessment: an exploratory study of game-based, multimodal learning in Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jenson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available n this study, we examine what and how intermediate age students learned from playing in a health-focused game-based digital learning environment, Epidemic. Epidemic is a playful interactive environment designed to deliver factual knowledge, invite critical understanding, and encourage effective self-care practices in dealing with viral contagious diseases, using a social networking interface to integrate both serious games and game-like multimodal design projects. Epidemic invites a playful approach to its deadly serious core concern – communicable disease – in order to see what happens when students are encouraged to critically approach information from multiple or contradictory perspectives. To identify what participants learned while interacting within Epidemic, we deployed two instructional and assessment models, noting the differences each instructional approach could potentially make, and what approach to assessment might help us evaluate game-based learning. We found that each approach provided importantly different perspectives on what and how students learned, and on the very meaning of student success. Recognizing that traditional assessment tools based in print-cultural literacy may prove increasingly ill-suited for assessing emergent multimodal literacies in game-based learning environments, this study seeks to contribute to a growing body of work on the development of novel assessments for learning.

  11. Panic and phobic anxiety: defining phenotypes for genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, J W; Tsuang, M T

    1998-09-01

    With recent advances in molecular genetics, the rate-limiting step in identifying susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders has become phenotype definition. The success of psychiatric genetics may require the development of a "genetic nosology" that can classify individuals in terms of the heritable aspects of psychopathology. The authors' aim is to begin to apply this analysis to the anxiety disorders, focusing on panic and phobic disorders. Two parallel traditions of defining anxiety phenotypes are reviewed: the first, more closely identified with clinical psychiatry, has identified categorical diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder and social phobia). The other, more closely identified with psychological studies of personality development, has examined dimensional traits (e.g., neuroticism) and anxious temperament (e.g., behavioral inhibition). The authors suggest that a genetic nosology of panic and phobic disorders may incorporate features of both traditions and discuss strategies for optimizing genetic approaches to anxiety including 1) studying phenotypic extremes, 2) identifying biological trait markers, and 3) using animal models to identify candidate loci. An important dividend from the effort to define the boundaries of heritable phenotypes for genetic studies of anxiety may be a refinement of the nosology of anxiety disorders.

  12. Gender Dysphoria and Social Anxiety: An Exploratory Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergero-Miguel, Trinidad; García-Encinas, María A; Villena-Jimena, Amelia; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Guzman-Parra, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Social anxiety in gender dysphoria is still under investigation. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of social anxiety in a sample of individuals with gender dysphoria. A cross-sectional design was used in a clinical sample attending a public gender identity unit in Spain. The sample consisted of 210 individuals (48% trans female and 52% trans male). Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, Structured Clinical Interview, Exposure to Violence Questionnaire (EVQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC-11). Of the total sample, 31.4% had social anxiety disorder. Social anxiety disorder was highly correlated with age (r = -0.181; CI = 0.061-0.264; P = .009) and depression (r = 0.345; CI = 0.213-0.468; P cannabis use (relative risk [RR] = 1.251; CI = 1.070-1.463; P = .001) and lifetime suicidal ideation (RR = 1.902; CI 1.286-2.814; P cannabis use (OR = 3.873; CI = 1.534-9.779, P = .004), also age (OR = 0.948; CI = 0.909-0.989; P = .012), hospitalization of parents during childhood (OR = 2.618; CI = 1.107-6.189; P = .028), and nationality (OR = 9.427; CI = 1.065-83.457; P = .044) were associated with social anxiety disorder. This study highlights the necessity of implementing actions to prevent and treat social anxiety in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wen; Man, Fengyuan; Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pabnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  14. Visual analytics for multimodal social network analysis: a design study with social scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Sohaib; Kwon, Bum Chul; Lee, Seungyoon; Yi, Ji Soo; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-12-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is becoming increasingly concerned not only with actors and their relations, but also with distinguishing between different types of such entities. For example, social scientists may want to investigate asymmetric relations in organizations with strict chains of command, or incorporate non-actors such as conferences and projects when analyzing coauthorship patterns. Multimodal social networks are those where actors and relations belong to different types, or modes, and multimodal social network analysis (mSNA) is accordingly SNA for such networks. In this paper, we present a design study that we conducted with several social scientist collaborators on how to support mSNA using visual analytics tools. Based on an openended, formative design process, we devised a visual representation called parallel node-link bands (PNLBs) that splits modes into separate bands and renders connections between adjacent ones, similar to the list view in Jigsaw. We then used the tool in a qualitative evaluation involving five social scientists whose feedback informed a second design phase that incorporated additional network metrics. Finally, we conducted a second qualitative evaluation with our social scientist collaborators that provided further insights on the utility of the PNLBs representation and the potential of visual analytics for mSNA.

  15. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Multimodal alarm behavior in urban and rural gray squirrels studied by means of observation and a mechanical robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Partan, Andrew G. FULMER, Maya A. M. GOUNARD, Jake E. REDMOND

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization of animal habitats has the potential to affect the natural communication systems of any species able to survive in the changed environment. Urban animals such as squirrels use multiple signal channels to communicate, but it is unknown how urbanization has affected these behaviors. Multimodal communication, involving more than one sensory modality, can be studied by use of biomimetic mechanical animal models that are designed to simulate the multimodal signals and be presented to animal subjects in the field. In this way the responses to the various signal components can be compared and contrasted to determine whether the multimodal signal is made up of redundant or nonredundant components. In this study we presented wild gray squirrels in relatively urban and relatively rural habitats in Western Massachusetts with a biomimetic squirrel model that produced tail flags and alarm barks in a variety of combinations. We found that the squirrels responded to each unimodal component on its own, the bark and tail flag, but they responded most to the complete multimodal signal, containing both the acoustic and the moving visual components, providing evidence that in this context the signal components are redundant and that their combination elicits multimodal enhancement. We expanded on the results of Partan et al. (2009 by providing data on signaling behavior in the presence and absence of conspecifics, suggesting that alarm signaling is more likely if conspecifics are present. We found that the squirrels were more active in the urban habitats and that they responded more to tail flagging in the urban habitats as compared to the rural ones, suggesting the interesting possibility of a multimodal shift from reliance on audio to visual signals in noisier more crowded urban habitats [Current Zoology 56 (3: 313–326, 2010].

  17. Culture bound anxiety disorder in adolescence: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Joshua M

    2008-08-01

    There are a number of culture-bound syndromes in the literature that may directly impact on clients' systems of meaning and, thus, the clinician's ability to effectively intervene. This applies to Hispanic/Latino children, particularly those who present with anxiety and somatic symptoms. This case study deals with a 14-year-old Hispanic girl who presented at a behavioral health clinic with anxiety behaviors. Review of the literature and case example from practice. Since culture can have a profound influence on a child's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, nurses' cultural understanding is critical in psychiatric diagnostic evaluation and treatment.

  18. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: A study from NESDA

    OpenAIRE

    de Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of dep...

  19. Multimodal Languaging as a Pedagogical Model--A Case Study of the Concept of Division in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenlahti, Jorma; Kulju, Pirjo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a multimodal languaging model for mathematics education. The model consists of mathematical symbolic language, a pictorial language, and a natural language. By applying this model, the objective was to study how 4th grade pupils (N = 21) understand the concept of division. The data was collected over six…

  20. The Influence of Art Making on Anxiety: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmire, David Alan; Gorham, Sarah Roberts; Rankin, Nancy Elizabeth; Grimm, David Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychological effects of art making in a sample of 57 undergraduate students. One week prior to final examinations, participants were randomly assigned to either an art-making group or a control group. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered before and after participation. Art making activities included painting…

  1. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  2. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  3. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of…

  4. Multimodal Approach for Automatic Emotion Recognition Applied to the Tension Levels Study in TV Newscasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Henrique Ramos Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a multimodal approach to automatic emotion recognition in participants of TV newscasts (presenters, reporters, commentators and others able to assist the tension levels study in narratives of events in this television genre. The methodology applies state-of-the-art computational methods to process and analyze facial expressions, as well as speech signals. The proposed approach contributes to semiodiscoursive study of TV newscasts and their enunciative praxis, assisting, for example, the identification of the communication strategy of these programs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach was applied it in a video related to a report displayed on a Brazilian TV newscast great popularity in the state of Minas Gerais. The experimental results are promising on the recognition of emotions on the facial expressions of tele journalists and are in accordance with the distribution of audiovisual indicators extracted over a TV newscast, demonstrating the potential of the approach to support the TV journalistic discourse analysis.This article addresses a multimodal approach to automatic emotion recognition in participants of TV newscasts (presenters, reporters, commentators and others able to assist the tension levels study in narratives of events in this television genre. The methodology applies state-of-the-art computational methods to process and analyze facial expressions, as well as speech signals. The proposed approach contributes to semiodiscoursive study of TV newscasts and their enunciative praxis, assisting, for example, the identification of the communication strategy of these programs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach was applied it in a video related to a report displayed on a Brazilian TV newscast great popularity in the state of Minas Gerais. The experimental results are promising on the recognition of emotions on the facial expressions of tele journalists and are in accordance

  5. Development of a Dental Anxiety Provoking Scale: A pilot study in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ming Wong; Cheuk Ming Mak; Wai Ming To

    2015-01-01

    Background/purpose: Dental anxiety is closely related to one's past experience in dental clinics. However, little is known about what clinical, environmental, and psychological aspects provoke anxiety in dental patients. Extending on previous work in The Netherlands which explored anxiety provoking stimuli, the objective of the study was to develop a Dental Anxiety Provoking Scale (DAPS) that measures the degree to which anxiety was provoked by dental stimuli and to identify the underlying fa...

  6. DEVELOPING OF INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE ANXIETY SCALE: VALIDITY - RELIABILITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra DALKIRAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning  individual instrument performance anxiety of the students  who are getting instrument training  in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students  who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and  the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.Extended AbstractsIntroductionAnxiety is a universal phenomenon which people experience once or a few times during lives. It was accepted as concern for the future or as an unpleasant emotional experience regarding probable hitches of the events (Di Tomasso & Gosch, 2002.In general, the occasions on which negative feelings are experienced cause anxiety to arise (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000. People also feel anxious in dangerous situations. Anxiety may lead a person to be creative, while it may have hindering characteristics. Anxiety is that an individual considers him

  7. Using Poetry as a Communication Multimodality to Encourage Reading Engagement of Selected African-American Learners: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Cherie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the use of poetry as a multimodal communicative text to encourage reading engagement in selected African-American learners with mild intellectual disabilities. Framed by critical discourse theory, genre theory, and Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this investigation presented poetry as an alternative text…

  8. Multimodal and widespread somatosensory abnormalities in persistent shoulder pain in the first 6 months efter stroke: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosink, M.; van Dongen, Robert T.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Geurts, Alexander C.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of multimodal and widespread somatosensory abnormalities in the development of persistent poststroke shoulder pain (pPSSP) in the first 6 months after stroke. Design: Prospective inception cohort study. Setting: Stroke units of 2 teaching hospitals. Participants: The

  9. Video "Reading" and Multimodality: A Study of ESL/Literacy Pupils' Interpretation of "Cinderella" from Their Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Hispanic ESL/literacy learners used their socio-historical experiences and multimodal resources to mediate interpretation and representation of "Cinderella". Eighteen third-grade pupils "read" the video and re-created their understandings in pictures and sentences. The findings suggest that (a)…

  10. Qualitative experimental study of the electromagnetic field distribution in microwave multimode cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusvarghi, L.; Pellacani, G. C.; Ravasi, M. R. [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Dept. of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Modena (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The most common applicator for the microwave treatment of materials is a multimode cavity. Because of its own experimental geometry, the electromagnetic field inside this kind of oven is usually extremely unhomogeneous. In this work, the energy distribution has been qualitatively studied investigating the thermal effect caused by the coupling of the field with a dielectric and detected by a white thermal paper, which gradually blackens when reaching temperature around 100-150{sup 0} C. It was proved that the spatial behaviour of the microwave filed inside the cavity depends strongly on the kind of load, i.e. the sample to be treated, its size and position (x, y, z) in the applicator and the presence or absence of metallic devices, such as a mode stirrer or a thermocouple to measure the sample temperature.

  11. Metacognitive Therapy for Comorbid Anxiety Disorders: A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Urnes Johnson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe aimed to systematically evaluate a generic model of metacognitive therapy (MCT with a highly comorbid anxiety disorder patient, that had been treated with diagnosis-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT without significant effect. Traditionally, CBT has progressed within a disorder-specific approach, however it has been suggested that this could be less optimal with highly comorbid patients. To address comorbidity, transdiagnostic treatment models have been emerging. This case study used an AB-design with repeated assessments during each therapy session and a 1-year follow-up assessment to evaluate the effectiveness of MCT. Following 8 sessions of MCT, significant decrease in anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as loss of diagnostic status was observed. Outcomes were preserved at 12 months follow up. The generic model of MCT seems promising as an approach to highly comorbid mixed anxiety depression patients. Further testing using more powered methodologies are needed. Keywords: Metacognitive therapy, transdiagnostic, metacognition, anxiety, comorbidity.

  12. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-08-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

  13. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Miao

    Full Text Available To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1 patients using multimodal MRI imaging.T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls.Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (p<0.001 uncorrected in the left precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus.CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  14. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  15. Cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms: a twin study of cross-sectional associations with anxiety sensitivity dimensions across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Waszczuk, M A; Zavos, H M S; Trzaskowski, M; Gregory, A M; Eley, T C

    2014-12-01

    The classification of anxiety and depressive disorders has long been debated and has important clinical implications. The present study combined a genetically sensitive design and multiple time points to investigate cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms across anxiety sensitivity dimensions, a cognitive distortion implicated in both disorders. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between anxiety sensitivity dimensions, anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms were examined at five waves of data collection within childhood, adolescence and early adulthood in two representative twin studies (n pairs = 300 and 1372). The physical concerns dimension of anxiety sensitivity (fear of bodily symptoms) was significantly associated with anxiety but not depression at all waves. Genetic influences on physical concerns overlapped substantially more with anxiety than depression. Conversely, mental concerns (worry regarding cognitive control) were phenotypically more strongly associated with depression than anxiety. Social concerns (fear of publicly observable symptoms of anxiety) were associated with both anxiety and depression in adolescence. Genetic influences on mental and social concerns were shared to a similar extent with both anxiety and depression. Phenotypic patterns of cognitive specificity and broader genetic associations between anxiety sensitivity dimensions, anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms were similar at all waves. Both disorder-specific and shared cognitive concerns were identified, suggesting it is appropriate to classify anxiety and depression as distinct but related disorders and confirming the clinical perspective that cognitive therapy is most likely to benefit by targeting cognitive concerns relating specifically to the individual's presenting symptoms across development.

  16. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Kordi; Azra Vahed; Fariborz Rezaee Talab; Seyed Reza Mazloum; Marzieh Lotfalizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospita...

  17. Multimodal Definition:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    booming as a common tool of language learning and use. In the field of e-lexi- cography, such ... defining, as indicated under the entry of definition in Oxford Advanced Learner's. Dictionary of Current English (the ... In the above-mentioned context, this article argues for the establishment of the notion of multimodal definition ...

  18. All anxiety is not created equal: Correlates of parent/youth agreement vary across subtypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Emily M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Kendall, Philip C; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2016-12-01

    Research has examined patterns and correlates of parent/youth informant discrepancies in the reporting of youth anxiety. However, little work has examined whether it is better to conceptualize patterns and correlates of informant disagreement across anxiety broadly, or more useful to consider disagreement on specific symptom clusters. Using data from the Child Adolescent/Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS; N = 488; Walkup et al., 2008), the current study applied the most recent recommended analytic strategies to study informant discrepancies and examined differences in the magnitude and patterns of disagreement for: (a) broadband anxiety symptoms, versus (b) symptoms of specific anxiety diagnoses (or anxiety subtypes; e.g., separation, social anxiety). Correlates of informant discrepancies were also examined. Results indicated that there was variability in agreement across anxiety subtypes, with parent/youth agreement higher on separation anxiety and school refusal symptoms relative to other domains. Parental psychopathology was associated with disagreement on broadband anxiety symptoms, such that parental psychopathology was highest when parents reported higher symptoms than their children; however, this finding was largely driven by a relationship between parental psychopathology and disagreement on separation anxiety symptoms. Age was associated with disagreement on total and separation anxiety symptoms. Gender was not associated with disagreement. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Multimodal Therapy for Stage III Retinoblastoma (International Retinoblastoma Staging System): A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bhavna; Hasan, Fahmi; Seth, Rachna; Pathy, Sushmita; Pattebahadur, Rajesh; Sharma, Sanjay; Upadhyaya, Ashish; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2 chemotherapeutic drug combinations as part of multimodal therapy for orbital retinoblastoma. Prospective, comparative, study. Patients with stage III retinoblastoma (International Retinoblastoma Staging System). Demographic and clinical features were recorded at presentation. Treatment consisted of a multimodal protocol with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, enucleation, orbital external-beam radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. For chemotherapy, patients were randomized into 2 groups: group A patients were treated with vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin (VEC) and group B patients were treated with carboplatin and etoposide, alternating with cyclophosphamide, idarubicin, and vincristine. Treatment outcomes and adverse effects were recorded. Efficacy parameters were compared between the groups. Survival probability, cause of death, and chemotherapy-related toxicity. A total of 54 children were recruited (27 in each group). The mean ± SD follow-up was 21.3±11.34 months. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.89) and 42% (95% CI, 0.24-0.59) at 1 year and 4 years, respectively. There were 9 deaths in group A and 15 deaths in group B. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability at 1 year was similar between the groups: 81% (95% CI, 0.60-0.91) and 79% (95% CI, 0.58-0.9) for groups A and B, respectively. At 4 years, the survival probability for group A was higher (63% [95% CI, 0.41-0.79] vs. 25% [95% CI, 0.08-0.46] for groups A and B, respectively), with a strong trend of better survival in group A over time (P = 0.05). The major cause of death was central nervous system relapse (8 patients in group A and 7 patients in group B). Two patients in group B died of sepsis after febrile neutropenia. Grade 3 and grade 4 hematologic toxicities were more common in group B, with a significant difference in grade 4 neutropenia (P = 0.002). This study compared the outcomes of VEC chemotherapy with a 5

  20. Motor-related brain abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. A multimodal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yawen; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Hui; Wei, Yarui; Ali, Rizwan [University of Science and Technology of China, Centers for Biomedical Engineering, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Ruili; Li, Hongjun [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Beijing (China); Qiu, Bensheng [University of Science and Technology of China, Centers for Biomedical Engineering, Hefei, Anhui (China); Anhui Computer Application Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2017-11-15

    It is generally believed that HIV infection could cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) across a broad range of functional domains. Some of the most common findings are deficits in motor control. However, to date no neuroimaging studies have evaluated basic motor control in HIV-infected patients using a multimodal approach. In this study, we utilized high-resolution structural imaging and task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain structure and motor function in a homogeneous cohort of HIV-infected patients. We found that HIV-infected patients had significantly reduced gray matter (GM) volume in cortical regions, which are involved in motor control, including the bilateral posterior insula cortex, premotor cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. Increased activation in bilateral posterior insula cortices was also demonstrated by patients during hand movement tasks compared with healthy controls. More importantly, the reduced GM in bilateral posterior insula cortices was spatially coincident with abnormal brain activation in HIV-infected patients. In addition, the results of partial correlation analysis indicated that GM reduction in bilateral posterior insula cortices and premotor cortices was significantly correlated with immune system deterioration. This study is the first to demonstrate spatially coincident GM reduction and abnormal activation during motor performance in HIV-infected patients. Although it remains unknown whether the brain deficits can be recovered, our findings may yield new insights into neurologic injury underlying motor dysfunction in HAND. (orig.)

  1. Motor-related brain abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. A multimodal MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yawen; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Miao, Hui; Wei, Yarui; Ali, Rizwan; Li, Ruili; Li, Hongjun; Qiu, Bensheng

    2017-01-01

    It is generally believed that HIV infection could cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) across a broad range of functional domains. Some of the most common findings are deficits in motor control. However, to date no neuroimaging studies have evaluated basic motor control in HIV-infected patients using a multimodal approach. In this study, we utilized high-resolution structural imaging and task-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain structure and motor function in a homogeneous cohort of HIV-infected patients. We found that HIV-infected patients had significantly reduced gray matter (GM) volume in cortical regions, which are involved in motor control, including the bilateral posterior insula cortex, premotor cortex, and supramarginal gyrus. Increased activation in bilateral posterior insula cortices was also demonstrated by patients during hand movement tasks compared with healthy controls. More importantly, the reduced GM in bilateral posterior insula cortices was spatially coincident with abnormal brain activation in HIV-infected patients. In addition, the results of partial correlation analysis indicated that GM reduction in bilateral posterior insula cortices and premotor cortices was significantly correlated with immune system deterioration. This study is the first to demonstrate spatially coincident GM reduction and abnormal activation during motor performance in HIV-infected patients. Although it remains unknown whether the brain deficits can be recovered, our findings may yield new insights into neurologic injury underlying motor dysfunction in HAND. (orig.)

  2. Pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Deborah; Thoma, Myriam V; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2016-03-24

    Increased levels of anxiety may affect a patient's receptiveness to treatment, health care information and behaviour modification. This study was undertaken to assess pre-treatment anxiety in a dental hygiene recall population maintaining a schedule of regular preventive care appointments. The sample population consisted of 46 consecutive adult recall patients waiting for their regularly scheduled dental hygiene appointment. Pre-treatment state (current) anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), State form; dental anxiety with the Hierarchical Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ); subjective stress using a visual analogue scale (VAS); and mood/alertness/calmness using the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MDMQ). Two distinct groups, based on state anxiety scores, were formed; one displaying increased levels of pre-treatment anxiety (n = 14), the other low anxiety (n = 32). The HA group was characterized by significantly higher dental anxiety and subjective stress levels prior to treatment; as well as worse mood, lower alertness, and less calmness in the dental office setting. There was no correlation between anxiety level and years in dental hygiene recall. A high level of pre-treatment anxiety was present in about one third of the sample population. The prevalence of this anxiety demonstrates the need for both early recognition and patient management strategies (psychological and pain management) to positively influence their treatment experience.

  3. No evidence for mirror system dysfunction in schizophrenia from a multimodal TMS/EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sophie C; Enticott, Peter G; Hoy, Kate E; Thomson, Richard H; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-08-30

    Dysfunctional mirror neuron systems have been proposed to contribute to the social cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. A few studies have explored mirror systems in schizophrenia using various techniques such as TMS (levels of motor resonance) or EEG (levels of mu suppression), with mixed results. This study aimed to use a novel multimodal approach (i.e. concurrent TMS and EEG) to further investigate mirror systems and social cognition in schizophrenia. Nineteen individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 19 healthy controls participated. Single-pulse TMS was applied to M1 during the observation of hand movements designed to elicit mirror system activity. Single EEG electrodes (C3, CZ, C4) recorded brain activity. Participants also completed facial affect recognition and theory of mind tasks. The schizophrenia group showed significant deficits in facial affect recognition and higher level theory of mind compared to healthy controls. A significant positive relationship was revealed between mu suppression and motor resonance for the overall sample, indicating concurrent validity of these measures. Levels of mu suppression and motor resonance were not significantly different between groups. These findings indicate that in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, mirror system functioning is intact, and therefore their social cognitive difficulties may be caused by alternative pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multimodal Strategies of Theorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Colombero, Sylvain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper examines the role of multimodal strategies in processes of theorization. Empirically, we investigate the theorization process of a highly disruptive innovation in the history of architecture: reinforced concrete. Relying on archival data from a dominant French architectural journal from...... with well-known rhetorical strategies and develop a process model of theorization....... 1885 to 1939, we studied how this new material became legitimized for the construction of buildings. Our early coding revealed three multimodal strategies associated with theorization: emotional, narrative, and lexical. Our intention when developing the full paper is to articulate these findings...

  5. A study to explore if dentists’ anxiety affects their clinical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Chipchase, Susan Y.; Chapman, Helen R.; Bretherton, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Aims To develop a measure of dentists’ anxiety in clinical situations; to establish if dentists’ anxiety in clinical situations affected their self-reported clinical decision-making; to establish if occupational stress, as demonstrated by burnout, is associated with anxiety in clinical situations and clinical decision-making; and to explore the relationship between decision-making style and the clinical decisions which are influenced by anxiety. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary D...

  6. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  7. Dental anxiety among university students at the University of Tromsø: a quantitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Storjord, Helene Persen; Teodorsen, Mari Mjønes

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrated that dental students have a lower degree of dental anxiety compared to psychology- and biology students. Senior dental students also have less dental anxiety than junior dental students. This indicates that the dentistry programme structure may influence dental anxiety levels.

  8. VALIDITY OF THE GHQ AND SCL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALES - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ

    This article presents the results of a comparison between the validity of the SCL anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression scales and the GHQ-28 anxiety-/insomnia and severe depression scales in a psychiatric outpatient population. Validity was studied at a categorical level with DSM-III diagnosis,

  9. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…

  10. The association of depression and anxiety with pain : A study from NESDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety

  11. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: a study from NESDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, E.W.; Gerrits, M.J.G.; Beekman, A.T.; Dekker, J.J.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.; de Waal, M.W.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety

  12. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background:  Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  13. The developmental course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  15. Anxiety in High-Functioning Autism: A Pilot Study of Experience Sampling Using a Mobile Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Gracey, Carolyn; Wood, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and stress are everyday issues for many people with high-functioning autism, and while cognitive-behavioural therapy is the treatment of choice for the management of anxiety, there are challenges in using it with people with high-functioning autism. This study used modified experience sampling techniques to examine everyday anxiety and…

  16. Sensors Based on Thin-Film Coated Cladding Removed Multimode Optical Fiber and Single-Mode Multimode Single-Mode Fiber: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Del Villar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple optical fibre structures that do not require the inscription of a grating, a cladding removed multimode optical fibre (CRMOF and a single-mode multimode single-mode structure (SMS, are compared in terms of their adequateness for sensing once they are coated with thin-films. The thin-film deposited (TiO2/PSS permits increasing the sensitivity to surrounding medium refractive index. The results obtained can be extrapolated to other fields such as biological or chemical sensing just by replacing the thin-film by a specific material.

  17. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial on a multimodal training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy – LapTrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: This study assesses the value of a multimodal training platform in medical education and postgraduate training and aims at illustrating possible guidelines when establishing such a curriculum. Possible factors of influence, such as varying backgrounds, learning motivation and –success among participants are explored in the data analysis and add beneficially to further evaluating the efficacy of such training to more heterogeneous participant groups like medical students and other professionals.

  18. Clinical study of noninvasive in vivo melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers using multimodal spectral diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Liang; Nichols, Brandon; Migden, Michael R.; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Markey, Mia K.; Ross, Merrick I.; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic capability of a multimodal spectral diagnosis (SD) for in vivo noninvasive disease diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We acquired reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectra from 137 lesions in 76 patients using custom-built optical fiber-based clinical systems. Biopsies of lesions were classified using standard histopathology as malignant melanoma (MM), nonmelanoma pigmented lesion (PL), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), actinic keratosis (AK), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Using multiple diagnostically relevant principal components, we built leave-one-out logistic regression classifiers. Classification results were compared with histopathology of the lesion. Sensitivity/specificity for classifying MM versus PL (12 versus 17 lesions) was 100%;/100%;, for SCC and BCC versus AK (57 versus 14 lesions) was 95%;/71%, and for AK and SCC and BCC versus normal skin (71 versus 71 lesions) was 90%/85%. The best classification for nonmelanoma skin cancers required multiple modalities; however, the best melanoma classification occurred with Raman spectroscopy alone. The high diagnostic accuracy for classifying both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions demonstrates the potential for SD as a clinical diagnostic device.

  19. Irradiation studies of multimode optical fibres for use in ATLAS front-end links

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, G; Andrieux, M L; Arvidsson, C B; Charlton, D G; Dinkespiler, B; Dowell, John D; Gallin-Martel, L; Homer, R James; Jovanovic, P; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kuyt, G; Lundqvist, J M; Mandic, I; Martin, O; Shaylor, H R; Stroynowski, R; Troska, Jan K; Wastie, R L; Weidberg, A R; Wilson, J A; Ye, J

    2000-01-01

    The radiation tolerance of three multimode optical fibres has been investigated to establish their suitability for the use in the front- end data links of the ATLAS experiment. Both gamma and neutron irradiation studies are reported. A step-index fibre with a pure silica core showed an induced attenuation of ~0.05 dB/m at 330 kGy (Si) and 1*10/sup 15/ n(1 MeV Si)/cm/sup 2/ and is suitable for use with the inner detector links which operate at 40-80 Mb/s. A graded- index fibre with a predominantly germanium-doped core exhibits an induced attenuation of ~0.1 dB/m at 800 Gy(Si) and 2*10/sup 13/ n(1 MeV Si)/cm/sup 2/ and is suitable for the calorimeter links which operate at 1.6 Gb/s. Measurements of the dose rate dependence of the induced attenuation indicate that the attenuation in ATLAS will be lower. (30 refs).

  20. Irradiation studies of multimode optical fibres for use in ATLAS front-end links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahout, G.; Pearce, M.; Andrieux, M-L.; Arvidsson, C-B.; Charlton, D.G.; Dinkespiler, B.; Dowell, J.D.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Homer, R.J.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kuyt, G.; Lundquist, J.; Mandic, I.; Martin, O.; Shaylor, H.R.; Stroynowski, R.; Troska, J.; Wastie, R.L.; Weidberg, A.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ye, J.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation tolerance of three multimode optical fibres has been investigated to establish their suitability for the use in the front-end data links of the ATLAS experiment. Both gamma and neutron irradiation studies are reported. A step-index fibre with a pure silica core showed an induced attenuation of ∼0.05 dB/m at 330 kGy(Si) and 1x10 15 n(1 MeV Si)/cm 2 and is suitable for use with the inner detector links which operate at 40-80 Mb/s. A graded-index fibre with a predominantly germanium-doped core exhibits an induced attenuation of ∼0.1 dB/m at 800 Gy(Si) and 2x10 13 n(1 MeV Si)/cm 2 and is suitable for the calorimeter links which operate at 1.6 Gb/s. Measurements of the dose rate dependence of the induced attenuation indicate that the attenuation in ATLAS will be lower

  1. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  2. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  3. Comparative Study on Anxiety between Student Players of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sports performance. In essence, anxiety is a psychological and physical state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive and behavioral components. The root meaning of the word anxiety is to vex or trouble; in either the absence or presence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness ...

  4. Comparative Study on Anxiety between Student Players of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety is made up of mental and physiological components. Researchers have indicated that there is a relationship between anxiety and performance. Present paper tries to investigate the level of anxiety between student players of different games, football volleyball and basketball representing different universities at ...

  5. Reducing anxiety and enhancing physical performance by using an advanced version of EMDR: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of this pilot study was to investigate an advanced version of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for reducing anxiety. Fifty participants were asked at two times of measurement (T1 and T2 with a rest of 4 weeks) to generate anxiety via the recall of autobiographical memories according to their anxiety. Furthermore, the participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group, and the experimental group received an intervention of 1-2 h with the advanced version of EMDR in order to their anxiety 2 weeks after T1. At T1 as well as T2, we measured the intensity of participants' anxiety with a Likert scale (LS) and collected participants' state (temporary) and trait (chronic) anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, we measured participants' physical performance in a test for the finger musculature under the induction of their anxiety. The results showed that participant's ratings of their perceived intensity of anxiety (measured by a 9-point LS) and the state and trait anxiety decreased significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group from T1 to T2. Moreover, the physical performance under the induction of participants' anxiety increased significantly in the experimental group from T1 to T2 and there were no significant changes in the control group. The study could show that the advanced version of EMDR is an appropriate method to reduce anxiety.

  6. Multimodality and Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Verhaegh, W.; Aarts, E.; Korst, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss multimodal interface technology. We present eexamples of multimodal interfaces and show problems and opportunities. Fusion of modalities is discussed and some roadmap discussions on research in multimodality are summarized. This chapter also discusses future developments

  7. Multimodal lung cancer screening using the ITALUNG biomarker panel and low dose computed tomography. Results of the ITALUNG biomarker study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Carrozzi, Laura; Falaschi, Fabio; Lopes Pegna, Andrea; Mascalchi, Mario; Picozzi, Giulia; Peluso, Marco; Sani, Cristina; Greco, Luana; Ocello, Cristina; Paci, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Asymptomatic high-risk subjects, randomized in the intervention arm of the ITALUNG trial (1,406 screened for lung cancer), were enrolled for the ITALUNG biomarker study (n = 1,356), in which samples of blood and sputum were analyzed for plasma DNA quantification (cut off 5 ng/ml), loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. The ITALUNG biomarker panel (IBP) was considered positive if at least one of the two biomarkers included in the panel was positive. Subjects with and without lung cancer diagnosis at the end of the screening cycle with LDCT (n = 517) were evaluated. Out of 18 baseline screen detected lung cancer cases, 17 were IBP positive (94%). Repeat screen-detected lung cancer cases were 18 and 12 of them positive at baseline IBP test (66%). Interval cancer cases (2-years) and biomarker tests after a suspect Non Calcific Nodule follow-up were investigated. The single test versus multimodal screening measures of accuracy were compared in a simulation within the screened ITALUNG intervention arm, considering screen-detected and interval cancer cases. Sensitivity was 90% at baseline screening. Specificity was 71 and 61% for LDCT and IBP as baseline single test, and improved at 89% with multimodal, combined screening. The positive predictive value was 4.3% for LDCT at baseline and 10.6% for multimodal screening. Multimodal screening could improve the screening efficiency at baseline and strategies for future implementation are discussed. If IBP was used as primary screening test, the LDCT burden might decrease of about 60%. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolescents, assessed annually over 8 years. Latent growth modeling indicated different developmental trajectories from early into late adolescence for the different anxiety disorder symptoms, with some symptoms decreasing and other symptoms increasing over time. Sex differences in developmental trajectories were found for some symptoms, but not all. Furthermore, latent class growth analysis identified a normal developmental profile (including a majority of adolescents reporting persistent low anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) and an at-risk developmental profile (including a minority of adolescents reporting persistent high anxiety disorder symptoms over 8 years) for all of the anxiety disorder symptom dimensions except panic disorder. Additional analyses longitudinally supported the validity of these normal and at-risk developmental profiles and suggested differential associations between different anxiety disorder symptom dimensions and developmental trajectories of substance use, parenting, and identity development. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of examining separate dimensions of anxiety disorder symptoms in contrast to a using a global, one-dimensional approach to anxiety.

  9. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  10. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, F V A; Greaves-Lord, K; Ormel, J; Verhulst, F C; Huizink, A C

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys and girls at three time-points across a 5-year interval. Risk indicators were measured at baseline and include indicators from the child, family, and peer domain. Associations with anxiety were measured with multilevel growth curve analyses. A stable difference in anxiety over adolescence was found between high and low levels of a range of child factors (frustration, effortful control), family factors (emotional warmth received from parents, lifetime parental internalizing problems), and peer factor (victims of bullying) (P anxiety between high and low levels of factors, such as self-competence, unfavorable parenting styles, and bully victims, decreased over adolescence (P parental education and family composition were not significant. Adjustment for concurrent depressive symptoms attenuated the associations, but those that were significant at P anxiety subtypes (generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social phobia, panic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) was reported for each association. Several child, family, and peer factors measured in preadolescence were risk indicators of high levels of anxiety symptoms throughout adolescence. Some factors (such as rejective parenting) were vulnerability indicators for anxiety in early adolescence only, whereas other factors (such as peer victimization) were indicators of long-term elevated anxiety levels. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A Case Study of Teaching English and Multimodality with ICTs: Constraints and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetnikoff, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Current Australian policies and curricular frameworks demand that teachers and students use technology creatively and meaningfully in classrooms to develop students into 21C technological citizens. English teachers and students also have to learn new metalanguage around visual grammar since multimodal tasks often combine creative with critical…

  12. A Study of Patients with Primary Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors Treated Using Multimodal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Tanaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (PMGCTs are rare, which often makes them difficult to treat. Herein, we examined patients with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment. Methods. We examined 6 patients (median age: 25 years, range: 19–27 years with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment between April 2001 and March 2015. Three patients had seminomas, 2 patients had yolk sac tumors, and 1 patient had choriocarcinoma. The median observation period was 32.5 months (range: 8–84 months. Results. Three of the 6 patients received initial operation followed by 3-4 courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP or etoposide and cisplatin (EP. One patient developed multiple lung metastases 17 months after surgery; received salvage chemotherapy with vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin; and achieved complete remission. The remaining 3 patients received initial BEP and EP chemotherapy. Multiple lung metastases and supraclavicular lymph node metastases were detected in 2 of these patients at the initial diagnosis. The patients underwent resections to remove residual tumor after treatment, and no viable tumor cells were found. Conclusions. Reliable diagnosis and immediate multimodal treatments are necessary for patients with PMGCTs. The 6 patients treated in our hospital have never experienced recurrence after the multimodal treatment.

  13. Study on the New Model of College English Teaching under the Setting of Multimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the application of the network resources and various means of teaching such as multimedia into the classroom has led to the demonstration of multimodality in college English teaching. This paper analyzes the current status of college English teaching and the existing problems, elaborates the research trends of the theory of multimodal…

  14. Psychiatric comorbidities among adolescents with and without anxiety disorders: a community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in a community sample of adolescents, the presence of comorbidities in different anxiety disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, initially composed of 2,457 adolescents, aged between 10-17 years old, from public schools of the area covered by the Basic Health Unit of a university hospital. We applied the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED to assess for anxiety disorders. Then, 138 positive cases in the screening were assessed for mental disorders through the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results Patients with anxiety disorders had more association with other anxiety disorders, as well as depression, and enuresis. The most common comorbidity described in our study was between generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 4.21, 95% CI 1.88, 9.58. Significant association was observed between other disorders such as enuresis and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.16, 12.49, as well as depression and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.52, 7.61. Conclusion Our study showed a relevant presence of comorbidities adolescents with anxiety disorders, selected from a community sample, especially regarding other anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  15. MR image features predicting hemorrhagic transformation in acute cerebral infarction: a multimodal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Liang; Dong, Longchun; Liu, Zhenxing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Union Medicine Centre, Department of Radiology, Tianjin (China); Dong, Zhengchao [Columbia University, Translational Imaging and MRI Unit, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY (United States); Khursheed, Aiman [Tianjin Medical University, International Medical School, Tianjin (China)

    2015-11-15

    The aims of this study were to observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and to identify the risk factors of HT. We first performed multimodal MRI (anatomical, diffusion weighted, and susceptibility weighted) scans on 87 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours after symptom onset and documented the image findings. We then performed follow-up examinations 3 days to 2 weeks after the onset or whenever the conditions of the patients worsened within 3 days. We utilized univariate statistics to identify the correlations between HT and image features and used multivariate logistical regression to correct for confounding factors to determine relevant independent image features of HT. HT was observed in 17 out of total 87 patients (19.5 %). The infarct size (p = 0.021), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) (p = 0.004), relative apparent diffusion (rADC) (p = 0.023), and venous anomalies (p = 0.000) were significantly related with HT in the univariate statistics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CMBs (odd ratio (OR) = 0.082; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.597; p = 0.014), rADC (OR = 0.000; 95 % CI = 0.000-0.692; p = 0.041), and venous anomalies (OR = 0.066; 95 % CI = 0.011-0.403; p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for HT. The frequency of HT is 19.5 % in this study. CMBs, rADC, and venous anomalies are independent risk factors for HT of acute cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  16. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-02-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library's good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  17. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com [City Unity College, Thiseos 15-17, Athens, 105 62 (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  18. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease

  19. A Strategic Planning Methodology for the Multimodal Transportation Systems: A Case Study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut R. Tuzkaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation costs have an important effect on companies’ competition capability in various sectors. To realize a positive effect, transportation industry should provide some specific performance criteria related with the economical efficiency and service quality. Also an increase in this performance degree depends on the obtaining optimum results of using the logistical resources in a convenient manner by the specialized logistics service providers. In this study, considering the effects of transportation modes on constituting a methodology that is interested in a strategic subject like constructing a transportation network is emphasized. In the process of selecting the most convenient transportation modes, all the required criteria are determined considering the related literature and the opinions of the experts. Then the analytical network process methodology is used to solve this selection problem. The close relationship between the transportation modes that will be used among the points in the network and the points that will be used for short storages and transshipment activities is considered. And the analytical network process is again used to select the most convenient ones among the alternative port locations. After decision making on these two important points, optimizing the freight flow among the supply chain by choosing the right transportation modes at each stage is aimed. To realize that optimization, the aims of decision makers from different levels or from different functional areas are satisfied by using the multilevel programming technique. Finally, the proposed methodology is applied on a transportation project of a logistic service provider, which gives service in a multimodal, multicommodity, multilevel and multiechelon transportation network.

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  1. Child Anxiety Prevention Study: Impact on Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pella, Jeffrey E; Drake, Kelly L; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of a selective anxiety prevention program for offspring of clinically anxious parents on three domains of child functioning: (1) social, (2) familial, and (3) emotional/behavioral. Dyads were randomized into either the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 70) or Information Monitoring (IM; n = 66) comparison group. Multi-informant assessments were conducted at baseline, post intervention, and 6 and 12 months follow-ups. Random effects mixed models under the linear growth modeling (LGM) framework was used to assess the impact of CAPS on growth trajectories. Over time, children in the CAPS group had significantly lower anxiety, anxious/depressed symptoms, and lower total behavior problems (parent report), compared to children in IM group. The intervention did not impact other domains assessed (e.g., social functioning), which may be due to "floor effects" on these measures. Longitudinal follow-up data is needed to provide valuable information about this high risk population.

  2. The association of depression and anxiety with pain: a study from NESDA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W de Heer

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; P<.001, anxiety (OR = 4.84; P<.001, or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; P<.001 was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; P<.001 as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; p<.001 and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; P<.001 were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research.

  3. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: intervention model and primary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S

    2009-06-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a broad range of anxiety disorders. Families were randomly assigned to an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention, the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 20) or a wait list control condition (WL; n = 20). Independent evaluators (IEs) conducted diagnostic interviews, and children and parents completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Assessments were conducted pre- and postintervention and 6 and 12 months after the postintervention assessment. On the basis of intent to treat analyses, 30% of the children in the WL group developed an anxiety disorder by the 1-year follow-up compared with 0% in the CAPS group. IE and parent-reported (but not child-reported) levels of anxiety showed significant decreases from the preintervention assessment to the 1-year follow-up assessment in the CAPS but not the WL group. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Copyright 2009 APA

  4. Design and experimental study of a multi-modal piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xing Yu [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Oyadiji, S. Olutunde [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A multi-modal piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is designed in this article. It consists of a cantilevered base beam and some upper and lower layer beams with rigid masses bonded between the beams as spacers. For a four-layer harvester subjected to random base excitations, relocating the mass positions leads to the generation of up to four close resonance frequencies over the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 Hz with relative large power output. The harvesters are connected with a resistance decade box and the frequency response functions of the voltage and power on resistive loads are determined. The experimental results are validated with the simulation results using the finite element method. On a certain level of power output, the experimental results show that the multi-modal harvesters can generate a frequency band that is more than two times greater than the frequency band produced by a cantilevered beam harvester.

  5. Language and Identity in Multimodal Text: Case Study of Thailand’s Bank Pamphlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korapat Pruekchaikul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the main objective of presenting a linguistic model for the analysis of identity construction in multimodal texts, particularly in advertising, this article attempts to integrate three theoretical frameworks, namely the types of discourse of the Socio-Discursive Interactionism, Greimas’ actantial roles and the symbolic processes of the Grammar of Visual Design proposed by Kress e van Leeuwen. The first two theories are used to analyze verbal language form whereas the third is exclusively for images in advertising. The data sample is a Thai bank pamphlet of Siam Commercial Bank, collected in Bangkok, Thailand, in June, 2015. According to the data analysis, the theoretical frameworks employed here proves that identity, the psychological product, exists in the human mind and can be indexed by language in interaction. Also, the analysis found that identity could be projected as multimodally as language manifestation, of which forms are not only verbal but also pictorial.

  6. A Study on International Multimodal Transport Networks from Korea to Central Asia: Focus on Secondhand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, high-income countries use multimodal transportation to export large quantities of secondhand vehicles to low-income countries. Secondhand vehicle export has shown its highest growth in recent years, especially in Korea. The problem of transporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asia is becoming an important issue, but few researchers are interested in it. The objective of this research is to determine the optimal transport network for exporting secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by combining experts’ opinions and real data from existing transport networks. The fuzzy Delphi method was applied to obtain factors to evaluate alternative multimodal transport networks for moving secondhand vehicles from Korea to Central Asian countries by judgment from experts. The analysis shows that among the five factors (total cost, total time, reliability, security, and transportation capability, total cost is the most considerable factor, followed by reliability, transportation capability, total time, and security. Additionally, in the mainly three multimodal transport networks, the sea+Trans-China Railway route is ranked first, followed by the sea+Trans-Siberian Railway and sea+truck routes.

  7. Multimodality Imaging Probe for Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Pandey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to develop multimodality imaging agents for use in cell tracking studies by positron emission tomography (PET and optical imaging (OI. For this purpose, bovine serum albumin (BSA was complexed with biotin (histologic studies, 5(6- carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester (FAM SE (OI studies, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA for chelating gallium 68 (PET studies. For synthesis of BSA-biotin-FAM-DTPA, BSA was coupled to (+-biotin N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (biotin-NHSI. BSA- biotin was treated with DTPA-anhydride and biotin-BSA-DTPA was reacted with FAM. The biotin-BSA-DTPA-FAM was reacted with gallium chloride 3 to 5 mCi eluted from the generator using 0.1 N HCl and was passed through basic resin (AG 11 A8 and 150 mCi (100 μL, pH 7–8 was incubated with 0.1 mg of FAM conjugate (100 μL at room temperature for 15 minutes to give 66Ga-BSA-biotin-DTPA-FAM. A shaved C57 black mouse was injected with FAM conjugate (50 μL at one flank and FAM-68Ga (50 μL, 30 mCi at the other. Immediately after injection, the mouse was placed in a fluorescence imaging system (Kodak In-Vivo F, Bruker Biospin Co., Woodbridge, CT and imaged (Λex: 465 nm, Λem: 535 nm, time: 8 seconds, Xenon Light Source, Kodak. The same mouse was then placed under an Inveon microPET scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville, TN injected (intravenously with 25 μCi of 18F and after a half-hour (to allow sufficient bone uptake was imaged for 30 minutes. Molecular weight determined using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization (MALDI for the BSA sample was 66,485 Da and for biotin-BSA was 67,116 Da, indicating two biotin moieties per BSA molecule; for biotin-BSA-DTPA was 81,584 Da, indicating an average of 30 DTPA moieties per BSA molecule; and for FAM conjugate was 82,383 Da, indicating an average of 1.7 fluorescent moieties per BSA molecule. Fluorescence imaging clearly showed localization of FAM conjugate and FAM-68Ga at respective flanks of the mouse

  8. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V.A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], sep...

  9. Structural correlates of apathy in Alzheimer's disease: a multimodal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan A; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Pajares, Gonzalo; López-Alvarez, Jorge; Osorio, Ricardo S; Sanz, Marta; Olazarán, Javier

    2017-08-01

    Apathy is one of the most frequent symptoms of dementia, whose underlying neurobiology is not well understood. The objective was to analyze the correlations of apathy and its dimensions with gray and white matter damage in the brain of patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease (AD). The setting of the study was at the Alzheimer Center Reina Sofía Foundation Research Unit. Participants include 37 nursing home patients with moderate to severe AD, 78.4% were women, and mean Standard Deviation (SD) age is 82.7 (5.8). Several measurements were taken: severe mini-mental state examination and Global Deterioration Scale for cognitive and functional status, Neuropsychiatric Inventory for behavioral problems, and Apathy In Dementia-Nursing Home Version Scale for apathy, including total score and subscores of emotional blunting, deficit of thinking, and cognitive inertia. 3T magnetic resonance imaging measures (voxel-based morphometry, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion tensor imaging) were also conducted. Moderate levels of apathy (mean Apathy In Dementia-Nursing Home Version Scale: 31.1 ± 18.5) were found. Bilateral damage to the corpus callosum and internal capsule was associated with apathy severity (cluster size 2435, p < 0.0005, family-wise error [FWE]-corrected). A smaller and more anteriorly located region of the right internal capsule and corpus callosum was associated with higher emotional blunting (cluster size 334, p < 0.0005, FWE-corrected). Ischemic damage in the right periventricular frontal region was associated with higher deficit of thinking (cluster size 3805, p < 0.005, FWE-corrected). Brain damage related to apathy may have different features in the advanced stages of AD and differs between the three apathy dimensions. Besides atrophy, brain connectivity and vascular lesions are relevant in the study of apathy, especially in the more severe stages of dementia. Further magnetic resonance imaging studies should include

  10. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys

  11. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys

  12. Learning human multimodal dialogue strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rieser, V.; Lemon, O.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of different machine learning methods in combination with feature selection techniques to explore human multimodal dialogue strategies and the use of those strategies for automated dialogue systems. We learn policies from data collected in a Wizard-of-Oz study where different human 'wizards' decide whether to ask a clarification request in a multimodal manner or else to use speech alone. We first describe the data collection, the coding scheme and annotated corpus, and ...

  13. Performance Anxiety at English PBL Groups Among Taiwanese Medical Students: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  14. Performance anxiety at English PBL groups among Taiwanese medical students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lu, Peih-Ying; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, In-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2008-03-01

    Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL) and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  15. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The functional complexity of the parietal lobe still represents a challenge for neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. While the somatosensory functions of the anterior parietal cortex are well established, the posterior parietal cortex has a relevant role in processing the sensory information, including visuo-spatial perception, visual attention, visuo-motor transformations and other complex and not completely understood functions. We retrospectively analysed all the clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral bipolar electrical stimulation in 172 patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 25.6, standard deviation 11.6; 44% females and 56% males) with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the parietal cortex. A total of 1186 electrical stimulations were included in the analysis, of which 88 were subsequently excluded because of eliciting pathological electric activity or inducing ictal symptomatology. In the dominant parietal lobe, clinical responses were observed for 56 (25%) of the low-frequency stimulations and for 76 (50%) of the high-frequency stimulations. In the non-dominant parietal lobe, 111 (27%) low-frequency and 176 (55%) high-frequency stimulations were associated with a clinical response. Body scheme alteration was the only clinical effect showing a lateralization, as they were evoked only in the non-dominant hemisphere. The occurrence of somatosensory sensations, motor symptoms, dysarthria and multimodal responses were significantly associated with stimulation of the postcentral gyrus (odds ratio: 5.83, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 8.77, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 5.44, P = 0.011; odds ratio: 8.33, P = 0.006; respectively). Stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus was associated with the occurrence of sensory illusions or hallucinations (odds ratio: 8.68, P < 0.001) and eyeball/eyelid movements or sensations (odds ratio: 4.35, P = 0.047). To our knowledge, this is the only currently available complete

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Work Anxiety in Medical Rehabilitation Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Jöbges, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate frequency, type, and characteristics of work anxieties in patients with somatic illness. Cross-sectional observation study. Neurology, orthopedic, and cardiology rehabilitation clinics. Patients (N=1610; age, 18-65y) with work anxieties. Not applicable. Patients who scored high on at least 2 of 9 items in the work-anxiety screening questionnaire and who reported impairment were investigated with a differential diagnostic interview on work anxieties and with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview on non-work-related common mental disorders. Patients also filled out a self-rating questionnaire on their subjective symptom load and sociodemographic data. Approximately 20% to 27% of the investigated inpatients in somatic rehabilitation (altogether n=393) received a work-anxiety diagnosis. Patients with orthopedic illness report highest work anxiety and have previous longest sick leave (20.6wk in the past 12mo). Patients with orthopedic illness suffer from work-related adjustment disorder with anxiety, social anxieties, and workplace phobias, whereas patients with cardiac illness are more often affected by hypochondriac anxieties. Anxieties of insufficiency and worrying occur equally in all indications. About a quarter of patients in somatic rehabilitation are in need of additional diagnostic attention owing to work anxieties. Differential diagnostic of work anxiety is needed for initiating adequate therapeutic action. Somatic rehabilitation physicians should be aware of work anxieties in their patients, especially in patients with orthopedic illness with previous long-term sick leave. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of anxiety in adolescents involved in a study abroad program: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitblat, Yulia; Cleminson, Ryan; Kavin, Aaron; Schonberger, Edan; Shterenshis, Michael

    2017-11-23

    Objective The aim of the study was to measure the effects on levels of anxiety in healthy teenagers caused by a temporary change of country and school during a study abroad program. Methods In a prospective study we gathered the data from six anxiety level related tests on high school participants in a study abroad program (age 15-17, n = 364, M 172, F 192). These volunteer participants were divided into two separate groups: with self-reported elevated levels of anxiety (n = 111; YES-group) and with self-reported normal levels of anxiety (n = 253; NO-group). Two control groups of schoolchildren drawn from two local schools were used for comparison (n = 100 each). Three tests were subjective, i.e. self-fill-out tests. The next three tests were objective psychological or neurophysiological tests designed to estimate reflex control, concentration and a feeling for the passage of time. Results The initial mean anxiety level score among the 364 participants was 41.5 ± 16.7 (min 16, max 80) on 5-110 scale. For the YES-group the score was 56.5 ± 15.9, and for the NO-group the score was 34.7 ± 17.4 (p = 0.05). The retesting after they had been in the same place for 7 weeks revealed that the mean anxiety level score of the participants decreased to 37.4 ± 16.9 (min 15, max 72). For the YES-group the score significantly decreased to 39.3 ± 15.5, and for the NO-group the score slightly elevated to 36.7 ± 16.4 producing similar results for both groups (p = 0.81). Conclusion A temporary change of country and school at first results in a rise in anxiety levels in about one third of participants. However, after an extended stay it falls to normal levels.

  18. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  19. Effects of multimodal mandala yoga on social and emotional skills for youth with autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Gorbett Litchke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. Aims: The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Subjects and Methods: Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks. Multimodal Mandala yoga comprised 26 circular partner/group poses, color and tracing sheets, rhythmic chanting, yoga cards, and games. Treatment and Research Institute for ASD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA scores were collected before and after the eight yoga sessions. The Modified Facial Mood Scale (MFMS was used to observe mood changes before and after each yoga class. Paired sample t-tests were conducted on TSSA and MFMS scores to compare social and emotional differences post the 4-week camp. Narrative field notes were documented after each of the eight yoga sessions. Results: A significant improvement from pre- to post-test was found in overall TSSA (t(4 = −5.744, P = 0.005 and on respondent to initiation (t(4 = −3.726, P = 0.020, initiating interaction (t(4 = −8.5, P = 0.039, and affective understanding and perspective taking subscales (t(4 = −5.171 P = 0.007. Youth's MFMS scores increased from 80% to 100% at the end of eight yoga sessions demonstrating a pleasant or positive mood. Thematic analysis of the narrative notes identified three key factors associated with the yoga experience: (a enhanced mood and emotional expression, (b increased empathy toward others, and (c improved teamwork skills. Conclusion: This multimodal Mandala yoga training has implication for developing positive social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.

  20. Effects of Multimodal Mandala Yoga on Social and Emotional Skills for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchke, Lyn Gorbett; Liu, Ting; Castro, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrates impairment in the ability to socially and emotionally relate to others that can limit participation in groups, interaction with peers, and building successful life relationships. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of a novel multimodal Mandala yoga program on social and emotional skills for youth with ASD. Five males with ASD attended 1 h yoga sessions, twice a week for 4 weeks. Multimodal Mandala yoga comprised 26 circular partner/group poses, color and tracing sheets, rhythmic chanting, yoga cards, and games. Treatment and Research Institute for ASD Social Skills Assessment (TSSA) scores were collected before and after the eight yoga sessions. The Modified Facial Mood Scale (MFMS) was used to observe mood changes before and after each yoga class. Paired sample t -tests were conducted on TSSA and MFMS scores to compare social and emotional differences post the 4-week camp. Narrative field notes were documented after each of the eight yoga sessions. A significant improvement from pre- to post-test was found in overall TSSA ( t (4) = -5.744, P = 0.005) and on respondent to initiation ( t (4) = -3.726, P = 0.020), initiating interaction ( t (4) = -8.5, P = 0.039), and affective understanding and perspective taking subscales ( t (4) = -5.171 P = 0.007). Youth's MFMS scores increased from 80% to 100% at the end of eight yoga sessions demonstrating a pleasant or positive mood. Thematic analysis of the narrative notes identified three key factors associated with the yoga experience: (a) enhanced mood and emotional expression, (b) increased empathy toward others, and (c) improved teamwork skills. This multimodal Mandala yoga training has implication for developing positive social and emotional skills for youth with ASD.

  1. Does preoperative orientation and education alleviate anxiety in posterior spinal fusion patients? A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Leslie; Nash, Cassie; Moisan, Alice; Scott, Donna C; Barkoh, Kaku; Warner, William C; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Kelly, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    A prospective, randomized study examined the effect of interventional preoperative education and orientation for scoliosis surgery (PEOSS) on anxiety levels of patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF). Secondary outcomes analyzed were caregiver anxiety, length of stay, morphine equivalent usage, and patient/caregiver satisfaction. Patients undergoing PSF were randomly distributed into a control group (N=39) or interventional group (N=26). All subjects and caregivers completed the State (current)-Trait (typical) Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at different intervals: preoperative appointment, preoperative holding area, postoperative orthopaedic unit, and discharge. At discharge, patients and caregivers completed a satisfaction survey. Significantly higher state anxiety scores were found compared with baseline at all time intervals in both the control group and PEOSS group. The PEOSS group had higher state anxiety scores than the control group at the postoperative interval (P=0.024). There were no significant differences in the caregiver state anxiety scores between the groups at any time interval. Trait anxiety scores for both groups remained stable over time, establishing that the measurement tool accurately reflected baseline anxiety. No significant differences were found in length of stay or morphine equivalent use. Patient satisfaction scores were higher in the PEOSS group than in the control group (P=0.0005). PSF was associated with increased anxiety at all time intervals in adolescents in both groups. In the PEOSS group, PSF was associated with increased anxiety in the immediate postoperative period. Despite the increase in anxiety, patient satisfaction was higher in the intervention group. It is likely that patients need age-appropriate information and educational strategies to minimize anxiety during PSF. Further work is underway to study and develop more effective interventional strategies. Level I study.

  2. Anxiety and risk of type 2 diabetes: evidence from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lauren E; Mezuk, Briana

    2012-12-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and is also commonly comorbid with anxiety. However, few studies have examined whether anxiety is predictive of diabetes risk. The objectives of this study are to examine the prospective relationship between anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and agoraphobia) and risk of type 2 diabetes over an 11-year period, and to investigate the association between anxiety and risk of diabetes-related complications among those with prevalent type 2 diabetes. Data come from the 1993/6 and 2004/5 waves of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (N=1920), a population-based prospective cohort. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The prospective association between anxiety and incident type 2 diabetes was evaluated using a series of nested multivariable logistic regression models. At baseline, 315 participants (21.8%) had an anxiety disorder. The relationship between anxiety and risk of developing type 2 diabetes was not statistically significant after controlling for demographic characteristics (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.28, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.75, 2.18). There was no relationship between anxiety and diabetes risk after controlling for health behaviors and depression status (OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.89). There was no significant relationship between anxiety and development of diabetes-related complications among those with prevalent type 2 diabetes (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 0.61, 6.74). Anxiety disorders are not associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes or risk of diabetes complications among those who have diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social anxiety and alcohol-related sexual victimization: A longitudinal pilot study of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2016-10-01

    We sought to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Women (Time 1: n = 574; Time 2: n = 88) who reported consuming alcohol at least once during the assessment timeframe participated. Social anxiety, alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and sexual victimization were assessed twice, approximately two months apart. Logistic regressions were used to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization at both time points. Longitudinally, women high in social anxiety were approximately three times more likely to endorse unwanted alcohol-related sexual experiences compared to women with low to moderate social anxiety. This study suggests social anxiety, a modifiable construct, increases risk for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Implications for clinicians and risk-reduction program developers are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Multimodal therapy for painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis: pilot study combining behavioral, pharmacologic, and endoscopic therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Hanley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We evaluated the effectiveness of combining behavioral therapy, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistension for treating painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with PBS/IC were prospectively enrolled in a pilot multimodal behavioral, pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment protocol. Behavioral modification included diet recommendations, fluid restriction to 64 oz. /day, progressive timed voiding and Kegel exercises. Oral pharmacologic therapy consisted of daily doses of macrodantin 100 mg, hydroxyzine 10-20 mg and urised 4 tablets. Patients underwent endoscopic bladder hydrodistention under anesthesia at least 2 weeks after protocol enrollment. Behavioral and pharmacological treatments were continued after the hydrodistention. O'Leary-Sant questionnaire scores were recorded before starting the protocol, after pharmacologic/behavioral therapy, 2 months post-hydrodistension, and at scheduled follow-up. Results: Eighteen patients (72% completed the pilot multimodal treatment protocol and were followed for a mean of 10.2 months. All patients were female with a median age of 36.3 years and had mean bladder capacity under anesthesia of 836 milliliters. Mean O'Leary-Sant symptom index scores for baseline symptoms, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistension and during follow up were 12.5, 8.6, 7.0, and 6.7 (p < 0.05. Mean O'Leary-Sant problem index scores for baseline, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistention and during follow up were 12.7, 8.9, 6.7, and 7.7 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our pilot multimodal protocol of behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistention demonstrated a significant progressive improvement in PBS/IC quality of life scores, compared to a pre-treatment baseline. These results should be validated in a larger, placebo controlled trial.

  5. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a

  6. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative

  7. Multi-modal spectroscopic imaging with synchrotron light to study mechanisms of brain disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Kelly L.; Fimognari, Nicholas; Hollings, Ashley; Kiernan, Mitchell; Lam, Virginie; Tidy, Rebecca J.; Takechi, Ryu; George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Mamo, John C.; Harris, Hugh H.; Hackett, Mark J.

    2017-04-01

    The international health care costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia have been predicted to reach $2 trillion USD by 2030. As such, there is urgent need to develop new treatments and diagnostic methods to stem an international health crisis. A major limitation to therapy and diagnostic development is the lack of complete understanding about the disease mechanisms. Spectroscopic methods at synchrotron light sources, such as FTIR, XRF, and XAS, offer a "multi-modal imaging platform" to reveal a wealth of important biochemical information in situ within ex vivo tissue sections, to increase our understanding of disease mechanisms.

  8. CALM Pregnancy: results of a pilot study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for perinatal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Janice H; Guarino, Anthony; Chenausky, Kerry; Klein, Lauri; Prager, Joanna; Petersen, Rebecca; Forget, Avery; Freeman, Marlene

    2014-10-01

    Many women experience anxiety during pregnancy with potential negative effects on maternal, birth, and child outcomes. Because of potential risks of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications, efficacious non-pharmacologic approaches are urgently needed. However, no published studies of psychotherapeutic treatments for anxiety in pregnancy exist. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may substantially reduce anxiety and co-morbid symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. Coping with Anxiety through Living Mindfully (CALM) Pregnancy is an adaptation of MBCT designed to address anxiety in pregnant women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of the CALM Pregnancy intervention in pregnant women anxiety. Twenty-four pregnant women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or prominent symptoms of generalized anxiety participated in an open treatment trial of the CALM Pregnancy group intervention. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by structured clinical interview, and self-report measures of anxiety, worry, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were completed at baseline and post-intervention. Qualitative feedback was elicited via questionnaire. Twenty-three participants completed the intervention with high attendance and good compliance with home practice. Completers showed statistically and clinically significant improvements in anxiety, worry, and depression, and significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness. Of the 17 participants who met GAD criteria at baseline, only one continued to meet criteria post-intervention. Participants regarded their experience in the intervention to be overwhelmingly positive. MBCT in the form of the CALM Pregnancy intervention holds potential to provide effective, non-pharmacological treatment for pregnant women with anxiety. These promising findings warrant further testing of the intervention with a randomized controlled trial.

  9. The Association of Depression and Anxiety with Pain: A Study from NESDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Eric W.; Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Dekker, Jack; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; Panxiety (OR = 4.84; Panxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; Panxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; Panxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; panxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; Pillness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research. PMID:25330004

  10. PREVALENCE, CAUSES AND PATTERNS OF ANXIETY TOWARDS EXAMINATIONS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS COPING: A STUDY AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tassadaq, Mohammad Munaim; Naseem, Muhammed; Zafar, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study is to assess symptoms of test anxiety among medical students and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. The specific aims are to determine: the prevalence of symptoms of test anxiety, the factors responsible for and different patterns of test anxiety, the correlation of socio-demographic data with test anxiety in medical students and the attitude towards coping strategies developped by them to deal with test anxiety.Methods:...

  11. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) : rationale, objectives and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; de Jong, P.J.; Van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; van der Meer, K.; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; de Graaf, R.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Ormel, J.; Van Dyck, R.

    The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in

  12. Using Brief Guided Imagery to Reduce Math Anxiety and Improve Math Performance: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M.; Klein, Brandi A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether brief guided imagery could provide a short-term reduction in math anxiety and improve math performance. Undergraduates (N = 581) were screened for math anxiety, and the highest and lowest quartiles were recruited to participate in a lab-based study. Participants were assigned to a brief guided…

  13. A Comparative Study of Writing Anxiety among Iranian University Students Majoring English Translation, Teaching and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanezhad, Mahdie

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to examine writing anxiety in three groups of EFL students who use English writing in their academic programs. The main purpose of this study is to determine the level and sources of anxiety that students experience while writing in English as a foreign language. To this end, 150 university students from Iranian EFL students…

  14. The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Jong, P.J. de; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Meer, K. van der; Verhaak, P.; Wensing, M.; Graaf, R. de; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Ormel, J.; Dyck, R. van

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) is a multi-site naturalistic cohort study to: (1) describe the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders, and (2) to integrate biological and psychosocial research paradigms within an epidemiological approach in

  15. Anxiety in English Language Learning: A Case Study of English Language Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Jamilah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Language anxiety as a specific aspect of language acquisition has occupied a great body of research for the past few decades. In this study, the level of foreign language anxiety among English language learners was investigated. This study was carried out with a quantitative research design using a survey methodology to collect data about the…

  16. The Anxiety Factors among Saudi EFL Learners: A Study from English Language Teachers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Fariha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that trigger language anxiety among Saudi learners in English as Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. The factor of anxiety is especially found among learners while developing proficiency in over all communication and speaking skills as felt by the EFL teachers. The study also seeks to answer…

  17. Transitional and translational studies of risk for anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, BJ; Ruberry, Erika J.; Libby, Victoria; Glatt, Charles E.; Hare, Todd; Soliman, Fatima; Duhoux, Stephanie; Frielingsdorf, Helena; Tottenham, Nim

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence reflects a period of increased rates of anxiety depression and suicide. Yet most teens emerge from this period with a healthy positive outcome. In this article we identify biological factors that may increase risk for some individuals during this developmental period by: (1) examining changes in neural circuitry underlying core phenotypic features of anxiety as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence; (2) examining genetic factors that may enhance the risk for p...

  18. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, D C; van Zelst, W H; Schoevers, R A; Comijs, H C; Voshaar, R C Oude

    2015-07-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking previously examined determinants into account. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.0), we established comorbid anxiety disorders (social phobia (SP), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and agoraphobia (AGO)) in 350 patients (aged ≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria within the past six months. Adjusted for age, sex, and level of education, we first examined previously identified determinants of anxious depression: depression severity, suicidality, partner status, loneliness, chronic diseases, and gait speed in multiple logistic regression models. Subsequently, associations were explored with the big five personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events. First, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the presence of any anxiety disorder (yes/no) as dependent variable, where after analyses were repeated for each anxiety disorder, separately. In our sample, the prevalence rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression was 38.6%. Determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders were a lower age, female sex, less education, higher depression severity, early traumatization, neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Nonetheless, determinants differed across the specific anxiety disorders and lumping all anxiety disorder together masked some determinants (education, personality). Our findings stress the need to examine determinants of comorbid anxiety disorder for specific anxiety disorders separately, enabling the development of targeted interventions within subgroups of depressed patients.

  19. Exposure to secondhand smoke and depression and anxiety: a report from two studies in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Mariska; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Kluft, Cornelis; Boomsma, Dorret I; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-11-01

    Previous population-based studies suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is related to increased depressive symptoms and poor mental health among non-smokers. We examined whether these associations could be replicated in two independent Dutch samples. Non-smoking adults were selected from two studies: 1) the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), comprising individuals with current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorders, and healthy controls and 2) the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), comprising twin-family studies on health-related behaviors. In both studies, SHS exposure was assessed with plasma cotinine levels (1-14ng/ml vs. depressive and/or anxiety disorders, and depression and anxiety symptom severity scores. In NTR, the Adult Self Report derived DSM-subscales for depressive and anxiety problems, and anxious depressive scores were analyzed. In NESDA non-smokers (n=1757), increased plasma cotinine level (≥1ng/ml) was not related to current depressive and/or anxiety disorders [odds ratio (OR) 0.96, P=.77], nor to depression or anxiety severity indicators. Similarly, in NTR non-smokers (n=1088) cotinine levels ≥1ng/ml were not associated with the DSM-subscale for depressive problems [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) 0.04, P=.88], nor to other depression and anxiety measures. In non-smoking adults from patient and population samples, we found no evidence that plasma cotinine levels were related to either depressive and/or anxiety disorders, or to depressive and anxiety symptoms. This suggests that SHS exposure is not related to depression and anxiety in non-smoking adults. © 2013.

  20. Breastfeeding cessation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ystrom Eivind

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between

  1. Anxiety Mediates the Relationship between Perfectionism and Insomnia Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Umair; Ellis, Jason G; Barclay, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with insomnia often report aspects of perfectionism and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Investigation of these factors together has been limited. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the association between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms was mediated by anxiety and depression, concurrently and longitudinally. Seventy-six members from the general-population participated at baseline. Data from 57 participants were subsequently analysed at twelve-month follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were assessed using The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Perfectionism was assessed using two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales (F-MPS; HF-MPS). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Correlational analysis examined longitudinal associations between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis examined whether significant associations remained after controlling for anxiety and depression. Baseline insomnia symptoms were associated with future doubts about action. Further, this relationship was mediated by preceding symptoms of anxiety and concurrent symptoms of insomnia. Similarly, baseline insomnia symptoms were also associated with future parental criticism. However this relationship was partially mediated by preceding symptoms of anxiety, and was not mediated by concurrent insomnia symptoms. Symptoms of insomnia appear to be related to an increase in negative perfectionistic thinking in the form of doubts about action and parental criticism, however these relationships appear to be mediated by symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, treatments for insomnia should address anxiety symptoms with the prospect of preventing the accentuation of aspects of perfectionism due to poor sleep.

  2. Moving Social Work Education Forward Through the Application of Neuroscientifically Informed Teaching Practice: A Case Study in Student Engagement Through Art and Multimodal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Axlyn McLeod

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern advances in neuroscience suggest learning occurs through three basic cognition patterns. Higher-level multimodal learning occurs when learning activities contain multiple cognition patterns. This case study details an application of these concepts where fine art, journaling, practicum experiences, and in-class processing were fused to create an active and participatory method of engaging social work students in critical thinking as related to differential impacts of clinical decision-making. The learning activities are described and multimodal learning is explained, along with the findings of a focus group used to assess student feedback. Student experiences and the potential adaptations of this approach are also addressed. The tentative findings of this case study indicate positive learning experiences and suggest a need for further research to explore the opportunities associated with the use of multimodal and art-infused learning techniques in social work courses.

  3. Feedback on a Multimodal Cognitive Intervention for Adults Aging With HIV: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David E; Gakumo, C Ann; Childs, Gwendolyn D; Enah, Comfort; Fazeli, Pariya L

    Nearly 50% of adult persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is associated with deteriorating brain health and cognitive functioning. Multimodal interventions that simultaneously improve physical activity, nutrition, and sleep hygiene may be of value for adult PLWH, especially as they age and become vulnerable to HAND. We used four focus groups of PLWH (N = 30; ages ≥ 50 years) to solicit feedback about Cognitive Prescriptions, a multimodal cognitive intervention. Lifestyle and health behaviors pertaining to Cognitive Prescriptions were assessed, including: (a) physical activity, (b) mental activity, (c) nutrition, (d) social engagement, (e) emotional health, (f) sleep hygiene, and (g) substance use. When presented a template of the intervention, participants expressed favorable opinions and remarked they would want to work with a clinician, paraprofessional, or peer to implement such a program into their own daily routines. From this, implications for practice and research are provided. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bonding Gossip as an Identity Negotiation Life Phase: A Study of Multimodal Texting via Smartphone Among Taiwanese College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chi Shiau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawn on ethnographic interviews with 17 informants as well as seven focus group interviews, this study examines how college freshmen text on social media via smartphones to formulate collegiate bonding. Gossip is common between two individuals to avoid collapsed context, so both parties can ascertain the meaning derived from such situated interaction; it is less frequently among multiple small group users. Three linguistic genres of gossip identified include (1 sarcastic gossip—negative but not malicious—on fellows, (2 gossip against authorities, and (3 celebrity gossip. However, gossiping among freshmen is a life-phase phenomenon, usually lasting 2 or 3 months until a solid social network with stronger ties in an offline context has been secured. Over time, the freshmen have gradually reduced their amount of time investing in such communicative capital. As a result of multimodal communicative tools, social media has afforded wider and more multimodal dissemination of information which the freshmen might otherwise have not been able to access. Gossiping is popular for it provides sources of conversational comfort and sartorial security, creating a safer net so that the freshmen could playfully navigate through the precarious life phase.

  5. Neuroinflammation and brain atrophy in former NFL players: An in vivo multimodal imaging pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jennifer M; Wang, Yuchuan; Munro, Cynthia A; Ma, Shuangchao; Yue, Chen; Chen, Shaojie; Airan, Raag; Kim, Pearl K; Adams, Ashley V; Garcia, Cinthya; Higgs, Cecilia; Sair, Haris I; Sawa, Akira; Smith, Gwenn; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Caffo, Brian; Kassiou, Michael; Guilarte, Tomas R; Pomper, Martin G

    2015-02-01

    There are growing concerns about potential delayed, neuropsychiatric consequences (e.g, cognitive decline, mood or anxiety disorders) of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI). Autopsy studies of brains from a limited number of former athletes have described characteristic, pathologic changes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) leading to questions about the relationship between these pathologic and the neuropsychiatric disturbances seen in former athletes. Research in this area will depend on in vivo methods that characterize molecular changes in the brain, linking CTE and other sports-related pathologies with delayed emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this pilot project we studied former National Football League (NFL) players using new neuroimaging techniques and clinical measures of cognitive functioning. We hypothesized that former NFL players would show molecular and structural changes in medial temporal and parietal lobe structures as well as specific cognitive deficits, namely those of verbal learning and memory. We observed a significant increase in binding of [(11)C]DPA-713 to the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of brain injury and repair, in several brain regions, such as the supramarginal gyrus and right amygdala, in 9 former NFL players compared to 9 age-matched, healthy controls. We also observed significant atrophy of the right hippocampus. Finally, we report that these same former players had varied performance on a test of verbal learning and memory, suggesting that these molecular and pathologic changes may play a role in cognitive decline. These results suggest that localized brain injury and repair, indicated by increased [(11)C]DPA-713 binding to TSPO, may be linked to history of NFL play. [(11)C]DPA-713 PET is a promising new tool that can be used in future study design to examine further the relationship between TSPO expression in brain injury and repair, selective regional brain atrophy, and the potential link to

  6. Assessing Children's Anxiety Using the Modified Short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Talking Mats: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preoperative anxiety complicates treatment and requires assessment by nurses in children. Children, with or without disability, are helped when pictures are used to support communication. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of the modified short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI using a modified Talking Mats method in children undergoing day surgeries. Method. A modified short STAI with pictorial support along the lines of the Talking Mats method was pre- and postoperatively administered to 42 typically developing children aged three to nine years. The parents assessed the children’s anxiety, simultaneously and independently, by scoring the short STAI by proxy. Results. The modified short STAI showed moderate internal consistency and good construct validity in the age group seven to nine years. Conclusions. The results of this study support the use of the instrument for self-reports in children aged seven to nine years. Future research will explore the possibilities of also using this instrument for children with cognitive and communicative difficulties.

  7. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, D.C. van der; Zelst, W.H. van; Schoevers, R.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  8. Parental Cultural Orientation, Shyness, and Anxiety in Hispanic Children: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between parental cultural orientation, childhood shyness, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of Hispanic American children (N = 127). Parents completed measures of their level of acculturation, collectivism, and socialization goals, while children provided self-reports of anxiety symptoms and both parents and…

  9. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  10. Effects of anxiety on handgun shooting behavior of police officers: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The current pilot study aimed at providing an initial assessment of how anxiety influences police officers’ shooting behavior. Seven police officers participated and completed an identical shooting exercise under two experimental conditions: low anxiety, against a non-threatening opponent, and high

  11. Effects of anxiety on handgun shooting behavior of police officers: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The current pilot study aimed at providing an initial assessment of how anxiety influences police officers' shooting behavior. Seven police officers participated and completed an identical shooting exercise under two experimental conditions: low anxiety, against a non-threatening opponent, and high

  12. Anxiety Trajectories and Identity Development in Adolescence: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this five-wave longitudinal study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and adolescent identity development. Participants were 1,313 adolescents who annually completed measures of anxiety and identity. Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) analyses demonstrated that the adolescent population was best typified by two latent growth…

  13. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression : results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  14. Comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression: results of a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, D.; van Zelst, W.; Schoevers, R.; Comijs, H.; Oude Voshaar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking

  15. Music Performance Anxiety in Instrumental Music Students: A Multiple Case Study of Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is a sometimes debilitating condition affecting many young musicians as they perform in testing or concert settings. These students may consult their teachers to seek aid in overcoming their anxiety. The purpose of this multiple case study was to investigate the strategies and methods utilized by middle and high…

  16. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  17. Test anxiety and self-esteem in senior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Seda Aybüke; Bilek, Günal; Çelik, Ekrem

    2018-02-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem. Seven-hundred and twenty-four high school students who were preparing for the university entrance examination in Bitlis participated in the study. A questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Revised Test Anxiety Scale was prepared as an e-questionnaire for the students to fill easily and uploaded to the Bitlis State Hospital's website. Schools were called and informed for the students to fill out the e-questionnaire on the Internet. The most important findings from our study are that gender is influential on test anxiety and self-esteem score and test anxiety level are negatively correlated. It was observed that female students had more test anxiety than male students and those who had higher self-esteem had less test anxiety. Consequently, our study shows that university entrance examination creates anxiety on students and reduces self-esteem, especially in female students.

  18. Foreign Language Anxiety of Students Studying English Language and Literature: A Sample from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of foreign language learners experience a feeling of anxiety in language learning process. The purpose of this research was to find out foreign language anxiety levels of students studying in the Faculty of English Language and Literature at Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey when they were in preparatory class and when…

  19. Factors associated to depression and anxiety in medical students: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brenneisen Mayer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate personal and institutional factors related to depression and anxiety prevalence of students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Methods The authors performed a multicenter study (August 2011 to August 2012, examining personal factors (age, sex, housing, tuition scholarship and institutional factors (year of the medical training, school legal status, location and support service in association with scores of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Of 1,650 randomly selected students, 1,350 (81.8 % completed the study. The depressive symptoms prevalence was 41 % (BDI > 9, state-anxiety 81.7 % and trait-anxiety in 85.6 % (STAI > 33. There was a positive relationship between levels of state (r = 0,591, p < 0.001 and trait (r = 0,718, p < 0.001 anxiety and depression scores. All three symptoms were positively associated with female sex and students from medical schools located in capital cities of both sexes. Tuition scholarship students had higher state-anxiety but not trait-anxiety or depression scores. Medical students with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms disagree more than their peers with the statements “I have adequate access to psychological support” and “There is a good support system for students who get stressed”. Conclusions The factors associated with the increase of medical students’ depression and anxiety symptoms were female sex, school location and tuition scholarship. It is interesting that tuition scholarship students showed state-anxiety, but not depression and trait-anxiety symptoms.

  20. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-02-11

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy

  1. Bidirectional association between Bell's palsy and anxiety disorders: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-Chieh; Hu, Li-Yu; Liu, Mu-En; Yang, Albert C; Shen, Cheng-Che; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2017-06-01

    Bell's palsy and anxiety disorders share numerous risk factors (e.g., immune response, ischemia, and psychological stress). However, there have been no studies on the bidirectional temporal association between the two illnesses. In this study, we used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to test the bidirectional association between Bell's palsy and anxiety disorders. We hypothesized that patients with Bell's palsy would have an increased risk of subsequent anxiety disorders later in life and that, conversely, those with anxiety disorders would have an increased likelihood of developing Bell's palsy later in life. We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Study 1 included 8070 patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders and 32,280 controls without anxiety disorders who were matched with sex, age, and enrollment date to analyze the following risk of Bell's palsy among both groups. Study 2 included 4980 patients with Bell's palsy and 19,920 controls without Bell's palsy who were matched with sex, age, and enrollment date to analyze the following risk of anxiety disorders among both groups. The patient records selected for the studies were dated between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. All subjects were observed until their outcomes of interest, death or December 31, 2009. After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, urbanization, and income, the hazard ratio (HR) for patients with anxiety disorders to contract Bell's palsy was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.21-1.94, PBell's palsy to develop an anxiety disorder was 1.59 (95% CI, 1.23-2.06, PBell's palsy and anxiety disorders. After one of these conditions develops, the morbidity rate for the other significantly increases. Additional studies are required to determine whether these two conditions share the same pathogenic mechanisms, and whether successfully treating one will reduce the morbidity rate for the other. Copyright

  2. Dental anxiety among university students and its correlation with their field of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mousa AL-Omari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels among university students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In addition, the present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety and the impact of gender on the perceived dental anxiety and the correlation between field of study and dental anxiety level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. Six hundred subjects were recruited into the study from Jordanian undergraduate students from the faculties of Medicine, Engineering, and Dentistry. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty five complete questionnaires were returned, which accounts for a response rate of 89.2%. The totals of the mean anxiety scores were the following: Medical students, 13.58%; Engineering students, 13.27% and dental students, 11.22%. About 32% of the study population has scored 15 or more. Dental students had the lowest percentage of those who scored 15 or more. Surprisingly, the medical students were responsible for the highest percentage of those who scored 15 or above. Although women demonstrated statistically higher total dental anxiety scores than men (p= 0.03, the difference between both genders was small and could be clinically insignificant. The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of adequate dental health education may result in a high level of dental anxiety among non-dental university students in Jordan. Further studies are required to identify the correlates of dental anxiety among university students.

  3. Diagnostic usefulness of the multimodality study with mammography, ultrasonography, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scan in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Woong Bae; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Bae, Young Tae; Lee, Suck Hong [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    To assess the diagnosis usefulness of multimodality study in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Eighty-one patients between January 1998 to December 1999 were involved in this study, and who underwent mammography, breast ultrasonography, and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography in all cases the findings were retrospectively reviewed. Each modality was graded by two physicians specializing in nuclear medicine and two radiologists, all unaware of the pathologic results. A four-grade system(1=definitely benign, 2-probably benign, 3=probably malignant, 4=definitely malignant) was applied to those of breast ultrasonography and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography and BIRADS was applied to those of mammography. All breast masses were confirmed by surgery (n=67) or FNA (n=14). Findings of grade 3 or 4 the four-grade system, BIRADS category 4 or 5, or positive coincidence in double and triple combination studies were defined as positive results, and on the basis of the data thus obtained, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for each modality and for multimodality studies. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography were 83.6%, 88.5%, 93.9%, 71.9% and 85.2%. respectively. For ultrasonography, the corresponding figure were 94.5%, 65.3%, 85.2%, 85.0%, and 85.2%, and these for mammography, they were 87.3%, 69.2%, 87.3%, 81.8% and 80.2%. For the ultrasonography and mammography combination, the figures were 83.6%, 50.0%, 93.9%. 100.0% and 95.2%, respectively, and for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography and mammography, the corresponding findings were 72.7%, 69.2%, 95.2%, 100.0% and 96.7%. For the {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography and ultrasonography combination, respective findings of were 80.0%, 61.5%, 95.7%, 94.1% and 95.2%, respectively, and in the triple modality study, respective findings of 70.9%, 50.0%, 97

  4. A study of students' learning styles and mathematics anxiety amongst form four students in Kerian Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Suraya; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and mathematics anxiety amongst Form Four students in Kerian, Perak. The study involves 175 Form Four students as respondents. The instrument which is used to assess the students' learning styles and mathematic anxiety is adapted from the Grasha's Learning Styles Inventory and the Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) respectively. The types of learning styles used are independent, avoidant, collaborative, dependent, competitive and participant. The collected data is processed by SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences 16.0). The data is analysed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics that include t-test and Pearson correlation. The results show that majority of the students adopt collaborative learning style and the students have moderate level of mathematics anxiety. Moreover, it is found that there is significant difference between learning style avoidant, collaborative, dependent and participant based on gender. Amongst all students' learning style, there exists a weak but significant correlation between avoidant, independent and participant learning style and mathematics anxiety. It is very important for the teachers need to be concerned about the effects of learning styles on mathematics anxiety. Therefore, the teachers should understand mathematics anxiety and implement suitable learning strategies in order for the students to overcome their mathematics anxiety.

  5. Assessing task importance and anxiety in medical school: an instrument development and initial validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Depressive and Anxiety Disorders Predicting First Incidence of Alcohol Use Disorders: Results of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van den Brink, Wim; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders may predict first incidence of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. This study aims to identify those persons who are at an increased risk of developing alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence by considering the heterogeneity of depressive and anxiety

  7. Depressive and anxiety disorders predicting first incidence of alcohol use disorders: results of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; Vogelzangs, N.; van den Brink, W.; Smit, J.H.; Veltman, D.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders may predict first incidence of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. This study aims to identify those persons who are at an increased risk of developing alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence by considering the heterogeneity of depressive and anxiety

  8. Recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians after rigorous medical record case extraction: results of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.C.; Ven, P.M. van de; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Smolders, M.; Meer, K. van der; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hout, H.P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies reported low and inconsistent rates of recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians (FPs). Our objectives were to examine (a) which combination of indications within medical records most accurately reflects recognition of anxiety disorders and (b) whether patient

  9. Recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians after rigorous medical record case extraction Results of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.C.; van de Ven, P.M.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Smolders, M.; van der Meer, K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Hout, H.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies reported low and inconsistent rates of recognition of anxiety disorders by family physicians (FPs). Our objectives were to examine (a) which combination of indications within medical records most accurately reflects recognition of anxiety disorders and (b) whether patient

  10. The Association between Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Subthreshold Anxiety Symptoms and Fear of Falling among Older Adults: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Marie-Christine; Bélanger, Claude; Benyebdri, Fethia; Filiatrault, Johanne; Bherer, Louis; Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Nadeau, Alexandra; Bruneau, Marie-Andrée; Clerc, Doris; Saint-Martin, Monique; Cruz-Santiago, Diana; Ménard, Caroline; Nguyen, Philippe; Vu, T T Minh; Comte, Francis; Bobeuf, Florian; Grenier, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    A relationship between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and fear of falling (FOF) has long been proposed but never specifically studied. This study aimed at analyzing the relationship between FOF and GAD or anxiety symptoms, while controlling for major depressive episodes (MDE), depressive symptoms, fall risk, and sociodemographic variables. Twenty-five older adults participated in this pilot study. Assessments included the following: Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Depression Scale, Falls-Efficacy Scale-International. A multidisciplinary team evaluated fall risk. FOF was significantly correlated with GAD, MDE, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and fall risk, but not with sociodemographic variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that GAD and anxiety symptoms were significantly and independently associated with FOF. Although the results of this pilot study should be replicated with larger samples, they suggest that FOF is associated with GAD and anxiety symptoms even when considering physical factors that increase the risk of falling. Treatment of FOF in patients with GAD may present a particular challenge because of the central role of intolerance of uncertainty, which may prevent patients from regaining confidence despite the reduction of fall risk. Clinicians should screen for GAD and anxiety symptoms in patients with FOF to improve detection and treatment.

  11. Study on change of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Chen Jiaxin; Zhang Lixiang; Wang Tiejian; Han Min; Lu Xiaoling

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible changes of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 48 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving primary conventional external beam irradiation were examined before and after radiotherapy to determine their brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP), short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SLSEP) and pattern reversal visual-evoked potential (PRVEP). Results: In comparison with the conditions before radiotherapy, in different periods after radiotherapy abnormal peak latency and interval latency difference were found in BAEP, SLSEP and PRVEP. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy may cause abnormal function of nerve conduction in early periods, which can be showed by BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP, and injury can be timely detected if the three evoked potentials are used together. Thus authors suggest BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP should be examined in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients during and after the radiotherapy so as to find early damage in auditory somatosensory and visual conduction pathways

  12. Student Teachers' Modeling of Acceleration Using a Video-Based Laboratory in Physics Education: A Multimodal Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Trudel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study intends to model kinematics learning of a pair of student teachers when exposed to prescribed teaching strategies in a video-based laboratory. Two student teachers were chosen from the Francophone B.Ed. program of the Faculty of Education of a Canadian university. The study method consisted of having the participants interact with a video-based laboratory to complete two activities for learning properties of acceleration in rectilinear motion. Time limits were placed on the learning activities during which the researcher collected detailed multimodal information from the student teachers' answers to questions, the graphs they produced from experimental data, and the videos taken during the learning sessions. As a result, we describe the learning approach each one followed, the evidence of conceptual change and the difficulties they face in tackling various aspects of the accelerated motion. We then specify advantages and limits of our research and propose recommendations for further study.

  13. Geometrical accuracy and fusion of multimodal vascular images: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussion, Nicolas; Soulez, Gilles; De Guise, Jacques A.; Daronat, Michel; Qin Zhao; Cloutier, Guy

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the geometrical accuracy of x-ray angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray computed tomography (XCT), and ultrasound imaging (B-mode and IVUS, or intravascular ultrasound) for measuring the lumen diameters of blood vessels. An image fusion method was also developed to improve these measurements. The images were acquired from a phantom that mimic vessels of known diameters. After acquisition, the multimodal images were coregistered by manual alignment of fiducial markers, and then by maximization of mutual information. The fusion method was performed by means of a fuzzy logic modeling approach followed by a combination process based on a possibilistic theory. The results showed (i) the better geometrical accuracy of XCT and IVUS compared to the other modalities, and (ii) the better accuracy and smaller variability of fused images compared to single modalities, with respect to most diameters investigated. For XCT, the error varied from 0.4% to 5.4%, depending on the vessel diameter that ranged from 0.93 to 6.24 mm. For IVUS, the error ranged from -0.3% to 1.7% but the smallest vessel (0.93 mm) could not be investigated because of the probe size. Compared to others fusion schemes, the XCT-MRI fused images provided the best results for both accuracy (from -1.6% to 0.2% for the three largest vessels) and robustness (mean relative error of 1.9%). To conclude, this work underlined both the usefulness of the multimodality vascular phantom as a validation tool and the utility of image fusion in the vascular context

  14. Hypnotizability, absorption and negative cognitions as predictors of dental anxiety: two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClementi, Jeannie D; Deffenbaugh, Jennifer; Jackson, Daniel

    2007-09-01

    The authors conducted two pilot studies that investigated the roles of hypnotizability, absorption (defined as the ability to maintain focused attention on a task or stimulus) and state versus trait anxiety as predictors of dental anxiety. One of the studies also examined the effectiveness of hypnosis in managing dental anxiety. Participants in study 1 completed measures of hypnotizability and anxiety, viewed a video of a dental procedure either under hypnosis or not, and completed dental anxiety questionnaires. Participants in study 2 were told either that the video showed major dental work or a routine polishing. All subjects watched the video and then completed measures assessing their perceptions of the video and their anxiety. The authors found a positive relationship between hypnotizability and scores on the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) (F(1,290) = 3.45, P = .06), as well as an interaction between hypnotizability and hypnosis (F(1,290) = 6.55, P = .01). An analysis of covariance found a relationship between trait and dental anxiety (F(1,290) = 11.50; P = .001). A two-way analysis of variance found a main effect for hypnosis (F(1,290) = 3.20, P = .07). The authors found an effect for group on the DAS (F(1,228) = 3.67, P = .057), such that subjects in the negative-cognition group scored higher on the DAS. The authors found an interaction between absorption and cognition in perceptions of pain experienced by the patient in the video (F(1,228) = 3.70, P = .05) and in ratings of one's own pain level if in the same situation (F(1,228) = 4.38, P hypnosis may be helpful for some, but not all, patients. Characteristics such as hypnotizability, trait anxiety and negative cognitions predict which people develop dental anxiety and who will be more responsive to hypnosis. The authors provide suggestions for dentists treating anxious patients.

  15. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  16. Anxiety and depression in working-age cancer survivors: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhestern, Laura; Beierlein, Volker; Bultmann, Johanna Christine; Möller, Birgit; Romer, Georg; Koch, Uwe; Bergelt, Corinna

    2017-05-19

    Anxiety and depression can be a long-term strain in cancer survivors. Little is known about the emotional situation of cancer survivors who have to deal with work- and family-related issues. The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety and depression in working-age cancer survivors and associated factors. A register-based sample of 3370 cancer survivors (25 to 55 years at time of diagnosis) diagnosed up to six years prior to the survey was recruited from two German cancer registries. Demographic and medical characteristics as well as self-reported measures were used. Overall, approximately 40% of the survivors reported moderate to high anxiety scores and approximately 20% reported moderate to high depression scores. Compared to the general population, working-age cancer survivors were more anxious but less depressed (p anxiety or depression. Anxiety and depression in cancer survivors were associated with various variables. Better social support, family functioning and physical health were associated with lower anxiety and depression. Overall, we found higher anxiety levels in cancer survivors of working-age than in the general population. A considerable portion of cancer survivors reported moderate to high levels of anxiety and depression. The results indicate the need for psychosocial screening and psycho-oncological support e.g. in survivorship programs for working-age cancer survivors. Assessing the physical health, social support and family background might help to identify survivors at risk for higher emotional distress.

  17. THE IMPACT OF ANXIETY UPON COGNITION: PERSPECTIVES FROM HUMAN THREAT OF SHOCK STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Joe Robinson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders constitute a sizeable worldwide health burden with profound social and economic consequences. The symptoms are wide-ranging; from hyperarousal to difficulties with concentrating. This latter effect falls under the broad category of altered cognitive performance; in this review we examine studies quantifying such impacts of anxiety on cognition. Specifically, we focus on the translational threat of unpredictable shock paradigm, a method previously used to characterize emotional responses and defensive mechanisms that is now emerging as valuable tool for examining the interaction between anxiety and cognition. In particular, we compare the impact of threat of shock on cognition in humans to that of pathological anxiety disorders. We highlight that both threat of shock and anxiety disorders promote mechanisms associated with harm avoidance across multiple levels of cognition (from perception to attention to learning and executive function – a ‘hot’ cognitive function which can be both adaptive and maladaptive depending upon the circumstances. This mechanism comes at a cost to other functions such as working memory, but leaves some functions, such as planning, unperturbed. We also highlight a number of cognitive effects that differ across anxiety disorders and threat of shock. These discrepant effects are largely seen in ‘cold’ cognitive functions involving control mechanisms and may reveal boundaries between adaptive (e.g. response to threat and maladaptive (e.g. pathological anxiety. We conclude by raising a number of unresolved questions regarding the role of anxiety in cognition that may provide fruitful avenues for future research.

  18. Comparison of the effectiveness of two different interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğ, Nurcan; Ulusoylu, Özge; Bal, Ayça; Özgür, Hazal

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of nature sounds and relaxation exercises for reducing preoperative anxiety. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial design was used. We divided 159 preoperative patients into three groups: nature sounds (n = 53), relaxation exercises (n = 53), and control groups (n = 53). We evaluated anxiety using the visual analog scale and state anxiety inventory scores immediately before, immediately after, and 30 min after interventions in nature sounds and relaxation exercises groups, and silent rest in the control. We found no differences between the measurement values in the intervention groups, but we did observe a difference between the intervention and control groups. The two interventions were similarly effective in reducing preoperative anxiety. These simple and low-cost interventions can be used to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical clinics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. [Impact of a Multimodal Intervention on the Psychological Profile of Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients: A Study of PRISMA Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Vargas, Cristian; Duica, Kelly; Richard, Shanel; Palacio, Juan David; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) and schizophrenia are included in the group of severe mental illness and are main causes of disability and morbidity in the local population due to the bio-psycho-social implications in patients. In the last 20 years or so, adjunctive psychological interventions been studied with the purpose of decreasing recurrences, stabilising the course of the disease, and improving the functionality in these patients. To analyse the psychological effect of a multimodal intervention (MI) vs a traditional intervention (TI) program in BD I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to the MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. The MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. The TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. The Hamilton and Young scales, and the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Postive Symptoms (SAPS) were used on bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The scales AQ-12, TEMPS-A, FAST, Zuckerman sensation seeking scale, BIS-11, SAI-E and EEAG were applied to measure the psychological variables. The scales were performed before and after the interventions. The psychotherapy used in this study was cognitive behavioural therapy. There were statistically significant differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group. There were no statistically significant differences in the psychological scales after conducting a multivariate analysis between the intervention groups and for both times (initial and final). This study did not show any changes in variables of psychological functioning variables between bipolar and schizophrenic groups, who were subjected to TI vs MI (who received cognitive behavioural therapy

  20. Brain tissues atrophy is not always the best structural biomarker of physiological aging: A multimodal cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Andrea; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Péran, Patrice; Sabatini, Umberto; Cosentino, Carlo; Amato, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a voxel-based multiple regression analysis of different magnetic resonance image modalities, including anatomical T1-weighted, T2* relaxometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. Quantitative parameters sensitive to complementary brain tissue alterations, including morphometric atrophy, mineralization, microstructural damage, and anisotropy loss, were compared in a linear physiological aging model in 140 healthy subjects (range 20-74 years). The performance of different predictors and the identification of the best biomarker of age-induced structural variation were compared without a priori anatomical knowledge. The best quantitative predictors in several brain regions were iron deposition and microstructural damage, rather than macroscopic tissue atrophy. Age variations were best resolved with a combination of markers, suggesting that multiple predictors better capture age-induced tissue alterations. These findings highlight the importance of a combined evaluation of multimodal biomarkers for the study of aging and point to a number of novel applications for the method described.

  1. The neuroprotective agent CNTF decreases neuronal metabolites in the rat striatum: an in vivo multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-de Sauvage, Maria-Angeles; Flament, Julien; Bramoulle, Yann; Ben Haim, Lucile; Guillermier, Martine; Berniard, Aurélie; Aurégan, Gwennaëlle; Houitte, Diane; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Bonvento, Gilles; Hantraye, Philippe; Valette, Julien; Escartin, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is neuroprotective against multiple pathologic conditions including metabolic impairment, but the mechanisms are still unclear. To delineate CNTF effects on brain energy homeostasis, we performed a multimodal imaging study, combining in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and in situ glutamate imaging by chemical exchange saturation transfer. Unexpectedly, we found that CNTF expression through lentiviral gene transfer in the rat striatum significantly decreased the levels of neuronal metabolites (N-acetyl-aspartate, N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate, and glutamate). This preclinical study shows that CNTF remodels brain metabolism, and suggests that decreased levels of neuronal metabolites may occur in the absence of neuronal dysfunction. PMID:25833344

  2. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathyssek, Christina M; Olino, Thomas M; Hartman, Catharina A; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Van Oort, Floor V A

    2013-03-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10-17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], separation anxiety [SA], social phobia [SP]). We examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the RCADS, using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, by examining the factor structure (configural invariance), factor loadings (metric invariance) and thresholds (strong invariance). We found that all anxiety subtypes were configural invariant. Metric invariance held for items on the GAD, OCD, PD and SA subscales; yet, for the SP subscale three items showed modest longitudinal variation at age 10-12. Model fit decreased modestly when enforcing additional constraints across time; however, model fit for these models was still adequate to excellent. We conclude that the RCADS measures anxiety symptoms similarly across time in a general population sample of adolescents; hence, measured changes in anxiety symptoms very likely reflect true changes in anxiety levels. We consider the instrument suitable to assess anxiety levels across adolescence. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Using virtual humans to alleviate social anxiety: preliminary report from a comparative outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Genevève; Bouchard, Stéphane; Dumoulin, Stéphane; Guitard, Tanya; Klinger, Evelyne

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have consistently shown the effectiveness of a multicomponent CBT treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Previous outcome studies on virtual reality and SAD have focused on people suffering from fear of public speaking and not full blown SAD. In this study, 45 adults receiving a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic of social anxiety were randomly assigned to traditional CBT treatment (with in vivo exposure), CBT-VR combined treatment, or a waiting list. Results show significant reduction of anxiety on all questionnaires as well as statistically significant interactions between both treatment groups and the waiting list.

  4. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R.; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  5. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  6. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  7. Multimodal argumentation in news magazine covers: A case study of front covers putting Greece on the spot of the European economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseronis, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, front covers of news magazines are studied as a distinct multimodal genre that invites readers to buy the magazine not only by attracting their attention but also by assuming a position with respect to the particular cover story. In order to account for the argument that a front cover

  8. A multi-modal intervention for Activating Patients at Risk for Osteoporosis (APROPOS: Rationale, design, and uptake of online study intervention material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Danila

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: We developed and implemented a novel tailored multi-modal intervention to improve initiation of osteoporosis therapy. An email address provided on the survey was the most important factor independently associated with accessing the intervention online. The design and uptake of this intervention may have implications for future studies in osteoporosis or other chronic diseases.

  9. A review of studies concerning treatment adherence of patients with anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lívia Santana1, Leonardo F Fontenelle1–31Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Institute of Community Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil; 3D’Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilObjective: This paper aimed at describing the most consistent correlates and/or predictors of nonadherence to treatment of patients with different anxiety disorders.Method: The authors retrieved studies indexed in PubMed/MedLine, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge using the following search terms: attrition OR dropout OR attrition rates OR patient dropouts OR treatment adherence AND anxiety disorders. Research was limited to articles published before January 2010.Results: Sixteen studies were selected that investigated the impact of sociodemographic, clinical, or cognitive variables on adherence to treatment for anxiety disorders. While no consistent pattern of sociodemographic or clinical features associated with nonadherence emerged, all studies that investigated cognitive variables in panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder found that expectations and opinions about treatment were related to adherence.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that it is essential to consider anxiety disorder patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment strategies to increase their compliance with the therapeutic plan.Keywords: attrition, dropout, OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder

  10. Performance study of a fan beam collimator designed for a multi-modality small animal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbir Ahmed, ASM; Kramer, Gary H.; Semmler, Wolfrad; Peter, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology to design and conduct the performances of a fan beam collimator. This fan beam collimator was designed to use with a multi-modality small animal imaging device and the performance of the collimator was studied for a 3D geometry. Analytical expressions were formulated to calculate the parameters for the collimator. A Monte Carlo model was developed to analyze the scattering and image noises for a 3D object. The results showed that the performance of the fan beam collimator was strongly dependent on the source distribution and position. The fan beam collimator showed increased counting efficiency in comparison to a parallel hole collimator. Inside attenuating medium, the increased attenuating effect outweighed the fan beam increased counting efficiency.

  11. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases: A multicenter epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Cai; Huang, Kun-Ming; Huang, Jia-Guo; Zhou, Chang-Hong; Sun, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Su-Wen; Wu, Feng-Ting

    2016-11-14

    To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases. A total of 1736 patients with chronic digestive system diseases were included in this cross-sectional study, including 871 outpatients and 865 in-patients. A self-designed General Information for Patients of the Department of Gastroenterology of General Hospitals questionnaire was used to collect each patient's general information, which included demographic data (including age, sex, marital status, and education) and disease characteristics (including major diseases, disease duration, principal symptoms, chronic pain, sleep disorder, and limited daily activities). The overall detection rate was 31.11% (540/1736) for depression symptoms alone, 27.02% (469/1736) for anxiety symptoms alone, 20.68% (359/1736) for both depression and anxiety symptoms, and 37.44% (650/1736) for either depression or anxiety symptoms. Subjects aged 70 years or above had the highest detection rate of depression (44.06%) and anxiety symptoms (33.33%). χ 2 trend test showed: the higher the body mass index (BMI), the lower the detection rate of depression and anxiety symptoms ( χ 2 trend = 13.697, P digestive system tumors had the highest detection rate of depression (57.55%) and anxiety (55.19%), followed by patients with liver cirrhosis (41.35% and 48.08%). Depression and anxiety symptoms were also high in subjects with comorbid hypertension and coronary heart disease. Depression and anxiety occur in patients with tumors, liver cirrhosis, functional dyspepsia, and chronic viral hepatitis. Elderly, divorced/widowed, poor sleep quality, and lower BMI are associated with higher risk of depression and anxiety.

  12. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, Nauman A; Munir, Waqar; Shahzad, Mohammad A; Choudhry, Zeshan S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. This study

  13. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY RELATED DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN RURAL KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and school avoidance, detailed assessments of various sociodemographic variables were also done. RESULTS A total of 250 children were studied – 147 girls and 103 boys. Anxiety disorders were found to be highly prevalent in the study population (45.6% affected and girls were disproportionately more affected (53.4% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.0389. It was present among all socio-economic strata. CONCLUSION These findings call for urgent remedial measures involving the students, parents, teachers, school management, policy makers and the media.

  14. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children's Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ibanez

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10-20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children's health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children's early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children.In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development.We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children's cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children's cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%.The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed.

  15. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of panic disorder symptoms: a prospective 3-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, Tanja; Biglbauer, Sonja

    2018-03-20

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the fear of anxiety symptoms, a feature proven to be an important vulnerability factor for anxiety pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine whether AS (as well as its factors) predicts the onset of panic disorder symptoms when controlling for the contribution of trait anxiety. We conducted a prospective 3 year follow up study. The participants, students at the Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb (N = 1087), completed an Anxiety Sensitivity Index and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait form) and, after a period of three years, were asked to self-assess criteria for panic disorder (according to the DSM-5). The predictive validity of AS for the onset of panic disorder symptoms, regardless of trait anxiety, was confirmed. Furthermore, the physical concerns dimension of AS was the only significant predictor of panic disorder symptoms. The optimal cutoff score of 25 on the ASI provides poor to moderate accuracy indices in detecting participants who will manifest panic disorder symptoms in the next three years. This study contributes to our current understanding of AS as a prospective risk factor for panic disorder symptoms.

  16. Yoga-enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (Y-CBT) for anxiety management: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Manjit K; Greiner-Ferris, Julie M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, but there is still room for improvement. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential benefit of enriching CBT with kundalini yoga (Y-CBT). Participants consisted of treatment resistant clients at a community mental health clinic. A total of 32 participants enrolled in the study and 22 completed the programme. After the Y-CBT intervention, pre-post comparisons showed statistically significant improvements in state and trait anxiety, depression, panic, sleep and quality of life. Results from this preliminary study suggest that Y-CBT may have potential as a promising treatment for those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. Yoga-enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (Y-CBT) may be a promising new treatment for those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. Y-CBT may also reduce depression in those suffering from generalized anxiety. Y-CBT may reduce depression and anxiety in a clinic population where clients suffer from multiple diagnoses including generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Studies of cost/effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological treatment of anxiety disorders: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier-Bisson, Joannie; Roberge, Pasquale; Marchand, André; Grégoire, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on economic studies of evidence-based cognitive-behavioral treatment and pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders. Articles were identified through electronic search of medical and psychological databases between 1980 and 2008. Seven studies were identified and included panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia and social phobia. Results show that evidence-based cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy are cost-effective, usually more than usual care. Although the evidence base needs to be strengthened, it appears beneficial in increasing access to evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders from a societal perspective.

  18. Anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits and serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in adolescents: case-control and trio studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Andressa; Blaya, Carolina; Salum, Giovanni A; Cappi, Carolina; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G

    2014-08-01

    The role of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in anxiety disorder and anxiety-related traits is controversial. Besides this study, few studies have evaluated the triallelic genotype in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anxiety disorders and anxiety-related traits are associated with 5-HTTLPR (biallelic and triallelic) in adolescents, integrating both case-control-based and family-based designs in a community sample. This is a cross-sectional community study of 504 individuals and their families: 225 adolescents (129 adolescents with anxiety disorder and 96 controls) and their biological families. We assessed psychiatric diagnosis using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The Temperament and Character Inventory and the Resnick Behavioral Inhibition Scale were used to evaluate harm avoidance and behavioral inhibition. DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped, including biallelic and triallelic 5-HTTLPR classification, by PCR-RFLP followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We were not able to find any associations between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in both case-control and trio analyses. Further investigation and meta-analytic studies are needed to better clarify the inconsistent results with regard to the association between 5-HTTLPR and anxiety-related phenotypes in adolescents.

  19. The associations of anxiety and depression symptoms with weight change and incident obesity: The HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, B; Langhammer, A; Romundstad, P; Chen, Y; Mai, X-M

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the associations of anxiety and depression symptoms with weight change and incident obesity in men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study using the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). The study cohort included 25 180 men and women, 19-55 years of age from the second survey of the HUNT (1995-1997). Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Weight change was determined for the study period of an average 11 years. Incident obesity was new-onset obesity classified as having a body mass index of 30.0 kg m(2) at follow-up. The associations of anxiety or depression with weight change in kilograms (kg) was estimated using linear regression models. Risk ratios (RRs) for incident obesity associated with anxiety or depression were estimated using log-binomial regression. In men, any anxiety or depression was associated with an average 0.81 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-1.34) larger weight change after 11 years compared with those without such symptoms (mean weight change: 5.04 versus 4.24 kg). Women with any anxiety or depression had an average 0.98 kg (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-1.47) larger weight change compared with those without such symptoms (mean weight change: 5.02 versus 4.04 kg). Participants with any anxiety or depression had a significantly elevated cumulative incidence of obesity (men: RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-1.65; women: RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.40). We found that symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated with larger weight change and an increased cumulative incidence of obesity in both men and women.

  20. Social and psychological predictors of onset of anxiety disorders: results from a large prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The vast majority of studies investigating the association between social and psychological factors and anxiety disorders have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. The purpose of the study was to investigate in a prospective longitudinal study whether...... social and psychological factors are associated with the later risk of being admitted to a hospital and receive a diagnosis of anxiety disorders. METHOD: The study population comprised 4,497 members of The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort (CPC) who in 1993 answered a mailed questionnaire containing questions...... on a range of social and psychological factors. In 2007, the study population was linked to The Danish Hospital Discharge Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to obtain information on registration with anxiety disorders. Multiple Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the risk of anxiety...

  1. Evaluation and Socio-occupational Intervention in Bipolar and Schizophrenic Patients within a Multimodal Intervention Program- PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Zuluaga, Ana M; Duica, Kelly; Ruiz Galeano, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Functional improvement in bipolar and schizophrenic patients is one of the main aims of treatment. Nevertheless, there is no evidence about the effect of socio-occupational intervention within a multimodal intervention (MI) programme. To describe the socio-occupational profile and to evaluate the functional effect of a MI in bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was performed including 302 subjects (104 schizophrenic and 198 Bipolar Disorder I [BDI] patients), who were randomised into two groups, multimodal (psychiatry, psychology, medicine, occupational therapy, neuropsychology, and family therapy), or traditional intervention (psychiatry and medicine only). Several scales were applied to assess assertiveness, free time management, social abilities, general anxiety, self-care and performance in home, work and community tasks. After performing the longitudinal analysis, it was shown that the multimodal intervention was more effective than traditional intervention in general anxiety scores (P=.026) and development in home tasks (P=.03) in schizophrenic patients. No statistical differences were found in bipolar patients. The other variables showed improvement, however, their effect was similar in both intervention groups. Our study identified functional improvement in home tasks in schizophrenic patients after receiving multimodal intervention. Other variables also showed improvement for both interventions groups. Future studies, applying longer rehabilitation programs and other ecological strategies should be performed to identify the most effective interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationship Between Alopecia Areata and Alexithymia, Anxiety and Depression: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness. PMID:25071275

  3. How does gaze direction affect facial processing in social anxiety? -An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yu, Fengqiong; Ye, Rong; Chen, Xingui; Xie, Xinhui; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2017-05-01

    Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated an effect of eye gaze direction on the processing of emotional expressions in adults with social anxiety. However, specific brain responses to the interaction between gaze direction and facial expressions in social anxiety remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the time course of such interaction using event-related potentials (ERPs) in participants with social anxiety. High socially anxious individuals and low socially anxious individuals were asked to identify the gender of angry or neutral faces with direct or averted gaze while their behavioral performance and electrophysiological data were monitored. We found that identification of angry faces with direct but not averted gaze elicited larger N2 amplitude in high socially anxious individuals compared to low socially anxious individuals, while identification of neutral faces did not produce any gaze modulation effect. Moreover, the N2 was correlated with increased anxiety severity upon exposure to angry faces with direct gaze. Therefore, our results suggest that gaze direction modulates the processing of threatening faces in social anxiety. The N2 component elicited by angry faces with direct gaze could be a state-dependent biomarker of social anxiety and may be an important reference biomarker for social anxiety diagnosis and intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting the laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy from PET, MRI, and DTI: A multimodal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Pustina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE relies on information obtained from multiple neuroimaging modalities. The relationship between modalities and their combined power in predicting the seizure focus is currently unknown. We investigated asymmetries from three different modalities, PET (glucose metabolism, MRI (cortical thickness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI; white matter anisotropy in 28 left and 30 right TLE patients (LTLE and RTLE. Stepwise logistic regression models were built from each modality separately and from all three combined, while bootstrapped methods and split-sample validation verified the robustness of predictions. Among all multimodal asymmetries, three PET asymmetries formed the best predictive model (100% success in full sample, >95% success in split-sample validation. The combinations of PET with other modalities did not perform better than PET alone. Probabilistic classifications were obtained for new clinical cases, which showed correct lateralization for 7/7 new TLE patients (100% and for 4/5 operated patients with discordant or non-informative PET reports (80%. Metabolism showed closer relationship with white matter in LTLE and closer relationship with gray matter in RTLE. Our data suggest that metabolism is a powerful modality that can predict seizure laterality with high accuracy, and offers high value for automated predictive models. The side of epileptogenic focus can affect the relationship of metabolism with brain structure. The data and tools necessary to obtain classifications for new TLE patients are made publicly available.

  5. Comparative Study of Multimodal Biometric Recognition by Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaliouche, Houda; Touahria, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results. PMID:24605065

  6. Comparative Study of Multimodal Biometric Recognition by Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Benaliouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results.

  7. Comparative study of multimodal biometric recognition by fusion of iris and fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaliouche, Houda; Touahria, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results.

  8. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with anxiety disorders: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Stjerneklar

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Results from this study indicate that a translated and revised version of the Chilled Out program could be a feasible psychological intervention for Danish adolescents with anxiety disorders.

  9. The experience of death anxiety in Iranian war veterans: a phenomenology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Ebadi, Abbas; Lehto, Rebecca H; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of death anxiety experienced by patients who have survived violence and threats to life during war is of strong importance in delivery of best care for veterans experiencing health stressors. The aim of the study was to explore the death anxiety experience of veterans from the Iran-Iraq war. Using a phenomenological approach, 11 war veterans were interviewed related to death anxiety experiences. Four major themes included afterlife fears; alienated farewell; ambiguous separation; and physical dissolution. Patients who have been exposed to death trauma in the battlefield may carry added burden from unique cognitions and fears related to personal death.

  10. Old worries and new anxieties: behavioral symptoms and mild cognitive impairment in a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreescu, Carmen; Teverovsky, Esther; Fu, Bo; Hughes, Tiffany F; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Ganguli, Mary

    2014-03-01

    To disentangle the complex associations of depression and anxiety with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the population level. We examined subgroups of anxiety symptoms and depression symptom profiles in relation to MCI, which we defined using both cognitive and functional approaches. We used an epidemiologic, cross-sectional study with an age-stratified, random, population-based sample of 1,982 individuals aged 65 years and over. Three definitions of MCI were used: 1) a purely cognitive classification into amnestic and nonamnestic MCI, 2) a combined cognitive-functional definition by International Working Group (IWG) criteria, and 3) a purely functional definition by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5. Three depression profiles were identified by factor analysis of the modified Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale: core mood, self-esteem/interpersonal, and apathy/neurovegetative profiles. Three anxiety groups, chronic mild worry, chronic severe anxiety, and recent-onset anxiety, were based on screening questions. Recent-onset anxiety was associated with MCI by nonamnestic and IWG criteria, chronic severe anxiety was associated with MCI by all definitions, and chronic mild worry was associated with none. Of the depression profiles, the core mood profile was associated with CDR-defined MCI, the apathy/neurovegetative profile was associated with MCI by amnestic, IWG, and CDR definitions, and the self-esteem/interpersonal profile was associated with none. In this population-based sample, subgroups with different anxiety and depression profiles had different relationships with cognitive and functional definitions of MCI. Anxiety, depression, and MCI are all multidimensional entities, interacting in complex ways that may shed light on underlying neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between Anxiety Levels and Weight Change in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rieke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between anxiety and weight change in a multiethnic cohort followed for approximately 10 years. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis who met specified inclusion criteria (n = 5,799. Weight was measured at baseline and four subsequent follow-up exams. Anxiety was analyzed as sex-specific anxiety quartiles (QANX. The relationship between anxiety level and weight change was examined using a mixed-effect model with weight as the dependent variable, anxiety and time as the independent variables, and adjusted for covariates. Results. Average annual weight change (range was −0.17 kg (−6.04 to 4.38 kg for QANX 1 (lowest anxiety, −0.16 kg (−10.71 to 4.45 kg for QANX 2, −0.15 kg (−8.69 to 6.39 kg for QANX 3, and −0.20 kg (−7.12 to 3.95 kg for QANX 4 (highest anxiety. No significant association was noted between QANX and weight change. However, the highest QANX was associated with a −2.48 kg (95% CI = −3.65, −1.31 lower baseline weight compared to the lowest QANX after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions. Among adults, age 45–84, higher levels of anxiety, defined by the STPI trait anxiety scale, are associated with lower average baseline weight but not with weight change.

  12. A prospective naturalistic study of antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada T

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoto Harada, Ken Inada, Kazuo Yamada, Kaoru Sakamoto, Jun Ishigooka Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Objective: Patients often develop neuropsychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and agitation after they have started taking an antidepressant, and this is thought to be associated with a potentially increased risk of suicide. However, the incidence of antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome has not been fully investigated, and little has been reported on its predictors. The aim of this study was to survey the incidence of antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome and clarify its predictors in a natural clinical setting.Materials and methods: Between January 2009 and July 2012, we prospectively surveyed 301 patients who had not taken any antidepressants for 1 month before presentation, and who were prescribed antidepressants for 1 month after their initial visit. Patients were classified as developing antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome if they experienced any symptoms of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, or mania during the first month.Results: Among the 301 patients, 21 (7.0% developed antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome. Major depressive disorder and a diagnosis of mood disorder in first-degree relatives of patients were significantly associated with induction of antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome (odds ratio 10.2, P=0.001; odds ratio 4.65, P=0.02; respectively. However, there was no such relationship for sex, age, class of antidepressant, combined use of benzodiazepines, or diagnosis of anxiety disorder.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that major depressive disorder and a diagnosis of mood disorder in first-degree relatives may be clinical predictors of antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome

  13. Cannabis use, depression and anxiety: A 3-year prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Lundin, Andreas; Agardh, Emilie; Allebeck, Peter; Forsell, Yvonne

    2016-03-15

    Whether or not cannabis use may increase the risk for depression and/or anxiety is not clear. For one thing, it has not been possible to draw a definitive conclusion regarding the direction of causality, i.e. whether cannabis use increases the risk for depression/anxiety or vice versa. This study aimed at examining possible associations between cannabis use, depression and anxiety, using all three measures as both exposure and outcome. Data were obtained from a longitudinal cohort study comprising 8598 Swedish men and women, aged 20-64, with a three-year-follow-up. Adjusted for sex and age, cannabis use at baseline was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) for depression and anxiety at follow-up, with RR=1.22 [1.06-1.42 Cl 95%] for depression and RR=1.38 [1.26-1.50 Cl 95%] for anxiety. Adjusted for all confounders (alcohol and illicit drug use, education, family tension, place of upbringing), the associations were no longer statistically significant; RR=0.99 [0.82-1.17 Cl 95%] for depression and RR=1.09 [0.98-1.20 Cl 95%] for anxiety. Age-adjusted, reporting depression or anxiety at baseline increased the risk of cannabis onset at follow-up three years later; RR=1.62 [1.28-2.03 CI 95%] and RR=1.63 [1.28-2.08 CI 95%] respectively. However, adjusted for other illicit drug use the associations were no longer statistically significant. Lack of information on frequency of cannabis use and of age of initiation of use. We found no longitudinal associations between cannabis use and incidence of depression/anxiety, or between depression/anxiety and later cannabis use onset. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Relationships between Identity Continuity and Anxiety Following Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Walsh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety is of particular importance following acquired brain injury (ABI, because anxiety has been identified as a significant predictor of functional outcomes. Continuity of self has been linked to post ABI adjustment and research has linked self-discrepancy to anxiety. This longitudinal study investigates the impact of affiliative and ‘self as doer’ self-categorisations anxiety.Materials and Methods: Data was collected at two time points. Fifty-three adult ABI survivors participating in post-acute community neuro-rehabilitation participated at time one and 32 of these participated at time two. Participants completed a 28-item identity questionnaire based on Leach et al.’s (2008 multicomponent model of ingroup identification which measured the strength of affiliative and self as doer identities. Anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Results: Analysis indicates a significant mediated relationship between affiliative identification and anxiety via self as doer identification. Contrary to initial prediction, this relationship was significant for those with consistency in affiliative self-categorisation and inconsistency in ‘self as doer’ self-categorisation.Conclusion: These findings can be interpreted as evidencing the importance of identity continuity and multiplicity following ABI and contribute to the understanding of these through the use of a social identity approach.

  15. Neural correlates of attention biases, behavioral inhibition, and social anxiety in children: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Nhi; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a biologically-based temperament characterized by vigilance toward threat. Over time, many children with BI increasingly fear social circumstances and display maladaptive social behavior. BI is also one of the strongest individual risk factors for developing social anxiety disorder. Although research has established a link between BI and anxiety, its causal mechanism remains unclear. Attention biases may underlie this relation. The current study examined neural markers of the BI-attention-anxiety link in children ages 9-12 years (N=99, Mean=9.97, SD=0.97). ERP measures were collected as children completed an attention-bias (dot-probe) task with neutral and angry faces. P2 and N2 amplitudes were associated with social anxiety and attention bias, respectively. Specifically, augmented P2 was related to decreased symptoms of social anxiety and moderated the relation between BI and social anxiety, suggesting that increasing attention mobilization may serve as a compensatory mechanism that attenuates social anxiety in individuals with high BI. The BI by N2 interaction found that larger N2 related to threat avoidance with increasing levels of BI, consistent with over-controlled socio-emotional functioning. Lastly, children without BI (BN) showed an augmented P1 to probes replacing angry faces, suggesting maintenance of attentional resources in threat-related contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Obese Singaporeans: a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Sh; Lu, Y; Ndukwe, N; Chew, M Wp; Shabbir, A; So, J By; Ho, R Cm

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a major component of metabolic syndrome and an independent risk factor for various chronic diseases. It is also closely associated with mental illness, and the interaction is complex and multifactorial. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese Singaporeans. Cross-sectional data of 36 male and 47 female obese Singaporeans who had been referred to the weight management clinic of National University Hospital, Singapore, between January 2010 and November 2011 were collected. Obesity was classified according to criteria of the World Health Organization. The extents of anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. In obese Singaporeans attending the weight management clinic, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was higher than that of depressive symptoms (28% vs 11%). There was no major socioeconomic difference between obese patients with and without anxiety, or with and without depressive symptoms. In obese Singaporeans, anxiety symptoms may be more common than depressive symptoms. Weight management programmes should incorporate anxiety management as part of standard treatment. Early detection and pharmacological and psychological interventions should be implemented.

  17. Resilience, lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence: the Young-HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrove, Marit; Romundstad, Pål; Indredavik, Marit S

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence, their associations with lifestyle and resilience and the possibility that resilience factors can attenuate the associations between unhealthy lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents (n = 7,639) aged 13-18 years completed a questionnaire regarding lifestyle and health. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the SCL-5, a five-item shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Resilience factors included questions on friends and family relations and two sub-scales of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents; Family cohesion and Social competence. Of the total population, 13% reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience characteristics were associated with lower symptom levels (ORs ranging from 0.2 to 0.6), and substance use and infrequent physical activity with higher symptom levels (ORs ranging from 2.1 to 4.0). The associations with substance use were strengthened by social competence, but attenuated by family cohesion. The association with physical activity was attenuated by both social competence and family cohesion. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were frequent in adolescents and were associated with unhealthy lifestyle factors as substance use and low physical activity. Resilience characteristics seemed to protect against symptoms and markedly influenced the associations between lifestyle factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The importance of family and other supportive relationships should be emphasized in treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression in adolescence.

  18. Dental Procedures, Oral Practices, and Associated Anxiety: A Study on Late-teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Rahul; Malhotra, Reema

    2014-08-01

    The study aims to determine the degree of anxiety pertaining to dental procedures and various oral hygiene practices among college teenagers. Corah's Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was administered on a randomly chosen sample of 100 Indian college students (50 males and 50 females) of Delhi University, belonging to the age group of 17-20 years. Descriptive statistical computations revealed 12.14 years as the mean age of first dental visit, with moderately high levels of anxiety (60.75%) for various dental procedures among the Indian teenagers and 5% lying in the "phobic or extremely anxious" category. With merely 4.16% people going for regular consultations, general check-ups evoked 78.3% anxiety and having an injection or a tooth removed was perceived as the most threatening. The sample subgroup not using mouthwash and mouthspray, smokers, and alcohol drinkers with improper oral hygiene practices experienced much higher anxiety towards routine dental procedures. The majority of the Indian youngsters had an evasive attitude of delaying dental treatment. The core problems lay in deficient health care knowledge, lack of patient-sensitive pedagogy to train dental professionals, inaccessibility of services, and a dismissive attitude towards medical help. The feelings of fear and anxiety prevalent among the Indian youth offer significant insights into causes and preventive measures for future research and practice. Methods of education and motivation could be developed to dissipate the anxiety amongst Indian teenagers that prevent routine dental visits and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene.

  19. Study Of The Effect Of Stress Management Skills On Anxiety Status Among Teachers In Meybod District High Schools On 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Servat

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: regarding the high level of anxiety among teachers and necessity of doing interventional program, planned stress management educations are successful in reducing anxiety. That programs which are presented to persons step by step, provide a cognition of the environment and it's stressful factors to individuals and finally reduces the stress and then the anxiety level. Determining the efficacy of the programs on personality anxiety requires studies with longer follow up.

  20. Experience of Dementia-related Anxiety in Middle-aged Female Caregivers for Family Members with Dementia: A Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sun Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The study provides the essential structure of the experience on dementia-related anxiety that caregivers of a family member with dementia have. The findings could help healthcare providers and researchers have better understanding of dementia-related anxiety and give more attention to the caregivers to relieve their anxiety.

  1. Relationships between State-Trait Anxiety and Locus of Control--Experimental Studies with Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. B. Biaggio, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between locus of control and anxiety in two studies. Hypothesized that internal subjects show more state-anxiety than external subjects in luck situations, whereas externals show more state-anxiety under ability situations. Results confirm findings from other cultures and indicate differences between adults and…

  2. How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.

  3. A multimodal day treatment program for multi-problem young adults: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijks, M.-J.A. (Marie-Jolette A.); F. Bevaart (Floor); J. Zijlmans (Josjan); L. van Duin (Laura); R. Marhe (Reshmi); T. Doreleijers (Theo); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); J.J. Asscher (Jessica J.); Popma, A. (Arne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Effective interventions for young adults with severe, multiple problems - such as psychosocial and psychiatric problems, delinquency, unemployment and substance use - are scarce but urgently needed in order to support an adequate transition to adulthood. A multimodal day

  4. Social Communication Anxiety Treatment (S-CAT) for children and families with selective mutism: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn R; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Skira, Kathryn; Gordon, Janice

    2017-01-01

    This research assessed the feasibility of Social Communication Anxiety Treatment (S-CAT) developed by Elisa Shipon-Blum, a brief multimodal approach, to increase social communication in 40 children aged 5-12 years with selective mutism (SM). SM is a disorder in which children consistently fail to speak in specific situations although they have the ability to do so. Key features of this approach are the SM-Social Communication Comfort Scale (SCCS), transfer of control (ToC), a nonchalant therapeutic style, and cognitive-behavioral strategies over a brief time frame. Following 9 weeks of treatment, children showed significant gains in speaking frequency on all 17 items from the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a standardized measure of SM severity. Children also showed decreased levels of anxiety and withdrawal as reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). SM initial symptom severity and family therapy compliance, but not duration of SM, contributed to treatment outcomes.

  5. "Am I Becoming a Serial Killer?" A Case Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Mental Illness Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Bethany L; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Although mental illness anxiety is described in the literature, there is very little information on which to draw when treating individuals who present with fears and worries about mental health. In fact, we identified no previous case descriptions focused on this form of anxiety and treated from a cognitive behavioral perspective. The current case study aims to advance the understanding of the clinical picture of mental illness anxiety, and facilitate the understanding of how cognitive behavioral techniques for health anxiety can be effectively adapted and implemented for such a case. A case study approach was adopted in which a baseline condition and repeated assessments were conducted during an 8-week treatment and 2-month follow-up period. In the current case study, we discuss the assessment, conceptualization, and cognitive behavioral treatment of a 24-year old woman who presented with mental illness anxiety. Several common health anxiety assessment tools and cognitive behavioural techniques were adapted for her particular clinical presentation. Consistent with research evidence for health anxiety, significant improvements in health anxiety and anxiety sensitivity were seen after eight sessions of therapy and maintained at 2-month follow-up. The results provide preliminary evidence that cognitive behavioral techniques for health anxiety can be effectively and efficiently adapted for mental illness anxiety. However, the lack of available research pertaining to mental illness anxiety contributes to challenges in conceptualization, assessment and treatment.

  6. Depression and general anxiety in the prisoner of war’s children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Razavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and general anxiety of the prisoners of war (POW children. The study was also designed to compare the prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW’s children and normal adults, 20 years after the Iraq-Iran war. Method: An analytic cross-sectional study carried out in June 2009 in Yazd (the centre of Yazd province in Iran. The target and sampled population were the children of the Iranian POW who lived in Yazd .One hundred and twenty six POW’s children, who were born before 1990 (date of father's freedom were assessed. The duration of father’s captivation was between 29-119 months. Ninety-five subjects accepted to participate. General anxiety and major depression were assessed by Persian version of Hamilton Scale for anxiety and Beck depression Inventory. This study was a combination of the psychological interview and questionnaire. Ninety five of normal adult group were also paired matched and assessed. Result: Among 126 POW’s children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the responsive rate was 75.3 % (95 participants.The mean age of participants was 28.3 (SD: 5.34.The father’s captivation duration were 29-119 months (mean: 79.2, SD: 21.6. The prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW’s children were 48.4% and 79%. The prevalence of depression and general anxiety among the paired group were 21.1% and 63.2%.The differences between two groups were significant (p =0.000. Conclusion: In this study we have demonstrated the prevalence of major depression and general anxiety in POW’s children and a normal adult sample. The differences of major depression and general anxiety among the two groups were significant. 

  7. Multimodal MRI-based study in patients with SPG4 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago J R Rezende

    Full Text Available Mutations in the SPG4 gene (SPG4-HSP are the most frequent cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia, but the extent of the neurodegeneration related to the disease is not yet known. Therefore, our objective is to identify regions of the central nervous system damaged in patients with SPG4-HSP using a multi-modal neuroimaging approach. In addition, we aimed to identify possible clinical correlates of such damage. Eleven patients (mean age 46.0 ± 15.0 years, 8 men with molecular confirmation of hereditary spastic paraplegia, and 23 matched healthy controls (mean age 51.4 ± 14.1years, 17 men underwent MRI scans in a 3T scanner. We used 3D T1 images to perform volumetric measurements of the brain and spinal cord. We then performed tract-based spatial statistics and tractography analyses of diffusion tensor images to assess microstructural integrity of white matter tracts. Disease severity was quantified with the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale. Correlations were then carried out between MRI metrics and clinical data. Volumetric analyses did not identify macroscopic abnormalities in the brain of hereditary spastic paraplegia patients. In contrast, we found extensive fractional anisotropy reduction in the corticospinal tracts, cingulate gyri and splenium of the corpus callosum. Spinal cord morphometry identified atrophy without flattening in the group of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia. Fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum and pyramidal tracts did correlate with disease severity. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is characterized by relative sparing of the cortical mantle and remarkable damage to the distal portions of the corticospinal tracts, extending into the spinal cord.

  8. A Study on the Correlation between Pain and Pain Anxiety during Wound Care in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mazlom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Wound care in burn patients is associated with severe anxiety that is characterized by feeling of fear and prediction of burn dressing pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pain and pain anxiety in burn patients. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 60 eligible patients hospitalized in men’s and women’s burn wards of Mashhad Imam Reza Hospital, were selected using available sampling. Pain anxiety and pain severity were measured using self-report pain anxiety questionnaire and visual analog scale, respectively, before and after burn dressing during three weeks (once a week. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test. Results: In this study, there was a significant linear correlation between pain and pain anxiety in the first week (r=0.512, p<0.001, but there was no significant linear correlation between these variables in the second (r=0.079, p=0.547 and third (r=0.167, p=0.203 weeks. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, assessment and treatment of pain anxiety are essential elements of pain care and management in burn patients.            

  9. Anxiety and mood disorders in narcolepsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuyn, H A Droogleever; Lappenschaar, Martijn A; Furer, Joop W; Hodiamont, Paul P; Rijnders, Cees A Th; Renier, Willy O; Buitelaar, Jan K; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a primary sleeping disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as core symptoms. There is increasing interest in the psychiatric phenotype of narcolepsy. Although many authors suggest an overrepresentation of mood disorders, few systematic studies have been performed and conflicting results have been reported. Anxiety disorders in narcolepsy have only received little attention. We performed a case-control study in 60 narcolepsy patients and 120 age- and sex-matched controls from a previous population study. The Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry were used to assess symptoms and diagnostic classifications of mood and anxiety disorders. Symptoms of mood disorders were reported by about one third of patients. However, the prevalence of formal mood disorder diagnoses - including major depression - was not increased. In contrast, more than half of the narcolepsy patients had anxiety or panic attacks. Thirty-five percent of the patients could be diagnosed with anxiety disorder (odds ratio=15.6), with social phobia being the most important diagnosis. There was no influence of age, sex, duration of illness or medication use on the prevalence of mood or anxiety symptoms and disorders. Anxiety disorders, especially panic attacks and social phobias, often affect patients with narcolepsy. Although symptoms of mood disorders are present in many patients, the prevalence of major depression is not increased. Anxiety and mood symptoms could be secondary complications of the chronic symptoms of narcolepsy. Recent studies have shown that narcolepsy is caused by defective hypocretin signaling. As hypocretin neurotransmission is also involved in stress regulation and addiction, this raises the possibility that mood and anxiety symptoms are primary disease phenomena in narcolepsy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Binge eating is associated with trait anxiety in Korean adolescent girls: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jin-Yi; Kim, Kye-Hyun; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Won; Shin, Young-Chul; Oh, Kang-Seob; Shin, Eun-Hee; Lim, Se-Won

    2017-01-01

    Background Binge eating occurs more frequently in women than in men, and is known to be related to psychological factors such as stress, depression, and anxiety. This study examined the relationship between binge eating and depression, trait anxiety, and perceived stress in Korean adolescents. Methods Four hundred girls (aged 17?18 years) from two high schools located in Seoul completed self-report questionnaires. In total, 327 participants returned reliable responses, and were included in th...

  11. Anxiety and Depression in Cyberbullied College Students: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Frías, Cinthia Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Cyberbullying is a worldwide phenomenon and its effects can be severe. To better understand the personal and situational factors in cyberbullying, we approach it from the perspective of the general aggression model. More specifically, we analyze the medium and long-term impact of past experiences of cyberbullying on university students. We also compare their psychological adjustment with peers who have not been cyberbullied by examining the recall of cyberbullying while attending secondary school of 1,593 university students. Participants from a Spanish University ( N = 680) and a Bolivian University ( N = 913) were invited to participate by filling in an online survey. It included the School Violence Questionnaire-Revised, CUVE-R, to assess school and classroom climate in relation to bullying and cyberbullying, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results show that among the participants, 5.1% reported having suffered cyberbullying and 19.3% reported having been a bystander of cyberbullying, with similar percentages between universities. Canonical correlation suggests that variables related to school climate best explain the variability among participants who have and have not been cyberbullied. Those who have been cyberbullied scored significantly higher on anxiety and depression symptoms as well. Being a bystander of cyberbullying was not associated to significant differences on psychological adjustment (i.e., anxiety and depression). Results indicated that experiencing cyberbullying in secondary school is associated to lower psychological adjustment years later as university students. School climate variables contribute more strongly to identifying victims of cyberbullying. These results support the need for psychosocial interventions from a broader perspective, addressing the different dimensions of this phenomenon and its impact on victims.

  12. Peer victimization during adolescence and risk for anxiety disorders in adulthood: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Pearson, Rebecca M; Mahedy, Liam; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has been suggested as one developmental pathway to anxiety disorders. However, there is a dearth of prospective studies examining this relationship. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the association between peer victimization during adolescence and subsequent anxiety diagnoses in adulthood. A secondary aim was to investigate whether victimization increases risk for severe anxiety presentations involving diagnostic comorbidity. The sample comprised 6,208 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who were interviewed about experiences of peer victimization at age 13. Maternal report of her child's victimization was also assessed. Anxiety disorders at age 18 were assessed with the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between victimization and anxiety diagnoses adjusted for potentially confounding individual and family factors. Sensitivity analyses explored whether the association was independent of diagnostic comorbidity with depression. Frequently victimized adolescents were two to three times more likely to develop an anxiety disorder than nonvictimized adolescents (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.62-3.85). The association remained after adjustment for potentially confounding individual and family factors, and was not attributable to diagnostic overlap with depression. Frequently victimized adolescents were also more likely to develop multiple internalizing diagnoses in adulthood. Victimized adolescents are at increased risk of anxiety disorders in later life. Interventions to reduce peer victimization and provide support for victims may be an effective strategy for reducing the burden associated with these disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preexamination period is an exceptionally stressful time for schoolgoing children and adolescents, and the propensity of having anxiety symptoms increases. Aim: This study aimed to assess the presence of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 619 children from Class VIII to XI. All of them were given a structured questionnaire for sociodemographic profile and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders questionnaire. Association of various variables with presence of anxiety symptoms was assessed. Statistics was analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 software. Results: Totally 170 children (27.5% had anxiety symptoms, similarly the various subgroups had increased frequency compared to the known prevalence in this age group. Age, years spent in the current school, living with parents, presence of domestic stressors, and grade deterioration, all were significantly associated with increased frequency of these symptoms. Similarly, association with various subgroups is described. Conclusion: This study attempts to give evidence of increased anxiety symptoms, during preexamination phase, compared to the reported prevalence in this age group, and thus to address this becomes imperative which will improve their performance and also the mental health preventing distress along with psychological and behavioral problems.

  14. Anxiety and its time courses during radiotherapy for non-metastatic breast cancer: A longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Florence; Merckaert, Isabelle; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Paul, Van Houtte; Coucke, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To our knowledge, no study has specifically assessed the time course of anxiety during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to assess anxiety time courses in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. Material and methods: This multicenter, descriptive longitudinal study included 213 consecutive patients with breast cancer who completed visual analog scales (VASs) assessing state anxiety before and after the RT simulation and the first and last five RT sessions. Results: Pre- and post-session anxiety mean levels were highest at the RT simulation (respectively, 2.9 ± 2.9 and 1.6 ± 2.5) and first RT session (respectively, 3.4 ± 2.9 and 2.0 ± 2.4), then declined rapidly. Clinically relevant mean differences (⩾1 cm on the VAS) between pre- and post-simulation/session VAS scores were found only for the RT simulation (−1.3 ± 2.7; p < 0.001) and first RT session (−1.4 ± 2.4; p < 0.001). Five percent to 16% of patients presented clinically relevant anxiety (pre- and post-simulation/session VAS scores ⩾ 4 cm) throughout treatment. Conclusions: To optimize care, RT team members should offer all patients appropriate information about treatment at the simulation, check patients’ understanding, and identify patients with clinically relevant anxiety requiring appropriate support throughout RT

  15. Neural correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Cucchi, Michele; Ricci, Liana; Vai, Benedetta; Smeraldi, Enrico; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-30

    Panic disorder has been associated with dysfunctional neuropsychological dimensions, including anxiety sensitivity. Brain-imaging studies of the neural correlates of emotional processing have identified a network of structures that constitute the neural circuitry for emotions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and insula, which are part of this network, are also involved in the processing of threat-related stimuli. The aim of the study was to investigate if neural activity in response to emotional stimuli in the cortico-limbic network is associated to anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder. In a sample of 18 outpatients with panic disorder, we studied neural correlates of implicit emotional processing of facial affect expressions with a face-matching paradigm; correlational analyses were performed between brain activations and anxiety sensitivity. The correlational analyses performed showed a positive correlation between anxiety sensitivity and brain activity during emotional processing in regions encompassing the PFC, ACC and insula. Our data seem to confirm that anxiety sensitivity is an important component of panic disorder. Accordingly, the neural underpinnings of anxiety sensitivity could be an interesting focus for treatment and further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  17. Prevalence and predictive factors of depression and anxiety in patients with pancreatic cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Nobuya; Shimizu, Ken; Asai, Mariko; Nakano, Tomohito; Okusaka, Takuji; Shimada, Kazuaki; Inoguchi, Hironobu; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Maiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    It is known that depression and anxiety occur more frequently in pancreatic cancer patients than in those with other malignancies. However, few studies have assessed depression and anxiety using reliable psychiatric diagnostic tools. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety among pancreatic cancer patients before and 1 month after the start of anticancer treatment using reliable psychiatric diagnostic tools, and to identify factors that predict their occurrence. Pancreatic cancer patients were consecutively recruited. Structured clinical interviews were used to determine the presence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders. Baseline interviews were performed prior to initiation of anticancer treatment, while follow-up interviews were performed 1 month after treatment was started. Medical, demographic and psychosocial backgrounds were also assessed as predictive factors. One hundred and ten patients participated in the baseline interview and 91 in the follow-up interview. Depression and anxiety were observed in 15 patients (13.6%) at the baseline, and 15 patients (16.5%) at the follow-up. Lack of confidants was associated with depression and anxiety at the baseline. At the baseline, sadness, lower Karnofsky Performance Status and prior experience with the death of a family member due to cancer predicted newly diagnosed depression and anxiety at the follow-up. A considerable percentage of pancreatic cancer patients experienced depression and anxiety. Multidimensional psychosocial predictive factors were found and optimal psychological care should incorporate early detection of sadness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Predictors of anxiety and depression in Egyptian thalassemic patients: a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Sohier; El-Hadidy, Mohamed Adel; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Anwar, Rokiah; Darwish, Ahmad; Mansour, A K

    2013-05-01

    Thalassemic patients are vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems. Each patient age group exhibits problems unique to that stage of development, and although up to 80 % of thalassemic patients are likely to have psychological disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, predictors of these disorders remain poorly understood. The present study was designed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in a sample of Egyptian thalassemic patients and to identify predictors of these psychiatric disorders. A case-control study was conducted in 218 thalassemic patients, with 244 healthy subjects as a control. All patients and control subjects were subjected to thorough evaluation of medical history and clinical examination, and examined by a psychiatrist using the clinician version of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-CV), hospital anxiety and depression scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Abnormal and borderline anxieties were reported by 36.7 and 20.6 % of thalassemic patients, respectively, while abnormal and borderline depressions were reported by 32.1 and 16.1 % of patients, respectively. Hospitalization, low self-esteem, diabetes mellitus and heart failure were independent predictors of anxiety. The independent predictors of depression were heart failure, hospitalization, diabetes mellitus, short stature and delayed puberty. Thalassemic patients were more vulnerable to anxiety and depression, indicating that screening and management for such psychiatric disorders should be considered in treating all such patients.

  19. Enhancing reciprocal partner support to prevent perinatal depression and anxiety: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Pamela; Milne, Lisa; Cairns, Kathryn; Whelan, Thomas

    2016-02-03

    Systematic reviews have established that partner support protects against perinatal mood problems. It is therefore a key target for interventions designed to prevent maternal and paternal depression and anxiety. Nonetheless, the extant literature is yet to be translated into specific actions that parents can implement. Prevention efforts aiming to facilitate reciprocal partner support within the couple dyad need to provide specific guidance on how partners can support one another to reduce their vulnerability to perinatal depression and anxiety. Two panels of experts in perinatal mental health (21 consumer advocates and 39 professionals) participated in a Delphi consensus study to establish how partners can support one another to reduce their risk of developing depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the postpartum period. A total of 214 recommendations on how partners can support each other were endorsed by at least 80 % of both panels as important or essential in reducing the risk of perinatal depression and anxiety. The recommendations were grouped under the following categories: becoming a parent, supporting each other through pregnancy and childbirth, communication, conflict, division of labor, practical support, emotional support, emotional closeness, sexual satisfaction, using alcohol and drugs, encouraging self-care, developing acceptance, and help-seeking. This study established consensus between consumers and professionals in order to produce a set of guidelines on how partners can support each other to prevent depression and anxiety during pregnancy and following childbirth. It is hoped that these guidelines will inform the development of perinatal depression and anxiety prevention efforts.

  20. A study of multi-modality imaging for three-dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, D.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of information from multiple imaging modalities like CT/MRI/SPECT/PET helps in management of cancer, from tumor detection to assessment of treatment efficacy since each imaging modality provides unique information about the tumor and normal structures. This Ph.D. study has been aimed at evaluation of multi-modality imaging in target localization and radiation treatment planning in patients with malignant glioma undergoing radiotherapy. Variations of gross tumor and the edema volumes delineated by a radiologist on CT and MRI scans were addressed. These scans were registered and transferred to the treatment planning system (TPS) using Windows based automatic image registration software developed in house using AIR routines (Roger Woods, UCLA). QA tests were designed and tested for the 3D automatic target expansion algorithm of the treatment planning system. The influences of variation of target volumes in CT and MRI images on cumulative dose distribution were also analyzed. Software for quantitative analysis of DVHs has been developed (for Isis-3D TPS) and results showed the importance of incorporation of targets from multiple imaging modalities. A novel approach to study the radiation-induced changes in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) using T2 and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) maps was developed. The study demonstrated dose-dependent changes of the MTR values and reversal of MTR values seen for doses <40 Gy. However, the T2 maps did not show any dose depended changes within the time period studied. The following in-house software tools were developed to accomplish various tasks of the thesis work: (a) Windows based automatic image registration (AIR) of multi-modality images suitable for radiotherapy planning, (b) to preprocess 'bitmap' images from film scanner suitable for AIR software, (c) to transfer registered ''tiff'' images into the Isis-3D planning system, (d) quantitative analysis of DVH curves generated by the Isis-3D system, and (e

  1. [Pregnancy-related anxiety and subthreshold autism trait in preschool children based a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanli; Shao, Ting; Yao, Yuyou; Tao, Huihui; Ni, Lingling; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children. Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children. During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal

  2. Association between Anxiety Disorders and Heart Rate Variability in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To determine whether patients with different types of anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder) have higher heart rate and lower heart rate variability compared with healthy controls in a sample that was sufficiently powered to examine the confounding

  3. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Estazolam treatment of insomnia in generalized anxiety disorder: a placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, G L; Patrick, R O; Crowder, J E; Houston, J; Ferguson, J M; Bielski, R J; Bailey, L; Pearlman, H G; Shu, V S; Pierce, M W

    1991-08-01

    Estazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine with an intermediate elimination half-life, has been shown previously to be an effective and safe hypnotic in insomniacs without concomitant psychiatric illness. Our study of the efficacy of estazolam in patients with insomnia associated with generalized anxiety disorder began when 108 patients meeting criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (mean total score of Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety [HAM-A] = 22.0 +/- 3.1 [SD]) and insomnia were given single-blind placebo for 7 nights. Nine patients whose anxiety and/or insomnia improved were dropped as placebo responders. The remaining 99 patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to double-blind treatment with either estazolam 2.0 mg or matching placebo for 7 nights. Hypnotic efficacy, as determined by patient-completed sleep questionnaires, was statistically significant for estazolam 2.0 mg versus placebo for all sleep indices (p less than 0.01). Patients treated with estazolam 2.0 mg showed significantly greater improvement in anxiety than those receiving placebo on the mean total score of HAM-A ([placebo, -3.4; estazolam, -7.1; p less than 0.001] and without the insomnia item [placebo, -2.7; estazolam, -5.5; p less than 0.001]). Anxiety scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory showed greater improvement in the estazolam group, but without statistical significance (p = 0.237). Estazolam 2.0 mg is an effective hypnotic in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and appears to have a favorable anxiolytic action.

  5. Maternal anxiety disorders predict excessive infant crying: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Johanna; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wittich, Julia; Einsle, Franziska; Höfler, Michael; Martini, Julia

    2014-09-01

    To prospectively examine relations between maternal DSM-IV-TR anxiety and depressive disorders and excessive infant crying. Based on the prospective longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development Study, n=306 expectant mothers were enrolled during early pregnancy and repeatedly interviewed until 16 months post partum. Lifetime and prospective information on maternal anxiety and depressive disorders was assessed via standardised diagnostic interviews (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women). Excessive crying (crying for ≥3 h per day on ≥3 days per week for ≥3 weeks) was assessed via Baby-DIPS. During the first 16 months after delivery, n=286 mother-infant dyads were available and included in the analyses. Excessive crying was reported by n=29 mothers (10.1%). Infants of mothers with anxiety disorders prior to pregnancy were at higher risk for excessive crying than infants of mothers without any anxiety disorder prior to pregnancy (OR=2.54, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.78, p=0.027). Risk was even increased when considering additionally incident anxiety disorders until delivery (OR=3.02, 95% CI 1.25 to 7.32, p=0.014) and until 16 months post partum (OR=2.87, 95% CI 1.13 to 7.28, p=0.027). Associations remained stable when adjusting for sociodemographic and perinatal covariates. Maternal depressive disorders prior to pregnancy were not significantly associated with excessive crying in this sample. Maternal lifetime and incident anxiety disorders revealed to be a robust predictor for excessive crying. Thus, early identification and monitoring of women with anxiety disorders is important to identify mother-infant dyads at risk for excessive crying. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A study to explore if dentists' anxiety affects their clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipchase, S Y; Chapman, H R; Bretherton, R

    2017-02-24

    Aims To develop a measure of dentists' anxiety in clinical situations; to establish if dentists' anxiety in clinical situations affected their self-reported clinical decision-making; to establish if occupational stress, as demonstrated by burnout, is associated with anxiety in clinical situations and clinical decision-making; and to explore the relationship between decision-making style and the clinical decisions which are influenced by anxiety.Design Cross-sectional study.Setting Primary Dental Care.Subjects and methods A questionnaire battery [Maslach Burnout Inventory, measuring burnout; Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, measuring decision-making style; Dealing with Uncertainty Questionnaire (DUQ), measuring coping with diagnostic uncertainty; and a newly designed Dentists' Anxieties in Clinical Situations Scale, measuring dentists' anxiety (DACSS-R) and change of treatment (DACSS-C)] was distributed to dentists practicing in Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. Demographic data were collected and dentists gave examples of anxiety-provoking situations and their responses to them.Main outcome measure Respondents' self-reported anxiety in various clinical situations on a 11-point Likert Scale (DACSS-R) and self-reported changes in clinical procedures (Yes/No; DACSS-C). The DACSS was validated using multiple t-tests and a principal component analysis. Differences in DACSS-R ratings and burnout, decision-making and dealing with uncertainty were explored using Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis. Qualitative data was subject to a thematic analysis.Results The DACSS-R revealed a four-factor structure and had high internal reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.94). Those with higher DACSS-R scores of anxiety were more likely to report changes in clinical procedures (DACSS-C scores). DACSS-R scores were associated with decision-making self-esteem and style as measured by the MDMQ and all burnout subscales, though not with scores on the DUQ scale

  7. A Multimodal, Nonpharmacologic Intervention Improves Mood and Cognitive Function in People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E; Bisht, Babita; Hall, Michael J; Rubenstein, Linda M; Louison, Rebecca; Klein, Danielle T; Wahls, Terry L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether participation in a 12-month multimodal intervention would improve mood and cognitive function in adults with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). In this one-arm, open-label feasibility trial, participants were prescribed a home-based multimodal intervention, including (1) a modified Paleolithic diet; (2) an exercise program (stretching and strengthening of the trunk and lower limb muscles); (3) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (EStim) of trunk and lower limb muscles; and (4) stress management (meditation and self-massage). Individuals completed measures of mood (Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories) and cognitive (Cognitive Stability Index, Cognitive Screening Test, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System) and executive function (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the start of the intervention. Dosage of the multimodal intervention was assessed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The more individuals participated in the intervention activities, the greater improvements they had from baseline to 12 months on self-report measures of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]; ps = 0.001 to 0.02), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]; ps = Paleolithic diet than to exercise and stress management dosage. Anxiety and depression changes were evident after just a few months, whereas changes in cognitive function were generally not observed until later in the intervention period. Mood and cognitive function changes from baseline to 12 months were significantly associated with fatigue improvements (ps = Paleolithic diet, exercise, EStim, and stress management intervention like this one has the potential to improve the mood and cognitive symptoms that can lead to considerable suffering in people with MS, potentially improving quality of life and function for people with progressive MS.

  8. Anxiety and Coping Strategy Changes in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Initiating Fingolimod: The GRACE Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Thibault; Bungener, Catherine; Heinzlef, Olivier; Suchet, Laurent; Borgel, Florent; Bourdeix, Isabelle; Meite, Mohamed; Rerat, Karin; Chouette, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the changes in anxiety levels, and their relationship with coping strategies over the first four months of fingolimod treatment in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Data were collected at the inclusion visit (Visit 1) and 4 months later (Visit 2). We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess the level of anxiety and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations scale to assess the coping strategies used when engaged with stressful situations. The HADS anxiety scores were compared between Visits 1 and 2, according to the preferred coping strategy. At Visit 1, half of the 198 patients included were considered to be anxious (doubtful or in a certain way). The same proportion preferentially used an avoidance-oriented strategy and one-third preferentially used an emotion-oriented strategy. The mean HADS anxiety score decreased significantly (p = 0.001) at Visit 2 (8.1 ± 4.0) compared to Visit 1 (8.8 ± 4.3), particularly in the group of patients who used an emotion-oriented strategy (p = 0.002). In conclusion, the initiation of fingolimod in patients with RRMS is followed by a decrease of anxiety levels which vary according to the coping strategy used. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H

    2016-04-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression.

  10. Anxiety and Depressed Mood in Obese Pregnant Women: A Prospective Controlled Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick.F.L. Bogaerts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychological health in obese women during pregnancy has been poorly studied. Objective: To compare levels of anxiety and depressed mood during pregnancy in obese versus normal-weight women. Methods: 63 obese pregnant women and 156 normal-weight controls were included prospectively before 15 weeks of gestation. Levels of state and trait anxiety and depressed mood were measured during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. A linear mixed-effect model with repeated measures was used to evaluate group differences. Results: The levels of state anxiety significantly increased from trimester 1 to trimester 3 in obese pregnant women (beta = 3.70; p = 0.007, while this parameter remained constant throughout pregnancy in normal-weight women. Levels of trait anxiety and depressed mood significantly decreased from trimester 1 to trimester 2 in controls, but not in obese pregnant women. Variables such as maternal education, ethnicity, marital state, psychological history and miscarriages, parity and smoking behaviour had significant effects on anxiety and/or depressed moods during pregnancy. Obese pregnant women show higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptomatology compared to normal-weight pregnant women. Conclusion: Interventional programmes aiming at preventing the deleterious influence of maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes should include a psycho-educational program specifically tailored to this high-risk group.

  11. A prospective study of leukocyte telomere length and risk of phobic anxiety among women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Cody; Wang, Wei; Prescott, Jennifer; Rosner, Bernard; Simon, Naomi M.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively examined the relation of relative telomere lengths (RTLs), a marker of biological aging, to phobic anxiety in later-life. RTLs in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured among 3,194 women in the Nurses’ Health Study who provided blood samples in 1989/90. The Crown-Crisp Phobic Index (CCI, range=0-16) was assessed in 1988 and 2004. Only participants with CCI≤3 (consistent with no meaningful anxiety symptoms) in 1988 were included. We related baseline RTLs to odds ratios (ORs) of incident high phobic anxiety symptoms (CCI≥6). To enhance clinical relevance, we used finite mixture modeling (FMM) to relate baseline RTLs to latent classes of CCI in 2004. Overall, RTLs were not significantly associated with high phobic anxiety symptoms after 16 years of follow-up. However, FMM identified 3 groups of phobic symptoms in later-life: severe, minimal/intermediate, non-anxious. The severe group had non-significantly shorter multivariable-adjusted mean RTLs than the minimal/intermediate and non-anxious groups. Women with shorter telomeres vs. longest telomeres had non-significantly higher likelihood of being in the severe vs. non-anxious group. Overall, there was no significant linear association between RTLs and incident phobic anxiety symptoms. Further work is required to explore potential connections of telomere length and emergence of severe phobic anxiety symptoms during later-life. PMID:26603336

  12. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-05-01

    Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  13. Study protocol of the YOU CALL - WE CALL TRIAL: impact of a multimodal support intervention after a "mild" stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Gina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 60% of new strokes each year are "mild" in severity and this proportion is expected to rise in the years to come. Within our current health care system those with "mild" stroke are typically discharged home within days, without further referral to health or rehabilitation services other than advice to see their family physician. Those with mild stroke often have limited access to support from health professionals with stroke-specific knowledge who would typically provide critical information on topics such as secondary stroke prevention, community reintegration, medication counselling and problem solving with regard to specific concerns that arise. Isolation and lack of knowledge may lead to a worsening of health problems including stroke recurrence and unnecessary and costly health care utilization. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness, for individuals who experience a first "mild" stroke, of a sustainable, low cost, multimodal support intervention (comprising information, education and telephone support - "WE CALL" compared to a passive intervention (providing the name and phone number of a resource person available if they feel the need to - "YOU CALL", on two primary outcomes: unplanned-use of health services for negative events and quality of life. Method/Design We will recruit 384 adults who meet inclusion criteria for a first mild stroke across six Canadian sites. Baseline measures will be taken within the first month after stroke onset. Participants will be stratified according to comorbidity level and randomised to one of two groups: YOU CALL or WE CALL. Both interventions will be offered over a six months period. Primary outcomes include unplanned use of heath services for negative event (frequency calendar and quality of life (EQ-5D and Quality of Life Index. Secondary outcomes include participation level (LIFE-H, depression (Beck Depression Inventory II and use of health services for

  14. Open-label observational study of the homeopathic medicine Passiflora Compose for anxiety and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, Stéphanie; Vacher, Véronique; Colas, Aurélie; Danno, Karine; Masson, Jean-Louis; Marijnen, Philippe; Bordet, Marie-France

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety and sleep disorders (SDS) are frequently treated with psychotropic drugs. Health authorities in France have been advised to improve access to alternative treatments such as homeopathic medicines. Our aim was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical progression of patients prescribed homeopathic medicine Passiflora Compose (PC) for anxiety and/or SDS. This was an open-label, observational study. Randomly selected general practitioners (GPs) known to prescribe homeopathic medicines recruited consecutive patients (≥18-years) prescribed PC. The following data were recorded at inclusion by the GP: socio-demographic data and anxiety severity (Hamilton anxiety rating scale or HAM-A); and by the patients: level of anxiety (STAI Spielberger self-assessment questionnaire) and SDS (Jenkins sleep scale or JSS). Anxiety and SDS were reassessed after 4 weeks of treatment using the same scales. A total of 639 patients (mean age: 46.3 ± 17.5 years; 78.6% female) were recruited by 98 GPs. Anxiety was present in 85.4% (HAM-A) and 93.3% (Spielberger State) at inclusion (mean scores: 17.8 ± 8.91 and 54.59 ± 11.69, respectively) and SDS was present in 74.0% (mean score: 15.24 ± 5.28). A total of 401 (62.7%) patients received PC alone and 167 (26.1%) PC + psychotropics. After 4 weeks, mean anxiety scores decreased by more than 7, 12 and 6 points (HAM-A, Spielberger State and Trait respectively), and SDS score by more than 4 points (JSS). Anxiety and/or SDS improved significantly in patients included on this study. PC could be an alternative to the use of psychotropic drugs for first intention treatment of anxiety and SDS. Further studies are needed to confirm those results. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Child Anxiety: Signal Detection Analysis Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting treatment response and remission among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study…

  16. Brain Structure and Function Associated with a History of Sport Concussion: A Multi-Modal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Nathan; Hutchison, Michael; Richards, Doug; Leung, General; Graham, Simon; Schweizer, Tom A

    2017-02-15

    There is growing concern about the potential long-term consequences of sport concussion for young, currently active athletes. However, there remains limited information about brain abnormalities associated with a history of concussion and how they relate to clinical factors. In this study, advanced MRI was used to comprehensively describe abnormalities in brain structure and function associated with a history of sport concussion. Forty-three athletes (21 male, 22 female) were recruited from interuniversity teams at the beginning of the season, including 21 with a history of concussion and 22 without prior concussion; both groups also contained a balanced sample of contact and noncontact sports. Multi-modal MRI was used to evaluate abnormalities in brain structure and function. Athletes with a history of concussion showed frontal decreases in brain volume and blood flow. However, they also demonstrated increased posterior cortical volume and elevated markers of white matter microstructure. A greater number of prior concussions was associated with more extensive decreases in cerebral blood flow and insular volume, whereas recovery time from most recent concussion was correlated with reduced frontotemporal volume. White matter showed limited correlations with clinical factors, predominantly in the anterior corona radiata. This study provides the first evidence of the long-term effects of concussion on gray matter volume, blood flow, and white matter microstructure within a single athlete cohort. This was examined for a mixture of male and female athletes in both contact and noncontact sports, demonstrating the relevance of these findings for the overall sporting community.

  17. Does the diagnosis influence the outcome in multimodal outpatient pain management program for low back pain and sciatica? a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artner J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juraj Artner, Stephan Kurz, Balkan Cakir, Heiko Reichel, Friederike LattigDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ulm, GermanyAbstract: The literature describes multimodal pain-management programs as successful therapy options in the conservative treatment of chronic low back pain. Yet, the intensity and inclusion criteria of such programs remain debatable. In many studies, the pain originating from spinal structures is described as nonspecific low back pain – a diffuse diagnosis without serious implications. The purpose of this study is to compare the short-term outcomes between patients suffering from sciatica due to a discus intervertebralis herniation and those suffering from low back pain caused by facet joint disease after 3 weeks of treatment in an intense multimodal outpatient program in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the university hospital.Keywords: chronic low back pain, sciatica, interdisciplinary management, discus herniation, spondylarthritis

  18. Genome-wide association study of generalized anxiety symptoms in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Sofer, Tamar; Gallo, Linda C; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Chen, Chia-Yen; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Guo, Xiuqing; Jia, Yucheng; Qi, Qibin; Rotter, Jerome I; Argos, Maria; Cai, Jianwen; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Smoller, Jordan W

    2017-03-01

    Although generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is heritable and aggregates in families, no genomic loci associated with GAD have been reported. We aimed to discover potential loci by conducting a genome-wide analysis of GAD symptoms in a large, population-based sample of Hispanic/Latino adults. Data came from 12,282 participants (aged 18-74) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Using a shortened Spielberger Trait Anxiety measure, we analyzed the following: (i) a GAD symptoms score restricted to the three items tapping diagnostic features of GAD as defined by DSM-V; and (ii) a total trait anxiety score based on summing responses to all ten items. We first calculated the heritability due to common variants (h 2 SNP ) and then conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of GAD symptoms. Replication was attempted in three independent Hispanic cohorts (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, Women's Health Initiative, Army STARRS). The GAD symptoms score showed evidence of modest heritability (7.2%; P = 0.03), while the total trait anxiety score did not (4.97%; P = 0.20). One genotyped SNP (rs78602344) intronic to thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) was nominally associated (P = 5.28 × 10 -8 ) in the primary analysis adjusting for psychiatric medication use and significantly associated with the GAD symptoms score in the analysis excluding medication users (P = 4.18 × 10 -8 ). However, meta-analysis of the replication samples did not support this association. Although we identified a genome-wide significant locus in this sample, we were unable to replicate this finding. Evidence for heritability was also only detected for GAD symptoms, and not the trait anxiety measure, suggesting differential genetic influences within the domain of trait anxiety. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Longitudinal impact of anxiety on depressive outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome: Findings from the K-DEPACS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Dae; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jae-Min

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of anxiety evaluated within 2 weeks of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) episode on depressive outcomes at a 1-year follow-up assessment. In 828 ACS patients, anxiety was determined by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-anxiety subscale at baseline, and DSM-IV depressive disorders and depressive symptoms were evaluated both at baseline and follow-up. Anxiety at baseline was significantly associated with depressive disorder at the follow-up and less improvement in depressive symptoms over 1-year. Anxiety had negative longitudinal impacts on depressive outcomes of ACS, and therefore evaluation of anxiety could be recommended in recently developed ACS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Associated with Anxiety in Premature Coronary Artery Disease Patients: THC-PAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hesameddin Abbasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety may negatively affect the course of coronary artery disease (CAD. The aim of this study was to assess which factors are associated with anxiety in young adults with CAD. A cohort of individuals with premature coronary artery disease was formed between 2004-2011, as the Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC study. Patients (men≤45-year-old, and women≤55-year-old were visited between March 2013 and February 2014. All participants were examined, and their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. Then, all participants filled in the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Logistic regression models were used to identifying factors related to anxiety in both sexes. During the study, 708 patients (mean [SD] age: 45.3 [5.8] y, men:48.2% were visited. Anxiety was present in 53.0% of participants (66.0% of women and 39.0% of men. The logistic regressions model showed that the associated factors for anxiety in men were opium usage (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.09-3.27, positive family history (OR=1.49, 95% CI:0.94-2.35, and creatinine serum level (OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.05-1.303; and in women were major adverse cardiac events (MACE during follow-up (OR=2.30, 95% CI:1.25-4.23, hypertension (OR=1.71, 95% CI:1.07-2.73 and the duration of CAD (OR=0.99, 95% CI:0.98-1.00. In premature CAD patients, the determinants of anxiety seem to be different in each sex. Opium usage, positive family history of CAD, and creatinine serum levels in men, and MACE, hypertension, and duration of CAD in women appear the relevant factors in this regard.

  1. A Study of Inhalation of Peppermint Aroma on the Pain and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Ozgoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Considering the painfulness of labor and its resulting anxiety, and also, complications such as uterine dysfunction, prolonged labor, and unpleasant memories, the present study was performed aimed to investigate the effect of peppermint aroma on the level of pain and anxiety in the first stage of labor in nulliparous women.Methods: This research was done as a clinical trial study on 128 nulliparous women assigned into two groups (64 subjects in aromatherapy group and 64 subjects in control group. In aromatherapy group, mixtures containing 0.2ml essence of peppermint and 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze, and in the control group, only 2ml normal saline impregnated gauze were attached to their dress collar, and the administration was repeated every 30 minutes. Level of anxiety was measured in dilatations 3-4 and 8-10cm and the intensity of pain in dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm. The data were collected through demographic and obstetric questionnaire, observation checklist, spielberger anxiety questionnaire, and pain numerical rating scale. Results: In this study, the age, job, education, and gestational age were the same in both groups. Also, the level of anxiety was the same in both groups before the intervention, but after the intervention, anxiety level decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001. The mean pain score in the dilatations 4-5, 6-7, and 8-10cm decreased in intervention group compared to control group (p<0.001 for all.Conclusion: Aromatherapy with peppermint essence is recommended for the reduction of pain and anxiety level during labor due to its inexpensiveness, ease and non-invasiveness.

  2. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Patients Treated With Multimodal Therapy: Results From a Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Smith, Carin Y; Jenkins, Sarah M; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Morris, John C; Ryder, Mabel; Alsidawi, Samer; Hilger, Crystal; Bible, Keith C

    2017-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is rare and a highly fatal malignancy. The role of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) as prognostic and/or predictive markers in ATC is unknown. Multimodal therapy offers the best chance at tumor control. The objective of this study was to detect potential associations of PD-1/PD-L1 axis variables with outcome data in ATC. Retrospective study of a uniformly treated cohort. Single institution retrospective cohort study. Sixteen patients who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (15 had preceding surgery) were studied. Patients treated with multimodal therapy were followed and assessed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). All samples demonstrated PD-1 expression in inflammatory cells whereas tumor cells were primarily negative. PD-L1 was expressed on ATC tumor cells in most samples and showed mainly membranous staining. High PD-1 expression (>40% staining) in inflammatory cells was associated with worse overall survival (OS; hazard ratio, 3.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 12.96; P 33% staining) trended toward worse PFS and OS. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway proteins are highly expressed in ATC tumor samples and appear to represent predictive markers of PFS and OS in multimodality-treated ATC patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  3. A Study of the Multi-Mode Purcell Effect for a Transmon in 3D Circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Andrei; Sun, Luyan; Blumoff, Jacob; Nigg, Simon; Girvin, Steve; Schoelkopf, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Although superconducting 3D transmon qubits offer a promising path toward realizing an architecture for quantum computation, they are still limited by decoherence processes that are not yet fully understood. Qubit T1 relaxation due to the Purcell Effect presents one such limitation on coherence times, but thus far a complete model of Purcell processes for transmons in 3D cavities, beyond the approximation of a single cavity mode and lumped element qubit, has been absent. Employing a simple scheme to vary the decay rate κ (or quality factor Q) of our cavities in-situ we explore in detail how multiple cavity modes contribute to qubit T1 decay in the Purcell regime. In addition, we show the continued dependence of qubit T1 on cavity κ as we systematically decouple from our cavity and are no longer Purcell-limited and how this dependence is related to a steady rise in qubit excited state population. Our findings are consistent with theory we have developed based on an effective circuit model for the cavity-qubit system, and set the stage for continuing the study of the multi-mode Purcell Effect by means of in-situ tuning of not just the cavity coupling, but the qubit frequency itself.

  4. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, Alexander; Kerwin, Lauren; Feusner, Jamie

    2008-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive procedure that has been used for decades in the United States to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general population. Whether CES is an effective treatment for patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not previously been explored. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CES in alleviating anxiety in patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed GAD. Twelve patients from 29 to 58 years of age with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD were enrolled from August 2005 to March 2006 through the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Anxiety Disorders Program. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation treatment was administered for 6 weeks using the Alpha-Stim Stress Control System at 0.5-Hz frequency and 300-muA intensity. The primary efficacy measures were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Response to treatment was defined as a reduction of 50% or more on the HAM-A and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 ("much improved" or "very much improved," respectively). Cranial electrotherapy stimulation was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-A scores (t = 3.083, p = .01). At endpoint, 6 patients (50% of the intent-to-treat sample and 67% of completers) had a 50% decrease in HAM-A score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2. One additional patient significantly improved in anxiety scores but did not meet criteria for response. Adverse events were generally mild in severity, mostly consisting of headache and nausea. This preliminary study suggests that CES may reduce symptoms of anxiety in GAD. We hope that these preliminary results will encourage further research to explore the use of CES in clinical settings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00539357.

  5. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiry, Nour; Salamoun, Tracy; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs) are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013-2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7). The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8-13.4%), more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76). 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively). Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006) and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003). 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (p<0.0001). The magnitude of SDs in this sample of Lebanese university students demonstrate the importance of examining sleep health in this population. Moreover, the link between SD and anxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems.

  6. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Choueiry

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders (SDs are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety.An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013-2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7.The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8-13.4%, more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76. 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively. Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006 and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003. 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (p<0.0001.The magnitude of SDs in this sample of Lebanese university students demonstrate the importance of examining sleep health in this population. Moreover, the link between SD and anxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems.

  7. Sleep was associated with depression and anxiety status during pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunxian; Li, Minchao; Pu, Liuyan; Wang, Shuojia; Wu, Jinhua; Ruan, Lingli; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Zhaopin; Jiang, Wen

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety among Chinese pregnant women. Pregnant women were recruited in Zhoushan Pregnant Women Cohort at Zhoushan Maternal and Child Care Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Self-rating depression scales (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scales (SAS) were used for evaluating depression and anxiety status at each trimester; corresponding sleep quality and duration were reported by pregnant women. Ordinary or multilevel linear and logistic regression model were used to estimate the cross-sectional or longitudinal association of sleep with depression and anxiety. The prevalence rates were 35.64, 24.23, and 26.24% for depression and 22.57, 17.41, and 21.04% for anxiety at 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), and 3rd trimester (T3), respectively. Controlling for potential confounders, it revealed significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep with depression and anxiety status. In cross-sectional analysis, women who slept less than 8 h/day had higher risk of depression (T1: OR (95%CI) = 1.75 (1.39, 2.20); T2: 1.52 (1.26, 2.05); T3: 1.60 (1.18, 2.05)) and anxiety (T1: 2.00 (1.57, 2.55); T2: 1.86 (1.37, 2.54); T3: 1.33 (0.99, 1.79)). In the longitudinal analysis, multilevel model revealed that women with subjective "fair" or "bad" sleep quality had elevated risk of depression (OR ranging from 1.54 to 3.71) and anxiety (2.38 to 7.53) during pregnancy. Prenatal depression and anxiety status were prevalent in pregnant women. Sleep quality was associated with depression and anxiety status in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, implying that improving sleep quality should benefit for mental health of pregnant women.

  8. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan Librizzi

    2016-05-01

    Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management. The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience. The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States. All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39). Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week. Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait

  9. A Review Of Multimodal Biometric Authentication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authentication is the process of validating the identity of a person based on certain input that the person provides. Authentication has become a major topic of research due to the increasing number of attacks on computer networks around the globe. This review paper focuses on multimodal biometric authentication systems in use today. The aim is to elicit the best combination of authentication factors for multimodal use. We study the strengths and weakness of selected biometric mechanisms and recommend novel solutions to include in multimodal biometric systems to improve on the current biometric drawbacks. We believe this paper will provide security researchers some useful insight whilst designing better biometric systems.

  10. Pressure Pain Threshold and Anxiety in Adolescent Females With and Without Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher D; Jastrowski Mano, Kristen E; Barnett, Kimberly A; Pfeiffer, Megan; Ting, Tracy V; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2017-07-01

    Reduced pain thresholds have been documented in adult fibromyalgia, but there are no quantitative studies of altered pain sensitivity in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM). The current study examined differences in pressure pain sensitivity between adolescent females with JFM and healthy controls. The relationship between levels of anxiety and pain were also examined. A total of 34 JFM (15.4±1.4 y old) and 31 controls (14.5±1.3 y old) completed self-report measures of pain and anxiety. Pressure pain threshold was assessed (palm and forehead sites) with a hand-held algometer. Participants indicated the first sensation of pain and then rated the intensity of pain on a Numerical Rating Scale. Adolescents with JFM exhibited greater sensitivity to pressure pain compared with controls. While the difference between JFM and controls was only observed at the forehead, the intensity of pain produced by the pressure algometry at both sites was significantly higher in the JFM participants compared with controls. Correlations between clinical pain and anxiety were significant for the JFM group only. No relationships were observed between anxiety and pressure pain for either group. This study is a first step toward investigating mechanisms of altered pain processing in adolescents with JFM. Adolescents with JFM were found be more sensitive to pressure pain than their healthy peers, which suggests a propensity for sensitization of peripheral and/or central nociceptive information often reported in adult fibromyalgia, and which does not appear to be affected by anxiety.

  11. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2015-06-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. We included 3,380,059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8-3·1, pdepressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8-5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8-2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9-2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new insights for prevention and treatment. The Lundbeck

  12. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, pdepressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new

  13. Implementation of WHO multimodal strategy for improvement of hand hygiene: a quasi-experimental study in a Traditional Chinese Medicine hospital in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Wang, Xiaoqing; An, Junming; An, Jialu; Zhou, Ning; Sun, Lu; Chen, Hong; Feng, Lin; Han, Jing; Liu, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaire survey generalizing possible factors affecting HH behaviors of HCWs and direct observation method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of WHO multimodal HH strategy in a hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Multimodal HH improvement strategy was drawn up according to the results of questionnaire survey. Compliance and correctness with HH among HCWs were compared before and after intervention. Also HH practices for different indications based on WHO "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" were recorded. In total, 553 HCWs participated in the questionnaire survey and multimodal HH improvement strategy was developed based on individual, environment and management levels. A total of 5044 observations in 23 wards were recorded in this investigation. The rate of compliance and correctness with HH improved from 66.27% and 47.75% at baseline to 80.53% and 88.35% after intervention. Doctors seemed to have better compliance with HH after intervention (84.04%) than nurses and other HCWs (81.07% and 69.42%, respectively). When stratified by indication, compliance with HH improved for all indications after intervention ( P  strategy can significantly improve HH compliance and correctness among HCWs.

  14. Responsive Multimodal Transportation Management Strategies And IVHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE NEW AND INNOVATIVE WAYS TO INCORPORATE IVHS TECHNOLOGIES INTO MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. MUCH OF THE IVHS RESEARCH DONE TO DATE HAS ADDRESSED THE MODES INDIVIDUALLY. THIS PROJECT FOCU...

  15. Psychosocial predictors of the onset of anxiety disorders in women: Results from a prospective 3-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Amanda W.; Otto, Michael W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Soares, Claudio N.; Vitonis, Alison F.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Harlow, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    In a prospective, longitudinal, population-based study of 643 women participating in the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles we examined whether psychosocial variables predicted a new or recurrent onset of an anxiety disorder. Presence of anxiety disorders was assessed every six months over three years via structured clinical interviews. Among individuals who had a new episode of anxiety, we confirmed previous findings that history of anxiety, increased anxiety sensitivity (the fear of anxiety related sensations), and increased neuroticism were significant predictors. We also found trend level support for assertiveness as a predictor of anxiety onset. However, of these variables, only history of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity provided unique prediction. We did not find evidence for negative life events as a predictor of onset of anxiety either alone or in interaction with other variables in a diathesis-stress model. These findings from a prospective longitudinal study are discussed in relation to the potential role of such predictors in primary or relapse prevention efforts. PMID:19699609

  16. Adapting Depression and Anxiety Questionnaire for Children into Turkish: Reliability and Validity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Ismail; Secer, Ismail; Simsek, Mustafa Kerim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to adapt anxiety and depression questionnaire for children into Turkish culture and to analyze the psychometric characteristics of it on clinical and nonclinical samples separately. The study is a descriptive survey research. The study was conducted on two different sample groups, clinical and nonclinical. The clinical…

  17. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among obese pregnant and postpartum women: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydsjö Gunilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. Methods 151 obese pregnant women in an intervention group and 188 obese pregnant women in a control group answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Group differences between the two groups were estimated by using the χ2 - test on categorical variables. The Student's t-test on continuous, normally distributed variables measuring changes in mean score on BAI and EPDS over time was used. To make a more comprehensive assessment of group differences, between as well as within the two groups, logistic regressions were performed with the BAI and EPDS as dependent variables, measured at gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks postnatal. The grouping variable has been adjusted for socio-demographic variables and complications. Results The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy varied between 24% and 25% in the intervention group and 22% and 23% in the control group. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety postnatally was 9% in the intervention group and 11% in the control group. Five percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% of the women in the control group showed symptoms of anxiety during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. The prevalence of symptoms of depression during pregnancy varied between 19% and 22% in the intervention group but was constant at 18% in the control group. Postnatal prevalence was 11% in both groups. Six percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% in the

  18. Anxiety symptoms among Chinese nurses and the associated factors: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yu-Qin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are an indispensable component of the work force in the health care system. However, many of them are known to work in a stressful environment which may affect their mental well-being; the situation could be worse in rapidly transforming societies such as China. The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and the associated factors in Chinese nurses working in public city hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed for Chinese nurses in public city hospitals of Liaoning Province, northeast China. Seven hospitals in different areas of the province were randomly selected for the study. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale was used to measure anxiety symptoms. Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire were used to assess the work stressors. Univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety symptoms. Results All registered nurses in the seven city hospitals, totaling 1807 registered nurses were surveyed. Of the returned questionnaires, 1437 were valid (79.5% for analysis. Utilizing the total raw score ≥ 40 as the cut-off point, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in these nurses was 43.4%. Demographic factors (education, chronic disease and life event, lifestyle factors (regular meals and physical exercise, work conditions (hospital grade, job rank, monthly salary, nurse-patient relationships, job satisfaction and intention of leaving, job content (social support and decision latitude, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were all significantly related to the anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed main factors associated with anxiety symptoms were lower job rank (OR 2.501, overcommitment (OR 2.018, chronic diseases (OR 1.541, worse nurse-patient relationship (OR 1.434, higher social support (OR 0.573, lower hospital grade (OR 0.629, taking regular

  19. Management of Stress and Anxiety Among PhD Students During Thesis Writing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafkan, Leila; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Yousefi, Alireza; Yamani, Nikoo

    2016-01-01

    Today, postgraduate students experience a variety of stresses and anxiety in different situations of academic cycle. Stress and anxiety have been defined as a syndrome shown by emotional exhaustion and reduced personal goal achievement. This article addresses the causes and different strategies of coping with this phenomena by PhD students at Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences. The study was conducted by a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Through purposive sampling, 16 postgraduate medical sciences PhD students were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and field observations. Six hundred fifty-four initial codes were summarized and classified into 4 main categories and 11 subcategories on the thematic coding stage dependent on conceptual similarities and differences. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes including "thesis as a major source of stress," "supervisor relationship," "socioeconomic problem," and "coping with stress and anxiety." It was concluded that PhD students experience stress and anxiety from a variety of sources and apply different methods of coping in effective and ineffective ways. Purposeful supervision and guidance can reduce the cause of stress and anxiety; in addition, coping strategy must be in a thoughtful approach, as recommended in this study.

  20. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  1. The effects of healing touch on pain, nausea, and anxiety following bariatric surgery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel G; Suchicital, Liliana; Lang, Maria; Kukic, Azra; Mangione, Lucrezia; Swengros, Diane; Fabian, Jennifer; Friesen, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of bariatric surgeries, it is important for healthcare practitioners to maximize symptom management for these patients, including the option of complementary therapies such as Healing Touch. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a Healing Touch intervention for reducing pain, nausea, and anxiety in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Following surgery, a nurse administered the Healing Touch intervention once daily. Study participants reported levels of pain, nausea, and anxiety immediately before and after the Healing Touch intervention using separate numeric rating scales. Significant decreases in pain, nausea, and anxiety were observed immediately following the intervention on post-operative days one and two, and in pain and anxiety on post-operative day three compared with pre-intervention levels. These findings indicate that the Healing Touch intervention is feasible and acceptable to patients undergoing bariatric surgery, and significantly improved pain, nausea, and anxiety in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anxiety, Motivation and Autonomy in Iranian High School Students: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sanadgol

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in the series of second language learning certify that both cognitive and affective factors within a language learner affect the level of success that will be achieved in learning a second language. This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship among three factors of anxiety, motivation, and autonomy. To this purpose, 207 students were invited from Golestan high school in Ramian, in the north of Iran. Their age ranged from 18 to 22 years. In one session they filled out the anxiety questionnaire, in the next session they completed the motivation questionnaire, and in the third session they answered the items in the autonomy questionnaire. At the end of the term their final scores were recorded.  Analysis of the results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between anxiety and motivation, but there was no relationship between anxiety and autonomy, and no relationship autonomy and motivation. Both high-stakeholders and low-stakeholder may benefit from the findings of this study. Keywords: motivation; anxiety; autonomy; EFL learners

  3. A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, Alexander; Kerwin, Lauren; Feusner, Jamie D

    2008-03-01

    Rhodiola rosea is an herbal supplement that many in the general population in Russia and elsewhere in the world have used for decades to alleviate everyday anxiety, depression, and insomnia. Whether R. rosea is effective in reducing similar symptoms in clinical samples is unknown. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate whether R. rosea is effective in reducing symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Ten (10) participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, recruited from the UCLA Anxiety Disorders Program and between the ages of 34 and 55, were enrolled in this study from November 2005 to May 2006. Participants received a total daily dose of 340 mg of R. rosea extract for 10 weeks. Assessments included the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), the Four-Dimensional Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions of Severity/Improvement Scale. Individuals treated with R. rosea showed significant decreases in mean HARS scores at endpoint (t=3.27, p=0.01). Adverse events were generally mild or moderate in severity, the most common being dizziness and dry mouth. Significant improvement in GAD symptoms was found with R. rosea, with a reduction in HARS scores similar to that found in clinical trials. These preliminary findings warrant further exploration of treatment with R. rosea in clinical samples.

  4. An elevated plus-maze in mixed reality for studying human anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Biedermann, Daniel G; Wenzlaff, Frederike; Kurjak, Tim; Nouri, Sawis; Auer, Matthias K; Wiedemann, Klaus; Briken, Peer; Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Fuss, Johannes

    2017-12-21

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance behavior in rodents. Here, we translated the EPM to humans using mixed reality through a combination of virtual and real-world elements. In two validation studies, we observed participants' anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level. Participants reported higher anxiety on open arms, avoided open arms, and showed an activation of endogenous stress systems. Participants' with high anxiety exhibited higher avoidance. Moreover, open arm avoidance was moderately predicted by participants' acrophobia and sensation seeking, with opposing influences. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled experiment, GABAergic stimulation decreased avoidance of open arms while alpha-2-adrenergic antagonism increased avoidance. These findings demonstrate cross-species validity of open arm avoidance as a translational measure of anxiety. We thus introduce the first ecologically valid assay to track actual human approach-avoidance behavior under laboratory conditions.

  5. Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-06-01

    This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329 persons with lifetime DSM-IV anxiety (social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) and/or depressive (major depressive disorder and dysthymia) disorders and 652 controls. Lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence were established, as well as information about socio-demographic, vulnerability, addiction-related and anxiety/depression-related characteristics. Temporal sequencing of disorders was established retrospectively, using age of onset. Of persons with combined anxiety/depression 20.3% showed alcohol dependence versus 5.5% of controls. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was similar across groups (± 12%). Independent risk indicators for alcohol dependence among anxious and/or depressed persons were male gender, vulnerability factors (family history of alcohol dependence, family history of anxiety/depression, openness to experience, low conscientiousness, being single, and childhood trauma), addiction-related factors (smoking and illicit drug use) and early anxiety/depression onset. Persons with secondary alcohol dependence were more neurotic, more often single and lonelier, while persons with primary alcohol dependence were more often male and more extravert. Alcohol dependence, but not abuse, is more prevalent in anxious and/or depressed persons. Persons with comorbid alcohol dependence constitute a distinct subgroup of anxious and/or depressed persons, characterized by addiction-related habits and vulnerability. However, considerable variation in characteristics exists depending on temporal sequencing of disorders. This knowledge may improve identification and treatment of those anxious and/or depressed patients who are

  6. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on balance, functional mobility and fall risk in older adults with cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, E; Sztruhár Jónásné, I; Karóczi, C K; Korpos, A; Gondos, T

    2013-10-01

    Exercise programs have important role in prevention of falls, but to date, there are conflicting findings about the effects of exercise programs on balance, functional performance and fall risk among cognitively impaired older adults. AIM. To investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program on static and dynamic balance, and risk of falls in older adults with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. A randomized controlled study. A long-term care institute. Cognitively impaired individuals aged over 60 years. Eighty-six participants were randomized to an exercise group providing multimodal exercise program for 12 months or a control group which did not participate in any exercise program. The Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment scale, Timed Up and Go test, and incidence of falls were measured at baseline, at 6 months and at 12 months. There was a significant improvement in balance-related items of Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment scale in the exercise group both at 6 month and 12 month (PAssessment scale after the first 6-month treatment period (P=0.210), but in the second 6-month treatment period the POMA-G score improved significantly (P=0.001). There was no significant difference between groups regarding falls. Our results confirmed that a 12-month multimodal exercise program can improve the balance in cognitively impaired older adults. Based on our results, the multimodal exercise program may be a promising fall prevention exercise program for older adults with mild or moderate cognitive impairment improving static balance but it is supposed that more emphasis should be put on walking component of exercise program and environmental fall risk assessment.

  7. Family load estimates and risk factors of anxiety disorders in a nationwide three generation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helenius, Dorte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated how often anxiety disorders with different ages of onset occurred in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, region of residence, year and month of birth, and parental age at birth. The sample included N=1373...... child and adolescent psychiatric participants born between 1952 and 2000 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR) who developed an anxiety disorder before the age of 18. N =4019 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18, were matched for age, sex, and residential...... region. Psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained for parents, siblings, and offspring. A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models. Anxiety disorders occurred significantly more often in case than in control families. Having a mother, father, or a sibling...

  8. The Management Of Homosexuality Using Multimodal Therapy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety, depression, marital distress and low self-esteem were identified as correlates of the client's condition. Multimodal therapy was instituted thereafter. The result after three months of treatment showed reduction in sexual attraction for men, increased attraction to females, reduced frequency of masturbation, lowered ...

  9. Study of the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Silva; Ana Paula Soares de Matos; José Joaquim Marques da Costa; Vanessa Ramos; Joana Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Intruduction: The comorbidity between depression and social anxiety is high in adolescence. Parental emotion socialization behaviors have been associated with the development of social skills and depressive symptomatology. Objectives: This study aims to explore the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depression, to study the associations between them, and to analyze the relationship between parenting styles, social anxiety and depressive sy...

  10. Trends in, and predictors of, anxiety and specific worries following colposcopy: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mairead; O'Leary, Eamonn; Waller, Jo; Gallagher, Pamela; D'arcy, Tom; Flannelly, Grainne; Martin, Cara M; McRae, Judith; Prendiville, Walter; Ruttle, Carmel; White, Christine; Pilkington, Loretto; O'Leary, John J; Sharp, Linda

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about which women are at greatest risk of adverse psychological after-effects following colposcopy. This study examined time trends in, and identified predictors of, anxiety and specific worries over 12 months. Women attending two hospital-based colposcopy clinics for abnormal cervical cytology were invited to complete psychosocial questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months following colposcopy. General anxiety and screening-specific worries (about cervical cancer, having sex and future fertility) were measured. Generalised estimating equations were used to assess associations between socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables and risk of psychological outcomes. Of 584 women initially recruited, 429, 343 and 303 completed questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months, respectively. Screening-specific worries declined significantly over time but were still relatively high at 12 months: 23%, 39% and 18% for worries about cervical cancer, fertility and having sex, respectively. Anxiety remained stable (20%) over time. Risks of cervical cancer worry and anxiety were both almost double in women without private health insurance (cervical cancer worry: OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.25-2.61; anxiety: OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.20-2.84). Younger women (following colposcopy, with predictors varying between outcomes. Women in socio-demographically vulnerable groups were at greatest risk of adverse psychological outcomes. This information could inform development of interventions to alleviate psychological distress post-colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Anxiety and depression in family caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease: the LASER-AD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Rachel; Regan, Ciaran; Katona, Cornelius; Livingston, Gill

    2005-09-01

    There are high rates of stress, distress, and psychological illness in family caregivers of people with dementia. Female caregivers and those caring for people with neuropsychiatric symptoms are particularly at risk. The authors report on the prevalence of anxiety and depression in a sample of family caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease (AD) and compare the characteristics of those who did or did not have those conditions. A group of 153 people with AD and their caregivers were interviewed as part of a larger study of AD. In all, 23.5% of caregivers scored at or above caseness level for anxiety, and 10.5%, at levels for depression. Care-recipient (CR) activities of daily living (ADL) impairment, being a caregiver living with the CR, being a female caregiver, reporting a poorer quality of relationship with the CR, and caregivers reporting their health as being poor all predicted anxiety disorder. CR irritability, caregivers reporting poor health, and a poorer quality of relationship with the CR predicted depression. Clinicians should be aware of the high rates of anxiety as well as depressive symptoms in family caregivers of people with AD, especially in female caregivers. CRs and Caregivers' impaired physical health put them at risk for psychological morbidity and should be treated energetically. A poor-quality relationship between the caregiver and the CR predicts both caregiver depression and anxiety. Caregivers living with the CR are much more likely to be anxious than depressed.

  12. Sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression in patients with oral lichen planus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, D; Ruoppo, E; Leuci, S; Aria, M; Amato, M; Mignogna, M D

    2015-02-01

    The psychological factors and their association with chronic inflammatory disease, aren't well recognized, yet their importance in oral lichen planus is still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and their association in patient with oral lichen planus. 50 patients with oral lichen planus vs. equal number of age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Questionnaires examining insomnia symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness (Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Epworth aleepiness scale) depression and anxiety (The Hamilton rating scale for Depression and Anxiety) were used. The patients with oral lichen planus had statistically higher scores in all items of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, the Hamilton rating scale for depression and anxiety and Epworth sleepiness scale than the healthy controls. The median and inter-quartile range of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index was 5-2 and for the oral lichen planus patients and 4-2 for the healthy controls (P lichen planus patients report a greater degree of sleep problems, depressed mood and anxiety as compared with controls. We suggest to screen sleep disturbances in patients with oral lichen planus because they could be considered a prodromal symptoms of mood disorders. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Multi-objective optimization of multimodal transportation networks: Interpretation of the Pareto set from a case study in Amsterdam. (online)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ties; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    We define the optimization of infrastructure planning in a multimodal network context as a multi-objective network design problem, rather than evaluating a pre-defined set of network scenarios. This provides insight into the extent to which facilitating better transfers between modes can contribute

  14. A multimodal day treatment program for multi-problem young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijks, Marie-jolette A.; Bevaart, Floor; Zijlmans, Josjan; Van Duin, Laura; Marhe, Reshmi; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Tiemeier, Henning; Asscher, Jessica J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288661834; Popma, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Background Effective interventions for young adults with severe, multiple problems – such as psychosocial and psychiatric problems, delinquency, unemployment and substance use – are scarce but urgently needed in order to support an adequate transition to adulthood. A multimodal day treatment program

  15. Healthcare professional experiences with patients who participate in multimodal pain rehabilitation in primary care - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla; Pietilä Holmner, Elisabeth; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie; Enthoven, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Exploring healthcare professional experiences of Multimodal rehabilitation (MMR) in primary care. Fourteen healthcare professionals (11 women, 3 men) were individually interviewed about their work with MMR in primary care. Interviews covered experiences of assessing patients and work with patients in the programme. Transcribed interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in four categories: select patients for success; a multilevel challenge; ethical dilemmas and considering what is a good result. MMR work was experienced as useful and efficient, but also challenging because of patient complexity. Preconceptions about who is a suitable patient for MMR influenced the selection of patients (e.g. gender, different culture). Interviewees were conflicted about not to being able to offer MMR to patients who were not going to return to work. They thought that there were more factors to evaluate MMR than by the proportion that return to work. Healthcare professionals perceive MMR as a helpful method for treating chronic pain patients. At the same time, they thought that only including patients who would return to work conflicted with their ethical views on equal healthcare for all patients. Preconceptions can influence selection for, and work with, MMR. Implications for rehabilitation Multimodal pain rehabilitation in primary healthcare is challenging because of the complexity of the patients. Healthcare professionals must deal with conflicting emotions in regard to different commitments from healthcare legislation and the goals of multimodal rehabilitation. Healthcare professionals should be aware that stereotypes regarding gender and immigrants can lead to bias when selecting patients for multimodal rehabilitation.

  16. An Analysis of Public Transit Connectivity Index in Tehran. The Case Study: Tehran Multi-Modal Transit Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Mamdoohi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public transit is a major priority in modern management of large cities and metropolitan areas in particular. Public transit systems in such cities consist of a large number of nodes and lines which are represented by a complex network. A station for public transit is a bridge between the people and public transit network, based on which, the concept of input and output power for each station can be defined. The objective of this study is the application of the transit connectivity indices to the multimodal transit network in the city of Tehran. The public transit network data employed in this study is taken from Tehran Traffic Control Company, and Tehran Urban and Suburban Railway Operation Company. The methodology for measuring transit connectivity consists of three measures: Node connectivity, Line connectivity and Regional connectivity, where activity density is applied to these measures. The results of node connectivity analysis shows that most of the node connectivity in concentrated in the city center with many nodes in the center along routes going north and south. The line connectivity analysis shows that there is a concentration of highly connected lines that are near Tehran municipality region 12 and 16. Finally, we find that areas with more metro and bus facilities with respect to the other areas, have a better regional connectivity. One of these areas includes Sadeghiyeh Metro Station which is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 2 and Tehran Metro Line 5 which have a high connectivity power. Results of this study can be used to suggest some ideas on how future investments in rail and bus should be prioritized. Particularly in Transit Oriented Development (TOD and sustainble development projects, urban planners can design transit stations with high performance to access the crucial services in poor areas.

  17. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  18. A Study on the Effects of Meditation on Anxiety and Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find whether meditation can be effective in terms of anxiety and vocabulary learning in a foreign language learning context. To test this, an experimental pre-test and post-test study was designed. 61 students (14 male-47 female) from the English Language Teaching Department of a state university in Turkey were assigned into…

  19. Factors associated with foreign language anxiety : A study of Chinese university learners of Japanese and English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigates and compares the effects of foreign language proficiency, social status of a learner’s family, self-esteem, and competitiveness on FL anxiety. Chinese university students (N = 146), who were learning Japanese and English, participated in this study.

  20. A multi-factor model of panic disorder: results of a preliminary study integrating the role of perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety and anxiety sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Wood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panic disorder (PD is a highly prevalent and disabling mental health problem associated with different factors including perfectionism, stress, physiological anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity regarding physical concerns; however, no studies have analyzed the joint relationship between these factors and PD in a multi-factor model using structural equation modeling. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect data on these factors and self-reported DSM-IV past-year PD symptoms in a large sample of the general population (N=936. Results: Perceived stress had a significant effect in increasing physiological anxiety, which in turn had an important association with physical concerns. Perfectionism and perceived stress had an indirect relation with past year PD via the mediator role of physiological anxiety and physical concerns. Physical concerns, on one hand, seemed to mediate the impact between perfectionism and PD and, on the other, partially mediated the role between physiological anxiety and PD. Conclusions: Although there is considerable evidence on the association between each of these factors and PD, this model can be considered a broader and productive framework of research on the nature and treatment of PD.

  1. Effect of Yoga on anxiety, depression and self-esteem in orphanage residents: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejvani, Ravishankar; Metri, Kashinath G; Agrawal, Jyotsna; Nagendra, H R

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in a number of orphanages and children living in orphanages in last few years. The children living in orphanages often have psychological problems among which anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem are considered to be most prominent. Yoga is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and safe intervention among complementary and alternative medicine which is known to have a positive impact on psychological problems. The present pilot study intended to assess the effect of a two week Yoga intervention on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem of adolescents and young adults living in an orphanage. Adolescent and young adults participants who were the permanent residents of an orphanage ( n = 34; males = 27, females = 7) between age ranges of 12-20 years underwent 2 week of Yoga intervention. Yoga intervention comprised Asana (Yogic postures), Pranayama (Yogic breathing practices), and Dharana-Dhyana (Yogic relaxation techniques) for 1 h daily over 15 days. Hospital anxiety and depression and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were administered at baseline and after the intervention to assess anxiety, depression, and self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant reduction ( P = 0.001) in anxiety, depression, and significant improvement in self-esteem ( P = 0.001) at the end of 2 weeks Yoga intervention. This pilot study suggests that 2 weeks of Yoga practice potentially reduced anxiety and depression and improved self-esteem of orphanage adolescents and young adults. These findings need confirmation from studies with a larger sample size and randomized controlled design, which are implicated in the future.

  2. Aromatherapy for reducing colonoscopy related procedural anxiety and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pei-Hsin; Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ou, Ming-Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Colonoscopy is generally tolerated, some patients regarding the procedure as unpleasant and painful and generally performed with the patient sedated and receiving analgesics. The effect of sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy is limited. Aromatherapy is also applied to gastrointestinal endoscopy to reduce procedural anxiety. There is lack of information about aromatherapy specific for colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to performed a randomized controlled study to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on relieve anxiety, stress and physiological parameters of colonoscopy. A randomized controlled trail was carried out and collected in 2009 and 2010. The participants were randomized in two groups. Aromatherapy was then carried out by inhalation of Sunflower oil (control group) and Neroli oil (Experimental group). The anxiety index was evaluated by State Trait Anxiety Inventory-state (STAI-S) score before aromatherapy and after colonoscopy as well as the pain index for post-procedural by visual analogue scale (VAS). Physiological indicators, such as blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), heart rate and respiratory rate were evaluated before and after aromatherapy. Participates in this study were 27 subjects, 13 in control group and 14 in Neroli group with average age 52.26 +/- 17.79 years. There was no significance of procedural anxiety by STAI-S score and procedural pain by VAS. The physiological parameters showed a significant lower pre- and post-procedural systolic blood pressure in Neroli group than control group. Aromatic care for colonoscopy, although with no significant effect on procedural anxiety, is an inexpensive, effective and safe pre-procedural technique that could decrease systolic blood pressure.

  3. Dental anxiety prediction using Venham Picture test: A preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety or fearfulness affects a child′s behavior, and to a large extent, determines the success of a dental treatment. It is essential to identify anxious children at the earliest age possible rather than simply deal with them later. It is crucial that every effort be made to ensure a positive experience for each child patient. Appropriate acknowledgment of patient′s anxiety can solidify their confidence and allows the pediatric dentist an informed review of potential management options specific to every individual. In the present cross-sectional study, Venham Picture, a psychometric test, was used to estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety among children in the age group 6-10 years, with and without previous dental experience.

  4. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with anxiety disorders: A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerneklar, Silke; Hougaard, Esben; Nielsen, Amalie D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-documented effective method for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. While internet based CBT (ICBT) programs for adults have been widely investigated, research on ICBT programs for anxiety disorders in youth...... disorders, developed at Macquarie University, Australia. Methods: At the University Clinic in Aarhus, Denmark, we conducted a feasibility study with six adolescents with a primary anxiety disorder. The 12-week ICBT intervention consisted of eight online modules. Participants received weekly phone calls from...... a clinical psychologist. Semi-structured interviews on participant's experiences of the program were administered post-treatment and at three-month follow-up. Outcome was evaluated post-treatment and at follow-up using diagnostic interview and questionnaires. Results: Five of the six participants completed...

  5. Can relaxation interventions reduce anxiety in patients receiving radiotherapy? outcomes and study validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elith, C.A.; Perkins, B.A.; Johnson, L.S.; Skelly, M.H.; Dempsey, S.

    2001-01-01

    This study piloted the use of three relaxation interventions in an attempt to reduce levels of anxiety in patients who are immobilised for radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers, as well as trying to validate the study methodology. In addition to receiving normal radiation therapy treatment, 14 patients were assigned to either a control group not receiving the relaxation intervention or one of three validated relaxation intervention techniques; music therapy, aromatherapy or guided imagery. Patients in the intervention groups underwent the relaxation technique daily for the first seven days of treatment. On days 1, 3, 5 and 7 of treatment patients were required to complete the State Anxiety Inventory survey. While caution should be taken in accepting the results due to the small numbers of patients involved in the study and the non-randomised assignment of patients within the study, the results of the study demonstrate a clinically significant reduction in anxiety levels in each of the three relaxation interventions compared to the control group. The study demonstrated good study validity due to the ease of implementation, the unambiguous results generated, and the use of already validated anxiety intersections and measurement tools. Copyright (2001) Australian Institute of Radiography

  6. Does cognitive reappraisal reduce anxiety? A daily diary study of a micro-intervention with individuals with high social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Yogev; Huppert, Jonathan D

    2016-03-01

    To examine emotion regulation (ER) among individuals with high (HSA) and low social anxiety (LSA) and the effects of 1 week of practiced cognitive reappraisal using self-report, daily diary measures and lab tasks. HSAs received reappraisal (HSA-R; n = 43) or monitoring (HSA-M; n = 40) instructions. LSAs received monitoring instructions (LSA-M; n = 41). Self-report measures of social anxiety and ER, and a lab task of reappraisal were administered at baseline and after 1 week. Daily diaries of anxiety and ER were also collected. At baseline, HSAs compared with LSAs reported lower self-efficacy of reappraisal and higher frequency and self-efficacy of suppression, but no differences emerged in the reappraisal task. Following the intervention, the HSA-R compared with the HSA-M reported lower symptom severity, greater self-efficacy of reappraisal but equal daily anxiety. HSA-R used reappraisal mostly combined with suppression (74.76% of situations). Post hoc analyses demonstrated that clinical diagnosis, but not severity, moderated the intervention effect. The results demonstrate the efficacy of a short intervention in social anxiety, and provide additional areas of research for improving its treatment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study of treatment-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Chaim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hiperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent disorder, but its neuroanatomical circuitry is still relatively understudied, especially in the adult population. The few morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies available to date have found heterogeneous results. This may be at least partly attributable to some well-known technical limitations of the conventional voxel-based methods usually employed to analyze such neuroimaging data. Moreover, there is a great paucity of imaging studies of adult ADHD to date that have excluded patients with history of use of stimulant medication. METHODS: A newly validated method named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA was applied to multimodal (structural and DTI MRI data acquired from 22 treatment-naïve ADHD adults and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC. RESULTS: Regarding DTI data, we found higher fractional anisotropy in ADHD relative to HC encompassing the white matter (WM of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal left gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus; reductions in trace (a measure of diffusivity in ADHD relative to HC were also found in fronto-striatal-parieto-occipital circuits, including the right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral cingulate gyrus, as well as the left body and right splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi. Volumetric abnormalities in ADHD subjects were found only at a trend level of significance, including reduced gray matter (GM in the right angular gyrus, and increased GM in the right supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adult ADHD is associated

  8. Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Treatment-Naïve Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Tiffany M.; Zhang, Tianhao; Zanetti, Marcus V.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louzã, Mário R.; Doshi, Jimit; Serpa, Mauricio H.; Duran, Fabio L. S.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Davatzikos, Christos; Busatto, Geraldo F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit/Hiperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder, but its neuroanatomical circuitry is still relatively understudied, especially in the adult population. The few morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies available to date have found heterogeneous results. This may be at least partly attributable to some well-known technical limitations of the conventional voxel-based methods usually employed to analyze such neuroimaging data. Moreover, there is a great paucity of imaging studies of adult ADHD to date that have excluded patients with history of use of stimulant medication. Methods A newly validated method named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA) was applied to multimodal (structural and DTI) MRI data acquired from 22 treatment-naïve ADHD adults and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). Results Regarding DTI data, we found higher fractional anisotropy in ADHD relative to HC encompassing the white matter (WM) of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal left gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus; reductions in trace (a measure of diffusivity) in ADHD relative to HC were also found in fronto-striatal-parieto-occipital circuits, including the right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral cingulate gyrus, as well as the left body and right splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi. Volumetric abnormalities in ADHD subjects were found only at a trend level of significance, including reduced gray matter (GM) in the right angular gyrus, and increased GM in the right supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions Our results suggest that adult ADHD is associated with

  9. Coprevalence of Anxiety and Depression With Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura J.; Hapner, Edie R.; Klein, Adam M.; Delgaudio, John M.; Hanfelt, John J.; Jinnah, H. A.; Johns, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction There is evidence supporting an association between depression and anxiety in patients with chronic disease. Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic, incurable, and disabling voice disorder. Reported rates of depression and anxiety in SD range from 7.1% to 72%, with a maximum number of 18 patients. The goal of this study was to define the coprevalence of depression and anxiety with SD. Materials and Methods A single-institution case-control study was performed from May to July 2010. Consecutive patients with SD and benign voice disorders were enrolled prospectively. On enrollment, patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire that reviewed the duration of the voice disorder and personal history of anxiety and depression, including current and lifetime diagnosis. Results One hundred forty-six controls with benign voice disorders and 128 patients with SD were enrolled. Patients with SD were no more likely to be diagnosed with depression or anxiety than those of the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 0.985, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59–1.63; and OR = 1.314; 95% CI 0.75–2.3, respectively). Additionally, duration of disease was a risk factor for depression in both the SD group and the control group, and the association was not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Patients with SD were no more likely to have depression or anxiety than those with other voice disorders. It is important for otolaryngologists to be aware of the increased rates of depression in patients diagnosed with chronic diseases, including voice disorders, and to refer to a psychiatrist when appropriate. PMID:22209056

  10. Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Low self-esteem and depression are strongly related, but there is not yet consistent evidence on the nature of the relation. Whereas the vulnerability model states that low self-esteem contributes to depression, the scar model states that depression erodes self-esteem. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the models are specific for depression or whether they are also valid for anxiety. We evaluated the vulnerability and scar models of low self-esteem and depression, and low self-esteem and anxiety, by meta-analyzing the available longitudinal data (covering 77 studies on depression and 18 studies on anxiety). The mean age of the samples ranged from childhood to old age. In the analyses, we used a random-effects model and examined prospective effects between the variables, controlling for prior levels of the predicted variables. For depression, the findings supported the vulnerability model: The effect of self-esteem on depression (β = -.16) was significantly stronger than the effect of depression on self-esteem (β = -.08). In contrast, the effects between low self-esteem and anxiety were relatively balanced: Self-esteem predicted anxiety with β = -.10, and anxiety predicted self-esteem with β = -.08. Moderator analyses were conducted for the effect of low self-esteem on depression; these suggested that the effect is not significantly influenced by gender, age, measures of self-esteem and depression, or time lag between assessments. If future research supports the hypothesized causality of the vulnerability effect of low self-esteem on depression, interventions aimed at increasing self-esteem might be useful in reducing the risk of depression.

  11. Onset of anxiety and depression in the aging population: Comparison of risk factors in a 9-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, D.; Aartsen, M.J.; Comijs, H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the onset and compare risk factors for pure depression (DEP), pure anxiety (ANX), and comorbid anxiety-depression (ANXDEP) in the aging population. DESIGN: Prospective study with 3-year intervals over a 9-year period. SETTING: Data of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were

  12. Rotational inertia and multimodal heaviness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Matthew; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A

    2007-10-01

    Perceived heaviness of wielded objects has been shown to be a function of the objects' rotational inertia--the objects' resistance to rotational acceleration. Studies have also demonstrated that if virtual objects rotate faster than the actual wielded object (i.e., a rotational gain is applied to virtual object motion), the wielded object is perceived as systematically lighter. The present research determined whether combining those inertial and visual manipulations would influence heaviness perception in a manner consistent with an inertial model of multimodal heaviness perception. Rotational inertia and optical rotational gain of wielded objects were manipulated to specify inertia multimodally. Both visual and haptic manipulations significantly influenced perceived heaviness. The results suggest that rotational inertia is detected multimodally and that multimodal heaviness perception conforms to an inertial model.

  13. Social anxiety and Internet socialization in Indian undergraduate students: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnekeri, Bianca S; Goel, Akhil; Umate, Maithili; Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a globally prevalent, chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting youth. With comorbidities including major depression, substance abuse, lower educational and work attainment, and increased suicide risk, it has a significant public health burden. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of SAD in urban Indian undergraduate students and to study their Facebook (FB) usage patterns. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, 316 undergraduate students were screened for social anxiety using validated instruments, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and divided into two groups based on scores obtained. The groups were then compared with regards to behaviors and attitudes toward Facebook, obtained from a self-report questionnaire. SAD was estimated to be a significant, prevalent (7.8%) disorder in otherwise productive youth, and showed female preponderance. Higher specific social phobia scores were associated with the inability to reduce Facebook use, urges toward increasing use, spending more time thinking about Facebook, negative reactions to restricting use, and using it to forget one's problems. SAD was estimated to have a prevalence of 7.8% in our study, and was associated with stronger FB usage attitudes and patterns. We recommend that the relationship between social anxiety and Internet use be explored further, to study the possibility of Internet-based screening and intervention strategies having wider reach and appeal in socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immediate effect of mind sound resonance technique on state anxiety and cognitive functions in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder: A self-controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Dhansoia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that MSRT may have a potential role in reducing state anxiety and enhancing psychomotor performance in patients suffering from GAD immediately after the practice. These findings need confirmation from studies with a larger sample size and randomized controlled design, which are implicated in the future.

  15. Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, L.; Vogelzangs, N.; Smit, J.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders. Methods: Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were

  16. Comorbidity and risk indicators for alcohol use disorders among persons with anxiety and/or depressive disorders: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines comorbidity of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence as well as its risk indicators among anxious and/or depressed persons, also considering temporal sequencing of disorders. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 2329

  17. Study of the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intruduction: The comorbidity between depression and social anxiety is high in adolescence. Parental emotion socialization behaviors have been associated with the development of social skills and depressive symptomatology. Objectives: This study aims to explore the moderating effect of parenting styles on the relationship between social anxiety and depression, to study the associations between them, and to analyze the relationship between parenting styles, social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescents. Methods: The sample consisted of 122 parents and their children. Self-report instruments were used to assess social anxiety, depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Results: It was found that social anxiety is significantly associated to depression and that the former has a predictive effect on the latter. The parenting styles revealed no significant associations with either depressive symptomatology or with social anxiety, but a moderating effect of explorer parenting style was found in the relationship between social anxiety (public performance and depressive symptomatology. Conclusions: The present investigation confirmed the existence of a significant association between social anxiety and depressive symptomatology in adolescence and suggests an effect of parental practices of emotional socialization in this relation, which, however, should be replicated in future research. It will also be important to study the effect of parenting styles on children's emotional regulation skills and their possible mediating effect on the relationship between social anxiety and depression.

  18. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Test Anxiety KidsHealth / For Teens / Test Anxiety What's in this ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  19. Depression, anxiety, and smartphone addiction in university students- A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar Boumosleh, Jocelyne; Jaalouk, Doris

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to assess prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms, and to ascertain whether depression or anxiety, independently, contributes to smartphone addiction level among a sample of Lebanese university students, while adjusting simultaneously for important sociodemographic, academic, lifestyle, personality trait, and smartphone-related variables. A random sample of 688 undergraduate university students (mean age = 20.64 ±1.88 years; 53% men) completed a survey composed of a) questions about socio-demographics, academics, lifestyle behaviors, personality type, and smartphone use-related variables; b) 26-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) Scale; and c) brief screeners of depression and anxiety (PHQ-2 and GAD-2), which constitute the two core DSM-IV items for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively. Prevalence rates of smartphone-related compulsive behavior, functional impairment, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms were substantial. 35.9% felt tired during daytime due to late-night smartphone use, 38.1% acknowledged decreased sleep quality, and 35.8% slept less than four hours due to smartphone use more than once. Whereas gender, residence, work hours per week, faculty, academic performance (GPA), lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol drinking), and religious practice did not associate with smartphone addiction score; personality type A, class (year 2 vs. year 3), younger age at first smartphone use, excessive use during a weekday, using it for entertainment and not using it to call family members, and having depression or anxiety, showed statistically significant associations with smartphone addiction. Depression and anxiety scores emerged as independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction, after adjustment for confounders. Several independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction emerged including depression and anxiety. It could be that young adults with personality type A experiencing high stress

  20. Depression, anxiety, and smartphone addiction in university students- A cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms, and to ascertain whether depression or anxiety, independently, contributes to smartphone addiction level among a sample of Lebanese university students, while adjusting simultaneously for important sociodemographic, academic, lifestyle, personality trait, and smartphone-related variables.A random sample of 688 undergraduate university students (mean age = 20.64 ±1.88 years; 53% men completed a survey composed of a questions about socio-demographics, academics, lifestyle behaviors, personality type, and smartphone use-related variables; b 26-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI Scale; and c brief screeners of depression and anxiety (PHQ-2 and GAD-2, which constitute the two core DSM-IV items for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively.Prevalence rates of smartphone-related compulsive behavior, functional impairment, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms were substantial. 35.9% felt tired during daytime due to late-night smartphone use, 38.1% acknowledged decreased sleep quality, and 35.8% slept less than four hours due to smartphone use more than once. Whereas gender, residence, work hours per week, faculty, academic performance (GPA, lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol drinking, and religious practice did not associate with smartphone addiction score; personality type A, class (year 2 vs. year 3, younger age at first smartphone use, excessive use during a weekday, using it for entertainment and not using it to call family members, and having depression or anxiety, showed statistically significant associations with smartphone addiction. Depression and anxiety scores emerged as independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction, after adjustment for confounders.Several independent positive predictors of smartphone addiction emerged including depression and anxiety. It could be that young adults with personality type A experiencing high

  1. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gungor Tayfun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The study group was given a systematic preoperative instruction while the control group was given routine nursing care. Patients were interviewed in the postoperative period and anxiety was measured. The data-collecting tool consisted of the Individual Information Form and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS Program to find the frequency, the percentage, the mean and the standard variables, and the hypothesis was tested with Chi-square, variance, and t-independent test. Results It was found that the incidence rates from the post-operative anxiety score of the study group were lower than those of the control group (p Conclusions Results of this study suggest that preoperative instruction programs aiming at informing gyneoncologic surgery patients at the preoperative stage should be organized in hospitals and have an essential role.

  2. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  3. Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, M. H. M.; Beem, A. L.; Stubbe, J. H.; Boomsma, D. I.; de Geus, E. J. C.

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether regular exercise is associated with anxiety, depression and personality in a large population-based sample as a function of gender and age. The sample consisted of adolescent and adult twins and their families (N=19,288) who participated in the study on lifestyle and health from

  4. A Study of Perceptions of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, and View of Math by Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, Tami

    2017-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether instruction in growth math mindset led to change in perceptions of 18-22-year-old at-risk students in math mindset, math anxiety, and view of math. The experimental curriculum was created by the researcher with the guidance of experts in mathematics and education and focused on the impact of brain…

  5. Patient anxiety in the medical encounter: a study of verbal and nonverbal communication in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.M.; Verheul, W.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Many patients feel anxious when entering the consultation room, but seldom verbalize their emotions explicitly in the medical encounter. The authors designed a study to analyse the visibility of patient pre-consultation (state) anxiety in their communication during the consultation. In an

  6. Anxiety towards Mathematics and Educational Level: A Study on Means Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Córdova-Rangel, Arturo; González-Gómez, Santiago; Tejada-Peña, Esmeralda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to analyze whether there is a difference in the degree of anxiety towards mathematics among students of different educational levels. The study is not experimental and cross sectional, and it is based on difference of means between groups. The sample is not probabilistic, and consisted of 226 students from…

  7. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Josephine A.

    2010-01-01

    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  8. Anxiety and Adaptive behaviour of fresh students: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the relationship between anxiety level and adaptive behaviour of one hundred and fifty randomly selected fresh students of Covenant University. There were a total of seventy-five (75) males with mean age of 17.59 and SD = 1.54 and seventy-five (75) females with mean age of 17.24 and SD = 1.51 ...

  9. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control

  10. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  11. Outcomes for depression and anxiety in primary care and details of treatment: a naturalistic longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Hilbink-Smolders, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Laurant, M.G.H.; Meer, K. van der; Marwijk, H.W.J. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bensing, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence as to whether or not guideline concordant care in general practice results in better clinical outcomes for people with anxiety and depression. This study aims to determine possible associations between guideline concordant care and clinical outcomes in general

  12. Outcomes for depression and anxiety in primary care and details of treatment : a naturalistic longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Marijn A.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Hilbink-Smolders, Mirrian; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Laurant, Miranda G. H.; van der Meer, Klaas; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bensing, Jozien M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence as to whether or not guideline concordant care in general practice results in better clinical outcomes for people with anxiety and depression. This study aims to determine possible associations between guideline concordant care and clinical outcomes in general

  13. Outcomes for depression and anxiety in primary care and details of treatment: a naturalistic longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.A.; Verhaak, P.F.; Hilbink-Smolders, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Laurant, M.G.; van der Meer, K.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bensing, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little evidence as to whether or not guideline concordant care in general practice results in better clinical outcomes for people with anxiety and depression. This study aims to determine possible associations between guideline concordant care and clinical outcomes in general

  14. [Hypnosis for anxiety and phobic disorders: A review of clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissolo, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Hypnosis is classically presented as a useful psychotherapy for various psychiatric conditions, especially in the field of stress and anxiety. However, its place in therapeutic of chronic anxiety disorders remains unclear and questioned. Thus, the goal of this systematic review was to analyse the papers reporting clinical data on the efficacy of hypnosis in anxiety disorders. A literature search was conducted on Pubmed to retrieve all original papers, published between 1980 and 2015, reporting clinical information on the efficacy of hypnosis in six categories of anxiety disorders. Each paper has been assessed from a methodological point of view, and the results have been analysed. Only three controlled studies have been identified, one in panic disorder and two in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The other papers related open-design studies (4 articles), or single case reports (20 articles). The controlled study conducted in panic disorder suggested that the combination of hypnosis with cognitive-behavior therapy was not an effective strategy, and this negative result was also obtained in one of the studies conducted in PTSD. The third study, including 48 Indonesian children with PTSD, showed a significant improvement with a specific hypnosis technique adapted to the local culture. Other papers related also positive results but in non-controlled studies or in case reports, their conclusions cannot be generalized. To date, evidence is negative or insufficient to support the efficacy of hypnosis in chronic anxiety disorders, in any categories whatsoever - including phobia or PTSD. Specific further studies are needed to identify some potential profiles predictive of response to hypnosis in these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The contribution of embarrassment to phobic dental anxiety: a qualitative research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Nicole

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embarrassment is emphasized, yet scantily described as a factor in extreme dental anxiety or phobia. Present study aimed to describe details of social aspects of anxiety in dental situations, especially focusing on embarrassment phenomena. Methods Subjects (Ss were consecutive specialist clinic patients, 16 men, 14 women, 20–65 yr, who avoided treatment mean 12.7 yr due to anxiety. Electronic patient records and transcribed initial assessment and exit interviews were analyzed using QSR"N4" software to aid in exploring contexts related to social aspects of dental anxiety and embarrassment phenomena. Qualitative findings were co-validated with tests of association between embarrassment intensity ratings, years of treatment avoidance, and mouth-hiding behavioral ratings. Results Embarrassment was a complaint in all but three cases. Chief complaints in the sample: 30% had fear of pain; 47% cited powerlessness in relation to dental social situations, some specific to embarrassment and 23% named co-morbid psychosocial dysfunction due to effects of sexual abuse, general anxiety, gagging, fainting or panic attacks. Intense embarrassment was manifested in both clinical and non-clinical situations due to poor dental status or perceived neglect, often (n = 9 with fear of negative social evaluation as chief complaint. These nine cases were qualitatively different from other cases with chief complaints of social powerlessness associated with conditioned distrust of dentists and their negative behaviors. The majority of embarrassed Ss to some degree inhibited smiling/laughing by hiding with lips, hands or changed head position. Secrecy, taboo-thinking, and mouth-hiding were associated with intense embarrassment. Especially after many years of avoidance, embarrassment phenomena lead to feelings of self-punishment, poor self-image/esteem and in some cases personality changes in a vicious circle of anxiety and avoidance. Embarrassment

  16. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  17. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...

  18. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  19. Common mental disorders associated with 2-year diabetes incidence : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atlantis, Evan; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Cashman, Kara; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few prospective cohort studies describe the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the 2-year diabetes incidence and pattern of explanatory factors associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: A

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes in Qassim: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A. Al-Mohaimeed, ABFM

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety and depression is high among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These results should alert clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression as part of multidisciplinary diabetes care. Larger community-based studies are needed to identify the magnitude of these problems and their related factors.

  2. Exploring the Causes of Listening Comprehension Anxiety from EFL Saudi Learners' Perspectives: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otair, Ibrahim; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is an important factor in foreign language learning. Very few studies have been done on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Saudi students in listening classes. Therefore, this pilot study was aimed at exploring the causes of listening comprehension anxiety from EFL Saudi learners' perspectives at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. The…

  3. Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Saudi Arabian Dermatology Patients; Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar E. Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients and to assess associations with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 consecutive dermatology patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in August 2015. The Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to screen for symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Quality of life (QOL was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Results: A total of 254 dermatology patients participated in the study (response rate: 84.7%. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 12.6%, 22.1% and 7.5%, respectively. The presence of at least one of these negative emotional states was noted among 24.4% of the cohort (95% confidence interval: 19.3–30.2%. Depression was significantly higher among subjects who lacked family support (26.5% versus 10.7%; P = 0.006 while anxiety was less common among patients who engaged in physical exercise (14.5% versus 29.4%; P = 0.005. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, poor QOL and a lack of family support were significant predictors of a negative emotional state. Conclusion: Almost a quarter of the studied Saudi Arabian dermatology patients were found to suffer from at least one negative emotional state. A lack of family support and poor QOL were the primary factors associated with a negative emotional state. Interventional studies are needed to examine the effects of social and family support on psychological conditions among Saudi Arabian dermatology patients.

  4. Evidence-based medicine evaluation of electrophysiological studies of the anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Richard; Galletly, Cherrie A; Ash, David J; Moores, Kathryn A; Penrose, Rebecca A; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2009-04-01

    We provide a systematic, evidence-based medicine (EBM) review of the field of electrophysiology in the anxiety disorders. Presently, electrophysiological studies of anxiety focus primarily on etiological aspects of brain dysfunction. The review highlights many functional similarities across studies, but also identifies patterns that clearly differentiate disorder classifications. Such measures offer clinical utility as reliable and objective indicators of brain dysfunction in individuals and indicate potential as biomarkers for the improvement of diagnostic specificity and for informing treatment decisions and prognostic assessments. Common to most of the anxiety disorders is basal instability in cortical arousal, as reflected in measures of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). Resting electroencephalographic (EEG) measures tend to correlate with symptom sub-patterns and be exacerbated by condition-specific stimulation. Also common to most of the anxiety disorders are condition-specific difficulties with sensory gating and the allocation and deployment of attention. These are clearly evident from evoked potential (EP) and event-related potential (ERP) electrical measures of information processing in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and the phobias. Other'ERP measures clearly differentiate the disorders. However, there is considerable variation across studies, with inclusion and exclusion criteria, medication status and control group selection not standardized within condition or across studies. Study numbers generally preclude analysis for confound removal or for the derivation of diagnostic biomarker patterns at this time. The current trend towards development of databases of brain and cognitive function is likely to obviate these difficulties. In particular, electrophysiological measures of function are likely to play a significant role in the development and

  5. JAKE® Multimodal Data Capture System: Insights from an Observational Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth L. Ness

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test usability and optimize the Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (JAKE® system's components, biosensors, and procedures used for objective measurement of core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD in clinical trials.Methods: A prospective, observational study of 29 children and adolescents with ASD using the JAKE system was conducted at three sites in the United States. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of the JAKE system and to learn practical aspects of its implementation. In addition to information collected by web and mobile components, wearable biosensor data were collected both continuously in natural settings and periodically during a battery of experimental tasks administered in laboratory settings. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02299700.Results: Feedback collected throughout the study allowed future refinements to be planned for all components of the system. The Autism Behavior Inventory (ABI, a parent-reported measure of ASD core and associated symptoms, performed well. Among biosensors studied, the eye-tracker, sleep monitor, and electrocardiogram were shown to capture high quality data, whereas wireless electroencephalography was difficult to use due to its form factor. On an exit survey, the majority of parents rated their overall reaction to JAKE as positive/very positive. No significant device-related events were reported in the study.Conclusion: The results of this study, with the described changes, demonstrate that the JAKE system is a viable, useful, and safe platform for use in clinical trials of ASD, justifying larger validation and deployment studies of the optimized system.

  6. Patients with Rosacea Have Increased Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorders: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that affects self-esteem and quality of life. However, data on depression and anxiety in patients with rosacea are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rosacea and new-onset depression and anxiety disorders. Data on all Danish citizens aged ≥18 years between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, were linked at individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were calculated, and crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. The study comprised a total of 4,632,341 individuals, including 30,725 and 24,712 patients with mild and moderate-to-severe rosacea, respectively. Mild and moderate-to-severe rosacea increased the risk of both depression [IRR 1.89 (95% CI 1.82-1.96) and IRR 2.04 (95% CI 1.96-2.12)] and anxiety disorders [IRR 1.80 (95% CI 1.75-1.86) and IRR 1.98 (95% CI 1.91-2.05)]. Rosacea was associated with a disease severity-dependent, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The findings may call for increased awareness of psychiatric morbidity in patients with rosacea. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Quality of life, depression, anxiety and loneliness in patients with bullous pemphigoid. A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Armyra, Kalliopi; Korkoliakou, Panagiota; Stefanaki, Christina; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic, autoimmune blistering skin disease that affects patients' daily life and psychosocial well-being. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety, depression and loneliness in BP patients. Fifty-seven BP patients and fifty-seven healthy controls were recruited for the study. The quality of life of each patient was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scale. Moreover, they were evaluated for anxiety and depression according to the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-scale), while loneliness was measured through the Loneliness Scale-Version 3 (UCLA) scale. The mean DLQI score was 9.45±3.34. Statistically significant differences on the HADS total scale and in HADS-depression subscale (p=0.015 and p=0.002, respectively) were documented. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups on the HADS-anxiety subscale. Furthermore, significantly higher scores were recorded on the UCLA Scale compared with healthy volunteers (p=0.003). BP had a significant impact on quality of life and the psychological status of patients, probably due to the appearance of unattractive lesions on the skin, functional problems and disease chronicity.

  8. Is metacognition a causal moderator of the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Robin; Wells, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    Psychological theories have identified a range of variables contributing to health anxiety, including, dysfunctional illness beliefs, catastrophic misinterpretation, somatosensory amplification and neuroticism. More recently, metacognitive beliefs have been proposed as important in health anxiety. This study aimed to test the potential causal role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety. A prospective design was employed and participants (n = 105) completed a battery of questionnaire at two time points (6 months apart). Results demonstrated that cognitive, personality and metacognitive variables were bi-variate prospective correlates of health anxiety. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that only metacognitive beliefs emerged as independent and significant prospective predictors of health anxiety. Moderation analysis demonstrated that metacognitive beliefs prospectively moderated the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety. Follow-up regression analysis incorporating the interaction term (metacognition × misinterpretation) showed that the term explained additional variance in health anxiety. The results confirm that metacognition is a predictor of health anxiety and it is more substantive than misinterpretations of symptoms, somatosensory amplification, neuroticism, and illness beliefs. These results may have major implications for current cognitive models and for the treatment of health anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social Appearance Anxiety and Dietary Restraint as Mediators between Perfectionism and Binge Eating: A Six Month Three Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosof, Leigh C.; Levinson, Cheri A.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is related to perfectionism and restrained eating. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. It is possible that social anxiety, specifically social appearance anxiety (i.e., the fear of overall appearance evaluation), influences the relationship between binge eating, perfectionism, and dietary restraint. In the current study (N = 300 women), we tested the relationship between dietary restraint, social appearance anxiety, concern over mistakes (a component of perfectionism), and binge eating in prospective data (three time points: at baseline, at two month, and at six month follow up). We found that social appearance anxiety, dietary restraint, and concern over mistakes each predicted binge eating at baseline. Only social appearance anxiety prospectively predicted binge eating when accounting for all variables. Further, in the tested model, social appearance anxiety mediated the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating across six months. On the contrary, dietary restraint did not mediate the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating in the tested model. The finding that social appearance anxiety served as a mediator between concern over mistakes and binge eating, but that dietary restraint did not, implies that social appearance anxiety may be a more salient prospective predictor of binge eating than dietary restraint. Intervening on social appearance anxiety may be important in the treatment and prevention of binge eating. PMID:27742237

  10. Clinical epidemiology of commonly occurring anxiety disorders : insights into the phenomenology and course of anxiety disorders from the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schat, A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders as a group are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders. Although they have been studied extensively, previous research has focussed primarily on members of the general population, or on participants in clinical trials. As both groups may differ substantially from patients who are

  11. Fusion of multimodal medical images. Application to dynamic tri dimensional study of vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunie, L.

    1992-12-01

    The object of this thesis is to put in correspondence images coming from different ways. The area of application is biomedical imaging, particularly dynamic imaging in three dimensional calculations of spinal cord. The use of computers allows modeling. Then a study of validation by clinical experimentation on spinal cord proves the efficiency of the simulation

  12. A psychology literature study on modality related issues for multimodal presentation in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The motivation of this psychology literature study is to obtain modality related guidelines for real-time information presentation in crisis management environment. The crisis management task is usually companied by time urgency, risk, uncertainty, and high information density. Decision makers

  13. Prevalence and Associated Positive Psychological Variables of Depression and Anxiety among Chinese Cervical Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of depression and anxiety and its associated factors in cervical cancer are not well evaluated in China. Meanwhile, with increasing attention given to positive psychological variables in oncology field, there is a need to conduct a study to explore the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on depression/anxiety so as to provide patients a more holistic cancer care. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression/anxiety as well as the integrative effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy on depression/anxiety among Chinese cervical cancer patients. Methods A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute and the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 224 cervical cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinic variables, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and General Self-Efficacy Scale during February and August 2013. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 52.2% and 65.6% in cervical cancer patients. The anxiety score was significantly higher in patients at the period of 4–6 months after diagnose and at cancer stage II. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope, optimism and general self-efficacy as a whole accounted for 31.3% variance of depression and 35.6% variance of anxiety. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, hope, optimism and general self-efficacy significantly associated with depression, respectively; hope and optimism were also significant individual predictors of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of depression and anxiety among cervical cancer patients should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. More importantly, efforts to develop the integrated psychosocial interventions are effective and necessary to

  14. Joint generalized models for multidimensional outcomes: a case study of neuroscience data from multimodalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-03-01

    This paper is motivated from the analysis of neuroscience data in a study of neural and muscular mechanisms of muscle fatigue. Multidimensional outcomes of different natures were obtained simultaneously from multiple modalities, including handgrip force, electromyography (EMG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We first study individual modeling of the univariate response depending on its nature. A mixed-effects beta model and a mixed-effects simplex model are compared for modeling the force/EMG percentages. A mixed-effects negative-binomial model is proposed for modeling the fMRI counts. Then, I present a joint modeling approach to model the multidimensional outcomes together, which allows us to not only estimate the covariate effects but also to evaluate the strength of association among the multiple responses from different modalities. A simulation study is conducted to quantify the possible benefits by the new approaches in finite sample situations. Finally, the analysis of the fatigue data is illustrated with the use of the proposed methods. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Psychological profile (anxiety and depression) in patients with oral lichen planus: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, S K; Moreno, R A; Dos Santos, C H R; Seo, J; Migliari, D A

    2013-03-01

    The influence of psychological disturbances in oral lichen planus (OLP) still bears some controversy. This study aimed at assessing levels of anxiety and depression in OLP patients and control subjects, using a self-report scale questionnaire. This cross-sectional study comprised 91 consecutive OLP patients (71 female and 20 male; mean age 52.9 years) and 87 subjects as a control group (69 female and 18 male; mean age 52.7 years). Data collected of both groups included age, sex, race, medical records and systemic disease. Anxiety and depression levels were assessed using, respectively, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Data were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests as appropriate, and by Logistic regression analysis. No statistically significant difference was found when the level of anxiety and depression was compared between the OLP and control using Chi-square and Fisher's tests (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the score in 2 out of 20 items of the STAI-T scale (but none of the CES-D) was significantly higher in OLP patients (P<0.05). The analysis by gender showed that the female and male OLP patients presented a significantly higher score for one item in the STAI-T scale (respectively question 4 and 20) but none in the CES-D scale, as compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). Our findings do not support that either anxiety or depression has any role in the development of OLP lesions.

  16. Evaluation of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bathla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A; Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Beck′s Suicide Intent Scale (BSI. Descriptive statistics; Pearson′s Chi-square test; Multiple ANOVA; Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In a total of 258 dental undergraduate students, academic areas of stress that were found to be statistically significant were long teaching hours (P = 0.002; high workload (P ≤ 0.001; frequency of tests (P ≤ 0.001 and competition/fear of failure (P = 0.009. Lack of interest in the profession was a statistically significant nonacademic area for stress (P ≤ 0.001. The students of first and final year reported higher anxiety (HAM-A 13.93 ± 6.908 and 16.44 ± 7.637 respectively and depression (HDRS 14.29 ± 6.302 and 14.22 ± 5.422; whereas suicidal intent was reported almost the same throughout the study sample (BSI 5.65 ± 5.465. Conclusion: An increasing level of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent due to various stressors in undergraduate dental students indicate a need to modify current education system and timely help to have psychological healthy dental professionals in future.

  17. Mood and Performance Anxiety in High School Basketball Players: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Steffen J; Winner, Rachel K; McCutchan, Holly; Beaudoin, Christina C; Judge, Lawrence W; Jones, Lani M; Leitzelar, Brianna; Hoover, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    Participation in competitive sport may impact psychological measures, such as mood and performance anxiety, which in turn may impact enjoyment, adherence, continued participation, and so on. This study assessed the feasibility - in terms of process, resources, management, and potential scientific value- of measuring the effect of varying competitive challenges upon the mood and performance anxiety measures of high school athletes. The participants (n=12) consisted of the boys' varsity basketball team at a high school in a rural Midwestern community. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess mood and the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) to assess performance anxiety, respectively. Survey administration occurred at baseline and prior to games designated as non-conference , conference , and state tournament . A-priori feasibility measures were achieved in this prospective design. Significant correlations on the subscale measures were found on the POMS and SAS-2 administered before the four conditions in this study; Chronbach's alpha ranged from 0.54-0.94 across conditions for POMS subscales, and Chronbach's alpha ranged from 0.73-0.97 across all conditions for SAS-2 subscales, respectively. Significant differences were found across conditions in the POMS subscale confusion [ F (3,33) = 5.71, p = 0.01] and in the SAS-2 subscale worry [ F (3,33) = 6.13, p =0.01]. These preliminary findings suggest that the competitive conditions in this study significantly affected some measures of mood and performance anxiety in high school basketball players. These findings warrant further investigation, as well as suggest coaches could gather such information from their players, ultimately aiding in player development and team performance.

  18. Study of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among the Medical Students in two Medical Colleges of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, D; Risal, A; Koirala, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical education is intended to prepare graduates for a promoting health and caring for the sick. Medical students are confronted with significant academic, psychological and existential stressors. There is insufficient information regarding psychological morbidity among Nepalese medical students. Objective To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, among the medical students in Nepal, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Method A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted including all students from first to fifth year of student using convenience method of sampling from Kathmandu University Medical School (KUSMS), Dhulikhel and Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal. Depression, Anxiety and stress were assessed using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Result A total of 538 students participated in the study giving a response rate of 89.6%. Aamong them 56.5% were from age group 21-25 years, 42.2% were below 20 years and only 1.3% were above 25 years of age. Among them 52% were female and 48% were male. Our study found that the overall prevalence of depression was 29.9%, anxiety was 41.1% and stress was 27% among all participated medical students. Depression was significantly associated (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.43-3.47, panxiety 41.1% and stress 27% among undergraduate medical students warrants needs for strategic plans to alleviate depression anxiety and the stressors right from the time they join medical school and has to be continued till they finish the course.

  19. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  20. Multimodal optical measurement for study of lower limb tissue viability in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Viktor V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Makovik, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zharkikh, Elena V.; Potapova, Elena V.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Doronin, Alexander A.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-08-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, the challenge of early stage diagnosis and treatment effectiveness monitoring in diabetes is currently one of the highest priorities in modern healthcare. The potential of combined measurements of skin fluorescence and blood perfusion by the laser Doppler flowmetry method in diagnostics of low limb diabetes complications was evaluated. Using Monte Carlo probabilistic modeling, the diagnostic volume and depth of the diagnosis were evaluated. The experimental study involved 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These patients were divided into two groups depending on the degree of complications. The control group consisted of 48 healthy volunteers. The local thermal stimulation was selected as a stimulus on the blood microcirculation system. The experimental studies have shown that diabetic patients have elevated values of normalized fluorescence amplitudes, as well as a lower perfusion response to local heating. In the group of people with diabetes with trophic ulcers, these parameters also significantly differ from the control and diabetes only groups. Thus, the intensity of skin fluorescence and level of tissue blood perfusion can act as markers for various degrees of complications from the beginning of diabetes to the formation of trophic ulcers.

  1. Dynamic neural network reorganization associated with second language vocabulary acquisition: a multimodal imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Chihiro; Tanaka, Kanji; Nariai, Tadashi; Honda, Manabu; Hanakawa, Takashi

    2013-08-21

    It remains unsettled whether human language relies exclusively on innately privileged brain structure in the left hemisphere or is more flexibly shaped through experiences, which induce neuroplastic changes in potentially relevant neural circuits. Here we show that learning of second language (L2) vocabulary and its cessation can induce bidirectional changes in the mirror-reverse of the traditional language areas. A cross-sectional study identified that gray matter volume in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFGop) and connectivity of the IFGop with the caudate nucleus and the superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal (STG/SMG), predominantly in the right hemisphere, were positively correlated with L2 vocabulary competence. We then implemented a cohort study involving 16 weeks of L2 training in university students. Brain structure before training did not predict the later gain in L2 ability. However, training intervention did increase IFGop volume and reorganization of white matter including the IFGop-caudate and IFGop-STG/SMG pathways in the right hemisphere. These "positive" plastic changes were correlated with the gain in L2 ability in the trained group but were not observed in the control group. We propose that the right hemispheric network can be reorganized into language-related areas through use-dependent plasticity in young adults, reflecting a repertoire of flexible reorganization of the neural substrates responding to linguistic experiences.

  2. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Florian; Brünner, Franziska; Fink, Maria; Meissner, Karin; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1) placebo irritant solution, (2) placebo laser stimulation, and (3) imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS), while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205 mm²) and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS). Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon.

  3. AGT M235T genotype/anxiety interaction and gender in the HyperGEN study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Knox

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Both anxiety and elevated heart rate (HR have been implicated in the development of hypertension. The HyperGen cohort, consisting of siblings with severe and mild hypertension, an age-matched random sample of persons from the same base populations, and unmedicated adult offspring of the hypertensive siblings (N = 1,002 men and 987 women, was analyzed for an association of the angiotenisinogen AGTM235T genotype (TT, MT, MM with an endophenotype, heart rate (HR in high and low anxious groups.The interaction of AGTM genotype with anxiety, which has been independently associated with hypertension, was investigated adjusting for age, hypertension status, smoking, alcohol consumption, beta blocker medication, body mass index, physical activity and hours of television viewing (sedentary life style.Although there was no main effect of genotype on HR in men or women, high anxious men with the TT genotype had high HR, whereas high anxious men with the MM genotype had low HR. In women, HR was inversely associated with anxiety but there was no interaction with genotype.The results suggest that high anxiety in men with the TT genotype may increase risk for hypertension whereas the MM genotype may be protective in high anxious men. This type of gene x environment interaction may be one reason why genome wide association studies sometimes fail to replicate. The locus may be important only in combination with certain environmental factors.

  4. A study on regional cerebral blood flow at rest and stress state in anxiety disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate he characteristics of rest and stress regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive anxiety disorder patients. Methods: Twenty naive anxiety disorder patients were enrolled in the study with twenty healthy volunteers as controls. The rest and stress 99 Tc m -ethylene cystein dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed separately at 2 consecutive days, Raven reasoning test was used as a stressor. Results: 1) Compared to the healthy controls, the patients' rest rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower (P<0.05 and 0.01). 2)The patients' stress rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, part occipital lobe, part parietal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls' (P<0.05 and 0.01). 3) Opposite to the healthy controls, the rCBF of patients increased significantly after stressor simulating. Conclusions: The hypofunction of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia may exist in naive anxiety disorder patients. The abnormal rCBF of patients after simulating may be one of the characteristics of anxiety disorder

  5. A prospective study of phobic anxiety, risk of ovarian cancer, and survival among patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Elizabeth M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Sood, Anil K; Okereke, Olivia I; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-05-01

    In ovarian cancer patients and mouse models, psychosocial stress is associated with higher circulating markers of angiogenesis and cell migration, impaired immune response, and increasing tumor burden and aggressiveness. In the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII), we assessed whether phobic anxiety, a marker of chronic distress, was associated with risk of incident ovarian cancer as well as survival among ovarian cancer patients. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of ovarian cancer incidence and survival by categories of the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety index (CCI). We identified 779 cases of ovarian cancer during 2,497,892 person-years of follow-up. For baseline CCI (NHS: 1988; NHSII: 1993), we observed a statistically nonsignificant increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (RR for CCI ≥ 4 vs. 0 or 1: 1.14; 95 % CI 0.96-1.36). However, when we updated CCI (NHS: 2004; NHSII: 2005), the associations were attenuated. Pre-diagnosis CCI was not associated with ovarian cancer survival (RR for ≥4 vs. 0 or 1: 1.00; 95 % CI 0.77-1.31); results were similar for post-diagnosis CCI. Distress, as measured by phobic anxiety symptoms, was not associated with ovarian cancer risk, although we cannot rule out a modest association. Future research should explore the role of phobic anxiety and other forms of psychological distress and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

  6. Cardiac Coherence Training to Reduce Anxiety in Remitted Schizophrenia, a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousselard, M; Canini, F; Claverie, D; Cungi, C; Putois, B; Franck, N

    2016-03-01

    Health care that addresses the emotional regulation capacity of patients with schizophrenia confronted with daily stress may contribute to a less anxious life. A psycho-physiological training [cardiac coherence training (CCT)] focusing on emotion regulation is known to decrease anxiety for healthy individuals. We performed a pilot cross sectional survey to explore the benefits of CCT for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia. Ten patients were enrolled in the program consisting of twelve weekly 1-h session programs monitored over a 2-month period. Standardised questionnaires were used before and after the intervention to assess anxiety, well-being outcomes, and how patients deal with stress and stressors. Results showed that this quite-well accepted intervention improved (or tended to improve) well-being outcomes, state-anxiety, and emotional stressors evaluation. The successful transformations were higher for patients with the highest clinical and emotional suffering. Thus, this pilot study revealed that CCT may help patients with schizophrenia to deal with anxiety in daily life.

  7. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beissner

    Full Text Available Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1 placebo irritant solution, (2 placebo laser stimulation, and (3 imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS, while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205 mm² and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS. Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon.

  8. A study in male and female 5-HT transporter knockout rats : An animal model for anxiety and depression disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Van Der Hart, M G C; Van Swelm, R P L; Dederen, P J; Homberg, J R; Cremers, T; Deen, P M T; Cuppen, E; Cools, A R; Ellenbroek, B A

    2008-01-01

    Human studies have shown that a reduction of 5-HT transporter (SERT) increases the vulnerability for anxiety and depression. Moreover, women are more vulnerable to develop depression and anxiety disorders than men. For that reason we hypothesized that homozygous 5-HT transporter knockout rat

  9. A study in male and female 5-HT transporter knockout rats: an animal model for anxiety and depression disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J.; Van Der Hart, M.G.C.; Van Swelm, R.P.L.; Dederen, P.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Cremers, T.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cuppen, E.; Cools, A.R.; Ellenbroek, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies have shown that a reduction of 5-HT transporter (SERT) increases the vulnerability for anxiety and depression. Moreover, women are more vulnerable to develop depression and anxiety disorders than men. For that reason we hypothesized that homozygous 5-HT transporter knockout rat

  10. The Effect of Instructional Strategies on Math Anxiety and Achievement: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janelle K.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed how different instructional strategies affected preservice elementary teachers' levels of math anxiety and their achievement in a math content course while considering descriptions of their experiences in the course in relation to their math anxiety and achievement. The instructional strategies used were traditional teaching…

  11. Dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance after treatment in a dental fear clinic: A follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartman, I.H.A.; de Jongh, A.; Makkes, P.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess treatment outcome in terms of dental anxiety reduction at a post-treatment assessment and dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance one year later. Furthermore, it was determined to what extent psychopathological characteristics were related to

  12. Functional brain imaging study in patients with anxiety disorders using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Liu Hongbiao; Li Huichun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of brain function in patients with anxiety disorders. Methods: Regional cerebral perfusion was investigated using SPECT in 65 patients with anxiety disorders dragnosed according to the fourth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (DSMTD) criteria and in a matched control group of 21 healthy volunteers. 65 cases of the patients were further divided into: drug treated group (31 patients) and non-drug treated group (34 patients). The mean ages of the patients and the controls were (39.2±26.1) and (34.4±9.7) years, respectively. The severity of the anxiety was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Anxiety scale (mean: 24.8±5.5 and 24.7±7.5, respectively). After administration of 740-925 MBq 99 Tc m -ethylene cysteinate direct (ECD) brain SPECT image study was performed. For the semi- quantitative analysis of the data, the ratios of the mean counts/pixel in the different cerebral regions of interest (ROI) to that of cerebellum were calculated respectively as a regional perfusion index (RPI). Some patients had a repeated SPECT after three months of treatment. Results: 93.8% (61/65) patients had relative hypoperfusions in some cerebral regions. Compared with the control group, the patients had a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral frontal lobes, paralimbic system, temporal lobes and basal ganglia. The course of disease had negatively correlated with the changes of rCBF in both groups of patients. Follow-up SPECT study demonstrated increased rCBF related with the symptomatic improvement. Conclusions: Patients with anxiety disorders had profound dysfunction of the frontal and temporal cortices, and was closely related to the symptom and therapy. 99 Tc m -ECD brain SPECT may offer the most accurate assessment of response to therapy. . (authors)

  13. Characteristics of cardio-Cerebrovascular modulation in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen-Ni; Feng, Liangshu; Yan, Xiuli; Yang, Le; Huang, Shuo; Xing, Yingqi; Yang, Yi

    2017-07-18

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been shown in previous studies to display abnormal cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV); however, the characteristics of cardio-cerebrovascular modulation are unknown. We aimed to analyze cardio-cerebrovascular modulation using parameters from a supine-to-standing test. There are 2 parts to this study; in Part 1, 125 participants with Hamilton Anxiety scale scores ≥14 were enrolled, and 33 age- and sex-matched medically and psychiatrically healthy volunteers were recruited as control participants. Patients were divided by score into mild, moderate, and severe anxiety groups. The cardio-cerebrovascular modulation using the parameters of dynamic changes of CBFV and heart rate in response to an orthostatic challenge were investigated. In Part 2, we followed up the severe GAD patients for 6 months and repeated the supine-to-standing test, and severe GAD patients were divided into recovery and non-recovery groups. In part 1, the GAD group displayed more marked CBFV and heart rate changes than the healthy group, but there was no difference in the CBFV and heart rate changes from the supine to upright position in mild, moderate, and severe anxiety groups. In part 2, The recovery group demonstrated significant improvement in changes in the CBFV and heart rate values from the supine to the upright position after treatment compared with before treatment. In the non-recovery group, the CBFV and heart rate changes were significantly higher than the healthy group regardless of treatment. Cardio-cerebrovascular modulation is compromised in patients with GAD, however, this impairment can be restored to normal after the disappearance of anxiety.

  14. Parietal and temporal activity during a multimodal dance video game: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, J Adam; Bronner, Shaw; Ono, Yumie; Onozuka, Minoru

    2011-10-03

    Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we studied how playing a dance video game employs coordinated activation of sensory-motor integration centers of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects played a dance video game, in a block design with 30s of activity alternating with 30s of rest, while changes in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels were continuously measured. The game was modified to compare difficult (4-arrow), simple (2-arrow), and stepping conditions. Oxy-Hb levels were greatest with increased task difficulty. The quick-onset, trapezoidal time-course increase in SPL oxy-Hb levels reflected the on-off neuronal response of spatial orienting and rhythmic motor timing that were required during the activity. Slow-onset, bell-shaped increases in oxy-Hb levels observed in STG suggested the gradually increasing load of directing multisensory information to downstream processing centers associated with motor behavior and control. Differences in temporal relationships of SPL and STG oxy-Hb concentration levels may reflect the functional roles of these brain structures during the task period. NIRS permits insights into temporal relationships of cortical hemodynamics during real motor tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain parenchymal damage in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder - A multimodal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pache, F.; Paul, F. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Zimmermann, H.; Lacheta, A.; Papazoglou, S.; Kuchling, J.; Wuerfel, J.; Brandt, A.U. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Finke, C. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ruprecht, K. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Scheel, M. [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center and Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate different brain regions for grey (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in a well-defined cohort of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and compare advanced MRI techniques (VBM, Subcortical and cortical analyses (Freesurfer), and DTI) for their ability to detect damage in NMOSD. We analyzed 21 NMOSD patients and 21 age and gender matched control subjects. VBM (GW/WM) and DTI whole brain (TBSS) analyses were performed at different statistical thresholds to reflect different statistical approaches in previous studies. In an automated atlas-based approach, Freesurfer and DTI results were compared between NMOSD and controls. DTI TBSS and DTI atlas based analysis demonstrated microstructural impairment only within the optic radiation or in regions associated with the optic radiation (posterior thalamic radiation p < 0.001, 6.9 % reduction of fractional anisotropy). VBM demonstrated widespread brain GM and WM reduction, but only at exploratory statistical thresholds, with no differences remaining after correction for multiple comparisons. Freesurfer analysis demonstrated no group differences. NMOSD specific parenchymal brain damage is predominantly located in the optic radiation, likely due to a secondary degeneration caused by ON. In comparison, DTI appears to be the most reliable and sensitive technique for brain damage detection in NMOSD. (orig.)

  16. A prospective study of anxiety in ICD patients with a pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with moderate to severe anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qintar, Mohammed; George, Jason J; Panko, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stress and anxiety are potential consequences from arrhythmias and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks that can contribute to substantial morbidity. We assessed anxiety associated with an ICD and whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces anxiety. METHODS: The stu...

  17. Brain structural changes in spasmodic dysphonia: A multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Vladimir S; Agosta, Federica; Sarro, Lidia; Tomić, Aleksandra; Kresojević, Nikola; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Svetel, Marina; Valsasina, Paola; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is poorly understood. This study evaluated patterns of cortical morphology, basal ganglia, and white matter microstructural alterations in patients with spasmodic dysphonia relative to healthy controls. T1-weighted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 13 spasmodic dysphonia patients and 30 controls. Tract-based spatial statistics was applied to compare diffusion tensor MRI indices (i.e., mean, radial and axial diffusivities, and fractional anisotropy) between groups on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Cortical measures were analyzed using surface-based morphometry. Basal ganglia were segmented on T1-weighted images, and volumes and diffusion tensor MRI metrics of nuclei were measured. Relative to controls, patients with spasmodic dysphonia showed increased cortical surface area of the primary somatosensory cortex bilaterally in a region consistent with the buccal sensory representation, as well as right primary motor cortex, left superior temporal, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri. A decreased cortical area was found in the rolandic operculum bilaterally, left superior/inferior parietal and lingual gyri, as well as in the right angular gyrus. Compared to controls, spasmodic dysphonia patients showed increased diffusivities and decreased fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum and major white matter tracts, in the right hemisphere. Altered diffusion tensor MRI measures were found in the right caudate and putamen nuclei with no volumetric changes. Multi-level alterations in voice-controlling networks, that included regions devoted not only to sensorimotor integration, motor preparation and motor execution, but also processing of auditory and visual information during speech, might have a role in the pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortical somatosensory reorganization in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS ePAPADELIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cerebral palsy (CP is among the most common causes of physical disability in early childhood, we know little about the functional and structural changes of this disorder in the developing brain. Here, we investigated with three different neuroimaging modalities (magnetoencephalography (MEG, diffusion tension imaging (DTI, and resting state fMRI whether spastic CP is associated with functional and anatomical abnormalities in the sensorimotor network. Ten children participated in the study: four with diplegic CP (DCP, three with hemiplegic CP (HCP, and three typically-developing (TD children. Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs were recorded in response to pneumatic stimuli applied to digits D1, D3, and D5 of both hands. Several parameters of water diffusion were calculated from DTI between the thalamus and the precentral and postcentral gyri in both hemispheres. The sensorimotor resting state networks (RSNs were examined by using an independent component analysis method. Tactile stimulation of the fingers elicited the first prominent cortical response at ~50 ms, in all except one child, localized over the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. In five CP children, abnormal somatotopic organization was observed in the affected (or more affected hemisphere. Euclidean distances were markedly different between the two hemispheres in the HCP children, and between DCP and TD children for both hemispheres. DTI analysis revealed decreased fractional anisotropy and increased apparent diffusion coefficient for the thalamocortical pathways in the more affected compared to less affected hemisphere in CP children. Rs-fMRI results indicated absent and/or abnormal sensorimotor RSNs for children with HCP and DCP consistent with the severity and location of their lesions. Our findings suggest an abnormal somatosensory processing mechanism in the sensorimotor network of children with CP possibly as a result of diminished thalamocortical projections.

  19. Association of frontal gray matter volume and cerebral perfusion in heroin addiction: A multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus eDenier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure and function in the human healthy brain are closely related. In patients with chronic heroin exposure, brain imaging studies have identified long-lasting changes in gray matter (GM volume. More recently, we showed that acute application of heroin in dependent pa-tients results in hypoperfusion of fronto-temporal areas compared with the placebo condition. However, the relationship between structural and cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in heroin addiction has not yet been investigated. Moreover, it is not known whether there is any interaction between the chronic structural changes and the short and long term effects on per-fusion caused by heroin. Using a double-blind, within-subject design, heroin or placebo (saline was administrated to 15 heroin-dependent patients from a stable heroin-assisted treat-ment program, in order to observe acute short-term effects. Arterial spin labeling (ASL was used to calculate perfusion quantification maps in both treatment conditions, while Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was conducted to calculate regional GM density. VBM and ASL data were used to calculate homologous correlation fields by Biological Parametric Mapping (BPM. We correlated each perfusion condition (heroin and placebo separately with a VBM sample that was identical for the two treatment conditions. It was assumed that heroin-associated perfusion is manifested in short term effects, while placebo-associated perfusion is more related to long term effects. Correlation analyses revealed a significant positive correlation in frontal and temporal areas between GM and both perfusion conditions (heroin and placebo. The heroin-associated perfusion was also negatively correlated with GM in the left thalamus and right cuneus. These findings indicate that, in heroin-dependent patients, low GM volume is positively associated with low perfusion within fronto-temporal regions.

  20. Influence of obstetrical events on satisfaction and anxiety during childbirth: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Lucia; Irion, Olivier; Courvoisier, Delphine

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feelings of anxiety and satisfaction among 79 primiparas who had uncomplicated pregnancies, at the time of hospital admission and after birth, considering the mode of delivery, analgesia, and pain levels. Questionnaires were completed at admission to the hospital and two months after delivery, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) state scale and the Labour Agentry Scale. The mean (SD) STAI state score was higher at admission (36.7 (10.7)) than 4 months after childbirth (32.1 (9.7)) (paired Student's t-test, t = 2.93; df = 78; p = .004). However, the postnatal anxiety was not associated with the mode of delivery, epidural or pain. Regarding the satisfaction with the expectations of control during childbirth, the mean (SD) score was higher before childbirth (166.0 (21.8)) than after (157.5 (33.5)) (paired Student's t-test, t = -2.28; df = 77; p = .03). The satisfaction with the childbirth experience was significantly associated with the expectations of childbirth and the mode of delivery, but not with analgesia or pain. The postnatal anxiety was associated with physical health, pain and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score during the postpartum period. It is important to consider the temporality of perinatal anxiety in order to understand its causes. Our results indicate that the experience of childbirth was predicted in this sample by the antenatal expectations and delivery outcomes.

  1. Longitudinal depression or anxiety in mothers and offspring asthma: a Swedish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Lundholm, Cecilia; Viktorin, Alexander; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Almqvist, Catarina

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has found that maternal stress during pregnancy increases the risk of offspring asthma. However, whether this association is consistent with a causal interpretation has never been tested. The objective is to determine whether there is a critical exposure period for maternal depression or anxiety on offspring asthma or whether cumulative exposure is most important, and to investigate evidence of confounding. The study population included all children born in Sweden from July 2006 to December 2009 (n = 360 526). Information about childhood asthma, maternal depression or anxiety (diagnosis or medication) and covariates was obtained from the Swedish national health registers. The associations between exposure periods (pre-conception, pregnancy, postnatal or current) and childhood asthma were estimated using structured life course approach hypothesis testing. Paternal and cousin analyses were used to test for evidence of confounding from shared genes and environment. For childhood asthma, cumulative exposure best described the effect of exposure to maternal depression or anxiety up to a maximum of any two exposure periods [adjusted odds ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38, 1.52]. The hypotheses of a critical period were not supported. The paternal and cousin analyses indicated minimal influence from familial confounding. These findings support an association between cumulative exposure to maternal depression or anxiety and asthma development in offspring. This association is unique for maternal depression or anxiety and not due to familial confounding. The clinical implication is that effective psychological management of women with chronic distress may reduce offspring asthma risk. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  2. Anxiety and depression in caregivers of individuals with celiac disease - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Roy, Abhik; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Green, Peter H R; Emilsson, Louise

    2017-03-01

    Partner burden is common in celiac disease (CD), but it is unclear if parents of children with CD have increased burden, and if this may translate into depression and anxiety meriting healthcare. Nationwide population-based study of 41,753 parents and spouses ("caregivers") to 29,096 celiac patients and 215,752 caregivers to 144,522 matched controls. Caregivers were identified from the Swedish Total Population Register, and linked to data on psychiatric disease in the National Patient Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) for depression, anxiety, and (as a reference outcome measure) bipolar disorder were examined in a lifetime fashion but also in temporal relationship to date of CD diagnosis using Cox regression. A priori, we focused on parents of individuals diagnosed ≤19 years of age (children at the age of disease onset) and spouses of individuals diagnosed in adulthood, as such parents and spouses ("high-risk caregivers") were most likely to live together with the patient at time of disease onset. On Cox analysis, depression was 11% more common in high-risk caregivers (HR=1.11: 95%CI=1.03-1.19) than in control caregivers while anxiety was 7% more common (HR=1.07: 95%CI=0.98-1.16). Combining anxiety and depression into a composite outcome measure, there was an 8% statistically significant risk increase (95%CI=1.02-1.14). The highest excess risks for both depression and anxiety were seen just before and 4-8 years after the CD diagnosis. In contrast, bipolar disorder was not more common in caregivers to CD patients. Caregivers to patients with CD may be at increased risk of severe burden. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression and anxiety symptoms following cancer diagnosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Graça; Graca, Joao; Klut, Catarina; Trancas, Bruno; Papoila, Ana

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess demographic and clinical characteristics of patients after receiving a cancer diagnosis, and to determine possible risk factors for anxiety and depression. All consecutive patients aged 18 or above, were assessed before starting intravenous chemotherapy for the first time with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Distress Thermometer, and a Visual Analog Scale for pain. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. The patients assessed (n = 270) had a mean age of 59.4 (SD = 11.8) years, and 50.7% were women. Tumours were more frequently colorectal (27.2%), lung (18.8%) and breast (17.6%), and 68.9% were stages 3 or 4. A HADS Anxiety score ≥8 was present in 30% of the patients, a Depression score ≥8 in 24.1%, and a Distress score ≥4 in 44.4%. Independent risk factors for HADS Depression score ≥8 were being a woman (OR = 2.45; p = 0.004), being older (OR = 1.04; p = 0.005), and cancer stage 3-4 (OR = 2.24; p = 0.023) in the multivariable analysis; for Anxiety ≥8 they were being a woman (OR = 2.47; p = 0.002), having a past psychiatric consultation (OR = 2.83; p = 0.029), and cancer stage 3-4 (OR = 1.90; p = 0.047). These results suggest the need for greater awareness and a differentiated approach to patients at increased risk of anxiety and depression in the early stages of treatment and before starting chemotherapy.

  4. Personality traits and dental anxiety in self-reported bruxism. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J; Gómez-Polo, C

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological factors (Personality and Dental anxiety) with self-reported bruxism-related symptoms. 526 subjects, over 18 years old and not seeking dental treatment, were recruited from the families and acquaintances of dental students from the University of Salamanca. Bruxism activity was estimated by means of a six-item questionnaire aimed at recording common bruxism-related symptoms and clenching/grinding awareness. The Spanish version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) was used to determine the level of anxiety perceived in 5 typical scenarios of dental assistance. The NEO-FFI inventory was applied to assess personality profiles associated with 5 different factors (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Pearson correlations, Student T-tests, and logistic regression modelling were used for the statistical analyses. Thirty-five point nine percent of this adults sample was classified as being bruxers, where sleep bruxers comprised more than half of the sample at 20.2%. Bruxers tended to perceive more anxiety in all of the situations included within the MDAS, where they exhibited a higher level of phobia towards the teeth scaling and local anaesthetic injection. The risk of being considered a bruxer is reduced with age (OR: 0.99), and increases proportionally for some personality traits, such as neuroticism (OR: 1.06) and extraversion(OR: 1.04), to the MDAS total score (OR: 1.08) and in smokers (OR: 1.61), after controlling for all potentially confounding factors. Self-reported bruxism is significantly associated to several personality traits (mainly neuroticism and extraversion) and to the level of dental anxiety (MDAS score). Clinicians should be aware of the typical psychological profiles of patients who experience bruxism and the relationship with dental phobias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Anxiety and Depression among Dental Practitioners-An Exploratory Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Prasad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentists face a great deal of professional stress, in the dental school as well as in clinical practice. Their personal, as well as professional lives, get affected negatively by the stress and poor mental health. Aim: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among dentists practicing in Ghaziabad city of Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 242 registered dentists in Ghaziabad city. Data regarding demographic, work-related characteristic, lifestyle and self-reported physical and mental status was collected. Mental status was measured through prevalidated questionnaire Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS and the Zung Self- Rating Depression Scale (SDS. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA and descriptive statistics and Pearson Chi-square test were used (p< 0.05. Results: Of the 242 dentists, only one dentist did not respond to the questionnaire thus generating the response rate of 99.5%. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among dentist was found to be 44.4% and 36.9% respectively. Almost all sociodemographic (except gender, work-related characteristics (except frequency of conflicts and working hours per week, lifestyle were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (p< 0.05 and demographic characteristics like marital status, years of experience, lifestyle, income per month, additional source of income were significantly also associated with depression (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Dentists are prone to stress which leads to further anxiety and depression. Stress coping strategies should be included in dental education curriculum to tackle these forms of tensions which indirectly improves their professional abilities and personal life.

  6. Social anxiety and self-concept in children with epilepsy: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana E; Blocher, Jacquelyn B; Jackson, Daren C; Sung, Connie; Fujikawa, Mayu

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) anxiety intervention on social phobia, social skill development, and self-concept. Fifteen children with epilepsy and a primary anxiety disorder participated in a CBT intervention for 12 weeks plus a 3-month follow-up visit. Children were assessed at baseline, week 7, week 12, and 3 months post treatment to measure changes in social phobia using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Self-concept was also assessed by using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale II (Piers-Harris 2). There was a significant reduction in symptoms of social phobia and improved self-concept at the end of the 12-week intervention and at the 3 month follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVA's of child ratings revealed significant change over time on the SCARED-Social Phobia/Social Anxiety subscale score (p=0.024). In terms of self-concept, significant change over time was detected on the Piers-Harris 2-Total score (p=0.015) and several subscale scores of Piers-Harris 2, including: Physical Appearance and Attributes (p=0.016), Freedom from Anxiety (p=0.005), and Popularity (p=0.003). This pilot investigation utilized an evidenced based CBT intervention to reduce symptoms of social phobia, which in turn provided a vehicle to address specific social skills improving self-concept in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  8. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Farouk M; Gado, Ali Mi; Mohammed, Haseebur R; Adam, Abdel Nasser Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist), diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent). We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w) microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18-30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11), minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11) or placebo (formulation C, n = 10) twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P minoxidil formulation significantly (P minoxidil alone and placebo formulations. These improvements were in agreement with the photographic assessments made by the investigators. Formula A was shown to be an o/w formulation with consistent pH, viscosity, specific gravity, and homogeneity, and was physically stable after 24 months

  9. The incidence and predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults with vision impairment: a longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesterbeek, Thomas J; van der Aa, Hilde P A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Twisk, Johannes W R; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2017-07-01

    Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in older adults with vision impairment. Because symptoms of depression and anxiety appear to fluctuate, it is important to identify patients who are at risk of developing these symptoms for early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and to investigate predictors of developing symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment who had no subthreshold depression or anxiety at baseline. A longitudinal prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 24 months in 540 older adults with vision impairment (mean age 75 years, 56% female, 48% macular degeneration, 15% glaucoma) from outpatient low-vision rehabilitation organisations was performed. The cumulative incidences of subthreshold depression and anxiety were calculated and linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to determine two prediction models. Main outcome measures were: fluctuations in (i) depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and (ii) anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale, HADS-A). The annual cumulative incidences of subthreshold depression and anxiety were 21.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 18.7-23.9%) and 9.5% (95% CI 7.4-11.6%), respectively. Risk factors for developing depressive symptoms were: living alone, having just enough money to cover expenses, having macular degeneration, having problems with adaptation to vision loss, reduced health related quality of life, and experiencing symptoms of anxiety. For developing anxiety symptoms, a relatively younger age, experiencing symptoms of depression, not living alone and experiencing hindrance at work proved to be risk factors. This study shows that the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment is twice as high compared with older adults in general and

  10. [Pregnancy intention and pregnancy-related anxiety in the second and third trimester: a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y; Yan, S Q; Huang, K; Mao, L J; Zhou, S S; Ge, X; Hao, J H; Zhu, P; Tao, F B

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To understand the association between pregnancy intention and pregnancy-related anxiety in the second and third trimester and its strength. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in Ma'anshan, Anhui province. A total of 3 474 eligible pregnant women within 14 weeks of gestation were recruited. The information about their demographic characteristics were collected in early pregnancy. The completed questionnaire of pregnancy-related anxiety were asked to return in the second and third trimester. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between pregnancy intention and pregnancy-related anxiety in the second and third trimester. Results: A total of 3 083 pregnant women were included in final analysis, The rate of unintentional pregnancy was 15.00 % ( n =461). The detection rates of pregnancy-related anxiety in the second and third trimester were 29.13 % ( n =898) and 30.36 % ( n =936). After controlling potential confounding factors, unintentional pregnancy increased the risk of pregnancy-related anxiety in the second trimester compared with intentional pregnancy ( OR =1.85, 95 %CI : 1.44-2.38); The risk of pregnancy-related anxiety also increased in the third trimester ( OR =1.84, 95 %CI : 1.44-2.35). Intentional pregnancy did not increase the risk of pregnancy-related anxiety in the second and third trimester. Conclusion: The study results suggests that unintentional pregnancy could increase the risk of pregnancy-related anxiety in the second and third trimester.

  11. Multimodal Resources in Transnational Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    The paper discusses an empirical analysis which highlights the multimodal nature of identity construction. A documentary on transnational adoption provides real life incidents as research material. The incidents involve (or from them emerge) various kinds of multimodal resources and participants...

  12. A Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Dental Anxiety for People with Learning Disabilities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangnell, Simon J.; Green, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Dental anxiety is a common form of anxiety problem, and research suggests that more people with learning disabilities experience dental anxiety than in the general population. Very little work has been done to investigate effective non-medical approaches for supporting people with a learning disability and dental anxiety to access dental care.…

  13. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Behs Jarros

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Methods: Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe. All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. Results: No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11. Conclusions: Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  14. Attention, memory, visuoconstructive, and executive task performance in adolescents with anxiety disorders: a case-control community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarros, Rafaela Behs; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Toazza, Rudineia; Becker, Natália; Agranonik, Marilyn; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess children and adolescents with mild and severe anxiety disorders for their performance in attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, executive functions, and cognitive global functioning and conduct comparative analyses with the performance of children free from anxiety disorders. Our sample comprised 68 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years (41 with current diagnoses of anxiety disorders and 27 controls) selected from a larger cross-sectional community sample of adolescents. Children and adolescents with anxiety disorders were categorized into two groups on the basis of anxiety severity (mild or severe). All participants underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery to evaluate attention, verbal episodic memory, working memory, visuoconstructive skills, and executive and cognitive functions. No differences were found in any neuropsychological tests, with the single exception that the group with mild anxiety had better performance on the Digit Span backward test compared to subjects with severe anxiety and to controls (p = 0.041; η2 = 0.11). Not only might anxiety disorders spare main cognitive functions during adolescence, they may even enhance certain working memory processes.

  15. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst Cancer Patients in a Hospital Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. Main Outcome Measures. Using a score of 20 and above on the AKUADS, 146 (48.7% patients were suffering from anxiety and depression. Results. When cross tabulation was done between different factors and the cancer patients with anxiety and depression, the following factors were found out to be significant with associated p value < 0.05: education of the patient, presence of cancer in the family, the severity of pain, and the patient’s awareness of his anxiety and depression. Out of 143 (47.7% uneducated patients, 85 (59.4% were depressed, hence making it the highest educational category suffering from depression and anxiety. Conclusion. The prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients was high showing that importance should be given to screening and counseling cancer patients for anxiety and depression, to help them cope with cancer as a disease and its impact on their mental wellbeing. Limitations. The frequency of female patients in our research was higher than those of male patients.

  16. Evaluating the efficacy of lavender aromatherapy on peripheral venous cannulation pain and anxiety: A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Tugba; Karaman, Serkan; Dogru, Serkan; Tapar, Hakan; Sahin, Aynur; Suren, Mustafa; Arici, Semih; Kaya, Ziya

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of lavender aromatherapy on pain, anxiety, and level of satisfaction associated with the peripheral venous cannulation (PVC) in patients undergoing surgery. One hundred and six patients undergoing surgery were randomized to receive aromatherapy with lavender essential oil (the lavender group) or a placebo (the control group) during PVC. The patients' pain, anxiety, and satisfaction scores were measured. There was no statistically significantly difference between the groups in terms of demographic data. After cannulation, the pain and anxiety scores (anxiety 2) of the patients in the lavender group were significantly lower than the control group (for p = 0.01 for pain scores; p aromatherapy had beneficial effects on PVC pain, anxiety, and satisfaction level of patients undergoing surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  18. Effect of massage therapy on pain, anxiety, relaxation, and tension after colorectal surgery: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Nikol E; Cutshall, Susanne M; Huebner, Marianne; Foss, Diane M; Lovely, Jenna K; Bauer, Brent A; Cima, Robert R

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of postoperative massage in patients undergoing abdominal colorectal surgery. One hundred twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive a 20-min massage (n = 61) or social visit and relaxation session (no massage; n = 66) on postoperative days 2 and 3. Vital signs and psychological well-being (pain, tension, anxiety, satisfaction with care, relaxation) were assessed before and after each intervention. The study results indicated that postoperative massage significantly improved the patients' perception of pain, tension, and anxiety, but overall satisfaction was unchanged. In conclusion, massage may be beneficial during postoperative recovery for patients undergoing abdominal colorectal surgery. Further studies are warranted to optimize timing and duration and to determine other benefits in this clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salivary Alpha Amylase, Dental Anxiety, and Extraction Pain: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin C; Bassiur, Jennifer P

    2017-01-01

    The primary intention of this study was to determine whether salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) factors or the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) was a better predictor of dental extraction pain. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample (n = 23) recruited from an outpatient oral surgery clinic. While waiting for their scheduled appointments, consenting patients completed both basic demographic/medical history questionnaires and Corah's DAS as well as submitted sublingual saliva samples. After their extractions, patients marked visual analog scales (VAS) to indicate the intensity of their intraoperative discomfort. Results of this study confirm that there is a relationship between a patient's dental anxiety and intraoperative extraction pain (r[21] = .47, P = .02). This study did not find that preoperative sAA factors (concentration and output rate) were related to either VAS extraction pain or DAS score. A strong positive relationship was observed between the concentration of sAA and the rate of sAA output (r[21] = .81, P dental anxiety has a moderate but significant correlation with intraoperative dental pain. Factors of sAA do not appear to be predictive of this experience. Therefore, simply assessing an anxious patient may be the best indication of that patient's extraction pain.

  20. Symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of physical functioning in breast cancer patients. A prospective study using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Hermann; Strahl, André; Richard, Matthias; Niehues, Christiane; Meng, Karin

    2017-12-01

    Although symptoms of depression and anxiety are linked to health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the nature of this relationship remained unclear. We therefore aimed to examine, in a prospective study, both possible directions of impact in this relationship. To avoid conceptual and measurement overlap between depressive and anxiety symptoms, on the one hand, and HRQoL, on the other hand, we focused on the physical functioning component of HRQoL. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with 436 female breast cancer patients (mean age 51 years). Both at baseline and after 12 months, we measured symptoms of depression and anxiety with the four-item Patient Heath Questionnaire (PHQ-4) and physical functioning with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Using path analysis, we estimated (1) the predictive value of symptoms of depression/anxiety for subsequent physical functioning and (2) the predictive value of physical functioning for subsequent symptoms of depression/anxiety, in the same model. Baseline symptoms of depression/anxiety predicted 1-year levels of physical functioning (depression: standardized β =  -.09, p = .024; anxiety: standardized β =  -.10, p = .009), while the reciprocal paths linking baseline physical functioning to subsequent depressive and anxiety symptoms were not significant, adjusting for the baseline scores of all outcome variables. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were predictors of the physical functioning component of HRQoL. Thus, if this relation is causal, treating breast cancer patients' depressive and anxiety symptoms may have a favorable impact on their self-reported physical functioning.

  1. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…

  2. Effect of Yoga on anxiety, depression and self-esteem in orphanage residents: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Tejvani, Ravishankar; Metri, Kashinath G.; Agrawal, Jyotsna; Nagendra, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There has been an increase in a number of orphanages and children living in orphanages in last few years. The children living in orphanages often have psychological problems among which anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem are considered to be most prominent. Yoga is a noninvasive, cost-effective, and safe intervention among complementary and alternative medicine which is known to have a positive impact on psychological problems. Aims: The present pilot study intended to ass...

  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of anxiety disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Otowa, T.; Hek, K.; Lee, M.; Byrne, E.M.; Mirza, S.S.; Nivard, M.G.; Bigdeli, T.; Aggen, S.H.; Adkins, D.; Wolen, A.; Fanous, A.; Keller, M.C.; Castelao, E.; Kutalik, Z.; der Auwera, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs), namely generalized AD, panic disorder and phobias, are common, etiologically complex conditions with a partially genetic basis. Despite differing on diagnostic definitions based on clinical presentation, ADs likely represent various expressions of an underlying common diathesis of abnormal regulation of basic threat-response systems. We conducted genome-wide association analyses in nine samples of European ancestry from seven large, independent studies. To identify ge...

  4. Modeling Multimodal Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses one of the core axioms of social semiotic theory, namely stratification, in the light of developments in multimodality in recent years. The discussion takes a point of departure in the approaches to stratification taken by Hjelmslev, Halliday, and Kress and van Leeuwen....... The article outlines a theoretical experiment exploring how an alternative way of modeling stratification and instantiation may raise some interesting ideas on the concepts of realization dynamics, system-instance, and the different contexts of the semiotic text. This is elaborated in a discussion of how...... the relationship between stratification and instantiation in the multimodal instantiation of resources at different strata may provide a new approach to mapping out the dynamics of multimodal meaning making....

  5. Association between anxiety and pain in the latent phase of labour upon admission to the maternity hospital: a prospective, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Lucia; Irion, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between anxiety experienced by the mother, a request for analgesia, and the level of pain at maternity hospital admission in early labour. Anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and pain was assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale. Anxiety and Visual Analogue Scale scores were compared using a linear regression model and indicated a statistically significant association between the anxiety state and degree of pain (p labour, an evaluation of anxiety should be associated with an assessment of the perceived degree of pain. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  7. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability: results from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Arnold, L Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychaitry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. To what extent does the anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) detect specific types of anxiety disorder in primary care? A psychometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.; Straten, A. van; Ven, P.M. van de; Langerak, W.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety

  9. Relapse insomnia increases greater risk of anxiety and depression: evidence from a population-based 4-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Jen; Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wu, Ming-Ping; Ho, Chung-Han; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Hsu, Ya-Wen

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the longitudinal impacts of insomnia on the subsequent developments of anxiety and depression during a four-year follow-up. We further categorized individuals with insomnia into different insomnia subgroups to examine whether the risk of anxiety and depression varies by subtype. Participants were identified from National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan during 2002-2009. The study included 19,273 subjects with insomnia and 38,546 matched subjects without insomnia. All subjects did not have previous diagnosis of insomnia, sleep apnea, anxiety, or depression. Compared with non-insomniacs, insomniacs had a higher risk of developing anxiety only [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 8.83, 95% CI = 7.59-10.27], depression only (adjusted HR = 8.48, 95% CI = 6.92-10.39), and both anxiety and depression (adjusted HR = 17.98, 95% CI = 12.65-25.56). When breaking down the insomnia subgroups, individuals with a relapse of insomnia (adjusted HR = 10.42-26.80) had the highest risk of anxiety only, depression only, and both anxiety and depression, followed by persistent insomnia (adjusted HR = 9.82-18.98), then remitted insomnia (adjusted HR = 4.50-8.27). All three insomnia subgroups had a greater four-year cumulative incidence rate than the non-insomnia group for anxiety only, depression only, and both anxiety and depression (p anxiety or/and depression. Awareness of insomnia and treatment of insomnia should be recommended at clinics, and patterns of insomnia should be monitored to help treatment and control of subsequent psychiatric disorders. Future research with comprehensive data collection is needed to identify factors that contribute to different insomnia subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a micromirror-scanned multimodal CARS miniaturized microscope for the in vivo study of spinal cord disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, Sangeeta; Smith, Brett; Naji, Majid; Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter; Anis, Hanan

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the design and implementation of a novel multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) miniaturized microscope for imaging of injured and recovering spinal cords in a single living animal. We demonstrate for the first time, the use of a biaxial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror for scanning and diffraction limited multiple lens miniaturized objective for exciting a CARS signal. The miniaturized microscope design includes light delivery using a large mode area photonic crystal fiber (PCF), and multimode fiber for collection of the nonlinear optical signal. The basic design concept, major engineering challenges, solutions, and preliminary results are presented. We demonstrate CARS and two photon excitation fluorescence microscopy in a benchtop setup with the miniaturized optics and MEMS scanning. The light source is based on a single femtosecond laser (pump beam) and a supercontinuum generated in a nonlinear PCF (Stokes beam). This is coupled using free space optics onto the surface of a resonantly driven two dimensional scanning MEMS mirror that scans the excitation light in a Lissajous pattern. The novel design of the miniaturized microscope is expected to provide significant new information on the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord Injury.

  11. Depression, anxiety and quality of life among diabetic patients: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Kolawole, Babatope; Mume, Celestine; Ikem, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare psychiatric morbidity among diabetic patients, asthmatics and healthy individuals and also to assess the association of psychiatric morbidity and other variables with quality of life among diabetes patients. For each respondent, the questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical variables was completed. They also completed the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1). Diabetic patients also completed the Diabetic Well-Being Questionnaire. A total of 180 subjects were used for this study-80 diabetics (males=37, females=43) were compared with 50 asthmatics (males=22, females=28) and 50 healthy individuals (males=23, females=27). Depression was more prevalent among diabetic patients (20%) compared with asthmatics (12%) and healthy individuals (4%), while anxiety was more prevalent among asthmatics (34%) compared with diabetics (20%) and healthy individuals (8%). Predictors of depression include age of the patient, poor glycemic control and duration of diabetes mellitus. Factors that correlated significantly with diabetic general well-being include depression, anxiety and fasting blood glucose level. Depression and the presence of comorbid medical conditions significantly predicted a low quality of life. Psychiatric morbidity has significant effects on diabetic patients' quality of life.

  12. A population study comparing screening performance of prototypes for depression and anxiety with standard scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Helen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening instruments for mental disorders need to be short, engaging, and valid. Current screening instruments are usually questionnaire-based and may be opaque to the user. A prototype approach where individuals identify with a description of an individual with typical symptoms of depression, anxiety, social phobia or panic may be a shorter, faster and more acceptable method for screening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of four new prototype screeners for predicting depression and anxiety disorders and to compare their performance with existing scales. Methods Short and ultra-short prototypes were developed for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD, Panic Disorder (PD and Social Phobia (SP. Prototypes were compared to typical short and ultra-short self-report screening scales, such as the Centre for Epidemiology Scale, CES-D and the GAD-7, and their short forms. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI version 6 1 was used as the gold standard for obtaining clinical criteria through a telephone interview. From a population sample, 225 individuals who endorsed a prototype and 101 who did not were administered the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted for the short and ultra short prototypes and for the short and ultra short screening scales. Results The study found that the rates of endorsement of the prototypes were commensurate with prevalence estimates. The short-form and ultra short scales outperformed the short and ultra short prototypes for every disorder except GAD, where the GAD prototype outperformed the GAD 7. Conclusions The findings suggest that people may be able to self-identify generalised anxiety more accurately than depression based on a description of a prototypical case. However, levels of identification were lower than expected. Considerable benefits from this method of screening may ensue if our prototypes can be

  13. Dental anxiety in children with cleft lip and palate: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Muharrem Cem; Serin, Buse Ayse; Uzel, Aslıhan; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the level of dental fear and anxiety of children who have cleft lip and palate (CLP). The study was performed at Cukurova University, Faculty of Dentistry. A total of 32 7- to 12-yearold children, 17 of them with CLP (8 girls and 9 boys) and 15 of them without CLP (7 girls and 8 boys) participated in the study. The children were evaluated by using the Facial Image Scale (FIS) and Dental Subscale of Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) methods. The anxiety state of the children was assessed twice using FIS: first in the dental hospital waiting room (FIS-WR) and after, while sitting in the dental chair (FIS-DC). CFSS-DS was administered to all participants in order to assess the dental anxiety while they were sitting in the dental chair. According to the FIS results, there was no difference between CLP and control group in the waiting room (P = 0.682). However, the CLP group showed lower scores than the control group while they were sitting in the dental chair (P = 0.030). The FIS scores of the CLP group were significantly higher in the waiting room than while sitting in the dental chair (P = 0.007). In the control group, there was no significant difference between FIS-WR and FIS-DC values (P = 0.664). The total CFSS-DS scores of children with CLP were lower than those of the control group, but these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Children with CLP showed more anxiety in the FIS-WR than in the FIS-DC, but they showed lower scores than the control group in the FIS-DC. The positive previous experience of meetings with dentists of the CLP children could explain these results. Positive previous experiences with dentists and a short time in the waiting room could be key elements in the care of CLP children.

  14. Mathematics teaching experiences of elementary preservice teachers with high and low mathematics anxiety during student teaching: A multiple case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Leslie Deanna

    This study investigated the teaching experiences of six elementary preservice teachers (EPTs), three with high mathematics anxiety and three with low mathematics anxiety, during their student teaching semester. The EPTs were selected from an initial pool of 121 EPTs who took the Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Scale. The cases were compared in a cross case analysis to highlight mathematics teaching experiences among EPTs. Data sources included EPT and researcher journal entries, interview transcripts, pre-lesson surveys, field notes, lesson plans, and artifacts of observed lessons. Data were coded using Shulman's content knowledge, Graeber's mathematics pedagogical content knowledge, and mathematics anxiety characteristics. Findings revealed both similarities and differences across EPTs as related to four major categories: (a) planning and resources used, (b) role of the cooperating teacher, (c) content knowledge, and (d) pedagogical content knowledge. All EPTs used mostly direct instruction and relied on the course textbook and their respective cooperating teacher as their primary resources for planning. Additionally, across participants, the cooperating teacher influenced EPTs' perceptions of students and teaching. Also, EPTs with high mathematics anxiety were weaker with respect to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. Findings suggest a need to re-design methods courses to address improving the pedagogical content knowledge of EPTs with mathematics anxiety. Findings also suggest a need to develop content specific mathematics courses for EPTs to improve their content knowledge. Future studies could include a longitudinal study to follow highly anxious EPTs who take content specific elementary mathematics courses to observe their content knowledge and mathematics anxiety.

  15. Treating late-life generalized anxiety disorder in primary care: an effectiveness pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleo, Jessica S; Bush, Amber L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2013-05-01

    To increase the sustainability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated nonexpert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and nonexperienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). After 3 months of treatment, Cohen's d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from 0.48 to 0.78. Patients treated by experienced and nonexperienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Preliminary results suggest that adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakr FM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Farouk M Sakr,1 Ali MI Gado,2 Haseebur R Mohammed,2 Abdel Nasser Ismail Adam3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Departments of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Biology, College of Pharmacy, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist, diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent. We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Methods: We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18–30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11, minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11 or placebo (formulation C, n = 10 twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Results: Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P

  17. Instantiation of Multimodal Semiotic Systems in Science Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kok-Sing

    2013-01-01

    Science classroom discourse is inherently multimodal in that scientific meanings are made through an integration of multiple semiotic systems (e.g., language, diagrams, equations). Although some studies have described this multimodal nature, few have examined and explained the relationship between the integration of multiple semiotic systems and…

  18. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision

  19. Fracturing Writing Spaces: Multimodal Storytelling Ignites Process Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, Kimberly; Winters, Kari-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the affordances of literature-based, arts-infused and digital media processes for students, as multimodal practices take centre stage in an English Language Arts unit on fractured fairy tales. The study takes up the challenge of addressing multimodal literacy instruction and research in ways that utilize a range of…

  20. Individual Multimodal Therapy for Weight Loss: A Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmartin, Christopher; Robbins, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Presents a case study highlighting a treatment model based on a multimodal conceptualization. Suggests that individual multimodal therapy provides a comprehensive approach to the treatment of overeating, helping to target social and emotional issues related to eating disorders as well as the eating behaviors themselves. (Author/ABB)

  1. Rates of Detection of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care: A Descriptive, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Monica; Marcus, Madalyn; Katzman, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and to assess their detection rates in the Canadian primary care setting. Method: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 primary care clinics in 3 Canadian provinces, Ontario, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia, from December 6, 2005, to May 5, 2006. Patients in clinic waiting rooms who consented to participate in the study were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) (N = 840). These patients' medical charts were then reviewed for evidence of previous diagnosis of a mood or anxiety disorder. Misdiagnosis was defined as cases for which a diagnosis was reached on the MINI but not in the patient's chart. Results: Of the 840 primary care patients assessed, 27.2%, 11.4%, 12.6%, 31.2%, and 16.5% of patients met criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder, respectively. Misdiagnosis rates reached 65.9% for major depressive disorder, 92.7% for bipolar disorder, 85.8% for panic disorder, 71.0% for generalized anxiety disorder, and 97.8% for social anxiety disorder. Conclusions: With high prevalence rates and poor detection, there is an obvious need to enhance diagnostic screening in the primary care setting. PMID:21977354

  2. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  3. A BRIEF NOTE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANXIETY AND PERFORMANCE IN SCUBA DIVING IN ADOLESCENTS: A FIELD STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Fabian; Doppelmayr, Michael

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between anxiety and scuba diving performance of young individuals (N = 44; 16.9 yr., SD = 1.2) participating in an introductory scuba diving activity. The question was whether the well-known negative correlation between anxiety and scuba diving performance found for experienced and middle-aged scuba divers will be observed in young participants in their first dive experience. Diving instructors rated standardized scuba diving skills that were correlated with individual state and trait anxiety. There was no relationship between anxiety and scuba diving performance, neither for state nor for trait anxiety. This non-significant correlation between anxiety and performance was in contrast to recent findings observed for experienced divers or those who participated at a scuba diving training program. Considering the differences in methodological design between this study and recent investigations, further research is needed to reveal possible relations between anxiety, scuba diving performance, and panic behavior in beginner-level youth or adults.

  4. Prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in gastric cancer patients in China: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Pan, Qiong; Lin, Renqin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in patients with gastric cancer, in China. Patients with gastric cancer who were diagnosed by gastroscopy and would accept laparoscopic surgery were eligible for the study. Each participant completed self-administered questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ), Social Support Rating Scale, and Type D personality scale before surgery. Routine blood tests were undertaken within 7 days before surgery, to calculate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Based on HADS, patients were divided into an anxiety/depression group and a nonanxiety/depression group. Fifty-three patients with gastric cancer were included in the study. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and/or depression was 20.75% (11/53). Factors influencing preoperative anxiety and depression were a resigned dimension of coping style, type D personality and NLR. Logistic regression analysis showed that a higher score for the resigned dimension of coping style on the MCMQ and a higher NLR were significantly associated with preoperative anxiety and depression. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and depression in Chinese patients with gastric cancer may be influenced by both the coping mode and NLR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. A probabilistic and individualized approach for predicting treatment gains: an extension and application to anxiety disordered youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Lindhiem, Oliver; Brodman, Douglas M; Swan, Anna; Carper, Matthew; Cummings, Colleen; Kendall, Philip C; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Compton, Scott N; March, John; Walkup, John; Ginsburg, Golda; Keeton, Courtney P; Birmaher, Boris; Sakolsky, Dara; Sherrill, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the probability of treatment benefit method by adding treatment condition as a stratifying variable, and illustrate this extension of the methodology using the Child and Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study data. The probability of treatment benefit method produces a simple and practical way to predict individualized treatment benefit based on pretreatment patient characteristics. Two pretreatment patient characteristics were selected in the production of the probability of treatment benefit charts: baseline anxiety severity, measured by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and treatment condition (cognitive-behavioral therapy, sertraline, their combination, and placebo). We produced two charts as exemplars which provide individualized and probabilistic information for treatment response and outcome to treatments for child anxiety. We discuss the implications of the use of the probability of treatment benefit method, particularly with regard to patient-centered outcomes and individualized decision-making in psychology and psychiatry. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Efficacy of agomelatine in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Ahokas, Antti A; de Bodinat, Christian

    2008-10-01

    Agomelatine is a novel agent that acts on melatonergic (MT(1), MT(2)) receptors and serotonergic (5-HT(2C)) receptors. Preclinical data and data from clinical trials in major depression suggest that agomelatine may have anxiolytic properties. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed to assess the efficacy of agomelatine in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). One hundred twenty-one patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition GAD and no comorbid disorders were randomized to agomelatine (25-50 mg/d) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, whereas secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression scales, the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire, and the Sheehan Disability Scale. Safety measures included assessment of spontaneously reported adverse events, laboratory monitoring, and the Discontinuation Emergent Signs and Symptoms Scale to evaluate discontinuation symptoms. Analysis of covariance of change in the last Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale total score from baseline demonstrated significant superiority of agomelatine 25 to 50 mg as compared with placebo (E [SE] = -3.28 [1.58]; 95% confidence interval = -6.41 to -0.15; P = 0.040). Data on secondary outcome measures, including clinical response, symptoms of insomnia, and improvement in associated disability, were consistent with the efficacy of agomelatine. Safety analysis indicated that agomelatine was tolerated as well as placebo and was devoid of discontinuation emergent symptoms. This study suggests that agomelatine is effective in the treatment of GAD and is well tolerated. Additional trials, using an active comparator and extending over a longer period, are needed to delineate the place of agomelatine in the contemporary pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders.

  7. Aromatherapy with ylang ylang for anxiety and self-esteem: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify if the use of ylang ylang essential oil by cutaneous application or inhalation alters the anxiety and self-esteem perception and physiological parameters as blood pressure and temperature. Method : A pilot study with 34 professionals from a nursing group randomized in three groups: one received the ylang ylang essential oil by cutaneous application, the second received through inhalation and the third (placebo received the ylang ylang essence through cutaneous application. The assessment was done by an Anxiety Inventory (IDATE and the Dela Coleta self-esteem scale, applied on baseline, after 30, 60 and 90 days and after 15 days post-intervention (follow up. Results : In the pre and post-intervention intergroup analysis, there was a significant difference in self-esteem for the three groups (p values: G1=0.014; G2=0.016; G3=0.038. There were no differences in the analysis between groups for anxiety or for physiological parameters. Conclusion : It was found significant alterations only to the intergroup perception of self-esteem for the three groups.

  8. Patient anxiety and surgical difficulty in impacted lower third molar extractions: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Arasa, L; Figueiredo, R; Valmaseda-Castellón, E; Gay-Escoda, C

    2014-09-01

    Encountering patients who are fearful and anxious is common in dental practice and these factors can increase the complexity of dental procedures. A prospective cohort study was performed to assess whether patient anxiety influences the difficulty of impacted lower third molar extraction and to identify other predictive factors of surgical difficulty; 102 extractions done under local anaesthesia were assessed. Several preoperative variables were recorded (demographic, anatomical, and surgical) and patient anxiety was assessed through the use of various questionnaires. Extraction difficulty was measured using the operation time (OT) and a 100-mm visual analogue scale (difficulty VAS) completed by the surgeon. Patients with deep impacted third molars that required bone removal and tooth sectioning showed higher levels of preoperative anxiety. Significant correlations were found between questionnaire scores and the surgical difficulty (OT and difficulty VAS). OT was also related to age, depth of impaction, third molar angulations, proximity of the third molar roots to the mandibular canal, hard and soft tissue coverage, and the need to perform an ostectomy and tooth sectioning. Impacted lower third molar extraction is significantly more difficult in anxious patients. Other demographic, radiological, and surgical factors were also found to be significantly related to the surgical difficulty. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of Work Performance in Workers with Depression and Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Ivandic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders with an impact on existential aspects of person’s life, including employment i.e., work performance (WP. In order to develop appropriate strategies, it is essential to identify determinants of WP. The objective of this study was to identify the built, social, attitudinal and health system-related environmental determinants of WP in workers with anxiety or depression in total (N = 1211 and regarding the level of disability. Hierarchical binary logistic regression was performed on data obtained from implementation of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Chile in 2015. Hindering aspects of means of transportation and workplace, and the use of personal assistance were determinants of WP for all workers with anxiety or depression. Results differed with level of disability. Hindering aspects of means of transportation and workplace, and discrimination were determinants of WP for persons with mild to moderate disability, while hindering aspects of the workplace and dwelling, and the use of personal assistance were determinants of WP for persons with severe disability. Our results emphasize the need for a broader understanding of determinants of WP and the requirement for an integrative approach in developing both universal and specific strategies that go beyond workplace settings.

  10. Co-rumination cultivates anxiety: a genetically informed study of friend influence during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirghangi, Shrija; Kahn, Gilly; Laursen, Brett; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-04-01

    This study tested 2 related hypotheses. The first holds that high co-rumination anticipates heightened internalizing problems. The second holds that positive relationships with friends exacerbate the risk for internalizing problems arising from co-rumination. A sample of MZ twins followed from birth (194 girls and 170 boys) completed (a) self-reports of friendship support, friendship negativity, and co-rumination with friends at age 12 and (b) measures of anxiety and depression at ages 12 and 13. Using a monozygotic twins-difference design, within-pair differences in co-rumination predicted increased within-pair differences in anxiety (but not depression), after removing the covariance between co-rumination and perceptions of friendship. In other words, the difference in co-rumination within each monozygotic twin pair predicted an increase in the difference in their anxiety levels, but not the difference in their depression levels. The discussion focuses on nonshared environmental influences, because the monozygotic twin-difference design eliminates the possibility that associations were driven by heritability or by shared environmental factors that underlie friendship experiences and internalizing problems. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Investigation of depression, anxiety and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Alyne Hevellen; Godoy, Priscilla Brandi Gomes; Oliveira, Nara Rejane Cruz de; Diniz, Roger Amorim Santos; Diniz, Ricardo Edésio Amorim Santos; Padovani, Ricardo da Costa; Silva, Regina Cláudia Barbosa da

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone, compromising the joint as a whole. The knee joint is characterized as one of the main sites of involvement of OA and the most significant risk factors for developing the disease are aging, overweight and female gender. OA is considered one of the most frequent causes of disability, which may affect the quality of life of the patients, favoring the onset of mental disorders. To investigate whether anxiety and depression symptoms are more significant in women with OA, when compared with women without this diagnosis, and to what extent this rheumatic disease affects the quality of life of these patients. The study included 75 women, mean age 67 years; 40 were diagnosed with knee OA and 35 without this diagnosis. The following instruments were used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and SF-36, a quality of life questionnaire. Women with knee OA have higher rates of depression and anxiety when compared to controls; in addition, they have a lower quality of life. We believe that the treatment of patients with OA should consider the combination of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, counseling and family support, in order to achieve a better quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of working memory load on cognitive control in trait anxiety: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senqing Qi

    Full Text Available Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load or six letters (high WM load while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent on reaction times (RTs and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.

  13. Parental separation anxiety and diabetes self-management of older adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shannon; Dashiff, Carol; Abdullatif, Hussein; Moreland, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Parents of high school seniors with type 1 diabetes mellitus are faced with many concerns and fears as their adolescent prepares to assume primary disease management responsibility and leave the parental residence. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between parental separation anxiety and adolescent self-management and glycemic control. A second aim was to assess the relationship between adolescent self-management and glycemic control. Twenty-three families who had adolescents 16 to 18 years of age in or entering in their senior year of high school were recruited. Adolescents from higher income families reported better self-management skills than those from poorer families (r = 0.410, p = 0.05). Length of time since diabetes diagnosis was inversely related to glycemic control (r = 0.448, p = 0.02), indicating that adolescents who had the disease longer had poorer control. Parental separation anxiety was not related to adolescent self-management. Adolescent self-management was negatively related to glycemic control (r = -0.370, p = 0.08), suggesting that adolescents who demonstrated better self-management skills had improved glycemic control in comparison to adolescents who did not demonstrate effective self-management skills. Paternal, not maternal, separation anxiety demonstrated a significant relationship with glycemic control (r = 0.639, p < 0.001).

  14. Supervision for treatment of depression: An experimental study of the role of therapist gender and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Southward, Chloe; Waller, Glenn; Hardy, Gillian E

    2016-02-01

    Psychological treatments for depression are not always delivered effectively or consistently. Clinical supervision of therapists is often assumed to keep therapy on track, ensuring positive patient outcomes. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting this assumption. This experimental study explored the focus of supervision of depression cases, comparing guidance given to supervisees of different genders and anxiety levels. Participants were clinical supervisors who supervised therapists working with patients with depression. Supervisors indicated their supervision focus for three supervision case vignettes. Supervisee anxiety and gender was varied across vignettes. Supervisors focused calm female supervisees more on therapeutic techniques than state anxious female supervisees. Males were supervised in the same way, regardless of their anxiety. Both male and female supervisors had this pattern of focus. Findings indicate that supervision is influenced by supervisors' own biases towards their supervisees. These factors may cause supervisors to drift from prompting their supervisees to deliver best practice. Suggestions are made for ways to improve the effectiveness of clinical supervision and how these results may inform future research practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Children's and parent's psychological profiles in selective mutism and generalized anxiety disorder: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Flavia; Manti, Filippo; Di Trani, Michela; Romani, Maria; Vigliante, Miriam; Sogos, Carla

    2017-10-28

    Selective mutism (SM) is classified in DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. The aim of the study was to investigate the psychological features of children with SM and their parental psychological profiles, compared to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) children and their parents. The parents of 26 preschool children with SM and 32 with children with GAD filled out the child behavior check list for 1½-5 years (CBCL1½-5) and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R). Information about the children and their parents' histories was collected through clinical interviews. Children with SM scored higher than children with GAD on the CBCL1½-5 withdrawn scale and lower on the attention problems, aggressive behavior, and externalizing problems scales. Mothers of children with SM scored higher on the SCL-90-R obsessive-compulsive subscale and Global Severity Index than mothers of children with GAD, while fathers of children with SM scored higher on the SCL-90-R Phobic Anxiety subscale and on the Global Severity Index than fathers of children with GAD. Parents of children with SM displayed a greater presence of stressful life events than parents of children with GAD. Data appeared to confirm that SM and GAD share a common anxious core, though some differences in the children's psychological profiles and the parents' history and personality emerged. Future research should focus on the role of external factors, such as parent-child relationship, in the development of SM.

  16. Risk factors and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Julia; Petzoldt, Johanna; Einsle, Franziska; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders are associated with adverse consequences for mother and child. Thus, it is important to examine risk factors, correlates and course patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders during pregnancy and after delivery. In the prospective-longitudinal Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study, n=306 expectant mothers were recruited from gynaecological outpatient settings in Germany and completed up to seven waves of assessment from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum. Anxiety and depressive disorders and potential risk factors/correlates were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women (CIDI-V), medical records and additional questionnaires. Although peripartum anxiety and depressive disorders appeared to be persistent in some women, others reported major changes with heterogeneous co