... press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults Click for more information Studies estimate that anxiety ... anxiety symptoms or make them worse. In older adults, anxiety disorders often occur at the same time as depression, ...
Klein, Rachel G.
Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…
... Therapies Join a Study Learn More Anxiety Disorders Definition Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. ... and sharing their problems and achievements with others. Internet chat rooms might also be useful, but any ...
... which may include: Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle Genetics. Anxiety disorders may run in families. Traumatic events. Experiencing abuse, an attack, or sexual assault can lead to serious health problems, including ...
... situation, and affects a person's daily life and happiness. Symptoms of an anxiety disorder can come on ... letting go of worry allows space for more happiness and fun. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD ...
... anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...
Arya Ashwani; Kumar Tarun; Malik Ajay; Hooda Anil
Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher prepo...
... Databases International Annual Meeting Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students ... Information Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It ...
Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.
Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...
Stacey A. Hofflich
Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 714 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.
... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Stein MB, Stein DJ. Social anxiety disorder. Lancet . 2008;371:1115- ...
Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.
Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…
Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk
Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, “normal anxiety” does not equal “pathological anxiety” although many phenomena are evident in ...
Background Anxiety disorders are common and a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to conventional treatments such as SSRIs or CBT. Capsulotomy is a neurosurgical treatment for treatment refractory patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders. The aim of this thesis was to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of capsulotomy. Methods and results In Study I, 26 consecutive patients who underwent capsulotomy from 1975-...
... expect. For instance, a person who has generalized anxiety disorder may constantly worry about a child who is perfectly healthy. About 4 million adults in the United States have GAD. Women are ...
Zerrin Binbay; Ahmet Koyuncu
Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subseq...
High rates of comorbidity were found between alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder in epidemiologic studies. Although many studies show strong relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder diagnosis, inconsistency about the causal relationship still remains. High rates of comorbidity is a subject of concern since patients with both alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder show more severe symptoms and more functional impairment than those patients w...
... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...
Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Patino, Luis R.; Doyle, Christopher D.; Picard, Lara S.; Phan, K. Luan
While the fear-based anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and separation anxiety disorder) are among the most common psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents, only recently has an integrated understanding of the neurobiology of these disorders developed. In this regard, both structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated neuroanatomic and functional abnormalities within the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in youth with fear-based anxi...
... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...
... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...
Fredrikson, Mats; Faria, Vanda
Neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate neurofunctional and neurochemical alterations related to the generation and control of affect in patients with anxiety disorders are reviewed. We performed a meta-analysis of symptom provocation studies, where neural activity was measured using fMRI, PET or SPECT to test the hypothesis that prefrontal regions modulate amygdala activity. Data revealed that reactivity in the amygdala was enhanced in patients with phobia as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was activated in concert with the amygdala, both in PTSD and in phobic states, suggesting a role in fear expression, rather than emotional control. Activity in emotion-regulating areas in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and the medial orbitofrontal cortex was compromised in the symptomatic state in PTSD and phobic disorders, respectively. Increased amygdala reactivity was restored with psychological treatment. Treatment effects across different modalities including pharmacological and psychological interventions as well as with placebo regimens support that reduction of neural activity in the amygdala may be a final common pathway for successful therapeutic interventions irrespective of method, thereby linking neurotransmission to plasticity in a pivotal node of the core fear network of the brain. PMID:25225017
Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.
An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled stu...
Mathew, Roy J.
Anxiety disorders are some of the commonest psychiatric disorders and anxiety commonly co-exists with other psychiatric conditions. Anxiety can also be a normal emotion. Thus, study of the neurobiological effects of anxiety is of considerable significance. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMR) serve as indices of brain function. CBF/CMR research is expected to provide new insight into alterations in brain function in anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disord...
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is not a rare psychiatric disorder, and the recent World Mental Health Japan Survey, Second (WMHJ2) reported the possibility that the twelve-month prevalence of SAD has increased from 0.7 to 2.3% over the last ten years. However, ten years have already passed since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) were approved for the treatment of SAD in Japan, and not only laypersons but also mental health professionals still misunderstand SAD as public speech phobia. As a result, the boundary between normal shyness and SAD and threshold to start pharmacotherapy have been debated. Participants in most double-blind studies of SSRI were limited to those with a generalized subtype of SAD. While benzodiazepine led to a significantly more favorable response and symptom improvement and the effect size of benzodiazepine was larger than those of SSRI, it did not lead to a "cure" and is sometimes deleterious for atypical SAD patients. To sum up, a psychotherapeutic approach including cognitive behavioral therapy is suggested as first-line treatment for non-generalized SAD according to the NICE guidelines. On the other hand, patients with generalized SAD and secondary depression are still misunderstood (and under-recognized) as those with "treatment-resistant depression", and they suffer from severe impairment of the psycho-social function, including absences or withdrawal from working or schooling. They need more effective combination treatment of SSRI and cognitive behavioral therapy as generalized SAD patients. PMID:26524840
Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter; Allen, John
Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The ...
... other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. Symptoms My drinking was ... Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment ... Donate Now Get "Triumph," Our E-News Therapist ...
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
... and related disorders; Hypochondriasis References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. ...
Craske, Michelle G; Waters, Allison M
This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias. PMID:17716087
Domschke, Katharina; Dannlowski, Udo
Anxiety disorders are frequent and burdensome psychiatric diseases. Despite their moderate to strong heritabilities, the search for candidate genes has been limited by methodological shortcomings hitherto, e.g., the use of clinically defined, but neurobiologically heterogeneous categorical phenotypes. Investigating neurobiological response patterns associated with fear processing as an intermediate phenotype might aid in overcoming these difficulties. The existing imaging literature on the neurobiological correlates of fear processing and anxiety disorders points to a pivotal role of the amygdala in the human fear circuit. Therefore, amygdala responsiveness to anxiety-related stimuli was suggested as an intermediate phenotype for anxiety disorders. The present article provides an overview of imaging genetic studies investigating genetic effects on amygdala responsiveness with particular emphasis on recent imaging genetic findings in anxiety-related traits, panic disorder and social phobia. The existing studies consistently reveal strong genetic effects on the responsiveness of the fear circuit, particularly of genetic variants previously discussed as potential susceptibility variants for anxiety, e.g., the COMT 158val allele or the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Further research will be necessary involving larger sample sizes to allow for investigating gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. More evolved statistical and neuroimaging methods such as effective connectivity measures could lead to a better understanding of imaging endophenotypes and the nature of gene-brain relationships. Longitudinal studies in patient samples will be required to elucidate how genetically influenced neurobiological intermediate phenotypes are associated with subtype, severity and the course of anxiety disorders, thereby having the potential for developing individualized therapy regimes derived from neurobiological research. PMID:19944771
Hughes, Alicia A.; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica D.; Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.
Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Feinstein RE, deGruy FV. Difficult patients: personality disorders and somatoform complaints. ...
Rankin, M; Borah, G L
Surgery is a stressful event, with the potential for profound disturbance to the patient's psychological and physiologic homeostasis. Cosmetic surgery is a particularly intense psychological experience because, in addition to the usual concerns about surgical side effects, cosmetic patients bring their hopes and expectations for improved self-image, putting them at risk for the added anxiety of disappointment. High levels of anxiety coupled with the perception of vulnerability or threat to self can cause significant psychological reactions complicating care for the plastic surgical patient. This paper outlines the diagnostic features of the common types of anxiety disorders seen in plastic surgical patients, and it offers treatment strategies for the practitioner, delineating when referral to a mental health expert is advised. Specific clinical case studies of panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder, and acute stress disorder are presented to illustrate the variety of abnormal anxiety responses that may be encountered in the perioperative setting. Interventions for the anxious patient are part science and part art. Careful questioning and psychosocial assessment can identify those patients who are at greater risk for psychological problems after surgery. However, some patients may mask or keep secret their concerns, which can be manifested with resulting anger and hostility. Plastic surgeons must use appropriate indicators of psychological anxiety and measure a specific patient's reactions to surgery to make the diagnosis of abnormal anxiety. Close follow-up by the plastic surgical team is an essential part of the anxiety disorder patient's psychological treatment, but it is imperative that these problematic patients be referred promptly to a qualified mental health professional to limit their adverse experience and promote their well-being. Patients who are less anxious during the perioperative period report less emotional distress and fewer defensive
textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression in older adults. In particular, comorbidity, health care use, cortisol and atherosclerosis and genetic factors are studied in relation to anxiety and...
Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Hamm, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan
Functional neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in fear and threat processing systems in youth with anxiety disorders; however, the structural neuroanatomy of these systems in children and adolescents remains largely unknown. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), gray matter volumes were compared between 38 medication-free patients with anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder; social phobia; separation anxiety disorder, mean age: 14.4 ± 3 years) and 27 comp...
Anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder (PD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias are common psychiatric disorders, characterized by exaggerated, prolonged and debilitating levels of anxiety. They are complex diseases with onset influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but so far little progress has been made in identifying solid susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to shed light on the genetic basi...
This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…
Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia
Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders an
Full Text Available Introduction. Anxiety, as a primary symptom, includes all conditions of indefinite fear and psychic disorders dominated by fear. All dialysis patients suffer from anxiety as an independent phenomenon, or as part of another disease. Material and Methods. This study included 753 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H in the period 1999-2004. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 348 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, and the control group included 405 patients with other diagnoses causing renal insufficiency (N18. The study was designed as a comparative cross sectional study, and patients were tested using questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and general mental health status. Statistical analysis was done using standard descriptive and analytical methods. Results. Socio-demographic data showed highly significant differences between BEN and N18 in relation to place of residence (urban/rural (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; in the incidence of renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; familial renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; and migrations (c2 = 4.874 p<0.01. Beck Anxiety Inventory Scores were highly significantly different between the two groups p<0.001, in regard to the incidence and variables. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale demonstrated a group significance p<0.001, and variables pointed to somatization, general anxiety and depression. This was confirmed by mini-mental state examination pointing to generalmental weakness. Conclusion. Anxiety appeared in all tested dialysis patients. It may be independent, somatized as part of another mental disorder or reinforced by a cognitive damage. Structured anxiety and depression result in pre-suicidal risk. .
Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder
Rubinchik, Sofya M.; Kablinger, Anita S.; Gardner, J. Suzette
Objective: Approximately 30% of women experience some type of anxiety disorder during their lifetime. In addition, some evidence exists that anxiety disorders can affect pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the literature on the course of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period and presents guidelines for management.
Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, affecting 7-13% of subjects in the community at some time in their lives. Despite being eminently treatable, it remains largely under-recognised and, therefore, undertreated. The disorder is characterized by a fear of scrutiny by others, with sufferers experiencing excessive anxiety in social and performance situations. This excessive anxiety usually leads to avoidance behaviour that can seve...
Simon, Ellin; Bögels, Susan Maria
Abstract Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have negative consequences on individual and societal level. This study examined the usefulness of screening for anxiety disorders in primary school children. More specifically, the value of the screening method to discriminate between and to predict anxiety disorders was studied. Children and their parents were selected if the children had self-reported scores on the screening questionnaire Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotio...
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.
To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that ...
Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…
Zaitsu Takashi; Ueno Masayuki; Shinada Kayoko; Wright Fredrick A; Kawaguchi Yoko
Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who...
K. Hek (Karin)
textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e
Labelle, A.; Lapierre, Y. D.
Anxiety disorders often take second priority in clinical practice because many physicians do not understand them or their treatment. This paper reviews the diagnostic groupings of anxiety disorders according to the American Psychiatric Association's Revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 3-R) and discusses differential diagnosis and treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To present an approach to intervention in childhood anxiety disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for recent literature on childhood anxiety disorders and on my experience as a child psychiatrist and researcher in a specialized anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN MESSAGE: Children with symptoms of high sympathetic arousal; persistent worries or intrusive thoughts; and extreme clinging, avoidance, or repetitive behaviours that i...
Brandt, Christian; Mula, Marco
Anxiety disorders are frequent, though probably underdiagnosed, comorbidities in epilepsy. Epilepsy and anxiety may share common neurobiological correlates as shown in animal models and suggested by studies demonstrating anxiety disorders before the manifestation of epilepsy. Comorbid anxiety disorders have a major impact on the affected patients' quality of life and may increase the risk for suicidality. Successful treatment of the epilepsy may alleviate anxiety symptoms. Treatment of anxiety is based on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines (although only as second-line choices), and psychotherapy. Specific AEDs (especially pregabalin) have been shown to have anxiolytic properties. This paper is aimed at reviewing anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy discussing current scientific evidence about pathophysiology, clinical aspects, and treatment strategies. PMID:27116536
Epidemiological studies show that anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and an important cause of functional impairment; they constitute the most frequent menial disorders in the community. Phobias are the most common with the highest rates for simple phobia and agoraphobia. Panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are less frequent (2% lifetime prevalence), and there are discordant results for social phobia (SP) (2%-16%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (3%-30%). Th...
Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda
Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety
M. Kindt; S.M. Bögels; M. Morren
The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co
Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK
Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.
Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole;
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS: To...... assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years. The...... risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...
... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Understanding Anxiety Disorders When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm Many ... or help us focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, they can be overwhelming. Anxiety disorders affect ...
... to have GAD? For More Information Share Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). What is ...
Bystritsky, Alexander; Khalsa, Sahib S.; Cameron, Michael E.; Schiffman, Jason
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health conditions. Although they are less visible than schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, they can be just as disabling. The diagnoses of anxiety disorders are being continuously revised. Both dimensional and structural diagnoses have been used in clinical treatment and research, and both methods have been proposed for the new classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-5). However, each of t...
KENDALL, Philip C.; Compton, Scott N.; Walkup, John T.; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Bergman, Lindsey; Sakolsky, Dara; Suveg, Cindy; Iyengar, Satish
Reports the characteristics of a large, representative sample of treatment seeking anxious youth (N =488). Participants, aged 7–17 years (mean 10.7 yrs), had a principal DSM-IV diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social phobia (SP). Although youth with a co-primary diagnosis for which a different disorder-specific treatment would be indicated (e.g., major depressive disorder, substance abuse) were not included, there were few other exclusion ...
Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.
Although individual differences exist in how people respond to positive affect (PA), little research addresses PA regulation in people with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to provide information about responses to PA in people with symptoms of social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The tendency to dampen PA and the ability to savor PA were examined in an undergraduate sample. Analyses examined the unique links...
van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A.; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, of
... of these conditions: Panic Disorder: "For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart ... / Studying Anxiety Disorders / Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ...
Morissette, Sandra Baker; Tull, Matthew T.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Zimering, Rose T.
Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety,…
Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie
Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorde...
Nardi Antonio E.
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a marked and persistent fear of doing almost everything in front of people due to concerns about being judge by others. An up-to-date review is needed in order to reach a practical judgement of all psychopharmacological data. Case reports, open and double-blind trials with SAD were described and commented upon from a clinical point of view. The MEDLINE system was searched from 1975 to 2001. The references from the selected papers were also used as a source. MAOIs (fenelzine, tranylcypromine, reversible monoamino oxidase-A inhibitors (moclobemide, brofaromine, SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and some other antidepressants (venlafaxine, nefazodone have proven effective in several studies with various methodologies. The MAOIs have more serious adverse effects and the SSRIs have the best tolerance. SSRIs are efficacious and the first choice of treatment.
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.
Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit
Cowart, Maria Jane Whitmore
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is defined by persistent, irrational anxiety in social situations while generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry unrelated to any specific situation. These two disorders share some features and are frequently comorbid in children and adults. The current study sought to examine this comorbidity and compare the disorders on a number of dimensions in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. It was hypothesized that SAD would be...
Fluvoxamine is a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has proved effective in large double-blind, randomized, controlled trials involving patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder. Improvements have also been demonstrated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as those with a range of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and bod...
Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent. PMID:27503572
Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc
R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz
The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-ind...
Grant, Joe E.; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence
those without an anxiety disorder. There are numerous risk factors implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, including low self-esteem, family history of depression, female sex, childhood sexual abuse, White race, years of education, number of traumatic experiences, and disturbed family...... (Baxter et al. 2013 ). Per year, the estimated cost (directly and indirectly) of anxiety disorders in the United States alone is over $42 billion (Greenberg et al. 1999 ). More than 50 % of these expenses are due to clinical care stemming from misdiagnosis, inadequate treatment, and emergency care...
Pinto, Anthony; Phillips, Katharine A.
Although clinical impressions suggest that patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) experience distress in social situations, social anxiety in BDD has received little investigation. This study examined social anxiety in 81 patients with BDD and change in social anxiety with pharmacotherapy. Subjects completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) and were assessed with measures of BDD symptomatology. Participants in a placebo-controlled fluoxetine trial completed measures at bas...
Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.
The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. Afte...
Michel, Natalie M; Rowa, Karen; Young, Lisa; McCabe, Randi E
Emotional distress tolerance (EDT) has increasingly been recognized as a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor. However, research assessing EDT in anxiety disorder populations is lacking. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining EDT in a sample of outpatients with panic, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or obsessive compulsive disorders (n=674), and by assessing its relationship to symptom severity and impairment. Results showed that poor EDT was common across diagnostic groups. However, correlation and regression analyses suggested that although EDT was associated with symptom severity and impairment, it did not account for unique variance in scores beyond the effect of negative affect, stress, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS). IU and AS had a stronger relationship with overall symptom severity and impairment in the regression models. Together, findings suggest that although EDT may be transdiagnostic, IU and AS are more relevant to our understanding of anxiety disorders. PMID:27161839
Forbes, Erika E.; Bertocci, Michele A.; Gregory, Alice M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.
A study to examine sleep problems encountered in anxiety and depressive disorders among children and adolescents is conducted. Results indicated subjective and objective sleep problems in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and need to be kept in mind when treating young anxious people.
Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…
Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie
Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorders have been demonstrated. There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years. In cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable. It is more likely that this heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences. Anxiety disorders follow a chronic course; however, there is a natural decrease in prevalence rates with older age. Anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders. PMID:26487813
Vila, G; Nollet-Clémençon, C; de Blic, J; Falissard, B; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P
The study's objective was to determine whether the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Trait version (STAIC), is suitable for the assessment of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in asthmatic children and adolescents. Ninety-two outpatients were given a semistructured diagnostic interview. They completed STAIC; another questionnaire about anxiety, the Echelle Comportementale d'Anxiété et de Peurs (ECAP); and the Child Depression Inventory. The parents filled in the Child Behavior Check-List (CBCL) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). A group of healthy children was assessed with STAIC. Thirty asthmatic children had anxiety disorders. They had significantly higher STAIC scores than the nonanxious asthmatic and the nonasthmatic children. STAIC scores were independent of age and sex and were correlated with ECAP, CPRS anxiety subscore, CBCL total score, internalizing score, and CBCL anxiety-depression subscore. Internal consistency was 0.75. With a threshold value of 34 for anxiety disorders, this method had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 70%. STAIC was thus a useful method for anxiety disorder screening in a pediatric population. PMID:10479945
Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda
Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety characteristics with several inflammatory markers. For this purpose, persons (18-65 years) with a current (N = 1273) or remitted (N = 459) anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social ph...
Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem, which is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry, problems that are difficult to control. In the general population, the 12-month prevalence of GAD is 2-3%, with the lifetime prevalence being about 5%. However, GAD is more prevalent among primary care utilizers i.e. approximately 5-8% of them suffer from this disorder. Earlier studies have revealed GAD to be associated with a high utilization of health care resou...
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Elizabeth A. Mundy; Joshua Curtiss
Although exposure-based treatments and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Interestingly, combining these two modalities is usually not more effective than the monotherapies. Recent translational research has identified a number of novel approaches for treating anxiety disorders using agents that serve as neuroenhancers (also known as cognitive enhancers). Several of these agents have ...
Campos, Alline C; Manoela V. Fogaca; Daniele C. Aguiar; Guimaraes, Francisco S.
Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mecha...
Beesdo, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Pine, Daniel S.
This review summarizes findings on the epidemiology and etiology of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents including separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, also highlighting critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Childhood and adolescence is the core risk phase for the development of anxiety symptoms and syndromes, ranging from transient mild symptoms to full-blown anxiety disorde...
Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy
Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication ...
Shear, M Katherine; Bjelland, Ingvar; Beesdo, Katja; Gloster, Andrew T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Anxiety disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), comprise a relatively heterogeneous group of clinical conditions that range from specific phobias to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The grouping under one heading refers to the fact that these seemingly heterogeneous disorders share a number of common psychopathological features and also share at least some common principles in treatment. Among the shared elements are broadly defined prototypical anxiety reactions, panic attacks, anticipatory anxiety, avoidance behaviour, a predominantly early onset, and relatively high persistence rates over time. Many of the shared diagnostic features of anxiety disorders are by their nature dimensional, and hundreds of psychometric scales have been developed to measure these diagnostic constructs across anxiety disorder and for specific diagnostic classes. This paper explores different types of dimensional approaches used in the literature and discusses how an integrated categorical/dimensional strategy might enhance the usefulness of the DSM-V. We suggest the use of cross-cutting dimensional ratings that might ultimately lead to an improved classification model. We also suggest that a staging approach to illness, based upon supplementary dimensional rating could provide useful information for clinical and research purposes. PMID:17623395
Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21
S.M. Bögels; S. Knappe; L.A. Clark
Unlike other DSM-IV anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder (SAD) has been considered a disorder that typically begins in childhood, and could be diagnosed only in adults "if onset is before 18." Moreover, SAD is the only DSM-IV anxiety disorder placed under "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed
Kossowsky, Joe; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Schneider, Silvia
Background: Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in childhood and is predictive of adult anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. However, the disorder has seldom been studied and the attempt to distinguish SAD from other anxiety disorders with regard to psychophysiology has not been made. We expected…
Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J.
Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigat...
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard
), specific phobia (SP), social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD and PTSD), although the latter three are technically no longer categorised as anxiety disorders according to DSM-5. This chapter......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...... provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation of...
For a long time the diagnosis of personality disorder was associated with therapeutic pessimism: People with these problems were viewed as untreatable, due to fundamental character complications. Failures of anxiety disorder treatment tended to be labeled as "personality disorder". There is little e
Rosana Shuhama; Cristina M Del-Ben; Loureiro, Sônia R; Graeff, Frederico G.
Anxiety disorders are classified according to symptoms, time course and therapeutic response. Concurrently, the experimental analysis of defensive behavior has identified three strategies of defense that are shared by different animal species, triggered by situations of potential, distal and proximal predatory threat, respectively. The first one consists of cautious exploration of the environment for risk assessment. The associated emotion is supposed to be anxiety and its pathology, Generali...
Chen J; Wang Z; Wu Y; Cai Y; Shen Y; Wang L; Shi S
Jing Chen, Zhiyan Wang, Yan Wu, Yiyun Cai, Yifeng Shen, Liwei Wang, Shenxun ShiDepartment of Psychiatry, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Cognitive theorists relate anxiety disorders to the way in which emotional information is processed. The existing research suggests that patients with anxiety disorders tend to allocate their attention toward threat-related information selectively, and this may differ among different types of anxiou...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who had score 2 or higher by the organoleptic test were diagnosed as genuine halitosis patients. Gas chromatography (GC was conducted before and after oral malodor treatment for the oral malodor measurement. Based on their risk of social anxiety disorder, subjects were divided into low- and high-risk groups using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS. The questions related to oral malodor and the clinical oral examination were both conducted before oral malodor treatment. The level of anxiety before and after oral malodor treatment was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale of Anxiety (VAAS. Results More than 20% of subjects had a score of 60 or more on the LSAS (high LSAS group. The mean age and the percentage of females were significantly higher in the high LSAS group compared to the low LSAS group. The high LSAS group was more likely to have problems associated with oral malodor and to adopt measures against oral malodor compared to the low LSAS group. The mean concentrations of H2S and CH3SH by GC significantly decreased after the oral malodor treatment in both LSAS groups. VAAS scores also significantly decreased after treatment in both LSAS groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the high LSAS group had a 2.28 times higher risk of having a post-VAAS score of 50 or more compared to the low LSAS group. Conclusions This study revealed that genuine halitosis patients with a strong trait of social anxiety disorder have difficulty
Lars eSchulze; Babette eRenneberg; Lobmaier, Janek S.
Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhance...
Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Chen, I-Ming; Ma, Huei-Mei; Lee, Ming-Tzu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Gau, Shur-Fen
The aim of this study is to compare the severity of depression and anxiety in individuals with somatoform disorders, panic disorder, other depressive/anxiety disorders, and healthy controls in a Han Chinese population. According to the DSM-IV-TR-based diagnostic interviews, we recruited 152 subjects with somatoform disorders (SG), 56 with panic disorder (PG), 85 with other depressive/anxiety disorders (OG), and 179 without any psychiatric disorder (NG). The four groups reported on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) for depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were used to determine the effects of demographic factors and psychiatric diagnoses on depressive and anxiety symptoms separately. BDI-II scores were not significantly different in SG, PG, and OG but were higher than NG. SG and PG had the highest BAI scores, whereas NG had the lowest. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the associated factors for BDI-II were gender, residential location, somatoform disorders, panic disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas BAI was significantly associated with somatoform disorders, panic disorder, and MDD. Our results strongly suggest the inclusion of clinical assessment of depressive and anxious symptoms in patients with somatoform disorders. PMID:27179181
Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T.; Aderka, Idan M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decre...
Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter
Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...
Bartz, Jennifer A; Hollander, Eric
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV-TR [American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth ed., rev. Washington, DC: Author]; however, the notion of a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive (OC) related disorders that is comprised of such disparate disorders as OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, certain eating disorders, pathological gambling, and autism, is gaining acceptance. The fact that these disorders share obsessive-compulsive features and evidence similarities in patient characteristics, course, comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment response raises the question of whether OCD is best conceptualized as an anxiety or an OC spectrum disorder. This article reviews evidence from comorbidity and family studies, as well as biological evidence related to neurocircuitry, neurotransmitter function, and pharmacologic treatment response that bear on this question. The implications of removing OCD from the anxiety disorders category and moving it to an OC spectrum disorders category, as is being proposed for the DSM-V, is discussed. PMID:16455175
Hirsch, Colette R.; Mathews, Andrew; Lequertier, Belinda; Perman, Gemma; Hayes, Sarra
Background & objectives Groups of clients and community volunteers with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and clients with Panic Disorder were compared to a group with elevated worry but without GAD on a range of measures, to identify individual differences beyond a high propensity to worry. Method Participants completed standardised questionnaires and a behavioural worry task that assesses frequency and severity of negative thought intrusions. Results Relative to high worriers, clients with...
Pallanti Stefano; Quercioli Leonardo
Abstract Background Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a common disorder and its high prevalence and lifelong chronicity are such that it represents a substantial public health problem. The observation that serotonergic agents appear to be effective for its treatment suggests that patients may have abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission within the central nervous system. We investigated the efficacy of Escitalopram in treatment resistant patients with SAD. Method Twenty-nine adult outpatients ...
... the problem manifests in school avoidance, the initial goal will be to get the youngster back to school as soon as possible. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy In many cases, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy techniques are effective in addressing adolescent anxiety disorders. ...
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), also known as Social Phobia, is now recognised as a chronicand disabling psychiatric condition. The high prevalence and clinical significance of the disease emphasize the need for early recognition and effective treatment. The main current treatment will be presented paying special attention to meta-analyses and studies, which try to differentiate types of interventions, by their efficacy.
... is social phobia? What are the signs and symptoms of social phobia? What causes social phobia? How is social phobia treated? What is it like having social phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order a ...
Tatyana Gratsiyevna Voznesenskaya
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is poorly diagnosed and inadequately treated by general practitioners. The paper considers the major diagnostic signs of GAD, its differential diagnosis, prevalence, etiology, and pathogenesis. Antidepressants from a group of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in combination with psychotherapy are the drugs of first choice.
Uhmann, S.; Beesdo-Baum, K.; Becker, E.S.; Hoyer, J.
We examined the diagnostic specificity of interpersonal problems (IP) in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We expected generally higher interpersonal distress, and specifically higher levels of nonassertive, exploitable, overly nurturant, and intrusive behavior in n = 58 patients with Diagnostic a
Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.
There has been significant interest in the role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis, we empirically evaluate differences in AS between anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and nonclinical controls. A total of 38 published studies (N = 20,146) were included in the analysis. The results yielded a large effect…
... anxiety disorder. As many as 14% of older adults have anxiety disorders. These disorders are more common among older women than older men. In later life, people may develop anxiety disorders during stressful events such as a serious illness, the loss of ...
Wilhelm, F H; Trabert, W.; Roth, W. T.
BACKGROUND: Because panic attacks can be accompanied by surges in physiologic activation, we tested the hypothesis that panic disorder is characterized by fluctuations of physiologic variables in the absence of external triggers. METHODS: Sixteen patients with panic disorder, 15 with generalized anxiety disorder, and 19 normal control subjects were asked to sit quietly for 30 min. Electrodermal, cardiovascular, and respiratory measures were analyzed using complex demodulation to quantify vari...
Fluvoxamine is a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that has proved effective in large double-blind, randomized, controlled trials involving patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder. Improvements have also been demonstrated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as those with a range of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and body dysmorphic disorder. Several well controlled studies have confirmed the efficacy of fluvoxamine in children and adolescents with OCD, SAD, and other anxiety disorders, and it was the first SSRI to be registered for the treatment of OCD in children. Fluvoxamine is well tolerated. In common with other SSRIs, the most frequently reported adverse event is nausea. Fluvoxamine does not cause sedation or cognitive impairment and is associated with a low risk of sexual dysfunction, suicidality, and withdrawal reactions. It is safe in overdose and has no significant effect on body weight or cardiovascular parameters. PMID:18568110
Full Text Available Jing Chen, Zhiyan Wang, Yan Wu, Yiyun Cai, Yifeng Shen, Liwei Wang, Shenxun ShiDepartment of Psychiatry, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Cognitive theorists relate anxiety disorders to the way in which emotional information is processed. The existing research suggests that patients with anxiety disorders tend to allocate their attention toward threat-related information selectively, and this may differ among different types of anxious subjects. The aim of this study was to explore attentional bias in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and panic disorder (PD using the emotional Stroop task and compare the differences between them.Methods: Forty-two patients with GAD, 34 patients with PD, and 46 healthy controls performed the emotional Stroop task with four word types, ie, GAD-related words, PD-related words, neutral words, and positive words.Results: Patients with GAD and those with PD were slower than healthy controls to respond to all stimuli. Patients with GAD had longer response latencies in color-naming both PD-relevant words and GAD relevant words. Patients with PD had longer response latencies only in color-naming PD-related words, similar to healthy controls.Conclusion: Patients with GAD and those with PD had a different pattern of attentional bias, and there was insufficient evidence to support the existence of specific attentional bias in patients with PD.Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, attentional bias, emotional Stroop task
Özyurt, Gonca; Öztura, İbrahim; Alkın, Tunç; Özerdem, Ayşegül
Epileptic patients present with psychiatric disorders more frequently than the general population and patients with other chronic medical conditions. Psychiatric disorders can co-occur with epilepsy and can be caused by epilepsy. Personality changes, as well as psychosis, and mood or anxiety disorders can occur in association with epilepsy. Anxiety disorders due to epilepsy can manifest as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. The risk of an anxiety disorder is higher in patients with focal epilepsy, especially those with temporal lobe epilepsy, but an anxiety disorder can also occur in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy or generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy. Herein we present a 41-year-old female patient with comorbid anxiety disorder and epilepsy that improved following initiation of antiepileptic medication. The patient's EEG showed abnormalities, particularly in the frontal lobe. Epileptic activation-associated anxiety disorder presented as phobia of swallowing and the patient exhibited features of generalized anxiety disorder. Following initiation of antiepileptic medication, the seizures stopped and the symptoms of anxiety disappeared in two weeks. The patient was receiving psychotherapy once every 2 weeks. The patient remained asymptomatic during 2-years of follow-up. This case highlights the importance of differential diagnosis of underlying epilepsy in patients with acute severe anxiety and the efficacy of proper medical treatment, which was given in the presented case for the underling pathology of anxiety. PMID:25742040
E. Aktar; M. Majdandžić; W. de Vente; S.M. Bögels
Background: Anxiety runs in families. Observational learning of anxious behavior from parents with anxiety disorders plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety. We investigated the link between parental anxiety (parental lifetime anxiety disorders and expressed parental
Full Text Available Stress has major role in functional gastrointestinal system disorders. The most typical example of this situation is Irritable bowel syndrome. Gastrointestinal system’s response to acute or short-term of stress is delay of gastric emptying and stimulation of colonic transition. While CRF2 receptors are mediate the upper section inhibition, CRF1 is responsible for the lower part colonic and anxiogenic response. Visceral hypersensitivity is managed by the emotional motor system, the amygdala plays a significant role and mucosal mast cells arise. But in people with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal, how is differ motility response in healthy individuals, this situation is due to lack of autonomous nervous system or an increased sensitivity of stress is not adequately understood. The brain-gastrointestinal axis frequency and severity of symptoms associated with negative emotions. American Gastroenterology Association is closely associated with the quality of life and is very difficult to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, re-interpreted under the heading of 'Gastrointestinal Distress'. This review is defined as gastrointestinal distresses, physical, emotional, and behavioral components as a disorder in which, almost like an anxiety disorder are discussed. Physical component is pain, gas, and defecation problems, cognitive component is external foci control, catastrophization and anticipatory anxiety, the emotional component is somatic anxiety, hypervigilance, and avoidance of gastrointestinal stimuli as defined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 122-133
Sáiz Martínez, Pilar Alejandra; Jimenez Treviño, Luis; Díaz Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla González, M Paz; Marina González, Pedro; Al-Halabí, Susana; Szerman, Néstor; Bobes García, Julio; Ruiz, Pedro
Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are highly comorbid (between 18% and 37%), and such comorbidity complicates treatment and worsens prognosis (including higher suicide risk). There are not many research works on the specific pharmacologic treatment of dual comorbid anxiety disorders. Most authors recommend a simultaneous approach of both, anxiety and substance use, disorders. Research data on pharmacotherapy suggest that psychotropics used in the treatment of anxiety disorders are also effective in dual diagnosis. SSRIs are considered first-line therapy in the treatment of dual anxiety while benzodiacepines should be avoided. New generation antiepileptic have shown efficacy in case series and open label studies in the latest years, thus being a promising treatment option for dual comorbid anxiety disorders, specially pregabalin in generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:25314041
Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.
Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…
Alline C. Campos
Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents. The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as “ethological” the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field, whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as “conditioned operant conflict tests” (such as the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning. Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress, physical (restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress.
There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…
Cassidy, Jude; Lichtenstein-Phelps, June; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Charles L., Jr.; Borkovec, Thomas D.
Even though generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common of the anxiety disorders, relatively little is known about its precursors. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a framework within which these precursors can be considered. According to Bowlby, adult anxiety may be rooted in childhood experiences that leave a child uncertain…
Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Quevedo, João
Anxiety disorders pose one of the largest threats to global mental health, and they predominantly emerge early in life. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is the most common of all anxiety disorders. Moreover, it has severe consequences and is a disabling disorder that can cause an individual to be unable to perform the tasks of daily life. Social anxiety disorder is associated with the subsequent development of major depression and other mental diseases, as well as increased substance abuse. Although some neurobiological alterations have been found to be associated with social anxiety disorder, little is known about this disorder. Animal models are useful tools for the investigation of this disorder, as well as for finding new pharmacological targets for treatment. Thus, this review will highlight the main animal models of anxiety associated with social phobia. PMID:25132362
Fang, Angela; Hofmann, Stefan G
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are two separate, but conceptually overlapping nosological entities. In this review, we examine similarities between SAD and BDD in comorbidity, phenomenology, cognitive biases, treatment outcome, and cross-cultural aspects. Our review suggests that SAD and BDD are highly comorbid, show a similar age of onset, share a chronic trajectory, and show similar cognitive biases for interpreting ambiguous social information in a negativ...
Stefan G. Hofmann
Full Text Available Although exposure-based treatments and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Interestingly, combining these two modalities is usually not more effective than the monotherapies. Recent translational research has identified a number of novel approaches for treating anxiety disorders using agents that serve as neuroenhancers (also known as cognitive enhancers. Several of these agents have been studied to determine their efficacy at improving treatment outcome for patients with anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In this review, we examine d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, catecholamines, oxytocin, modafinil, and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids as potential neuroenhancers. Of these agents, d-cycloserine shows the most promise as an effective neuroenhancer for extinction learning and exposure therapy. Yet, the optimal dosing and dose timing for drug administration remains uncertain. There is partial support for cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine and oxytocin for improving extinction learning and exposure therapy. There is less evidence to indicate that modafinil and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids are effective neuroenhancers. More research is needed to determine their long term efficacy and clinical utility of these agents.
Himanshu Tyagi; Rupal Patel; Fabienne Rughooputh; Hannah Abrahams; Watson, Andrew J.; Lynne Drummond
Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbi...
Levent Mete; Sinem Akyalcin; Pinar Cetinay Aydin
In addition to epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs are used in neurologic conditions such as chronic pain and in the treatment of bipolar disorder in psychiatry. There are studies reporting its use in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The efficacy of antiepileptic drugs as carbamazepine, valproic asid, lamotrigine, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin in anxiety disorders has been shown in some clinical studies. The strongest evidence has been presented for pregabalin in generalized anxiety disorde...
Goodwin, Guy M.
The anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder. In addition to the specific symptoms of these disorders, there may be a common experience of anxiety and even dysphoria across the conditions, and of course recourse to the same drug or choice of drugs for treatment. This overlap probably occurs because of universal dimensions of distress or negative affectivity, a shared genetic predisposition, and a common neurobiolog...
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.
Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Rupal; Rughooputh, Fabienne; Abrahams, Hannah; Watson, Andrew J.; Drummond, Lynne
Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population. PMID:26366407
Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Rupal; Rughooputh, Fabienne; Abrahams, Hannah; Watson, Andrew J; Drummond, Lynne
Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population. PMID:26366407
Objective To explore the social and psychological risk factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents,and to screen protective factors and risk factors and establish the prediction model.Methods The Screen for Child Anxiety
Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M;
Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine...... the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive......-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent...
Wagner Renate; Marnane Claire L; Silove Derrick M; Manicavasagar Vijaya L; Rees Susan
Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety...
Cooper, P. J.; Gallop, C.; Willetts, L.; Creswell, C
An examination was made of the extent to which maternal anxiety predicted response to treatment of children presenting with an anxiety disorder. In a sample of 55 children referred to a local NHS CAMH service for treatment of an anxiety disorder, systematic mental state interview assessment was made of both mothers and children, and both completed self-report questionnaires to assess aspects of anxiety, both immediately before the children received treatment and following treatment. Children ...
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bögels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.
The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed questionnaires that assessed child anxiety (SCARED-71) and children’s ASD symptoms. Results revealed that children with anxiety disorders had higher scores t...
Brady, Kathleen T.; Haynes, Louise F.; Hartwell, Karen J.; KILLEEN, THERESE K.
Converging evidence from epidemiologic and treatment studies indicate that anxiety disorders and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, and the interaction is multifaceted and variable. Epidemiological studies and investigations within clinical substance abuse populations have found an association between anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Specific anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder have all been associa...
Nathalie P. Lizeretti
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (AD are by far the most frequent psychiatric disorders, and according to epidemiologic data their chronicity, comorbidities, and negative prognostic constitute a public health problem. This is why it is necessary to continue exploring the factors which contribute to the incidence, appearance, and maintenance of this set of disorders. The goal of this study has been to analyze the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI and personality disorders (PersD in outpatients suffering from AD. The sample was made up of 146 patients with AD from the Mental Health Center at the Health Consortium of Maresme, who were evaluated with the STAI, MSCEIT, and MCMI-II questionnaires. The main findings indicate that 89,4% of the patients in the sample met the criteria for the diagnosis of some PersD. The findings also confirm that patients with AD present a low EI, especially because of difficulties in the skills of emotional comprehension and regulation, and the lack of these skills is related to a higher level of anxiety and the presence of PersD. These findings suggest the need to consider emotional skills of EI and personality as central elements for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are classified according to symptoms, time course and therapeutic response. Concurrently, the experimental analysis of defensive behavior has identified three strategies of defense that are shared by different animal species, triggered by situations of potential, distal and proximal predatory threat, respectively. The first one consists of cautious exploration of the environment for risk assessment. The associated emotion is supposed to be anxiety and its pathology, Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The second is manifested by oriented escape or by behavioral inhibition, being related to normal fear and to Specific Phobias, as disorders. The third consists of disorganized flight or complete immobility, associated to dread and Panic Disorder. Among conspecific interactions lies a forth defense strategy, submission, that has been related to normal social anxiety (shyness and to Social Anxiety Disorder. In turn, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder do not seem to be directly related to innate defense reactions. Such evolutionary approach offers a reliable theoretical framework for the study of the biological determinants of anxiety disorders, and a sound basis for psychiatric classification.Os transtornos de ansiedade são classificados conforme a sintomatologia, decurso temporal e resposta terapêutica. Paralelamente, a análise experimental dos comportamentos de defesa identificou três estratégias comuns a diferentes espécies de animais, desencadeadas por situações de perigo predatório potencial, distal ou proximal, respectivamente. A primeira consiste na investigação cautelosa do ambiente, avaliando o risco. Supõe-se que a emoção que a acompanha seja a ansiedade e sua patologia, o Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada. A segunda é expressa pela fuga orientada ou pela inibição comportamental, sendo a emoção correlata o medo, e a patologia representada pelas Fobias Específicas. Finalmente, a
Harned, Melanie S.; Valenstein, Helen R.
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among individuals with borderline personality disorder, with comorbidity rates of up to 90%. Anxiety disorders have been found to reduce the likelihood of achieving remission from borderline personality disorder over time and to increase the risk of suicide and self-injury in this population. Evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder have not sufficiently focused on targeting anxiety disorders, and their effects on these disorders are...
Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized most commonly as a diffuse, unpleasant, vague sense of apprehension, often accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as headache, perspiration, palpitations, tightness in the chest, mild stomach discomfort and restlessness, indicated by an inability to sit or stand still for long. Anxiety disorder is one of important cause of development of hypertension, although it is multifactorial. It increases sympathetic nervous system which causes hypertension due to alterations in baro reflex and chemo reflex pathways at both peripheral and central level. It also increases norepinephrine which acts on β1 receptor (in brain, myocardium and kidney and increases cardiac force, rate of contraction, renin release and β2 receptor (in pulmonary system and blood vessels and decreases resistance of pulmonary airway and blood vessels-leading to hypertension.
Busch, Fredric N; Sandberg, Larry S
Somatic or emotional experience that has not been symbolically represented, referred to as unmentalized experience, has been given an increasingly prominent role in understanding psychopathology. Panic and anxiety disorders provide a useful model for exploring these factors, as the affective and bodily symptoms can be understood in part as unmentalized experience. The authors explore models of Freud's actual neurosis, Marty and DeM'uzan's pensee operatoire, Klein's unconscious fantasy, Bion's alpha function, Bucci's multiple code system, and relational models to describe how somatic and affective experiences can be translated into symbolic representations, and what factors can interfere with these processes. Approaches to unmentalized aspects of panic and anxiety include symbolizing somatic symptoms, identifying emotional states, and identifying contextual and traumatic links to symptoms. PMID:24828589
Full Text Available In addition to epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs are used in neurologic conditions such as chronic pain and in the treatment of bipolar disorder in psychiatry. There are studies reporting its use in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The efficacy of antiepileptic drugs as carbamazepine, valproic asid, lamotrigine, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin in anxiety disorders has been shown in some clinical studies. The strongest evidence has been presented for pregabalin in generalized anxiety disorder, pregabalin and gabapentin in social anxiety disorder and lamotrigine in posttraumatic stres disorder. While certain studies report the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of anxiety disordes, others report them as ineffective. Double blind placebo controlled drug trials are essential for clearly presenting anxiolytic activity of antiepileptic drugs which would lead the way to further wide scale use in clinical practice. This article focuses on recent literature to show the potential use of antiepileptic drugs in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stres disorder, panic disorder along with a brief review of neuroanatomic structures and neurotransmitters associated with epilepsy and anxiety disorders.
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…
Trivedi, J.K.; Gupta, Pawan Kumar
Anxiety is arguably an emotion that predates the evolution of man. Its ubiquity in humans, and its presence in a range of anxiety disorders, makes it an important clinical focus. Developments in nosology, epidemiology and psychobiology have led to significant advancement in our understanding of the anxiety disorders in recent years. Advances in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of these disorders have brought realistic hope for relief of symptoms and improvement in functioning to patients. Ne...
Norrholm, Seth D.; Ressler, Kerry J.
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric illnesses in the U.S. with approximately 30% of the population experiencing anxiety-related symptoms in their lifetime (Kessler et al., 2005). Notably, a variety of studies have demonstrated that 30−40% of the variance contributing to these disorders is heritable. In the present review, we discuss the latest findings regarding the genetic and environmental influences on the development and symptomatology of anxiety disorders. Specific emphasis...
Shin, Lisa M.; Liberzon, Israel
Anxiety disorders are a significant problem in the community, and recent neuroimaging research has focused on determining the brain circuits that underlie them. Research on the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders has its roots in the study of fear circuits in animal models and the study of brain responses to emotional stimuli in healthy humans. We review this research, as well as neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders. In general, these studies have reported relatively heightened amygdala ...
Chen J; Shi S
Jing Chen, Shenxun ShiDepartment of Psychiatry, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent internationally, and constitute a substantial social and economic burden for patients, their families, and society. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated the etiology of anxiety disorders in China in the last decade. We discuss the findings of these studies, and compare them with the results of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disord...
Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Santucci, Lauren C.; Weiner, Courtney L.
Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is the most commonly diagnosed and impairing childhood anxiety disorder, accounting for approximately 50% of the referrals for mental health treatment of anxiety disorders. While considered a normative phenomenon in early childhood, SAD has the potential to negatively impact a child’s social and emotional functioning when it leads to avoidance of certain places, activities and experiences that are necessary for healthy development. Amongst those with severe s...
Kummer, Arthur; Harsanyi, Estefania
Social anxiety disorder is characterized by overwhelming anxiety in everyday situations which are frequently avoided due to a fear of being watched and scrutinized by others or acting in an embarrassing way. Flashbacks are typical symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and their main features are intrusive and vivid images that occur in a waking state. We present a case study of a man diagnosed with social anxiety disorder who had reexperiencing symptoms similar to flashbacks of what he ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is a common disorder and its high prevalence and lifelong chronicity are such that it represents a substantial public health problem. The observation that serotonergic agents appear to be effective for its treatment suggests that patients may have abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission within the central nervous system. We investigated the efficacy of Escitalopram in treatment resistant patients with SAD. Method Twenty-nine adult outpatients participated in a 12-week open-label trial of escitalopram. All the subjects had a primary diagnosis of SAD and had failed at least one previous adequate trial of paroxetine. Escitalopram was orally administered starting with a dose of 10 mg/day following a 1-week titration. Results The escitalopram treatment was characterized by good tolerability (drop-out rate due to intolerance: 10.3%, and 24 subjects completed the study trial. At the end of the 12-week treatment period, 14 subjects (48.3% were considered as responders on the basis of the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I (much or very much improved scale and the Liebowitz Scale for Social Anxiety (LSAS (reduction >35% compared to baseline. We observed a significant mean reduction in the Sheehan Disability Scale Work (p Conclusion These data suggest escitalopram has a role in the treatment of resistant SAD, especially in view of the favourable tolerability profile observed in the patients. Controlled studies are required to further investigate these findings and to compare escitalopram with other treatments for this disorder.
McGuinness, Teena M; Durand, Simone C
Despite significant progress in understanding anxiety disorders in youth, affected children are often unrecognized and never receive adequate treatment recognition. Although common among children and adolescents, many parents and health care providers do not realize anxiety disorders in youth predict anxiety disorders in adulthood. The history of anxiety disorders in childhood and their continuity into adolescence and adulthood are discussed. Treatment options and best practices for psychiatric nurses are also explored. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (6), 25-28.]. PMID:27245249
Reinholt, Nina; Krogh, Jesper
Transdiagnostic approaches to cognitive behaviour therapy (TCBT) of anxiety disorders have drawn increasing interest and empirical testing over the past decade. In this paper, we review evidence of the overall efficacy of TCBT for anxiety disorders, as well as TCBT efficacy compared with wait...... more high-quality, large-scaled studies in this area. Transdiagnostic treatments offer great clinical promise as an affordable and pragmatic treatment for anxiety disorders and as a specialized treatment for co-morbid and other-specified anxiety disorders....
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean
There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…
F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; S. Perrin
There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic tec
Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G
Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD. PMID:26398003
Fresco, David M.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Ritter, Michael
Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with complex clinical presentations, such as patients with generalized anxiety disorder, fails to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates facets of traditional and contemporary CBTs, mindfulness, and emotion-focused interventions within a framework that reflects basic and translational findings in affect science. Specifically, ERT is a mechanism-targeted intervention focusing on patterns of motivational dysfunction while cultivating emotion regulation skills. Open and randomized controlled psychotherapy trials have demonstrated considerable preliminary evidence for the utility of this approach as well as for the underlying proposed mechanisms. This article provides an illustration of ERT through the case of “William.” In particular, this article includes a case-conceptualization of William from an ERT perspective while describing the flow and progression of the ERT treatment approach.
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.
Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
Anxiety disorders are very common and the primary feature is abnormal or inappropriate anxiety. Fear and anxiety is often mediated by the amygdala, a brain structure rich in substance P (SP) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. To learn more about how the human amygdala is modulated by fear and anxiety in event-triggered anxiety disorders and to investigate if the SP/NK1 receptor system is affected, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ([15O]-water; Study I and II) and the SP/NK1 receptor system ...
Reviewed are functional imaging studies of the brain in social anxiety disorder (SAD) which are being under remarkable progress, to discuss the disease in relation to the neuronal network. Current consensuses on results, their meta-analysis and consideration of regions suggested in those studies are as follows. In MRI and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies, cerebral morphology and blood flow at rest with 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are normal in SAD. Many studies of SAD by positron emission tomography (PET) with probes such as 15O-H2O and by fMRI have shown an anxiety-induced excess reaction in the amygdaloid body and insula, and certain studies, a reaction change in frontal lobe or cingulate gyrus. Pattern change of cerebral blood flow is observable by SPECT and PET with 11C-WAY-100635 after treatment of SAD with SSRI (serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor). Image findings of brain functions in SAD are not contradictory to clinical findings. Discussion of SAD is also made here in relation to posttraumatic stress and panic disorders, and their image findings. (R.T.)
van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, often established early in development through the interaction between biological and psychological factors (eg, genetic predisposition x early trauma), predispose to socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. However, whereas gene variants and histories of trauma persist, hormonal systems can be remodeled over the course of life. Hormones play a key role during the periods of all sensitive developmental windows (ie, prenatal, neonatal, puberty, aging), and are capable of opening up new developmental windows in adulthood. Indeed, the developmental plasticity of our social brain, and thus of social behavior in adulthood, critically depends on steroid hormones such as testosterone and peptide hormones such as oxytocin. These steroid and peptide hormones in interaction with social experiences may have potential for reprogramming the socially anxious brain. Certainly, single administrations of oxytocin and testosterone in humans reduce socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. Such work may ultimately lead to new approaches to the treatment of SAD. PMID:26487809
Schreier, Andrea; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind
The relationship between DSM-IV anxiety disorders and their clinical characteristics in mothers and anxiety in offspring was examined in 933 mother-child pairs from a longitudinal community study. Offspring of mothers with an anxiety disorder had an elevated risk of developing any anxiety disorder, compared with offspring of mothers with no anxiety disorder. Increased risk of anxiety in the offspring was especially associated with maternal social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder, and w...
Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Catharine
Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a so...
Blessing, Esther M; Steenkamp, Maria M; Manzanares, Jorge; Marmar, Charles R
Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis sativa constituent, is a pharmacologically broad-spectrum drug that in recent years has drawn increasing interest as a treatment for a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The purpose of the current review is to determine CBD's potential as a treatment for anxiety-related disorders, by assessing evidence from preclinical, human experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies. We found that existing preclinical evidence strongly supports CBD as a treatment for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder when administered acutely; however, few studies have investigated chronic CBD dosing. Likewise, evidence from human studies supports an anxiolytic role of CBD, but is currently limited to acute dosing, also with few studies in clinical populations. Overall, current evidence indicates CBD has considerable potential as a treatment for multiple anxiety disorders, with need for further study of chronic and therapeutic effects in relevant clinical populations. PMID:26341731
Byrne Gerard JA
Anxiety disorders decline in prevalence with advancing age but remain more common than depressive disorders. They are often of late-onset and there is frequent comorbidity with depressive disorders and physical illness. While anxiety disorders in older people are likely to respond to the same non-pharmacological interventions that have been shown to work in younger people, there is currently little formal evidence of this. Although there is some evidence that the non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic...
Behere, Rishikesh V.; Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Bangalore N Gangadhar
The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neur...
Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J
Anxiety disorders are a group of crippling mental diseases affecting millions of Americans with a 30% lifetime prevalence and costs associated with healthcare of $42.3 billion. While anxiety disorders show high levels of co-morbidity with smoking (45.3% vs. 22.5% in healthy individuals), they are also more common among the smoking population (22% vs. 11.1% in the non-smoking population). Moreover, there is clear evidence that smoking modulates symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders. In order to better understand this relationship, several animal paradigms are used to model several key symptoms of anxiety disorders; these include fear conditioning and measures of anxiety. Studies clearly demonstrate that nicotine mediates acquisition and extinction of fear as well as anxiety through the modulation of specific subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain regions involved in emotion processing such as the hippocampus. However, the direction of nicotine's effects on these behaviors is determined by several factors that include the length of administration, hippocampus-dependency of the fear learning task, and source of anxiety (novelty-driven vs. social anxiety). Overall, the studies reviewed here suggest that nicotine alters behaviors related to fear and anxiety and that nicotine contributes to the development, maintenance, and reoccurrence of anxiety disorders. PMID:26231942
Roohallah Mirzaaghas; Yegane Kohani; Hasan baniasadi; Fateme Tara
Background & aim: According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD child...
Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni
Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comor...
Onrust, S.A.; Cuijpers, P.
The association between widowhood and mental health problems, such as depressive symptomatology and anxiety, has been examined extensively. Few studies, however, have explored the prevalence and incidence of mood and anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria after the loss of the partner. We conducted a systematic review, and searched major bibliographical databases for studies examining mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood. We included all studies examining the prevalence or incidenc...
White, Susan W.; Oswald, Donald; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence
Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s disorder. Using search wor...
Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Koenen, K.; Eley, Thalia C.; Poulton, Richie
OBJECTIVE: Information about the psychiatric histories of adults with anxiety disorders was examined to further inform nosology and etiological/ preventive efforts. METHOD: The authors used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort (N=1,037) from ages 11 to 32 years, making psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria. For adults with anxiety disorders at 32 years, follow-back analyses ascertained first diagnosis of anxiety and other juvenile dis...
Norton, Joanna; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Stewart, Rob; BERR, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle
International audience BACKGROUND: In the elderly, little attention has been paid to anxiety both on a symptom dimension and as a disorder, as an independent risk factor for the incidence of activity limitations. METHODS: In a community-dwelling cohort of 1581 persons aged 65+, the association between trait anxiety symptoms (Spielberger Trait, third highest tertile) and baseline DSM-IV anxiety disorder, and 7-year incident activity limitations was determined using mixed logistic regression...
Khan, Ahsan Y.; Matthew Macaluso
Ahsan Y Khan, Matthew MacalusoDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, KS, USAAbstract: Approximately 16 million people in the United States suffer from anxiety disorders alone, while another 12 million experience both anxiety and at least one other psychiatric condition. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has lifetime prevalence rates between 5% and 6%. Treatment of GAD is aimed primarily at symptom reduction. Duloxetine, a s...
Rapee, Ronald M.; Coplan, Robert J.
Fearful temperaments have been identified as a major risk factor for anxiety disorders. However, descriptions of fearful temperament and several forms of anxiety disorder show strong similarities. This raises the question whether these terms may simply refer to different aspects of the same underlying construct. The current review examines…
Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari
This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…
Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Poli, Paola; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca
Objective: There are insufficient data on generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms and comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder are described as a function of age, gender, and comorbidity in a consecutive series of referred children and adolescents. Method: One hundred fifty-seven outpatients (97 males and 60 females,…
Misri, Shaila; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Sanders, Shawn; Swift, Elena
Perinatal generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has a high prevalence of 8.5%-10.5% during pregnancy and 4.4%-10.8% postpartum. Despite its attendant dysfunction in the patient, this potentially debilitating mental health condition is often underdiagnosed. This overview will provide guidance for clinicians in making timely diagnosis and managing symptoms appropriately. A significant barrier to the diagnosis of GAD in the perinatal population is difficulty in distinguishing normal versus pathological worry. Because a perinatal-specific screening tool for GAD is nonexistent, early identification, diagnosis and treatment is often compromised. The resultant maternal dysfunction can potentially impact mother-infant bonding and influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. Comorbid occurrence of GAD and major depressive disorder changes the illness course and its treatment outcome. Psychoeducation is a key component in overcoming denial/stigma and facilitating successful intervention. Treatment strategies are contingent upon illness severity. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), relaxation, and mindfulness therapy are indicated for mild GAD. Moderate/severe illness requires pharmacotherapy and CBT, individually or in combination. No psychotropic medications are approved by the FDA or Health Canada in pregnancy or the postpartum; off-label pharmacological treatment is instituted only if the benefit of therapy outweighs its risk. SSRIs/SNRIs are the first-line treatment for anxiety disorders due to data supporting their efficacy and overall favorable side effect profile. Benzodiazepines are an option for short-term treatment. While research on atypical antipsychotics is evolving, some can be considered for severe manifestations where the response to antidepressants or benzodiazepines has been insufficient. A case example will illustrate the onset, clinical course, and treatment strategies of GAD through pregnancy and the postpartum. PMID:26125602
Buckner, Julia D.; Silgado, Jose; Lewinsohn, Peter M.
This study examined the temporal sequencing of eating and anxiety disorders to delineate which anxiety disorders increase eating disorder risk and whether individuals with eating disorders are at greater risk for particular anxiety disorders. The sample was drawn from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project. Temporal relations between specific eating and anxiety disorders were examined after controlling for relevant variables (e.g., mood disorders, other anxiety disorders) over 14 years. Aft...
Franco, Ximena; Saavedra, Lissette; Silverman, Wendy K.
To evaluate the external validity of comorbid patterns of anxiety disorders among youth who presented to an anxiety disorders clinic, comorbid cases were compared to “pure” anxiety disorder cases. Children and adolescents (N = 329; mean age = 10.04 years) and parents were administered structured interviews and four groups were formed, Pure Anxiety, Anxiety + Anxiety, Anxiety + Externalizing, and Anxiety + Depressive, and compared along 4 external validation criteria: sociodemographics, clinic...
Kendurkar, Arvind; Kaur, Brinder
Objectives: Major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are known to have significant impact on sexual functioning. They have been studied individually. Therefore, this study was planned to compare the sexual dysfunction between MDD, OCD, and GAD with healthy subjects as controls.
Ingga Yonico Martatino; Rizki Habibie; Alimatus Sahrah; Adhitya Angga Wardhana
Anxiety disorder is a common psychologically symptom in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. These disorders include panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among HIV/AIDS-infected patients receiving medical care, 20.3% have been found to have an anxiety disorder, with 12.3% meeting the criteria for panic disorder, 10.4% for PTSD, and 2.8% having generalized anxiety disorder. Patients with other psychiatric disorders, such...
Meydan, Chanan; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Soreq, Hermona
Anxiety-related and metabolic disorders are under intense research focus. Anxiety-induced microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as regulators that are not only capable of suppressing inflammation but can also induce metabolic syndrome-related processes. We summarize here evidence linking miRNA pathways which share regulatory networks in metabolic and anxiety-related conditions. In particular, miRNAs involved in these disorders include regulators of acetylcholine signaling in the nervous system and their accompanying molecular machinery. These have been associated with anxiety-prone states in individuals, while also acting as inflammatory suppressors. In peripheral tissues, altered miRNA pathways can lead to dysregulated metabolism. Common pathways in metabolic and anxiety-related phenomena might offer an opportunity to reclassify 'healthy' and 'unhealthy', as well as metabolic and anxiety-prone biological states, and inform putative strategies to treat these disorders. PMID:27496210
Versella, Mark V; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit elevated levels of anger and anger suppression, which are both associated with increased depression, diminished quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, little is known about how anger experiences differ among individuals with SAD and whether any heterogeneity might relate to negative outcomes. This investigation sought to empirically define anger profiles among 136 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD and to assess their association with distress and impairment. A latent class analysis was conducted utilizing the trait subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 as indicators of class membership. Analysis revealed four distinct anger profiles, with greatest distress and impairment generally demonstrated by individuals with elevated trait anger, a greater tendency to suppress the expression of anger, and diminished ability to adaptively control their anger expression. These results have implications for tailoring more effective interventions for socially anxious individuals. PMID:26590429
S. Fluitman; D. Denys; N. Vulink; S. Schutters; C. Heijnen; H. Westenberg
The immune system is implicated in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. In anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD), immunological findings are equivocal and sparse. In this study, we investigated the lipopolysaccha
Buckner, Julia D; Silgado, Jose; Lewinsohn, Peter M
This study examined the temporal sequencing of eating and anxiety disorders to delineate which anxiety disorders increase eating disorder risk and whether individuals with eating disorders are at greater risk for particular anxiety disorders. The sample was drawn from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project. Temporal relations between specific eating and anxiety disorders were examined after controlling for relevant variables (e.g., mood disorders, other anxiety disorders) over 14 years. After excluding those with anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescence (T1), OCD was the only T1 anxiety disorder to predict AN by age 30 (T4). No T1 anxiety disorder was associated with T4 bulimia nervosa (BN). Although T1 AN did not increase risk of any T4 anxiety disorder, T1 BN appeared to increase risk for social anxiety and panic disorders. Evidence that eating disorders may have differential relations to particular anxiety disorders could inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:20185151
Full Text Available Introduction. In addition to significant prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and related consequences, it seems that this disorder has not been studied sufficiently in Serbia. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the understanding of psychopathology and the adequate treatment of patients with GAD by psychiatrists in Serbia. Methods. The study comprised 84 doctors - psychiatrists and neuropsychiatrists who were engaged in treatment of patients with GAD. Anonymous survey was used as the basic instrument, which collected information about the socio-demographic and professional data, experience in treating GAD and understanding psychopathology of GAD, as well as the first and the second choice therapy for patients with GAD. Results. The majority of psychiatrists (62.2% indicated the symptoms of distress/tension and slightly lower percent (36.6% designated the symptoms of worry/anxiety as the key symptoms of GAD when it was diagnosed. The results showed that almost all patients (96.5% had been treated with benzodiazepines before coming to psychiatrists. Most psychiatrists preferred the use of SSRI/SNRI antidepressants (76.2%, usually in combination with benzodiazepines (71.4% for the treatment of patients with GAD; however, if these doctors got GAD, the preference of benzodiazepine use would be significantly lesser (45.2% than for the treatment of their patients. Preference for the use of SSRI/SNRI antidepressants was significantly more frequent in physicians with completed residency. Conclusion. The understanding of psychopathology and treatment practice for patients with GAD in this sample of psychiatrists in Serbia is mostly consistent with the current trends for GAD treatment.
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Kendall, Philip C.
Research indicates that depression and anxiety are highly comorbid in youth. Little is known, however, about the clinical and family characteristics of youth with principal anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive diagnoses. The present study examined the demographic, clinical, and family characteristics of 200 anxiety-disordered children and…
Hendriks, Sanne M.; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: This study compares diagnostic and symptom course trajectories across different anxiety disorders, and examines the role of anxiety arousal vs. avoidance behaviour symptoms in course prediction. Method: Data were from 834 subjects with a current anxiety disorder from the Netherlands Study
Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.
Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A
Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits. PMID:27445719
Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation
Khdour, Hussain Y.; Abushalbaq, Oday M.; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T.; Imam, Aya F.; Gluck, Mark A.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.
Hendriks, S.M.; Licht, C.M.M.; Spijker, J; Beekman, A T F; Hardeveld, F.; de Graaf, R; Penninx, B.W.J.H.
Background: This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n = 655), GAD (n = 107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n = 266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression S...
Renno, Patricia Ann
The literature indicates that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at a heightened risk for developing anxiety disorders. Between 11% and 84% of individuals with ASD are also diagnosed with a co-occurring anxiety disorder (Muris, 1998; de Bruin et al., 2007; Green et al., 2000; Simonoff et al., 2008; Sukhodolsky et al., 2007). Despite the high frequency of co-occurrence, little research has investigated the validity of the DSM-IV Anxiety Disorder classification system in the ASD ...
de, Jongh, Petra; Broeke, ten, C.J.M.
Based on the assumptions of Shapiro's adaptive information-processing model, it could be argued that a large proportion of people suffering from an anxiety disorder would benefit from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). This article provides an overview of the current empirical evidence on the application of EMDR for the anxiety disorders spectrum other than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Reviewing the existing literature, it is disappointing to find that 20 years aft...
de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and...
KATERNDAHL, DAVID; Ferrer, Robert L.
Background: Concerns have been raised about whether primary care physicians appropriately manage mental disorders. We assessed family physicians' knowledge of appropriate management of major depressive disorder (MDD), panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Described and discussed are neuro-imaging studies on the amygdala (Am) concerning its volume, neuro-active drug effect on it and its response to repulsive and attractive stress-evoked character/temperament tests in patients mainly with major depression (MD) and anxiety disorder (AD), by functional MRI (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). A recent trend of volumetry of Am is the voxel-based morphometry by MRI, of which results are still controversial in MD. In contrast, many studies by PET and fMRI using neuro-active drugs have revealed that Am activity in MD is stimulated, and this hyperactivity can be improved by anti-depressive drugs. In addition, difference of activities is suggested in Am left and right hemispheres. The hyperactivity in Am has been reported also in AD and phobic disorders, of which symptoms are conceivably expressed by the sensitivity changes in the cerebral limbic system involving Am. The author considers the central region responsible for the depressive mood is present around cortex of anteroinferior genu of corpus callosum where neuro-network with Am is dense. (R.T.)
Penninx, B.W.; Nolen, W.A.; Lamers, F.; Zitman, F.G.; Smit, J.H.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P.; de Jong, P.J.; van Marwijk, H.W.; van der Meer, K.; Verhaak, P.; Laurant, M.G.; de Graaf, R.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; van der Wee, N.; Ormel, J.; van Dyck, R.; Beekman, A.T.
Background: Whether course trajectories of depressive and anxiety disorders are different, remains an important question for clinical practice and informs future psychiatric nosology. This longitudinal study compares depressive and anxiety disorders in terms of diagnostic and symptom course trajecto
Waugh Christian E; Hamilton J; Chen Michael C; Joormann Jutta; Gotlib Ian H
Abstract Background Despite advances in neurobiological research on Major Depressive Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, little is known about the neural functioning of individuals with comorbid depression/social anxiety. We examined the timing of neural responses to social stress in individuals with major depression and/or social anxiety. We hypothesized that having social anxiety would be associated with earlier responses to stress, having major depression would be associated with sustain...
Thabet, A; Vostanis, P
AIM—To investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children, and their relation to social adversities in a cultural sample not previously researched. METHODS—237 children aged 9 to 13 years living in the Gaza Strip were selected randomly from 112 schools. Children completed the revised manifest anxiety scale (a questionnaire with yes/no answers for 28 anxiety items and nine lie items), and teachers completed the Rutter scale (a questionnaire of 26 it...
Jefferson, James W
Social anxiety is defined as a “marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations” and includes such symptoms as sweating, palpitations, shaking, and respiratory distress. Social anxiety is fairly common, occurring in as much as 13% of the population, and can be extremely disabling. It can be either specific (confined to 1 or 2 performance situations) or generalized, and can be diagnosed with a scale-based questionnaire. Social anxiety may coexist with other disorders, such as de...
Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J
Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; [Formula: see text]) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; [Formula: see text]). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers. PMID:26244485
Jaspal Singh Sandhu
Full Text Available Objective: The present study compares the efficacy of two most commonly used biofeedback relaxation techniques in the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Method: 45 individuals with Generalized Anxiety Disorder were randomly assigned to three groups (n=15: Group I received electromyographic biofeedback relaxation training, Group II received alpha-electroencephalographic biofeedback relaxation training and Group III served as the control group. Results: Both treatment groups resulted in more consistent pattern of generalized relaxation changes reflected in galvanic skin resistance, state and trait anxiety as compared to the control group. Significant changes were observed in galvanic skin resistance and trait anxiety in the electromyographic group as compared to the electroencephalographic group. At follow-up,maintenance of effects of treatment was observed in both treatment groups. Conclusions: Both Biofeedback trainings are efficacious in the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen
A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.
Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.
Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…
Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.
The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…
Rapee, Ronald M.
Family variables are thought to play a key role in a wide variety of psychopathology according to many theories. Yet, specific models of the development of anxiety disorders place little emphasis on general family factors despite clear evidence that anxiety runs in families. The current review examines evidence for the involvement of a number of…
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.
The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…
Onrust, S.A.; Cuijpers, P.
The association between widowhood and mental health problems, such as depressive symptomatology and anxiety, has been examined extensively. Few studies, however, have explored the prevalence and incidence of mood and anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria after the loss of the partner. We co
F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; J.J. Wood
The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic
Morina, N; Deeprose, C.; Pusowski, C.; Schmid, M.; Holmes, E.A.
Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with anxiety disorders, 24 patients with MDD, and 32 control participants. Measures of both deliberately generated and intrusive imagery were completed. Results indicated that both patients with anxiety ...
Steensel, van, A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S
There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature identified 31 studies involving 2,121 young people (aged
Shahla Mohamadirizi; Fatemeh Yousefi; Zahra Boroumandfar
Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random samplin...
Brownlie, E B; Bao, Lin; Beitchman, Joseph
Language disorder is associated with anxiety and with social problems in childhood and adolescence. However, the relation between language disorder and adult social anxiety is not well known. This study examines social anxiety in early adulthood in a 26-year prospective longitudinal study following individuals identified with a communication disorder at age 5 and a control group. Social anxiety diagnoses and subthreshold symptoms were examined at ages 19, 25, and 31 using a structured diagnostic interview; social anxiety symptoms related to social interaction and social performance were also assessed dimensionally at age 31. Multiple imputation was used to address attrition. Compared to controls, participants with childhood language disorder had higher rates of subthreshold social phobia at ages 19 and 25 and endorsed higher levels of social interaction anxiety symptoms at age 31, with particular difficulty talking to others and asserting their perspectives. Childhood language disorder is a specific risk factor for a circumscribed set of social anxiety symptoms in adulthood, which are likely associated with communication challenges. PMID:26530522
McLaughlin, Katie A; Behar, Evelyn; Borkovec, TD
The current investigation examined self-reported family history of psychological problems in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and nonanxious controls. The GAD participants were all individuals receiving cognitive–behavioral therapy as part of two large randomized clinical trials. Family history information was obtained from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised (ADIS-R; DiNardo & Barlow, 1988). The results indicate that, compared to co...
Philippe Nuss1,21Department of Psychiatry, Hôpital St Antoine, AP-HP, 2UMR 7203, INSERM ERL 1057 – Bioactive Molecules Laboratory, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FranceAbstract: Lines of evidence coming from many branches of neuroscience indicate that anxiety disorders arise from a dysfunction in the modulation of brain circuits which regulate emotional responses to potentially threatening stimuli. The concept of anxiety disorders as a disturbance of emotional r...
Thaíse Campos Mondin; Caroline Elizabeth Konradt; Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso; Luciana de Avila Quevedo; Karen Jansen; Luciano Dias de Mattos; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro; Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The final sample compris...
Didem Behice ÖZTOP; Emel KARAKAYA
Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents....
Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good thera...
Barrera, Terri L.; Norton, Peter J.
Interest in the assessment of quality of life in the anxiety disorders is growing. The present study examined quality of life impairments in individuals with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder. Results showed that individuals with these disorders reported less satisfaction with their quality of life than non-anxious adults in the community. However, the degree of quality of life impairment is similar across these three disorders. Additionally, comorbid depre...
Josep Pena-Garijo; Silvia Edo Villamón; Amanda Meliá de Alba; M. Ángeles Ruipérez
Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID...
Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Short, Nicole A; Schmidt, Norman B
Panic attacks (PAs) are characterized by overwhelming surges of fear and discomfort and are one of the most frequently occurring symptoms in psychiatric populations. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e. DSM-5) allows for a panic attack (PA) specifier for all disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, there is little research examining differences between individuals diagnosed with SAD with the PA specifier versus individuals diagnosed with SAD without the PA specifier. The current study examined social anxiety, mood, anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity social concerns, a risk factor for social anxiety in SAD-diagnosed individuals without (N = 52) and with (N = 14) the PA specifier. The groups differed only in somatic symptoms of anxiety. Result of the current study provides preliminary evidence that the presence of the PA specifier in social anxiety does not result in elevated levels of comorbidity or a more severe presentation of social anxiety. PMID:26750995
Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B.
A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and disc...
KANEDA, Yasuhiro; FUJII, Akira
Objective:We investigated the associations between anxiety and depressive symptoms in normal subjects and patients with mood and/or anxiety disorders, using the Japaneses version of Spielberger's STAI and the Zung SDS. Methods:The subjects for the present study were 60 normal subjects, 15 patients with anxiety disorders and, 12 patients with mood disorders meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Results:1) Both the mean total state-anxiety (S-a...
Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…
Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.
Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. However, it is unknown how specific domains of social anxiety relate to disordered eating. We provide data on these relationships and investigate social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation as potential vulnerabilities linking social anxiety with eating disorders. Specifically, we examined five domains of social anxiety: Social interaction anxiety, fear of scrutiny, fear of positive evaluation, fear of negative evaluation,...
Moskowitz Amanda T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the psychological difficulties seen in children of parents with substance use problems, the anxiety disorders are among the most chronic conditions. Although children of alcoholic parents often struggle with the effects of parental substance use problems long into adulthood, empirical investigations of the influence of parental substance use disorders on the course of anxiety disorders in adult offspring are rare. The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the relationship between parental substance use disorders and the course of anxiety disorders in adulthood over the course of 12 years. Methods Data on 618 subjects were derived from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project (HARP, a longitudinal naturalistic investigation of the clinical course of multiple anxiety disorders. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to calculate probabilities of time to anxiety disorder remission and relapse. Proportional hazards regressions were conducted to determine whether the likelihood of remission and relapse for specific anxiety disorders was lower for those who had a history of parental substance use disorders than for individuals without this parental history. Results Adults with a history of parental substance use disorders were significantly more likely to be divorced and to have a high school level of education. History of parental substance use disorder was a significant predictor of relapse of social phobia and panic disorders. Conclusion These findings provide compelling evidence that adult children of parents with substance use disorders are more likely to have relapses of social phobia and panic disorders. Clinicians who treat adults with anxiety disorders should assess parental substance use disorders and dependence histories. Such information may facilitate treatment planning with regards to their patients' level of vulnerability to perceive scrutiny by others in social situations, and ability to
Friborg, Oddgeir; Martinussen, Monica; Kaiser, Sabine; Øvergård, Karl-Tore; Rosenvinge, Jan H
Background. A comprehensive meta-analysis to identify the proportions of comorbid personality disorders (PD) across the major subtypes of anxiety disorders (AD) has not previously been published. Methods. A literature search identified 125 empirical papers from the period 1980-2010 on patients with panic disorders, social phobia, generalised anxiety, obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several moderators were coded. Results. The rate of any comorbid PD ...
Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
It is now widely accepted that anxiety disorders run in families, and current etiological models have proposed both genetic and environmental pathways to anxiety development. In this paper, the familial role in the development, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders in children is reviewed. We focus on three anxiety disorders in youth,…
Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of juggling therapy for anxiety disorder patients. Design and Method Subjects were 17 female outpatients who met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders. Subjects were treated with standard psychotherapy, medication and counseling for 6 months. For the last 3 months of treatment, subjects were randomized into either a non-juggling group (n = 9 or a juggling therapy group (juggling group: n = 8. The juggling group gradually acquired juggling skills by practicing juggling beanbags (otedama in Japan with both hands. The therapeutic effect was evaluated using scores of psychological testing (STAI: State and Trate Anxiety Inventry, POMS: Profile of Mood Status and of ADL (FAI: Franchay Activity Index collected before treatment, 3 months after treatment (before juggling therapy, and at the end of both treatments. Results After 6 months, an analysis of variance revealed that scores on the state anxiety, trait anxiety subscales of STAI and tension-anxiety (T-A score of POMS were significantly lower in the juggling group than in the non-juggling group (p Conclusion These findings suggest that juggling therapy may be effective for the treatment of anxiety disorders.
Xiao-Jing Li; Yan-Ling He; Hong Ma; Zhe-Ning Liu; Fu-Jun Jia; Ling Zhang; Lan Zhang
AIM:To investigate the prevalence and physicians'detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China.METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13general hospitals.A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results.SubJects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses.RESULTS:There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64％) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists.Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition),the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders,anxiety disorders,and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39％,9.42％ and 4.66％,respectively.Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84％ in women and 1.64％ in men.The GI physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14％.CONCLUSION:While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients,the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.
Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate
Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…
Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L.; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.
Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used socioecon
... too, is not uncommon. Fast Facts Each year, anxiety disorders affect about 40 million American adults age 18 years and older (about 18%), filling ... no actual danger. More than 19 million American adults suffer from phobias; they ... disorders commonly accompany other mental or physical conditions, such ...
Den Boer, JA; Bosker, FJ; Slaap, BR
Serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, including depressive and anxiety disorders. Much of the evidence for the role of serotonin (5-HT) in these disorders comes from treatment studies with serotonergic drugs, including selective serotonin re
Korem, Nachshon; Zer-Aviv, Tomer Mizrachi; Ganon-Elazar, Eti; Abush, Hila; Akirav, Irit
The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the control of emotions, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders. The most common self-reported reason for using cannabis is rooted in its ability to reduce feelings of stress, tension, and anxiety. Nevertheless, there are only few studies in controlled clinical settings that confirm that administration of cannabinoids can benefit patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are considerable encouraging preclinical data to suggest that endocannabinoid-targeted therapeutics for anxiety disorders should continue. In this review, we will describe data supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system in preventing and treating anxiety-like behavior in animal models and PTSD patients. Cannabinoids have shown beneficial outcomes in rat and mouse models of anxiety and PTSD, but they also may have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including anxiogenic effects. Hence, clinical and preclinical research on the endocannabinoid system should further study the effects of cannabinoids on anxiety and help determine whether the benefits of using exogenous cannabinoids outweigh the risks. In general, this review suggests that targeting the endocannabinoid system represents an attractive and novel approach to the treatment of anxiety-related disorders and, in particular, PTSD. PMID:26426887
... Find Help Find a Therapist Treatment Support Groups Coaching Mental Health Apps Helping Others Self-Help Publications & ... Yes No Your anxiety interfering with your daily life Having more than one illness at the same ...
Green, Shulamite A.; Ben-Sasson, Ayelet
Anxiety disorders and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and there is evidence for an association between these two conditions. Currently, it is unclear what causal mechanisms may exist between SOR and anxiety. We propose three possible theories to explain the association between anxiety and SOR: (a) SOR is caused by anxiety; (b) Anxiety is caused by SOR; or (c) SOR and anxiety are causally unrelated but are associated through a common...
Muschalla, B; Linden, M
Work is an important domain of life. It is therefore clear that problems at the workplace and mental disorders will have negative interactions. Job-related anxieties are of special importance as any workplace causes or intensifies anxiety by its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general and workplace-related anxieties in particular is workplace phobia. Similarly to agoraphobia, it is characterised by panic when approaching or even thinking of the stimulus, in this case the workplace. Workplace phobia has serious negative consequences for the further course of illness. It impairs the ability to work, and can lead to sick leave and early retirement. It requires special therapeutic interventions. This paper describes workplace-related anxieties and workplace phobia and gives a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:19544717
Yiend, Jenny; Mathews, Andrew; Burns, Tom; Dutton, Kevin; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Georgiou, George A.; Luckie, Michael; Rose, Alexandra; Russo, Riccardo; Fox, Elaine
A well-established literature has identified different selective attentional orienting mechanisms underlying anxiety-related attentional bias, such as engagement and disengagement of attention. These mechanisms are thought to contribute to the onset and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, conclusions to date have relied heavily on experimental work from subclinical samples. We therefore investigated individuals with diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), healthy volunteers, and individuals with high trait anxiety (but not meeting GAD diagnostic criteria). Across two experiments we found faster disengagement from negative (angry and fearful) faces in GAD groups, an effect opposite to that expected on the basis of the subclinical literature. Together these data challenge current assumptions that we can generalize, to those with GAD, the pattern of selective attentional orienting to threat found in subclinical groups. We suggest a decisive two-stage experiment identifying stimuli of primary salience in GAD, then using these to reexamine orienting mechanisms across groups. PMID:26504675
Risbrough, Victoria B.; Stein, Murray B.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders that include generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, phobic disorders (e.g., specific phobias, agoraphobia, social phobia) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Anxiety disorders are among the most common of all mental disorders and, when coupled with an awareness of the disability and reduced quality of life they convey, they must be recognized as a serious public health problem. Over 20 years of preclinical studies point to a...
Settipani, Cara A.; Puleo, Connor M.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; KENDALL, Philip C.
There is limited information about the nature of anxiety among youth with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined (a) differences in the clinical characteristics of anxious youth with and without symptoms of ASD and (b) the symptoms of anxiety that best distinguish between these groups. Results indicated that anxious youth with elevated ASD symptoms had significantly more diagnoses (e.g., specific phobias), and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for so...
Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Forsyth, Jphn P.
The construct of emotion regulation has been increasingly investigated in the last decade, and this work has important implications for advancing anxiety disorder theory. This paper reviews research demonstrating that: 1) emotion (i.e., fear and anxiety) and emotion regulation are distinct, non-redundant, constructs that can be differentiated at the conceptual, behavioral, and neural levels of analysis; 2) emotion regulation can augment or diminish fear, depending on the emotion regulation st...
Stein, Dan J.
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are characterized by fear or anxiety about social situations, but also by important alterations in self-referential processing. Given advances in our understanding of the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry of SAD, the question arises of the relationship between this research and an emergent literature on the psychobiology of self and self-consciousness. A number of investigations of SAD have highlighted altered activity in the medial prefrontal co...
Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina
Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Pho...
Larkins, Clare Williamson
There is a need for study on high quality friendship and its effects on children with special needs, specifically. One primary goal of this study was to examine the effect of anxiety on friendship over the course of three years. Participants were 172 children with and without anxiety disorders at a "laboratory" school who completed an interview on their best friendships. These interviews were analyzed with a new instrument, the Friendship Quality Coding Scale, which was found to be a valid to...
Craske, Michelle G.; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Bystritsky, Alexander
Anxiety disorders are common, costly and debilitating, and yet often unrecognized or inadequately treated in real world, primary care settings. Our group has been researching ways of delivering evidence-based treatment for anxiety in primary care settings, with special interest to preserving the fidelity of the treatment while at the same time promoting its sustainability once the research is over. In this paper, we describe the programs we have developed and our directions for future researc...
Alan Wright; Chad VanDenBerg
Trevor R Norman, James S OlverDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Duloxetine, a medication with effects on both serotonin and noradrenaline transporter molecules, has recently been approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. The evidence for its efficacy lies in a limited number of double blind, placebo controlled comparisons. Statistically significant improvements in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale fro...
Trevor R Norman, James S OlverDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Duloxetine, a medication with effects on both serotonin and noradrenaline transporter molecules, has recently been approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. The evidence for its efficacy lies in a limited number of double blind, placebo controlled comparisons. Statistically significant improvements in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale fro...
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Straten, A.H.M.; Van de Ven, P.; Langerak, W.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.
BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cu...
Blanco, C; Nissenson, K; Liebowitz, M R
Social anxiety disorder is a common and chronic disorder that leads to substantial psychosocial impairment. The disorder occurs early in childhood, and is frequently comorbid with a variety of other psychiatric diagnoses like depression, other anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders. Given these serious implications of social anxiety disorder, early effective treatment is extremely important. Pharmacotherapy, with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and cognitive behavioral therapy are the first choice of treatments for social anxiety disorder. This paper reviews recent findings on the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment for social anxiety disorder, and highlights areas where future research should be directed. PMID:11470033
de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089
Esbjorn, B. H.; Bender, P. K.; Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L.; Munck, L. A.; Ollendick, T. H.
Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. Nonetheless, theoretical knowledge of the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders is still in its infancy. Recently, research has begun to investigate the influence of emotion regulation on anxiety disorders. Although a relation between anxiety…
D.J. Stein; N.A. Fineberg; O.J. Bienvenu; D. Denys; C. Lochner; G. Nestadt; J.F. Leckman; S.L. Rauch; K.A. Phillips
In DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder. In ICD-10, OCD is classified separately from the anxiety disorders, although within the same larger category as anxiety disorders (as one of the "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform dis
Full Text Available Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT is the third wave of behaviour therapy, it is an innovative acceptance-based behavior therapy that has been applied broadly and successfully to treat a variety of clinical problems, including the anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are the most widespread cause of distress among individuals seeking treatment from mental health services. However, despite the prevalence of research onefectve the rapeutic interventions and their promising outcomes, significant shortcomings remain. In response to these drawbacks, a novel treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, was developed in an attempt to reformulate the conceptualization and treatment of anxiety disorders. Throughout treatment ACT balances acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior change processes.
Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Gutner, Cassidy A
Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23542909
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is still one of the most important treatment modalities in social anxiety disorder with a high level of evidence. However, some patients do not fully benefit from these therapies and this fact leads to ongoing search for new approaches. This paper reviews use of cognitive behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder studies and discusses related updated concepts. The frequent use of computer-assisted therapy for most of recent studies was found noteworthy. Recent studies regarding social anxiety disorder focused on concepts such as attention bias, biased information processing, attention training, judgment biases, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapies and social mishap exposure. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy seemed to be a good option for people who were unable to access face to face treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 229-243
Dilek Sirvanli Ozen
Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.
Moskowitz Amanda T; Hargraves Eric L; Rodriguez Benjamin F; Rende Richard; Pagano Maria E; Keller Martin B
Abstract Background Among the psychological difficulties seen in children of parents with substance use problems, the anxiety disorders are among the most chronic conditions. Although children of alcoholic parents often struggle with the effects of parental substance use problems long into adulthood, empirical investigations of the influence of parental substance use disorders on the course of anxiety disorders in adult offspring are rare. The purpose of this study was to examine prospectivel...
Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H
Identifying baseline characteristics associated with treatment outcome in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder (SAD) or post-traumatic stress disorder. We performed two secondary analyses of the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management trial. Baseline characteristics and their interactions with treatment assignment were analyzed via stepwise logistic regression models and receiver-operating criterion analyses by disorder predicting remission and response for each disorder. Predictors for poor outcome across diagnoses were comorbid depression and low socioeconomic status. Good outcome was associated with positive treatment expectancy and high self-efficacy expectancy. SAD had the lowest rate of remission and response compared to the other anxiety disorders, and differed in respect to its predictors of treatment outcome. Perceived social support predicted treatment outcome in SAD. The special role of SAD among the other anxiety disorders requires further study both because of its worse prognosis and its more specific treatment needs. PMID:26563229
When applied to the construction of anxiety disorders, theories of poststructuralist historicism emphasize acts of interpretation that constitute and construct the disorders and problematize the processes by which meaning is constructed. An examination of the historical formulations of anxiety disorders, and in particular, agoraphobia, provides the opportunity for reanalyzing traditional approaches to the classifications of disorders. Psychological issues of paradox, attachment, and personal identity, which are crucial to current conceptualizations of agoraphobia, are acutely problematized within a poststructuralist historicist hermeneutic. A rethinking of disorder construction from within this hermeneutic suggests replacing individualistic conceptualizations of personal identity with a broader view that recognizes and celebrates multiplicity and that displays formulations of the self in a contextualized and historicized status, thus enabling a fuller engagement with the social world. PMID:8510049
Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; van Dyck, Richard; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: To determine whether patients with different types of anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder) have higher heart rate and lower heart rate variability compared with healthy controls in a sample that was sufficiently powered to examine the confounding
Cheng, Bochao; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Shiguang; Hu, Xinyu; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiuli; Yang, Xun; Qiu, Changjian; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Bi, Feng; Roberts, Neil; Gong, Qiyong
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD) all bear the core symptom of anxiety and are separately classified in the new DSM-5 system. The aim of the present study is to obtain evidence for neuroanatomical difference for these disorders. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie to compare gray matter volume (GMV) in magnetic resonance images obtained for 30 p...
Dąbkowska, Małgorzata Maria
Anxiety disorders form a part of the most common health disorders existing at the evolutional age. School refusal could be defined as a difficulty in attending school associated with emotional distress, especially anxiety and depression. Separation anxiety can be a meaningful factor of school attendance reluctance. Children suffering from separation anxiety usually experience unrealistic fear of being separated from their meaningful persons. The squeals of childhood anxiety disorders include ...
Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S
Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk fact...
Holwerda, T.J.; Schoevers, R A; Dekker, J.J.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Beekman, A T F
after adjustment for the different variables. Conclusions In elderly persons depression increases the risk of death in men. Neither generalized anxiety nor mixed anxiety-depression are associated with excess mortality. Generalized anxiety disorder may even predict less mortality in depressive elderly people. The relation between generalized anxiety disorder and its possibly protective effect on mortality has to be further explored.
Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani
Full Text Available "n Objective: Patients with bipolar mood disorder constitute a relatively large number of individuals hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. This disorder is highly co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders and may effect their clinical course. The goal of this study was to determine the co-occurrence rate of anxiety disorders and substance abuse with bipolar mood disorders and their impact on clinical course. "n Methods: 153 bipolar patients (type I were selected among the hospitalized patients at Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2007 to October 2008 through convenience sampling method. The participants were evaluated by a structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV criteria (SCID, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Results: Co-morbidity of anxiety disorders was 43% . Occurrence of anxiety disorders was 26% for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 24.8% for generalized anxiety disorder, 3.9% for phobia and 2% for panic disorder. Co-morbidity of substance abuse was 7.2% and the highest occurrence of substance abuse was 5.2% for alcoholism and 3.9% for opium. No significant difference was observed between the severity of disease and duration of hospitalization in bipolar patients with or without anxiety disorder. The severity of disease and duration of hospitalization in bipolar patients with substance abuse was higher compared to bipolar patients without substance abuse (P<0.05. "nConclusions: This study suggests that there is a high co-morbidity between anxiety disorders and substance abuse with bipolar disorder. Further, this study suggests that co-occurrence of substance abuse disorder with bipolar disorder increases the severity of the disease and duration of hospitalization.
Coffey, Barbara J; Shechter, Rachel L
In Sumary, OCD, non-OCD anxiety disorders and mood disorders are common co-morbid psychiatric disorders are common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in clinically referred youth with TS. Emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression may be more problematic to the patient than the tics, with regard to overall illness severity and the potential for adverse outcomes, such as school and social failure. The emotional symptoms and co-morbid mood and anxiety disorders must be comprehensively identified because they will require specific intervention and treatment. Treatment must be tailored to each individual, and should ideally include education, monitoring, and prioritization of symptoms based on distress and impairment. There is growing evidence to support the use of several medications, particularly the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and some cognitive behavioral techniques to treat the psychiatric co-morbid disorders. PMID:16536368
Dunsæd, Anne Martine Rafoss
Background: Anxiety symptoms are among the most commonly observed and impairing symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, parents of children with ASD frequently report that their children have sleep disturbances. The current study´s main hypothesis is that there is a significant relationship between ASD and anxiety in preschool children within the autism spectrum. Secondly, it is hypothesized that this relationship between ASD and anxiety are mediated by sleep pr...
... his life with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks, describes here how he sought help to turn ... was diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) including panic attacks. I discovered that my feelings were coming from ...
Vermani, Monica; Marcus, Madalyn; Katzman, Martin A
Objective: To determine the incidence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and to assess their detection rates in the Canadian primary care setting.
D'Avanzato, Catherine; Dalrymple, Kristy L
Systems for subtyping individuals with social anxiety disorder have been the focus of much research attention as a means to improve assessment and treatment of the disorder. This article highlights recent revisions to social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtypes from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) to DSM-V, reviewing empirical evidence that served as the impetus for the revisions. Recent research examining the validity of the DSM-V system and alternative subtyping systems is reviewed. Overall, there appears to be greater empirical support for a dimensional subtyping system. Concerns therefore remain with the DSM-V system, which retained a categorical system but replaced the previous subtypes with a subtype of individuals fearing only performance situations. Recommendations for future research are discussed, as well as alternate options for capturing the variability in SAD presentations, including the possibility of eliminating subtyping altogether. PMID:27017831
Dias, Brian G; Banerjee, Sunayana B; Goodman, Jared V; Ressler, Kerry J
Fear and anxiety are debilitating conditions that affect a significant number of individuals in their lifetimes. Understanding underlying mechanisms of these disorders affords us the possibility of therapeutic intervention. Such clarity in terms of mechanism and intervention can only come from an amalgamation of research from human to animal studies that attempt to mimic the human condition, both of which are discussed in this review. We begin by presenting an outline of our current understanding of the neurobiological basis of fear and anxiety. This outline spans various levels of organization that include the circuitry, molecular pathways, genetic and epigenetic components of fear and anxiety. Using these organizational levels as a scaffold, we then discuss strategies that are currently used to ameliorate these disorders, and forecast future interventions that hold therapeutic promise. Among these newer promising treatments, we include, optogenetic, pharmacological, and extinction-based approaches, as well as lifestyle modifications, with combinatorial treatment regimens of these holding the most promise. PMID:23402950
Graham, Bronwyn M; Milad, Mohammed R
In this review, the authors propose that the fear extinction model can be used as an experimental tool to cut across symptom dimensions of multiple anxiety disorders to enhance our understanding of the psychopathology of these disorders and potentially facilitate the detection of biomarkers for them. The authors evaluate evidence for this proposition from studies examining the neurocircuitry underlying fear extinction in rodents, healthy humans, and clinical populations. The authors also assess the potential use of the fear extinction model to predict vulnerability for anxiety and treatment response and to improve existing treatments or develop novel ones. Finally, the authors suggest potential directions for future research that will help to further validate extinction as a biomarker for anxiety across diagnostic categories and to bridge the gap between basic neuroscience and clinical practice. PMID:21865528
Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…
Stefan G. Hofmann
Although social factors are of critical importance in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders, the contemporary view of emotion regulation has been primarily limited to intrapersonal processes. Based on diverse perspectives pointing to the communicative function of emotions, the social processes in self-regulation, and the role of social support, this article presents an interpersonal model of emotion regulation of mood and anxiety disorders. This model provides a theoretical f...
Flores de los Heros, ??frica; Saravia, Roc??o; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero D??az, Fernando, 1971-
An understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the regulation of fear is essential for the development of new treatments for anxiety disorders, such as phobias, panic, and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Orexins, also known as hypocretins, are neuropeptides located exclusively in hypothalamic neurons that have extensive projections throughout the central nervous system. Although this system was initially believed to be primarily involved in the regulation of feeding be...
Ferdowsian, Hope R.; Durham, Debra L.; Kimwele, Charles; Kranendonk, Godelieve; Otali, Emily; Akugizibwe, Timothy; Mulcahy, J. B.; Ajarova, Lilly; Johnson, Cassie Meré
Background In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety diso...
Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani; Javad Golmirzaei; Salam Bakhshi; Shahrokh Amiri; Mohammad Ali Ghoreishizadeh
"n Objective: Patients with bipolar mood disorder constitute a relatively large number of individuals hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. This disorder is highly co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders and may effect their clinical course. The goal of this study was to determine the co-occurrence rate of anxiety disorders and substance abuse with bipolar mood disorders and their impact on clinical course. "n Methods: 153 bipolar patients (type I) were selected among the hospitalize...
Herbert, James D.; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early…
Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…
Leahy, Robert L.
Cognitive-behavioral treatment for all anxiety disorders involves exposure to feared situations and feared emotions. Dropout from therapy is a continued problem for final treatment effectiveness. A meta-emotional model of fear of negative emotions (and anxious sensations and thoughts) is advanced that can be used as a transdiagnostic treatment…
Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne
Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…
Antony, Martin M.; Rowa, Karen
This article discusses issues related to the development and dissemination of evidence-based assessment strategies for anxiety disorders and associated problems. It begins with a review of the criteria that should be considered when determining whether particular assessment procedures are evidence-based. These include such factors as reliability,…
Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael
Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Normann, Nicoline; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
-c) with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and create suggestions for an adapted manual. The adaptation was based on the structure and techniques used in MCT for adults with GAD. However, the developmental limitations of children were taken into account. For instance, therapy was aided with worksheets...
Gerrits, Marloes M. J. G.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Horst, Henritte E.
Patients with pain may be at increased risk of developing a first episode of depressive or anxiety disorder. Insight into possible associations between specific pain characteristics and such a development could help clinicians to improve prevention and treatment strategies. The objectives of this st
Farvolden, Peter; McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R. Michael; Ravitz, Paula
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders are common and result in considerable suffering and economic loss. People suffering from major depressive disorder and/or anxiety disorders are commonly encountered in the primary care setting. Unfortunately, most people with these disorders remain either untreated or inadequately treated; current data suggest that general practitioners fail to diagnose up to half of cases of major depressive disorder or anxiety. There is a need...
Pilling, S.; Mayo-Wilson, E.; Mavranezouli, I.; Kew, K M.; Taylor, C.; Clark, D. M.; Afgan, S.; Anigbogu, B.; Armstrong, P; Bennett, M.; Cartwright-Hatton, S.; Creswell, Catharine; Dix, M.; Hanlon, N; Leggett, K.
Social anxiety disorder is one of the most persistent and common of the anxiety disorders, with lifetime prevalence rates in Europe of 6.7% (range 3.9-13.7%).1 It often coexists with depression, substance use disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.2 It can severely impair a person’s daily functioning by impeding the formation of relationships, reducing quality of life, and negatively affecting performance at work or school. Despite this, and...
Full Text Available Jing Chen, Shenxun ShiDepartment of Psychiatry, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent internationally, and constitute a substantial social and economic burden for patients, their families, and society. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated the etiology of anxiety disorders in China in the last decade. We discuss the findings of these studies, and compare them with the results of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders outside China.Method: A literature search was conducted using the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, the Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals Database, the Chinese Journal Full-text Database, and PubMed, from 1989 to April 2009. We selected neuroimaging studies in which all participants and researchers were Chinese.Results: Twenty-five studies fit our inclusion criteria. Nine studies examined general anxiety disorder (GAD and/or panic disorder (PD, eight examined obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, and eight examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Our literature review revealed several general findings. First, reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF was found in the frontal lobe and temporal lobe in patients with GAD and PD compared with healthy controls. Second, when viewing images with negative and positive valence, relatively increased or decreased activation was found in several brain areas in patients with GAD and PD, respectively. Third, studies with positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS imaging revealed that OCD patients exhibited hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion in some brain regions compared with healthy controls. Neuroimaging studies of PTSD indicate that the hippocampal volume and the N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA level and the NAA/creatine ratio in the hippocampus are decreased in patients relative to controls.Conclusion: Neuroimaging studies within and outside China have provided
Estácio Amaro da Silva Júnior
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate, in a community sample of adolescents, the presence of comorbidities in different anxiety disorders. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, initially composed of 2,457 adolescents, aged between 10-17 years old, from public schools of the area covered by the Basic Health Unit of a university hospital. We applied the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED to assess for anxiety disorders. Then, 138 positive cases in the screening were assessed for mental disorders through the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results Patients with anxiety disorders had more association with other anxiety disorders, as well as depression, and enuresis. The most common comorbidity described in our study was between generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 4.21, 95% CI 1.88, 9.58. Significant association was observed between other disorders such as enuresis and separation anxiety disorder (OR = 3.81, 95% CI 1.16, 12.49, as well as depression and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.52, 7.61. Conclusion Our study showed a relevant presence of comorbidities adolescents with anxiety disorders, selected from a community sample, especially regarding other anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.
Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…
van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda
Introduction: Depressive and anxiety disorders often involve a chronic course. This study examined whether objective physical function is a predictor for the persistence of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: The study sample consisted of 1206 persons with depressive and anxiety disorders at b
Scharfstein, Lindsay; Alfano, Candice; Beidel, Deborah; Wong, Nina
A common assumption is that all youth with anxiety disorders (AD) experience impaired peer relationships relative to healthy control children. Social impairments have been identified among youth with certain AD (e.g., social anxiety disorder; SAD), but less is known about the peer relationships of children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).…
Hawke, Lisa D; Velyvis, Vytas; Parikh, Sagar V.
Background Comorbid anxiety disorders are extremely prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) and have substantial impact on the course of illness. Limited evidence regarding treatment factors has led to a renewal of research efforts examining both the impact of treatments on comorbid anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatments. The current study examines the impact of comorbid anxiety disorders on response to two psychosocial interventions for BD. Methods A sample of 204 patients with ...
Full Text Available Worry is a cognitive-emotive process characterized by repetitive and relatively uncontrollable thoughts that anticipate negative outcomes and cause distress in the individuals. According to the meta-cognitive model of Wells (1995, positive beliefs about the benefits of worry and negative beliefs on uncontrollability and danger of worry are associated with "pathological brooding" as the main feature of anxiety disorders. The phenomenon of worry is already present in preschool children and the ability to mull over is refined with the cognitive development and the progress of meta-cognition. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between anxiety and worry in 184 preadolescents (aged 11-13 years. The measures employed were: RCMAS-2 to assess the levels of anxiety in children; the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children (PSWQ-C and the Meta-cognition Questionnaire for Children (MCQ-C to detect, respectively, the frequency and content of the worry. Results indicate that children with higher levels of anxiety reported significantly higher scores on PSWQ-C and in all subscales of the MCQ-C, with the only exception of the positive meta-worry. These results also support the reliability of the two instruments (PSWQ-C and MCQ-C-C in the Italian version and encourage further applications in developmental or clinical researches.Keywords: worry, anxiety disorders, meta-cognitive beliefs, preadolescents
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.
Cremers, Henk R; Roelofs, Karin
Social anxiety is a common disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of one or more social or performance situations. Behavioral inhibition is one of the early indicators of social anxiety, which later in life may advance into a certain personality structure (low extraversion and high neuroticism) and the development of maladaptive cognitive biases. While there are several effective psycho- and pharmacotherapy options, a large number of patients benefit insufficiently from these therapies. Brain and neuroendocrine research can help uncover both the biological basis of social anxiety and potentially provide indicators, 'biomarkers,' that may be informative for early disease detection or treatment response, above and beyond self-report data. Several large-scale brain networks related to emotion, motivation, cognitive control, and self-referential processing have been identified, and are affected in social anxiety. Social anxiety is further characterized by increased cortisol response and lower testosterone levels. These neuroendocrine systems are also related to altered connectivity patterns, such as reduced amygdala-prefrontal coupling. Much work is needed however to further elucidate such interactions between neuroendocrine functioning and large-scale brain networks. Despite the great promise of brain research in uncovering the neurobiological basis of social anxiety, several methodological and conceptual issues also need to be considered. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:218-232. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1390 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27240280
Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.
Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…
Diehl, N S; Johnson, C E; Rogers, R L; Petrie, T A
Social physique anxiety (SPA) is highly correlated with other body image measures that have been considered to be important in understanding eating disorders. However, SPA has not been directly studied with respect to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the link between SPA and measures of eating disorder symptomatology to determine if SPA should be considered as an additional risk factor in the prediction of eating disturbances. One hundred and sixty female undergraduates completed questionnaires measuring body mass index (BMI), social physique anxiety (SPAS), anorexic symptoms (EAT), bulimic symptoms (BULIT-R), depression (CES-D), self-esteem (SES) and obligatory exercise (OEQ). Regression analyses revealed that SPA and depression were the psychological correlates that predicted bulimic symptomatology and that SPA, depression, and obligatory exercise predicted anorexic symptomatology; all variables were positively related to eating disorder symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that social physique anxiety appears to be a useful construct for understanding eating disorder symptoms in female undergraduates. PMID:9468735
Santucci, Lauren C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill
While the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for childhood anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety disorder (SAD), has been established, tailoring such treatments to particular interests and needs may enhance uptake of evidence-based interventions. The current investigation evaluates the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an…
Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.
Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…
Terrill, Alexandra L.; Hartoonian, Narineh; Beier, Meghan; Salem, Rana; Alschuler, Kevin
Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) but understudied. Reliable and valid measures are needed to advance clinical care and expand research in this area. The objectives of this study were to examine the psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) in individuals with MS and to analyze correlates of GAD.
Full Text Available Philippe Nuss1,21Department of Psychiatry, Hôpital St Antoine, AP-HP, 2UMR 7203, INSERM ERL 1057 – Bioactive Molecules Laboratory, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FranceAbstract: Lines of evidence coming from many branches of neuroscience indicate that anxiety disorders arise from a dysfunction in the modulation of brain circuits which regulate emotional responses to potentially threatening stimuli. The concept of anxiety disorders as a disturbance of emotional response regulation is a useful one as it allows anxiety to be explained in terms of a more general model of aberrant salience and also because it identifies avenues for developing psychological, behavioral, and pharmacological strategies for the treatment of anxiety disorder. These circuits involve bottom-up activity from the amygdala, indicating the presence of potentially threatening stimuli, and top-down control mechanisms originating in the prefrontal cortex, signaling the emotional salience of stimuli. Understanding the factors that control cortical mechanisms may open the way to identification of more effective cognitive behavioral strategies for managing anxiety disorders. The brain circuits in the amygdala are thought to comprise inhibitory networks of Υ-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic interneurons and this neurotransmitter thus plays a key role in the modulation of anxiety responses both in the normal and pathological state. The presence of allosteric sites on the GABAA receptor allows the level of inhibition of neurons in the amygdala to be regulated with exquisite precision, and these sites are the molecular targets of the principal classes of anxiolytic drugs. Changes in the levels of endogenous modulators of these allosteric sites as well as changes in the subunit composition of the GABAA receptor may represent mechanisms whereby the level of neuronal inhibition is downregulated in pathological anxiety states. Neurosteroids are synthesized in the brain and
Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7–11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and overall ASD severity), multimethod- (diagnostic interviews, parent-, and child-based measures) analysis was conducted. Results from structural equa...
Reardon, John M; Williams, Nathan L
Mood and anxiety disorders share considerable phenomenological and diagnostic overlap. Several models have advanced the understanding of the phenomenological overlap of anxiety and depression; however, identification of disorder-specific etiological mechanisms remains elusive. Recently, research has advanced several cognitive vulnerability-stress models proposing that one's characteristic way of attending to, interpreting, and remembering negative events contributes vulnerability to psychopathology. These cognitive vulnerabilities may elucidate specific etiological mechanisms that distinguish mood and anxiety pathology. The present study examines the specificity of three cognitive vulnerability constructs, the looming cognitive style, anxiety sensitivity, and explanatory style, in the prediction of latent anxiety disorder symptoms and latent depression symptoms. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the looming cognitive style demonstrated specificity predicting only anxiety disorder symptoms whereas anxiety sensitivity and a pessimistic explanatory style predicted both anxiety disorder and mood disorder symptoms. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17070666
Gieler, T; Brähler, E
Between 0.8 and 1.8 % of the German population suffers from a body dysmorphic disorder. In specific settings like dermatological offices up to 11.9 % of patients suffer from this disease. The highest prevalence could be found in the field of cosmetic dermatology with a prevalence of 13.1 %. Until now, the diagnosis has been made too rarely. The body dysmorphic disorder is a chronic psychic disease, in which the patients feel disfigured and experience shame and disgust at the same time. Comorbidities like social phobia, depression, suicidality, and eating disorders are frequent. The diagnosis is made using questionnaires (e.g., dysmorphic concern questionnaire) or by use of the DSM-5 manual. An early diagnosis seems to be important to avoid chronification and suicidal ideas. Therapeutic approaches should include cognitive behavioral therapies as well as the use of SSRIs. PMID:26893009
Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric conditions in childhood and adolescence, and may persist into adulthood. The development of anxiety disorders seems to be caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as specific language impairment and developmental coordination disorder, have been shown to exhibit an increased prevalence of anxiety disorders. However, the literature on neurodevelopmental dis...
Melchior, Maria; Prokofyeva, Elena; Younès, Nadia; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine whether comorbid mood and anxiety disorders influence patterns of treatment or the perceived unmet need for treatment among those not receiving treatment for illegal drug use disorders. METHODS: Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, n = 34,653). Lifetime DSM-IV illegal drug use disorder (abuse and dependence), as well as comorbid mood (major depression, dysthymia, manic disorder, ...
Jen, Andrew; Saunders, Erika FH; Ornstein, Rollyn M; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin G.
Background Eating disorders (ED) are noted to occur with bipolar disorder (BD), but relationships between additional comorbidities, clinical correlates, and personality factors common to both remain largely unknown. Methods Using data from the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder, we measured the prevalence and demographic factors of comorbid ED with BD, presence of additional comorbidity of anxiety and substance use disorders, psychosis, suicide attempts, mixed symptoms, childhood...
Baune, Bernhard T.
Bernhard T BauneDepartment of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, James Cook University, Queensland 4811, AustraliaAbstract: Quetiapine has demonstrated efficacy in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and in the treatment of specific symptom clusters such as agitation and sleep problems in mood disorders. In this review, randomized controlled studies demonstrating efficacy, safety and tolerability of quetiapine in major depressive disorder (MDD) and general anxiety disorder (GAD) are evaluated. The r...
Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong
The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…
Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is a debilitating and common anxiety disorder, with a lifetime prevalence ranging from 6 % to 12 %. The condition has its onset in childhood and early adolescence, affects females more often than males, and if untreated is associated with high risk of developing comorbid anxiety and mood disorders, as well as substance abuse. The increasingly growing body of research during the last decades has helped to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety disor...
Jarrett, Matthew Adam
The current study evaluated a treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety. The experimental treatment involved a combination of parent management training for ADHD and family-based treatment for anxiety. Sessions lasted approximately 90 minutes, and the treatment consisted of 10 weekly sessions. 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C) and at least one of three anxiety disorders (separation anxiety disorder, gener...
Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; White, Emily K; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Iacovino, Juliette M; Warren, Cortney S
Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N=236; N=136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741
Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B
A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components. PMID:26487814
Kennedy, Susan J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Edwards, Susan L.
The efficacy of early intervention for preschool-aged children at risk of anxiety disorders is investigated. Brief early intervention delivered through parents can reduce anxiety and associated risk and may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety in some young children.
Kerns, Connor Morrow; Kendall, Philip C.; Berry, Leandra; Souders, Margaret C.; Franklin, Martin E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Miller, Judith; Herrington, John
We assessed anxiety consistent (i.e., "traditional") and inconsistent (i.e., "atypical") with diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) definitions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Differential relationships between traditional anxiety, atypical anxiety, child characteristics, anxiety predictors and ASD-symptomology were…
Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence
Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in…
HAI Ri-han; CHEN Xi-zhen; GENG Jian-hong; WANG Si-you
Purpose To investigate the curative effect of electroacupuncture on anxiety neurosis. Method Twenty-six female patients with extensive anxiety neurosis were selected according to CCMD-2-R diagnostic criteria. Evaluations based on STAI were made before and after electroacupuncture treatment for 4 times. Points Baihui ( GV 20), Shangxing ( GV 23), Neiguan ( PC 6),Shenmen ( HT 7 ), Zusanli ( ST 36), Sanyinjiao ( SP 6) and Taichong (LR 3 ) were selected for electroacupuncture treatment. One course of treatment consisted of 10 days and a total of 3 courses were carried out. Results The effective rate was 80.8% at the completion of treatment. The scores of state-anxiety index (S-Al) and typical-anxiety index (T-Al) were significantly decreased as compared with before the treatment ( P < 0.01 ), especially in the patients with recovery or improvement (P <0.01 and P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Electroacupuncture treatment has a good effect on extensive anxiety disorder and can avoid the dependence of the patients on anxio lytics.
Full Text Available Alan Wright, Chad VanDenBergCenter for Clinical Research, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Duloxetine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI which is FDA approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in doses of 30 mg to 120 mg daily. Duloxetine has been shown to significantly improve symptoms of GAD as measured through the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-I, and other various outcome measures in several placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind, multi-center studies. Symptom improvement began within the first few weeks, and continued for the duration of the studies. In addition, duloxetine has also been shown to improve outcomes in elderly patients with GAD, and in GAD patients with clinically significant pain symptoms. Duloxetine was noninferior compared with venlafaxine XR. Duloxetine was found to have a good tolerability profile which was predictable and similar to another SNRI, venlafaxine. Adverse events (AEs such as nausea, constipation, dry mouth, and insomnia were mild and transient, and occurred at relatively low rates. It was found to have a low frequency of drug interactions. In conclusion, duloxetine, a selective inhibitor for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, is efficacious in the treatment of GAD, and has a predictable tolerability profile, with AEs generally being mild to moderate.Keywords: duloxetine, generalized anxiety disorder, anxiety, GAD
Gorini, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Algeri, Davide; Repetto, Claudia; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder characterized by 6 months of "excessive anxiety and worry" about a variety of events and situations. Anxiety and worry are often accompanied by additional symptoms like restlessness, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension and disturbed sleep. GAD is usually treated with medications and/or psychotherapy. In particular, the two most promising treatments seem to be cognitive therapy and applied relaxation. In this study we integrated these approaches through the use of a biofeedback enhanced virtual reality (VR) system used both for relaxation and controlled exposure. Moreover, this experience is strengthened by the use of a mobile phone that allows patients to perform the virtual experience even in an outpatient setting. This paper describe the results of a controlled trial (NCT00602212) involving 20 GAD patients randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) the VR and Mobile group (VRMB) including biofeedback; (2) the VR and Mobile group (VRM) without biofeedback; (3) the waiting list (WL) group. The clinical data underlined that (a) VR can be used also in the treatment of GAD; (b) in a VR treatment, patients take advantage of a mobile device that delivers in an outpatient setting guided experiences, similar to the one experienced in VR. PMID:20543266
Richter, Margaret A; Summerfeldt, Laura J; Antony, Martin M; Swinson, Richard P
In light of current interest in an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders, this study sought to determine whether comorbidity patterns support the unique relationship hypothesized between these conditions and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Comparisons were made of lifetime rates of several proposed spectrum conditions in individuals with one of three anxiety disorder principal diagnoses (OCD, social phobia, or panic disorder [PD], N=277). Spectrum conditions examined included tic-related disorders, trichotillomania, skin picking, and eating disorders, with analyses performed on rates both of clinical disorder alone, and clinical and subclinical manifestations jointly. The OCD group was found to differ from both other groups in showing 1) a greater proportion of individuals affected with any lifetime spectrum condition, 2) a greater number of lifetime spectrum conditions affecting each individual, and 3) a greater proportion of individuals having a lifetime history of multiple spectrum conditions. Analyses for specific spectrum conditions indicated differences among the anxiety disorder groups for all spectrum categories except eating disorders, though only in the case of tic-related conditions did OCD differ significantly from both comparison groups. For the other conditions, dissimilar patterns of differences were observed among the three groups, particularly when subclinical manifestations were included. These findings have conceptual and clinical implications, including 1) the salience of tic-related disorders in the OC spectrum, 2) the possibility that the relationship between spectrum conditions and anxiety disorders may take several different forms, and 3) the need for refinement of the hypothesized spectrum. PMID:14625876
Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine
Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…
Bagwell, Catherine L.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Pelham, William E.; Hoza, Betsy
In this study, the authors examined the association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence. They compared a group of 142 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years with a history of ADHD in childhood to group of 100 community-recruited adolescents without ADHD. The two groups did not…
N. Morina; C. Deeprose; C. Pusowski; M. Schmid; E.A. Holmes
Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with a
van Lang, Natasja D. J.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Rosbergen, Bianca; Dieleman, Gwen; Ferdinand, Robert F.
This study examined whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have lower autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and show less stress reactivity than children with an anxiety disorder. It also explored whether such a difference was accounted for by comorbid oppositional d
White, Susan W.; Bray, Bethany C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are fairly common psychiatric conditions that impair the functioning of otherwise healthy young adults. Given that the two conditions frequently co-occur, measurement of the characteristics unique to each condition is critical. This study evaluated the structure and construct…
Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas
A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…
Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…
Clark, Duncan B.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Ehmann, Mary; Bridge, Jeffrey; Wood, D. Scott; Muthen, Bengt; Brent, David
Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluoxetine for the long-term treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Method: Children and adolescents (7-17 years old) with anxiety disorders were studied in open treatment for 1 year after they…
O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn
Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...
K. Meyerbröker; P.M.G. Emmelkamp
In recent years, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become an interesting alternative for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this systematic review, st
Benson, Lisa Ann
Treatments for GAD are less efficacious than those for other anxiety disorders, and individuals in relationships characterized by distress are less likely to respond to standard GAD treatments, which suggest dyadic treatment of GAD may be beneficial to individuals in distressed relationships. This dissertation presents and conducts preliminary tests of an acceptance- and mindfulness-based dyadic treatment for GAD based on the principles of Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT). This di...
Kawaguchi, Akiko; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Kan, Hirohito; ARAI Nobuyuki; Shiraishi, Nao; Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Akechi, Tatsuo
Despite the fact that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent, there have been only a few structural imaging studies. Moreover, most of them reported about a volume reduction in amygdale, which plays a key role in the neural function of SAD. Insula is another region of interest. Its hyperactivity in regard to processing negative emotional information or interoceptive awareness has been detected in patients with SAD. Referring to these studies, we hypothesized that insular volumes mi...
Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J.; Kane, Robert T.; Rees, Clare S.
Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on...
Fear or phobia is a common phenomenon, but many people develop specific types of phobic anxiety disorders. The more common ones are agoraphobia, specific phobias and social phobia. Agoraphobia is often associated with panic attacks, while specific phobia is often accompanied by fainting spells. Social phobia is often a neglected topic, but is now becoming more important. Each type of phobia has its own unique features and deserves specific forms of treatment.
F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels
Many questionnaires exist for measuring anxiety; however, most are developed for children or adults only, or do not capture symptoms of all anxiety disorders. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) is a well-validated questionnaire for children, measuring symptoms of most
Rodgers, Jacqui; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Connolly, Brenda; McConachie, Helen
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome are vulnerable to anxiety. The factors that contribute to this risk remain unclear. This study compared anxiety in autism spectrum disorder and Williams Syndrome and examined the relationship between repetitive behaviours and anxiety. Thirty-four children with autism and twenty children…
Full Text Available Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, Eating Disorder Questionnaire and social anxiety. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, the mean (SD value for age was 14.14 (1.2 years and for BMI was 23.25 (0.3.35.2% had eating disorder and 17.5% bulimia and30% had anorexia nervosa Symptoms. Also there was a positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms, bulimia and anorexia nervosa and social anxiety. (P=0.004, r= 0.287, P=0.001, r= 0.257, P=0.020, r= 0.242. Conclusions: There was correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety in school boys.So educating people like caregivers by community health midwives regarding nutritional problems in during adolescence can be effective in early diagnosing and identifying such disorders.
Choi, Kwang-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Ku
Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy have been the mainstays of treatment for depression and anxiety disorders during the last century. However, treatment response has not improved in the last few decades, with only half of all patients responding satisfactorily to typical antidepressants. To fulfill the needs of the remaining patients, new treatments with better efficacy are in demand. The addition of psychotherapy to antidepressant treatment has been shown to be superior to pharmacotherapy alone. However, the time costs of psychotherapy limit its use for clinicians and patients. Advancements in neuroscience have contributed to an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of depressive and anxiety disorders. In particular, recent advances in the field of fear conditioning have provided valuable insight into the treatment of refractory depressive and anxiety disorders. In this review, we studied the reconsolidation-updating paradigm and the concept of epigenetic modification, which has been shown to permanently attenuate remote fear memory. This has implications for drug-augmented, e.g. antidepressant and valproic acid, psychotherapy. Future research on more sophisticated psychotherapy techniques will increase the desirability of this treatment modality for both clinicians and patients. PMID:27072378
Didem Behice ÖZTOP
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.
Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Randall, Patrick K.; Randall, Carrie L.
Patients with social anxiety disorder who are seen in clinical practice commonly have additional psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol use disorders. The first line treatment for social anxiety disorder is selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine. However, the efficacy of SSRIs has been determined with studies that excluded alcoholics. Forty two subjects with social anxiety and a co-occurring alcohol use disorder participated in a 16-week, double-blind, placebo...
Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Shumaker, Erik A.; Levinson, Cheri A.; Fernandez, Katya C.; Langer, Julia K.; Lim, Michelle H.; Yarkoni, Tal
Although social anxiety disorder appears to confer impairment in friendships, evidence beyond self-report is minimal. We used the flexible iterated prisoner’s dilemma as a simulated interaction with a friend with 27 individuals with the generalized type of social anxiety disorder and 23 demographically equivalent individuals without the disorder. Participants with generalized social anxiety disorder were less giving on the task. Lower giving was also moderately associated with interpersonal v...
Asnaani, Anu; Richey, J. Anthony; Dimaite, Ruta; Hinton, Devon E.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
In order to examine race-ethnic differences in the lifetime prevalence rates of common anxiety disorders, we examined data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The samples included 6,870 White Americans, 4,598 African Americans, 3,615 Hispanic Americans, and 1,628 Asian Americans. White Americans were more likely to be diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder than African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americ...
Katzman, Martin A; Bleau, Pierre; Blier, Pierre; Chokka, Pratap; Kjernisted, Kevin; Van Ameringen, Michael; ,
Background Anxiety and related disorders are among the most common mental disorders, with lifetime prevalence reportedly as high as 31%. Unfortunately, anxiety disorders are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Methods These guidelines were developed by Canadian experts in anxiety and related disorders through a consensus process. Data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment (psychological and pharmacological) were obtained through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and manual searches (1980–2012). Treat...
Khan, Arif; Durgam, Suresh; Tang, Xiongwen; Ruth, Adam; Mathews, Maju; Gommoll, Carl P.
Objective To investigate vilazodone, currently approved for major depressive disorder in adults, for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Method Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showing positive results for vilazodone (2,040 mg/d) in adult patients with GAD (DSM-IV-TR) were pooled for analyses; data were collected from June 2012 to March 2014. Post hoc outcomes in the pooled intent-to-treat population (n = 1,462) included mean change from baseline to week 8 in Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) total score, psychic and somatic anxiety subscale scores, and individual item scores; HARS response (≥ 50% total score improvement) and remission (total score ≤ 7) at week 8; and category shifts, defined as HARS item score ≥ 2 at baseline (moderate to very severe symptoms) and score of 0 at week 8 (no symptoms). Results The least squares mean difference was statistically significant for vilazodone versus placebo in change from baseline to week 8 in HARS total score (−1.83, P anxiety (−1.21, P anxiety (−0.63, P < .01) subscale scores; differences from placebo were significant on 11 of 14 HARS items (P < .05). Response rates were higher with vilazodone than placebo (48% vs 39%, P < .001), as were remission rates (27% vs 21%, P < .01). The percentage of patients who shifted to no symptoms was significant for vilazodone on several items: anxious mood, tension, intellectual, depressed mood, somatic-muscular, somatic-sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, and autonomic symptoms (P < .05). Conclusions Treatment with vilazodone versus placebo was effective in adult GAD patients, with significant differences between treatment groups found on both psychic and somatic HARS items. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01629966, NCT01766401, NCT01844115.
Beard, Courtney; Weisberg, Risa B.; Keller, Martin B.
Previous studies have not compared Health-related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) across all DSM-IV anxiety disorders and comorbid conditions. We compared the effects of each anxiety disorder on HR-QoL, controlling for demographic variables, medical conditions, and comorbid Axis I disorders. Data are obtained from the Primary Care Anxiety Project (PCAP), a naturalistic, longitudinal study of anxiety disorders in 539 primary care patients. Each of the anxiety disorders was associated with worse self-...
Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behav
Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan
Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…
Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.
anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors......Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...
Although anxiety disorders on the surface may appear simple, they often represent complex problems that are compounded by underlying factors. For these reasons, treatment of anxiety disorders should be individualized. This article describes cognitive hypnotherapy, an individual comprehensive treatment protocol that integrates cognitive, behavioral, mindfulness, psychodynamic, and hypnotic strategies in the management of anxiety disorders. The treatment approach is based on the self-wounds model of anxiety disorders, which provides the rationale for integrating diverse strategies in the psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. Due to its evidence-based and integrated nature, the psychotherapy described here provides accuracy, efficacy, and sophistication in the formulation and treatment of anxiety disorders. This model can be easily adapted to the understanding and treatment of other emotional disorders. PMID:27196009
textabstractAlthough periods of heightened anxiety are part of normal psychological development (Gullone et al., 2 001; Stevenson-Hinde, & Shouldice, 1995; Westenberg et al., 2 004), a significant proportion of all children and adolescents report anxiety levels above developmentally appropriate levels and in some of these children and adolescents the anxiety levels may be so severe that they can be diagnosed as an anxiety disorder (Verhulst et al., 1997). In childhood and adolescence, anxiety...
Khanna Ranjana S.; Reena Negi; Deepti Pande; Shruti Khanna; Hari D. Khanna
There is growing evidence that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Our aim was to measure oxidative stress in anxiety disorders subjects, and assesses the potential confounding influences of anti anxiety therapy. Serum malondialdehyde and antioxidant levels were estimated in patients at the time of presentation and also after anti- anxiety therapy for 3 months. During the period of study no antioxidant/s was given to the patients and control subjects. Serum ...
Tryon, Warren W; McKay, Dean
Learning and memory are interdependent processes. Memories are learned, and cumulative learning requires memory. It is generally accepted that learning contributes to psychopathology and consequently to pertinent memory formation. Neuroscience and psychological research have established that memory is an active reconstructive process that is influenced by thoughts, feelings, and behaviors including post-event information. Recent research on the treatment of anxiety disorders using medications (i.e., d-cyclcloserine) to alter neurological systems associated with memory used in conjunction with behavior therapy suggests that memory is part of a central mechanism in the etiology and maintenance of these conditions. The main thesis of this article is that learning-based interventions create new memories that may modify existing ones. This raises the possibility of using such memory modifications to measure intervention outcome. A connectionist context for understanding this phenomenon and informing intervention is provided, with specific reference to post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Recommendations for future research examining the role of memory change in treatment outcome are suggested. PMID:19117720
Low Nancy CP; Dugas Erika; Constantin Evelyn; Karp Igor; Rodriguez Daniel; O’Loughlin Jennifer
Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increa...
Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.
Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…
Bart, Orit; Bar-Haim, Yair; Weizman, Einat; Levin, Moran; Sadeh, Avi; Mintz, Matti
Comorbidity between balance and anxiety disorders in adult population is a well-studied clinical entity. Children might be particularly prone to develop balance-anxiety comorbidity, but surprisingly they are practically neglected in this field of research. The consequence is that children are treated for what seems to be the primary disorder…
Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.
This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…
Dan J Stein
Full Text Available Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD are characterized by fear or anxiety about social situations, but also by important alterations in self-referential processing. Given advances in our understanding of the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry of SAD, the question arises of the relationship between this research and an emergent literature on the psychobiology of self and self-consciousness. A number of investigations of SAD have highlighted altered activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (involved in self-representation, insula (involved in interoceptive processing, and other structures that play a role in bodily self-consciousness, as well as the potential value of interventions such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and self-focused reappraisal in normalizing such changes. Future studies to more closely investigate associations between psychobiological alterations and changes in self-related processing in SAD, may be useful in shedding additional light on both SAD and self-consciousness.
Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to
Dougherty, Lea R; Tolep, Marissa R; Bufferd, Sara J; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N
This study examined correlates of preschoolers' anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multimethod design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least 1 anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to preschoolers with no anxiety disorder, preschoolers with an anxiety disorder were more likely to meet criteria for comorbid depressive and oppositional defiant disorders and to exhibit greater temperamental behavioral inhibition and lower positive affectivity, and more sleep problems. Children with anxiety disorders also experienced more stressful life events in the previous 6 months, and their mothers had a higher rate of current anxiety disorders. Compared to children with other anxiety disorders, children with only specific phobia exhibited a somewhat different pattern of associations than children with other anxiety disorders. Overall, the findings suggest that many of the correlates observed in older youth with anxiety disorders are also observed in preschoolers. PMID:23368788
Oude Voshaar, R. C.; van der Veen, D. C.; Kapur, N.; Hunt, I.; Williams, A.; Pachana, N. A.
Background: Anxiety disorders are assumed to increase suicide risk, although confounding by comorbid psychiatric disorders may be one explanation. This study describes the characteristics of older patients with an anxiety disorder who died by suicide in comparison to younger patients. Method: A 15-y
Storch, Eric A.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Mutch, P. Jane; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child…
Ellard, Kristen K.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Barlow, David H.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder with recurrent manic and depressive episodes. More than 75% of bipolar patients have a current or lifetime diagnosis of a comorbid anxiety disorder. Comorbid anxiety in BD is associated with greater illness severity, greater functional impairment, and poorer illness-related outcomes.…
Factor, Reina S.; Condy, Emma E.; Farley, Julee P.; Scarpa, Angela
While the function of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear, RRBs may function as anxiety reduction strategies (Joosten et al. "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(3):521-531, 2009. Moreover, anxiety in ASD is associated with low social motivation (Swain et al. "J Autism Dev Disord," 2015. The…
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV, may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis.Method: Studies comparing resting state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterised by lower HRV (high frequency: Hedges’ g = -.29. 95%CI: -.41 to -.17, p < 0.001; time domain: Hedges’ g = -0.45, 95%CI: -0.57 to -0.33, p < .001 than controls. Panic Disorder (n=447, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (n=192, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (n=68, and Social anxiety disorder (n=90, but not Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n=40, displayed reductions in high frequency HRV relative to controls (all ps < .001. Conclusions: Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small to moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and wellbeing of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction.
Tulbure Bogdan Tudor; Månsson Kristoffer NT; Andersson Gerhard
Abstract Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and is associated with marked impairments. However, a small proportion of individuals with SAD seek and receive treatment. Internet-administrated cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) has been found to be an effective treatment for SAD. This trial will be the first Internet-delivered guided self-help intervention for SAD in Romania. Methods Participants with social anxiety disorder (N = 96) will be recru...
Vigerland, Sarah; Ljotsson, Brjann; Thulin, Ulrika; Ost, Lars-Goran; Andersson, Gerhard; Serlachius, Eva
Background: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in children, but few affected seek or receive treatment. Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) could be a way to increase the availability of empirically supported treatments. Aims: A randomised controlled trial was conducted to evaluate ICBT for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Families (N = 93) with a child aged 8-12 years with a principal diagnosis of generalised anxiety disorder...
Alfano, Candice; Beidel, Deborah; Wong, Nina
A common assumption is that all youth with anxiety disorders (AD) experience impaired peer relationships relative to healthy control children. Social impairments have been identified among youth with certain AD (e.g., social anxiety disorder; SAD), but less is known about the peer relationships of children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We therefore compared the interpersonal functioning of youth with GAD, SAD, and controls (6 to 13 years). Despite having relatively fewer friends ov...
Srinivasa; Chaithanya C; Ravindra
Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were includ...
Liber, Juliëtte Margo
The present dissertation had as its central focus the prediction of outcome of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. In the present study a selection of variables that were thought to have prognostic validity for successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) outcome were explored in a population of children with anxiety disorders. Eligible for participation were children aged 8-12 years (n = 133) attending primary education and diagnosed with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Gener...
Creswell, Catharine; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter
Theory and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders typically implicates children’s negative cognitions, yet little is known about the characteristics of thinking styles of clinically anxious children. In particular, it is unclear whether differences in thinking styles between children with anxiety disorders and non-anxious children vary as a function of child age, whether particular cognitive distortions are associated with childhood anxiety disorders at different child ages, and whether co...
Pisano, S; Catone, G; Pascotto, A; Iuliano, R; Tiano, C; Milone, A; Masi, G; Gritti, A
Recently, social anxiety disorder (SAD) and paranoia have been demonstrated to be closely related. However, data were primarily drawn from adult community samples or patients with schizophrenia. The present study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate a sample of adolescents with SAD (n = 30, mean age 15.3 ± 0.9 years) compared with an age- and sex-matched group of healthy controls (n = 26, mean age 15.9 ± 1.6 years). The SAD group displayed more frequent and intense paranoid thoughts than the control group (t = 4.16, p anxiety disorders, although adjusting for depression slightly reduced the extent and significance of the prediction. A lack of awareness about the association between SAD and paranoia may lead to incorrect diagnoses (e.g. misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders), or it may negatively influence the (psycho)therapeutic process and patient outcomes. PMID:26658937
Bandelow, Borwin; Reitt, Markus; Röver, Christian; Michaelis, Sophie; Görlich, Yvonne; Wedekind, Dirk
To our knowledge, no previous meta-analysis has attempted to compare the efficacy of pharmacological, psychological and combined treatments for the three main anxiety disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia). Pre-post and treated versus control effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all evaluable randomized-controlled studies (n = 234), involving 37,333 patients. Medications were associated with a significantly higher average pre-post ES [Cohen's d = 2.02 (1.90-2.15); 28,051 patients] than psychotherapies [1.22 (1.14-1.30); 6992 patients; P effective than placebo. Individual CBT was more effective than waiting list, psychological placebo and pill placebo. When looking at the average pre-post ES, medications were more effective than psychotherapies. Pre-post ES for psychotherapies did not differ from pill placebos; this finding cannot be explained by heterogeneity, publication bias or allegiance effects. However, the decision on whether to choose psychotherapy, medications or a combination of the two should be left to the patient as drugs may have side effects, interactions and contraindications. PMID:25932596
Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Beidel, Deborah C
Whereas much is known about the deficits in social behaviors and social competence in youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD), less is known about those characteristics among youth with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This study aimed to better elucidate the social repertoire and peer acceptance of youth with SAD and youth with GAD, relative to normal control (NC) youth. The sample consisted of 58 primarily Caucasian children, ages 6 to 13 years: 20 SAD (12 female), 18 GAD (12 female), and 20 NC (9 female). Diagnoses were based on Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Children and Parent Versions interviews. A multimodal assessment strategy included parent and child reports, observer ratings of social performance, computer-based analysis of vocal qualities of speech, and peer ratings of likeability and friendship potential. Whereas self- and parental report did not differentiate the two diagnostic groups, differences on observable behaviors were apparent. Children with SAD exhibited anxious speech patterns, extended speech latencies, a paucity of speech, few spontaneous vocalizations, and ineffective social responses; they were perceived by peers as less likeable and socially desirable. Children with GAD had typical speech patterns and were well liked by their peers but displayed fewer spontaneous comments and questions than NC children. Parent and child reports are less sensitive to what could be important differences in social skill between youth with SAD and GAD. Direct observations, computer-based measures of speech quality, and peer ratings identify specific group differences, suggesting the need for a comprehensive evaluation to inform treatment planning. PMID:24819443
Koponen, Hannu; Allgulander, Christer; Erickson, Janelle; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Pritchett, Yili; Detke, Michael J; Ball, Susan G.; Russell, James M
Objective: This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine, a dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, for the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Gentes, Emily L.; Jones, Jason D.; Hallion, Lauren S.; Coleman, Elizabeth S.; Swendsen, Joel
Although studies have documented heightened stress sensitivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. One possible mechanism is the tendency to ruminate in response to stress. We used ecological momentary assessment to study ruminative thoughts following stressful events in 145 adults with MDD, GAD, comorbid MDD-GAD, or no psychopathology. Diagnosed individuals reported more event-related rumination than contro...
Castilla-Puentes, Ruby; Sala, Regina; Ng, Bernardo; Galvez, Juan; Camacho, Alvaro
Anxiety disorders (ADs) are common in youths with bipolar disorder (BD). We examine psychiatric comorbidity, hospitalization, and treatment in youths with versus without AD and rapid cycling (four or more cycles per year). Data from the Integrated Healthcare Information Services cohort were used and included 8129 youths (ages ≤18 years). Prevalence of AD, demographic, type of AD, hospitalization, and use of psychotropics were compared between rapid and nonrapid cycling. Overall, 51% of the yo...
Pelissolo, Antoine; Moukheiber, Albert; Mallet, Luc
Even though obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and anxiety disorders (AD) have been separated in the taxonomy adopted by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, many issues remain concerning the physiopathological similarities and differences between those categories. Our objective was therefore to explore and compare their personality and emotional features, with the assumption that the distinction of two independent spectrums should imply the existence of two partially distinct temperamental profiles. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Positive and Negative Emotionality (PNE) scale to compare two groups of patients with OCD (n=227) or AD (n=827). The latter group included patients with social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. Most temperament, character and emotionality measures showed no significant differences between both groups. In the personality measures results, only the self-directedness score (TCI-R) was significantly lower in OCD patients but this difference was not significant when the comparison was adjusted for the depressive scale score and age. Only lower PNE positive affects scores were obtained in OCD patients in the adjusted comparisons. These findings suggest that OCD and AD are not really distinguishable from the point of view of associated personality traits. PMID:26292619
Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in the United States, and if untreated, result in a number of negative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate psychiatrists' current treatment practices for patients with anxiety disorders in the United States. Methods: Psychiatrist-reported data from the 1997 and 1999 American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education Practice Research Network (PRN Study of Psychiatric Patients and Treatments (SPPT were examined, focusing on patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Information related to diagnostic and clinical features and treatments provided were obtained. Results: Anxiety disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated, since only 11.4% of the sample received a principal diagnosis of an anxiety disorder in a real world setting. Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with particularly high comorbidity and disability, and social anxiety disorder was relatively rarely diagnosed and treated. Although combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy was commonly used to treat anxiety disorders, anxiolytics were more commonly prescribed than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. Conclusions: These data provide a picture of diagnosis and practice patterns across a range of psychiatric settings and suggest that anxiety disorders, despite being among the most prevalent of psychiatric disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated particularly in respect of the use of psychotherapeutic interventions.
Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Lev-Ran, Shaul
The cross-sectional association between cannabis use and anxiety disorders is well documented, yet less is known about the longitudinal association between the two. This study explored the association between cannabis use, cannabis use disorders (CUDs) and anxiety disorders in a 3-year prospective study. Data was drawn from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety, panic disorder and specific phobias, were controlled for at baseline. Initiation of cannabis use was defined as any cannabis use by former lifetime abstainers in the time period between baseline and follow-up, CUDs were defined as a diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence. Results indicate that cannabis use was not associated with increased incidence of any anxiety disorder (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.12(0.63-0.98)). Though heavy cannabis use was associated with increased incidence of social anxiety in most models, this was not fully retained in the final adjusted model (AOR=1.98(0.99-1.98)). Investigation of the association between baseline CUDs and anxiety disorders at follow-up revealed similar results. Any baseline anxiety disorder was not associated with future initiation of cannabis use (AOR=1.03(0.62-1.69)) or onset of a CUD (AOR=0.68(0.41-1.14)), yet individuals with baseline panic disorder were more prone to initiate cannabis use at follow-up (AOR=2.2(1.15-4.18)), possibly as a means of self-medication. Our findings suggest that cannabis use and CUDs are not associated with increased incidence of most anxiety disorders and inversely, most anxiety disorders are not associated with increased incidence of cannabis use or CUDs. PMID:26775742
Attention bias modification (ABM) is a newly emerging therapy for anxiety disorders that is rooted in current cognitive models of anxiety and in established experimental data on threat-related attentional biases in anxiety. This review describes the evidence indicating that ABM has the potential to become an enhancing tool for current…
Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…
White, Susan Williams; Kreiser, Nicole L.; Pugliese, Cara; Scarpa, Angela
Problems with social anxiety are frequently reported in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is possible that social anxiety, when present, exacerbates the experience of hostility and other forms of aggression in relation to ASD symptoms. This study sought to determine if social anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between features…
Leichsenring, Falk; Salzer, Simone
Although there is evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) in anxiety disorders, results are not yet satisfactory, for example, if rates of remission and response are considered. To address this problem, a unified psychodynamic protocol for anxiety disorders (UPP-ANXIETY) is proposed that integrates the treatment principles of those methods of PDT that have proven to be efficacious in anxiety disorders. In addition, this protocol is transdiagnostic, implying that it is applicable to various forms of anxiety disorders and related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorders, avoidant personality disorder). Based on supportive-expressive therapy, the UPP-ANXIETY represents an integrated form of psychodynamic therapy that allows for a flexible use of empirically supported treatment principles. UPP-ANXIETY encompasses the following 9 treatment principles (modules): (1) socializing the patient for psychotherapy, (2) motivating and setting treatment goals, (3) establishing a secure helping alliance, (4) identifying the core conflict underlying anxiety, (5) focusing on the warded-off wish/affect, (6) modifying underlying internalized object relations, (7) changing underlying defenses and avoidance, (8) modifying underlying response of self, and (9) termination and relapse prevention. Some principles are regarded as core components to be used in every treatment (principles 3-8). A unified protocol for the psychodynamic treatment of anxiety disorders has several advantages, that is (1) integrating the most effective treatment principles of empirically supported psychodynamic treatments for anxiety disorders can be expected to further improve the efficacy of PDT; (2) using a unified protocol in efficacy studies has the potential to enhance the evidence-based status of PDT by aggregating the evidence; (3) a unified protocol will facilitate both training in PDT and transfer of research to clinical practice; and (4) thus, a unified
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were included in the study. The SCARED questionnair es were used to assess anxiety in these children. Results: In this study, 37% were found to have anxiety disorder (p value < 0.001. Of these majority (58% were females which was significant. Of the 100 children, 64% had PN (panic disorder, 10% had GD (g eneralized anxiety disorder, 53% had SP (separation anxiety, 15% had SC (social anxiety disorder and 16% had SH (significant school avoidance. Hence in this study, panic disorder and separation anxiety were found to be highly prevalent. In this study o f the children who had anxiety, majority of these children’s mothers (79% and majority of the children’s fathers were illiterate (54%. In this study, of the children with anxiety, 76% belonged to nuclear family and majority i.e. 84% belonged to rural are a. Conclusion: This study shows the high prevalence of undiagnosed depression and anxiety disorders among adolescents and hence the need for them. Early interventions can provide long - term health and socioeconomic benefits by prevention of the onset of men tal health problems and their development into chronic disorders.
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.; Straten, A. van; Ven, P.M. van de; Langerak, W.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van
BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
Low Nancy CP
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety
Chavan, Prashant J.; ,
Purpose: The burden of modern lifestyle leads to many mental disabilities like Generalized Anxiety Disorder. It is necessary to find safer and simple regimen for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Traditionally Swetashankhapushpi (Clitoria ternatea) is being used in Kerala to treat mental disorders including Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Chittodvega). Relaxation Techniques of Yoga are one of the tools to treat Anxiety Disorder. Method: The present work was done to study efficacy of Swetashankhapus...
Full Text Available David S Baldwin,1–3 Khalil Ajel,3 Vasilios G Masdrakis,4 Magda Nowak,1 Rizwan Rafiq31Clinical and Experimental Sciences Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Southern Health NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK; 4First Department of Psychiatry, Eginition Hospital, Athens University Medical School, Athens, GreeceAbstract: A previous review summarized what was then known about the potential role of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD: this review provides an update on its pharmacological properties and presumed mechanism of action, the liability for abuse, and efficacy and tolerability in patients with GAD. Pregabalin has a similar molecular structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid (GABA but its mechanism of action does not appear to be mediated through effects on GABA. Instead, its anxiolytic effects may arise through high-affinity binding to the alpha-2-delta sub-unit of the P/Q type voltage-gated calcium channel in “over-excited” presynaptic neurons, thereby reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate. The findings of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses together indicate that pregabalin is efficacious in both acute treatment and relapse prevention in GAD, with some evidence of an early onset of effect, and broad efficacy in reducing the severity of psychological and physical symptoms of anxiety. It also has efficacy as an augmenting agent after non-response to antidepressant treatment in GAD. Continuing vigilance is needed in assessing its potential abuse liability but the tolerability profile of pregabalin may confer some advantages over other pharmacological treatments in the short term for treatment in patients with GAD.Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, efficacy, tolerability
Lüthi, Andreas; Lüscher, Christian
Current models of addiction and anxiety stem from the idea that aberrant function and remodeling of neural circuits cause the pathological behaviors. According to this hypothesis, a disease-defining experience (for example, drug reward or stress) would trigger specific forms of synaptic plasticity, which in susceptible subjects would become persistent and lead to the disease. While the notion of synaptic diseases has received much attention, no candidate disorder has been sufficiently investigated to yield new, rational therapies that could be tested in the clinic. Here we review the arguments in favor of abnormal neuronal plasticity underlying addiction and anxiety disorders, with a focus on the functional diversity of neurons that make up the circuits involved. We argue that future research must strive to obtain a comprehensive description of the relevant functional anatomy. This will allow identification of molecular mechanisms that govern the induction and expression of disease-relevant plasticity in identified neurons. To establish causality, one will have to test whether normalization of function can reverse pathological behavior. With these elements in hand, it will be possible to propose blueprints for manipulations to be tested in translational studies. The challenge is daunting, but new techniques, above all optogenetics, may enable decisive advances. PMID:25402855
Whitfield-Gabrieli, S; Ghosh, S S; Nieto-Castanon, A; Saygin, Z; Doehrmann, O; Chai, X J; Reynolds, G O; Hofmann, S G; Pollack, M H; Gabrieli, J D E
We asked whether brain connectomics can predict response to treatment for a neuropsychiatric disorder better than conventional clinical measures. Pre-treatment resting-state brain functional connectivity and diffusion-weighted structural connectivity were measured in 38 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) to predict subsequent treatment response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We used a priori bilateral anatomical amygdala seed-driven resting connectivity and probabilistic tractography of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus together with a data-driven multivoxel pattern analysis of whole-brain resting-state connectivity before treatment to predict improvement in social anxiety after CBT. Each connectomic measure improved the prediction of individuals' treatment outcomes significantly better than a clinical measure of initial severity, and combining the multimodal connectomics yielded a fivefold improvement in predicting treatment response. Generalization of the findings was supported by leave-one-out cross-validation. After dividing patients into better or worse responders, logistic regression of connectomic predictors and initial severity combined with leave-one-out cross-validation yielded a categorical prediction of clinical improvement with 81% accuracy, 84% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Connectomics of the human brain, measured by widely available imaging methods, may provide brain-based biomarkers (neuromarkers) supporting precision medicine that better guide patients with neuropsychiatric diseases to optimal available treatments, and thus translate basic neuroimaging into medical practice. PMID:26260493
van Gastel, W; Legerstee, J S; Ferdinand, R F
This study was designed to explore the role of perceived parenting style in the familial aggregation of anxiety disorders. We examined the association between parental and child anxiety diagnoses, and tested whether this association was partly due to a perceived parenting style. The study was conducted in a clinical sample as well as in a control sample. Parental lifetime and current anxiety diagnoses were significantly associated with child anxiety diagnoses. When maternal and paternal lifetime and current anxiety diagnoses were entered as separate predictors, only maternal current anxiety diagnoses appeared to be significant. Perceived parenting style was assessed with the dimensions "overprotection," "emotional warmth," "rejection," and "anxious rearing." Results indicated that only maternal and paternal 'overprotection' was significantly but negatively associated with child anxiety. However, further analyses showed that 'overprotection' did not have a significant mediating role in the familial aggregation of anxiety disorders. PMID:18455361
Lebowitz, Eli R; Leckman, James F; Silverman, Wendy K; Feldman, Ruth
Anxiety disorders are common across the lifespan, cause severe distress and impairment, and usually have their onset in childhood. Substantial clinical and epidemiological research has demonstrated the existence of links between anxiety and its disorders in children and parents. Research on the pathways and mechanisms underlying these links has pointed to both behavioral and biological systems. This review synthesizes and summarizes several major aspects of this research. Behavioral systems include vicarious learning, social referencing, and modeling of parental anxiety; overly protective or critical parenting styles; and aspects of parental responses to child anxiety including family accommodation of the child's symptoms. Biological systems include aspects of the prenatal environment affected by maternal anxiety, development and functioning of the oxytocinergic system, and genetic and epigenetic transmission. Implications for the prevention and treatment of child anxiety disorders are discussed, including the potential to enhance child anxiety treatment outcomes through biologically informed parent-based interventions. PMID:27145763
Calkins, Amanda W.; Otto, Michael W; Cohen, Lee S.; Soares, Claudio N.; Vitonis, Alison F.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Harlow, Bernard L.
In a prospective, longitudinal, population-based study of 643 women participating in the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles we examined whether psychosocial variables predicted a new or recurrent onset of an anxiety disorder. Presence of anxiety disorders was assessed every six months over three years via structured clinical interviews. Among individuals who had a new episode of anxiety, we confirmed previous findings that history of anxiety, increased anxiety sensitivity (the fear of anxiety ...
Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil
Background: The gene of tryptophan hydroxylase is widely recognized as a major candidate gene in many psychiatric disorders. However, no study has been done which investigates tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorders in Kashmiri population (India).
Bearss, Karen; Taylor, Christopher A; Aman, Michael G; Whittemore, Robin; Lecavalier, Luc; Miller, Judith; Pritchett, Jill; Green, Bryson; Scahill, Lawrence
Anxiety is common in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Despite this common co-occurrence, studies targeting anxiety in this population are hindered by the under-developed state of measures in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Content validity (the extent to which an instrument measures the domain of interest) and an instrument's relevance to the patient population are key components of measurement development. This article describes the application of qualitative research methods in the initial development of a parent-rated instrument of anxiety symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Overall, 48 parents of 45 children (aged 3-17 years) with autism spectrum disorder and at least mild anxiety participated in one of six focus groups at two sites (three groups per site). Systematic coding of the focus group transcripts identified broad themes reflecting the situations and events that trigger anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder, the behavioral manifestations of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder, the parent and the child's own response to anxiety, and broad behavioral patterns that could be associated with anxiety. From the focus group data, investigators generated 52 candidate items for a parent-rating of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder. This report provides a detailed description of these early steps in developing a patient-oriented outcome measure. PMID:26395234
Hudson, Jennifer L; Dodd, Helen F.
Background: To inform early intervention practice, the present research examines how child anxiety, behavioural inhibition, maternal overinvolvement, maternal negativity, mother-child attachment and maternal anxiety, as assessed at age four, predict anxiety at age nine. Method: 202 children (102 behaviourally inhibited and 100 behaviourally uninhibited) aged 3–4 years were initially recruited and the predictors outlined above were assessed. Diagnostic assessments, using the Anxiety Disord...
Hudson, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Helen F.
Background: To inform early intervention practice, the present research examines how child anxiety, behavioural inhibition, maternal overinvolvement, maternal negativity, mother-child attachment and maternal anxiety, as assessed at age four, predict anxiety at age nine. Method: 202 children (102 behaviourally inhibited and 100 behaviourally uninhibited) aged 3–4 years were initially recruited and the predictors outlined above were assessed. Diagnostic assessments, using the Anxiety Disord...
Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Knight, George P.; Silverman, Wendy K.
The measurement equivalence of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) was examined in a sample of 667 Caucasian and Latino youth referred to an anxiety disorders specialty clinic. Findings supported the factorial invariance of the Physiological Anxiety, Worry/Oversensitivity, and Social Concerns/Concentration subscales as well as the construct validity equivalence of the Total Anxiety scale. These findings suggest that the RCMAS can be used with Latino youth in cross-ethnic res...
Reyes-Zúñiga, Margarita; Castorena-Maldonado, Armando; Carrillo-Alduenda, José Luis; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Martínez-Estrada, Araceli; Gómez-Torres, Leonardo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis
Introduction: Information concerning the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is controversial. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: determine the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with SDB; explore whether the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms rises with increasing parameters of SDB severity; and investigate the factors potentially associated with anxiety and depression. Materials and Methodol...
Sala Cassola, Regina
[eng] OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in youth with bipolar disorder (BP). We aimed to examine the prevalence, correlates, persistence (>50% of the follow-up time), and the onset of new anxiety disorders in youth with comorbid anxiety disorders and BP. METHODS: As part of the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study (COBY), 446 youth ages 7 to 17, who met DSM-IV criteria for BP-I (n=260), BP-II (n=32) or operationalized criteria for BP not othe...
Karsten, Julie; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Riese, Hariette; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Hartman, Catharina A.
Background: Neuroticism and extraversion are affected by depressive disorder state. Less is known about depressive state effects on conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness. Furthermore, state effects of anxiety disorders on personality have been far less studied than those of depressive disorder. Here, we aim to determine the extent of change in all five personality traits associated with the occurrence of or recovery from depressive and anxiety disorders. Methods: Using the Composite I...
Altshuler, Lori L.; Hendrick, Victoria; Cohen, Lee S.
Because women in the childbearing years are vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders, physicians in all patient care specialties need to be familiar with the prevalence and course of these disorders, particularly during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Systematic prospective data are limited on the onset of mood and anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well as on the risk of relapse during these time periods in women with prior histories of the disorders. The li...
Waite, Polly; Creswell, Catharine
Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations...
Frank-Briggs, Angela I.; Alikor, E. A. D.
Anxiety is a source of concern to the clinicians as it is co morbid with other mental disorders, particularly depression and learning disabilities, and it causes low self-esteem. The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety disorder amongst secondary school children in Port Harcourt. A two-staged stratified sampling method was used to select the schools. Structured questionnaire based on Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale for anxiety and depression symptoms ...
Research has shown that Generalized Anxiety Disorder is one of the most common anxiety disorders found in adolescents today. Its main symptoms are disproportionate fear and anxiety (worrying) about work-related or school-related events or activities and social relations. Adolescents suffering from GAD symptoms have difficulty keeping fear and worries in check. This causes mounting stress and impairs their functioning. GAD sufferers tend to worry about issues stemming from social relationships...
Stoddard, Jill A.; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Hofmann, Stefan G.
The present study investigated the efficacy of an 8-day, 6-session, intensive individual cognitive behavioral therapy protocol for social anxiety disorder using a multiple baseline across subjects design with 1, 2, and 3 months follow-up assessments. Participants were 5 outpatients with generalized social anxiety disorder. The intervention had variable effects on clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety and depression. The results question the efficacy of intensive psychotherapy as...
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Bitran, Stella
Sensory-processing sensitivity is assumed to be a heritable vulnerability factor for shyness. The present study is the first to examine sensory-processing sensitivity among individuals with social anxiety disorder. The results showed that the construct is separate from social anxiety, but it is highly correlated with harm avoidance and agoraphobic avoidance. Individuals with a generalized subtype of social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of sensory-processing sensitivity than individu...
Cummings, Colleen M.; Fristad, Mary A.
This study examined the role of comorbid anxiety in treatment outcome for children with mood disorders (N= 165; age 8–11) participating in Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP). Assessments occurred at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months for two randomly assigned groups: immediate treatment and 1-year wait-list. Most children (69%) had comorbid anxiety disorders. Baseline comorbid anxiety, as reported on the Children’s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS), was associated wit...
Spaeth, Ellen Catherine
This thesis presents the development and implementation of a proof-of-concept study testing music listening’s capacity to reduce subjective and physiological symptoms of anxiety in a situation analogous to an anxiety disorder. This interdisciplinary thesis draws on both clinical psychology and music psychology literature to present a conceptualisation for music listening in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In preparation for the proof-of-concept study, criteria for optimal s...
Boyd, Rhonda C; Tervo-Clemmens, Brenden
Comorbid depression and anxiety disorders are commonly experienced in mothers. Both maternal depression and anxiety as well as their comorbidity has been shown to increase psychopathology in children, however, there is limited research focusing on African American families. The aim of this study is to examine whether comorbid anxiety disorders are associated with maternal depression severity, kinship support, and child behavioral problems in a sample of African American mothers with depressio...
Sharma, Mahendra P; Angelina Mao; Sudhir, Paulomi M.
The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth...
Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether t
Nail, Jennifer E.; Christofferson, Jennifer; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly; Kendall, Philip C.; McCracken, James T.; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T.; Compton, Scott N.; Keeton, Courtney; Sakolsky, Dara
Background: Global academic difficulties have often been reported in youth with anxiety disorders, however, little is known about the specific academic deficits in this population. Objective: To (a) evaluate the prevalence of seven specific academic impairments in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, (b) determine whether these…
Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.
Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety disorde
Reigada, Laura C.; Fisher, Paige H.; Cutler, Cynthia; Warner, Carrie Masia
Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are largely undetected and the majority of youth do not receive services. Given the deleterious consequences of anxiety disorders, early identification and intervention have public health implications. In order to increase identification and treatment of anxious youth, expansion to nonpsychiatric…
Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John
The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety…
Conner, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Michael D.; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D.; Tu, Xin M.; Knox, Kerry L.
There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 U.S. Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance-use…
Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Mendez, Julia L.; Kendall, Philip C.
This article reports on school functioning for 227 youth ages 7-14 (M = 10.3) with principal diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (n = 40), social phobia (n = 58), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 76), or no diagnoses (n = 53). School functioning data were gathered via parent and teacher report. Youth with no diagnoses demonstrated…
Hipol, Leilani J.; Deacon, Brett J.
Despite the well-established effectiveness of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders, therapists have been slow to adopt CBT into their clinical practice. The present study was conducted to examine the utilization of psychotherapy techniques for anxiety disorders among community practitioners in a…
Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
Threat-related selective attention was found to predict the success of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders through administering a pictorial dot-probe task to 131 children with anxiety disorders prior to cognitive behavioral therapy. The diagnostic status of the subjects was evaluated with a semistructured clinical interview at both pre-…
Weems, Carl F.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Robbins, Michael S.
Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement…
van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. Methods: There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728 subjec
Bearss, Karen; Taylor, Christopher A.; Aman, Michael G.; Whittemore, Robin; Lecavalier, Luc; Miller, Judith; Pritchett, Jill; Green, Bryson; Scahill, Lawrence
Anxiety is common in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Despite this common co-occurrence, studies targeting anxiety in this population are hindered by the under-developed state of measures in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Content validity (the extent to which an instrument measures the domain of interest) and an instrument's relevance to…
Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.
Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we
Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III
Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…
Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.
Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…
Warner, Carrie Masia; Fisher, Paige H.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Rathor, Snigdha; Klein, Rachel G.
Background: Anxiety disorders are often undetected and untreated in adolescents. This study evaluates the relative efficacy of a school-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention compared to an educational-supportive treatment for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Methods: Thirty-six students (30 females), ages 14 to 16, were randomized to a…
Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin; Ollendick, Thomas H.
In this review, we examine the role of emotion regulation in the treatment of children with anxiety disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to "work" for children with anxiety disorders and it has been categorized as an evidence-based treatment. However, most studies have shown that the treatment is effective for about 60-70%…
de Wit, Leonore M.; Fokkema, Marjolein; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: There is evidence of more obesity among persons with depressive and depressive and anxiety disorders. However, the nature and the underlying mechanisms of the association are still unclear. This study examines the association between depressive and anxiety disorders and obesity, physical
van der Veen, D. C.; van Zelst, W. H.; Schoevers, R. A.; Comijs, H. C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard
Background: Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking pr
Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Zitman, Frans G.; van Pelt, Johannes; DeRijk, Roel H.; Verhagen, Jolanda C. M.; van Dyck, Richard; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda
Objective: To examine the association between several subtypes of anxiety disorders and various cortisol indicators in a large cohort study. Anxiety disorders have been suggested to be linked to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, although results are scarce and inconsistent. No earl
Bermúdez, María Olga Escandell; Sánchez, José Juan Castro; del Sol, María; Sevilla, Fortea
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a series of deficits in social interaction and communication and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior patterns. In addition, a high percentage of ADS is associated with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and…
F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; C.D. Dirksen
Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.
The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.
Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.
Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as
Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.
This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a com...
Full Text Available Lívia Santana1, Leonardo F Fontenelle1–31Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Institute of Community Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil; 3D’Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilObjective: This paper aimed at describing the most consistent correlates and/or predictors of nonadherence to treatment of patients with different anxiety disorders.Method: The authors retrieved studies indexed in PubMed/MedLine, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge using the following search terms: attrition OR dropout OR attrition rates OR patient dropouts OR treatment adherence AND anxiety disorders. Research was limited to articles published before January 2010.Results: Sixteen studies were selected that investigated the impact of sociodemographic, clinical, or cognitive variables on adherence to treatment for anxiety disorders. While no consistent pattern of sociodemographic or clinical features associated with nonadherence emerged, all studies that investigated cognitive variables in panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder found that expectations and opinions about treatment were related to adherence.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that it is essential to consider anxiety disorder patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment strategies to increase their compliance with the therapeutic plan.Keywords: attrition, dropout, OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder
Aleksandr Anatolyevich Shatenshtein
Full Text Available Patients and methods. The results of clinical and psychodiagnostic examination using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were analyzed in 210 therapeutic inpatients from 4 groups of psychosomatic diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertensive disease, duodenal ulcer disease, asthma, and bronchitis with an asthmatic component and 3 groups of diseases in whose genesis the psychosomatic mechanisms (pneumonia, gastritis, renal diseases played a lesser role. Healthy individuals (n=38 served as a control group. The correlation coefficients between the first scale reflecting the number of somatic complaints and the magnitude of their hypochondriacal fixation and the second one characterizing the degree of anxiety and depressive disorders were calculated within each disease group. Results. In psychosomatic diseases, the correlation coefficients between the first and second MMPI scales proved to be insignificant and substantially lower than those in the healthy individuals. This suggests that in such patients, a larger number of somatic complaints and their enhanced hypochondriacal fixation alleviate anxiety and depressive disorders, which may be regarded as an indication that there is psychosomatic defense that lessens anxiety due to a somatic disease. In somatic diseases that are not referring to as psychosomatic ones, the correlation coefficient between the first and second scales is highly significant and considerably higher than that in the healthy individuals and particularly higher than in the group of psychosomatic diseases. In the patients of these groups, an increase in anxiety and depression aggravates autonomic dysregulation reflecting in the larger number of hypochondriacal complaints. This direct relationship between autonomic functions and the level of anxiety and depression may be a risk factor for developing these disorders.
Abbo, Catherine; Kinyanda, Eugene; Kizza, Ruth B; Levin, Jonathan; Ndyanabangi, Sheilla; Stein, Dan J.
Background Child and adolescent anxiety disorders are the most prevalent form of childhood psychopathology. Research on child and adolescent anxiety disorders has predominantly been done in westernized societies. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence, comorbidity, and predictors of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents in non-western societies including those in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates the prevalence, comorbidity, and predictors of anxiety disorders in child...
Bernhard T Baune
Full Text Available Bernhard T BauneDepartment of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, James Cook University, Queensland 4811, AustraliaAbstract: Quetiapine has demonstrated efficacy in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and in the treatment of specific symptom clusters such as agitation and sleep problems in mood disorders. In this review, randomized controlled studies demonstrating efficacy, safety and tolerability of quetiapine in major depressive disorder (MDD and general anxiety disorder (GAD are evaluated. The results show that quetiapine monotherapy and quetiapine augmentation of antidepressant treatment in MDD and GAD are efficacious for short-term and maintenance treatment at a dose range between 50 and 300 mg/day. Quetiapine appears to have a specific but overall mild side-effect profile, though, some adverse effects such as sedation and somnolence may lead to withdrawal from treatment in some patients. Overall, the available evidence suggests that there is a significant role for quetiapine in the treatment of MDD and GAD.Keywords: quetiapine, major depressive disorders, general anxiety disorder, randomized controlled studies, adverse effects
Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;
Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...... children is aggravated by comorbid anxiety. (J. of Att. Dis. 2010; XX(X) 1-XX)....
Koerner, Naomi; Tallon, Kathleen; Kusec, Andrea
Research has demonstrated that individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) hold unhelpful beliefs about worry, uncertainty, and the problem-solving process. Extant writings (e.g., treatment manuals) also suggest that other types of maladaptive beliefs may characterize those with GAD. However, these other beliefs have received limited empirical attention and are not an explicit component of cognitive theories of GAD. The present study examined the extent to which dysfunctional attitudes, early maladaptive schemas, and broad self-focused and other-focused beliefs explain significant variance in GAD symptoms, over and above negative and positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about uncertainty, and negative beliefs about problems. N = 138 participants classified into Probable GAD and Non-GAD groups completed self-report measures. After controlling for trait anxiety and depressive symptoms, only beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about uncertainty, and schemas reflecting unrelenting standards (e.g., "I must meet all my responsibilities all the time"), the need to self-sacrifice (e.g., "I'm the one who takes care of others"), and less positive views of other people and their intentions (e.g., lower endorsement of views such as "other people are fair"), were unique correlates of Probable GAD versus Non-GAD or GAD severity. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26029983
Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and social anxiety disorder (SAD all bear the core symptom of anxiety and are separately classified in the new DSM-5 system. The aim of the present study is to obtain evidence for neuroanatomical difference for these disorders. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie (DARTEL to compare grey matter volume (GMV in Magnetic Resonance (MR images obtained for thirty patients with PTSD, twenty nine patients with OCD, twenty patients with SAD and thirty healthy controls. GMV across all four groups differed in left hypothalamus and left inferior parietal lobule and post hoc analyses revealed that this difference is primarily due to reduced GMV in the PTSD group relative to the other groups. Further analysis revealed that the PTSD group also showed reduced GMV in frontal lobe, temporal lobe and cerebellum compared to the OCD group, and reduced GMV in frontal lobes bilaterally compared to SAD group. A significant negative correlation with anxiety symptoms is observed for GMV in left hypothalamus in three disorder groups. We have thus found evidence for brain structure differences that in future could provide biomarkers to potentially support classification of these disorders using MRI.
Christina A Brook
Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.
Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A
Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. PMID:23545482
Stratford, Hannah J; Cooper, Myra J; Di Simplicio, Martina; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A
Comorbid anxiety is common in bipolar spectrum disorders [BPSD], and is associated with poor outcomes. Its clinical relevance is highlighted by the "anxious distress specifier" in the revised criteria for Bipolar Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition [DSM-5]. This article reviews evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapy for anxiety in adults with BPSD (bipolar I, II, not otherwise specified, cyclothymia, and rapid cycling disorders). A systematic search yielded 22 treatment studies that included an anxiety-related outcome measure. Cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT] for BPSD incorporating an anxiety component reduces anxiety symptoms in cyclothymia, "refractory" and rapid cycling BPSD, whereas standard bipolar treatments have only a modest effect on anxiety. Preliminary evidence is promising for CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder and generalised anxiety disorder in BPSD. Psychoeducation alone does not appear to reduce anxiety, and data for mindfulness-based cognitive therapy [MBCT] appear equivocal. CBT during euthymic phases has the greatest weight of evidence. Where reported, psychological therapy appears acceptable and safe, but more systematic collection and reporting of safety and acceptability information is needed. Development of psychological models and treatment protocols for anxiety in BPSD may help improve outcomes. PMID:25462111
Silove, Derrick; Rees, Susan
DSM-5 has lifted the age criterion in the definition of separation anxiety disorder thereby overturning the long-standing convention of restricting the diagnosis to childhood. Previously, adults with separation anxiety symptoms were assigned to other conventional categories such as panic disorder, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Over the past two decades, an evolving body of research has identified separation anxiety disorder in adulthood, with 20-40% of adult psychiatric outpatients being assigned that diagnosis. In the US, the lifetime prevalence of the disorder in adulthood is 6.6%. The removal of the age restriction on diagnosis has important implications for clinical practice. Whereas parents (particularly mothers) of children with separation anxiety disorder commonly attracted the diagnosis of agoraphobia, the latter are more likely now to be diagnosed with the adult form of separation anxiety disorder, focusing attention on the importance of intervening with both members of the dyad to overcome mutual reinforcement of symptoms. In addition, adults with separation anxiety disorder have been found to manifest high levels of disability and they tend to show a poor response to conventional psychological and pharmacological treatments. There is an urgent need therefore to devise novel psychological and pharmacological interventions for the adult form of the disorder. The reformulation of separation anxiety disorder in DSM-5 therefore requires a paradigm shift in which clinicians are alerted to identifying and treating the condition in all age groups. Research across countries is needed to examine the new formulation of separation anxiety disorder amongst populations of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. PMID:25453710
Roth, Walton T
Physiological activation is a cardinal symptom of anxiety, although physiological measurement is still not used for psychiatric diagnosis. An ambulatory study of phobics who were afraid of highway driving showed a concordance between self-reported anxiety during driving, autonomic activation, hypocapnia, and sighing respiration. Patients with panic attacks do not exhibit autonomic activation when they are quietly sitting and not having panic attacks, but do have the same respiratory abnormalities as driving phobics, suggesting that these abnormalities could be a marker for panic disorder. Such abnormalities are compatible with both the false suffocation alarm (D. Klein) and hyperventilation (R. Ley) theories of panic. Hypocapnia, however, is often absent during full-blown panic attacks. Since activation functions as preparation for physical activity, it may not occur when a patient has learned that avoidance of fear by flight or fight is futile. We developed a capnometry feedback assisted breathing training therapy for panic disorder designed to reduce hyperventilation and making breathing regular. Without feedback, conventional therapeutic breathing instructions may actually increase hyperventilation by increasing dyspnea. Five weekly therapy sessions accompanied by daily home practice with a capnometer produced marked clinical improvement compared to changes in an untreated group. Improvement was sustained over a 12-month follow-up period. The therapist avoided any statements or procedures designed to alter cognitions. Improvement occurred regardless of whether patients initially reported mostly respiratory or non-respiratory symptoms during their attacks. There is evidence that modifying any of the three systems comprising a fear network can be therapeutic, as exemplified by cognitive therapy modifying thoughts, exposure therapy modifying avoidance, and breathing training procedures modifying pCO(2). PMID:16137780
Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.
Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…
Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…
黄建军; 柏晓利; 杨蕴萍
目的:探讨焦虑障碍患者共病人格障碍的情况.方法:对127例符合DSM-IV轴I焦虑障碍的患者进行了DSM-IV轴II人格障碍的诊断评估,并进行汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、疾病严重程度(CGI-SI)、社会功能缺陷(SDSS)等评定.结果:①焦虑障碍与人格障碍的共病率为73.2％;②共病者焦虑障碍的发病年龄更早(P＜0.01),焦虑障碍病程更长(P＜0.05),疾病更加严重(P＜0.01),其焦虑、抑郁水平更高(P＜0.05;P＜0.05),社会功能更差(P＜0.01).结论:焦虑障碍与人格障碍有较高的共病率,焦虑障碍与人格障碍共病患者的临床特征更加复杂.%Objective: To get the prevalence rate of personality disorders in patients with anxiety disorders and to get the clinical features of these comorbid patients, the authors conducted a survey among a cohort of patients with anxiety disorder. Methods: Personality disorders of 127 patients meeting DSM-Ⅳcriteria of anxiety disorders were assessed by structured clinical interview for DSM-Ⅳ Axis Ⅱ, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Ⅰllness, and the Social Disability Screening Schedule. Results: The prevalence rate of personality disorders in patients with anxiety disorders was 73.2%. Compared with patients with anxiety disorders only, the patients with comorbid anxiety disorders and personality disorders had earlier age of onset of anxiety disorders (P<0.01), longer duration of anxiety disorder (P<0.05), greater severity of illness (P<0.01), worse impaired social function (P<0.01) and higher level of anxiety and depression (P<0.05; P<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence rate of personality disorders in anxiety disorders is high in our research, and the clinical features of the comorbidity are complex.
Anxiety disorders (ANX) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur; this comorbidity is associated with a high degree of impairment and a poor long-term prognosis. In this review, the nature of this comorbidity and its treatment will be described, and an approach to treating children with ANX + ADHD will be presented. The etiology of ANX + ADHD is controversial, with biological, developmental, environmental and cognitive factors examined in various studies. There is increasing evidence that ANX + ADHD may be distinct from each separate disorder, and may represent a neuropsychiatric condition that involves dysregulation in both anxiety and ADHD domains. Treatment usually requires a combination of medication and psychotherapeutic intervention. Stimulant medications have been found most helpful so far compared with other medications, although atomoxetine is also being studied. There is limited evidence for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and their potential for behavioral activation may be problematic in these children. Intensive behavior modification was shown to be beneficial in conjunction with medication for ANX + ADHD in a multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been used to address anxiety symptoms, but may need to be individualized in ANX + ADHD as cognitive limitations and ADHD behaviors may otherwise interfere. Parental anxious or ADHD traits and the child's developmental level must also be considered to optimize treatment. PMID:17678493
Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?
Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor, the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD. One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection, anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms.
Are Worry and Rumination Specific Pathways Linking Neuroticism and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder?
Merino, Hipólito; Ferreiro, Fátima
This study examines the relationships between neuroticism (higher-order vulnerability factor), the cognitive styles of worry, brooding and reflection (second-order vulnerability factors) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in three groups of patients: patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and with Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder (MADD). One hundred and thirty four patients completed a battery of questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, worry, rumination (brooding and reflection), anxiety and depression. Multiple mediation analyses indicate that worry may act as a mediating mechanism linking neuroticism and anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups, whereas brooding-rumination may play a mediating role between neuroticism and depressive symptoms in patients with MDD and MADD and, with less certainty, in patients with GAD. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism may increase the risk of anxious and depressive symptoms via specific links involving either worry or brooding, respectively, and that both worry and brooding may operate in the three groups examined, irrespectively of whether anxiety or depression are the main emotions or whether they coexist without any clear predominance; consequently, we hypothesize the existence of "specific transdiagnostic" mechanisms. PMID:27243462
Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne
Research suggests that anxiety disorders tend to temporally precede depressive disorders, a finding potentially relevant to understanding comorbidity. The current study used diary methods to determine whether daily anxious mood also temporally precedes daily depressed mood. 55 participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and history of depressive symptoms completed a 21-day daily diary tracking anxious and depressed mood. Daily anxious and depressed moods were concurrently associated....
Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C.
This study tested the specificity of the relationship between Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and coping drinking motives (versus enhancement drinking motives and social drinking motives) within the context of a range of potentially confounding variables measured during adolescence (e.g., quantity and frequency of alcohol use, coping drinking motives) and substantively important variables assessed during young adulthood (e.g., other anxiety disorders and Major Depressive Disorder). A sample of ...
A plethora of studies have examined the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adult anxiety disorders. In recent years, several meta-analyses have been conducted to quantitatively review the evidence of CBT for anxiety disorders, each using different inclusion criteria for studies, such as use of control conditions or type of study environment. This review aims to summarize and to discuss the current state of the evidence regarding CBT treatment for panic disord...
John eChalmers; Quintana, Daniel S.; Maree J-Anne Abbott; Kemp, Andrew H.
Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV), may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis. Methods: Studies...
Bradley, Susan J.
Anxiety and mood disorders are among the most common disorders in children and adolescents. They presage later emotional difficulties and disabilities. An understanding of the disorders’ presentation, common contributing factors and methods of intervention will enable paediatricians and family doctors to provide optimal support to these children and their families. The present paper briefly reviews the epidemiology of anxiety and mood disorders in children and adolescents. Phenomenology is re...
Full Text Available Objective: Patients with chronic physical diseases sometimes show increased loss of function; such patients need more care. Anxiety is a well-known symptom that is prevalent among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients that can prolong and increase the risk of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety in the mentioned patients and to examine the presence of symptoms and appropriate treatment strategies to understand the role of psychological functions in physical patients.Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in Masih Daneshvari Hospital. One hundred forty- three patients entered into the project by accessible method and signed the informed consent; they filled demographic information and Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 .Results: Of the participants, 68% were above 60 years of age; 78% were male; 89% were married; and 38% were self-employed. Also, among the participants, 51% were illiterate; 72% had history of smoking; 46% had history of substance abuse; and 49% had moderate to severe anxiety disorder. Moreover, of the patients with severe anxiety, 41.3% had severe muscle spasms; and severe sleeplessness was found in 38.5% of those with severe anxiety disorder. Severe anxiety related symptoms were found in 20.3% of the patients with severe anxiety disorder. Depressed mood was found in 27.3% of the patients with severe anxiety disorder. Severe physical and muscular signs were found in 35.7% of those with severe anxiety disorder .Conclusion: According to our findings, many chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may contain anxiety and depression which result in vulnerability. Therefore, evaluation of anxiety in such patients is of importance for alleviating the disease.
Kujawa, Autumn; Glenn, Catherine R.; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.
Background Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring. Methods Nine-year-old children (N=144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images. Results Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation—even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early-emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders. PMID:25913397
Steudte, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Dettenborn, Lucia; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Foley, Paul; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Kirschbaum, Clemens
Previous research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) has suggested a general hypercortisolism. These studies have mostly relied on salivary, plasma or urinary assessments, reflecting cortisol secretion over short time periods. The current study utilised the novel method of cortisol assessment in hair to obtain a retrospective index of cortisol secretion over a prolonged period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined in 15 GAD patients and in 15 age- and gender-matched controls. In addition, participants collected six saliva samples (on awakening, +30 min, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00 h and at bedtime) on two consecutive weekdays for the assessment of the diurnal cortisol profile. Results revealed significantly lower (50-60%) cortisol levels in the first and second 3-cm hair segments of GAD patients compared to those of controls. No significant between-group differences were seen in diurnal cortisol profiles. The hair cortisol findings tentatively suggest that under naturalistic conditions GAD is associated with hypocortisolism. If corroborated by future research, this demonstrates the important qualities of cortisol measurement in hair as an ecologically valid, retrospective index of long-term cortisol secretion and as a marker for psychiatric disorders associated with hypo- or hypercortisolism. PMID:20889215
E. G. Mendelevich
Full Text Available As of now, somatization of disorders when its physical symptoms may be caused by mental, psychological, or emotional factors is an extremely common event in clinical practice. The somatization is considered to mean the conversion of mental stress to somatic symptoms. The mechanisms and specific features of somatization disorders within generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder are of interest. One of the theories about the causes of somatization disorders proposes that somatization is as a way of avoiding psychological stress: it serves to protect from psychological pain, which allows the label of a psychiatric diagnosis to be circumvented in the majority of cases. Some patients unconsciously substitute theexperienced symptoms of anxiety or depression for the development of physical symptoms; anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental disorders. Among various forms of anxiety disorders, panic attacks and generalized anxiety disorders are most often met with neurologists. In some patients, the clinical picture is characterized by a concurrence of both the permanent and paroxysmal symptoms of anxiety, which is not only important to analyze the individual course of the disease, but also responsible for the addressness of a therapeutic approach to a greater extent.There are data of clinical trials and current algorithms for the therapy of generalized anxiety and related disorders reflecting the complexity of a therapeutic approach. The trials of the therapeutic effectiveness of these or those psychopharmacological agents demonstrate the importance of different groups of drugs in relation to the clinical features of detectable disorders. A number of trials indicate that the use of benzodiazepines (such as phenazepam may be considered irreplaceable as an emergency care on an exacerbation of anxiety and exceptional therapeutic orientation by using selective antidepressants not always can solve diverse clinical problems.
Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A
This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116
Spinhoven Philip; van Marwijk Harm WJ; Feltz-Cornelis Christina; Muntingh Anna DT; Assendelft Willem JJ; de Waal Margot WM; Hakkaart-van Roijen Leona; Adèr Herman J; van Balkom Anton JLM
Abstract Background Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are two of the most disabling and costly anxiety disorders seen in primary care. However, treatment quality of these disorders in primary care generally falls beneath the standard of international guidelines. Collaborative stepped care is recommended for improving treatment of anxiety disorders, but cost-effectiveness of such an intervention has not yet been assessed in primary care. This article describes the aims...
Kuusikko-Gauffin, S. (Sanna)
Abstract The primary aim of the current study was to examine social anxiety symptoms in high-functioning children and adolescents, ages eight to 17 years old with autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS). The second aim was to study emotion recognition skills in children and adolescents with HFA/AS. In addition, two internationally used social anxiety questionnaires (The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and; The Social Anxiety Scale for Children -revised) were translated int...
Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.
Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Thastum, Mikael; Nielsen, Klaus
No increased effect has been associated with parent involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youths with anxiety disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and therapist experiences of CBT among non-responding youths with anxiety disorders, with a primary focus on...... parent involvement in therapy. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was applied to 24 sets of semi-structured interviews with families and therapists of anxiety-disordered youths who had not profited from CBT with parental inclusion. From the superordinate theme parents' difficulties acting as co...
Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;
Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...
Boehme, Stephanie; Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas
Disorder-relevant but task-unrelated stimuli impair cognitive performance in social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, time course and neural correlates of emotional interference are unknown. The present study investigated time course and neural basis of emotional interference in SAD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Patients with SAD and healthy controls performed an emotional stroop task which allowed examining interference effects on the current and the succeeding trial. Reaction time data showed an emotional interference effect in the current trial, but not the succeeding trial, specifically in SAD. FMRI data showed greater activation in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus during emotional interference of the current trial in SAD patients. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between patients' interference scores and activation in the mPFC, dorsal ACC and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. Taken together, results indicate a network of brain regions comprising amygdala, insula, mPFC, ACC, and areas strongly involved in language processing during the processing of task-unrelated threat in SAD. However, specifically the activation in mPFC, dorsal ACC, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus is associated with the strength of the interference effect, suggesting a cognitive network model of attentional bias in SAD. This probably comprises exceeded allocation of attentional resources to disorder-related information of the presented stimuli and increased self-referential and semantic processing of threat words in SAD. PMID:26042738
Wu, Junfeng; Chang, Fei; Zu, Hengbing
Anxiety disorders are frequently comorbid with insomnia, and sleep disturbance in patients with anxiety disorders is the most common complaint. Antidepressants can affect sleep quality; however, their effect in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disorders is unclear. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the dose, treatment duration, treatment efficacy and safety of clinical citalopram and doxepin application in patients with comorbid insomnia and anxiety disor...
Bulley, Adam; Miloyan, Beyon; Brilot, Ben; Gullo, Matthew J; Suddendorf, Thomas
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) commonly co-occurs with, and often precedes, Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In this paper, we address the relationship between SAD and AUD by considering how natural selection left socially anxious individuals vulnerable to alcohol use, and by addressing the underlying mechanisms. We review research suggesting that social anxiety has evolved for the regulation of behaviors involved in reducing the likelihood or consequences of threats to social status. The management of potential threats to social standing is important considering that these threats can result in reduced cooperation or ostracism - and therefore to reduced access to coalitional partners, resources or mates. Alcohol exerts effects upon evolutionarily conserved emotion circuits, and can down-regulate or block anxiety (or may be expected to do so). As such, the ingestion of alcohol can artificially signal the absence or successful management of social threats. In turn, alcohol use may be reinforced in socially anxious people because of this reduction in subjective malaise, and because it facilitates social behaviors - particularly in individuals for whom the persistent avoidance of social situations poses its own threat (i.e., difficulty finding mates). Although the frequent co-occurrence of SAD and AUD is associated with poorer treatment outcomes than either condition alone, a richer understanding of the biological and psychosocial drives underlying susceptibility to alcohol use among socially anxious individuals may improve the efficacy of therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing or treating this comorbidity. PMID:26914963
Forough Riahi; Ashraf Tashakori; Sakineh Izadi-Mazidi; Mohammad Salehi-Veysi
Objective Some previous studies have reported that ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reboxetine in treating outpatient children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety disorders. Method In this open-label study, 25 outpatient children and adolescents, aged 6-16 years were selected by convenient sampling and underwent treatment with 4mg reboxetine for four weeks. Data were collected at baseline, two weeks and...
Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin
This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder. PMID:26752328
Full Text Available Fatih Kayhan,1 Adem Küçük,2 Yılmaz Satan,3 Erdem İlgün,4 Şevket Arslan,5 Faik İlik6 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Selçuk University, 2Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Konya Numune State Hospital, 4Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 6Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Başkent University, Konya, Turkey Background: We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: This case–control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Results: Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1% suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5% and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%. Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9% had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5% had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%, generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%, and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%. Conclusion: SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM. Keywords: anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia, sexual dysfunction
Stapinski, Lexine A; Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Mahedy, Liam; Button, Katherine S; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo
Background Peer victimization is ubiquitous across schools and cultures, and has been suggested as one developmental pathway to anxiety disorders. However, there is a dearth of prospective studies examining this relationship. The purpose of this cohort study was to examine the association between peer victimization during adolescence and subsequent anxiety diagnoses in adulthood. A secondary aim was to investigate whether victimization increases risk for severe anxiety presentations involving...
Carpenter, Kimberly L. H.; Angold, Adrian; Chen, Nan-kuei; Copeland, William E.; Gaur, Pooja; Pelphrey, Kevin; Song, Allen W.; Egger, Helen L.
Objective In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation. Methods Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxi...
Ayers, S.; Joekes, K.; Copland, C.
Research has established that anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are risk factors for the development of heart disease in healthy populations. In addition, anxiety and PTSD are associated with further morbidity in people with existing heart disease. This article considers whether anxiety and PTSD influence onset and recovery from heart disease. Clinical implications for cardiac nursing are considered, including screening, treatment, and referral on to specialist services.
Cordeiro, Lisa; Abucayan, Floridette; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora; Hessl, David
A very high proportion of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (FMR1 full mutation, > 200 CGG repeats) experience clinically significant anxiety. Recent evidence suggests that adult fragile X premutation carriers (55–200 CGG repeats) also are at risk for anxiety disorders, and they demonstrate limbic system alterations mediated by FMRP and/or elevated FMR1 mRNA that may explain this heightened risk. However, less is known about psychiatric symptoms including anxiety among children and ad...
White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence
Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30 adolescents with ASD and anxiety symptoms of moderate or greater severity. The treatment was acceptable to families, subject adherence was hig...
Factor, Reina S; Condy, Emma E; Farley, Julee P; Scarpa, Angela
While the function of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear, RRBs may function as anxiety reduction strategies (Joosten et al. J Autism Dev Disord 39(3):521-531, 2009. Moreover, anxiety in ASD is associated with low social motivation (Swain et al. J Autism Dev Disord, 2015. The present study examined social motivation as a mediator between anxiety and RRBs in a sample of 44 children (2-17 years old; 80 % male) with ASD. The relationship between anxiety and IS, but not other RRBs, was partially mediated by social motivation. These findings suggest anxiety is linked to social motivation deficits in children with ASD, which may increase ritualized behaviors and difficulties with changes in routine. Implications are discussed for differing functions and treatment of RRB domains. PMID:27040556
Julia Morgan; Solara Calderon; Molly Lebow; Dan Iosifescu; Dennis Charney; Adriana Feder
Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood, especially with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These disorders frequently co-occur, yet few PTSD comorbidity studies have focused on samples with a range of CT severity and none have included participants with adulthood-only trauma in the same study. We investigated SCID diagnoses of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders among 69 adult PTSD patients (M age = 37.94, SD=11.13; 53.6% female), wit...
van Mill, Josine G.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Method: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Par
van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J W; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H
OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHOD: This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Par
Brown, Hannah M.; McAdams, Tom A.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Goodman, Robert; Clark, David M.; Eley, Thalia C.
Background: Twin studies in children reveal that familial aggregation of anxiety disorders is due to both genetic and environmental factors. Cognitive biases for threat information are considered a robust characteristic of childhood anxiety. However, little is known regarding the underlying aetiology of such biases and their role in anxiety…
Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.
Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…
Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…
Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.
Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…