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Sample records for antral follicular waves

  1. Concentrations of AMH and inhibin-B in relation to follicular diameter in normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size.......The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size....

  2. Oocyte maturation and expression pattern of follicular genes during in-vitro culture of vitrified mouse pre-antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalzaei, Parisa; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Ebrahimi, Bita; Farrokhi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the oocyte maturation rate and follicular genes expression pattern during in-vitro culture of vitrified mouse pre-antral follicles. Middle sized pre-antral follicles were isolated mechanically from the ovaries of pre-pubertal mice and distributed in vitrification and control groups. In the vitrification group, follicles were washed in equilibration and vitrification solutions and then were immersed in liquid nitrogen after loading on cryotop tips. After warming in descending concentrations of sucrose solutions, fresh and vitrified-warmed follicles were cultured for 13 days. Follicles survival rate and follicular genes expression were assessed during in vitro culture. Finally, at the end of the culture period oocytes maturation rate were compared in both groups. In the vitrification group, follicles survival rate was lower significantly comparing to the control group (P culture period, expression of some genes such as Gdf9, Bmp15, Tgfβ1 and BmprII were higher in the vitrification group (P culture period expression pattern of all follicular genes were similar in both groups. In conclusion, survival rate of cryotop vitrified pre-antral follicles reduced during culture period while oocytes maturation and follicular genes expression did not show any noticeable alteration.

  3. Intrinsic determinants and predictors of superovulatory yields in sheep: Circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones, ovarian status, and antral follicular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Franco Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Kridli, Rami T; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian superstimulation has contributed to small ruminant reproduction around the world, impacting genetic improvement and zoosanitary programs, contributing to the conservation of endangered species, and supporting other related biotechnologies. Advanced knowledge surrounding the superovulatory treatments in sheep has resulted in enhanced control of influencing factors and improved the protocols currently used. However, in spite of minimization of some adverse factors, superovulatory responses in ewes still remain variable, preventing the more widespread use of superovulation in commercial embryo transfer programs and reproductive research in this species. Recent evidence demonstrates that changes in antral follicular populations and blood supply, and circulating concentrations of certain reproductive hormones determined at the specific time points just before or during the superovulatory treatment are associated with superovulation success in ewes. This review attempts to compile the data from available literature to identify ovarian and hormonal determinants of the superovulatory outcome in ewes, which can be used to substantially improve the existing protocols and to reduce the extra cost and unnecessary stress imposed on poorly responding animals. An overview of most commonly used and some recently developed, FSH-based ovarian stimulation protocols is given at the outset to highlight variation in the frequency and timing of gonadotropin injections, estrus synchronization methods, and follicular wave synchronization and/or ovulation induction techniques during the superovulatory treatments in ewes.

  4. Activin B is produced early in antral follicular development and suppresses thecal androgen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J M; Henderson, S; Souza, C; Ludlow, H; Groome, N; McNeilly, A S

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the role of activin B during folliculogenesis. This study investigated the expression levels of activin/inhibin subunits (βA, βB, and α), steroid enzyme, and gonadotrophin receptors in theca (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) by QPCR and activin A and B and inhibin A protein levels in follicular fluid (FF) of developing sheep follicles during estrus and anestrus. The effect of activin B on androgen production from primary TC cultures in vitro was also assessed. During folliculogenesis, in anestrus and estrus, FF activin B concentrations and thecal and GC activin βB mRNA levels decreased as follicle diameter increased from 1–3 to >6 mm regardless of estrogenic status. Estrogenic preovulatory follicles had reduced concentrations of FF activins B and A, and TC and GCs expressed higher levels of activin βA mRNA at 3–4 mm, and TCs more inhibin α mRNA at >4 mm stages of development compared with nonestrogenic follicles. Activin B decreased androstenedione production from primary TCs in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin A. Thus, sheep follicles 1–3 mm in diameter contained high FF levels of activin B, which decreased as the follicle size increased, and, like activin A, suppressed thecal androgen production in vitro, an effect blocked by inhibin. Furthermore, the theca of large estrogenic follicles expressed high levels of inhibin α and activin βA mRNA suggesting local thecal derived inhibin A production. This would inhibit the negative effects of thecal activins B and A ensuring maximum androgen production for enhanced estradiol production by the preovulatory follicle(s). PMID:22450673

  5. Comparison of antral and preantral ovarian follicle populations between Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high or low antral follicles counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santos, K C; Siloto, L S; Santos, G M G; Morotti, F; Marcantonio, T N; Seneda, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to compare populations of antral and pre-antral ovarian follicles in Bos indicus and Bos indicus-taurus cows with high and low antral follicle counts. Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 20) and Nelore X Angus (1/2 Bos indicus-taurus, n = 20) cows were subjected to follicular aspiration without regard to the stage of their oestrous cycle (day of aspiration = D0) to remove all follicles ≥3 mm and induce growth of a new follicular wave. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on D4, D19, D34, D49 and D64, and antral follicles ≥3 mm were counted. Thereafter, cows were assigned to one of two groups: high or low antral follicular count (AFC, ≥30 and ≤15 antral follicles, respectively). After D64, ovaries were collected after slaughter and processed for histological evaluation. There was high repeatability in the numbers of antral follicles for all groups (range 0.77-0.96). The mean (±SD) numbers of antral follicles were 35 ± 9 (Bos indicus) and 38 ± 6 (Bos indicus-taurus) for the high AFC group and 10 ± 3 (Bos indicus) and 12 ± 2 (Bos indicus-taurus) follicles for the low AFC. The mean number of preantral follicles in the ovaries of Bos indicus-taurus cows with high AFC (116 226 ± 83 156 follicles) was greater (p < 0.05) than that of Bos indicus cows (63 032 ± 58 705 follicles) with high AFC. However, there was no significant correlation between numbers of antral and preantral follicles.

  6. Concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone and inhibin-B in relation to steroids and age in follicular fluid from small antral human follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Rosendahl, M.; Byskov, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ovaries surgically removed for fertility preservation served as a source of follicle fluid from human small antral follicles. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), inhibin-B, progesterone, androstenedione, tes...

  7. In human granulosa cells from small antral follicles, androgen receptor mRNA and androgen levels in follicular fluid correlate with FSH receptor mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. E.; Rasmussen, I. A.; Kristensen, Stine Gry;

    2011-01-01

    RNA analysis (24 women). Expression of Androgen Receptor (AR) mRNA levels in granulosa cells, and of androstenedione and testosterone in FF, were correlated to the expression of FSH receptor (FSHR), LH receptor (LHR), CYP19 and anti-Müllerian Hormone-receptor2 (AMHR2) mRNA in the granulosa cells and to the FF...... with the expression of AMHR2, but did not correlate with any of the hormones in the FF. These data demonstrate an intimate association between AR expression in immature granulosa cells, and the expression of FSHR in normal small human antral follicles and between the FF levels of androgen and FSHR expression...

  8. Metabolic Profiles in Ovulatory and Anovulatory Primiparous Dairy Cows During the First Follicular Wave Postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Chiho; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; MATSUI, Motozumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic hormones affect ovarian function in the cow. However, the relationship between metabolic factors and ovarian function is not clear in the postpartum primiparous cow because they are still growing. The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the time-dependent profile of the metabolic hormones, metabolites, and milk yields of ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous cows during the first follicular wave postpartum. We used 16 primiparous Holstein cows and obtained blood sa...

  9. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  10. Complex interrelationships among CL, preovulatory follicle, number of follicular waves, and right or left ovaries in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Rakesh, H B; Hoffman, M M

    2014-02-01

    The diameter of the dominant follicle (DF) of wave 1 was studied on Days 9 to 17 (Day 0 = ovulation) in a survey of the ipsilateral and contralateral relationships between the location of the DF and CL, and number of follicular waves per interovulatory interval (IOI). For contralateral relationships, regardless of number of waves the diameter of the DF of wave 1 decreased (P number and identity of waves per IOI.

  11. Metabolic profiles in ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous dairy cows during the first follicular wave postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Chiho; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2007-02-01

    Metabolic hormones affect ovarian function in the cow. However, the relationship between metabolic factors and ovarian function is not clear in the postpartum primiparous cow because they are still growing. The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the time-dependent profile of the metabolic hormones, metabolites, and milk yields of ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous cows during the first follicular wave postpartum. We used 16 primiparous Holstein cows and obtained blood samples for the profiles of metabolites (glucose; non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA; ketone body; total cholesterol; and aspartate aminotransferase), metabolic hormones (growth hormone, GH; insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-1; and insulin), and progesterone every other day from 1 to 21 days postpartum. In addition, all ovaries were observed using ultrasound. Dairy milk yield was recorded during the experimental period. In all cows, the first follicular wave postpartum was observed and 6 of the cows ovulated. The plasma glucose (Pketone bodies (P<0.0001) concentrations and daily milk yield (P<0.0001) were higher in the anovulatory cows compared to the ovulatory cows. However, the GH levels, which enhance lipolysis for milk production, insulin and other metabolites did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion, the present study suggests that anovulation of the dominant follicle during the first follicular wave postpartum in primiparous cows is induced by low IGF-1 levels that are similar to those of multiparous cows. In addition, anovulatory cows are likely to mobilize body fat stores for milk production more easily than ovulatory cows.

  12. Effect of the FSH receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (FSHR 307/680) on the follicular fluid hormone profile and the granulosa cell gene expression in human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni Kjær; Jeppesen, J V; Lindgren, I

    2014-01-01

    ), by evaluating the hormone and gene expression profiles of human small antral follicles collected under physiological conditions in connection with fertility preservation. In total 69 women at various time during the menstrual cycle were included in this study. The intrafollicular hormone content of 179......The most pronounced effects of FSH signalling are potentially displayed in the follicle fluid, which acts as a reservoir for FSH-induced granulosa cell (GC) secreted hormones. This study investigates the effects of two common polymorphisms of FSHR, FSHR 307 (rs6165) and FSHR 680 (rs6166...... small antral follicles collected under physiological FSH conditions....

  13. Quantitative bioluminescence imaging of transgene expression in intact porcine antral follicles in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine oocyte maturation in vivo occurs within the ovarian follicle and is regulated by the interactions between oocytes and surrounding follicular components, including theca, granulosa, and cumulus cells, and follicular fluid. Therefore, the antral follicle is an essential microenvironment fo...

  14. Synchronisation of ovarian follicular waves in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Adams, G P; Billah, M

    2009-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of various treatments intended to synchronise follicular wave cycles in dromedary camels by removing the existing follicle of unknown size and replacing it with a follicle capable of ovulating at a known time. Camels were randomly assigned to one of five groups and treated with either (1) 5mg oestradiol benzoate (i.m.) and 100mg progesterone (i.m.; E/P, n=15), (2) 20 icrog GnRH analogue, buserelin (i.m.; GnRH, n=15), (3) 20 microg buserelin (i.m.) on Day 0 (T=0) and 500 microg prostaglandin on Day T+7 (GnRH/PG n=15), (4) transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle ablation of all follicles > or =0.5 cm (ABL, n=15) or (5) 5 ml saline (i.m; Controls n=15). All camels were subsequently injected with 20 microg buserelin 14 days after the first treatment was given. The ovarian response was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography and the intervals from treatment to follicular wave emergence and also the day on which the new dominant follicle reached 1.3 cm was recorded. Amongst the treatment groups the mean interval from treatment to new follicle wave emergence and treatment to time taken for the new dominant follicle to reach 1.3 cm in diameter was shortest in the ABL group (2.3+/-0.5 days and 8.8+/-1.1 days respectively, P=0.044) and longest in the E/P group (6.4+/-0.8 days and 12.2+/-1.0 days respectively, P or =2.0 cm or follicle regressing groups, therefore fewer of these camels ovulated (ABL n=7; E/P n=9; Control n=6) after GnRH injection on Day T+14. In conclusion, two GnRH injections 14 days apart or two GnRH injections 14 days apart and PG on Day 7 after the first GnRH were the most effective methods to synchronise ovulation rate in dromedary camels at a fixed time interval of 14 days after treatment.

  15. Ultrasonographic characterization of follicle deviation in follicular waves with single dominant and codominant follicles in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, S; Pratap, N

    2014-04-01

    Follicular wave emergence was synchronized by treating camels with GnRH when a dominant follicle (DF) was present in the ovaries. Animals were scanned twice a day from day 0 (day of GnRH treatment) to day 10, to characterize emergence and deviation of follicles during the development of the follicular wave. Follicle deviation in individual animals was determined by graphical method. Single DFs were found in 16, double DFs in 9 and triple DFs in two camels. The incidence of codominant (double and triple DFs) follicles was 41%. The interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence, wave emergence to deviation, diameter and growth rate of F1 follicle before or after deviation did not differ between the animals with single and double DFs. The size difference between future DF(s) and the largest subordinate follicle (SF) was apparent from the day of wave emergence in single and double DFs. Overall, interval from GnRH treatment to wave emergence and wave emergence to the beginning of follicle deviation was 70.6 ± 1.4 and 58.6 ± 2.7 h, respectively. Mean size of the DF and largest SF at the beginning of deviation was 7.4 ± 0.2 and 6.3 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. In conclusion, the characteristics of follicle deviation are similar between the animals that developed single or double DFs.

  16. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions.

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide are associated with health and atresia of bovine ovarian antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Coronado, C G; Guzmán, A; Espinosa-Cervantes, R; Romano, M C; Verde-Calvo, J R; Rosales-Torres, A M

    2015-02-01

    The follicle destiny towards ovulation or atresia is multi-factorial in nature and involves outcries, paracrine and endocrine factors that promote cell proliferation and survival (development) or unchain apoptosis as part of the atresia process. In several types of cells, sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) promotes cellular proliferation and survival, whereas ceramide (CER) triggers cell death, and the S1P/CER ratio may determine the fate of the cell. The aim of present study was to quantify S1P and CER concentrations and their ratio in bovine antral follicles of 8 to 17 mm classified as healthy and atretic antral follicles. Follicles were dissected from cow ovaries collected from a local abattoir. The theca cell layer, the granulosa cells and follicular fluid were separated, and 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured in the follicular fluid by radioimmunoassay. Based on the E2/P4 ratio, the follicles were classified as healthy (2.2±0.3) or atretic (0.2±0.3). In both follicular compartments (granulosa and theca cell layer), sphingolipids were extracted and S1P and CER concentrations were quantified by HPLC (XTerra RP18; 5 µm, 3.0×150 mm column). Results showed that in both follicular compartments, S1P concentrations were higher in healthy antral follicles than in atretic antral follicles (P<0.05). The concentration of CER in the granulosa cells was higher in atretic antral follicles than in healthy antral follicles, but no differences were observed in the theca cell layer. The S1P/CER ratio in both follicular compartments was also higher in healthy antral follicles. Interestingly, in these follicles, there was a 45-fold greater concentration of S1P than CER in the granulosa cells (P<0.05), whereas in the theca cell layer, S1P had only a 14-fold greater concentration than CER when compared with atretic antral follicles. These results suggest that S1P plays a role in follicle health, increasing cellular proliferation and survival. In

  18. Alterations in transcript abundance of bovine oocytes recovered at growth and dominance phases of the first follicular wave

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    Kanitz Wilhelm

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte developmental competence is highly affected by the phase of ovarian follicular wave. Previous studies have shown that oocytes from subordinate follicles recovered at growth phase (day 3 after estrus are developmentally more competent than those recovered at dominance phase (day 7 after estrus. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these differences are not well elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate transcript abundance of bovine oocytes retrieved from small follicles at growth and dominance phases of the first follicular wave and to identify candidate genes related to oocyte developmental competence using cDNA microarray. Results Comparative gene expression analysis of oocytes from growth and dominance phases and subsequent data analysis using Significant Analysis of Microarray (SAM revealed a total of 51 differentially regulated genes, including 36 with known function, 6 with unknown function and 9 novel transcripts. Real-time PCR has validated 10 transcripts revealed by microarray analysis and quantified 5 genes in cumulus cells derived from oocytes of both phases. The expression profile of 8 (80% transcripts (ANAXA2, FL396, S100A10, RPL24, PP, PTTG1, MSX1 and BMP15 was in agreement with microarray data. Transcript abundance of five candidate genes in relation to oocyte developmental competence was validated using Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB staining as an independent model. Furthermore, localization of mRNA and protein product of the candidate gene MSX1 in sections of ovarian follicles at days 0, 1, 3 and 7 of estrous cycle showed a clear fluorescent signal in both oocytes and cumulus cells with higher intensity in the former. Moreover, the protein product was detected in bovine oocytes and early cleavage embryos after fertilization with higher intensity around the nucleus. Conclusion This study has identified distinct sets of differentially regulated transcripts between

  19. The efficacy of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) in synchronizing the follicular wave in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Alowaimer, Abdullah Nasser

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) to synchronize the follicular wave in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) during the breeding season through ovarian monitoring, evaluating sexual receptivity, and measuring progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) levels during and after CIDR treatment. Sixteen camels received a new CIDR containing 1.9 g of P4 for 14 days. Ultrasound ovarian monitoring was performed on the day of insertion and every 3 days until the CIDR was withdrawn. Ultrasound examinations were continued day in day out after the CIDR was withdrawn for 10 days. According to the ultrasound examinations, the percentages of camels in the breeding (follicles: 12-18 mm) and nonbreeding phases were calculated. Blood samples were collected day after day during the experimental period (24 days) from the day that the CIDR was inserted. The serum P4 and E2 concentrations were analyzed using ELISA kits. The sexual receptivity of the camels was tested daily during the course of the experiment. The results revealed that 2 and 4 days after the CIDR was withdrawn, the percentage of camels in the breeding phase (68.75% and 75.00%, respectively) was significantly (P dromedary camels. In conclusion, the treatment of dromedary camels with CIDR produced a uniform increase in serum concentrations of P4 that could completely prevent sexual receptivity but could not suppress the follicular wave. After CIDR withdrawal, the P4 levels fell and induced the emergence of a new follicular wave, and most of the camels were in the breeding (ovulatory) phase 2 to 4 days after withdrawal. Therefore, CIDR can be used to synchronize the follicular wave in dromedary camels.

  20. Methoxychlor and its metabolites inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupesh K; Aberdeen, Graham; Babus, Janice K; Albrecht, Eugene D; Flaws, Jodi A

    2007-08-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine pesticide, inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles in rodents. MXC metabolites, mono-OH MXC (mono-OH) and bis-OH MXC (HPTE), are thought to be more toxic than the parent compound. Although studies have examined effects of MXC in rodents, few studies have evaluated the effects of MXC in primates. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that MXC, mono-OH, and HPTE inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from adult baboon ovaries and cultured with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide; DMSO), MXC (1-100 micro g/ml), mono-OH (0.1-10 micro g/ml), or HPTE (0.1-10 micro g/ml) for 96 hr. Growth was monitored at 24 hr intervals. After culture, follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. MXC, mono-OH, and HPTE significantly inhibited follicular growth and increased atresia compared to DMSO. Moreover, the adverse effects of MXC and its metabolites on growth and atresia in baboon antral follicles were observed at lower (100-fold) doses than those causing similar effects in rodents. These data suggest that MXC and its metabolites inhibit growth and induce atresia of baboon antral follicles, and that primate follicles are more sensitive to MXC than rodent follicles.

  1. Fertility after ovarian follicular wave synchronization and fixed-time natural mating compared to random natural mating in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Juhasz, J

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of two ovarian follicular wave synchronization protocols coupled with fixed-time natural mating with that of random mating in dromedary camels. Dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of the three treatment groups. Group 1 animals (RM; n = 46) were mated randomly. Group 2 camels (1×GnRH-FTM; n = 46) were given a GnRH analog (Buserelin, 20 μg/animal, i.v.; Receptal, Intervet, Holland) at random, then were mated 14 days later. In Group 3 animals (2×GnRH-FTM; n = 41), random GnRH analog was followed by repeated GnRH injection 14 days later and fixed-time natural mating on Day 28. Transrectal examination and ultrasonography were performed at weekly intervals to evaluate ovarian follicular status, diagnose ovulation and pregnancy. Blood samples were collected for progesterone determination by ELISA to confirm ovulation and pregnancy. All female dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of thirteen fertile bulls and were bred once on Days 1, 14 and 28 in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ovarian follicular status and ovulation rate was similar among groups at the start of the study. Seventy-five of the 133 dromedaries (56.4%) ovulated after random natural mating or random GnRH treatment. Mean length of mating was 386 ± 17.8 (±SEM) seconds. There was no significant difference in mating time among groups and in pregnancy rate among dromedary bulls. In Group 3 (2×GnRH-FTM), ovarian follicular status before mating (P dromedaries (1×GnRH-FTM), treatment tended to improve follicular status before mating, ovulation rate (n = 34, 73.9%) and pregnancy rate at 21 and 60 days (PR 21 days n = 21, 45.7% and PR 60 days n = 16, 34.8%), but the effect was not significant compared to random natural mating. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that favorable pregnancy rate can be achieved following ovarian follicular wave synchronization with repeated GnRH analog and fixed-time natural mating at 14 days intervals in

  2. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations and blood flow of the ovarian structures of the female dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) during growth, dominance, spontaneous ovulation, luteinization and regression of the follicular wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawy, M S; Derar, R I; El-Sherry, T M; Megahed, G A

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the ovarian follicular waves and their corresponding hormonal changes in she-camels and to elucidate blood perfusion of the ovarian structures. Three reproductively sound, non-pregnant female camels were examined daily using B-mode and color Doppler to detect changes in their ovarian structures and blood vasculature for 22 follicular waves. Blood area (BA) and percentage (BA%) were determined for the ovarian structures. Three phases of follicular development, those of growth, maturation, and regression, were observed during each follicular wave. Deviation occurred on Day 6.1±1.08. Estradiol increased from basal levels of 27.4±0.4pg/ml to peak concentrations of 134.4±47.5pg/ml as the follicle reached a diameter of 13.2mm. Peripheral progesterone concentrations remained low (dromedaries consists of individually variable periods of growth, maturation and regression. Deviation occurs 6.1±1.08d from emergence. Transrectal color-Doppler sonography is a useful technique for noninvasive evaluation of follicular vascularity in camels during various stages of the follicular wave. It provides additional information to assess the developmental stage and activity of the ovarian structures.

  3. Follicular dermographism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W B; Shelley, E D

    1983-09-01

    Four patients who complained of an inexplicable pruritus of several weeks to several years in duration are presented. General medical studies were unremarkable and the skin was normal except for erythematous papular lesions at sites recently scratched. The skin changes could be reproduced by multiple firm strokes with the broad edge of a tongue blade. The transitory, discrete, follicular, urticarial papules so elicited have been labeled by us as follicular dermographism. It is an entity to be distinguished from cholinergic and aquagenic urticaria. We postulate that follicular dermographism occurs during periods of transient antigenemia. At such times, the frictional force of scratching or the tongue blade test releases antigen from the blood stream to trigger focal urticaria at sites of high density mast cells, namely around the hair follicle. Hydroxyzine is an effective therapy.

  4. Antral follicles population in heifers and cows of Nelore and Girolando breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sábio de Oliveira Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian antral follicle populations (OAFP of Nelore and Girolando breed heifers (12–18 months old and cows (24–60 months old. Animals were assigned to four groups: (1 Nelore cows (n = 18, (2 Girolando cows (n = 20, (3 Nelore heifers (n = 7, and (4 Girolando heifers (n = 7. Cows were treated to synchronize follicular wave emergence by implantation of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone, as well as intramuscular administration of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and 25 mg of dinoprost. This synchronization treatment was administered at a random day of the estrous cycle of each cow, designated D0. Intravaginal devices were removed on D7, and on D11, OAFP counts were performed by transvaginal ovarian ultrasound. For each cow, all follicles ?3 mm in diameter were counted in both ovaries and counts were performed three times at 35-day intervals. Counts were also obtained from heifers, but these animals were not treated for synchronization of follicular wave emergence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation test were used to compare mean OAFPs between counts as well as mean OAFPs between breed and age groups. No differences were observed in mean OAFPs between Nelore and Girolando cows (30.9 vs. 26.7, respectively; P > 0.05 or heifers (16.2 vs. 18.1, respectively; P > 0.05. However, within each breed, there were differences in mean OAFPs between heifers and cows (for Nelore cattle: 16.2 and 30.9, respectively; for Girolando cattle: 18.1 and 26.7, respectively; both P < 0.05. In conclusion, OAFPs were similar between Nelore and Girolando breeds and were influenced by age. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation for individual animals between the mean numbers of follicles counted in both ovaries and total number of follicles counted in either the right or left ovary, indicating that the evaluation of a single ovary is sufficient to estimate the OAFP of an

  5. Antral web associated with distal antral hypertrophy and prepyloric stenosis mimicking hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Ming Tiao; Sheung-Fat Ko; Chie-Song Hsieh; Shu-Hang Ng; Chi-Di Liang; Shy Ming Sheen-Chen; Jiin-Haur Chuang; Hsuan-Ying Huang

    2005-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy presented with postprandial vomiting and epigastric pain for 3 wk. Barium meal study suggested hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Ultrasound of the stomach after water loading revealed an echogenic antral web with an eccentric aperture and distal antral hypertrophy.Subsequent endoscopy confirmed the ultrasound findings.Web resection and antropyloroplasty resulted in excellent recovery. To our knowledge, the barium meal and ultrasound findings of an antral web-associated distal antral hypertrophy and prepyloric stenosis has not previously been described.

  6. Follicular atresia in the prepubertal spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to determine follicular atresia in the newborn and the prepubertal spiny mouse. We analyzed the processes of follicle loss using classical markers of apoptosis (TUNEL reaction, active caspase-3) and autophagy (Lamp1). Numerous small clear vacuoles and autophagosomes as well as strong Lamp1 staining were observed in dying oocytes of all follicle types, especially of the primordial and primary ones. Active caspase 3 and the TUNEL reaction were detected only in the granulosa cells of large secondary and antral follicles. The expression of apoptosis and autophagy markers was also changing during the prepubertal period. Western blot analysis indicated that at the moment of birth, females undergo an increased rate of follicular atresia mediated by autophagy, while apoptosis is the dominant form of ovarian atresia in consecutive postnatal days. On the basis of these observations, we concluded that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in follicular atresia and these processes are cell and developmental stage-specific.

  7. Effect of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the level and activity of PAPP-A and the hormone profile in fluid from normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Jane Alrø; Borgbo, Tanni; Kløverpris, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To reveal a possible relationship between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PAPP-A—1224 (rs7020782) and 327 (rs12375498)—and the level and activity of PAPP-A in follicular fluid (FF) of human small antral follicles, and to analyze the intrafollicular hormone levels. Design:...

  8. Methoxychlor inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupesh K; Miller, Kimberly P; Babus, Janice K; Flaws, Jodi A

    2006-10-01

    The mammalian ovary contains antral follicles, which are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of hormones that regulate estrous cyclicity and fertility. The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) causes atresia (follicle death via apoptosis) of antral follicles, but little is known about the mechanisms by which MXC does so. Oxidative stress is known to cause apoptosis in nonreproductive and reproductive tissues. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that MXC inhibits growth and induces atresia of antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from 39-day-old CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]), MXC (1-100 microg/ml), or MXC + the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (0.1-10 mM). During culture, growth was monitored daily. At the end of culture, follicles were processed for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) mRNA expression or for histological evaluation of atresia. The results indicate that exposure to MXC (1-100 microg/ml) inhibited growth of follicles compared to DMSO controls and that NAC (1-10 mM) blocked the ability of MXC to inhibit growth. MXC induced follicular atresia, whereas NAC (1-10 mM) blocked the ability of MXC to induce atresia. In addition, MXC reduced the expression of SOD1, GPX, and CAT, whereas NAC reduced the effects of MXC on their expression. Collectively, these data indicate MXC causes slow growth and increased atresia by inducing oxidative stress.

  9. Nutritional factors that regulate ovulation of the dominant follicle during the first follicular wave postpartum in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Chiho; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, milk production per cow has increased drastically due to improved management, nutrition, and genetic selection; however, the reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows has been declining. One of the factors responsible for this low reproductive performance is negative energy balance (NEB). NEB affects the onset of first ovulation in early postpartum cows. It is generally accepted that early first ovulation positively relates to the resumption of normal ovarian function, first service, and conception rate in dairy cows. Hence, delayed first ovulation has a negative impact on subsequent fertility. The metabolic condition of cows in NEB shifts to catabolic metabolism, which in turn causes increased plasma growth hormone and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, and glucose concentrations. On the other hand, plasma β-carotene concentrations decrease throughout the dry period and reach their nadir in about the first week postpartum, and this change reflects energy balance during the peripartum period. β-Carotene plays a role independently of vitamin A in the reproductive performance of dairy cows, and the positive relationship between supplemental β-carotene and reproductive function has been demonstrated in many studies during the past decades. However, β-carotene content in corn silage, which is a popular main feed in high-producing dairy cows, is very low. This review describes nutritional factors related to ovulation during the first follicular wave postpartum in dairy cows.

  10. Follicular traction urticaria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Hatice; Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Kocaturk, Emek

    2016-01-01

    Inducible urticaria is a heterogeneous subgroup of chronic urticarias caused by a wide variety of environmental stimuli, such as exercise, cold, heat, pressure, sunlight, vibration, and water. A new term, follicular traction urticaria, was suggested as an unusual form of inducible urticarias. We report a patient who was diagnosed with follicular traction urticaria.

  11. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The clinical features of the follicular subtype of ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) have not been previously evaluated in a large cohort. OBJECTIVE To characterize the clinical features of follicular OAL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed a retrospective multicenter study tha...

  12. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers...... of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular...

  13. Relationship between antral distension and postprandial symptoms in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nadia Pallotta; Patrizio Pezzotti; Enrico Corazziari

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in patients with functional dyspepsia(FD) after an every-day meal whether (1) gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-GI symptoms had any relation with the degree of antral volume, (2) the onset of postprandial symptoms was associated with, and may predict, delayed gastric emptying.METHODS: In 94 symptomatic FD patients, antral volume variations and gastric emptying were assessed with ultrasonography after a 1050 kcal meal. Symptoms were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire. The association of GI and extra-GI symptoms with antral volumes and gastric emptying were estimated with logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Forty percent of patients did not report any symptoms after a meal. Compared to the healthy controls, the antrum was more distended in patients throughout the entire observation period and 37 (39.4%)patients had delayed gastric emptying. Only postprandial drowsiness was associated with antral volume variations (AOR = 1.42; P < 0.001) and with delayed gastric emptying (AOR = 3.59; P < 0.03).CONCLUSION: In FD patients, GI symptoms are neither associated with antral distension nor with gastric emptying. Drowsiness is associated with antral distension and delayed gastric emptying. The onset of drowsiness is preceded by an increment of antral distension and the duration of the symptom appears to be related to the persistence of antral distension.

  14. Follicular penetration and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  15. Co-culture of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) preantral follicles with antral follicles: a comparative study of developmental competence of oocytes derived from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G Taru; Dubey, Pawan K; Nath, Amar; Saikumar, G

    2013-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether the presence of antral follicles (AFs) affects the survival, growth and steroidogenesis of preantral follicles (PFs) and compare the maturation and developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured AFs. Two experiments were carried out. In experiment I, PFs (200-250 μm) were isolated and cultured with or without AFs (3-5 mm) in TCM-199 medium that contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% insulin transferin selenium (ITS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF), 0.5 μg/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and 100 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. In experiment II, in vitro developmental competence was compared for the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from in vivo developed and in vitro cultured AFs. Survival, growth, development of antrum, accumulation of estradiol and progesterone was (P cultured with AFs. Developmental competence of both types of follicular oocytes did not differ significantly in terms of maturation and cleavage rate, but morula and blastocyst production rate were (P vitro cultured antral follicular oocytes. In conclusion, co-culture of PFs with AFs supports long-term survival and growth of buffalo PFs and this co-culture system plays a dual role for in vitro production of embryos as well as understanding the relationship between developing PFs and AFs.

  16. Analysis of gene expression in granulosa cells of ovine antral growing follicles using suppressive subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A Qin; Wang, Zheng Guang; Xu, Zi Rong; Yu, Song Dong; Yang, Zhi Gang

    2009-10-01

    Follicular growth, development and ovulation are highly ordered processes that involve the expression of many genes under precise temporal and spatial regulation. However, information on stage-specific gene expression during the antral follicle phase in sheep is not well understood. In the present study, suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed to screen genes that were differentially expressed in the granulosa cells between large follicles (LF, >5mm) and small follicles (SF, 3-5mm), and subtractive cDNA library was constructed. Furthermore, with dot-blot analysis, a total of 90 clones randomly selected from the library were proven to be differentially expressed in the granulosa cells. Among these, 38 exhibited high homology to known genes, 14 sequences were corresponding to novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Four ESTs, LAPTM4A, SERPINE2, GSTA1, and INHBA, were further examined the reproducibility of the SSH data by the real-time quantitative PCR. Results confirmed an increase expression of respective mRNA in granulosa cells of large follicles compared with that of small follicles. It is concluded that we have identified several genes (known or unknown) that may effect follicular growth, dominance or ovulation in ewes.

  17. Stress induced alterations in pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajurvedi H.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to find out whether stress experienced during neo-natal period alters the timing of formation of pre-antral and antral follicles and if so, whether pre-treatment with CRH receptor antagonist prevents these effects in rats. New born rat pups (n= 15 were exposed to maternal separation (6 hours/ day from post-natal day (PND 1 to 7 and were killed on PND 8, 11 and 15. The time of exposure was randomly changed every day during light phase (7Am to 7Pm of the day to avoid habituation. There was a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels on PND 8 and 11 in stress group rats compared to controls indicating stress response in these pups. The ovary of both control and stressed rats contained oocytes and primary follicles on PND 8 and 11 and in showed progress of follicular development upto to pre-antral and early antral follicle formation on PND 11 and 15. However, mean number of healthy oocytes and all categories of follicles at all ages studied were significantly lower in stressed rats compared to controls. Concomitant with these changes, number of atreatic follicles showed an increase over control values in stressed rats. The increase in atresia of follicles was due to apoptosis as shown by increase in the percentage of granulosa cells showing TUNEL positive staining and caspase 3 activity. On the other hand, pre-treatment with CRH- receptor antagonist (CRH 9-41 2ng/ 0.1 ml/ rat prior to undergoing stress regime on PND 1 to 7, prevented alterations in pre- pubertal follicular development thereby indicating that the ovarian changes were due to effects of stress induced activation of HPA axis. The results indicate that, stress during neonatal phase, though does not affect timing of formation of pre-antral and antral follicles, it does enhance atresia of follicles of all categories, including follicular reserve, which may affect the reproductive potential of adults. The results, for the first time reveal that CRF

  18. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  19. Sex of bovine embryos may be related to mothers' preovulatory follicular testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, V J; Irwin, R J; Standley, N T; Shelling, A N; Chamley, L W

    2008-05-01

    Although the sex of the offspring in mammals is commonly viewed as a matter of chance (depending on whether an X or a Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoon reaches the ovum first), evolutionary biologists have shown that offspring sex ratios are often significantly related to maternal dominance, a characteristic that has been shown to be linked to testosterone in female mammals, including humans. Hence, we hypothesized that variations in female testosterone might be related to reproductive mechanisms associated with sex determination, with higher levels of follicular testosterone being associated with a greater likelihood of conceiving a male. To investigate this hypothesis we collected follicular fluid and cumulus-oocyte complexes from bovine antral follicles. Individual matched samples of follicular fluid were assayed for testosterone, whereas the oocytes were matured, fertilized, and cultured in vitro. The resultant embryos were sexed by PCR. The level of testosterone in the follicular fluid was then compared with sex of the embryo (n = 171). Results showed that follicular testosterone levels were significantly higher for subsequently male embryos (Mann-Whitney U = 2823; P [one-tailed] = 0.016). When we excluded embryos from follicles in which the estradiol-to-testosterone ratio was more than 1 (leaving a sample size of 135), the same result held (Mann-Whitney U = 1667; P [one-tailed] = 0.009). Thus, bovine ova that developed in follicular fluid with high concentrations of testosterone in vivo were significantly more likely to be fertilized by Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa.

  20. Levels of the epidermal growth factor-like peptide amphiregulin in follicular fluid reflect the mode of triggering ovulation: a comparison between gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist and urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Westergaard, Lars Grabow; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2011-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation triggered with either urinary hCG or GnRH agonist (GnRH-a). Controls: 15 FF samples from small antral follicles (3-9 mm) and 12 FF samples from natural cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular fluid concentration of AR, P(4), E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor, and inhibin B...

  1. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sutherland, J.M. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McCluskey, A. [Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hansbro, P.M. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  2. Serum and follicular anti-Mullerian hormone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS under metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falbo Angela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data regarding metformin effects on follicular fluid anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels were to date available in literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS whether metformin administration affects serum and follicular AMH levels, and whether this is related to ovarian response to the treatment. Methods Twenty young patients with PCOS who had received metformin were enrolled. Ten patients were anovulatory (Met-anov group, whereas the other 10 were ovulatory (Met-ov group but had failed to conceive. Further untreated PCOS (PCOS controls, n. 10 and healthy controls (non-PCOS controls, n. 10 who were scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. In each subjects, clinical and biochemical evaluations were performed. AMH concentrations in blood and antral follicular fluid were assayed. Results In both Met-anov and Met-ov groups, and without difference between them, serum androgens and AMH, and indices of insulin resistance were significantly (p p Conclusions Metformin administration in patients with PCOS exerts a differential action on the ovarian AMH levels on the basis of ovulatory response. Changes in AMH levels in antral follicular fluid during metformin treatment could be involved in the local mechanisms mediating the ovulatory restoration.

  3. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  4. Perfil hormonal de Progesterona durante o ciclo Estral em novilhas Nelore confinadas com Diferentes Ondas de Crescimento Folicular Plasma Progesterone Level during the Estrous Cycle in Nelore Heifers Confined with Two, Three and Four Waves of Follicular Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Lomas Santiago

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram-se coletas diárias de sangue, de 16 novilhas Nelore confinadas, para análise de progesterona plasmática pelo método de radioimunoensaio (RIA. Os dias analisados para progesterona foram o dia zero (estro e a cada três dias até o dia -1 e o dia zero. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 com ciclo estral de 21 dias aproximadamente (novilhas que apresentaram duas e três ondas de crescimento folicular e 2 com ciclo estral superior a 25 dias (novilhas com quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. As concentrações médias de progesterona plasmática dos animais durante o ciclo estral diferiram entre os dois grupos, sendo superiores (4,27 ng/mL para os ciclos de maior duração. A concentração média de progesterona no ciclo de aproximadamente 21 dias foi de 2,54 ng/mL. Os resultados sugerem que as novilhas que apresentam maior duração do ciclo estral necessitam de tempo adicional para que seus folículos cheguem ao estádio pré-ovulatório, havendo, dessa maneira, prolongamento e aumento da secreção de progesterona.Blood were collected daily from 16 Nelore heifers confined, for radioimmunoassay (RIA.analyses of progesterone The plasma progesterone assay were at day zero (estrus and at each three days until the -1 and the day zero.again The animals were divided in two groups: 1 with regular estrous cycle of 21 days (heifers with two and three follicular growth waves and 2 with prolonged estrous cycle, greater than 25 days (heifers with four follicular growth waves. The mean plasma progesterone level from the animals during the estrous cycle differed between the two groups, being greater (4,27 ng/mL for the extended cycles.(above 25 days; 4,27 ng/mL than for the regular estrous cycle (21 days; 2,54 ng/mL. Results suggest that those heifers which showed an extended estrous cycles, needs an additional time for the follicles to each the pre-ovulatory stadium, resulting in prolonged and increased progesterone secretion.

  5. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  6. Radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of gastric antral vascular ectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dray, X.; Repici, A.; Gonzalez, P.;

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: The traditional endoscopic treatment for gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is argon plasma coagulation, but results are not always positive. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new endoscopic therapy that may be an attractive option for the treatment of GAVE. The ai...

  7. Maxillary antral lavage using inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochloulis, G; Hern, J D; Hollis, L J; Tolley, N S

    1996-08-01

    Antral puncture and lavage through the inferior meatus is a minor but common otolaryngological procedure, usually performed under local anaesthesia. We describe a new method of introducing local anaesthetic into the inferior meatus, via the use of a soft intravenous cannula connected to a syringe containing 10 per cent cocaine paste. We have called this new technique inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia (IMCA).

  8. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers.

  9. Dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic effects on gastric antral motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    of bethanechol or pentagastrin inducing motor activity patterns as in the phase III of the MMC and the digestive state respectively. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by dopamine. The effect was significantly blocked by specifically acting dopaminergic blockers, while alpha- and beta......-adrenergic blockers were without any significant effects. Dose-response experiments with bethanechol and dopamine showed inhibition of a non-competitive type. Isoprenaline was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors during infusion of bethanechol which induces a pattern...... similar to phase III in the migrating myoelectric complex. The stimulated antral motility was dose-dependently inhibited by isoprenaline. The effect could be significantly blocked by propranolol (beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) and by using in conjunction the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocker practolol...

  10. Effect of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the level and activity of PAPP-A and the hormone profile in fluid from normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Jane Alrø; Borgbo, Tanni; Kløverpris, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To reveal a possible relationship between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PAPP-A—1224 (rs7020782) and 327 (rs12375498)—and the level and activity of PAPP-A in follicular fluid (FF) of human small antral follicles, and to analyze the intrafollicular hormone levels. Design:...... of insulin-like growth factor activity is warranted. (Fertil Steril 2016;-:-–-. 2016 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.) Key Words: Human follicles, human ovarian steroidogenesis, IGF signaling, PAPP-A, single-nucleotide polymorphisms...

  11. BUCCAL ADVANCEMENT FLAP DAN ANTROSTOMI: UNTUK TERAPI ORO ANTRAL FISTULA (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Rivandi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Buccal advancement flap is one of the many ways of treating oro antral fistula. This technique is frequently used by dentists because it is easier to do and has several advantages compared to other techniques. This paper reports a case of oro antral fistula caused by complication of a tooth extraction, with discussions about definition, ethics and other therapies of oro antral fistula.

  12. Obinutuzumab in follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Calle, N; Figueroa-Mora, R; Villar-Fernandez, S; Marcos-Jubilar, M; Panizo, C

    2016-12-01

    The CD20 marker continues to be exploited as a therapeutic target for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Obinutuzumab is part of a new generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, which are synthesized using molecular engineering technology, resulting in novel target epitopes and unprecedented optimization of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Rituximab is the current gold standard for anti-CD20 therapy, yet despite outstanding results published over the past decade, many patients continue to relapse after anti-CD20 regimens. Obinutuzumab is slowly positioning itself in the treatment of CD20+ B-cell neoplasms. On the basis of favorable results from the phase III GADOLIN trial, obinutuzumab was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in combination with bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance, for the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients who relapsed or are refractory to a rituximab-containing regimen. Additional phase III trials are underway to test obinutuzumab as a first-line anti-CD20 agent in FL with good preliminary results (GALLIUM trial); thus, it is likely that obinutuzumab will soon achieve a first-line indication. It is plausible that obinutuzumab will replace rituximab as the gold standard for chemoimmunotherapy in FL, although some safety concerns still need to be resolved. This review will address the preclinical pharmacology and the main aspects of the clinical development of obinutuzumab for the treatment of FL.

  13. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  14. Growth differentiation factor-9 mediates follicle-stimulating hormone-thyroid hormone interaction in the regulation of rat preantral follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Orisaka, Makoto; Cao, Mingju; Kotsuji, Fumikazu; Leader, Arthur; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2009-12-01

    FSH regulates follicular growth in a stage-development fashion. Although preantral follicle stage is gonadotropin responsive, FSH is not required for preantral follicular growth. With the antrum, the follicles continue growing under the influence of FSH and become gonadotropin dependent. Although thyroid hormone is important for normal female reproductive function, its role and interaction with FSH in the regulation of preantral ovarian follicular growth is yet to be defined. In the present study, we have examined the action and interaction of FSH and T(3) in the regulation of the growth of preantral follicles, especially in their transition from preantral to early antral stage, using an established follicle culture system and evaluated the involvement of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) in this process in vitro. We have demonstrated that although T(3) alone had no effect on follicular development, it markedly enhanced FSH-induced preantral follicular growth. Although FSH alone significantly down-regulated FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNA abundance in the preantral follicles and T(3) alone was ineffective, expression of the message was significantly increased in the presence of both hormones. In addition, intra-oocyte injection of GDF-9 antisense oligonucleotides (GDF-9 morpholino) induced follicular cell apoptosis and suppressed follicular growth induced by FSH and T(3). These responses were attenuated by exogenous GDF-9. Our findings support the concept that thyroid hormone regulates ovarian follicular development through its direct action on the ovary and that promotes FSH-induced preantral follicular growth through up-regulation of FSHR, a mechanism dependent on the expression and action of oocyte-derived GDF-9.

  15. Caprine ovarian follicle requirements differ between preantral and early antral stages after IVC in medium supplemented with GH and VEGF alone or in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, J; Leiva-Revilla, J; Vieira, L A; Apolloni, L B; Aguiar, F L N; Alves, B G; Lobo, C H; Rodrigues, A P R; Apgar, G A; Smitz, J; Figueiredo, J R; Maside, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of growth hormone (GH) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) added alone, sequentially or in combination, in the presence of insulin at physiological concentration (10 ng/mL) on the IVC of two different follicular categories: preantral (experiment 1; Exp.1) and early antral (experiment 2; Exp.2). Isolated follicles were individually cultured for 24 (Exp.1) and 18 days (Exp.2) in the following treatments: αMEM(+) (Control), or Control medium supplemented with 50 ng/mL GH (GH), 100 ng/mL VEGF (VEGF), the combination of both (GH + VEGF), GH during the first 12 days and VEGF from Day 12 until the end of the culture (GH/VEGF) and vice versa (VEGF/GH). At the end of the culture, cumulus-oocyte complexes from in vitro-grown follicles were recovered and subjected to IVM. The following end points were evaluated: Follicle morphology, growth rates and antrum formation, production of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, oocyte viability and meiotic stage, as well as relative expression of LHR, Amh, HAS2, PTGS2, CYP17, CYP19A1, and 3βHSD. A considerable amount of viable fully grown oocytes were recovered after the IVC of early antral follicles in all treatments. Nevertheless, the GH treatment presented the highest percentage of fully grown oocytes (60%), mean oocyte diameter (117.74 ± 2.61 μm), and meiotic resumption (50%). Furthermore, GH treatment produced higher (P GH to a culture medium containing physiological concentrations of insulin improves oocyte growth and maturation after the IVC of goat early antral follicles.

  16. The relationship between serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels and the follicular arrest for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Li, Rong; Yu, Hua; Zhao, Shuyun; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether higher levels of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are associated with the ovarian follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective study compared AMH levels between serum and dominant follicular fluid (FF) in ovulatory polycystic ovary (PCO) women and anovulatory (menstrual cycle ≥60 days.) PCOS women. All 102 women provided a baseline hormone profile and underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). The anovulatory PCO women had a similar body mass index (BMI), antral follicle count (AFC), and baseline serum AMH levels as the ovulatory PCO women except that their median luteinizing hormone (LH; 10.0 mIU/ml), testosterone (T) (0.61 ng/l), and androstenedione (A) (3.47 ng/l) levels were significantly higher than ovulatory PCO women (4.9 mIU/m; 0.43 ng/l and 2.09 ng/l, respectively). The ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation during COH including serum AMH on the day of HCG administration and dominant FF AMH at 36 hours after HCG administration, total follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) dose administrated, peak E2, (estrogen) levels and number of occytes retrieved were all similar between women with anovulatory and ovulatory PCO. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that an important independent determinant affecting AMH was AFC, as opposed to LH and T. Logistic regression analysis showed that the two most important factors affecting ovulation were serum LH and T, whereas serum AMH and AFC were not selected for inclusion in the model. The reduction in AMH during COH occurs as a consequence of dominant follicles with a corresponding reduction in small antral follicle number. Elevated serum AMH levels in PCO women seem to be related only to follicular excess and not follicular arrest.

  17. Altered theca and cumulus oocyte complex gene expression, follicular arrest and reduced fertility in cows with dominant follicle follicular fluid androgen excess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam F Summers

    Full Text Available Aspiration of bovine follicles 12-36 hours after induced corpus luteum lysis serendipitously identified two populations of cows, one with High androstenedione (A4; >40 ng/ml; mean = 102 and another with Low A4 (<20 ng/ml; mean = 9 in follicular fluid. We hypothesized that the steroid excess in follicular fluid of dominant follicles in High A4 cows would result in reduced fertility through altered follicle development and oocyte maternal RNA abundance. To test this hypothesis, estrous cycles of cows were synchronized and ovariectomy was performed 36 hours later. HPLC MS/MS analysis of follicular fluid showed increased dehydroepiandrosterone (6-fold, A4 (158-fold and testosterone (31-fold in the dominant follicle of High A4 cows. However, estrone (3-fold and estradiol (2-fold concentrations were only slightly elevated, suggesting a possible inefficiency in androgen to estrogen conversion in High A4 cows. Theca cell mRNA expression of LHCGR, GATA6, CYP11A1, and CYP17A1 was greater in High A4 cows. Furthermore, abundance of ZAR1 was decreased 10-fold in cumulus oocyte complexes from High A4 cows, whereas NLRP5 abundance tended to be 19.8-fold greater (P = 0.07. There was a tendency for reduction in stage 4 follicles in ovarian cortex samples from High A4 cows suggesting that progression to antral stages were impaired. High A4 cows tended (P<0.07 to have a 17% reduction in calving rate compared with Low A4 cows suggesting reduced fertility in the High A4 population. These data suggest that the dominant follicle environment of High A4 cows including reduced estrogen conversion and androgen excess contributes to infertility in part through altered follicular and oocyte development.

  18. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  19. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  20. Follicular Lymphoma Presenting with Leptomeningeal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Costa; Ricardo Costa; Renata Costa

    2014-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Central nervous system metastasis is a very rare complication portending a very poor prognosis. We report a rare case of follicular lymphoma presenting with leptomeningeal involvement achieving a complete remission after initial therapy.

  1. Follicular Lymphoma Presenting with Leptomeningeal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Central nervous system metastasis is a very rare complication portending a very poor prognosis. We report a rare case of follicular lymphoma presenting with leptomeningeal involvement achieving a complete remission after initial therapy.

  2. Concanavalin-A induces granulosa cell death and inhibits FSH-mediated follicular growth and ovarian maturation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Ethel V; Ríos, Mariana; Ortiz, María Elena; Lizama, Carlos; Nuñez, Elizabeth; Abramovich, Dalhia; Orge, Felipe; Oliva, Barbara; Orellana, Renán; Villalon, Manuel; Moreno, Ricardo D; Tesone, Marta; Rokka, Anne; Corthals, Garry; Croxatto, Horacio B; Parborell, Fernanda; Owen, Gareth I

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive success stems from a finely regulated balance between follicular maturation and atresia, in which the role of carbohydrate structure is poorly understood. Here, we describe for the first time a fraction of purified recombinant human FSH that is capable of bringing about the cell death of granulosa cells and preventing follicular maturation in a rat model. Further analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of the lectin Concanavalin-A (Con-A) within this fraction of recombinant FSH. Using both the fractionated FSH and Con-A, the observed cell death was predominantly located to the granulosa cells. Ex vivo culture of rat follicles demonstrated that follicle degeneration occurred and resulted in the release of a denuded and deteriorated oocyte. Moreover, in vivo experiments confirmed an increase in atresia and a corresponding reduction confined to follicle in early antral stage. As a mechanism of action, Con-A reduces ovarian proliferation, Von Willebrand staining, and angiogenesis. Based on the observation that Con-A may induce granulosa cell death followed by follicle death, our results further demonstrate that follicular carbohydrate moiety is changing under the influence of FSH, which may allow a carbohydrate-binding lectin to increase granulosa cell death. The physiological consequences of circulating lectin-like molecules remain to be determined. However, our results suggest a potential exploitation of carbohydrate binding in fertility and ovarian cancer treatment. This work may shed light on a key role of carbohydrates in the still obscure physiological process of follicular selection and atresia.

  3. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in Systemic Sclerosis: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Hernando Parrado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE is a rare entity with unique endoscopic appearance described as “watermelon stomach.” It has been associated with systemic sclerosis but the pathophysiological changes leading to GAVE have not been explained and still remain uncertain. Methods. Databases Medline, Scopus, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane were searched for relevant papers. The main search words were “Gastric antral vascular ectasia,” “Watermelon Stomach,” “GAVE,” “Scleroderma,” and “Systemic Sclerosis.” Fifty-four papers were considered for this review. Results. GAVE is a rare entity in the spectrum of manifestations of systemic sclerosis with unknown pathogenesis. Most patients with systemic sclerosis and GAVE present with asymptomatic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, or heavy acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Symptomatic therapy and endoscopic ablation are the first-line of treatment. Surgical approach may be recommended for patients who do not respond to medical or endoscopic therapies. Conclusion. GAVE can be properly diagnosed and treated. Early diagnosis is key in the management of GAVE because it makes symptomatic therapies and endoscopic approaches feasible. A high index of suspicion is critical. Future studies and a critical review of the current findings about GAVE are needed to understand the role of this condition in systemic sclerosis.

  4. Mechanisms mediating cholinergic antral circular smooth muscle contraction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena F Wrzos; Tarun Tandon; Ann Ouyang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathway (s) mediating rat antral circular smooth muscle contractile responses to the cholinomimetic agent, bethanechol and the subtypes of muscarinic receptors mediating the cholinergic contraction.METHODS: Circular smooth muscle strips from the antrum of Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted in muscle baths in Krebs buffer. Isometric tension was recorded. Cumulative concentration-response curves were obtained for (+)-cisdioxolane (cD), a nonspecific muscarinic agonist, at 10-8-10-4 mol/L, in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10-7 mol/L).Results were normalized to cross sectional area. A repeat concentration-response curve was obtained after incubation of the muscle for 90 min with antagonists for M1 (pirenzepine),M2 (methoctramine) and M3 (darifenacin) muscarinic receptor subtypes. The sensitivity to PTX was tested by the ip injection of 100 mg/kg of PTX 5 d before the experiment. The antral circular smooth muscles were removed from PTX-treated and non-treated rats as strips and dispersed smooth muscle cells to identify whether PTX-linked pathway mediated the contractility to bethanechol.RESULTS: A dose-dependent contractile response observed with bethanechol, was not affected by TTX. The pretreatment of rats with pertussis toxin decreased the contraction induced by bethanechol. Lack of calcium as Well as the presence of the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, also inhibited the cholinergic contraction, with a reduction in response from 2.5±0.4 g/mm2 to 1.2±0.4 g/mm2 (P<0.05). The doseresponse curves were shifted to the right by muscarinic antagonists in the following order of affinity: darifenacin(M3)>methocramine (M2)>pirenzepine (M1).CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors-dependent contraction of rat antral circular smooth muscles was linked to the signal transduction pathway(s) involving pertussis-toxin sensitive GTP-binding proteins and to extracellular calcium via L-type voltage gated calcium channels. The presence of the

  5. A study of operative treatment and bacteriological examination of persistent oro-antral fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindet-Pedersen, S; Skoglund, L A; Hvidegaard, T; Holst, E

    1983-10-01

    A retrospective study of 35 patients with oro-antral fistulas of more than 2 weeks duration is presented. Treatment results by using the Rehrmann plastic procedure, as well as complications and sequelae are described. The results of bacteriological examination in 15 patients with maxillary sinusitis in association with oro-antral fistulas are presented. The bacteriological findings suggest that broad spectrum antibiotics in certain conditions should be administered in cases of persisting oro-antral fistulas associated with maxillary sinusitis. The results of the present study show that the Rehrmann-operation proves satisfactory even in treatment-resistent cases.

  6. Characterization of ovarian follicular dynamics in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, B M; Pratap, N; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Hago, B E

    2012-09-15

    Ovarian follicular dynamics was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography, for a period of 60 to 90 days, and its correlation with plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) were studied in seventeen, multiparous, non-lactating, 12 to 20-year-old dromedary camels. The average number of follicles recruited (12.77 ± 0.93) in each wave between animals varied (P dromedary camels and the IWI and follicle numbers recruited per wave are variable between the animals and repeatable within an individual animal.

  7. Follicular atresia and infertility in rats treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, K L; Bertero, M C; Lyon, B P; Muse, K N; Vernon, M W

    1990-07-01

    Adverse effects of the GnRH antagonist Antide on folliculogenesis and fertility were noted when we were evaluating the therapeutic value of Antide on endometriosis in a rat model. Cyclic rats with (n = 56) and without (n = 18) surgically induced endometriosis received Antide (2 mg/kg) or vehicle at noon on days 0 (proestrus), 3, 6, and 9. Rats were killed at noon on days 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 42, and 165. The number of antral follicles and the number of atretic antral follicles evaluated did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between endometriosis and control rats. Antide-treated rats had more (P less than 0.05 ) atretic antral follicles (64.7%) than vehicle-treated rats (15.3%). Antide-treated rat ovaries contained fewer corpora lutea than those of vehicle-treated rats on days 6, 12, and 18. No corpora lutea were found in Antide-treated rat ovaries after day 18. The abnormal ovarian morphology of the Antide-treated rats persisted for the duration of the project (165 days). Fertility (rats without endometriosis) was assessed by mating vehicle-and Antide-treated rats at spontaneous proestrus (n = 8) for eight posttreatment cycles as well as after follicular stimulation (n = 2). All vehicle-treated and no Antide-treated rats became pregnant. No oocytes were found in the oviducts of Antide-treated rats after eight cycles, indicating that ovulation had not occurred. The serum FSH and estradiol concentrations in the rats treated with Antide were lower (P less than 0.05) on days 6, 12, and 18, but rose to values equal to (days 24 and 30) or greater than (day 42) those in vehicle-treated rats. Serum progesterone levels in rats treated with Antide were lower (P less than 0.05) than those in vehicle-treated rats on all days tested. In conclusion, at a dosage sufficient to suppress reproductive cyclicity (and elicit the regression of endometriosis), Antide also caused long term follicular atresia and infertility.

  8. GRP-producing nerves control antral somatostatin and gastrin secretion in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    of isolated perfused pig antrum with intact vagus nerve supply. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves at 4 Hz increased the antral release of GRP up to 10-fold and increased SS output 2- to 3-fold. Atropine at 10(-6) M had no effect on these responses. Intra-arterial GRP increased SS secretion...... the effects of vagus stimulation on gastrin and somatostatin output. Gastrin in concentrations up to 10(-7) M was without effect on SS secretion. We conclude that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves increases antral SS gastrin secretion and that GRP is a likely transmitter.......By immunohistochemistry, nerve fibers containing gastrin-releasing polypeptide (GRP)-like immunoreactivity were identified close to the somatostatin (SS)-producing cells of the gastric antral mucosa. We, therefore, studied the possible role of GRP in the control of antral SS secretion by use...

  9. Beef heifers with diminished numbers of antral follicles have decreased uterine protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated a favorable relationship between the number of follicles detectable in the bovine ovary by ultrasonography and fertility, and bovine females with diminished numbers of antral follicles had smaller reproductive tracts. Therefore, we hypothesized that uterine function w...

  10. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  11. Entourage: the immune microenvironment following follicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In follicular lymphoma, nonmalignant immune cells are important. Follicular lymphoma depends on CD4+ cells, but CD8+ cells counteract it. We hypothesized that the presence of follicular lymphoma is associated with higher CD4+ than CD8+ cell numbers in the tumor microenvironment but not in the immune system. Using flow cytometry, pre-treatment and follow-up CD4/CD8 ratios were estimated in the bone marrow, blood and lymph nodes of untreated follicular lymphoma patients in two independent data ...

  12. Antralization at the edge of proximal gastric ulcers: Does Helicobacter pylori infection play a role?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry Hua-Xinag Xia; Benjamin Chun-Yu Wong; Shiu Kum Lam; Wai Man Wong; Wayne Hsing Cheng Hu; Kam Chuen Lai; Sau Hing Wong; Suet Yi Leung; Siu Tsan Yuen; Nicholas A.Wright

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of antralization at the edge of proximal gastric ulcers, and the effect ofH. pylori eradication on the mucosal appearances. METHODS: Biopsies were taken from the antrum, body and the ulcer edge of patients with benign proximal gastric ulcers before and one year after treatment. Gastric mucosa was classified as antral, transitional or body type.H. pylori positive patients receivedeither triple therapy, or omeprazole. RESULTS: Patients with index ulcers in the incisura, body or fundus (n=116) were analyzed. Antral-type mucosa was more prevalent at the ulcer edge inH. pylori-positive patients thanH.pylori-negative patients (93% vs 60%, OR=8.95,95%CI: 2.47-32.4, P=0.001). At one year, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of antralization (from 93 % to 61%, P=0.004) at the ulcer edge in patients with H. pyloribeing eradicated. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of antralization at the ulcer edge in those with persistent infection. CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection is associated with antralization at the edge of proximal gastric ulcers, which may be reversible in some patients after eradication of the infection.

  13. Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Pascuali, Natalia; Bas, Diana; Bianchi, María Silvia; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology that affects more than 5% of women of reproductive age. Among other heterogeneous symptoms, PCOS is characterized by abnormalities in angiogenesis. Metformin has been introduced in the treatment of PCOS to manage insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Besides its metabolic effects, metformin has been shown to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in PCOS patients. In the present study, we used a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS rat model to analyze the effect of metformin administration on ovarian angiogenesis. We found that metformin was able to restore the increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin (ANGPT)1, and ANGPT1/ANGPT2 ratio and the decreased levels of platelet-derived growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor D observed in the dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats. These effects could take place, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of serum insulin. We also found an improvement in follicular development, with a lower percentage of small follicles and cysts and a higher percentage of antral follicles and corpora lutea after metformin administration. The improvement in ovarian angiogenesis is likely to restore the accumulation of small follicles observed in PCOS rats and to reduce cyst formation, thus improving follicular development and the percentage of corpora lutea. These results open new insights into the study of metformin action not only in glucose metabolism but also in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS women.

  14. Study of the duodenal contractile activity during antral contractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Shafik; Olfat El Sibai; Ali A Shafik

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that duodenal bulb (DB)inhibition on pyloric antrum (PA) contraction is reflex.METHODS: Balloon (condom)-tipped tube was introduced into 1st duodenum (DD) and a manometric tube into each of PA and DD. Duodenal and antral pressure response to duodenal and then PA balloon distension with saline was recorded. These tests were repeated after separate anesthetization of DD and PA.RESULTS: Two and 4 mL of 1st DD balloon distension produced no pressure changes in DD or PA (10.7 ± 1.2 vs 9.8 ± 1.2, 11.2 ± 1.2 vs 11.3±1.2 on H2O respectively,P > 0.05). Six mL distension effected 1st DD pressure rise (30.6 ± 3.4 cm H2O, P < 0.01) and PA pressure decrease (6.2±1.4 cm H2O, P < 0.05); no response in 2nd, 3rd and 4th DD. There was no difference between 6, 8, and 10 mL distensions. Ten mL PA distension produced no PA or 1st DD pressure changes (P > 0.05).Twenty mL distension increased PA pressure (92.4 ±10.7 cm H2O, P < 0.01) and decreased 1st DD pressure (1.6±0.3 cm H2O, P < 0.01); 30, 40, and 50 mL distension produced the same effect as the 20 mL distension (P > 0.05). PA or DD distension after separate anesthetization produced no significant pressure changes in PA or DD.CONCLUSION: Large volume DD distension produced DD pressure rise denoting DD contraction and PA pressure decline denoting PA relaxation. PA relaxation upon DD contraction is postulated to be mediated through a reflex which we call duodeno-antral reflex. Meanwhile, PA distension effected DD relaxation which we suggest to be reflex and termed antro-duodenal reflex. It is suggested that these 2 reflexes, could act as investigative tools in diagnosis of gastroduodenal motility disorders.

  15. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Zelieann R; Leslie, Traci C; Hatfield, Kimberly P; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A

    2010-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17β-estradiol (E₂) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 μg/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 μg/mL) decreased E(2) (DMSO: 3009.72±744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 μg/mL: 1679.66±461.99 ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 1752.72±532.41 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 45.89±33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43±2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1μg/mL: 17.17±4.71 ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 13.64±3.53 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 1.29±0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92±0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 μg/mL: 1.49±0.43ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 0.64±0.31 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 0.12±0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11±4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1μg/mL: 26.77±4.41 ng/mL; 1 μg/mL: 20.90±3.75 ng/mL; 10 μg/mL: 9.44±2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  16. Rituximab With or Without Yttrium Y-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan in Treating Patients With Untreated Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma

  17. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from antral follicles at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasano Giovanna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has become an established procedure proposed in many centers around the world and transplantation has successfully resulted in full-term pregnancies and deliveries in human. This prospective study aims to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying in vitro matured oocytes (IVM isolated at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation to improve the efficiency of fertility preservation programs. Methods Oocyte-cumulus complexes were retrieved from freshly collected ovarian cortex by aspirating antral follicular fluid, and were matured in vitro for 24-48 h prior to vitrification. Oocytes were matured in an IVM commercial medium (Copper Surgical, USA supplemented with 75 mIU/ml FSH and 75 mIU/ml LH and vitrified using a commercial vitrification kit (Irvine Scientific, California in high security vitrification straws (CryoBioSystem, France. Oocyte collection and IVM rates were evaluated according to the age, the cycle period and the amount of tissue collected. Results Immature oocyte retrieval from ovarian tissue was carried out in 57 patients between 8 and 35 years of age, undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation. A total of 266 oocytes were isolated, 28 of them were degenerated, 200 were at germinal vesicle stage (GV, 35 were in metaphase I (MI and 3 displayed a visible polar body (MII. The number of oocytes collected was positively correlated with the amount of tissue cryopreserved (p p = 0.005. Oocytes were obtained regardless of menstrual cycle period or contraception. A total maturation rate of 31% was achieved, leading to the vitrification of at least one mature oocyte for half of the cohort. Conclusions The study showed that a significant number of immature oocytes can be collected from excised ovarian tissue whatever the menstrual cycle phases and the age of the patients, even for prepubertal girls.

  18. Follicular Bronchiolitis: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ndubuisi C.; Ramirez, Jose F.; Smolley, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis (FB) also known as hyperplasia of the bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), or bronchiolar nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, is an entity characterized by the development of lymphoid follicles with germinal centers in the walls of small airways. FB is thought to be caused by antigenic stimulation of BALT, followed by a polyclonal lymphoid hyperplasia. It is currently classified as one of the reactive pulmonary lymphoid disorders in a group known as the lymphoproliferative pulmonary diseases (LPDs). FB is a pathological diagnosis that can be seen in several clinical settings, including connective tissue diseases, immunodeficiency states, autoimmune diseases, infections, obstructive airway diseases, as well as several types of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Its characteristics need to be carefully identified and differentiated from other closely related diseases in the group of LPDs due to significant differences in treatment and prognosis. PMID:26500941

  19. New drugs for follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorigue, Marc; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Motlló, Cristina; Sancho, Juan-Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the improvement in prognosis since the advent of rituximab, follicular lymphoma is still incurable and remains the cause of death of most afflicted patients. With the expanding knowledge of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies, in the last few years a plethora of new therapies acting through a variety of mechanisms have shown promising results. This review attempts to analyze the evidence available on these new drugs, which include new monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates, the anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, inhibitors of B-cell receptor pathway enzymes, such as ibrutinib, idelalisib, duvelisib and entospletinib, BCL2 inhibitors and checkpoint inhibitors. We conclude that despite the high expectations around the new therapeutic options for patients with refractory disease, these new drugs have side effects that require caution with their use, particularly in light of the still short follow up and the lack of both randomized trials and data on combination regimens.

  20. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  1. Effect of environmental hyperthermia on gastrin,somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Peng Sun; Yu-Gang Song

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of environmental hyperthermia on gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa.METHODS: Forty-two Wistar rats were equally divided into six groups, according to the room temperature (high and normal) and the treatment (acetic acid, normal saline and no treatment). Levels of gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosa were measured with a radioimmunoassay method.RESULTS: The average temperature and humidity were 32.5 ℃ and 66.7% for the high temperature group, and 21.1 ℃ and 49.3% for the normal temperature group,respectively. Gastric ulcer model was successfully induced in rat injected with 0.05 mL acetic acid into the antrum. In rats with gastric ulcers, the levels of gastrin and motilin increased, whereas the somatostatin level declined in antral mucosa, compared with those in rats treated with normal saline and the controls. However, the change extent in the levels of gastrin, motilin and somatostatin in antral mucosa was less in the high temperature group than in the normal temperature group.CONCLUSION: The levels of gastrin, somatostatin and motilin in rat ulcerated antral mucosal tissue remain relatively stable in a high temperature environment, which may relate to the equilibration of the dynamic system.

  2. NOVEL DRUGS IN FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Rossi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma(FL is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma and constitutes 15% to 30% of lymphoma diagnoses. The natural history of the disease is characterized by recurrent relapses and progressively shorter remissions with a median survival of 10yrs. The impossibility of a chieving a definite cure, have prompted investigations into the possible role of more effective and less toxic strategies with innovative therapeutic agents.  Recently Casulo et al demonstrated that approximately 20% of patients with FL actually relapse within 2 years after achieving remission with R-CHOP and have a poor prognosis. It is conceivable that this particularly chemoresistant population would benefit from specifically targeting the biologic and genetic factors that likely contribute to their poor prognosis. Evolving strategies for difficult to treat FL patients have recently considered  immunomodulatory agents, new monoclonal antibodies as well as drugs targeting selective intracellular pathways. The importance of targeting the microenvironment together with the malignant FL cell has been particularly underscored. We review the most promising approaches, such as the combination of anti-CD20 antibodies with immunomodulatory drugs (Lenalidomide, with mAbs directed against other surface antigens such as CD22 and CD23 (epratuzumab, lumiliximab, with immunomodulatory antibodies such as PD-1, or with inhibitors of key steps in the B-cell receptor pathway signaling such as PI3K inibithors(idelalisib, duvelisib. Another highly attractive approach is the application of the bi-specific T-cell engaging (BiTE antibody blinatumomab which targets both CD19 and CD3 antigens. Moreover, we highlight the potential of these therapies,  taking into account their toxicity. Of course we must wait for Phase III trials results to confirm the benefit of these new treatment strategies toward a new era of chemotherapy-free treatment for follicular lymphoma.

  3. Pre-translational regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor in follicular somatic cells of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, P.; Kendall, N.R.; Campbell, B.K.

    2015-01-01

    Differential regulation of LHR in theca cells (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) is important for normal follicular development. Unlike TC, GC only acquire LH-responsiveness during the later stages of antral follicle development. This study tested the hypothesis that differential LH-responsiveness in these two cell types may be due, in part, to shifts in cellular patterns of alternatively spliced LHR mRNA transcripts which may not be obvious from analysis of total LHR gene expression. It also further explored the role of translation inhibition by an LHR binding protein (LHBP), normally associated with the production of endogenous cholesterol. LHR mRNA variation arises as a result of the alternative splicing of two variable deletion sites (VDS) designated 5′ VDS and 3′ VDS, and it was proposed that differences in cell sensitivity to LH may be due in part to variations in the pattern of the mRNA expression of the receptor variants. The outcomes of the present study support a dynamic multi-facetted regulation of LHR during pre-translation. Not only did the ratio between variants change during antral follicle growth and in vitro cell differentiation but also between TC and GC. Regulation could also be linked to LH concentration feedback mechanisms as the absence of LH caused cultured TC to markedly up-regulate amounts of LHR mRNA. In both TC and GC, LHR mRNA was greatly reduced after treatment to block mevalonate production in the de novo cholesterol pathway, adding further support for a regulatory mechanism linked to enriched cellular amounts of mevalonate kinase. PMID:26507944

  4. Increased sensitivity of estrogen receptor alpha overexpressing antral follicles to methoxychlor and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A

    2011-04-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine pesticide, and its metabolites, mono-hydroxy MXC (MOH) and bis-hydroxy MXC (HPTE) are known ovarian toxicants and can cause inhibition of antral follicle growth. Since these chemicals bind to estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), we hypothesized that ovaries overexpressing ESR1 (ESR1 OE) would be more susceptible to toxicity induced by MXC and its metabolites because the chemicals can bind to more ESR1 in the antral follicles. We cultured antral follicles from controls and ESR1 OE mouse ovaries with either the vehicle dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), MXC, MOH, or HPTE. The data show that at 96 h, the cultured antral follicles from ESR1 OE antral follicles are more susceptible to toxicity induced by MXC, MOH, and HPTE because low doses of these chemicals cause follicle growth inhibition in ESR1 OE mice but not in control mice. On comparing gene expression levels of nuclear receptors in the cultured antral follicles of ESR1 OE and control follicles, we found differential messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Esr1, estrogen receptor beta (Esr2), androgen receptor (Ar), progesterone receptor (Pr), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) between the genotypes. We also analyzed mRNA levels of Cyp3a41a, the enzyme metabolizing MOH and HPTE, in the cultured follicles and found that Cyp3a41a was significantly lower in DMSO-treated ESR1 OE follicles compared with controls. In ESR1 OE livers, we found that Cyp3a41a levels were significantly lower compared with control livers. Collectively, these data suggest that MXC and its metabolites cause differential gene expression in ESR1 OE mice compared with controls. The results also suggest that the increased sensitivity of ESR1 OE mouse ovaries to toxicity induced by MXC and its metabolites is due to low clearance of the metabolites by the liver and ovary.

  5. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Andersen, D

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous catecholam......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  6. Antral exfoliative cytology for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio A.R. Gomes Jr; Wilson R. Catapani; Ana M.A.A. Mader; (A)ngelo Locatelli; Claudilene B.P. Silva; Jaques Waisberg

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of antral exfoliative cytology method in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)infection in the stomach.METHODS: Fifty patients were submitted to upper digestivetract endoscopy due to complaints of dyspepsia. Thematerial for exfoliative cytology was obtained by extensive brushing of the gastric antral mucosa and Papanicolaou stain was used to identify the bacteria. The authors also performed gastric biopsies to collect material for urease tests and histologic studies, with hematoxylin-eosin and fucsin stains in order to identify the microorganism. The gold standard used to detect the presence of H pylori was an analysis of the combined results from the gastric biopsies by urease test and histological method. RESULTS: Antral exfoliative cytology method exhibited 90.3% sensitivity, 66.6% specificity, accuracy of 81.6%, positive predictive value of 82.3% and negative predictive value of 80.0%, in this population with a prevalence of 63.3%.CONCLUSION: Antral exfoliative cytology was demonstrated to be a sensitive, accurate and easy to perform method for investigating H pylori infection in the stomach.

  7. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (n = 25) or low (n = 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g. fertility) in an IVF system for high- and low-AFC heifers. From a pool of 120 heifers, 10 high- and 1...

  8. Effect of antral follicle count in beef heifers on in vitro fertilization/production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective has been to compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers. This is the 4th year of the study with years 1 to 3 reported individually. For this report, we add data for the 4th year and present a combined an...

  9. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility with regard to both frequency and strength. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  10. Effect of isoprenaline on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of isoprenaline on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility for both frequency and strength. Isoprenaline, a beta 1...

  11. Evaluation of IVF-ET outcome by measuring the level of NO, VEGF and ET-1 in follicular fluid%卵泡液NO、VEGF、ET-1水平与IVF-ET妊娠结局关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 常才; 刘智; 王诚; 韩金兰; 严敬明

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨卵泡液NO、VEGF、ET-1水平对IVF-ET妊娠结局的预测价值.方法 对131例接受IVF-ET的不孕症患者.采用比色法测定其卵泡液内NO水平、ELISA检测其卵泡液内VEGF、ET-1水平.应用经阴道超声于控制性超排卵(COH)周期人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)注射日进行卵巢体积、窦状卵泡数检测.结果 131例患者中临床妊娠49例,妊娠率为37.40%.妊娠组卵泡液内NO、VEGF水平均高于未妊娠组,ET-1水平则低于未妊娠组(P<0.05).HCG注射日,妊娠组总卵巢体积、窦状卵泡数均大于未妊娠组(P<0.05).卵泡液内NO、VEGF水平与总卵巢体积、窦状卵泡数呈正相关.而卵泡液内ET-1水平与总卵巢体积、窦状卵泡数则呈负相关.结论 卵泡液内NO、VEGF水平增高.ET-1水平降低,可能促进卵巢局部血流丰富,提高卵巢反应性,利于IVF-ET中妊娠成功.%Objective To investigate the level of follicular fluid NO, VEGF and ET-1 in assessing IVF-ET outcome. Methods Totally 131 patients undergoing IVF-ET cycles were recruited. The level of follicular fluid NO was measured by chromatometry. The follicular fluid VEGF and ET-1 were measured by ELISA. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection day to determine ovarian volume and antral follicle count. Results The pregnancy rate was 37.40% (49/131). There were significantly increased level of follicular fluid NO, VEGF and decreased level of follicular fluid ET-1 in the pregnant group than those in the non-pregnant group (P<0.05). Total ovarian volume and antral follicle count on HCG injection day were significantly higher in the pregnant group than those in the non-pregnant group (P<0.05). The levels of follicular fluid NO and VEGF had positive correlations with the total ovarian volume and antral follicle count. However, the level of follicular fluid ET-1 had a negative correlation with the total ovarian volume and antral follicle count. Conclusions

  12. Use of Follicular Output Rate to Predict Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; Mustafa, Rozina; Baig, Mukhtiar; Arif, Sara; Hashmi, Muhammad Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background The measurement of follicular output rate (FORT) has been proposed as a good indicator for evaluating follicular response to the exogenous recombinant folliclestimulating hormone (rFSH). This places FORT as a promising qualitative marker for ovarian function. The objective of the study was to determine FORT as a predictor of oocyte competence, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out on a group of infer- tile females (n=282) at Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples, Islamabad, Pakistan, from June 2010 till August 2013. Downregulated females were stimulated in injection gonadotropins and on ovulation induction day, pre-ovulatory follicle count (PFC) was determined using transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVUS), and FORT was determined as a ratio of PFC to antral follicle count (AFC)×100. Group I consisted of females with a negative pregnancy test, while group II had a positive pregnancy test that was confirmed with the appearance of fetal cardiac activity. Linear regression analyses of categorical variables of clinical pregnancy along with other independent variables, including FORT, were performed using SPSS version 15.0. Results Pregnancy occurred in 101/282 women who were tested, recording a clinical pregnancy rate of about 35.8%. FORT values were higher in group II as compared to group I females (P=0.0001). In multiple regression analysis, 97.7, 87.1, 78.2, and 83.4% variations were explained based on the number of retrieved oocytes per patients, number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, number of fertilized oocytes, and number of cleaved embryos, respectively, indicating FORT as an independent predictor. Conclusion FORT is a predictor of oocyte competence in terms of a number of retrieved, mature and fertilized oocytes. It also gives information about the number of cleaved embryos and clinical pregnancy rate. PMID:27441049

  13. Continuous exposure to bisphenol A during in vitro follicular development induces meiotic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenie, Sandy; Cortvrindt, Rita; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Smitz, Johan

    2008-03-12

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used environmental contaminant, may exert weak estrogenic, anti-androgenic and anti-thyroidic activities. BPA is suspected to possess aneugenic properties that may affect somatic cells and mammalian oocytes. Oocyte growth and maturation depend upon a complex bi-directional signaling between the oocyte and its companion somatic cells. Consequently, disturbances in oocyte maturation may originate either from direct effects of BPA at the level of the oocyte or from indirect influences at the follicular level, such as alterations in hormonal homeostasis. This study aimed to analyze the effects of chronic BPA exposure (3 nM to 30 microM) on follicle-enclosed growth and maturation of mouse oocytes in vitro. Oocytes were cultured and their spindle and chromosomes were stained by alpha-tubulin immunofluorescence and ethidium homodimer-2, respectively. Confocal microscopy was utilized for subsequent analysis. Only follicles that were exposed to 30 microM BPA during follicular development showed a slightly reduced granulosa cell proliferation and a lower total estrogen production, but they still developed and formed antral-like cavities. However, 18% of oocytes were unable to resume meiosis after stimulation of oocyte maturation, and 37% arrested after germinal vesicle breakdown, significantly different from controls (pabnormal telophase I. Additionally, in many oocytes exposed to low chronic BPA that matured to meiosis II chromosomes failed to congress at the spindle equator. In conclusion, mouse follicle culture reveals non-linear dose-dependent effects of BPA on the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes when exposure was chronic throughout oocyte growth and maturation.

  14. Follicular Mucinosis and Follicular Mycosis Fungoides: Clinicopathological Evaluation of Seven Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu YAMAN,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Follicular mucinosis is a disease characterized by follicular degeneration and mucin accumulation. It can be seen in mycosis fungoides, although idiopathic or forms associated with other diseases are also known. Follicular mycosis fungoides is a type of mycosis fungoides with diff erent clinicopathological and prognostic features.Material and Method: Seven cases with follicular centered lesions and multiple biopsies (2-6 were included. Cases were evaluated according to their clinical, histological and immunophenotypical features and follow-up data.Results: All cases were male, and the mean age was 40.3 (range 18-61. Clinical complaints were follicular prominence, erythema and alopecia at head and neck, trunk, and lower limbs. Follicular mucinosis (6/7, and dermal lymphoid infiltration showing minimal-intensive folliculotropism accompanied by eosinophils was seen. Lymphoid infiltration was composed of small-medium sized cells, with scattered hyperchromatic nuclei in six cases. In one case there was only minimal cytological atypia. Intense folliculotropism of atypical lymphocytes and dense dermal infiltration without follicular mucinosis was seen in one case. Local and/or systemic treatments were applied and partial remission was achieved histologically. In three cases new and increasing lesions were seen. Density of infiltration and atypia were increased.Conclusion: The findings supported the opinion that follicular mucinosis is an important finding seen in mycosis fungoides. There can be important diff erences concerning the amount of infiltration and degree of atypia. In cases where the density of infiltration associated with follicular mucinosis is not diagnostic for MF, there can be progression over time. Long-term follow up is necessary in such cases where the diff erential diagnosis is diff icult.

  15. A new surgical management for oro-antral communication: the resorbable guided tissue regeneration membrane--bone substitute sandwich technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsalu, C

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a new technique for the closure of oro-antral fistula/communication, in which both hard tissue (bone) and soft tissue closure is achieved. The sandwich technique utilizes a suitable bone grafting material sandwiched between two sheaths of Biogide (a resorbable membrane) for the hard tissue closure of oro-antral communication post traumatic exodontia. The bone grafting material utilized for this case was Bio-oss. The result obtained was excellent with regeneration of sufficient bony tissue to allow placement of an endosseous implant. This sandwich technique is a simple and excellent technique for the closure of oro-antral communication, especially when subsequent placement of endosseous implant is considered without the need of donor site surgery for bone grafting. The otorhinolaryngologists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should find this technique very useful in the closure of oro-antral fistulae.

  16. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  17. Erythropoietin resistance in end-stage renal disease patient with gastric antral vascular ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Ji Re Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe observed a case of recombinant human erythropoietin resistance caused by Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in a 40-year-old female with ESRD on hemodialysis. Some associated factors such as autoimmune disease, hemolysis, heart and liver disease were discarded on physical examination and complementary tests. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and endoscopic appearance of watermelon stomach. The histologic findings are fibromuscular proliferation and capillary ectasia with microvascular thrombosis of the lamina propria. However, these histologic findings are not necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia is a serious condition and should be considered in ESRD patients on hemodialysis with anemia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin because GAVE is potentially curable with specific endoscopic treatment method or through surgical procedure.

  18. Familial Follicular-Cell Derived Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju eSon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC compose 95% of all thyroid malignancies. Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancers contribute to 5% of those cases. These familial follicular cell derived carcinomas or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC divide into two clinical-pathological groups. One group, syndromic-associated, composed by predominately non-thyroidal tumors, is comprised of Pendred syndrome, Warner syndrome, Carney complex type 1, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden disease; PHTS, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP/Gardner syndrome. Additionally other less established links correlated to the development of follicular cell-derived tumors have also included Ataxia-teleangiectasia syndrome, McCune Albright syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subsequent group encompasses syndromes typified by non-medullary thyroid carcinomas or NMTC, as well as, pure familial (f PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with multinodular goiter and fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma. This heterogeneous group of diseases has not a established genotype-phenotype correlation as the well-known genetic events identified in the familial C-cell-derived tumors or medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC. Clinicians should be have the knowledge to identify the likelihood of a patient presenting with thyroid cancer having an additional underlying familial syndrome stemming from characteristics through morphological findings that would alert the pathologist to have the patient undergo subsequent molecular genetics evaluations. This review will discuss the clinical and pathological findings of the patients with familial papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, Carney complex, Werner syndrome, and Pendred syndrome and the heterogeneous group of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Management of Oro-antral Communication and Fistula: Various Surgical Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Pulkit; Hajira, Neha

    2017-01-01

    Oro-antral communication and fistula can occur as a result of inadequate and improper treatment. Inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus can occur during certain surgical procedures in the maxillary posterior region. Though, spontaneous healing may occur in defects which are smaller than 2 mm but larger communications require immediate attention and should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis and further complications leading to patient discomfort.

  20. Methoxychlor inhibits growth of antral follicles by altering cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupesh K; Meachum, Sharon; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Peretz, Jackye; Yao, Humphrey H; Flaws, Jodi A

    2009-10-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) reduces fertility in female rodents, decreases antral follicle numbers, and increases atresia through oxidative stress pathways. MXC also inhibits antral follicle growth in vitro. The mechanism by which MXC inhibits growth of follicles is unknown. The growth of follicles is controlled, in part, by cell cycle regulators. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that MXC inhibits follicle growth by reducing the levels of selected cell cycle regulators. Further, we tested whether co-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), prevents the MXC-induced reduction in cell cycle regulators. For in vivo studies, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with MXC or vehicle for 20 days. Treated ovaries were subjected to immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining. For in vitro studies, antral follicles isolated from adult cycling CD-1 mouse ovaries were cultured with vehicle, MXC, and/or NAC for 48, 72 and 96 h. Levels of cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) and cyclin dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) were measured using in vivo and in vitro samples. The results indicate that MXC decreased PCNA staining, and Ccnd2 and Cdk4 levels compared to controls. NAC co-treatment restored follicle growth and expression of Ccnd2 and Cdk4. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC exposure reduces the levels of Ccnd2 and Cdk4 in follicles, and that protection from oxidative stress restores Ccnd2 and Cdk4 levels. Therefore, MXC-induced oxidative stress may decrease the levels of cell cycle regulators, which in turn, results in inhibition of the growth of antral follicles.

  1. Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate Exposure Impairs Growth of Antral Follicle in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    Full Text Available Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a widely used plastic additive. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it has been shown to be harmful to the mammalian reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that DEHP inhibited the development of mouse ovarian follicles. However, the mechanisms by which DEHP affects ovarian antral follicle development during the pre-puberty stage are poorly understand. Thus, we investigated the effects of direct DEHP exposure on antral follicle growth in pre-pubescent mice by use of intraperitoneal injection. Our results demonstrated that the percentage of large antral follicles was significantly reduced when mice were exposed to 20 or 40 μg/kg DEHP every 5 days from postnatal day 0 (0 dpp to 15 dpp. In 20 dpp, we performed microarray of these ovaries. The microarray results indicated that mRNA levels of apoptosis related genes were increased. The mRNA levels of the apoptosis and cell proliferation (negative related genes Apoe, Agt, Glo1 and Grina were increased after DEHP exposure. DEHP induced the differential gene expression of Hsp90ab1, Rhoa, Grina and Xdh which may play an important role in this process. In addition, TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence showed that DEHP exposure significantly increased the number of TUNEL, Caspase3 and γH2AX positive ovarian somatic cells within the mouse ovaries. Flow cytometer analyses of redox-sensitive probes showed that DEHP caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the mRNA expression of ovarian somatic cell antioxidative enzymes was down-regulated both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our data here demonstrated that DEHP exposure induced oxidative stress and ovarian somatic cell apoptosis, and thus may impact antral follicle enlargement during the pre-pubertal stage in mice.

  2. Minimally Invasive Antral Membrane Balloon Elevation (MIAMBE): A 3 cases report

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Arroyo; Diego Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Long-standing partial edentulism in the posterior segment of an atrophic maxilla is a challenging treatment. Sinus elevation via Cadwell Luc has several anatomical restrictions, post-operative discomfort and the need of complex surgical techniques. The osteotome approach is a significantly safe and efficient tecnique, as a variation of this technique the "minimal invasive antral membrane balloon elevation" (MIAMBE) has been developed, which use a hydraulic system. We present three c...

  3. Effect of sildenafil on gastric emptying and postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Søndergaard, S B; Fuglsang, S

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers (21-28 years) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. In random order and on two separate days each volunteer ingested either 50 mg sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer, New York, N.Y., USA) or placebo. A gamma camera technique was used to measure......: A single dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not change gastric emptying or postprandial frequency of antral contractions in healthy volunteers....

  4. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Sharada; Gao, Liying; Gonnering, Marni; Helferich, William; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-03-15

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles.

  5. Gastric antral vascular ectasia--a cause of refractory anaemia in systemic sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Busteed, S

    2012-02-03

    Recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage is an uncommon manifestation of systemic sclerosis. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in a patient with systemic sclerosis. Failure to recognise the condition as a cause of gastrointestinal bleeding may delay the instigation of appropriate treatment. GAVE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anaemia in patients with autoimmune conditions such as systemic sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis.

  6. Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Craig, Zelieann R; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Paulose, Tessie; Leslie, Traci C; Flaws, Jodi A

    2011-06-15

    The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E₂) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h for 96 h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E₂ metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E₂, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P₄) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels.

  7. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...... With the combination of high spatial resolution and signal specificity, targeted photoacoustic imaging holds great promise as a noninvasive method for early diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinomas....

  8. Is AMH a regulator of follicular atresia?

    OpenAIRE

    Seifer, David B.; Merhi, Zaher

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the hypothesis that AMH is an intraovarian regulator that inhibits follicular atresia within the human ovary. Several indirect lines of evidence derived from clinical and basic science studies in a variety of different patient populations and model systems collectively support this hypothesis. Evidence presented herein include 1) timing of onset of menopause in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, 2) site of cellular origin and timing of AMH production, 3) AMH’s influence on other...

  9. Metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma of masticator space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Tae In; Heo, Min Suk; An, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mi [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Follicular carcinomas are the second most common form of thyroid cancer, accounting for 10 to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinomas have a propensity to metastasize via the bloodstream, spreading to bone, lungs, liver, and elsewhere. We described the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with swelling of the left pre auricular area, which was a consequence of a metastatic follicular carcinoma of the masticator space. Plain films showed ill defined erosive bony changes from the left condylar head to the mandibular notch. Contrast-enhanced CT images showed a well circumscribed round mass with well enhancement within left masticator space. On MR images, the mass was heterogenously hyperintense to the muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense or hyperintense to the muscle on T1-weighted images, and showed good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Upon microscopic examination, the metastatic mass was found to be composed of fairly uniform cells forming small follicles containing colloid, showing capsular and vascular invasion.

  10. Follicular bronchiolitis: a rare disease in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanık, Esra Toprak; Yılmaz, Özge; Türkeli, Ahmet; Şahin, Şebnem; Yüksel, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis (FB) is a benign progressive lung disease. It is characterized with lymphoplasmocellular infiltration and hyperplastic follicles in the peribronchial areas in the small airways. Follicular bronchiolitis should be considered in cases where chronic cough, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and progressive dyspnea are observed in children. The diagnosis should be supported by lung biopsy. A 8-year old female patient presented to our hospital with complaints including continuing cough and wheezing. Bilateral extensive rales and rhonchi in the lungs were heard on auscultation and lung graphy revealed reticuloglandular appearance. Bilateral extensive septal thickennings, reticulonodular appearance, patchy bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis and peribronchial thickennings were found on high-resolution thoracal computarized tomography. A diagnosis of follicular bronchiolitis was made as a result of lung biopsy. Improvement was observed in the complaints and findings of our patient after methylprednisolone treatment. This patient was presented to emphasize rare interstitial lung diseases should also be considered in children who present with a clinical picture of chronic bronchial obstruction and do not respond to standard treatment. PMID:26078687

  11. Relationship between endogenous progesterone and follicular dynamics in lactating dairy cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Laranja da Fonseca, L F; Silvia, W J

    2003-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine circulating concentrations of progesterone (P4) in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (OFCs) and to relate differing levels of P4 to subsequent follicular events. In experiment 1, peripheral concentrations of P4 were determined in cows diagnosed with OFCs. Nonpregnant, lactating Holstein and Jersey cows (n = 32) were diagnosed as having OFCs by rectal palpation. Ovarian follicular cysts were then examined by transrectal ultrasonography to confirm the presence of OFCs (follicle diameter, >/=17 mm; absence of luteal tissue). At confirmation, a blood sample was collected for quantification of P4. The concentration of P4 at confirmation was classified as low (/=10 mm) that formed in the presence of an OFC was determined and related to circulating concentrations of P4 during follicular development. Follicles (n = 59) that formed in the presence of an OFC ovulated (n = 19), formed a cyst (n = 30), or underwent normal growth and regression (NGR; n = 10). Endogenous P4 in the 7-day period during follicular development was classified as low (if P4 dropped to day or longer), intermediate (if P4 averaged between 0.1 and 1.0 ng/ml and never dropped to 1.0 ng/ml and never dropped to <0.1 ng/ml). In the presence of intermediate P4, 75% of observed follicles formed cysts, compared with 10% that ovulated and 15% that experienced NGR. In the presence of low P4, 53%, 41%, and 6% of follicles ovulated, formed a follicular cyst, or experienced NGR, respectively. Thus, an association between intermediate P4 and the formation of OFCs was established.

  12. Estrogen receptor alpha overexpressing mouse antral follicles are sensitive to atresia induced by methoxychlor and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Hannon, Patrick R; Peretz, Jackye; Craig, Zelieann R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-06-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolites bind to estrogen receptors (ESRs) and increase ovarian atresia. To test whether ESR alpha (ESR1) overexpressing (ESR1 OE) antral follicles are more sensitive to atresia compared to controls, we cultured antral follicles with vehicle, MXC (1-100 μg/ml) or metabolites (0.1-10 μg/ml). Results indicate that MXC and its metabolites significantly increase atresia in ESR1 OE antral follicles at lower doses compared to controls. Activity of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-3/7 was significantly higher in ESR1 OE treated antral follicles compared to controls. ESR1 OE mice dosed with MXC 64 mg/kg/day had an increased percentage of atretic antral follicles compared to controls. Furthermore, pro-caspase-3 levels were found to be significantly lower in ESR1 OE ovaries than controls dosed with MXC 64 mg/kg/day. These data suggest that ESR1 OE ovaries are more sensitive to atresia induced by MXC and its metabolites in vitro and in vivo compared to controls.

  13. Inflammation and Gli2 suppress gastrin gene expression in a murine model of antral hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Saqui-Salces

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation in the stomach can lead to gastric cancer. We previously reported that gastrin-deficient (Gast⁻/⁻ mice develop bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory infiltrate, increased Il-1β expression, antral hyperplasia and eventually antral tumors. Since Hedgehog (Hh signaling is active in gastric cancers but its role in precursor lesions is poorly understood, we examined the role of inflammation and Hh signaling in antral hyperplasia. LacZ reporter mice for Sonic hedgehog (Shh, Gli1, and Gli2 expression bred onto the Gast⁻/⁻ background revealed reduced Shh and Gli1 expression in the antra compared to wild type controls (WT. Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ corpus was unchanged. However in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antra, Gli2 expression increased in both the mesenchyme and epithelium, whereas expression in WT mice remained exclusively mesenchymal. These observations suggested that Gli2 is differentially regulated in the hyperplastic Gast⁻/⁻ antrum versus the corpus and by a Shh ligand-independent mechanism. Moreover, the proinflammatory cytokines Il-1β and Il-11, which promote gastric epithelial proliferation, were increased in the Gast⁻/⁻ stomach along with Infγ. To test if inflammation could account for elevated epithelial Gli2 expression in the Gast⁻/⁻ antra, the human gastric cell line AGS was treated with IL-1β and was found to increase GLI2 but decrease GLI1 levels. IL-1β also repressed human GAST gene expression. Indeed, GLI2 but not GLI1 or GLI3 expression repressed gastrin luciferase reporter activity by ∼50 percent. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation of GLI2 in AGS cells confirmed that GLI2 directly binds to the GAST promoter. Using a mouse model of constitutively active epithelial GLI2 expression, we found that activated GLI2 repressed Gast expression but induced Il-1β gene expression and proliferation in the gastric antrum, along with a reduction of the number of G-cells. In summary

  14. Pituitary down-regulation and follicular synchronization%降调节与卵泡发育同步化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶虹

    2011-01-01

    The key aim of pituitary down-regulation in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is to prevent premature endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The down-regulation protocols include long and short GnRH agonist protocols, as well as GnRH antagonist protocol. The long GnRH agonist protocol starting in the midluteal phase of the preceding cycle give the best IVF results with regard to oocyte yield and pregnancy rates. This long protocol induces profound suppression of endogenous release of gonadotrophins during the early follicular phase, allowing the antral follicles to grow coordinately in response to exogenous gonadotrophins to accomplish simultaneous maturation. The short and GnRH antagonist protocols can abridge the duration and complexity of COS and improve patient compliance as compared with the reference long protocol for IVF. Nevertheless, the explanation for the poor IVF-ET outcome achieved with these two protocols compared with long protocol could be, at least in part, related to pre-existing asychronization of early antral follicles before the start of gonadotrophin administration. The steroid (oral contraceptive pill (OCP), synthetic progestogen and natural estrogen) pre-treatment and GnRH-antagonist pre-treatment may be useful to suppress luteal FSH and reduce size differences among FSH-sensitive follicles during the early follicular phase. These approaches represent potential alternatives to synchronize multi-follicular development and improve ovarian stimulation results. However, larger studies are needed to confirm whether follicular growth coordination induced by steroids and premenstrual GnRH antagonist pre-treatment improve IVF-ET pregnancy rates with GnRH antagonist or short agonist protocols.%控制性卵巢刺激(COS)中垂体降调节的主要作用是预防早发内源性黄体生成素(LH)峰.降调节方案包括有促性腺激素释放激素激动剂(GnRH-a)长、短方案,以及GnRH拮抗剂(GnRH-ant)方案等.于前一周期黄体中

  15. Methoxychlor induces atresia by altering Bcl2 factors and inducing caspase activity in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Karman, Bethany N; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in many countries against various species of insects that attack crops and domestic animals. MXC reduces fertility by increasing atresia (death) of antral follicles in vivo. MXC also induces atresia of antral follicles after 96 h in vitro. The current work tested the hypothesis that MXC induces morphological atresia at early time points (24 and 48 h) by altering pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bok, Casp3, and caspase activity) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2 and Bcl-xL) factors in the follicles. The results indicate that at 24 h, MXC increased Bcl-xL and Bax mRNA levels and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl2. At 48-96 h, MXC induced morphological atresia. At 24-96 h, MXC increased caspase activities. These data suggest that MXC may induce atresia by altering Bcl2 factors and inducing caspase activities in antral follicles.

  16. Monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products inhibit follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Clara H; Gao, Liying; Dettro, Tyler; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Ricke, William A; Plewa, Michael J; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-07-01

    Water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases, but the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in water leads to the formation of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs have been shown to be toxic, but their effects on the ovary are not well defined. This study tested the hypothesis that monohalogenated DBPs (chloroacetic acid, CAA; bromoacetic acid, BAA; iodoacetic acid, IAA) inhibit antral follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian follicles. Antral follicles were isolated and cultured with either vehicle or DBPs (0.25-1.00mM of CAA; 2-15μM of BAA or IAA) for 48 and 96h. Follicle growth was measured every 24h and the media were analyzed for estradiol levels at 96h. Exposure to DBPs significantly inhibited antral follicle growth and reduced estradiol levels compared to controls. These data demonstrate that DBP exposure caused ovarian toxicity in vitro.

  17. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary.

  18. Hormonal composition of follicular fluid from abnormal follicular structures in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Walsh, S W; Canty, M J; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to characterise the hormonal composition of follicular fluid from mares with distinct anovulatory-cystic follicles. Follicular fluid was aspirated from six mares that presented with cystic follicles and from pre-ovulatory follicles of five normal mares (controls). Differences in progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, IGF-I and IGF binding were analysed using Fisher's exact test. There were greater (P < 0.03) follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations in normal follicles and the testosterone concentration of the cystic fluid was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the normal fluid. There also was a greater (P < 0.03) percentage of IGF-I binding and lower (P < 0.02) IGF-I concentrations in the fluid collected from the cystic structures compared with the fluid from normal follicles. Despite the limited number of animals, the fact that fluid aspirated from cystic follicles had higher testosterone and lower oestradiol concentrations could be of diagnostic value when a practitioner wants to distinguish between a cystic and non-cystic persistent follicle. The research reported here also indicates a likely role for the IGF system in the pathogenesis of the development and maintenance of anovulatory follicular structures in mare ovaries.

  19. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many t...

  20. Paraplegia as initial presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, Vahid; Abbas, Syed Imran; Mahmoodzadeh, Hossein; Shojaei, Abdolreza; Soleimani, Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma with metastasis rarely presents with clinical picture of spinal cord compression. This report describes a 53 years old patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma who presented with paraplegia and urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neck revealed a mass with destruction of C5 and extension to C6. Histopathology study demonstrated metastatic carcinoma of thyroid.

  1. Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Jørgensen, K E;

    1998-01-01

    carcinomas. The analyses were based on cause-specific and crude survival. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, tumor size, presence of distant metastases, histology (papillary contra follicular type), extrathyroidal invasion, necrosis in primary tumor, and p53 expression were significant prognostic...... prognostic indicator, which might be of value in the treatment planning in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas....

  2. Gastrin and antral G cells in course of Helicobacter pylori eradication: Six months follow up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksandra Sokic-Milutinovic; Vera Todorovic; Tomica Milosavljevic; Marjan Micev; Neda Drndarevic; Olivera Mitrovic

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess long-term effects of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication on antral G cell morphology and function in patients with and without duodenal ulcer (DU).METHODS: Consecutive dyspeptic patients referred to the endoscopy entered the study. Out of 39 H pylori positive patients, 8 had DU (H pylori+DU) and 31 gastritis (H pylori +G). Control groups consisted of 11 uninfected dyspeptic patients (CG1) and 7 healthy volunteers (CG2). Basal plasma gastrin (PGL), antral tissue gastrin concentrations (ATGC), immunohistochemical and electron microscopic characteristics of G cells were determined, prior to and 6 mo after therapy.RESULTS: We demonstrated elevated PGL in infected patients compared to uninfected controls prior to therapy.Elevated PGL were registered in all H pylori+patients (H pylori +DU: 106.78±22.72 pg/mL, H pylori+G: 74.95±15.63,CG1: 68.59±17.97, CG2:39.24±5.59 pg/mL, P<0.01).Successful eradication (e) therapy in H pylori+patients lead to significant decrease in PGL (H pylori+DU: 59.93±9.40and H pylori+Ge: 42.36±10.28 pg/mL, P<0.001). ATGC at the beginning of the study were similar in infected and uninfected patients and eradication therapy lead to significant decrease in ATGC in H pylori+gastritis, but not in DU patients. In the H pylori+DU patients, the mean number of antral G cells was significantly lower in comparison with all other groups (P<0.01), but after successful eradication was close to normal values found in controls. By contrast, G cell number and volume density were significantly decreased (P<0.01) in H pylori+Ge group after successful eradication therapy (294±32 and 0.31±0.02,respectively), in comparison to values before eradication (416±40 and 0.48±0.09). No significant change of the G cell/total endocrine cell ratio was observed during the 6 mo of follow up in any of the groups. A reversible increase in G cell secretory function was seen in all infected individuals, demonstrated by a more prominent secretory

  3. Isolation of pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding;

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation is based on the ovarian cortex that contains the vast majority of the follicular reserve, while the remaining tissue, the medulla is discarded. The present study describes the development of a gentle method for isolating pre...

  4. FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA: THE MANAGEMENT OF ELDERLY PATIENT

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    Alessia Castellino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, typically affected mature adults and elderly, with a median age at diagnosis of 65 years. The natural history of FL appears to have been favorably impacted by the introduction of Rituximab. Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that the addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy induction has improved the overall survival and new strategies of chemo-immunotherapy, such as Bendamustine combined with Rituximab, showed optimal results on response and lower hematological toxicity, becoming one of the standard treatments, particularly in elderly. Moreover maintenance therapy with Rituximab demonstrated improvement of progression-free survival. Despite these exciting results, FL is still an incurable disease. It remains a critical unmet clinical need finding new prognostic factors to better identify poor outcome patients, to reduce the risk of transformation and to explore new treatment strategies, especially for patients not candidate to intensive chemotherapy regimens, such as elderly patients. Some progresses were already done with novel agents, but larger and more validated studies are needed. Elderly patients are the larger portion of patients with FL and represent a subgroup with higher treatment difficulties, because of comorbidities and smaller spectrum for treatment choice. Further studies, focused on elderly follicular lymphoma patients, with their peculiar characteristics, are needed in order to define the best tailored treatment at diagnosis and at the time of relapse in this setting.

  5. Invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma infiltrating trachea

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    Filipović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although follicular thyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, up to 20% of the patients are threatened by potential complications resulting from infiltrating tumor growth into surrounding tissues. Case report. A 66- year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic examination showed a 8 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a cold nodule. CT scan and tracheoscopy showed tracheal infiltration without tracheal obstruction. An extended total thyroidectomy was done, with the left jugular vein, strap muscles and tracheal 2 cm long circular resection. The pathologist confirmed invasive follicular thyroid cancer. After the surgery the patient was treated with radioiodine therapy and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of the thyroid hormone and serum thyroglobulin level every six months, as well as the further tests (chest xray, ultrasound of the neck and a whole body scintigraphy were done. After more than three years the patient had no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of the tracheal infiltrating thyroid cancer with circular tracheal resection and terminoterminal anastomosis followed by radioiodine therapy should be considered the treatment of choice.

  6. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  7. Placental activin A is required for follicular development during the second half of pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Chie; Arakawa, Sayoko; Shi, Zhanquan; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-04-01

    Numerous antral follicles develop during the second half of pregnancy in the golden hamster even though LH and FSH are maintained at basal levels. To investigate the possible hormone actions of activin A associated with follicular development, pregnant golden hamsters were placentectomized on day 6 of pregnancy and animals were sacrificed at day 8, 10, 12, or 14 of pregnancy. There was a drastic decrease in the plasma concentrations of activin A from day 10 of pregnancy in the operated group compared to the controls. Positive immunohistochemical staining of inhibin/activin subunits betaA and betaB in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta revealed the source of activin A, AB, or B. The number of healthy follicles did not change until day 12 between the operated and the control groups, but decreased in numbers in the operated groups thereafter. The decreased concentrations of inhibin A, B, and estradiol-17beta in the operated groups at day 10 and 12 correlated well with the number of mature follicles in response to hCG treatment. In conclusion, we revealed that activin A secreted from the placenta induces folliculogenesis to maintain the high levels of estradiol-17beta needed to induce uterine dilatation for fetus growth and impending parturition.

  8. Methoxychlor inhibits growth and induces atresia through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in mouse ovarian antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-08-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide used against pests that attack crops, vegetables, and livestock. MXC inhibits growth and induces atresia (death) of mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro. Since several studies indicate that many chemicals act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, the current study tested the hypothesis that MXC binds to the AHR to inhibit growth and induce atresia of antral follicles. The data indicate that MXC binds to AHR. Further, a relatively high dose of MXC (100μg/ml) inhibits growth and induces atresia in both wild-type (WT) and AHR null (AHRKO) follicles, whereas a lower dose of MXC (10μg/ml) inhibits growth and induces atresia in WT, but not in AHRKO follicles. These data indicate that AHR deletion partially protects antral follicles from MXC induced slow growth and atresia. Collectively, these data show that MXC may act through the AHR pathway to inhibit follicle growth and induce atresia in antral follicles of the ovary.

  9. Production of the first offspring from oocytes derived from fresh and cryopreserved pre-antral follicles of adult mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagawa, Norika; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nakata, Kumiko

    2007-01-01

    transplanted beneath the kidney capsule of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Within 10 days of in-vivo culture, 138 full size oocytes developed from the 456 transplanted pre-antral follicles. In-vivo growth of follicles was followed by in-vitro oocyte maturation, in-vitro fertilization...

  10. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  11. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  12. In vitro fertilization (IVF) using semi-defined culture conditions from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers, AFC were determined on 106 heifers using transrectal ultrasonography. Ten heifers with the lowest AFC (avg. 13.2) and 10 heifers with the highest AFC (avg. 27.4) with ev...

  13. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

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    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  14. [Endorphin-containing cells in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverkov, I V; Vinogradov, V A; Smagin, V G

    1983-10-01

    Immunohistochemical staining with the use of peroxidase-antiperoxidase was applied to study cells producing gamma- and alpha-endorphines in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ulcer. The cells producing gamma-endorphines were discovered to be mainly located in the epithelium of the cervical and upper third of the pyloric glands and to be alike G-cells producing gastrin. The cells producing alpha-endorphine were found both in the epithelium of the upper third of the gastric pyloric glands and in the gastric mucosa lamina proper. In peptic ulcer, there was an almost two-fold increase in the amount of gamma-endorphine-producing cells and diminution of epithelial endocrine cells producing alpha-endorphine.

  15. Cyclic nucleotides of canine antral smooth muscle. Effects of acetylcholine, catecholamines and gastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, S; Grant, B; Wooton, J

    1981-01-01

    1. The effects of acetylcholine, catecholamines and gastrin on the intracellular content of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in antral circular muscle have been determined. 2. Acetylcholine results in a significant but transient increase in intracellular cyclic GMP. 3. Isoproterenol and norepinephrine increase intracellular cyclic AMP. Based on half-maximal effective doses, isoproterenol is 2.7-times more effective than norepinephrine. The increase in intracellular cyclic AMP by both agents is inhibited by propranolol but not phentolamine, indicating that both agents act on the muscle cell by a beta-receptor-coupled mechanism. 4. Gastrin has no demonstrable effect on either cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. This suggests that while gastrin and acetylcholine can produce a like myoelectric response in the muscle cell, the action of gastrin is mediated by a separate receptor, presumably on the muscle cell, and not by a release of acetylcholine.

  16. Follicular unit extraction as a therapeutic option for Vitiligo

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    S Sacchidanand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is a surgical procedure, which can be used to transplant follicular units into vitiliginous areas. Such follicular unit transplant has been recently used to repigment stable vitiligo patches. FUE was done for a 12-year-old female with a stable vitiligo patch with leukotrichia on the eyebrow. Repigmentation was noted in 6 weeks and complete pigmentation seen at 12 weeks. Leukotrichia resolved over a period of 6 months. No recurrence was noted at the end of 6 months follow-up with excellent colour match. This case is presented to highlight the simplicity, safety and effectiveness of FUE in stable vitiligo patches with leukotrichia.

  17. Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma of the Abdomen: the Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Soon Jin; Song, Hye Jong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare neoplasm that originates from follicular dendritic cells in lymphoid follicles. This disease usually involves the lymph nodes, and especially the head and neck area. Rarely, extranodal sites may be affected, including tonsil, the oral cavity, liver, spleen and the gastrointestinal tract. We report here on the imaging findings of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the abdomen that involved the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and colon. It shows as a well-defined, enhancing homogenous mass with internal necrosis and regional lymphadenopathy.

  18. Minimally Invasive Antral Membrane Balloon Elevation (MIAMBE: A 3 cases report

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    Roberto Arroyo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Long-standing partial edentulism in the posterior segment of an atrophic maxilla is a challenging treatment. Sinus elevation via Cadwell Luc has several anatomical restrictions, post-operative discomfort and the need of complex surgical techniques. The osteotome approach is a significantly safe and efficient tecnique, as a variation of this technique the "minimal invasive antral membrane balloon elevation" (MIAMBE has been developed, which use a hydraulic system. We present three cases in which the system was used MIAMBE for tooth replacement in the posterior. This procedure seems to be a relatively simple and safe solution for the insertion of endo-osseus implants in the posterior atrophic maxilla. RESUMEN El edentulismo parcial de larga data en el segmento posterior en un maxilar atrófico supone un reto terapéutico. La elevación de seno vía Cadwell Luc presenta restricciones anatómicas, incomodidades post-operatorias y la necesidad de técnicas quirúrgicas complejas. El enfoque con osteotomos tiene una eficacia y seguridad considerable, como una variación a esta se ha desarrollado la "elevación mínimamente invasiva mediante globo de la membrana antral" (MIAMBE, que utiliza un sistema hidráulico. Se presentan tres casos en los que se utilizó el sistema MIAMBE para el reemplazo de dientes en el sector posterior. Este procedimiento parece ser una solución relativamente sencilla y segura para inserción de implates endo-óseos en el caso de un maxilar atrófico posterior.

  19. Microevolution between paired antral and paired antrum and corpus Helicobacter pylori isolates recovered from individual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Ian M; Ahmed, Niyaz; Beesley, Sarah M; Khan, Aleem A; Ghousunnissa, Sheikh; Moráin, Colm A O; Habibullah, C M; Smyth, Cyril J

    2004-07-01

    Sequence variations located at the signal sequence and mid-region within the vacA gene, the 3'-end of the cagA gene, the indel motifs at the 3'-end of the cag pathogenicity island and the regions upstream of the vacA and ribA genes were determined by PCR in 19 paired antral or antrum and corpus Helicobacter pylori isolates obtained at the same endoscopic session, and three antral pairs taken sequentially. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP)-PCR fingerprinting were applied to these paired clinical isolates. The FAFLP-PCR profiles generated were phylogenetically analysed. For the 22 paired isolates there were no differences within pairs at five of the genetic loci studied. However, six pairs of isolates (27%), of which four were antrum and corpus pairs, showed differences in the numbers of repeats located at the 3'-end of the cagA gene. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting showed that 16 (73%) pairs, nine of which were antrum and corpus pairs, possessed identical profiles, while six (27%) displayed distinctly different profiles, indicating mixed infections. Three of the six pairs showing differences at the 3'-end of the cagA gene yielded identical RAPD-PCR fingerprints. FAFLP-PCR fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 16 pairs that displayed identical RAPD-PCR profiles had highly similar, but not identical, fingerprints, demonstrating that these pairs were ancestrally related but had undergone minor genomic alterations. Two antrum and corpus pairs of isolates, within the latter group, were isolates obtained from two siblings from the same family. This analysis demonstrated that each sibling was colonized by ancestrally related strains that exhibited differences in vacA genotype characteristics.

  20. Primeira onda folicular e ovulação de vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com diferentes fontes energéticas durante o período de transição First follicular wave and first postpartum ovulation of primiparous Holstein dairy cows receiving diets with different energetic sources during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.T. Artunduaga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de diferentes fontes energéticas na dieta de vacas leiteiras, durante o período de transição, sobre a primeira onda folicular e o intervalo parto-primeira ovulação. Foram utilizadas 40 vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa, no período de 28 dias antes da data prevista do parto até o 46º dia pós-parto. As vacas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos (grupos durante o período de transição: grupo-controle e grupos tratados com, Megalac-E (sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos da soja, soja tostada ou propileno-glicol. Avaliações ultrassonográficas foram realizadas do 10º ao 46º dia pós-parto, com a classificação dos folículos ovarianos em quatro classes (I, II, III e IV de tamanho e do registro do volume do tecido luteal. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas nos dias 10, 17, 24, 31, 38 e 45 após o parto para análise de progesterona. O padrão de crescimento folicular mais eficiente foi apresentado pelos animais dos grupos Megalac-E e propileno-glicol, que foram caracterizados pela redução no número de folículos de classes I e II e aumento no número de folículos de classes III e IV. Os intervalos entre o parto e a primeira ovulação dos grupos controle, Megalac-E, soja tostada e propileno-glicol foram de 29, 23, 30 e 37 dias, respectivamente (PThe effects of different energy sources added to the diet on the first postpartum ovarian follicle wave and first postpartum ovulation were evaluated. Forty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were used from 28 days before the expected calving date until 46 days postpartum. Cows were randomly allotted to the following groups: control, Megalac-E calcium salts of soybean fatty acid, toasted soybean and propylene glycol. Ovarian structures were scanned using ultrasound from 10 to 46 days postpartum. Follicles were classified according to the diameter in classes I, II, III, and IV and the luteal tissue volume was registered when present. Blood samples for

  1. Trends in the formation of the ovarian follicular reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Denisenko, M. V.; M. A. Kurtser; L. F. Kurilo

    2016-01-01

    This review describes folliculogenesis from the formation of a primordial follicle around the oocyte during the diplotene stage of prophase of meiosis I to that of a preovulatory follicle, maturation of an oocyte, and transformation of its chromosomal nucleolus complex into the karyosphere. It briefly highlights literature disagreements on the terminology of ovarian follicular reserve and folliculogenesis. The possibilities of evaluating the ovarian follicular system are given.

  2. Trends in the formation of the ovarian follicular reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Denisenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes folliculogenesis from the formation of a primordial follicle around the oocyte during the diplotene stage of prophase of meiosis I to that of a preovulatory follicle, maturation of an oocyte, and transformation of its chromosomal nucleolus complex into the karyosphere. It briefly highlights literature disagreements on the terminology of ovarian follicular reserve and folliculogenesis. The possibilities of evaluating the ovarian follicular system are given.

  3. Dental implants after the use of bichat’s buccal fat pad for the sealing of oro-antral communications. A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaroto, Giovanni; Galletti, Francesco; Camps-Font, Octavi; Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Bara-Casaus, José-Javier

    2016-01-01

    Oro-antral communications are frequent complications in oral surgery, and generally occur after molar extractions, maxillary sinus elevations or dental implant procedures. The presence of these defects may increase the morbidity and often need a surgical approach. The present report describes an oro-antral communication in a 52-year-old female who presented a 2 week-course of painless nasal obstruction and rhinorrea after a right maxillary sinus floor elevationwith simultaneous dental implant placement. Based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and a computed tomographyof the paranasal sinuses, a diagnosis of odontogenic rhinosinusitis associated with a 1.5 cm diameter oro-antral communicationwas establishedand its surgical closure using Bichat’s buccal fat pad was planned.After 15 months, the patient was successfully rehabilitated with an implant-supported 3 unit fixed partial denture. Key words:Dental implants, buccal fat pad, oro-antral communications. PMID:27957285

  4. Achieving Bidirectional Long Delays In Pulmonary Vein Antral Lines Prior To Bidirectional Block In Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (The Bi-Bi Technique For Atrial Fibrillation Ablation)

    OpenAIRE

    Mina MD FACC, FHRS, Adel F; L Warnecke, PA-C, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary Vein Antral isolation (PVAI) is currently the standard of care for both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation ablation. Reconnection to the pulmonary vein is the most common cause of recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Achieving the endpoint of bidirectional block (BDB) for cavotricuspid isthmus dependant flutter has improved our outcomes for atrial flutter ablation. With this we tried to achieve long delays in the pulmonary veins antral lines prior to complete is...

  5. Study of association between ovarian volume with the number of antral follicles and third day of menstruation FSH in infertile patients referred to Omid Persian gulf infertility Clinic

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    Elham Rahmani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian reserve tests have appeared as important, useful and new tools in evaluation of infertile women and by doing these tests, we can do for infertile couples advanced and necessary measures quickly. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between ovarian volume, Antral follicle counts and serum level of FSH at the third day of menstruation. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 78 women between 18-49 years old who referred to Omid Persian gulf infertility Clinic with complaining of infertility in 2014. In patients who had inclusion criteria, measurement of ovarian volume were done with calculation of three diameters and the number of antral follicles by using vaginal ultrasound in third day of menstruation. Also, in this patients were measured the levels of FSH&LH in third day of menstruation. Pearson correlation coefficient were used to examine the relationship between ovarian volume and the number of Antral follicles and serum levels. Results: ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts (p=0.0001 decreased and serum level of FSH (p=0.0001 and LH (p=0,022 increased significantly with increasing of age. There was a strong positive correlation between ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts (r=0.96, p=0.0001 and there was a strong reversed correlation between ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts with FSH (r=0.50, p=0.0001. Conclusion: By increasing age, ovarian volume and Antral follicle counts decreased and FSH&LH levels increased. In fact, in the initial study of infertile patients, even by diagnosis of reduction in ovarian volume and Antral follicle count should be performed advanced therapies and there is no need to wait for expensive tests result.

  6. Relação entre os níveis séricos do hormônio anti-Mulleriano, inibina B, estradiol e hormônio folículo estimulante no terceiro dia e o status folicular ovariano Relationship of serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, estradiol and FSH on day 3 with ovarian follicular status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Brum Scheffer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: examinar a hipótese de que o nível sérico do hormônio anti-Mülleriano (HAM reflete o status folicular ovariano. MÉTODOS: Desenho: estudo prospectivo. Pacientes: foram incluídas 101 candidatas à FIV-TE submetidas à estimulação ovariana controlada com agonista de GnRH e FSH. Depois de atingir a supressão da hipófise e antes da administração de FSH (dia basal, os níveis séricos de HAM, inibina B e FSH foram avaliados. O número de folículos antrais foi determinado pela ultra-sonografia (dia basal (folículo antral precoce; 3-10 mm. RESULTADOS: as médias do nível sérico de HAM, inhibina B, E2, P4 e FSH (dia basal foram 3,4±0,14 ng/mL, 89±4,8 pg/mL, 34±2,7 pg/mL, 0,22±0,23 ng/mL e 6,6±0,1 mUI/mL, respectivamente, e a média do número de folículos antrais precoces foi 17±0,39. O nível sérico do HAM foi negativamente correlacionado com a idade (r= -0,19, pPURPOSE: to examine the hypothesis that serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels reflect the ovarian follicular status. METHODS: Design: prospective study. Patients: we studied 101 IVF-ET candidates undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with GnRH agonist and FSH. After the achievement of pituitary suppression and before FSH administration (baseline, serum AMH, inhibin B, and FSH levels were measured. The number of antral follicles was determined by ultrasound at baseline (early antral follicles; 3-10 mm. RESULTS: at baseline, median serum levels of AMH, inhibin B, E2, P4 and FSH were 3.42±0.14 ng/mL, 89±4.8 pg/mL, 34±2.7 pg/mL, 0.22±0.23 ng/mL and 6.6±0.1 mIU/mL, respectively, and the mean number of early antral follicles was 17±0.39. Serum levels of AMH were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.19, p<0.04, and positively correlated with number of antral follicles (r=0.65, p<0.0001, but this did not apply to serum levels of either inhibin B, E2 or FSH. CONCLUSION: the data demonstrate an association between AMH and antral follicular counts

  7. ALGUNOS FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON LA DINÁMICA FOLICULAR EN BOS INDICUS SOME FACTORS RELATED TO FOLLICULAR DYNAMICS IN BOS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Henao Restrepo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo folicular bovino durante un ciclo estral normal, se caracteriza por un crecimiento en forma de ondas con presencia de dos a cinco cohortes foliculares por ciclo, de las cuales solo un folículo se torna ovulatorio. El crecimiento folicular en forma de ondas también se produce durante el período prepuberal, puberal, primer tercio de la gestación y período de anestro posparto. Aunque existe mucha similitud en el patrón fundamental del desarrollo de ondas foliculares entre Bos taurus y Bos indicus, se han encontrado diferencias en la dinámica folicular que pueden afectar el comportamiento reproductivo y la aplicación de biotecnologías reproductivas. La dinámica folicular puede variar por efectos ambientales y estados fisiológicos de hembras Bos indicus que impiden establecer un patrón específico de dinámica folicular para cada raza y etapa fisiológica. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar la función reproductiva teniendo en cuenta las diferencias de la dinámica folicular entre estados fisiológicos y condiciones ambientales de hembras bovinas con énfasis en B. indicus.The bovine follicular development during a normal estrous cycle, is characterized by a growth in wave form with presence of two to five follicular cohorts by cycle, of which only one follicle ovulate. The follicular growth in wave form also occurs during the prepubertal and pubertal periods, first quarter of the gestation, and in the postpartum anestrous period. Although there is great similarity in the fundamental pattern of the development of follicular waves between Bos taurus and Bos indicus, differences of follicular dynamics has been detected, that can affect the reproductive behavior and the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Follicular dynamics can change by environmental effects and physiological states of Bos indicus females that impede to establish a specific pattern of follicular dynamics for each breed and physiological

  8. Protective Effect of 4-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-3-Buten-2-One from Phellinus linteus on Naproxen-Induced Gastric Antral Ulcers in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-05-28

    The present study investigated the protective effect of naturally purified 4-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one (DHP) from Phellinus linteus against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcers in rats. To verify the protective effect of DHP on naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcers, various doses (1, 5, and 10 μg/kg) of DHP were pretreated for 3 days, and then gastric damage was caused by 80 mg/kg naproxen applied for 3 days. DHP prevented naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcers in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, 10 μg/kg DHP showed the best protective effect against naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcers. Moreover, DHP significantly attenuated the naproxen-induced lipid peroxide level in gastric mucosa and increased the activities of radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, in a dose-dependent manner. A histological examination clearly demonstrated that the gastric antral ulcer induced by naproxen nearly disappeared after the pretreatment of DHP. These results suggest that DHP can inhibit naproxen-induced gastric antral ulcers through prevention of lipid peroxidation and activation of radical scavenging enzymes.

  9. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  10. Effects of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on slow electric activity and spike activity of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2013-09-01

    In chronic experiments on rabbits, the effect of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on myoelectric activity of the fundal and antral parts of the stomach was studied under conditions of hunger and satiation in the absence of food. Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation and in previously fed rabbits produced incessant seeking behavior, which was followed by reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of muscles of the stomach body and antrum specific for hungry and satiated animals. Increased hunger motivation during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the replacement of bimodal distribution of slow wave periods to a trimodal type typical of 2-day deprivation, while transition from satiation to hunger caused by electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was associated with a shift from monomodal distributions of slow wave periods to a bimodal type typical of 24-h deprivation. Reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was determined by descending inhibitory influences of food motivational excitation on activity of the myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  11. Methoxychlor induces atresia of antral follicles in ERalpha-overexpressing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Dragana; Frech, Maria Silvina; Babus, Janice K; Gupta, Rupesh K; Furth, Priscilla A; Koos, Robert D; Flaws, Jodi A

    2006-09-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is a pesticide that is known to bind to estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and to induce atresia of antral ovarian follicles. Although studies have shown that MXC is toxic to the ovary, we hypothesize that perturbation to the estrogen-signaling system (i.e., increase or decrease in estrogen sensitivity) might alter ovarian responsiveness to MXC. Thus, we examined whether ERalpha overexpression alters the ability of MXC to increase follicle atresia. To do so, we employed a transgenic mouse model in which ERalpha can be inducibly overexpressed in animal tissues (ERalpha overexpressors). We dosed female controls and ERalpha overexpressors with sesame oil (vehicle control) or MXC (32 and 64 mg/kg/day) for 20 days. After dosing, the ovaries were collected for histological evaluation of follicle numbers and follicle atresia, while blood was collected for measurements of hormones. Estrous cycles were determined in all animals to ensure that all were terminated during estrus. Although there were no significant effects of MXC on the numbers of primordial, primary, and preantral follicles in both controls and ERalpha overexpressors, there was an effect on antral follicles. Specifically, our data indicate that 32 and 64 mg/kg MXC increased the percentage of atretic follicles compared to vehicle in both control and ERalpha overexpressor groups. Moreover, there was a clear trend toward greater sensitivity to 64 mg/kg MXC in ERalpha-overexpressing mice compared to control animals. Specifically, at the 64-mg/kg MXC dose, ERalpha-overexpressing mice had a significantly higher percentage of atretic follicles compared to control animals (controls = 21.5 +/- 3%, n = 5; ERalpha overexpressors = 37 +/- 23%, n = 9, p < or = 0.05 vs. controls). After 20 days of dosing, there were no differences in estradiol levels between controls and ERalpha-overexpressing mice in all treatment groups. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were similar in sesame oil-treated control

  12. Comparison of anti-mullerian hormone and antral follicle count for assessment of ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Panchal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to compare the efficacy of AFC and AMH, as markers for ovarian reserve. Materials and Methods: 75 patients with PCO (polycystic ovaries undergoing IVF were randomized with 75 non-PCO patients. On day 3, volume of ovary was acquired, ovarian volume was defined by VOCAL, and Sono AVC was used to count the number of antral follicles. Sum total of antral follicles in both ovaries was taken as total antral follicle count (AFC. AMH was measured on the same day. Long agonist protocol with recombinant FSH (rFSH was used for IVF stimulation till at least two follicles of 18 mm were seen. hCG 10,000 iu was given and ovum pick up was done after 34-35 h. Primary end point was number of follicles >12 mm seen on day of hCG. Final end point was number of ova retrieved on ovum pick up. Correlation of AFC and AMH was checked for both end points and with each other. Results: Correlation of AFC and follicles >12 mm on day of hCG in PCO group is 0.56 and non-PCO group is 0.63, 1 and for AMH and follicles >12 mm on day of hCG in PCO group is 0.42 and non-PCO group is 0.47. Correlation of AFC with number of ova retrieved on OPU in PCO group is 0.44 and for non-PCO group is 0.50. The value for AMH is 0.39 in PCO and 0.43 for non-PCO group. Comparing correlation of AFC and AMH for primary end point in PCO group has ′z′ value 1.11(onetailed significance 0.1335, twotailed significance 0.267 and in non-PCO group comparison shows a ′z′ value of 1.39 (one tailed significance 0.0823, two-tailed significance 0.1645. Therefore in both groups, AFC and AMH correlates with total number of follicles >12 mm on day of hCG, but both AFC and AMH have independent significance. Comparing correlation of AFC and AMH with number of ova retrieved on OPU, in non-PCO group has ′z′ value of 0.54(one tailed 0.2946, two-tailed 0. 5892. In PCO group, this comparison shows, ′z′ value of 0.36(one tailed 0.3594, two tailed 0.7188. Conclusion: AFC and AMH

  13. [Autoimmunity factor in chronic gastritis: incidence of antiparietal cell antibodies and their relation to antral histology and basal blood gastrins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraier, M; Katz, S; Pest, S; Chiocca, J C; Costa, J A

    1983-01-01

    In 118 patients with histological proven chronic gastritis, was performed a study of seric antibodies against parietal cells (ACCP), following the indirect inmuno-fluorescence method. The results were positives in 36 cases (30%). Four positives cases were found in 40 normal controls (10%), two of them were compensated diabetics, one have the thyrohyoid Hashimoto's disease, and the remainder, brother of a patient with chronic gastritis, was a positive ACCP. A major positiveness (44.4%) was obtained in 9 cases of gastric atrophy than in 65 cases with atrophic gastritis (32%) and in 44 cases of superficial gastritis (25%); although due to the few cases of gastric atrophy regarding other histological types, conclusions cannot be obtained about the incidence of ACCP and histological variety of chronic gastritis. If we do group the patients according to their acid secretory debit, 53 achlorhydric patients had a positiveness of ACCP of 45%, while over 63 with decreased secretory capability, only 18.4%, was positive. The distribution by age groups, shows a major incidence of ACCP about the 4th and 5th decade of life. Thirty seven patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria, and seven with chronic superficial gastritis and hypochlorhydria, besides the antibodies study were on a basal dosage of gastrinemia and antral endoscopic biopsy, finding out that, achlorhydric patients (15 on 19) with normal or slightly altered antrus, have gastrinemia (222 +/- 123 Pgo/oo) and the majority of patients with normal gastrinemia (32 +/- 16 pgo/oo) have more important antral lesions. The ratio between antral histology and ACCP in auto--immune gastritis (Type A), conciliates only partially with the observation by Strickland et al., as only 52.4% of achlorhydric patients and ACCP have a normal antrus or al least with mild lesions. Our results suggest the possibility of that on auto--immune gastritis could act other pathogenic factors of antral lesion.

  14. Age, anti-müllerian hormone, antral follicles count to predict amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background A cohort study was performed to identify ovarian reserve markers (ORM) that predicts amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea 6 months after cyclophosphamide CTX in women with breast cancer. Methods 52 eumenorrheic patients with breast cancer were enrolled. FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicles count (AFC) were measured before and 6 months after CTX. A logistic regression for independent samples and determination of the ROC curve were performed. Results The age of 32 years presen...

  15. Intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent for recurrent maxillary fungal rhinosinusitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmade Adekunle D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognized entity both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Treatment has been via use of either surgical or medical modalities, or a combination of the two. Here, we present a case of utilization of intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent in the management of recurrent fungal sinusitis in an indigent Nigerian patient. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old West African Yoruba man, an indigent Nigerian clergyman, who presented to our facility with a history of recurrent nasal discharge (about one year, recurrent nasal blockage (about five months, and right facial swelling (about one week. After intra-nasal antrostomy for debulking with a systemic anti-fungal agent, our patient had a recurrence after four months. Our patient subsequently had an intra-antral application of flumetasone and clioquinol (Locacorten®-Vioform® weekly for six weeks with improvement of symptoms and no recurrence after six months of follow-up. Conclusions We conclude that topical intra-antral application of anti-fungal agents is effective in patients with recurrent fungal maxillary sinusitis after surgical debulking.

  16. Complex morphology of gastrin-releasing G-cells in the antral region of the mouse stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Claudia; Rettenberger, Amelie Therese; Lunz, Malena Luisa; Breer, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Gastrin-releasing enteroendocrine cells (G-cells) are usually described as flask-shaped cells with a large base and a small apical pole, integrated in the epithelium lining the basal region of the antral invaginations in the stomach. By means of a transgenic mouse line in which the enhanced version of GFP is endogenously expressed under the control of a gastrin promoter, we have analyzed the spatial distribution and morphological features of G-cells. We found that G-cells were not only located at the basal region of the invagination but to a lesser extent also at the upper region. Visualization of the entire cellular morphology revealed that G-cells show complex morphologies. Basally located G-cells are roundish-shaped cells which project a prominent apical process towards the lumen and extend basal protrusions containing the hormone gastrin that were frequently found in close proximity to blood vessels and occasionally in the vicinity of nerve fibers. Inspection of G-cells in the upper region of antral invaginations disclosed a novel population of G-cells. These cells have a spindle-like contour and long apical and basal processes which extend vertically along the antral invagination, parallel to the lumen. This G-cell population seems to be in contact with a network of nerve fibers. While the functional role of these untypical G-cells is still elusive, the results of this study provide some useful indications to possible roles of these G-cells.

  17. Immunoglobulin light chain immunohistochemistry revisited, with emphasis on reactive follicular hyperplasia versus follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lawrence M; Loera, Sofia; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-05-01

    The identification of monotypic light chains is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma, yet to reliably perform it on formalin-fixed paraffin sections is often difficult. We have evaluated a new set of monoclonal antibodies to kappa and lambda light chains that are reactive in paraffin sections. In reactive lymphoid tissues, polytypic staining was noted in greater than 95% of cases, with strong staining of plasma cells, moderate staining of the follicular dendritic cell network, and weak staining of mantle zone cells. Strong staining of the appropriate light chain was seen in each of the 7 cases of multiple myeloma. In a series of 58 cases of B-cell lymphoma, correlation between the results of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry was obtained in 36 cases (62%), including 32 cases (21 kappa and 11 lambda) in which a single light chain was expressed. Monotypic staining was also seen in 6 additional cases (10%) in which flow cytometry was negative. Thirty of 46 cases (65%) of follicular lymphoma showed monotypic light chain expression, in contrast to 64 of 67 cases (95%) of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, which showed polytypic light chain expression. These antibodies may provide an effective adjunct to the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma in routine diagnostic work.

  18. Importance of estimation of follicular output rate (FORT in females assisted by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Rehman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to estimate pregnancy outcome after ICSI in terms of oocyte parameters, embryo quality, endometrial thickness, hormone and cytokine levels in women stratified on the basis of follicular output rate (FORT. Methods: Quasi experimental design was carried out after approval from and ldquo;Ethical review board of Islamabad clinic serving infertile couples and rdquo; from July 2010 to August 2013. One thousand and fifty females were selected with the criteria of age between 21-40 years, infertility of more than 2 years, body mass index of 18-35 kg/m2, menstrual cycle of 25 +/- 7 days, both ovaries present with normal uterine cavity, serum FSH levels less than 8 IU/ml and normal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Females on short agonist or antagonist protocol with diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome, fibroids or in their male partner sperms retrieved by testicular biopsy were excluded from the study. Down regulation of ovaries was followed by controlled ovarian stimulation, Ovulation Induction (OI, oocyte pick up, in vitro fertilization, Embryo Transfer (ET and confirmation of pregnancy was done by serum beta hCG of more than 25 mIU/ml and cardiac activity on trans vaginal scan. Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay was used for peak and mid luteal estradiol (E2, progesterone (P and interleukin I-beta estimation on OI and ET days respectively. FORT (ratio of preovulatory follicle count to antral follicle count and times; 100 on OI day stratified females into low under the 33rd percentile, medium between the 33rd and the 67th percentile and high above the 67th percentile. Characteristics of groups were compared by one way analysis of variance. Results: Females 276 (33%, 288 (34% and 282 (33% comprised of low, medium and high FORT groups respectively. The number of retrieved, mature and fertilized oocytes, cleaved embryos, endometrial thickness and number of gestational sacs in the high FORT group was significantly high (P <0

  19. Cell of origin of transformed follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Mottok, Anja; Farinha, Pedro; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Ennishi, Daisuke; Zheng, Yvonne; Chavez, Elizabeth A; Shulha, Hennady P; Tan, King; Chan, Fong Chun; Boyle, Merrill; Meissner, Barbara; Telenius, Adele; Sehn, Laurie H; Marra, Marco A; Shah, Sohrab P; Steidl, Christian; Connors, Joseph M; Scott, David W; Gascoyne, Randy D

    2015-10-29

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease but transforms in 2% to 3% of patients per year into aggressive, large cell lymphoma, a critical event in the course of the disease associated with increased lymphoma-related mortality. Early transformation cannot be accurately predicted at the time of FL diagnosis and the biology of transformed FL (TFL) is poorly understood. Here, we assembled a cohort of 126 diagnostic FL specimens including 40 patients experiencing transformation (transformation for at least 5 years. In addition, we assembled an overlapping cohort of 155 TFL patients, including 114 cases for which paired samples were available, and assessed temporal changes of routinely available biomarkers, outcome after transformation, as well as molecular subtypes of TFL. We report that the expression of IRF4 is an independent predictor of early transformation (Hazard ratio, 13.3; P transformation predicts favorable prognosis. Moreover, applying the Lymph2Cx digital gene expression assay for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell-of-origin determination to 110 patients with DLBCL-like TFL, we demonstrate that TFL is of the germinal-center B-cell-like subtype in the majority of cases (80%) but that a significant proportion of cases is of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype (16%). These latter cases are commonly negative for BCL2 translocation and arise preferentially from BCL2 translocation-negative and/or IRF4-expressing FLs. Our study demonstrates the existence of molecular heterogeneity in TFL as well as its relationship to the antecedent FL.

  20. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  1. Aspirin-induced human antral injury is reduced by vodka pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M M; Yeung, R; Kilam, S; Wang, H R

    1988-05-01

    Mild irritants have been shown to protect the rat gastric mucosa against noxious agents. This study was designed to test the protective potential of low-dose ethanol against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) -induced gastric injury. Ten healthy volunteers who were nondrinkers and had normal baseline upper gastrointestinal endoscopy participated in a randomized double-blind crossover study. Thirty minutes after either vodka (37.5 ml) in tomato juice or tomato juice alone, each subject took 975 mg ASA and then underwent endoscopy 1 hr later. The degree of mucosal injury was scored, and blood was taken for ethanol and salicylate levels. There was a washout interval of seven days between the two treatments. Endoscopic scores were analyzed using the sign test. After a single dose of ASA, mucosal injury was confined to the fundus and antrum, while the duodenum was minimally affected. A significant reduction in antral damage was seen with ethanol pretreatment (P less than 0.05). The same trend was evident in the fundus but did not achieve statistical significance. Serum salicylate levels averaged 13.2 +/- 0.8 mg/100 ml and were not different between the two treatments. Ethanol concentration ranged from 1.1 to 6.2 mmol/liter following the vodka drink and was 0 after the placebo.

  2. Individualization of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles using the antral follicle count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Marca Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The FSH starting dose is usually chosen according to women’s age, anamnesis, clinical criteria and markers of ovarian reserve. Currently used markers include antral follicle count (AFC, which is considered to have a very high performance in predicting ovarian response to FSH. The objective of the present study to elaborate a nomogram based on AFC for the calculation of the appropriate FSH starting dose in IVF cycles. Methods This is a retrospective study performed at the Mother-Infant Department of Modena University Hospital. IVF patients (n=505 were subjected to blood sampling and transvaginal ultrasound for measurement of serum day3 FSH, estradiol and AFC. The variables predictive of the number of retrieved oocytes were assessed by backwards stepwise multiple regression. The variables reaching the statistical significance were then used in the calculation for the final predictive model. Results A model based on age, AFC and FSH was able to accurately predict the ovarian sensitivity and accounted for 30% of the variability of ovarian response to FSH. An FSH dosage nomogram was constructed and overall it predicts a starting dose lower than 225 IU in 50.2% and 18.1% of patients younger and older than 35 years, respectively. Conclusions The daily FSH dose may be calculated on the basis of age and two markers of ovarian reserve, namely AFC and FSH, with the last two variables being the most significant predictors. The nomogram seems easily applicable during the daily clinical practice.

  3. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  4. Beard Reconstruction with Follicular-unit Hair Grafting Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing; WEI Xian; LI Qing-feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To reconstruct beard with single-follicular-unit grafts in patients with upper lip scar.Methods From May 2001 to May 2005, one-hair follicular units were harvested to treat 20 patients with partial beard loss due to scar formation, 9 out of whom resulting from repair of congenital lip cleft. During the operation, a 1-2mm two-edged sapphire knife was used to make micro-slits. Results A 6-month follow-up revealed that 20 patients recovered quickly and looked natural, with small blood loss and high survival rate, yet 3 with severe scar needed a two-stage operation. Conclusion One-hair follicular unit transplantation is a good option for patients with cicatrical beard loss.

  5. Immunoblastic follicular lymphoma: a very unusual transformation of low-grade follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Shereen; Cornfield, Dennis; Chen, Weiyi; Singh-Kahlon, Pal; Ahmed, Basil

    2014-11-01

    A 73-year-old man, in clinical remission 17 years after radiation therapy for a localized low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL), developed extensive lymphadenopathy, ascites, and splenomegaly with splenic masses. Axillary lymph node biopsy showed FL composed of nodules of centrocytes side by side with nodules of immunoblasts rather than centroblasts. Immunophenotyping revealed conventional FL markers (BCL-2, BCL-6, and CD10) as well as MUM-1 in the immunoblastic component, suggesting postgerminal center differentiation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed t(14;18) in both centrocytic and immunoblastic components and a copy gain of BCL-6 predominantly in the immunoblastic component. Areas of centrocytic and of immunoblastic nodules were macrodissected separately and underwent molecular evaluation for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. Identical base-pair peaks were found, attesting to their clonal identity. This case represents a very unusual example of transformation of a low-grade FL to a nodular immunoblastic FL.

  6. Anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count as predictors of ovarian reserve and successful IVF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Maha M Belal; Hanan H Makhlouf

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role ofAnti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count in predicting the ovarian reserve, and success ofIVF.Methods:Ninety two infertile couples complaining of infertility due to male or tubal or unexplained factors were included in this comparative prospective study forIVF/ICSI.Day-3 basal hormonal level ofFSH,LH,E2, and AMH were measured, followed byTransvaginal ultrasound(TVS) to evaluate theAFC.Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was done using the long protocol for ovarian hyperstimulation.Results:According to the number of retrieved oocytes women included in this study were classified into two groups; good responders(≥4 retrieved oocytes) and poor responders(<4 retrieved oocytes). Ovarian reserve in this study was assessed by day-3 basal hormonal levels andAFC.The mean Day-3AMH and meanAFC were significantly high(4.93±1.22) ng/mL, and(12.72±5.70) ng/mL; respectively) in good responders compared with poor responders, also, the number of retrieved oocytes were significantly high in the good responders group compared with poor responders (13.52±9.70) versus(3.91±1.20)(P<0.05).The numbers of chemical and clinical pregnancies were significantly high(6 cases(75%) and13 cases(72.2%); respectively) in the good responders compared with poor responders(2 cases(25%) and5 cases(27.8%); respectively).Conclusions:Day-3AMH andAFC are good predictors for ovarian reserve, there were positively correlated with the number of retrieved oocytes and numbers of chemical and clinical pregnancies.

  7. Differences in proximal (cardia) versus distal (antral) gastric carcinogenesis via retinoblastoma pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Gulmann; Helen Hegarty; Antoinette Grace; Mary Leader; Stephen Patchett; Elaine Kay

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Disruption of cell cycle regulation is a critical event in carcinogenesis, and alteration of the retinoblastoma (pRb)tumour suppressor pathway is frequent. The aim of this study was to compare alterations in this pathway in proximal and distal gastric carcinogenesis in an effort to explain the observed striking epidemiological differences.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate expression of p16 and pRb in the following groups of both proximal (cardia) and distal (antral) tissue samples: (a) biopsies showing normal mucosa, (b) biopsies showing intestinal metaplasia and, (c) gastric cancer resection specimens including uninvolved mucosa and tumour.RESULTS: In the antrum there were highly significant trends for increased p16 expression with concomitant (and in the group of carcinomas inversely proportional)decreased pRb expression from normal mucosa to intestinal metaplasia to uninvolved mucosa (from cancer resections)to carcinoma. In the cardia, there were no differences in p16 expression between the various types of tissue samples whereas pRb expression was higher in normal mucosa compared with intestinal metaplasia and tissue from cancer resections.CONCLUSION: Alterations in the pRb pathway appear to play a more significant role in distal gastric carcinogenesis.Tt may be an early event in the former location since the trend towards p16 overexpression with concomitant pRb underexpression was seen as early as between normal mucosa and intestinal metaplasia. Importantly, the marked differences in expression of pRb and p16 between the cardia and antrum strongly support the hypothesis that tumours of the two locations are genetically different which may account for some of the observed epidemiological differences.

  8. Two-miRNA classifiers differentiate mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular thyroid adenomas in fine needle aspirations with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid by fine needle aspiration is challenging for the "indeterminate" category and can be supported by molecular testing. We set out to identify miRNA markers that could be used in a diagnostic setting to improve the discrimination of mutation-negative indeterminate fine needle...... aspirations. miRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed for freshly frozen tissue samples of 19 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 23 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular adenomas. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase...... chain reaction in a set of 44 fine needle aspiration samples representing 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 20 follicular adenomas. Twenty-six miRNAs characterized by a significant differential expression between follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas were identified. Nevertheless...

  9. Advances in hair transplantation: longitudinal partial follicular unit transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Coen G; Neumann, H A Martino

    2015-01-01

    There are different techniques of hair transplantation. The most common and known hair transplantation methods are the 'strip' method, where a strip of skin containing hair follicles is removed, cut into grafts and implanted in the recipient area, and the follicle unit extraction (FUE) method, in which whole follicle units are extracted one by one and implanted one by one back into the recipient area. The FUE method is more patient friendly and leaves only tiny scars compared to the strip method, which leaves visible linear scars at the donor area. Both methods, however, have the major disadvantage that the extracted hair follicles are removed and the availability of donor hair follicles are limited and results in a decrease in hair density, as no re-grow will occur in the donor area. Since partial longitudinal-follicular unit transplantation (PL-FUT) extracts partial longitudinal follicular units that can be used as complete follicular units to regenerate completely differentiated hair growth and the partial follicular units that remain in the dermis in the donor area can survive and produce hair, PL-FUT enables us to multiply hair follicles in vivo while preserving the donor area. Although this technique is suitable for androgenic alopecia, PL-FUT could also be suitable in persons who have a relative small donor area compared to the recipient area like burn victims, as well as scarring alopecia's like frontal fibrosing alopecia.

  10. Pathologic splenic rupture in a patient with follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha P Dayama

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is the most common indolent Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL . It presents primarily with widespread disease which may be asymptomatic and involves the bone marrow in around 40% of patients . Although the disease is widespread at presentation the incidence of complications such as splenic rupture which are usually seen with other aggressive lymphomas is rare

  11. [DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT STRATEGY IN FOLLICULAR TUMOR OF THYROID GLAND].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, M V; Zubarovskiĭ, I N; Osipenko, S K

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on the treatment results of 44 patients with follicular tunor of thyroid gland. A staged morphological assessment of thyroid nodes was performed for all patients: in case of preoperative fine-needle biopsy, urgent intraoperative study and according to results of final histological research. The urgent histological study of surgical material was conducted for 44 patients with diagnosis "follicular tumor" according to fine-needle biopsy. The data of final histological study were matched with findings of intraoperative research. A micro-follicular adenoma was detected in 22 patients (50%) and 6 (13,6%) patients had this diagnosis combined with autoimmune thyroiditis. The general part of patients didn't changed in final study, but the rate of diagnosis "micro-follicular adenoma against the background of autoimmune thyroiditis" increased. Papillary carcinoma was revealed in 5 (11,4%) patients and follicular cancer had 4 (9,1%) patients detected in intraoperative study and 3 (6,8%) more patients according to data of final research. The histopathologic feature of colloid goiter was observed in 7 (15,9%) cases and a part of such patients reduced to 6,8% during final study. One of the patients (2,3%) had final diagnosis "oncocytoma". In case of thyroid nodules detection the needle biopsy should be carried out regardless to the size of nodule. The authors recommended performing the surgery with the urgent histological study in case of undetermined histological report. The following surgical strategy was specified by the results of the urgent histological report.

  12. Dioxin exposure reduces the steroidogenic capacity of mouse antral follicles mainly at the level of HSD17B1 without altering atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Hannon, Patrick, E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent ovarian toxicant. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro TCDD (1 nM) exposure decreases production/secretion of the sex steroid hormones progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in mouse antral follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which TCDD inhibits steroidogenesis. Specifically, we examined the effects of TCDD on the steroidogenic enzymes, atresia, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) protein. TCDD exposure for 48 h increased levels of A4, without changing HSD3B1 protein, HSD17B1 protein, estrone (E1), T or E2 levels. Further, TCDD did not alter atresia ratings compared to vehicle at 48 h. TCDD, however, did down regulate the AHR protein at 48 h. TCDD exposure for 96 h decreased transcript levels for Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b1, and Cyp19a1, but increased Hsd3b1 transcript. TCDD exposure particularly lowered both Hsd17b1 transcript and HSD17B1 protein. However, TCDD exposure did not affect levels of E1 in the media nor atresia ratings at 96 h. TCDD, however, decreased levels of the proapoptotic factor Bax. Collectively, these data suggest that TCDD exposure causes a major block in the steroidogenic enzyme conversion of A4 to T and E1 to E2 and that it regulates apoptotic pathways, favoring survival over death in antral follicles. Finally, the down‐regulation of the AHR protein in TCDD exposed follicles persisted at 96 h, indicating that the activation and proteasomal degradation of this receptor likely plays a central role in the impaired steroidogenic capacity and altered apoptotic pathway of exposed antral follicles. -- Highlights: ► TCDD disrupts steroidogenic enzymes in mouse antral follicles. ► TCDD particularly affects the HSD17B1 enzyme in mouse antral follicles. ► TCDD does not affect atresia ratings in mouse antral follicles. ► TCDD decreases levels of the proapoptitic factor Bax in mouse antral follicles.

  13. The effects of xanthoangelol E on arachidonic acid metabolism in the gastric antral mucosa and platelet of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T; Sakuma, S; Sumiya, T; Nishida, H; Fujimoto, Y; Baba, K; Kozawa, M

    1992-08-01

    The effects of a new chalcone derivative, xanthoangelol E, isolated from Angelica keiskei Koidzumi, on arachidonic acid metabolism in the gastric antral mucosa and platelet of the rabbit were examined. When gastric antral mucosal slices were incubated with xanthoangelol E (0.05-1.0 mM), there was no significant effect on the production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha and their metabolites. On the other hand, this compound inhibited effectively the production of thromboxane B2 and 12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid from exogenous arachidonic acid in platelets, and the concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC50) was approximately 5 microM. The formation of 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid was also reduced by this drug (IC50, 50 microM). These results suggest that xanthoangelol E has the potential to modulate arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets and that this action may participate in some pharmacological effect of the plant.

  14. Ovarian volume and antral follicle count for the prediction of low and hyper responders with in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elting Mariet E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was designed to compare antral follicle count (AFC and basal ovarian volume (BOV, the exogenous FSH ovarian reserve test (EFORT and the clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT, with respect to their ability to predict poor and hyper responders. Methods One hundred and ten regularly menstruating patients, aged 18–39 years, participated in this prospective study, randomized, by a computer designed 4-blocks system study into two groups. Fifty six patients underwent a CCCT, and 54 patients underwent an EFORT. All patients underwent a transvaginal sonography to measure the basal ovarian volume and count of basal antral follicle. In all patients, the test was followed by a standard IVF treatment. The result of ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF treatment, expressed by the total number of follicles, was used as gold standard. Results The best prediction of ovarian reserve (Y was seen in a multiple regression prediction model that included, AFC, Inhibin B-increment in the EFORT and BOV simultaneously (Y = -3.161 + 0.805 × AFC (0.258-1.352 + 0.034 × Inh. B-incr. (0.007-0.601 + 0.511 BOV (0.480-0.974 (r = 0.848, p Conclusion In conclusion AFC performs well as a test for ovarian response being superior or at least similar to complex expensive and time consuming endocrine tests. It is therefore likely to be the test for general practise.

  15. Comparison of follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery between estradiol based and conventional superstimulation protocol in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the follicular dynamics, superovulatory response, and embryo recovery following superstimulatory treatment initiated at estradiol-17β induced follicular wave emergence and its comparison with conventional superstimulatory protocol in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Six normal cycling pluriparous buffaloes, lactating, 90-180 days post-partum, and weighing between 500 and 660 kg were superstimulated twice with a withdrawal period of 35 days in between two treatments. In superstimulation protocol-1 (estradiol group buffaloes were administered estradiol-17β (2 mg, i.m. and eazibreed controlled internal drug release (CIDR was inserted intravaginally (day=0 at the random stage of the estrous cycle. On the day 4, buffaloes were superstimulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 400 mg, divided into 10 tapering doses given at 12 hourly intervals. Prostaglandin F2α analogs (PGF2α was administered at day 7.5 and day 8, and CIDR was removed with the second PGF2α injection. In superstimulation protocol - 2 (conventional group buffaloes were superstimulated on the 10th day of the estrous cycle with same FSH dose regimen and similar timings for PGF2α injections. In both groups, half of the buffaloes were treated with luteinizing hormone (LH 25 mg and other half with 100 ug buserelin; gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH analog at 12 h after the end of FSH treatment. All buffaloes in both protocols were inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h of LH/GnRH treatment. Daily ultrasonography was performed to record the size and number of follicles and superovulatory response. Results: Significantly higher number of small follicles (8 mm, corpora lutea, and transferable embryos was higher in buffaloes superstimulated at estradiol-induced follicular wave compared to the conventional protocol: Further the percentage of transferable embryos was significantly higher in buffaloes administered with LH compared to GnRH.

  16. Skin fragility syndrome in a cat with multicentric follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosaz, Odile; Vilaplana-Grosso, Federico; Alleaume, Charline; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Bedu-Leperlier, Anne-Sophie; Marignac, Geneviève; Hubert, Blaise; Rosenberg, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An 11-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was presented for a right flank wound. On clinical examination, a single non-painful skin tear lesion with irregular edges was detected. During the examination, star-shaped cigarette paper-like skin lesions appeared spontaneously. An abdominal mass was also palpated. Feline skin fragility syndrome (FSFS) was suspected and a multicentric lymphoma was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. The cat's condition declined and it died spontaneously. Post-mortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of lymphoma. Neoplastic lymphocytes were not observed in the skin. Histological analysis of the skin was consistent with the morphological aspects of FSFS. A possible direct link between the two conditions remains a matter of speculation, but this case report provides the first description of FSFS associated with multicentric follicular lymphoma. Thus, multicentric follicular lymphoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats presenting with FSFS.

  17. New drugs for follicular lymphoma in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anna; Soubeyran, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Follicular lymphoma is essentially a disease of the elderly, and the aging of the population in developed countries will increase patient numbers in coming years. Significant achievements have been made for treatment, but better understanding of the disease and major progress in biology now facilitate the development of many new drugs, which may have improved toxicity profiles making them appropriate for treatment of older adults. However, the increasing number of treatment possibilities, can also increase the toxicity risks, and unexpected toxicities specific to older adults may be encountered. Consequently, specific studies of older patients should be considered, using appropriate evaluation tools such as comprehensive geriatric assessment. This review will described the development of these new drugs, in the context of the treatment of older-adults with follicular lymphoma.

  18. Two cases of extranodal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚; 孔蕴仪; 陆洪芬; 许越香

    2003-01-01

    @@ Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) is an essential component of the nonlymphoid, nonphagocytic immunoaccessory reticulum cells of the peripheral lymphoid tissue.1 Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCs) are confined largely to the primary and secondary B-cell follicles, where they form a tight interlacing meshwork. They play a role in the capture and presentation of antigens, generation and regulation of immune complexes. FDCs can be recognized morphologically by their indistinct cellular borders, pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, round-to-ovoid nuclei with delicate nuclear membranes and clear-to-vesicular chromatin with inconspicuous or small nucleoli. FDCs are best identified through immunostaining using CD21, CD35, R4/23, KiM4, KiM4p and Ki-FDC1p.

  19. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  20. Plasma cells negatively regulate the follicular helper T cell program

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    B lymphocytes differentiate into antibody-secreting cells under the antigen-specific control of follicular helper T (TFH) cells. Here, we demonstrate that isotype-switched plasma cells expressed MHCII, CD80 and CD86 and intracellular machinery required for antigen presentation. Antigen-specific plasma cells could access, process and present sufficient antigen in vivo to induce multiple TH cell functions. Importantly, antigen-primed plasma cells failed to induce interleukin 21 or Bcl-6 in naïv...

  1. Mandibular metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Alejandro; Mareso, Eduardo Arístides; Klurfan, Federico Juan; Gonzalez, Maximiliano Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma mandibular metastasis are not very frequent and the cases described in literature are few. Due to its bloodstream dissemination, most of them are a consequence of the follicular variant of thyroid carcinomas. A case is presented and a review of the clinicopathologic characteristics of the lesion is made, so the oral and maxilofacial surgeon can recognize it, make a correct differential diagnosis with other mandibular radioluciencies and in consequence, carry out an adequate treatment.

  2. Pathologic splenic rupture in a patient with follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Mahapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is the most common indolent Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL . It presents primarily with widespread disease which may be asymptomatic and involves the bone marrow in around 40% of patients . Although the disease is widespread at presentation the incidence of complications such as splenic rupture which are usually seen with other aggressive lymphomas is rare

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-2 inhibits antral emptying in man, but is not as potent as glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, C F; Wettergren, A; Pedersen, J F

    2004-01-01

    with GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and the sensation of hunger in man. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scales scoring during...

  4. Nutritional and lactational effects on follicular development in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H

    2009-01-01

    In sows, follicular development is inhibited during lactation, and weaning the piglets allows recruitment and selection of follicles that will undergo preovulatory maturation and ovulate. Lactation inhibits GnRH secretion, and in turn LH secretion, through neuroendocrine stimuli induced by suckling. Pituitary response to GnRH and the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to oestradiol positive feedback are also reduced. The impact of lactation on the reproductive axis is further complicated by the physiological and metabolic adaptations that are developed for milk production and that depend on nutrient intake, nutrient needs and body reserves. A strongly catabolic state during lactation amplifies the inhibition of LH secretion, thereby inducing a delay of oestrus and ovulation after weaning. Nevertheless, post-weaning ovulation is less delayed nowadays than in the 1970's or 80's. Nutritional deficiency has also deleterious effects on embryo survival, which are likely related to alterations in follicular growth and maturation. The physiological mechanisms by which information on the metabolic changes is transmitted to the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis are not fully understood in the sow. Glucose, insulin and leptin are the most likely signals informing the hypothalamus of the metabolic state, yet their roles have not been definitely established. At the ovarian level, folliculogenesis is likely to be altered by the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations induced by nutritional deficiency. More knowledge is needed at the intrafollicular level to better understand nutritional effects on follicular development, and also on occyte quality and embryo development.

  5. Achieving Bidirectional Long Delays In Pulmonary Vein Antral Lines Prior To Bidirectional Block In Patients With Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (The Bi-Bi Technique For Atrial Fibrillation Ablation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina Md Facc Fhrs, Adel F; L Warnecke Pa-C, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary Vein Antral isolation (PVAI) is currently the standard of care for both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation ablation. Reconnection to the pulmonary vein is the most common cause of recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Achieving the endpoint of bidirectional block (BDB) for cavotricuspid isthmus dependant flutter has improved our outcomes for atrial flutter ablation. With this we tried to achieve long delays in the pulmonary veins antral lines prior to complete isolation comparable to those delays found in patient with bidirectional block of atrial flutter lines. Study Objective:The objective of this paper was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of achieving Bidirectional long delays in pulmonary vein antral lines prior to Bidirectional Block in patient with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Method: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation procedures at Unity Point Methodist from January 2015 to January 2016. 20 consecutive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who had AF ablation using the Bi-Bi technique were evaluated. Result: Mean age was 63, number of antiarrhythmic used prior to ablation was 1.4, mean left atrial size was 38 mm. Mean chads score was 1.3. Mean EF was 53%. Long delays in the left antral circumferential lines were achieved with mean delay of 142 milliseconds +/-100. Also long delays in the right antral circumferential lines were achieved with mean delay of 150 milliseconds +/-80. 95 % (19/20) of patients were free of any atrial arrhythmias and were off antiarrhythmic medications for AF post procedure. There was only one transient complication in one patient who developed a moderate pericardial effusion that was successfully drained with no hemodynamic changes. The only patient who had recurrence was found to have asymptomatic AF with burden on his device paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is feasible and highly effective technique in this small cohort of patients

  6. Mixed Medullary-follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangtao Ma; Liwei Yu; Jing Fu; Shan Wang; Ruyu Du; Zhirong Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mixed medullary-follicular carcinomas (MMFCs) are tumors of the thyroid that display morphological and immunohistochemical features of both medullary and follicular neoplasms. These tumors are rare and less than 40 cases have been described in the literature since the early 1980s.[1] The term medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma denotes a tumor which exhibits the features of a medullary carcinoma and shows positive expression of calcitonin on immunohistochemistry.

  7. Maternal menopause as a predictor of anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count in daughters during reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Larsen, E C;

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the ovarian reserve in a woman at a given age associated with her mother's age at menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: We demonstrated a significant, positive association between age at maternal menopause and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC......) in daughters. The rate of decline in serum-AMH level and AFC is also associated with age at maternal menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The association between menopausal age in mothers and daughters has been established through several epidemiological studies. This paper shows that early...... maternal menopause is related to an advanced depletion of the ovarian reserve and that late maternal menopause is related to a delayed depletion. STUDY DESIGN AND SIZE: Cross-sectional data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 863 women. The study comprised 527 participants from...

  8. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate accelerates early folliculogenesis and inhibits steroidogenesis in cultured mouse whole ovaries and antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Brannick, Katherine E; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-05-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2-20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1-10 μg/ml) for 24-96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels.

  9. Inhibitory effect of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide on spontaneous contraction in gastric antral circular smooth muscles of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-shu GUO; Zheng-xu CAI; Tai-hua WU; Jing XU; Yang QIU; Wen-xie XU

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether the natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) is present in the stomach of guinea pigs and to investigate the effect of dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP) on the gastric motility of guinea pigs and its mechanism. Methods:The distribution of the NPR was analyzed by autoradioimmunography. The spontaneous contraction of gastric antral circular muscles of guinea pigs was recorded by a 4-channel physiograph. The whole cell patch-clamp technique was introduced to record calcium-activated potassium currents in the gastric myocytes isolated by collagenase. Results:The NPR existed in the gastric fundus,gastric body,and gastric antrum of guinea pigs,and its density was largest in the gastric antrum. DNP inhibited spontaneous contraction and exhibited a dose-dependent manner. The DNP-induced inhibition was diminished by LY83583 (a guanylate cyclase inhibitor) and was potentiated by zaprinast (a cGMP-sensitive phosphoesterase inhibitor). The inhibitory effect of DNP on spontaneous contraction was also inhibited by tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channel blocker);10 nmol/L DNP increased the calcium-activated potassium currents in the gastric circular myocytes of guinea pigs. Conclusion:The NPR is most common in the gastric antrum of guinea pigs. DNP significantly inhibits gastric motility in the gastric antrum of guinea pigs. The inhibitory effect occurs via a cGMP-dependent pathway,and a calcium-activated potassium channel may be also involved in the relaxation induced by DNP in gastric antral circular smooth muscles.

  10. Actual Incidence and Clinical Behaviour of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: An Institutional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela De Crea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma classically accounts for 10–32% of thyroid malignancies. We determined the incidence and the behaviour of follicular thyroid carcinoma in an endemic goitre area. A comparative analysis between minimally invasive and widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma was performed. The medical records of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy from October 1998 to April 2012 for thyroid malignancies were reviewed. Those who had a histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma were included. Among 5203 patients, 130 (2.5% were included. Distant metastases at presentation were observed in four patients. Sixty-six patients had a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma and 64 a widely invasive follicular carcinoma. In 63 patients an oxyphilic variant was registered. Minimally/widely invasive ratio was 41/26 for usual follicular carcinoma and 25/38 for oxyphilic variant (P<0.05. Patients with widely invasive tumors had larger tumors (P<0.001 and more frequently oxyphilic variant (P<0.05 than those with minimally invasive tumours. No significant difference was found between widely invasive and minimally invasive tumors and between usual follicular carcinoma and oxyphilic variant regarding the recurrence rate (P=NS. The incidence of follicular thyroid carcinoma is much lower than classically retained. Aggressive treatment, including total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, should be proposed to all patients.

  11. Mechanisms of cholecystokinin-induced calcium mobilization in gastric antral interstitial cells of Cajal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-Yao Gong; Xin-Min Si; Lin Lin; Jia Lu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of sulfated cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8S) on calcium mobilization in cultured murine gastric antral interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and its possible mechanisms.METHODS:ICC were isolated from the gastric antrum of mice and cultured.Immunofluorescence staining with a monoclonal antibody for c-Kit was used to identify ICC.The responsiveness of ICC to CCK-8S was measured using Fluo-3/AM based digital microfluorimetric measurement of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i).A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to monitor [Ca2+]i changes.The selective CCK1 receptor antagonist lorglumide,the intracellular Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin,the type Ⅲ inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) receptor blocker xestospongin C and the L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channel inhibitor nifedipine were used to examine the mechanisms of [Ca2+]i elevation caused by CCK-8S.Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting were used to determine the regulatory effect of PKC on phosphorylation of type Ⅲ InsP3 receptor (InsP3R3) in ICC.Protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and inhibitor chelerythrine were used to assess the role of PKC in the CCK-8S-evoked [Ca2+]i increment of ICC.RESULTS:ICC were successfully isolated from the gastric antrum of mice and cultured.Cultured ICC were identified by immunofluorescence staining.When given 80 nmol/L or more than 80 nmol/L CCK-8S,the [Ca2+]i in ICC increased and 100 nmol/L CCK-8S significantly increased the mean [Ca2+]i by 59.30% ± 4.85% (P <0.01).Pretreatment of ICC with 5 μmol/L lorglumide inhibited 100 nmol/L CCK-8S-induced [Ca2+]i increment from 59.30% ± 4.85% to 14.97% ± 9.05% (P < 0.01),suggesting a CCK1R-mediated event.Emptying of intracellular calcium stores by thapsigargin (5 μmol/L)prevented CCK-8S (100 nmol/L) from inducing a [Ca2+]i increase.Moreover,pretreatment with xestospongin C (1 μmol/L) could also abolish the CCK-8S-induced effect

  12. Follicular thyroid carcinoma invades venous rather than lymphatic vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yulin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC tends to metastasize to remote organs rather than local lymph nodes. Separation of FTC from follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA relies on detection of vascular and/or capsular invasion. We investigated which vascular markers, CD31, CD34 and D2-40 (lymphatic vessel marker, can best evaluate vascular invasion and why FTC tends to metastasize via blood stream to remote organs. Thirty two FTCs and 34 FTAs were retrieved for evaluation. The average age of patients with FTA was 8 years younger than FTC (p = 0.02. The female to male ratio for follicular neoplasm was 25:8. The average size of FTC was larger than FTA (p = 0.003. Fourteen of 32 (44% FTCs showed venous invasion and none showed lymphatic invasion, with positive CD31 and CD34 staining and negative D2-40 staining of the involved vessels. The average number of involved vessels was 0.88 ± 1.29 with a range from 0 to 5, and the average diameter of involved vessels was 0.068 ± 0.027 mm. None of the 34 FTAs showed vascular invasion. CD31 staining demonstrated more specific staining of vascular endothelial cells than CD34, with less background staining. We recommended using CD31 rather than CD34 and/or D2-40 in confirming/excluding vascular invasion in difficult cases. All identified FTCs with vascular invasions showed involvement of venous channels, rather than lymphatic spaces, suggesting that FTCs prefer to metastasize via veins to distant organs, instead of lymphatic vessels to local lymph nodes, which correlates with previous clinical observations.

  13. Effects of highly selective vagotomy plus resection of antral mucosa or highly selective vagotomy alone on motility function of pyloric antrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文亚渊; 王代科; 刘宝华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of highly selective vagotomy plus resection of antral mucosa ( HSV + RAM)or highly selective vagotomy (HSV) alone on the motility function of the pyloric antrum. Methods: 48 patients with duodenal ulcer were studied. 18 dogs were employed as experimental animals. 20 patients were operated on with HSV and 28 with HSV + RAM. The frequency of gastric evacuation and the amplitude of electrogastrography were determined 4 to 6 months after operation. 18 dogs were divided into the control group, HSV group and HSV + RAM group. The time of gastric evacuation, antral myoelectric activity and antral pressure were determined in the dogs 4 to 6 months after operation. The preoperative findings of the patients and the control dogs served as the control. Results: After operation, barium meal revealed that the shape of the stomach and duodenum was normal and the gastric peristalsis was clearly visible in human patients and experimental dogs. In the HSV + RAM group of dogs, the initial evacuation time was (5.0 + 0.06) min and the time of complete evacuation was (4.0 + 0.4) h after food-taking, which were similar to those of the control and the HSV group of dogs(P>0.05). The frequency of the antral myoelectric action potential was (3.11 + 0.65) cycles/min in the dog HAS + RAM group and the frequency of electrogastrography was (3.25 + 0.75) cycles/min in the human HSV + RAM group, which were significantly lower than those of the control and the dog and human HSV groups (P < 0.05). Injection of pentagastrin in dogs and food-taking in human beings significantly increased the antral pressure and the amplitude and frequency of electrogastrography. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the motility function of the reconstructed pyloric antrum in the HSV + RAM group of both the experimental dogs and human patients approaches to the normal even though there is a decrease of antral myoelectric frequency. It is suggested that HSV + RAM should

  14. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Ahmad, Ijaz; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, Md Munir; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern with miR-183

  15. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  17. T cells in tumors and blood predict outcome in follicular lymphoma treated with rituximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlin, Björn Engelbrekt; Sundström, Christer; Holte, Harald;

    2011-01-01

    T cells influence outcome in follicular lymphoma, but their contributions seem to be modified by therapy. Their impact in patients receiving rituximab without chemotherapy is unknown.......T cells influence outcome in follicular lymphoma, but their contributions seem to be modified by therapy. Their impact in patients receiving rituximab without chemotherapy is unknown....

  18. Imaging Findings of Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma: Report of Four Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Hua, Qiu; Xiao-Yuan, Feng [Affi liated HuaShan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Qin, Xiao; Ya-Jia, Gu; Jian, Wang [Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-02-15

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm and little is known about its radiological features. We present here four cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcomas and we provide the image characteristics of these tumors to help radiologists recognize this entity when making a diagnosis

  19. Embolization for vertebral metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, J W; Vielvoye, G J; Goslings, B M

    2000-03-01

    The technique of selective embolization has been applied for years in the treatment of vascular anomalies, severe hemorrhage and benign or malignant tumors, notably vertebral metastases of renal cell carcinoma. Because this technique is relatively easy to perform and offers immediate relief of symptoms, it is an attractive option for patients with vertebral metastases of thyroid carcinoma with signs of spinal cord compression. In these patients, other treatment modalities like radioactive iodine, external irradiation, or surgery are more cumbersome or less effective in the short term. We describe four patients with metastasized follicular thyroid carcinoma, presenting with neurological symptoms due to vertebral metastases. All patients had undergone total thyroidectomy, ranging from 1 month to 4 yr before embolization. Embolization was combined with iodine-131 therapy when appropriate. Selective catheterization of the arteries feeding the metastases was performed, followed by infusion of polyvinyl alcohol particles (Ivalon). The procedure was technically successful in all patients without adverse effects. In the patients described, embolization resulted in rapid resolution of neurological symptoms, sometimes within hours. The therapeutic effect lasted from months to years. We conclude that embolization of vertebral metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma is an attractive palliative therapeutic option that may offer rapid relief of symptoms.

  20. Follicular Proinflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines as Markers of IVF Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Sarapik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are key modulators of the immune system and also contribute to regulation of the ovarian cycle. In this study, Bender MedSystems FlowCytomix technology was used to analyze follicular cytokines (proinflammatory: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-23;, and anti-inflammatory: G-CSF, chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, RANTES, and IL-8, and other biomarkers (sAPO-1/Fas, CD44(v6 in 153 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF. Cytokine origin was studied by mRNA analysis of granulosa cells. Higher follicular MIP-1α and CD44(v6 were found to correlate with polycystic ovary syndrome, IL-23, INF-γ, and TNF-α with endometriosis, higher CD44(v6 but lower IL-β and INF-α correlated with tubal factor infertility, and lower levels of IL-18 and CD44(v6 characterized unexplained infertility. IL-12 positively correlated with oocyte fertilization and embryo development, while increased IL-18, IL-8, and MIP-1β were associated with successful IVF-induced pregnancy.

  1. Follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as bilateral cheek masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions.

  2. Sella turcica metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazlar, Selcuk; Kocaeli, Hasan; Cordan, Teoman

    2004-01-01

    A case of metastasis to the sella turcica from a follicular adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland is presented. Metastasis to this site is rare and review of the literature reveals only 12 cases of metastatic thyroid carcinoma involving the sella turcica and pituitary gland. The optimal treatment strategy is still to be determined. A 43-year-old woman presented with headache, nausea, visual impairment and galactorrhea. An MRI scan of the cranium revealed an enhancing destructive sellar lesion. The patient underwent transsphenoidal removal of the lesion to alleviate visual loss. The histological features of the sellar tumor were identical to those of a follicular adenocarcinoma partially removed from the thyroid gland 22 months earlier. Total thyroidectomy followed by three courses of iodine-131 ablation enhanced with synthetic thyrotropin and thyroid hormone suppression therapy was instituted. The post-operative course was satisfactory with improved vision and ceased galactorrhea. This case was successfully treated with a combination of surgical removal, iodine-131 ablation and hormone suppression therapy, which resulted in disease control duration of four years. Sella turcica metastases of thyroid carcinoma are exceedingly rare and currently there are no established therapeutic guidelines.

  3. Surgical Management of Bulky Mediastinal Metastases in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Adwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.

  4. A patient presenting with spinal cord compression who had two distinct follicular cell type thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, E; Sokmensuer, C; Yildiz, B O; Engin, H; Bozkurt, M F; Aras, T; Barista, I; Gurlek, A

    2004-06-01

    A 61-yr-old woman presented with complaints of weakness and pain in her legs. A magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3 x 5.6 x 7.8 cm mass lesion destructing the T1 and T2 vertebral bodies and compressing the spinal cord. The mass was excised surgically. It was follicular carcinoma metastasis of the cervicodorsal region. Then, she underwent a total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination showed two different types of carcinomas in two different focuses; follicular carcinoma in the left lobe and follicular variant papillary carcinoma in the isthmic lobe. After the operation she was given 100 mCi 131I. This is the first report of a patient who had both metastatic follicular carcinoma and follicular variant papillary carcinoma together.

  5. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3): a promising indicator for diagnosing thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Toru; Yamada, Hiroya

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the 1970's, a preoperative diagnostic technique for thyroid follicular carcinoma has long been awaited. Many markers that distinguish follicular carcinomas from adenomas have been reported; however, most of them have not been confirmed to be beneficial for clinical use. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a relatively new family of peptides that bears the three-loop trefoil domain. Several groups have reported that the suppression of TFF3 mRNA expression is related to malignant characteristics of thyroid follicular cell-derived tumors and the expression level of TFF3 mRNA is the most promising indicator for diagnosing follicular carcinoma. Development of TFF3-based diagnostic methods is now ongoing and it may not be long before thyroid follicular carcinoma can be diagnosed preoperatively using an aspirated sample from the tumor.

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  16. Effect of insulin supplementation on in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles from adult and pre-pubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Amar; Hakim, Bilal Ahmad; Rajender, Singh; Singh, Kavita; Sachdev, Monika; Konwar, Rituraj

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to determine the impact of insulin concentrations on in vitro pre-antral follicle growth, survival, antrum formation rate, and retrieval of mature oocytes in mice. Mice pre-antral follicle growth were recorded on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 in α-modified essential media (α-MEM) supplemented with insulin concentrations of 6, 8, and 10 μg/ml along with 10% FBS, 100 mIU/ml follicle stimulating hormone, 10 mIU/ml luteinizing hormone, 100 μg/ml penicillin, and 50 μg/ml streptomycin. After 12 d of growth in vitro, follicles were allowed to mature for 16-18 h in α-MEM supplemented with 1.5 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and 5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). The initial diameter (54.86 ± 2.5 μm) of mice oocyte progressively increased in all the three insulin concentration groups and attained a maximum size on day 12 (71.90 ± 2.8 μm). Supplementation with higher concentrations of insulin (both 8 and 10 μg/ml) significantly enhanced antrum formation without effecting the oocyte diameter and percent retrieval of mature oocyte in all the three concentration groups. Both in vitro cultured as well as in vivo collected follicles and oocytes showed similar localization and expression of oocyte maturation markers SAS1B and GDF9. Insulin concentration of 8 μg/ml was found to be optimal for in vitro follicle culture of adult mice (42-49 d). Optimized follicle culture conditions were also assessed successfully with pre-pubertal mice (12-14 d); however, adult mice showed higher follicle survival, antrum formation, and more mature oocytes production in comparison to pre-pubertal mice.

  17. Atypical slow waves generated in gastric corpus provide dominant pacemaker activity in guinea pig stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Garcia-Londoño, A Pilar; Hirst, G David S; Edwards, Frank R

    2005-12-01

    When intracellular recordings were made from the circular layer of the intact muscular wall of the isolated guinea pig gastric corpus, an ongoing regular high frequency discharge of slow waves was detected even though this region lacked myenteric interstitial cells. When slow waves were recorded from preparations consisting of both the antrum and the corpus, slow waves of identical frequency, but with different shapes, were generated in the two regions. Corporal slow waves could be distinguished from antral slow waves by their time courses and amplitudes. Corporal slow waves, like antral slow waves, were abolished by buffering the internal concentration of calcium ions, [Ca2+]i, to low levels, or by caffeine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate or the chloride channel blocker DIDS. Corporal preparations demonstrated an ongoing discharge of unitary potentials, as has been found in all other tissues containing interstitial cells. The experiments show that the corpus provides the dominant pacemaker activity which entrains activity in other regions of the stomach and it is suggested that this activity is generated by corporal intramuscular interstitial cells.

  18. Resveratrol-induced mitochondrial synthesis and autophagy in oocytes derived from early antral follicles of aged cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Miyako; Kawahara-Miki, Ryoka; Kawana, Hirosuke; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial numbers increase during oocyte growth. In this study, we collected oocytes and granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) from early antral follicles (EAFs) of aged cows (> 120 months of age) and examined the effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial generation, degradation, and quality in oocytes grown in vitro. We also examined the effects of resveratrol on gene expression of the granulosa cells. Resveratrol (20 µM) enhanced the expression of SIRT1 and induced autophagy in both granulosa cells and oocytes derived from aged cows. Culturing the OGCs with resveratrol increased mitochondrial DNA copy numbers in oocytes grown in vitro. Furthermore, resveratrol increased the ATP content in oocytes and improved the developmental ability of the oocytes to the blastocyst stage. Gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, as evaluated by next-generation sequencing technology, revealed that resveratrol enhanced the expression of EIF2-related genes but downregulated the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-, inflammation-, and cholesterol homeostasis-related genes in granulosa cells. In conclusion, resveratrol affected both oocytes and granulosa cells derived from aged cows and improved the quality of oocytes grown in vitro through upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation in growing oocytes and conditioning of granulosa cells.

  19. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Márcia; Capinha, Liliana; Simões-Pereira, Joana; Bugalho, Maria João; Silva, Ana Luísa

    2016-01-01

    RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs). RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01) and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01) suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions. PMID:27127508

  20. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs. RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01 and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01 suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of the Follicular Fluid of Tianzhu White Yak during Diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the follicular fluid of Tianzhu white yak during diestrus. Follicles obtained from female yak were divided into four groups according to their diameter: 0–2, 2–4, 4–6 mm, and greater than 6 mm. The follicular fluid was directly aspirated from the follicles and mixed according to follicular size, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was carried out on the crude follicular fluid samples. Thirty-four differentially expressed spots were generated from these four sizes of follicles. Fourteen of these spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and identified as: AS3MT, VDP, ANKRD6, C10orf107 protein, MRP4, MAPKAP1, AGO3, profilin-β-actin, SPT2 homolog, AGP, AR, RNF20, obscurin-like-1, and one unnamed protein. These proteins were first reported in follicular fluid, in addition to VDP and AGP. Based on existing knowledge of their function and patterns of expression, we hypothesize that most of these differentially expressed proteins play a role in ovarian follicular growth and development, dominant follicle selection, or follicular atresia and development of oocytes; however, the function of the other differentially expressed proteins in reproduction remains ambiguous.

  2. Granulosa cell proliferation differentiation and its role in follicular development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Cuiling; YANG Wei; HU Zhaoyuan; LIU Yixun

    2005-01-01

    Granuiosa cells (GCs) are the most important cells in the ovary that undergo serious changes morphologically and physiologically during the processes of follicular proliferation, differentiation, ovulation, lutenization and atresia. Oocyte (OC) directs GC proliferation and differentiation, while GCs influence OC maturation. Many ovarian factors are involved in the regulation of these processes via different molecular mechanisms and signal pathways. P38MAPK can selectively regulate steroidogenesis in GCs controlled by FSH; Transcript factors LRH-1 and DAX-1 play an important role in this process; FSH induces GC prolfferation and differentiation by stimulating PCNA and StAR expression and steroidogenesis. Activated ERK1/2 signal pathway may be involved in the FSH-regulated GC proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, GC is an ideal model for studying cell proliferation, differentiation and interaction,as well as signal transduction. This review briefly summarizes the latest data in the literature, including the results achieved in our laboratory.

  3. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  4. A case of follicular lymphoma complicated with mesenteric panniculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotaro Tamai

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric panniculitis (MP is a rare disease occasionally complicated with lymphoma. A 55-year old female presented with MP accompanied by malignant lymphoma. This patient was first treated for follicular lymphoma and subsequently for panniculitis. After 6 courses of R-CHOP chemotherapy, the treatment response was partial. An additional course of salvage chemotherapy led to a complete response. Since the mesenteric mass progressed simultaneously with the regression of other lymphoma lesions, we performed a biopsy of the mesenteric mass and pathologically confirmed an MP lesion without lymphoma. Subsequent high-dose chemotherapy led to CR and the MP lesion remained stable. In the present case, MP progressed with chemotherapy. We concluded that mesenteric lesions suspected of progressing or recurring should be diagnosed pathologically even if asymptomatic.

  5. New targets for the treatment of follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Katib Ayad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last two decades have witnessed striking advances in our understanding of the biological factors underlying the development of Follicular lymphoma (FL. Development of newer treatment approaches have improved the outlook for many individuals with these disorders; however, with these advances come new questions. Given the long-term survival of patients with FL, drugs with favourable side-effect profile and minimal long-term risks are desired. FL is incurable with current treatment modalities. It often runs an indolent course with multiple relapses and progressively shorter intervals of remission. The identification of new targets and development of novel targeted therapies is imperative to exploit the biology of FL while inherently preventing relapse and prolonging survival. This review summarizes the growing body of knowledge regarding novel therapeutic targets, enabling the concept of individualized targeted therapy for the treatment of FL.

  6. Selective follicular targeting by modification of the particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Knorr, Fanny; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Dähne, Lars; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-02-28

    Hair follicles represent interesting target sites for topically applied substances such as topical vaccinations or agents used in the field of regenerative medicine. In recent years, it could be shown that particles penetrate very effectively into the hair follicles. In the present study, the influence of particle size on the follicular penetration depths was examined. The penetration depths of two different types of particles sized 122 to 1000 nm were determined in vitro on porcine skin. The results revealed that the particles of medium size (643 and 646 nm, respectively) penetrated deeper into the porcine hair follicles than smaller or larger particles. It was concluded that by varying the particle size, different sites within the porcine hair follicle can be targeted selectively. For the human terminal hair follicle, the situation can be expected to be similar due to a similar size ratio of the hair follicles.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acid contamination of follicular fluid and its consequence for in vitro oocyte developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Evi M L; D'Hollander, Wendy; Covaci, Adrian; Bervoets, Lieven; Fransen, Erik; De Neubourg, Diane; De Pauw, Ingrid; Leroy, Jo L M R; Jorssen, Ellen P A; Bols, Peter E J

    2014-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to induce negative effects in laboratory animals and in vitro experiments. Also, PFAAs have been detected in human tissues and body fluids. The ovarian follicle constitutes a fragile micro-environment where interactions between hormones, growth factors, the oocyte and surrounding somatic cells are essential to generate a fully competent oocyte. In vitro experiments suggest that PFAAs can influence this balance, but very scarce in vivo data are available to confirm this assumption. In fact, the potential PFAA-presence in the follicular micro-environment is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated if PFAAs are present in human follicular fluid and if their presence could be a risk factor for in vivo exposed developing oocytes. Furthermore, we compared the PFAA-distribution within serum and follicular fluid. PFAAs were analyzed by LC/MS in follicular fluid (n=38) and serum (n=20) samples from women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Statistical models were used to investigate PFAA-distribution in both body fluids, to compare this behavior with the distribution of lipophilic organic pollutants and to explore the relationship between patient characteristics, ART-results and follicular fluid contamination. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the PFAA found in the highest concentration in follicular fluid [7.5 (0.1-30.4) ng/mL] and serum [7.6 (2.8-12.5) ng/mL]. A new variable, Principal Component 1, representing the overall PFAA-contamination of the follicular fluid samples, was associated with a higher fertilization rate (porganic pollutants as explanatory variables. To conclude, overall higher PFAA-contamination in the follicular micro-environment was associated with a higher chance of an oocyte to develop into a high quality embryo. Also, PFAAs have different distribution patterns between serum and follicular fluid compared to the lipophilic organic pollutants. Further research is of course crucial

  8. Differential Diagnosis of a Follicular Carcinoma and Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland Based on Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the sonographic findings of a conventional papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and a follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma. A total of 308 nodules from 231 patients that were diagnosed with a papillary carcinoma and a follicular carcinoma by surgery after sonography were analyzed. The nodules consisted of a conventional papillary carcinoma (255, 83%), a follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma (25, 8%), and a follicualar carcinoma (28, 9%). We compared and analyzed the sonographic findings of each nodule for content, margin, echotexture, shape, calcification and halo sign. A conventional papillary carcinoma showed significant different sonographic findings than a follicular carcinoma and a follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma for an ill-defined or well-defined spiculated margin (63.1%), marked hypoechogenicity (85.9%) and microcalcification (49%). A follicular carcinoma showed a significant difference than a conventional papillary carcinoma for a well-defined smooth margin (92.9%), iso, hypo- or hyperechogenicity (89.3%), wider than tall shape (100%) and halo sign (82.1%). The follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma showed similar findings to a follicular carcinoma except for marked hypoechogenicity (44%, p = 0.006) and taller than wide shape (16%, p = 0.027). The follicular carcinoma and follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma showed similar sonographic findings, but findings of a conventional papillary carcinoma were different

  9. Cortisol concentrations in follicular fluid of 'low responder' patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bider, D; Shine, S; Tur-Kaspa, I; Levron, J; Dor, J

    1998-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine any differences existing in total cortisol concentrations in the follicular fluid (FF) of pre-ruptured follicles between 'low responder' patients (group 1, n = 20) and 'good responder' patients (group 2, n = 15). The groups were defined according to how many oocytes had been retrieved during the previous in-vitro fertilization procedure (group 1: three or fewer; group 2: more than three) and total oestradiol concentration at previous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) (group 1: 500 pg/ml). All patients were aged 36-43 years (group 1 mean +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 4.7; group 2: 32.1 +/- 3.8 years) and were diagnosed with tubal or unexplained infertility. The total FF cortisol concentrations obtained in conjunction with an IVF procedure were assayed and related to oocyte fertilization. Follicular fluid was analysed for total cortisol content. Only follicles between 19 and 20 mm diameter were analysed in both groups. After aspiration of blood-free FF, total cortisol concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, designed for the quantitative measurement of cortisol, and related to oocyte fertilization. Total cortisol concentration in FF from fertilized oocytes was 9.7 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (mean +/- SD) in group 1 compared to 9.2 +/- 4.4 microg/ml in group 2 (not statistically significant). Total cortisol concentrations were not associated with oocyte fertilization and no difference between the groups was found in total cortisol concentrations in the FF of unfertilized oocytes or empty follicles.

  10. Follicular Dowling Degos disease: A rare variant of an evolving dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dowling Degos disease is a rare, reticulate pigmentary disorder with variable phenotypic expression that manifests as hyperpigmented macules and reticulate pigmentary anomaly of the flexures. Many variants of this condition and its overlap with other reticulate pigmentary disorders have been reported in the literature. We present here two cases of DDD with follicular localization, both clinically and histologically. It was associated with ichthyosis vulgaris in one case. Follicular DDD is an uncommon variant of this evolving dermatosis. Our report supports the possible role for disordered follicular keratinisation in its pathogenesis.

  11. Progress in Study on Shen-invigorating Herbs Used in Promoting Follicular Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连方; 王玉东; 张宁

    2003-01-01

    @@ The practice of stimulating follicular development by Shen-invigorating herbs is directed by traditional Chinese medical theories of "the Shen stores essence of life and governs reproduction" and also the theory of "females' periodicity of the ebb and flow of the blood sea". The follicular phase has physiologic characteristics of blood sea ebbing and yin growing, accordingly using the treating principle of invigorating Shen and nourishing the essence can stimulate follicles' normal development and maturation which can cure many diseases such as female infertility, menoxenia and amenorrhoea. This article will give an introduction of the recent 10 years' research of Shen-invigorating treatment in stimulating follicular development .

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics of Ofatumumab in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Follicular Lymphoma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struemper, Herbert; Sale, Mark; Patel, Bela R;

    2014-01-01

    Ofatumumab is a human monoclonal antibody directed at CD20 approved for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The population pharmacokinetics of intravenous ofatumumab were characterized in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma...

  13. Regulation of B Cell to Plasma Cell Transition within the Follicular B Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nera, K-P; Kyläniemi, M K; Lassila, O

    2015-09-01

    Persistent humoral immunity depends on the follicular B cell response and on the generation of somatically mutated high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Upon activation by an antigen, cognately activated follicular B cells and follicular T helper (TFH ) cells initiate germinal centre (GC) reaction during which high-affinity effector cells are generated. The differentiation of activated follicular B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells is guided by complex selection events, both at the cellular and molecular level. The transition of B cell into a plasma cell during the GC response involves alterations in the microenvironment and developmental state of the cell, which are guided by cell-extrinsic signals. The developmental cell fate decisions in response to these signals are coordinated by cell-intrinsic gene regulatory network functioning at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  14. Immunohistochemical patterns of follicular dendritic cell meshwork and Ki-67 in small B-cell lymphomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时云飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the immunohistochemical patterns of follicular dendritic cell(FDC)meshwork and Ki-67labeling index in small B-cell lymphomas(SBLs) and their significance in differential diagnosis.Methods

  15. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  16. Distance of the alveolar antral artery from the alveolar crest. Related factors and surgical considerations in sinus floor elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Loira-Gago, María; Gonzalez-Mosquera, Antonio; Seoane-Romero, Juan M.; Garcia-Martin, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a variable proportion of maxillary sinuses alveolar antral artery is located close to the residual ridge, increasing the chances for haemorrhagic complications during sinus floor elevation procedures. Material and Methods Retrospective observational study of CBCT explorations performed for implant-treatment planning. The upper first molar area was selected for this study. The relative uncertainty (standard deviation of the measurement divided by its mean and expressed as a percentage from 0% to 100%) was chosen for determining the observational errors. For modeling the chances of AAA detection, the generalized additive models (GAM) approach was chosen. Results A total of 240 maxillary sinuses were studied (46.25% males) whose median median age was 58 years old (IQR: 52-66). Univariate models showed that the chances for an AAA-alvelar crest distance ≤15mm increase in wider sinuses with lower, subsinusally edentulous crests. When distance is considered as a continuous variable, the best mutivariate model showed an explained deviance of 67% and included AAA diameter, distance AAA-sinus floor, sinus width, and shape, height and width of the residual ridge. Thinner AAAs are found closer to the crest (within the ≤15mm safe distance). Conclusions Bearing in mind the inclusion criteria and the limitations of this investigation, it is concluded that there is a high proportion of maxillary sinuses where AAA describes a course close to the alveolar crest (≤15mm), which was classically considered a safe distance for SFE. This position is related to the presence of atrophic crests (depressed ridge form) and wide maxillary sinuses where the distance of the vessel to the floor of the sinus is small. This information may permit a better surgical planning of SFE procedures. Key words:Cone-beam computed tomography, blood vessels, sinus floor augmentation, intraoperative complications. PMID:27694790

  17. Ethnic differences in skin physiology, hair follicle morphology and follicular penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Luther, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that different ethnic groups exhibit varieties in skin physiological parameters and penetration behaviour, although data available are inconsistent. Likewise variations in hair follicle morphology have been described although its influence on the follicular penetration process has not been investigated until now. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate skin physiological parameters, the hair follicle morphology and the follicular and interce...

  18. Age and body size of captive hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Isao; Kino, Masakatsu; Maeda, Konomi; Teruya, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to record the age and body size of 23 captive female hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development. The age, straight carapace length (SCL), and body mass (BM) of the turtles were recorded between 2006 and 2014 at follicular development (determined via ultrasonography) these parameters were 17.7 ± 1.7 years (range: 13-20 years), 77.7 ± 3.3 cm (73.3-83.5 cm), and 61.1 ± 8.0 kg (48.2-76.1 kg), respectively. When the year of the onset of follicular development was designated year 0, the increase in SCL in years -7-0 and 0-3 averaged 2.2 cm and 1.0 cm, respectively. Correspondingly, the increase in BM in years -7-0 and 0-3 averaged 5.0 kg and 2.2 kg, respectively. This is the first study to report the age and body size of captive female hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development, which indicates the beginning of sexual maturation. The reduction in growth after follicular development suggests that at the onset of sexual maturation, female hawksbills may utilize energy for follicular development rather than growth.

  19. MicroRNA Mediating Networks in Granulosa Cells Associated with Ovarian Follicular Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoyun; Chen, Long; Feng, Guangde; Xiang, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Chu, Mingxing

    2017-01-01

    Ovaries, which provide a place for follicular development and oocyte maturation, are important organs in female mammals. Follicular development is complicated physiological progress mediated by various regulatory factors including microRNAs (miRNAs). To demonstrate the role of miRNAs in follicular development, this study analyzed the expression patterns of miRNAs in granulosa cells through investigating three previous datasets generated by Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. Furthermore, via bioinformatic analyses, we dissected the associated functional networks of the observed significant miRNAs, in terms of interacting with signal pathways and transcription factors. During the growth and selection of dominant follicles, 15 dysregulated miRNAs and 139 associated pathways were screened out. In comparison of different styles of follicles, 7 commonly abundant miRNAs and 195 pathways, as well as 10 differentially expressed miRNAs and 117 pathways in dominant follicles in comparison with subordinate follicles, were collected. Furthermore, SMAD2 was identified as a hub factor in regulating follicular development. The regulation of miR-26a/b on smad2 messenger RNA has been further testified by real time PCR. In conclusion, we established functional networks which play critical roles in follicular development including pivotal miRNAs, pathways, and transcription factors, which contributed to the further investigation about miRNAs associated with mammalian follicular development.

  20. FDG PET/CT predictive role in follicular lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi Alma Mater Studiorum, Nuclear Medicine Department, Bologna (Italy); IRCCS, Humanitas (Rozzano), Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Zanoni, Lucia; Fonti, Cristina; Santi, Ivan; Fanti, Stefano [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi Alma Mater Studiorum, Nuclear Medicine Department, Bologna (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [IRCCS, Humanitas (Rozzano), Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Zinzani, Pier Luigi [University Hospital S. Orsola, Department of Hematology ' ' L. Seragnoli' ' , Bologna (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We present findings concerning {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) at end-treatment evaluation in follicular lymphoma (FL) in order to establish possible predictive factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and patient outcome. We retrospectively analysed data from 91 consecutive FL patients (M:F = 51:40, mean age 61) referred to our PET Unit at therapy completion: 38 with an indolent form (grade 1-2) and 53 with an aggressive FL (grade 3a and b) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. A total of 148 FDG PET/CT scans were analysed and findings reported as positive or negative for disease. The overall response to treatment was assessed according to the revised International Workshop Criteria (IWC). The final outcome was defined as remission or disease by taking clinical, instrumental and histological data as standards of reference, with a mean follow-up period of 3 years (range 1-8). A statistical analysis was performed with respect to PFS and patient outcome for FDG PET result, tumour grading, Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI), disease stage and number of relapses, on uni- and multivariate analyses, with p < 0.05 considered as significant. Overall patients presented a mean PFS of 35 months (range 3-86), with a relapse rate of 42%. At final outcome, remission was achieved in 67 of 91 patients (74%). Of the different predictive factors, only FDG PET result significantly correlated with patient outcome (p = 0.0002). PET/CT performance at the end of treatment was as follows: 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 89% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. The Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with PFS for FDG PET (p < 0.0001), FLIPI score (0-1 versus {>=}2) (p = 0.0451) and number of relapses (none versus {>=}1) (p = 0.0058). These findings were confirmed at the univariate analysis, whereas at the multivariate analysis only

  1. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Zelieann R; Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2013-11-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P4) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P4, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E2. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P4, A, T, and E1 that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival.

  2. Dioxin exposure reduces the steroidogenic capacity of mouse antral follicles mainly at the level of HSD17B1 without altering atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, Bethany N; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Hannon, Patrick; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent ovarian toxicant. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro TCDD (1nM) exposure decreases production/secretion of the sex steroid hormones progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), and 17β-estradiol (E2) in mouse antral follicles. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which TCDD inhibits steroidogenesis. Specifically, we examined the effects of TCDD on the steroidogenic enzymes, atresia, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) protein. TCDD exposure for 48h increased levels of A4, without changing HSD3B1 protein, HSD17B1 protein, estrone (E1), T or E2 levels. Further, TCDD did not alter atresia ratings compared to vehicle at 48h. TCDD, however, did down regulate the AHR protein at 48h. TCDD exposure for 96h decreased transcript levels for Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b1, and Cyp19a1, but increased Hsd3b1 transcript. TCDD exposure particularly lowered both Hsd17b1 transcript and HSD17B1 protein. However, TCDD exposure did not affect levels of E1 in the media nor atresia ratings at 96h. TCDD, however, decreased levels of the proapoptotic factor Bax. Collectively, these data suggest that TCDD exposure causes a major block in the steroidogenic enzyme conversion of A4 to T and E1 to E2 and that it regulates apoptotic pathways, favoring survival over death in antral follicles. Finally, the down-regulation of the AHR protein in TCDD exposed follicles persisted at 96h, indicating that the activation and proteasomal degradation of this receptor likely plays a central role in the impaired steroidogenic capacity and altered apoptotic pathway of exposed antral follicles.

  3. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: peretz@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3211 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3223 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible.

  4. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2013-11-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P{sub 4}) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P{sub 4}, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 1}), and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E{sub 2}. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P{sub 4}, A, T, and E{sub 1} that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. - Highlights: • Mono-OH MXC inhibited antral follicle steroidogenesis, growth, and survival. • Pregnenolone partially restored steroidogenesis

  5. The effect of GnRH or oestradiol injected at pro-oestrus on luteal function and follicular dynamics of the subsequent oestrous cycle in non-lactating cycling Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Oestrous synchronization involves synchronization of ovarian follicular turnover, new wave emergence, and finally induction of ovulation. The final step can be synchronized by the parenteral administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. This study investigated corpus luteum and follicular emergence after ovulation had been induced by the administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. The injection of oestradiol benzoate may have delayed the emergence of the first follicular wave subsequent to the induced ovulation; administration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH lowered the progesterone rise so that the maximum dioestrous concentration of progesterone on Day 9 was lower when cows were treated during pro-oestrus compared to the spontaneously ovulating controls. One implication of findings from the present study is that induction of ovulation with either oestradiol benzoate or GnRH, administered 24 or 36 h after withdrawal of the CIDR device, respectively, may lower fertility. Future studies must identify the timing of administration relative to the time of CIDR device withdrawal and the optimum concentration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH that would not have untoward effects on the development of the corpus lutea, particularly within the first week of dioestrus.

  6. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

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    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  7. Follicular lymphoma (FL): Immunological tolerance theory in FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Panizo, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The ultimate cause of follicular lymphoma (FL) remains unknown. Remarkably, almost nothing is known about immunological tolerance mechanisms that might contribute to FL development. Immunological tolerance mechanisms, like other stimuli, also induce persistent changes of B cell receptors that induce genetic instability and molecular aberrations promoting the development of a neoplasm. Using the same method as Burnet, we provide a new perspective taking advantage of the comparison of a normal linear B cell differentiation process and FL development within the framework of clonal selection theory. We propose that FL is a malignancy of cells that acquire both translocation t(14;18) and self-BCR, inducing them to proliferate and mature, resistant to negative selection. Additional genetic damage induced by non-apoptotic tolerance mechanisms, such as receptor editing, may transform a self-reactive B cell with t(14;18) into an FL. The result of tolerogenic mechanisms and genetic aberrations is the survival of FL B cell clones with similar markers and homogenous gene expression signatures despite the different stages of maturation at which the molecular damage occurs. To antagonize further growth advantage due to self-antigen recognition and chronic activation of tolerance mechanisms in the apoptosis-resistant background of FL B cells, inhibitors of BCR signaling may be promising therapeutic options.

  8. Follicular helper T cell in immunity and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mesquita Jr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17 and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh. These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R, the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  9. Follicular targeting--a promising tool in selective dermatotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Mandt, Nathalie; Lademann, Juergen; Schaefer, Hans; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    The penetration of topically applied compounds varies considerably in the different regions of the human body. The presence of hair follicles significantly contributes to this effect by an increase in surface area and a disruption of the epidermal barrier towards the lower parts of the hair follicle. The human hair follicle, hereby, serves not only as a reservoir, but also as a major entry point for topically applied compounds. Topical delivery of active compounds to specific targets within the skin may help reduce side-effects caused by unspecific reactions, and may help develop new strategies in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. Various drug carrier and drug delivery systems are currently being investigated. The aim of these investigational efforts is to direct topically applied compounds to the different types of hair follicles and, ideally, to specific compartments and cell populations within the hair follicles. Follicular targeting offers opportunities for new developments, not only in hair therapy and in the treatment of hair follicle associated diseases but also in gene therapy and immunotherapy.

  10. Roxithromycin-loaded lipid nanoparticles for follicular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof; Stefanowska, Justyna; Główka, Eliza; Nowacka, Magdalena; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Govedarica, Biljana; Pasikowska, Monika; Dębowska, Renata; Jesionowski, Teofil; Srčič, Stane; Markuszewski, Michał Jan

    2015-11-30

    Particulate drug carriers e.g. nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to penetrate and accumulate preferentially in skin hair follicles creating high local concentration of a drug. In order to develop such a follicle targeting system we obtained and characterized solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with roxithromycin (ROX). The mean particle size (172±2 nm), polydisperisty index (0.237±0.007), zeta potential (-31.68±3.10 mV) and incorporation efficiency (82.1±3.0%) were measured. The long term stability of ROX-loaded SLN suspensions was proved up to 26 weeks. In vitro drug release study was performed using apparatus 4 dialysis adapters. Skin irritation test conducted using the EpiDerm™ tissue model demonstrated no irritation potential for ROX-loaded SLN. Ex vivo human skin penetration studies, employing rhodamine B hexyl ester perchlorate (RBHE) as a fluorescent dye to label the particles, revealed fluorescence deep in the skin, specifically around the hair follicles up to over 1mm depth. The comparison of fluorescence intensities after application of RBHE solution and RBHE-labelled ROX-loaded SLN was done. Then cyanoacrylate follicular biopsies were obtained in vivo and analyzed for ROX content, proving the possibility of penetration to human pilosebaceous units and delivering ROX by using SLN with the size below 200 nm.

  11. Interleukin-6 expression under gravitational stress due to vibration and hypergravity in follicular thyroid cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ma

    Full Text Available It is known that exposing cell lines in vitro to parabolic flights changes their gene expression and protein production patterns. Parabolic flights and spaceflight in general are accompanied by transient hypergravity and vibration, which may impact the cells and therefore, have to be considered too. To estimate the possible impact of transient hypergravity and vibration, we investigated the effects of these forces separately using dedicated ground-based facilities. We placed follicular thyroid ML-1 and CGTH W-1 cancer cells in a specific centrifuge (MuSIC Multi Sample Incubator Centrifuge; SAHC Short Arm Human Centrifuge simulating the hypergravity phases that occur during one (P1 and 31 parabolas (P31 of parabolic flights, respectively. On the Vibraplex device, the same cell lines were treated with vibration waves corresponding to those that occur during a whole parabolic flight lasting for two hours. After the various treatments, cells were harvested and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, focusing on the genes involved in forming (ACTB, MYO9, TUBB, VIM, TLN1, and ITGB1 and modulating (EZR, RDX, and MSN the cytoskeleton, as well as those encoding growth factors (EGF, CTGF, IL6, and IL8 or protein kinases (PRKAA1 and PRKCA. The analysis revealed alterations in several genes in both cell lines; however, fewer genes were affected in ML-1 than CGTH W-1 cells. Interestingly, IL6 was the only gene whose expression was changed in both cell lines by each treatment, while PKCA transcription remained unaffected in all experiments. We conclude that a PKCa-independent mechanism of IL6 gene activation is very sensitive to physical forces in thyroid cells cultured in vitro as monolayers.

  12. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. METHODS: Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of Pathology was examined and medical records and histopathology were reviewed. Follicular fluids were collected at the IVF-department and analyzed using zymography. RESULTS: MMP-14 and MMP-2 were increasi...

  13. RET receptor expression in thyroid follicular epithelial cell-derived tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunone, G; Uggeri, M; Mondellini, P; Pierotti, M A; Bongarzone, I

    2000-06-01

    The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for transforming growth factor-beta-related neurotrophic factors, which include GDNF and neurturin. The expression of RET proto-oncogene was detected in several tissues, such as spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, salivary gland, and spinal cord, and in several neural crest-derived cell lines. RET expression in the thyroid gland was reported to be restricted to neural crest-derived C cells. The presence of RET mRNA or protein has not yet been reported in thyroid follicular cells. We previously demonstrated the expression of oncogenic rearranged versions of RET in papillary thyroid carcinomas: tumors derived from thyroid follicular cells. To assess the expression of the normal RET proto-oncogene in follicular cells, we analyzed its expression in a panel of neoplasias originating from thyroid follicular epithelial cells: papillary carcinomas and both follicular adenomas and carcinomas. We also demonstrated the presence of RET normal transcripts in two follicular thyroid carcinoma lymph node metastases. Moreover, we found the presence of the RET/ELE1 transcript, the reciprocal complementary form of the oncogenic fusion transcript ELE1/RET, in a papillary thyroid carcinoma specimen expressing the RET/PTC3 oncogene, thus demonstrating that the RET promoter is active in those cells after rearrangement. Finally, we show that in a papillary carcinoma-derived cell line expressing the proto-RET receptor and the related GFRalpha2 co-receptor, GDNF treatment induced RET tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent signal transduction pathway, indicating that RET could be active in thyroid follicular cells.

  14. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  15. Effects of in vitro growth culture duration and prematuration culture on maturational and developmental competences of bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiping; Nagano, Masashi; Kang, Sung-Sik; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-15

    Bovine ovaries offer a large pool of oocytes that could be used for in vitro production of embryos of genetically valuable animals. The effects of in vitro growth (IVG) culture duration (10, 12, and 14 days) on the viability and growth of bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles (0.5-1 mm diameter) in this study. In addition, the effect of pre-IVM culture with phosphodiesterase inhibitor (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) on nuclear maturation of IVG oocytes was also evaluated. In experiment 1, oocyte viability observed after 10 or 12 days of IVG culture was greater (P culture. Oocyte diameters and proportions of oocytes at metaphase II stage were greater (P culture where used when compared with 10 days culture. In addition, the proportion of oocytes at metaphase II stage was greater (P culture was performed for oocytes derived from 12 and 14 days of IVG culture. When 12 and 14 days of IVG culture followed by pre-IVM culture were compared in experiment 2, cumulus cell membrane integrity was greater (P culture (24.5%) was greater (P culture was considered the optimal processing system for bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles when oocyte viability, diameter, maturation, and development competences were considered.

  16. Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as metastatic skin nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jehangir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC metastasizes most commonly to the lungs and non-cranial bones. Skull and skin are uncommon sites and usually manifest well after the diagnosis of primary malignancy. Metastasis to skull and skin as the presenting feature of FTC is infrequently reported in the literature. Case presentation: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of thyroid nodule presented with the complaint of rapidly growing skull nodules which had been present for 3 years but were stable previously. She denied any fevers, chills, history of trauma, or weight loss. She denied any history of smoking or head and neck irradiation. On physical examination, she had two non-tender gray cystic lesions – one on her left temporal region and the other on the right parietal region. Biopsy was consistent with metastatic FTC. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated 7.1×3.8 cm and 3.7×4.5 cm fairly homogeneous, enhancing, relatively well-defined masses centered in the posterior and left anterior lateral calvarium with intracranial and extracranial extensions but without any vasogenic edema or mass effect on the brain. Thyroid ultrasound showed numerous nodules in both lobes. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Histopathological studies of the thyroid gland revealed a well-differentiated FTC in the left lobe. Then she underwent resection of the tumor in multiple stages. She did not have any recurrence of the FTC or metastases during the follow-up period and will be receiving radioactive iodine treatment. Conclusion: Bone and lung are the common sites of metastasis from FTC, but involvement of skull or skin is unusual, particularly as the presenting feature. Metastases from FTC should be in the differential of patients with new osteolytic hypervascular skull lesions or cutaneous lesions in head and neck area.

  17. Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells

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    J. Scott eHale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are the subset of CD4 T helper cells that are required for generation and maintenance of germinal center reactions and the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules. Tfh cells are characterized by their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6, and their capacity to migrate to the follicle and promote germinal center B cell responses. Until recently, it remained unclear whether Tfh cells differentiated into memory cells and whether they maintain their Tfh commitment at the memory phase. This review will highlight several recent studies that support the idea of Tfh-committed CD4 T cells at the memory stage of the immune response. The implication of these findings is that memory Tfh cells retain their capacity to recall their Tfh-specific effector functions upon reactivation to provide help for B cell responses and play an important role in prime and boost vaccination or during recall responses to infection. The markers that are useful for distinguishing Tfh effector and memory cells, as well as the limitations of using these markers will be discussed. Tfh effector and memory generation, lineage maintenance, and plasticity relative to other T helper lineages (Th1, Th2, Th17, etc will also be discussed. Ongoing discoveries regarding the maintenance and lineage stability versus plasticity of memory Tfh cells will improve strategies that utilize CD4 T cell memory to modulate antibody responses during prime and boost vaccination.

  18. MicroRNAs: New Insight in Modulating Follicular Atresia: A Review

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    Tesfaye Worku

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways. Subsequent in vitro and/or in vivo studies of granulosa cells have elucidated the functional role of some miRNAs along with their molecular pathways. In particular, the regulatory roles of some miRNAs have been consistently observed during studies of follicular cellular apoptosis. Continued work should gradually lead to better understanding of the role of miRNAs in this field. Ultimately, we expect this understanding will have substantial benefits for fertility management at both the in vivo or/and in vitro levels. The stable nature of miRNA holds remarkable promise in clinical use as a diagnostic tool and in reproductive medicine to solve the ever-increasing fertility problem. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the involvement of miRNAs in follicular atresia, discuss the challenges for further work and pinpoint areas for future research.

  19. Diagnosis and reporting of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faquin, William C

    2009-03-01

    Over the past 3 decades, fine needle aspiration (FNA) has developed as the most accurate and cost-effective initial method for guiding the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules. Thyroid FNA specimens containing follicular-patterned lesions are the most commonly encountered and include various forms of benign thyroid nodules, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Based primarily upon the cytoarchitectural pattern, FNA is used as a screening test for follicular-patterned lesions to identify the majority of patients with benign nodules who can be managed without surgical intervention. The terminology and reporting of thyroid FNA results have been problematic due to significant variation between laboratories, but the recent multidisciplinary NCI Thyroid FNA State of the Science Conference has provided a seven-tiered diagnostic solution. A key element of this approach is the category "atypical cells of undetermined significance" (ACUS) which is used for those aspirates which cannot be easily classified as benign, suspicious, or malignant. Lesions in this category represent approximately 3-6% of thyroid FNAs and have a risk of malignancy intermediate between the "benign" category and the "suspicious for a follicular neoplasm" category. The recommended follow-up for an ACUS diagnosis is clinical correlation and in most cases, repeat FNA sampling.

  20. Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Follicular Neoplasms within the Same Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefika Burçak Polat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neoplasms of the thyroid gland are classified according to the cells they originate from and commonly develop from cells of follicular origin. The most common differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are papillary and follicular carcinomas. Coexistence of two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid neoplasm is a rare condition. There are previous reports of concomitant medullary and papillary thyroid cancers. However, there is scarce data about the simultaneous occurrence of the two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid tumors and this is the first study on that subject. Material and Method: From January 2007 to September 2014, our institutional database was reviewed for patients who underwent thyroid surgery for various indications. Medical records and cytopathology reports of those patients were examined retrospectively. Simultaneous neoplasms of follicular origin were noted. Results: A total of 3.700 patients were operated. Histopathological examination revealed a benign pattern in 2.686 (73% patients and a malignant pattern in 1.014 (27% patients. Among the patients with the diagnosis of DTC, only 20 (1.9% had a concomitant neoplasm within the same thyroid gland. Discussion: Such simultaneous tumors may be a part of a familial tumor syndrome or an unidentified novel gene mutation playing role in the pathogenesis of more than one type of tumor. Based on the current evidence, the synchronous occurrence of those neoplasms in a given patient is likely coincidental in the literature. Further studies on larger patient population with standardized genetic characterization are needed.

  1. MicroRNAs: New Insight in Modulating Follicular Atresia: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Tesfaye; Rehman, Zia Ur; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Bhattarai, Dinesh; Ullah, Farman; Malobi, Ngabu; Kebede, Tesfaye; Yang, Liguo

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways. Subsequent in vitro and/or in vivo studies of granulosa cells have elucidated the functional role of some miRNAs along with their molecular pathways. In particular, the regulatory roles of some miRNAs have been consistently observed during studies of follicular cellular apoptosis. Continued work should gradually lead to better understanding of the role of miRNAs in this field. Ultimately, we expect this understanding will have substantial benefits for fertility management at both the in vivo or/and in vitro levels. The stable nature of miRNA holds remarkable promise in clinical use as a diagnostic tool and in reproductive medicine to solve the ever-increasing fertility problem. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the involvement of miRNAs in follicular atresia, discuss the challenges for further work and pinpoint areas for future research. PMID:28208755

  2. Induction of follicular luteinization by equine chorionic gonadotropin in cyclic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-rong; Wang, Wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2015-12-01

    The effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on follicular development and ovulation in cyclic guinea pigs were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Three groups of guinea pigs (n=12) were administrated subcutaneously with saline, 20 or 50 IU of eCG, respectively, on cyclic Day 12 (Day 1=vaginal openings). Ovaries were collected at 4 and 8 d after administration (6 animals per group each time). The eCG administration induced significant and distinct morphological changes in the ovaries, as it promoted the luteinization of granulosa cells, but not follicular development. In addition, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were immunolocalized specifically in luteinized follicles. Our experiments together indicate that eCG administration can induce follicular luteinization but not superovulation in guinea pigs. The eCG in cyclic guinea pigs functions similar to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), but not follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

  3. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

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    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  4. Proliferation, angiogenesis and differentiation related markers in compact and follicular-compact thyroid carcinomas in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, P.; Castillo, V.A.; César, D.; Sartore, I.; Meikle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemical markers (IGF-1, IGF-1R, VEGF, FGF-2, RARα and RXR) were evaluated in healthy canine thyroid glands (n=8) and in follicular-compact (n=8) and compact thyroid carcinomas (n=8). IGF-1, IGF-1R and VEGF expression was higher in fibroblasts and endothelial cells of compact carcinoma than in healthy glands (P < 0.05). Compared to follicular-compact carcinoma, compact carcinoma had higher IGF-1R expression in fibroblasts, and higher FGF-2 expression in endothelial cells (P < 0.05). RARα expression was higher in endothelial cells of compact carcinoma than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The upregulation of these proliferation- and angiogenesis-related factors in endothelial cells and/or fibroblasts and not in follicular cells of compact carcinoma compared to healthy glands supports the relevance of stromal cells in cancer progression. PMID:28116249

  5. Localized pemphigus foliaceus exclusively involving the follicular infundibulum: a novel peau d'orange appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Chika; Akamatsu, Kana; Imai, Naho; Sumimura, Yukiko

    2011-01-01

    Localized pemphigus foliaceus (PF) clinically presents as red plaques with scale and crust due to acantholysis of the epidermis. The follicular infundibulum shows acantholysis, but usually with epidermal acantholysis or at least erosion. Localized PF exclusively involving the follicular infundibulum, which shows a peau d'orange appearance, has never been reported. We describe a patient with a red plaque and peau d'orange appearance on the cheek for 20 years. Dyskeratotic acantholysis in the follicular infundibulum was overlooked when the first biopsy specimen was obtained, and a disseminated lesion developed soon after, which led to the diagnosis. Although a peau d'orange appearance is a rare clinical manifestation of PF, PF should be considered as the differential diagnosis on the basis of this appearance, especially when the lesion persists on the face for long periods.

  6. A comparison of adrenal gland function in lactating dairy cows with or without ovarian follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, William J; McGinnis, Angela S; Hatler, T Ben

    2005-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if adrenal secretion of steroids differed between cows that formed ovarian follicular cysts and normal cycling cows. In experiment 1, lactating Jersey and Holstein cows were diagnosed as having ovarian follicular cysts (follicle diameter >or=20 mm) by rectal palpation. Following diagnosis, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography three times weekly to detect subsequent ovulation (n=8) or new cyst formation (n=9). Venous blood samples were collected daily to quantify circulating concentrations of cortisol and progesterone. The average concentration of cortisol during the 10-day period prior to ovulation was not different from the concentration prior to the formation of a new cyst. In experiment 2, secretion of cortisol and progesterone was examined in cows with ovarian follicular cysts (n=4) and cyclic, control cows in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (n=4). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was administered to cystic cows 4-7 days after new cyst formation and to cyclic cows in the follicular phase of the cycle (36 h after induction of luteolysis). Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, +10, +20, +30, +60, +90, +120, +180, +240, +300 and +360 minutes relative to ACTH administration. A rapid increase in both cortisol and progesterone was observed immediately following administration of ACTH in each treatment group. Peak concentrations of both steroids were achieved within 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Concentrations of cortisol and progesterone did not differ between cystic and cyclic cows. In summary, no differences in adrenal function were detected between normal cycling cows and cows with ovarian follicular cysts.

  7. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

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    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  8. Differentiation and diversification of follicular cells in polytrophic ovaries of crane flies (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha and Trichoceridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Marta; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

    2005-10-01

    To gain insight into the evolution of differentiation pathways that are involved in the follicular cells' morphogenesis in dipteran ovaries we have undertaken the comparative morphological analysis of the follicular cell behavior in crane flies, representatives of more ancestral nematocerous flies. This analysis revealed that initially the organization of the follicular epithelium in the species under study shows significant similarities to that reported in the ovaries of true flies (Brachycera), indicating that the ancestors of dipterans must have evolved a common and specific system of the early patterning of their follicular epithelium. On the other hand, in contrast to Drosophila and other advanced brachycerans, the follicular cells in the studied nematoceran ovaries do not exhibit any migratory activity. Instead, they were found to change their relative position but only within the epithelial layer. These "translocations" appeared to depend merely on cell shape changes. Although the "immobility" of the follicular cells in the ovaries of crane flies results in the lower number of their specialized subgroups when compared with the true flies, the functional homology between particular subsets of follicular cells can be postulated. We suggest that the anterior polar cells and the micropyle forming anterior terminal follicular cells in crane fly ovaries have their counterparts in the brachyceran anterior polar cells and border cells, respectively.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.C.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Last, J.T.; Boed, E.A. de; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. METHODS: Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of Patho

  10. UNCOMMON PRESENTATION OF FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA: WHEN CHRONIC BACK PAIN SHOULD RAISE A FLAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Milliette; Ramirez, Margarita; Lopez, Liurka; Marcos-Martinez, Maria J; Saavedra, Fanor M; Negron-Rivei, Juan C; Agosto, Marielba; Martinez, Meliza; Gonzalez, Rafael; Allende-Vigo, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, and its incidence has increased dramatically in recent years. Although it typically presents as a thyroid nodule, it can spread to distant sites via hematogenous dissemination. Spinal cord compression complicating thyroid carcinoma is rare with only few cases reported in the literature. This case illustrates a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma that showed such an aggressive behavior, and thus the importance of considering metastatic thyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain, which may possibly progress to spinal cord compression carrying severe morbidity.

  11. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... prompted many researchers to explore the transcriptome and, in recent years, also the miRNome in order to generate new molecular classifiers capable of classifying thyroid tumours more accurately than by conventional cytopathological and histopathological methods. This has led to a number of molecular...

  12. Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland

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    Harsh Mohan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle- aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.

  13. Bortezomib, Rituximab, and Dexamethasone With or Without Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Untreated or Relapsed Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia or Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell or Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Fatigue; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Therapy-Related Toxicity; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  14. Lack of Cytosolic Carboxypeptidase 1 Leads to Subfertility due to the Reduced Number of Antral Follicles in pcd3J-/- Females.

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    Ning Song

    Full Text Available Females homozygous for the Purkinje cell degeneration mutation (pcd are fertile, although the success rate is much lower than in the wild type. We performed detailed analysis of reproductive abnormalities of pcd females. The number of oocytes produced following exogenous gonadotropin treatment was much lower in pcd3J-/- females than in pcd3J+/+ females. Furthermore, the estrous cyclicity of pcd3J-/- females according to the appearance of the vagina was almost undetectable comparing to that of the wild type. Histological analyses and follicle counting of 4- and 8-week-old pcd3J-/- ovaries showed an increase in the number of secondary follicles and a decrease in the number of antral follicles, indicating that AGTPBP1/ CCP1 plays an important role in the development of secondary follicles into antral follicles. Consistent with a previous analysis of the pcd cerebellum, pcd3J-/- ovaries also showed a clear increase in the level of polyglutamylation. Gene expression analysis showed that both oocytes and cumulus cells express CCP1. However, Ccp4 and CCP6, which can compensate the function of CCP1, were not expressed in mouse ovaries. Failure of microtubule deglutamylation did not affect the structure and function of the meiotic spindle in properly aligning chromosomes in the center of the nucleus during meiosis in pcd3J-/- females. We also showed that the pituitary-derived growth and reproduction-related endocrine system functions normally in pcd3J-/- mice. The results of this study provide insight into additional functions of CCP1, which cannot be fully explained by the side chain deglutamylation of microtubules alone.

  15. LEVEL OF ESTRADIOL 17-β SERUM AND OVARIAN FOLLICULARE DYNAMICS IN SHORT ESTROUS CYCLE OF BALI CATTLE

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    C.M Airin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to confirm the short estrous cycles and determine the blood level ofestradiol 17-β and ovarian follicukar dynamics in these cases. The research was conducted using sevenBali cattle, approximately 2 years of age, kept in healthy condition with normal estrous cycles.Observation of estrus symptoms was performed daily. Ovarian follicles was examined and measuredusing ultrasonography started at the estrus day. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, bloodsample collection and ultrasonographical examination of the ovaries were performed daily in the sametime. Serum level of estradiol 17-β was performed using EIA. The short cycle estrus were observed in 4Bali cattle (n=7 among natural estrous cycle. They have only one wave ovarian follicular developmentwhereas the maximal size of ovarian follicles ovulation likes the normal cycle The duration of shortestrous cycle was 7-10 days with normal usual estrus behavior. The peak of blood serum level was107.77 ± 55.94 pg/ml when the diameter dominant follicle of short estrous cycle was reached 10.5 ±0.38 mm. It can be concluded that the short estrous cycles may occur in Bali cattle after puberty amongnormal cycles.

  16. Metastatic spinal cord compression as initial presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H; Stein, M E; Ben-Itzhak, O; Duek, D; Ravkin, A; Gaitini, D

    1998-03-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma, initially presenting as spinal cord compression due to metastatic lesions, is a less reported event. We present two cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma that led to spinal cord compression. A thorough search of the literature revealed only five similar cases. We summarize the clinical characteristics of these cases, the therapeutic measures used, their outcome, and the prognosis.

  17. HRCT features in a 5-year-old child with follicular bronchiolitis

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    Reittner, P.; Fotter, R.; Lindbichler, F.; Tillich, M. [Department of Radiology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A-8036 Graz (Austria); Varga, E.M.; Zach, M. [Department of Pediatrics, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria); Popper, H. [Department of Pathology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) is the most sensitive radiographic method to image small airways disease. We discuss the HRCT features of follicular bronchiolitis in a 5-year-old boy and correlate them with the histopathological findings. The changes described include centrilobular nodules, bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis, branching opacities and areas of reduced lung attenuation. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  18. Common Effects on Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells Exerted by Simulated Microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Benjamin; Grimm, Daniela; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on gravity-sensitive proteins of two human follicular cancer cell lines (ML-1; RO82-W-1), which were exposed to simulated microgravity (s-μg) on two different machines. Changes in protein cytoskeletal structure, growth patterns and protein expression in response to s-μg were...

  19. Rituximab purging and/or maintenance in patients undergoing autologous transplantation for relapsed follicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettengell, Ruth; Schmitz, Norbert; Gisselbrecht, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this randomized trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of rituximab as in vivo purging before transplantation and as maintenance treatment immediately after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDC-ASCT) in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma...

  20. The effects of synthetic salmon calcitonin on thyroid C and follicular cells in adult female rats

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    M. Manojlovic-Stojanoski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural and morphometric features of thyroid C and follicular cells were studied in adult rat females after treatment with synthetic salmon calcitonin (CT. The animals were chronically treated with either a low (10 IU/kg b.w or a high (100 IU/kg b.w dose of CT. A stereological method was applied to determine the volume density and the number of immunoreactive C cells. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium, colloid, interstitium and the follicles (epithelium plus colloid, as well as the index of activation rate were calculated. A significant decrease in body weight, as well as the volume density of immunoreactive C cells and the number of C cells per mm2, was observed in rats treated with both doses of CT. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium and follicles, as well as the index of activation rate were significantly increased in the animals given the high CT dose, while the volume densities of colloid and interstitium were reduced. No significant changes in the examined morphometric parameters were detected after treatment with the low CT dose. According to these results it can be concluded that the structural features of thyroid C and follicular cells were affected by the high dose CT treatment in the opposite manner, while the low dose CT treatment influenced only C cells.

  1. Effects of neonatal litter size and age on ovarian gene expression and follicular development in gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilts raised in small litters have greater ovulation rate, stay in the herd longer and produce more pigs. The objective was to understand how neonatal litter size affects gilt development. The hypothesis is that gilts reared in smaller litters have greater ovarian follicular development. Within 24 h...

  2. Change of anti-Mullerian-hormone levels during follicular phase in PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köninger, A; Koch, L; Enekwe, A; Birdir, C; Kasimir-Bauer, S; Kimmig, R; Strowitzki, T; Schmidt, B

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian-hormone (AMH) does not seem to fluctuate significantly during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. However, little is known about cycle fluctuations of AMH levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The purpose of this study was to examine AMH fluctuations during the follicular phase in PCOS patients receiving antiestrogens or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). About 40 PCOS patients diagnosed according to Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group 2003 and 19 controls were prospectively enrolled. PCOS patients received either antiestrogens or recombinant FSH for monoovulation induction and controls received antiestrogens. AMH levels were determined (1) between the 2nd and the 5th day of follicular phase and (2) when a single large dominant follicle ≥18 mm had appeared. Our study shows that AMH levels do not change during follicular development in controls as well as in PCOS patients with AMH levels PCOS patients with AMH levels ≥5 ng/ml, AMH declines significantly during follicular development (p PCOS patients without the influence of antiestrogens or exogenous FSH, because these interventions may lower AMH values in patients with high levels.

  3. Bilateral Temporal Triangular Alopecia Associated with Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis Type IV Successfully Treated with Follicular Unit Transplantation

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    Robin Unger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal triangular alopecia (TTA, also known as congenital triangular alopecia, is a nonscarring, noninflammatroy, circumscribed form of alopecia. TTA has been associated with several disorders, such as Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis. Hair restoration surgery using follicular unit transplantation has been a successful treatment modality for TTA. Herein we report such a success that was sustained for over six years.

  4. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Metastatic to the Kidney: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation

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    Vikas Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a case of a 45-year-old female who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and presented 20 years later with a left renal mass. CT-guided core biopsy was performed, and imprints and histologic sections of the biopsy showed cells resembling thyroid follicular cells with a background containing colloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1, consistent with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC. The patient later underwent radical nephrectomy; histologic sections of the resected tumor revealed an encapsulated lesion morphologically similar to the biopsy specimen. Thyroid metastases to the kidney are extremely rare and are often detected during postthyroidectomy surveillance by elevation in thyroid hormone levels, 131I scintigraphy, or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography studies. Treatment involves total thyroidectomy, resection of the metastatic foci, and 131I therapy. The differential diagnoses of renal metastasis of FTC include the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, which possesses some of the nuclear features seen in conventional PTC but may occasionally be indistinguishable from FTC in cytologic preparations, and renal lesions such as benign thyroidization of the kidney and thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney, which mimic FTC in histologic appearance but do not stain with thyroid markers.

  5. Oxidative stress in follicular fluid of young women with low response compared with fertile oocyte donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Calonge, Rocío; Cortés, Susana; Gutierrez Gonzalez, Luis Miguel; Kireev, Roman; Vara, Elena; Ortega, Leonor; Caballero, Pedro; Rancan, Lisa; Tresguerres, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines in the follicular fluid of young women with low response in ovarian stimulation cycles compared with high responders and fertile oocyte donors of the same age, to assess the impact of oxidative stress on ovarian reserve. The activity of follicular fluid antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower in young women with reduced ovarian reserve compared with that in high responders and oocyte donors. Follicular fluid concentrations of oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde combined with 4-hydroxyalkenals and nitric oxide were higher in low responders than in high responders and oocyte donors. Significant differences between low responders and donors in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor were observed, with higher concentrations in low responders. However, IL-10 concentration was lower in low responders than in high responders and donors. No significant differences were found in follicular fluid concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha between the three groups. These results demonstrate that different concentrations of oxidative stress markers, oxidant enzymes and cytokines in low responders compared with high responders and oocyte donors may negatively impact ovarian response.

  6. Follicular lymphoma in young adults: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 200 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ivison X; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Wludarski, Sheila C L; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Follicular lymphoma is clinically heterogenous, and therefore necessitates the identification of prognostic markers to stratify risk groups and optimize clinical management. It is relatively rare in patients younger than 40 years, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and biological behavior in this age group are poorly understood. In the current study, samples from a cohort of 200 patients between 19 and 40 years were evaluated retrospectively with respect to clinical, histologic, and genetic features. These were then correlated with clinical outcome. The median age at presentation was 35 years with a slight female prepoderance (56%). Most of the cases are presented with nodal disease (90%). Concomitant follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed in 7 (4%) patients. Immunohistologic studies showed the expression of CD10 (91%), BCL6 (97%), BCL2 (95%), MUM1/IRF4 (12%), MDM2 (17%), and CD23 (25%). BCL2 rearrangement was present in 74%, and BCL6 in 20%. The estimated overall survival of patients was 13 years (mean). The presence of anemia, elevated lactose dehydrogenase, bone marrow involvement, and high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index correlated with adverse overall survival. Our findings revealed that follicular lymphoma in young adults demonstrate similarities with that of older adults, including the frequency of presentation at various anatomic sites, grade, and adverse prognostic factors.

  7. Ultrasonographic Differentiation Between Nodular Hyperplasia and Neoplastic Follicular-Patterned Lesions of the Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong Sub; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Min, Hye Sook; Won, Jae-Kyung; Yun, Tae Jin; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the gray-scale ultrasonographic characteristics that differentiate between nodular hyperplasia (NH) and neoplastic follicular-patterned lesions (NFPLs) of the thyroid gland. Ultrasonographic features of 750 patients with 832 thyroid nodules (NH, n = 361; or NFPLs, follicular adenoma, n = 123; follicular carcinoma, n = 159; and follicular variant papillary carcinoma, n = 189) were analyzed. Except for echogenicity, over two-thirds of the cases of NH and NFPLs share the ultrasonographic characteristics of solid internal content, a well-defined smooth margin and round-to-ovoid shape. Independent predictors for NH were non-solid internal content (sensitivity 27.1%, specificity 90.2%), isoechogenicity (sensitivity 69.5%, specificity 63.5%) and an ill-defined margin (sensitivity 18.8%, specificity 94.5%). Independent predictors for NFPLs were hypoechogenicity (sensitivity 60.5%, specificity 70.4%), marked hypoechogenicity (sensitivity 2.8%, specificity 99.4%) and taller-than-wide shape (sensitivity 6.6%, specificity 98.1%). Although NH and NFPLs commonly share ultrasonographic characteristics, non-solid internal content and ill-defined margin are specific to NH and marked hypoechogenicity and taller-than-wide shape are specific to NFPLs.

  8. Primary Thyroid-Like Follicular Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Emerging Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney is a rare but newly emerging histological variant of renal cell carcinoma RCC, with only nine cases reported in the literature to date. We present a further case of this unique condition, discuss the workup and typical histological findings, and review the literature regarding this rare histological variant.

  9. Transcription factor achaete-scute homologue 2 initiates follicular T-helper-cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Xindong; Chen, Xin; Zhong, Bo; Wang, Aibo; Wang, Xiaohu; Chu, Fuliang; Nurieva, Roza I; Yan, Xiaowei; Chen, Ping; van der Flier, Laurens G; Nakatsukasa, Hiroko; Neelapu, Sattva S; Chen, Wanjun; Clevers, Hans; Tian, Qiang; Qi, Hai; Wei, Lai; Dong, Chen

    2014-01-01

    In immune responses, activated T cells migrate to B-cell follicles and develop into follicular T-helper (TFH) cells, a recently identified subset of CD4(+) T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes in the induction of germinal centres. Although Bcl6 has been shown to be essential in TFH

  10. Magnifying Endoscopic Features of Follicular Lymphoma Involving the Stomach: A Report of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Katsuyoshi; Kawano, Seiji; Fujii, Nobuharu; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with follicular lymphoma involving the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, bone, and lymph nodes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple depressed lesions in the stomach. Examination with magnifying endoscopy showed branched abnormal vessels along with gastric pits, which were irregularly shaped but were preserved. The second case was a 45-year-old man diagnosed with stage II1 follicular lymphoma with duodenal, ileal, and colorectal involvement, as well as lymphadenopathy of the mesenteric lymph nodes. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed six years after the diagnosis revealed multiple erosions in the gastric body and angle. Magnifying endoscopic observation with narrow-band imaging showed that the gastric pits were only partially preserved and were destroyed in most of the stomach. Branched abnormal vessels were also seen. Pathological features were consistent with follicular lymphoma in both cases. The structural differences reported between the two cases appear to reflect distinct pathologies. Disappearance of gastric pits in the latter case seems to result from loss of epithelial cells, probably due to chronic inflammation. In both cases, branched abnormal vasculature was observed. These two cases suggest that magnified observations of abnormal branched microvasculature may facilitate endoscopic detection and recognition of the extent of gastric involvement in patients with follicular lymphoma.

  11. Follicular adenomas exhibit a unique metabolic profile. ¹H NMR studies of thyroid lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Deja

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. However, more than 90% of thyroid nodules are benign. It remains unclear whether thyroid carcinoma arises from preexisting benign nodules. Metabolomics can provide valuable and comprehensive information about low molecular weight compounds present in living systems and further our understanding of the biology regulating pathological processes. Herein, we applied ¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling to identify the metabolites present in aqueous tissue extracts of healthy thyroid tissue (H, non-neoplastic nodules (NN, follicular adenomas (FA and malignant thyroid cancer (TC as an alternative way of investigating cancer lesions. Multivariate statistical methods provided clear discrimination not only between healthy thyroid tissue and pathological thyroid tissue but also between different types of thyroid lesions. Potential biomarkers common to all thyroid lesions were identified, namely, alanine, methionine, acetone, glutamate, glycine, lactate, tyrosine, phenylalanine and hypoxanthine. Metabolic changes in thyroid cancer were mainly related to osmotic regulators (taurine and scyllo- and myo-inositol, citrate, and amino acids supplying the TCA cycle. Thyroid follicular adenomas were found to display metabolic features of benign non-neoplastic nodules and simultaneously displayed a partial metabolic profile associated with malignancy. This finding allows the discrimination of follicular adenomas from benign non-neoplastic nodules and thyroid cancer with similar accuracy. Moreover, the presented data indicate that follicular adenoma could be an individual stage of thyroid cancer development.

  12. Intra-cellular mechanism of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in regulation of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Emily; Kushnir, Vitaly; Ma, Xiaoting; Biswas, Anindita; Prizant, Hen; Gleicher, Norbert; Sen, Aritro

    2016-09-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and plays a crucial role in testicular and ovarian functions. In clinical practice, AMH is used as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in women in association with ovulation induction and in various pathophysiological conditions. Despite widespread clinical use of AMH, our mechanistic understanding of AMH actions in regulating follicular development is limited. Using a mouse model, we in this study report that in vivo AMH treatment while stalls follicular development and inhibits ovulation, also prevents follicular atresia. We further show that these AMH actions are mediated through induction of two miRNAs, miR-181a and miR-181b, which regulate various aspects of FSH signaling and follicular growth, ultimately affecting downstream gene expression and folliculogenesis. We also report that in this mouse model AMH pre-treatment prior to superovulation improves oocyte yield. These studies, therefore, offer new mechanistic insight into AMH actions in folliculogenesis and point toward potential utilization of AMH as a therapeutic agent.

  13. Late bone metastasis from an apparently benign oncocytic follicular thyroid tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Mauro; Cabrera, Juan J; Perera, Carmen; Isla, Concepción; Nóvoa, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    A man underwent total thyroidectomy for goiter when he was 62 years old. The pathology report informed on a 5.5 cm oncocytic follicular adenoma and a 3.5 mm papillary microcarcinoma. Due to the papillary tumor, he was treated with ablative radioiodine therapy and suppressive doses of levothyroxine. After uneventful follow-up for 9 years, increased levels of serum thyroglobulin were detected. Further imaging studies including a whole body scan (WBS) after an empirical dose of 200 mCi 131I were negative. Two years later, a 99mTc SestaMIBI WBS and a 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron-emission tomography showed a well-delimited focal uptake in the right femur. A bone biopsy of the lesion demonstrated metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Retrospective histological reexamination of available material from the primary oncocytic thyroid tumor failed to reveal definitive traits of malignancy. Learning points Oncocytic follicular thyroid tumors are a relatively uncommon variant of follicular thyroid neoplasms mostly composed of distinctive large oxyphilic cells (Hürthle cells).Criteria for the distinction between benign and malignant oncocytic neoplasms are not different from those used in the diagnosis of ordinary follicular tumors.Some cases of apparently benign oncocytic neoplasms have been found to develop malignant behavior.Search to rule out vascular and capsular invasion should be particularly exhaustive in histological assessment of oncocytic thyroid tumors.Even so, long-term surveillance remains appropriate for patients with large apparently benign oncocytic tumors. PMID:24616777

  14. Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Huang, Yulin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Fumei; Huang, Delun; Lu, Yangqing; Liang, Xianwei; Zhang, Ming

    2016-04-29

    Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF) should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, 8 mm), a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF) were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment.

  15. Lengthened superstimulatory treatment in cattle: Evidence for rescue of follicles within a wave rather than continuous recruitment of new follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Guerra, A; Tribulo, A; Yapura, J; Adams, G P; Singh, J; Mapletoft, R J

    2015-08-01

    A study was designed to compare the effects of a conventional (4 days) versus a lengthened (7 days) superstimulation protocol on follicle dynamics and to test the hypothesis that superstimulatory treatment only rescues small follicles within the wave. Nonlactating beef cows received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device [PRID] and were superstimulated with 400-mg FSH on the day of follicle ablation-induced wave emergence (Day 0). The control group (n = 5) received FSH over 4 days, whereas the long group (n = 5) received FSH over 7 days. PGF was administered twice on Day 2 (control group) or 5 (long group), and PRIDs were removed 24 hours after the first PGF. Cows received 25-mg LH 24 hours after PRID removal. The cows chosen for the present study represented a subset from a larger group of 24 cows in which superovulation results were obtained and published. Cows in the present study were those with the lowest antral follicle counts at the time of wave emergence in order to facilitate tracking of individual follicles. Daily ultrasonographic examinations monitored follicle diameters and numbers. A reduction (P protocols rescue small antral follicles present at the time of wave emergence; there was no evidence for continuous recruitment of new follicles. Results also provide rationale for the hypothesis that a lengthened treatment protocol is associated with greater follicle maturation and capacity to ovulate.

  16. miR-31 and miR-17-5p levels change during transformation of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary Ann; Edmonds, Mick D; Liang, Shan; McClintock-Treep, Sara; Wang, Xuan; Li, Shaoying; Eischen, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    The 30% of patients whose indolent follicular lymphoma transforms to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have poor survival. Reliable predictors of follicular B-cell lymphoma transformation to DLBCL are lacking, and diagnosis of those that will progress is challenging. MicroRNA, which regulates gene expression, has critical functions in the growth and progression of many cancers and contributes to the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Using 5 paired samples from patients who presented with follicular lymphoma and progressed to DLBCL, we identified specific microRNA differentially expressed between the two. Specifically, miR-17-5p levels were low in follicular lymphoma and increased as the disease transformed. In contrast, miR-31 expression was high in follicular lymphoma and decreased as the lymphoma progressed. These results were confirmed in additional unpaired cases of low-grade follicular lymphoma (n = 13) and high-grade follicular lymphoma grade 3 or DLBCL (n = 17). Loss of miR-31 expression in DLBCL was not due to deletion of the locus. Changes in miR-17-5p and miR-31 were not correlated with immunophenotype, genetics, or status of the MYC oncogene. However, increased miR-17-5p expression did significantly correlate with increased expression of p53 protein, which is indicative of mutant TP53. Two pro-proliferative genes, E2F2 and PI3KC2A, were identified as direct messenger RNA targets of miR-31, suggesting that these may contribute to follicular lymphoma transformation. Our results indicate that changes in miR-31 and miR-17-5p reflect the transformation of follicular lymphoma to an aggressive large B-cell lymphoma and may, along with their targets, be viable markers for this process.

  17. Biochemical and hormonal analysis of follicular fluid and serum of female dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) with different sized ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M; Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M

    2015-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare some biochemical and hormonal constituents in follicular fluids and serum of female dromedary camels with different sized ovarian follicles. Therefore, follicular fluids from follicles sized 1.1-1.5cm (n=10), 1.6-2.1cm (n=10) and 2.2-2.5cm (n=10) and sera were harvested from 20 female camels. The concentrations of ascorbic acid, glucose, cholesterol and activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were not changed significantly neither in follicular fluids of all follicle sizes nor in sera of female camels with different sized follicles. The concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) in the follicular fluid of follicles sized 2.2-2.5cm were significantly lower (P<0.01) than its corresponding value in follicular fluid of other follicle sizes. The concentrations of progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), cortisol and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) remained comparable in follicular fluids of all examined different sized follicles. The concentrations of E2, P4, T3, T4, cortisol and IGF-1 were similar in the serum of camels with different sized follicles. Interestingly, mean concentrations of P4 and IGF-1 in follicular fluids were higher than their corresponding values in sera of camels with different sized follicles and the mean concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, ALP and cortisol in sera were higher than their corresponding values in follicular fluids of the examined camels. With the exception of E2, there were no significant differences in biochemical and hormonal constituents between follicular fluids from different sized follicles.

  18. Ligadura endoscópica, una nueva opción terapéutica para la ectasia vascular antral: presentación de dos casos clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Poniachik T,Jaime; Berger F,Zoltán; Manuguián G,Araxi

    2012-01-01

    Gastric antral vascular ectasia is an uncommon cause of chronic anemia, occasionally associated with cirrhosis. The most accepted therapy is argon plasma coagulation (APC), however there are refractory cases. We report two females with cirrhosis, aged 60 and 72 years, in whom management with APC was insufficient and in whom the need for hospital admissions and transfusions were reduced using the technique of endoscopic band ligation.

  19. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with nodular antritis and follicular gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is known to be the must common cause of chronic gastritis having some endoscopic and pathologic characteristies as determinated by the Sydney System for Gastritis Classification. The aim of our case report was to point out the relationship between an endoscopic finding of nodular antritis and the presence of H. pylori infection and active chronic gastritis. Case report. Our patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic complaints and was diagnosed as having nodular antritis, but also underwent urease test and hystopathologic examination of antral mucosa, to determine the presence and density of H. pylori infection and the presence and severity of gastritis. After a course of anti H. pylori treatment, dyspepsia improved and new biopsy specimens obtained two months and six months afterwards revealed no pathological findings. Conclusion. The case report supported the association of H. pylori infection of lymphoid follicles with nodular gastric mucosis.

  20. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica-Neuronal Tracing Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zalecki

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs.The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6 and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6. Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle. After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV - 7.5cm starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs

  1. Spinal cord compression as initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; Sharfuzzaman, Amsm; Mostafa, Md Golam

    2014-04-01

    Metastatic tumors are the most common tumors of the spine, accounting for 98% of all spine lesions. But spinal cord compression as the initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular carcinoma without any thyroid enlargement is unusual and relatively rare. This report describes a 35-years-old female patient presenting with paraplegia and urinary incontinence for the last two months. She had no thyroid enlargement; no thyroid related symptoms and her biochemical thyroid profile was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine shows a huge mass compressing the spinal cord at D11-D12 involving both the spinal and paraspinal areas. The patient was treated by surgery and radioiodine ablation as the histopathology showed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. This case was reported because of the rarity of the disease. Early diagnosis and initiation of the treatment should promise a good prognosis for a patient with metastatic spinal cord compression.

  2. Spinal cord compression as initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nuruzzaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors are the most common tumors of the spine, accounting for 98% of all spine lesions. But spinal cord compression as the initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular carcinoma without any thyroid enlargement is unusual and relatively rare. This report describes a 35-years-old female patient presenting with paraplegia and urinary incontinence for the last two months. She had no thyroid enlargement; no thyroid related symptoms and her biochemical thyroid profile was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of spine shows a huge mass compressing the spinal cord at D11-D12 involving both the spinal and paraspinal areas. The patient was treated by surgery and radioiodine ablation as the histopathology showed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. This case was reported because of the rarity of the disease. Early diagnosis and initiation of the treatment should promise a good prognosis for a patient with metastatic spinal cord compression.

  3. An uncommon presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma: when chronic back pain should raise a flag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Milliette; Ramirez-Vick, Margarita; Lopez, Liurka; Marcos-Martinez, Maria J; Saavedra, Fanor M; Negron-Rivera, Juan C; Agosto, Marielba; Martinez, Meliza; Gonzalez, Rafael; Allende-Vigo, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, and its incidence has increased dramatically in recent years. Although it typically presents as a thyroid nodule, it can spread to distant sites via hematogenous dissemination. Bone metastasis is diagnosed clinically in 2%-13% of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; nevertheless spinal cord compression complicating thyroid carcinoma is rare and only few cases has been reported in the literature. This case illustrates a strange case of a minimally invasive follicular carcinoma that showed an aggressive behavior, and thus the importance of considering metastatic thyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of chronic back pain progressing to spinal cord compression carrying a severe morbidity.

  4. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient\\'s age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with \\'red flag\\' symptoms.

  5. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Keohane, Catherine; Bermingham, Niamh; Kaar, George

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient's age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with 'red flag' symptoms.

  6. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction.

  7. In situ follicular neoplasia/lymphoma: Three illustrative cases exemplifying unique disease presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sakhadeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three elderly patients with follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS each highlighting a unique pattern of disease presentation and progression. The first patient had incidentally detected FLIS with peripheral blood spill and yet had an 11-year uneventful follow up. The second patient with an overt follicular lymphoma (FL developed high-grade transformation in jejunum with FLIS extensively involving the Payers patches. The third patient had a FLIS but that qualified as higher grade and was treated in spite of lack of overt FL mainly because of higher grade and patient subsequently did develop overt FL. The first case of typical FLIS confirms that peripheral blood spill does not connote poor prognosis in FLIS, the second case illustrates that FLIS may colonize mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue as part of homing in process of a disseminated FL and the third case validates the aggressive nature of high-grade FLIS.

  8. Iontophoresis of minoxidil sulphate loaded microparticles, a strategy for follicular drug targeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Barros, M Angélica de Oliveira; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Lopez, Renata F V

    2015-10-01

    The feasibility of targeting drugs to hair follicles by a combination of microencapsulation and iontophoresis has been evaluated. Minoxidil sulphate (MXS), which is used in the treatment of alopecia, was selected as a relevant drug with respect to follicular penetration. The skin permeation and disposition of MXS encapsulated in chitosan microparticles (MXS-MP) was evaluated in vitro after passive and iontophoretic delivery. Uptake of MXS was quantified at different exposure times in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles. Microencapsulation resulted in increased (6-fold) drug accumulation in the hair follicles relative to delivery from a simple MXS solution. Application of iontophoresis enhanced follicular delivery for both the solution and the microparticle formulations. It appears, therefore, that microencapsulation and iontophoresis can act synergistically to enhance topical drug targeting to hair follicles.

  9. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma with paraneoplatic pemphigus: Rare case and a brief review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saphalta Baghmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP is often a fatal autoimmune bullous disease characterized by severe stomatitis, polymorphous skin eruptions, and underlying neoplasms. We describe a patient with PNP associated with follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS, a rare neoplasm originating from follicular dendritic cells, which are non-lymphoid, non-phagocytic accessory cells of the lymphoid system and play an integral role in regulation of the germinal center reaction and present antigens to B-cells. The presence of rich vascularity around the tumor and few hyalanized vascular follicles found in histopathological examination gives the clue that the tumor might have developed from Castleman′s disease (CD. As for the mechanisms by which CD induces PNP, it has been proposed that autoantibodies secreted from the Castleman′s tumor play pivotal role. This hypothesis seems to be supported by the present case, in which CD may have triggered both the FDCS and the PNP.

  10. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Henao Giraldo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    ) and follicular carcinoma (FC). Comparison of carcinoma and adenoma with normal thyroid revealed 150 and 107 differentially expressed miRNAs. Most miRNAs were down-regulated and especially miR-199b-5p and miR-144 which were essentially lost in the carcinomas. Integration of the changed miRNAs with differentially...... expressed mRNAs demonstrated an enrichment of seed-sites among up-regulated transcripts encoding proteins implicated in thyroid tumourigenesis. This was substantiated by the demonstration that pre-miR-199b reduced proliferation when added to cultured follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. The down-regulated mi......RNAs in FC exhibited a substantial similarity with down-regulated miRNAs in anaplastic carcinoma and by gene set enrichment analysis, we observed a significant identity between target mRNAs in FC and transcripts up-regulated in anaplastic carcinoma. To examine the diagnostic potential of miRNA expression...

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Keun Yoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC and benign follicular adenoma (FA are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8-PPARG, but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%. The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non-BRAF-Non-RAS (NBNR, as well as BRAF-like and RAS-like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8-PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease.

  12. Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seong-Keun; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Su-Jin; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Byoung-Ae; Cho, Hyesun; Song, Young Shin; Cho, Sun Wook; Won, Jae-Kyung; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Park, Do Joon; Kim, Jong-Il; Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2016-08-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular adenoma (FA) are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs) and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs) and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs) to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8-PPARG), but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%). The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non-BRAF-Non-RAS (NBNR), as well as BRAF-like and RAS-like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8-PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease.

  13. Follicular Thyroid Cancer Presenting as a Pelvic Mass: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Karaca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDistant metastasis is uncommon in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC and 7% to 23% of DTC patients develop distant metastasis. The remarkably good prognosis and long-term survival in DTC are significantly reduced in patients with distant metastasis as those at the pelvic site. We report the rare case of a patient wth follicular thyroid cancer initially diagnosed as a pelvic mass. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 23-5

  14. Randomized controlled trials in relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Police, Rachel L; Trask, Peter C; Wang, Jianmin; Olivares, Robert; Khan, Shahnaz; Abbe, Adeline; Colosia, Ann; Njue, Annete; Sherril, Beth; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Kaye, James A; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    This systematic literature review evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of interventions used in relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma. Primary efficacy outcomes were objective response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival. Safety endpoints were grade 3/4 toxicities, serious adverse events and withdrawals or deaths due to toxicity. Studies were selected if they were randomized controlled trials reporting on the efficacy or safety of treatments for relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, and if outcomes were reported separately from trials that included other lymphoid neoplasms. We used the Bucher method for conducting adjusted indirect comparisons within a meta-analysis. We identified 10 randomized controlled trials of treatments for relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma. The most prominent drug investigated (alone or in combination) was rituximab. Most trials did not report median overall survival. Two trials reported median event-free survival (range, 1.2-23.2 months). Six of ten trials reported objective response rate (range, 9-93%). Meta-analysis showed only one statistically significant result: rituximab + bortezomib yielded a significantly higher objective response rate than rituximab monotherapy (relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.47). Otherwise, there were no discernable differences in overall survival or progression-free survival, partly due to insufficient reporting of results in the clinical trials. The relatively small number of randomized controlled trials, few overlapping treatment arms, and variability in the randomized controlled trial features and in the endpoints studied complicate the formal comparison of therapies for relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to fully understand the relative outcomes of older and more recently developed therapies.

  15. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: Characteristics of preoperative ultrasonography and cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to validate the ultrasonography (US) and cytopathological features that are used in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to characterize the role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis in the diagnosis of FVPTC. From May 2012 to February 2014, 40 thyroid nodules from 40 patients (mean age, 56.2 years; range, 26 to 81 years) diagnosed with FVPTC were included in this study. The US features of the nodules were analyzed and the nodules were classified as probably benign or suspicious for malignancy. Twenty-three thyroid nodules (57.5%) underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis. Clinical information and histopathologic results were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients. Thirty nodules (75.0%) were classified as suspicious for malignancy, while 10 (25.0%) were classified as probably benign. Seven of the eight nodules (87.5%) with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) cytology showed suspicious US features, while one of the two nodules (50.0%) with follicular neoplasm cytology presented suspicious US features. Five of the 23 nodules (21.7%) that underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis had positive results, all of which were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy or malignant based on cytology. None of the nodules with benign, AUS/FLUS, or follicular neoplasm cytology were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation. US features allow nodules to be classified as suspicious for malignancy, and the presence of suspicious US features in nodules with ambiguous cytology may aid in the diagnosis of FVPTC. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is of limited value in the diagnosis of FVPTC.

  16. Diagnosis of atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance: An institutional experience

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The overall malignancy rate for the thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) ranges from 5% to 30%. In this study, we present our institutional experience with thyroid nodules diagnosed as AUS/FLUS and further stratified into subcategories. In addition, we also assessed the significance of various clinicopathologic factors that may influence AUS/FLUS diagnoses and their outcomes....

  17. Diagnostic and prognostic impact of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in follicular lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dortz, Ludovic; Garin, Etienne [Eugene Marquis Anticancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Inserm U991, Rennes (France); Guibert, Sophie de; Houot, Roch [CHU Pontchaillou, Haematological Department, Rennes (France); Bayat, Sahar; Cuggia, Marc [CHU Pontchaillou, Medical Information Department, Rennes (France); Devillers, Anne; Le Jeune, Florence; Bahri, Haifa; Barge, Marie-Luce [Eugene Marquis Anticancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rennes (France); Rolland, Yan [Eugene Marquis Anticancer Centre, Medical Imaging Department, Rennes (France); Lamy, Thierry [CHU Pontchaillou, Haematological Department, Rennes (France); Inserm U917, Rennes (France)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in staging, prognosis evaluation and restaging of patients with follicular lymphoma. A retrospective study was performed on 45 patients with untreated biopsy-proven follicular lymphoma who underwent {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) and CT before and after chemoimmunotherapy induction treatment (rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). PET/CT detected more nodal (+51%) and extranodal (+89%) lesions than CT. PET/CT modified Ann Arbor staging in eight patients (18%). Five patients (11%) initially considered as being early stage (I/II) were eventually treated as advanced stage (III/IV). In this study, an initial PET/CT prognostic score was significantly more accurate than the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score in identifying patients with poor prognosis (i.e. patients with incomplete therapeutic response or early relapse). The accuracy of PET/CT for therapeutic response assessment was higher than that of CT (0.97 vs 0.64), especially due to its ability to identify inactive residual masses. In addition, post-treatment PET/CT was able to predict patients' outcomes. The median progression-free survival was 48 months in the PET/CT-negative group as compared with 17.2 months for the group with residual uptake (p < 10{sup -4}). FDG PET/CT is useful for staging and assessing the prognosis and therapeutic response of patients with follicular lymphoma. (orig.)

  18. Activation of tumor cell proliferation by thyroid hormone in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. To understand the molecular genetic events underlying thyroid carcinogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that spontaneously develops follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PV mouse). This mutant mouse harbors a dominantnegative mutated thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted PV). The PV mutation was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH). ThrbPV/PV mice exh...

  19. Involvement of insulin and growth hormone (GH) during follicular development in the bovine ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Murayama, Chiaki; Sudo, Natsuko; Kawashima, Chiho; Tetsuka, Masa; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-06-01

    Insulin and growth hormone (GH) play critical roles in the process of follicular development and maturation. However, the involvement of insulin receptor (IR) and GH receptor (GHR) during follicular development is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of IR and GHR mRNAs in the granulosa cells (GCs) and theca tissues (TCs) of the follicle at different developmental stages (preovulatory dominant follicles, POFs; estrogen-active dominant follicles, EADs; estrogen-inactive dominant follicles, EIDs; and small follicles, SFs), and second, to examine the effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) on the expression of IR and GHR genes in cultured bovine GCs. Although the concentration of insulin in follicular fluid (FF) was constant at all developmental stages, the GH concentration in FF was significantly increased in the EAD and POF compared with the EID. IR mRNA in GCs and TCs was significantly increased in the POF compared with other follicles. Regarding GHR expression, significant increases of mRNA expression were observed in GCs of EAD compared to those of SF, EID and POF. GHR mRNA in TCs was significantly decreased in the SF compared with other follicles. In cultured GCs, FSH, but not E2, stimulated the expression of IR and GHR genes. Our results suggest that the increase in the expression of GHR may be a turning point for follicles to enter the ovulatory phase during final follicular development and that the insulin system may support the maturation of preovulatory follicles.

  20. Treatment strategies for nodal and gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma:Current status and future development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takuya; Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    In recent years,therapies for follicular lymphoma (FL) have steadily improved.A series of phase Ⅲ trials comparing the effect of rituximab with chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone in treating FL have indicated significant improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival.Recent studies have found that prolonged response durations and PFS were obtained with maintenance therapy using rituximab or interferon after completion of first line therapy.For patients with relapsed or refractory FL,ph...

  1. Directed differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into thyroid follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, Maria C; Lu, Min; Kubo, Atsushi; Keller, Gordon; Davies, Terry F; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2006-06-01

    Elucidating the molecular mechanisms leading to the induction and specification of thyroid follicular cells is important for our understanding of thyroid development. To characterize the key events in this process, we previously established an experimental embryonic stem (ES) cell model system, which shows that wild-type mouse CCE ES cells can give rise to thyrocyte-like cells in vitro. We extend our analysis in this report by using a genetically manipulated ES cell line in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA is targeted to the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene, linking GFP expression to the transcription of the endogenous TSHR gene. The appearance of GFP-positive cells was dependent on the formation of embryoid bodies from undifferentiated ES cells and was greatly enhanced by TSH treatment during the first 2-4 d of differentiation. With the support of Matrigel, highly enriched ES cell-derived GFP-positive cells formed thyroid follicle-like clusters in a serum-free medium supplemented with TSH. Importantly, these clusters display the characteristics of thyroid follicular cells. Immunofluorescent studies confirmed the colocalization of TSHR with the Na+/I- symporter in the clusters and indicated that Na+/I- symporter was expressed exclusively in the plasma membrane. In addition, I- uptake activity was observed in these cells. Our results indicate that ES cells can be induced to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells, providing a powerful tool to study embryonic thyroid development and function.

  2. Mechanisms of apoptosis in irradiated and sunitinib-treated follicular thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Jirka; Warnke, Elisabeth; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Pohl, Fabian; Wise, Petra; Magnusson, Nils E; Eilles, Christoph; Grimm, Daniela

    2014-03-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sunitinib (S) seems to have promising potential in the treatment of thyroid cancer. We focused on the impact of S and/or irradiation (R) on mechanisms of apoptosis in follicular thyroid cancer cells. The effects of R, S and their combination were evaluated 2 and 4 days after treatment, using the human thyroid cancer cell line CGTH W-1. The transcription of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot analyses of caspases and survivin were also performed. S elevated BAX (day 4), CASP9, CASP3, BIRC5 (day 4) and PRKACA (day 4) gene expression, whereas the mRNAs of BCL2, CASP8, PRKCA, ERK1, and ERK2 were not significantly changed. S, R and R+S clearly induced caspase-9 protein and elevated caspase-3 activity. Survivin was down-regulated at day 4 in control cells and the expression was blunted by S treatment. R+S induced survivin expression at day 2 followed by a reduction at day 4 of treatment. Sunitinib and the combined application with radiation induced apoptosis in follicular thyroid cancer cells via the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In addition, sunitinib might induce apoptosis via decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin. These findings suggest the potential use of sunitinib for the treatment of poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas.

  3. Iontophoresis-targeted, follicular delivery of minoxidil sulfate for the treatment of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Tais; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Vianna Lopez, Renata Fonseca

    2013-05-01

    Although minoxidil (MX) is a drug known to stimulate hair growth, the treatment of androgenic alopecia could be improved by delivery strategies that would favor drug accumulation into the hair follicles. This work investigated in vitro the potential of iontophoresis to achieve this objective using MX sulfate (MXS), a more water-soluble derivative of MX. Passive delivery of MXS was first determined from an ethanol-water solution and from a thermosensitive gel. The latter formulation resulted in greater accumulation of MXS in the stratum corneum (skin's outermost layer) and hair follicles and an overall decrease in absorption through the skin. Anodal iontophoresis of MXS from the same gel formulation was then investigated at pH 3.5 and pH 5.5. Compared with passive delivery, iontophoresis increased the amount of drug reaching the follicular infundibula from 120 to 600 ng per follicle. In addition, drug recovery from follicular casts was threefold higher following iontophoresis at pH 5.5 compared with that at pH 3.5. Preliminary in vivo experiments in rats confirmed that iontophoretic delivery of MXS facilitated drug accumulation in hair follicles. Overall, therefore, iontophoresis successfully and significantly enhanced follicular delivery of MX suggesting a useful opportunity for the improved treatment of alopecia.

  4. Proteome dataset of pre-ovulatory follicular fluids from less fertile dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zachut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in Zachut et al. (2016 [1]. Proteomics data from preovulatory follicles in cows was obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry following protein extraction. Differential expression between controls and less fertile cows (LFC was quantified using MS1 intensity based label-free. The only previous proteomic analysis of bovine FF detected merely 40 proteins in follicular cysts obtained from the slaughterhouse (Maniwa et al., 2005 [2], and the abundance of proteins in the bovine preovulatory FF remains unknown. Therefore, the objectives were to establish the first dataset of FF proteome in preovulatory follicles of cows, and to examine differentially expressed proteins in FF obtained in-vivo from preovulatory follicles of less fertile cows (also termed “repeat breeder” and control (CTL cows. The proteome of FF from 10 preovulatory follicles that were aspirated in vivo (estradiol/progesterone>1 was analyzed. This novel dataset contains 219 identified and quantified proteins in FF, consisting mainly of binding proteins, proteases, receptor ligands, enzymes and transporters. In addition, differential abundance of 8 proteins relevant to follicular function was found in LFC compared to CTL; these findings are discussed in our recent research article Zachut et al. (2016 [1]. The present dataset of bovine FF proteome can be used as a reference for any study involving disorders of follicular development in dairy cows or in comparative studies between species.

  5. Mucinous Variant of Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillaci, Salvatore; Pitino, Antonio; Spairani, Cinzia; Ferrari, Mauro; Carlon, Eugenio; Cosimi, Maria Fabia

    2016-04-01

    The rare reports of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland have not provided enough evidence to support the recognition of these tumors as a distinct clinicopathologic entity or to understand their etiopathogenesis. We report the fourth case of mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma displaying a minimally invasive tumor with diffuse expression of thyroglobulin, TTF-1, CD56, PAX-8, cytokeratins 7 and 19, in the absence of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 20, chromogranin, HBME-1, P63 expression, and BRAF gene mutation, in a 51-year-old woman who is alive without signs of disease 13 months after total thyroidectomy, bilateral neck dissection, and radioactive iodine. Herein, fine-needle aspiration cytology disclosed "worrisome" cytologic features consisting of large epithelial cells arranged in clusters or singularly, with high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, nuclear grooves and evident nucleoli which were shared by those of mucin-producing papillary thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, knowledge of the cytological and histopathological spectrum of this lesion is important to avoid misdiagnosis. The morphologic clues leading to the correct diagnosis of mucinous variant of follicular neoplasm have been correlated with the data of the literature, and the differential diagnosis is briefly discussed.

  6. Somatic mutation profiling of follicular thyroid cancer by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierniak, Michal; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Stokowy, Tomasz; Rusinek, Dagmara; Chekan, Mykola; Lange, Dariusz; Krajewska, Jolanta; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Jarzab, Michal; Jarzab, Barbara; Wojtas, Bartosz

    2016-09-15

    The molecular etiology of follicular thyroid tumors is largely unknown, rendering the diagnostics of these tumors challenging. The somatic alterations present in these tumors apart from RAS gene mutations and PAX8/PPARG translocations are not well described. To evaluate the profile of somatic alteration in follicular thyroid tumors, a total of 82 thyroid tissue samples derived from 48 patients were subjected to targeted Illumina HiSeq next generation sequencing of 372 cancer-related genes. New somatic alterations were identified in oncogenes (MDM2, FLI1), transcription factors and repressors (MITF, FLI1, ZNF331), epigenetic enzymes (KMT2A, NSD1, NCOA1, NCOA2), and protein kinases (JAK3, CHEK2, ALK). Single nucleotide and large structural variants were most and least frequently identified, respectively. A novel translocation in DERL/COX6C was detected. Many somatic alterations in non-coding gene regions with high penetrance were observed. Thus, follicular thyroid tumor somatic alterations exhibit complex patterns. Most tumors contained distinct somatic alterations, suggesting previously unreported heterogeneity.

  7. Obinutuzumab: A Review in Rituximab-Refractory or -Relapsed Follicular Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2017-03-21

    Obinutuzumab (Gazyva(®), Gazyvaro(®)) is a recombinant, monoclonal, humanized and glycoengineered, type II, anti-CD20, IgG1 antibody. It has recently been granted an additional indication for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma who relapsed after, or are refractory to, a rituximab-containing regimen. In the primary analysis of the large, phase III GADOLIN study, induction therapy with obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) to a statistically significant extent relative to induction with bendamustine monotherapy in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (iNHL). The improvement in PFS was largely driven by the subgroup of patients with follicular lymphoma, who also had prolonged overall survival (OS) in a planned updated analysis. Obinutuzumab had a generally manageable tolerability profile in these patients; mild to moderate infusion-related reactions (IRRs) were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and neutropenia the most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related AEs. Although additional studies and longer-term data are needed to further assess treatment benefits with obinutuzumab, current evidence indicates that obinutuzumab is a useful treatment option for patients with rituximab-refractory or -relapsed follicular lymphoma.

  8. Follicular and scarring disorders in skin of color: presentation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Pamela; Kundu, Roopal V

    2014-08-01

    Skin of color, also known as ethnic skin, is described as skin of individuals of African, Asian, Hispanic, Native-American, Middle Eastern, and Pacific Island backgrounds. Differences in hair morphology, hair grooming, cultural practices, and susceptibility to keloid scarring exist within these populations and have been implicated in hair, scalp, and skin disorders. Acne keloidalis (AK), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA), dissecting cellulitis of the scalp (DCS), pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB), traction alopecia (TA), and keloids are the most prevalent follicular and scarring disorders in skin of color. They have been associated with disfigurement, permanent hair loss, emotional distress, and decreased quality of life. Hair grooming practices, such as the use of chemical relaxers, heat straightening, and tight braiding and weaving can cause scalp irritation and follicular damage and are linked to the pathogenesis of some of these conditions. Consequently, patient education and behavior modifications are integral to the prevention and management of these disorders. Scarring disorders are also of concern in ethnic populations. Keloid scarring is more prevalent in individuals of African, Asian, and Hispanic descent. The scarring alopecia CCCA is almost exclusively seen in patients of African descent. Therapeutic regimens such as intralesional corticosteroids, surgical excision, and laser therapy can be effective for these follicular and scarring disorders, but carry a risk of dyspigmentation and keloid scarring. Ethnic skin and hair may present unique challenges to the clinician, and knowledge of these differences is essential to providing quality care.

  9. Anti-müllerian hormone, inhibin B and antral follicle count as markers of premature ovarian failure in women with type I diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshimaa A . Abd Elatif* Sabah I . Abd Elreheem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the different markers of ovarian reserve (AMH-Inhibin B , FSH and antral follicle count (AFC in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( IDDM. Methods: We studied 30 patients with IDDM as study groups (10cases>32 years group IV and 20 cases 32 years group II and 20 healthy women as control groups (8 cases >32 years group III and 12 cases 32 years group I . Serum levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B and AMH were measured at (days 1-7 of menstrual cycle and AFC was done by trans vaginal ultrasound. Results: AMH levels were lower in IDDM patients than in controls > 32 years (2.35 2.2 versus 7.79 1.73 p0.000. Also IDDM groups showed lower levels of inhibin B. While there is no difference in the levels of FSH .. AFC is valuable for the diagnoses of premature ovarian failure in IDDM. Conclusion: Compared with FSH (AMH and inhibin B are more valuable for the diagnosis of premature ovarian aging in IDDM patients which developed earlier decline in the ovarian follicle pool compared with the healthy women and also AMH is more valuable than AFC for detection of premature ovarian failure in IDDM.

  10. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2014-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (Pgastritis.

  11. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  12. Evaluating the Degree of Conformity of Papillary Carcinoma and Follicular Carcinoma to the Reported Ultrasonographic Findings of Malignant Thyroid Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeh, Su Kyoung; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Yoen Soo [The Catholic Medial Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    We wanted to evaluate the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor. Between January 2003 and December 2004, fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 1,036 patients with palpable and nonpalpable thyroid lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings of patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 127) and follicular carcinomas (n 23) that were proven by operation or fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these nodules based on the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor: hypoechogenicity, a taller than wide orientation, a microlobulated or irregular margin, a thick hypoechoic rim (halo sign), microcalcification and cystic change. The echogenicity was hypoechoic in 72.4% (92/127) of the papillary carcinomas, but it was isoechoic in 65.2% (15/23) of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The nodule shape was tall or round in 74.1% of the papillary carcinomas, but it was flat in 72.7% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The tumor margin was microlobulated or irregular in 92.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in 60.9% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). A hypoechoic rim was seen in 26% of the papillary carcinomas (thin rim: 13.4%, thick rim: 12.6%) and in 86.6% of the follicular carcinomas (thin rim: 39.1%, thick rim: 47.8%, p < 0.001). Microcalcifications were demonstrated in 33.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in none of the cases of follicular carcinoma (p < 0.001). A solid mass without cystic change were seen in 98.4% of the papillary carcinomas and in 82.6% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The previously reported ultrasonography findings of malignant thyroid tumor are in conformity with most of the papillary carcinomas, but not with follicular carcinomas. The current ultrasonographic features for thyroid malignancy should be cautiously applied as the indication for

  13. Expression of ARE-binding proteins AUF1 and HuR in follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, B; Sekulla, C; Dralle, H; Hoang-Vu, C

    2016-01-01

    Both adenylate-uridylate rich elements binding proteins AUF1 and HuR may participate in thyroid carcinoma progression. In this study we investigated the expression of both factors on a protein level with a special focus on follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. By employment of immunofluorescence and western blot on 68 thyroid tissues including 7 goiter, 16 follicular adenoma (4 adenomatous hyperplasia), 19 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 13 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 14 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas we investigated protein expression of AUF1 and HuR. In addition to previous results we demonstrated that AUF1 and HuR are significantly up-regulated in carcinoma tissues as compared with follicular adenoma or goiter tissues. Furthermore, by evaluation of AUF1 or HuR expression, or combination of both proteins on total tissue lysates, we were able to demonstrate a significant difference between follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Overexpression of AUF1 and HuR is a common finding observed in thyroid malignancy. Analysis of the tissues obtained by surgical resection as demonstrated in this study is comparable to a fine needle aspiration and in combination with AUF1/HuR immuno-analysis may support the conventional immunohistological investigations. The promising results of this study were performed on relatively small collective, but justify future development of a quick thyroid diagnostic test on larger cohort of the patients, especially for thyroid samples which are inadequate for histological examinations.

  14. Prognostic Significance of B-cell Differentiation Genes Encoding Proteins in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma Grade 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovečki, Ana; Korać, Petra; Nola, Marin; Ivanković, Davor; Jakšić, Branimir; Dominis, Mara

    2008-01-01

    Aim To define prognostic significance of B-cell differentiation genes encoding proteins and BCL2 and BCL6 gene abnormalities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern. Methods In 53 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 20 patients with follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern the following was performed: 1) determination of protein expression of BCL6, CD10, MUM1/IRF4, CD138, and BCL2 by immunohistochemistry; 2) subclassification into germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) groups according to the results of protein expression; 3) detection of t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IgH-BCL2 and BCL6 abnormalities by fluorescent in situ hybridization in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern as well as in GCB and ABC groups; and 4) assessment of the influence of the analyzed characteristics and clinical prognostic factors on overall survival. Results Isolated BCL6 expression was more frequently found in follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern than in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (P = 0.030). There were no differences in BCL2 and BCL6 gene abnormalities between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern patients were equally distributed in GCB and ABC groups. t(14;18)(q32;q21) was more frequently recorded in GCB group, and t(14;18)(q32;q21) with BCL2 additional signals or only BCL2 and IgH additional signals in ABC group (P = 0.004). The GCB and ABC groups showed no difference in BCL6 gene abnormalities. There was no overall survival difference between the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern, however, GCB group had longer overall survival than ABC group (P

  15. Bidirectional communication between oocytes and ovarian follicular somatic cells is required for meiotic arrest of mammalian oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, Karen; Lee, Kyung-Bon; O’Brien, Marilyn J.; Peng, Jia; Matzuk, Martin M.; Eppig, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated regulation of oocyte and ovarian follicular development is essential for fertility. In particular, the progression of meiosis, a germ cell-specific cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid, must be arrested until just before ovulation. Follicular somatic cells are well-known to impose this arrest, which is essential for oocyte–follicle developmental synchrony. Follicular somatic cells sustain meiotic arrest via the natriuretic peptide C/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPPC/NPR2) system, and possibly also via high levels of the purine hypoxanthine in the follicular fluid. Upon activation by the ligand NPPC, NPR2, the predominant guanylyl cyclase in follicular somatic cells, produces cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which maintains meiotic arrest after transfer to the oocyte via gap junctions. Here we report that both the NPPC/NPR2 system and hypoxanthine require the activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme required for the production of guanylyl metabolites and cGMP. Furthermore, oocyte-derived paracrine factors, particularly the growth differentiation factor 9–bone morphogenetic protein 15 heterodimer, promote expression of Impdh and Npr2 and elevate cGMP levels in cumulus cells. Thus, although the somatic compartment of ovarian follicles plays an essential role in the maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest, as has been known for many years, this function of the somatic cells is surprisingly regulated by signals from the oocyte itself. PMID:23980176

  16. Follicular Lymphoma Tregs Have a Distinct Transcription Profile Impacting Their Migration and Retention in the Malignant Lymph Node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Nedelkovska

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs infiltrating follicular lymphoma lymph nodes are quantitatively and qualitatively different than those infiltrating normal and reactive nodes. To gain insight into how such Treg populations differ, we performed RNA sequence (RNAseq analyses on flow sorted Tregs from all three sources. We identify several molecules that could contribute to the observed increased suppressive capacity of follicular lymphoma nodal tregs, including upregulation of CTLA-4, IL-10, and GITR, all confirmed by protein expression. In addition, we identify, and confirm functionally, a novel mechanism by which Tregs target to and accumulate within a human tumor microenvironment, through the down regulation of S1PR1, SELL (L-selectin and CCR7, potentially resulting in greater lymph node retention. In addition we identify and confirm functionally the upregulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 as well as the secretion of the chemokines CXCL13 and IL-16 demonstrating the unique ability of the follicular derived Tregs to localize and accumulate within not only the malignant lymph node, but also localize and accumulate within the malignant B cell follicle itself. Such findings offer significant new insights into how follicular lymphoma nodal Tregs may contribute to the biology of follicular lymphoma and identify several novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Evaluation of follicular oxidant-antioxidant balance and oxidative damage during reproductive acyclicity in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M H Jan; G Singh; M Sarkar; G K Das; F A Khan; J Singh; S T Bashir; S Khan; J K Prasad; S Mehrotra; M C Pathak

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate changes in follicular fluid concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant capacity(TAC) and degree of oxidative damage to follicular cells, using protein carbonyl(PC) as marker of oxidative stress, were investigated during reproductive acyclicity in buffalo.Methods:Follicular fluid was aspirated from follicles grouped into three classes depending upon their diameter [small(5.0-7.0 mm), medium(7.1-10.0 mm), and large (>10.0 mm)].Progesterone and estradiol were estimated to determine functional status(P:E ratio) of the follicles.Results:Acyclic buffaloes had greater concentrations ofROS(P<0.001) andPC (P=0.0412) and lower concentrations ofTAC(P=0.0280) than cyclic buffaloes.An interesting novel finding was the complete absence of lowP:E functionally active follicles in acyclic buffaloes. Results indicated a pronounced follicular fluid oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and oxidative damage to follicular cells during acyclicity in buffalo.Conclusion:In conclusion, this study provided evidence about role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of reproductive acyclicity.

  18. Basal serum anti-müllerian hormone and antral follicle count are predictors of ovarian response forAsian women inSingapore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee Mee Ho; Tar Choon Aw; Siew Chen Hum; Shaw Ni Lee; Stephanie Fook-Chong Man Chung; Su Ling Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the basal ovarian reserve markers for prediction of poor and high responses and clinical pregnancy outcome in subfertileAsian women requiring controlled ovarian stimulation(COS) treatment inSingapore.Methods:SubfertileAsian women, aged ≤40 with basal serum follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) level of ≤12IU/L, were enrolled prospectively during routine preliminary endocrine ovarian reserve assessment prior toCOS regime for intracytoplasmic sperm insemination(ICSI) cycles.Basal serum levels of the endocrine ovarian reserve markers(anti-Müllerian hormone(AMH), estradiol,FSH, luteinizing hormone), antral follicle count(AFC) and ovarian response parameters were compared between thePoor(retrieved oocytes ≤4),Normal(retrieved oocytes,5 to19) andHighResponder(retrieved oocytes ≥20) groups of women.Results:Basal serumAMH andAFC were significantly correlated to age (r =-0.213 and -0.243, respectively) and to the number of retrieved oocytes(r=0.570 and0.523, respectively)(P<0.05).Both basal serumAMH andAFC were significant discriminators of poor response(cut-off levels of ≤2.0 ng/mL and ≤12, respectively) and for high response(AMH ≥3.2 ng/mL andAFC of ≥20, respectively) toCOS.BasalAMH was the only significant predictor for clinical pregnancy outcome,ROCAUC =0.71, cut-off level of ≥3.0 ng/mL and odds ratio of 1.42.Conclusions:Both basal serumAMH andAFC were reliable ovarian reserve markers for predicting poor and high ovarian response toCOS inAsian women.BasalAMH was the only significant predictor for clinical pregnancy outcome.

  19. Morphology and location of attached follicular cumulus-oocyte complexes in horses, cattle and llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, M R; Del Campo, C H; Mapletoft, R J; Ginther, O J

    1995-02-01

    Morphology and location of the attached cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) were studied in slaughter-house ovaries in horses (49 follicles, 9 to 44 mm), cattle (68 follicles, 6 to 18 mm), and llamas (38 follicles, 3 to 14 mm). The expected point of ovulation was marked, using the ovulation fossa in mares and the center of the projecting follicular surface in cattle and llamas. A follicle was dissected from an ovary, and tissue was removed from the follicle until the COC became visible by transillumination. However, most llama follicles protruded prominently from the ovarian surface so that dissection was not required to locate the COC. The COC was more readily recognized from the external follicular surface in mares and llamas than in cattle, primarily because of a dark oocyte. Compact COC's projected into the antrum with a smooth dome-shape in horses. The COC's in cattle were also dome-shaped but were more irregular and a few contained prominent processes. The mean diameter of the isolated follicle was calculated from 3 planes, except that in llamas the follicles were spherical so that the 3 dimensions were identical. The angle between a straight line connecting the expected ovulation site and the opposite pole and a straight line from the ovulation site to the COC was defined as the COC-location angle. This angle was chosen because it is unaltered by size of a sphere (45 degrees for a COC at the equator). The mean (+/-SEM) COC-location angle differed (P < 0.01) among horses (39.9 +/- 3.3), cattle (50.0 +/- 2.5), and llamas (64.8 +/- 2.1). In mares, the locations of the COC's did not differ from equality between follicular hemispheres, but in cattle and llamas the COC's were located with greater frequency (P < 0.05) in the hemisphere containing the expected ovulation site (cattle, 65%; llamas, 91%).

  20. The Role of Immunohistochemistry in Differential Diagnosis of Follicular Patterned Lesions of Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin YEĞEN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study we aimed to assess the role of galectin- 3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular lesions.Material and Method: Fifty-four malignant and 50 benign lesions were evaluated and classified according to World Health Organization 2004 histological classification. Galectin-3, cytokeratin 19, thyroid peroxidase and CD44v6 were performed immunohistochemically and the slides were evaluated by two independent investigators. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed for each antibody tested.Results: Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were as follows respectively: Galectin-3: 59,25%, 84% and 71,15%; Cytokeratin 19: 70%, 82% and 75,4%; Thyroid peroxidase: 61%, 70% and 65,4%; CD44v6: 20,4%, 88% and 52,9%.Conclusion: The negativity for Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin 19 can not exclude malignancy but positivity can be thought as a sign of malignant feature or potential for lesions in which there is strong suspect of malignancy. Thyroid peroxidase immunostaining failed to differantiate benign from malignant oxyphilic tumors but decreased expression can be used as a malignancy marker together with Galectin-3 and/or Cytokeratin19 positivity in suspicious cases. CD44v6 does not seem to be reliable in distinguishing benign from malignant follicular patterned thyroid lesions.In conclusion, our approach is to take as much new samples or serial sections as possible in cases without clear-cut evidence of malignancy but with histological and immunohistochemical suspicion. Follicular variant papillary carcinoma has different criteria for malignancy and it should be always kept in mind while evaluating a benign-looking lesion with immunohistochemical signs that favor malignancy.

  1. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamma RN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rehab Nabil Shamma, Mona Hassan AburahmaDepartment of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Spironolactone (SL is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6–834.3 nm and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.Keywords: spironolactone, androgenic alopecia, nanostructured lipid carriers, follicular targeting, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  2. A case of follicular mucinosis in children%儿童毛囊黏蛋白病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冲; 梁建华; 刘桂英; 许俊龙; 贾爱华

    2011-01-01

    报告1例儿童毛囊黏蛋白病.患儿男,14岁.因眉间皮肤起浸润性红斑伴眉毛部分脱落半年余就诊.皮肤科检查:眉间偏左侧一约2.5 cm × 3.0 cm浸润性红斑,其上覆少许片状鳞屑,皮损累及处眉毛缺失.皮损组织病理检查:表皮轻度角化不全,棘层增生,真皮毛囊上皮水肿、破坏,少许淋巴细胞移入,胶原间血管壁增厚,周围淋巴细胞及嗜酸性粒细胞浸润;阿新蓝染色示毛囊上皮内较多黏液样物质沉积.诊断:毛囊黏蛋白病.给予复方倍他米松注射液局部封闭治疗后,皮损消退.%A case of follicular mucinosis is reported.A 14-year-old boy presented with half a year history of facial pink infiltrated plaque associated with loss of hair.Histopathologic examination showed parakeratosis.acanthosis in the epidermis, there was a mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis around and within the affected follicles.Inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate , admixed with several eosinophils, located around the vessels.Alcian blue stain was positive within the follicular structures.A diagnosis of follicular mucinosis was finally made.He was successfully treated with intralesional compound betamethasone injection.

  3. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffer Shahab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6, and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ. It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz4 and baz815-8 alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized bazXR11 and bazEH747 null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in bazEH747 and bazXR11 while baz4 and baz815-8 show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz4 and baz815-8 alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type.

  4. Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P; Wodarz, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized baz(XR11) and baz(EH747) null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in baz(EH747) and baz(XR11) while baz(4) and baz(815) (-8) show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz(4) and baz(815-8) alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type.

  5. Multi-scale modeling of follicular ovulation as a reachability problem

    CERN Document Server

    Echenim, Nki; Sorine, Michel

    2007-01-01

    During each ovarian cycle, only a definite number of follicles ovulate, while the others undergo a degeneration process called atresia. We have designed a multi-scale mathematical model where ovulation and atresia result from a hormonal controlled selection process. A 2D-conservation law describes the age and maturity structuration of the follicular cell population. In this paper, we focus on the operating mode of the control, through the study of the characteristics of the conservation law. We describe in particular the set of microscopic initial conditions leading to the macroscopic phenomenon of either ovulation or atresia, in the framework of backwards reachable sets theory.

  6. Successful Colchicine Therapy in a Patient With Follicular Bronchiolitis Presumed to Be Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksel, Ozlem; Nart, Deniz; Ergonul, Ayse Gul; Sever, Fidan; Goksel, Tuncay

    2015-07-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis (FB) is a rare small-airway pathology that is associated mainly with connective tissue diseases. This case report presents a new, diagnosed, different airway disease in a non-smoker with rheumatoid arthritis in remission who was treated for presumed asthma, but was not controlled. She was ultimately diagnosed with FB after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The clinical findings of FB were controlled successfully by colchicine after she did not respond to systemic steroid therapy. This is the first case report of FB associated with rheumatoid arthritis that responded to colchicine.

  7. Cystic acantholytic dyskeratosis of the vulva: An unusual presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Melissa Tiangco Torres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acantholytic dyskeratosis (AD is a histologic pattern seen in Darier's disease or dyskeratosis follicularis, warty dyskeratoma, and transient AD. This pattern is characterized by suprabasilar clefting, acantholysis, and formation of corps ronds and grains. We present a case of AD that is unique based on its genital location and cystic architecture. A 53-year-old woman presented with an otherwise asymptomatic cyst on her left vulva of uncertain duration. On microscopic examination, there were fragments of cystic epithelium with areas of hypergranulosis, acantholysis, corps ronds, and corps grains formation. These features are felt by the authors to be a unique presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm.

  8. Postnatal lineage mapping of follicular melanocytes with the Tyr∷CreERT2 transgene

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Melissa L.; William J Pavan

    2012-01-01

    One of the main advantages of using inducible and conditional transgenes to study pigment cell biology is that they allow for genetic manipulation within melanocytes after roles in general neural crest or melanoblast development have been fulfilled. Specifically, we focus here on the ability of the Tyr∷CreERT2 transgenic line to alter genes within follicular melanocytes postnatally. Using the Gt(ROSA)26Sortm1sor reporter allele, we present in detail the expression and activity of Tyr∷CreERT2 ...

  9. Clinicopathological features and prognosis assessment of extranodal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To establish a model for prognosis assessment of extranodal follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma.METHODS: Nine lesions were examined by routine and molecular approaches.Clinicopathological factors from the new cases and 97 reported cases were analyzed for their prognostic values.RESULTS: The current lesions were found in f ive male and four female patients,located mainly in the head and neck area and averaging 7.2 cm in size.Six patients had recurrence or metastasis and three remained free of diseas...

  10. Ninety-four cases of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A name change to Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-like Nuclear Features would help prevent overtreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lester Dr

    2016-07-01

    Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a common thyroid gland cancer, with a highly indolent behavior. Recently, reclassification as a non-malignant neoplasm has been proposed. There is no comprehensive, community hospital based longitudinal evaluation of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ninety-four cases of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were identified in a review of all thyroid gland surgeries performed in 2002 within the Southern California Permanente Medical Group. All histology slides were reviewed and follow-up obtained. Seventy-five women and nineteen men, aged 20-80 years (mean 45.6 years), had a single (n=61), multiple (same lobe; n=20), or bilateral (n=13) tumor(s), ranging in size from 0.7 to 9.5 cm in diameter (mean 3.3 cm). Histologically, all cases demonstrated a well-formed tumor capsule, with capsular and/or lymphovascular invasion in 17 and no invasion in 77 cases. Lymph node metastases were not identified. The tumors had a follicular architecture, without necrosis or >3 mitoses/10 high-power fields (HPFs). Classical papillary thyroid carcinoma nuclear features were seen in at least three HPFs per 3 mm of tumor diameter, including enlarged, elongated, crowded, and overlapping nuclei, irregular nuclear contours, nuclear grooves, and nuclear chromatin clearing. Lobectomy alone (n=41), thyroidectomy alone (n=34), or completion thyroidectomy (n=19) was the initial treatment combined with post-op radioablative iodine in 25 patients. All patients were without evidence of disease after a median follow-up of 11.8 years. Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma showed benign behavior, supporting conservative surgery alone and reclassification of these tumors to Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-like Nuclear Features (NIFTP).

  11. From global proteome profiling to single targeted molecules of follicular fluid and oocyte: contribution to embryo development and IVF outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhalifa, Moncef; Madkour, Aicha; Louanjli, Noureddine; Bouamoud, Nouzha; Saadani, Brahim; Kaarouch, Ismail; Chahine, Hikmat; Sefrioui, Omar; Merviel, Philippe; Copin, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques for infertility management has led to the investigation of the proteome of follicular fluid and oocyte. In addition, different markers contributing to oocyte maturation and embryo development potential have been reported in the literature. Different techniques were utilized to analyze whole proteome or single protein markers in follicular fluid and oocytes, particularly in animal models. Data from several studies have generated large amounts of information, however, an ideal profile to predict the best oocytes and embryos suitable for implantation are still to be uncovered. The identification of such profiles and markers from follicular fluid, oocytes and endometrium should help scientists and clinicians develop better strategies to improving clinical outcome of IVF cycles.

  12. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  13. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-11-17

    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  14. The triage efficacy of fine needle aspiration biopsy for follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using the Bethesda reporting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Elizabeth M; Dawlett, Marilyn; Wang, Jianping; Gong, Yun; Guo, Ming

    2012-05-01

    Diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is challenging. In this retrospective review, we evaluated triage efficacy (i.e., potential for triggering surgical intervention) in 44 archived FNA biopsies of surgically confirmed FVPTC obtained between December 2006 and December 2008. We compared the original FNA diagnoses with reclassified diagnoses based on 2007 National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Bethesda recommendations, and reviewed FNA cytologic features. Original FNA diagnoses included colloid nodule (7%, 3/44), atypical follicular cells (5%, 2/44), follicular lesion (11%, 5/44), follicular neoplasm (16%, 7/44), suspicious for malignancy/PTC (27%, 12/44), and papillary thyroid carcinoma (34%, 15/44). Reclassified diagnoses included indeterminate (5%, 2/44), colloid nodule (7%, 3/44), atypical cells of undetermined significance [ACUS] (7%, 3/44), Hurthle cell neoplasm (2%, 1/44), follicular neoplasm (7%, 3/44), suspicious for malignancy/PTC (25%, 11/44), and PTC (48%, 21/44). Triage efficacy was 77% (34/44) for original diagnoses versus 82% (36/44) for reclassified FNA diagnoses. We frequently observed cytologic features of PTC, such as nuclear grooves and fine chromatin; conversely, intranuclear inclusions, though present in 77% cases, were scant. Our review findings suggest that lack of characteristic cytologic features of PTC,coexistence with other thyroid lesions, and small tumor size arethe major obstacles to FNA diagnosis of FVPTC. Reclassification of thyroid FNA diagnoses does not significantly improve triage efficacy. Furthermore, FNA diagnoses of follicular neoplasm and suspicious for malignancy are valuable in patients with FVPTC because they trigger triage toward surgical intervention.

  15. A morphometric study of antral G-cell density in a sample of adult general population: comparison of three different methods and correlation with patient demography, helicobacter pylori infection, histomorphology and circulating gastrin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Borch, Kurt; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2008-01-01

    whether these methods are intercorrelated and the relation of these methods to plasma gastrin concentrations, demography, the occurrence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Gastric antral mucosal biopsy sections from 273 adults (188 with and 85 without H pylori infection) from a general...... population sample were examined immunohistochemically for G-cells using cell counting, stereology (point counting) and computerized image analysis. Gastritis was scored according to the updated Sydney system. Basal plasma gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The three methods for G...

  16. Closure of 1.5-cm alveolar oral antral fistula with intra-alveolar sinus membrane elevation and bone morphogenetic protein-2/collagen graft followed by dental implant restoration: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Jared R; Jensen, Ole T; Beatty, Lucas; Ringeman, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Closure of a 1.5-cm oral antral fistula was done in combination with sinus floor and extraction socket grafting using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 within a collagen sponge matrix. The approach to the sinus was transalveolar, with elevation of the sinus membrane done through a molar extraction socket. Following graft placement, soft tissue repair was done with a buccal advancement flap. A dental implant was subsequently placed and restored. Peri-implant bone and implant stability were well maintained at the 1-year follow up examination.

  17. Rituximab maintenance for 2 years in patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma responding to rituximab plus chemotherapy (PRIMA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salles, Gilles; Seymour, John Francis; Offner, Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab p...

  18. Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Bortezomib, and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Low-Grade Follicular Lymphoma, Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia, or Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  19. Higher World Health Organization grades of follicular lymphoma correlate with better outcome in two Nordic Lymphoma Group trials of rituximab without chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlin, Björn Engelbrekt; Sundström, Christer; Sander, Birgitta;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A common treatment for follicular lymphoma is rituximab monotherapy. To identify patients for whom this regimen is adequate as first-line therapy, we applied the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for grading follicular lymphoma in a prospective central pathology review...

  20. Age-related differences among patients with follicular lymphoma and the importance of prognostic scoring systems : analysis from a population-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maartense, E; le Cessie, S; Kluin-Nelemans, HC; Kluin, PM; Snijder, S; Wijermans, PW; Noordijk, EM

    2002-01-01

    Background: The influence of age on the outcome of follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (FL) was studied in a population-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registry. Patients and methods: This study comprised 214 follicular lymphoma patients. Grade I/II was considered separately from grade III FL. The data w

  1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N;

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular...

  2. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  3. Two-photon microscopy for imaging germinal centers and T follicular helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatworthy, Menna R

    2015-01-01

    One of the principle features of immune cells is their dynamic nature. Lymphocytes circulate in the blood between secondary lymphoid organs and tissues in an effort to maximize the likelihood of a rapid and appropriate immune response to invading pathogens and tissue damage. Conventional experimental techniques such as histology and flow cytometry have greatly increased our understanding of immune cells, but in the last decade, two-photon microscopy has revolutionized our ability to interrogate the dynamic behavior of immune cells, a facet so critical to their function. Two-photon microscopy relies on the excitation of fluorophores by simultaneous application of two photons of longer wavelength light. This allows a greater depth of imaging with minimal photodamage. Thus, living tissues can be imaged, including immune cells in lymph nodes. This technique has been used to interrogate the events occurring in a germinal center response and the interactions between cells in the germinal center, including T follicular helper cells (Tfh), germinal center B cells, and follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Herein, a method is described by which the interactions between Tfh and B cells within a germinal center in a popliteal lymph node can be imaged in a live mouse.

  4. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neme Leandro G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

  5. Struma ovarii with follicular thyroid-type carcinoma and neuroendocrine component: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaggi Federico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Struma ovarii (SO is a slow-growing ovarian neoplasm with thyroid tissue as its predominant component. It is an uncommon neoplasm, usually asymptomatic with an unknown risk of malignant transformation. Due to difficulties in assessing the rare biological nature and the discrepancies in the reported cases, a consensus on the appropriate treatment has not been definitively reached. A 50-year-old female was subjected to upper gut endoscopy which showed a 30-mm mass located in the gastric antrum, suggestive of mesenchimal tumor. Incidentally, a pelvic CT scan also documented a solid mass in the right adnexa, with morphological characteristics of ovarian neoplasm. The patient underwent gastrectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with lymph node dissection, and omentectomy. Histology documented the presence of gastric cavernous angioma, and, in the right adnexa, foci of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine component. Here we report and discuss the clinical and morphological presentation of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO. The neoplasm was discovered incidentally and had a favorable clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up.

  6. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Nodal Metastasis in Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Jenny Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV-) PTC. Lymph node examination, however, revealed TB lymphadenitis, and the patient was given standard antimycobacterial therapy. This is the first documented case in Southeast Asia, a high TB burden region. This is also the first report involving FV-PTC, which has features between those of conventional PTC and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The case suggests that, in endemic areas, TB should be a differential in the etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in PTC patients. In developed countries, this differential diagnosis is also valuable because of the increasing incidence of HIV and TB coinfection. Proper preoperative evaluation is important and needs to be highlighted in the formulation of local guidelines.

  7. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC and mild in the theca interna (TI and externa (TE of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the reaction to CK in the GC in the cystic follicles, mainly in the luteinized cysts. The immunoreactivity for vimentin was higher in the GC from normal and cystic follicles in contrast with the other follicular structures. In the luteinized cysts, the IHCSA for vimentin was significantly higher in TI and in both observed cysts, the labeling was more accentuated in TE. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin and α-SMA was restricted to the TE, without differences between the normal and cystic follicles. The results of the current study show that the development of ovarian cysts in sows is associated to changes in the expression of the cytoskeletal proteins CK and vimentin.

  8. Expression of thyroglobulin on follicular dendritic cells of thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munemasa,Mitsuru

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Reportedly, thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is closely associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains unknown which antigen is closely associated with thyroid MALT lymphoma. We examined whether B cell response to thyroglobulin (Tg, which is a common thyroid-specific autoantigen, is related etiologically to the pathogenesis of thyroid MALT lymphoma. Expression of human Tg antigens and Cluster of differentiation (CD 35 was examined immunohistochemically in 15 cases of thyroid MALT lymphoma using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue specimens. In all cases of thyroid MALT lymphoma, human Tg was detected immunohistochemically in the follicular epithelial cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs. These FDCs were positive by double immunostaining for anti-human Tg rabbit polyclonal antibody (Ab and for CD35. Results showed that the Tg, a thyroid autoantigen, had immunostained the germinal center of the thyroid MALT lymphoma. The Tg was present in the FDCs, as revealed by the staining pattern of the germinal center;this fact was confirmed by double immunostaining of anti-human Tg mouse monoclonal Ab and anti-CD35 mouse monoclonal Ab. The results of our study suggest that Tg is an autoantigen that is recognized by thyroid MALT lymphoma cells.

  9. Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in patients with liver metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna, Małgorzata; Gołąb, Monika; Czepczyński, Rafał; Dworacki, Grzegorz; Bręborowicz, Danuta; Orłowski, Marcin; Katulska, Katarzyna; Klimowicz, Aleksandra; Gryczyńska, Maria; Ruchała, Marek; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common type of thyroid cancer (TC) and accounts for approximately 10% of all TC cases. Liver metastases are a rare presentation in 0.5-1% of follicular thyroid cancers, usually occurring in the setting of widely disseminated FTC disease, and their presence is associated with poor prognosis. Until now, there have been only 30 cases of FTC liver metastases described in the literature. Herein, we review publications and describe diagnostic tools that may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of FTC metastases to the liver, including biopsy and imaging techniques like US, CT, MRI, SPECT, PET, and radioiodine scintigraphy. We also present and discuss current methods of treatment, e.g. TSH suppressive therapy with levothyroxine, surgery, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), transarterial embolisation (TAE), liver transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE), chemotherapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin, treatment with Indium- 111-octreotide (or its analogues), and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib, sunitinib). At the end we describe the course, results of diagnostics, and treatment in a patient with large multiple FTC metastases to the liver. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (3): 332-347).

  10. HER2 Analysis in Sporadic Thyroid Cancer of Follicular Cell Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria M. Ruggeri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Epidermal Growth Factor Receoptor (EGFR family member human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is overexpressed in many human epithelial malignancies, representing a molecular target for specific anti-neoplastic drugs. Few data are available on HER2 status in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. The present study was aimed to investigate HER2 status in sporadic cancers of follicular cell origin to better clarify the role of this receptor in the stratification of thyroid cancer. By immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, HER2 expression was investigated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 90 DTC patients, 45 follicular (FTC and 45 papillary (PTC histotypes. No HER2 immunostaining was recorded in background thyroid tissue. By contrast, overall HER2 overexpression was found in 20/45 (44% FTC and 8/45 (18% PTC, with a significant difference between the two histotypes (p = 0.046. Five of the six patients who developed metastatic disease during a median nine-year follow-up had a HER2-positive tumor. Therefore, we suggest that HER2 expression may represent an additional aid to identify a subset of patients who are characterized by a worse prognosis and are potentially eligible for targeted therapy.

  11. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  12. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Nodal Metastasis in Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gregory Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous (TB lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV- PTC. Lymph node examination, however, revealed TB lymphadenitis, and the patient was given standard antimycobacterial therapy. This is the first documented case in Southeast Asia, a high TB burden region. This is also the first report involving FV-PTC, which has features between those of conventional PTC and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The case suggests that, in endemic areas, TB should be a differential in the etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in PTC patients. In developed countries, this differential diagnosis is also valuable because of the increasing incidence of HIV and TB coinfection. Proper preoperative evaluation is important and needs to be highlighted in the formulation of local guidelines.

  13. Review of factors affecting the growth and survival of follicular grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Parsley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Great strides have been made in hair restoration over the past 20 years. A better understanding of natural balding and non-balding patterns along with more respect for ageing has helped guide proper hairline design. Additionally, the use of smaller grafts has created a significantly improved natural appearance to the transplanted grafts. Inconsistent growth and survival of follicular grafts, however, has continued to be a problem that has perplexed hair restoration surgeons. This review attempts to explore the stresses affecting grafts during transplantation and some of the complexities involved in graft growth and survival. These authors reviewed the literature to determine the primary scope of aspects influencing growth and survival of follicular grafts. This scope includes patient selection, operating techniques, graft care, storage solutions and additives. The primary focus of the hair restoration surgeons should first be attention to the fundamentals of hair care, hydration, temperature, time out of body and gentle handling. Factors such as advanced storage solutions and additives can be helpful once the fundamentals have been addressed.

  14. Penetration profile of microspheres in follicular targeting of terminal hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, R; Jacobi, U; Richter, H; Lademann, J; Schaefer, H; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2004-07-01

    The transfollicular administration of pharmacologically active molecules is of current therapeutic interest, mainly with regard to delivery to specific sites of the hair follicle (HF) and the reduction of hepatic metabolism and systemic toxicity. HF are privileged pathways for specific molecules depending on formulations, which enter faster into these shunts than through the stratum corneum. The aim was to optimize the delivery of fluorescent microspheres into the HF, thereby, developing a standardized protocol for follicular targeting with microspheres. The number of HF showing penetration, as well as the depth of penetration, was determined. Freshly excised skin samples with terminal HF were divided into groups, with or without prior treatment with cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping-technique (CSSS). Thereafter microspheres at a size of 0.75-6.0 microm were applied according to the developed standardized protocol. Skin biopsies were obtained, shock-frozen, and sectioned in 5 microm slices. We demonstrated a selective penetration route of the microspheres into the HF. Optimal microsphere size proved to be approximately 1.5 microm, with a 55% rate of all HF, and with a maximum penetration depth of >2300 microm. Without previous CSSS treatment of the skin, the transfollicular microsphere penetration was below 27% with a maximum penetration depth of 1000 microm. Thus, the basis for follicular targeting of essential structures containing stem cells for keratinocytes, melanocytes, and mast cells has been laid.

  15. Follicular delivery of spironolactone via nanostructured lipid carriers for management of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Spironolactone (SL) is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of hypertension and various edematous conditions. SL has gained a lot of attention for treating androgenic alopecia due to its potent antiandrogenic properties. Recently, there has been growing interest for follicular targeting of drug molecules for treatment of hair and scalp disorders using nanocolloidal lipid-based delivery systems to minimize unnecessary systemic side effects associated with oral drug administration. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to improve SL efficiency and safety in treating alopecia through the preparation of colloidal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for follicular drug delivery. SL-loaded NLCs were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method using 23 full factorial design. All of the prepared formulations were spherical in shape with nanometric size range (215.6-834.3 nm) and entrapment efficiency >74%. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and X-ray diffractograms revealed that SL exists in amorphous form within the NLC matrices. The drug release behavior from the NLCs displayed an initial burst release phase followed by sustained release of SL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential of delivering the fluorolabeled NLCs within the follicles, suggesting the possibility of using SL-loaded NLCs for localized delivery of SL into the scalp hair follicles.

  16. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  17. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.;

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  18. Exosomal and Non-Exosomal Transport of Extra-Cellular microRNAs in Follicular Fluid: Implications for Bovine Oocyte Developmental Competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahmodul Hasan Sohel

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication within the follicle involves many signaling molecules, and this process may be mediated by secretion and uptake of exosomes that contain several bioactive molecules including extra-cellular miRNAs. Follicular fluid and cells from individual follicles of cattle were grouped based on Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB staining of the corresponding oocytes. Both Exoquick precipitation and differential ultracentrifugation were used to separate the exosome and non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid. Following miRNA isolation from both fractions, the human miRCURY LNA™ Universal RT miRNA PCR array system was used to profile miRNA expression. This analysis found that miRNAs were present in both exosomal and non-exosomal fraction of bovine follicular fluid. We found 25 miRNAs differentially expressed (16 up and 9 down in exosomes and 30 miRNAs differentially expressed (21 up and 9 down in non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid in comparison of BCB- versus BCB+ oocyte groups. Expression of selected miRNAs was detected in theca, granulosa and cumulus oocyte complex. To further explore the potential roles of these follicular fluid derived extra-cellular miRNAs, the potential target genes were predicted, and functional annotation and pathway analysis revealed most of these pathways are known regulators of follicular development and oocyte growth. In order to validate exosome mediated cell-cell communication within follicular microenvironment, we demonstrated uptake of exosomes and resulting increase of endogenous miRNA level and subsequent alteration of mRNA levels in follicular cells in vitro. This study demonstrates for the first time, the presence of exosome or non-exosome mediated transfer of miRNA in the bovine follicular fluid, and oocyte growth dependent variation in extra-cellular miRNA signatures in the follicular environment.

  19. Exosomal and Non-Exosomal Transport of Extra-Cellular microRNAs in Follicular Fluid: Implications for Bovine Oocyte Developmental Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohel, Md Mahmodul Hasan; Hoelker, Michael; Noferesti, Sina Seifi; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Rings, Franca; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Spencer, Thomas E; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell communication within the follicle involves many signaling molecules, and this process may be mediated by secretion and uptake of exosomes that contain several bioactive molecules including extra-cellular miRNAs. Follicular fluid and cells from individual follicles of cattle were grouped based on Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) staining of the corresponding oocytes. Both Exoquick precipitation and differential ultracentrifugation were used to separate the exosome and non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid. Following miRNA isolation from both fractions, the human miRCURY LNA™ Universal RT miRNA PCR array system was used to profile miRNA expression. This analysis found that miRNAs were present in both exosomal and non-exosomal fraction of bovine follicular fluid. We found 25 miRNAs differentially expressed (16 up and 9 down) in exosomes and 30 miRNAs differentially expressed (21 up and 9 down) in non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid in comparison of BCB- versus BCB+ oocyte groups. Expression of selected miRNAs was detected in theca, granulosa and cumulus oocyte complex. To further explore the potential roles of these follicular fluid derived extra-cellular miRNAs, the potential target genes were predicted, and functional annotation and pathway analysis revealed most of these pathways are known regulators of follicular development and oocyte growth. In order to validate exosome mediated cell-cell communication within follicular microenvironment, we demonstrated uptake of exosomes and resulting increase of endogenous miRNA level and subsequent alteration of mRNA levels in follicular cells in vitro. This study demonstrates for the first time, the presence of exosome or non-exosome mediated transfer of miRNA in the bovine follicular fluid, and oocyte growth dependent variation in extra-cellular miRNA signatures in the follicular environment.

  20. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  1. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  2. The Correlations of Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Antral Follicle Count in Different Age Groups of Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Barbakadze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of our study was to identify the correlations between the tests currently used in ovarian reserve assessment: anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and antral follicle count (AFC and to distinguish the most reliable markers for ovarian reserve in order to select an adequate strategy for the initial stages of infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 112 infertile women were assessed. Subjects were divided into three age groups: group I <35 years (n=39, group II 35-40 years (n=31, and group III 41-46 years (n=42. AMH, FSH and AFC were determined on days 2-3 of the patients’ menstrual cycles. Results: There was a significantly elevated negative correlation between age and AMH level (rs =-0.67, p<0.0001 and AFC (rs =-0.55, p<0.0001. We observed a significantly positive correlation between age and FSH (rs =0.38, p<0.0001. AMH negatively correlated with FSH (rs =-0.48, p<0.0001 and positively with AFC (r=- 0.71, p=0.0001. There was a moderate negative relation between FSH and AFC (r=-0.41, p=0.0001 and moderate positive relation between age and FSH (rs =0.38, p<0.0001. The correlation analysis performed in separate groups showed that AMH and AFC showed a statistically significant positive correlation for group I (r=0.57, p<0.0001, group II (r=0.69, p<0.0001 and group III (r=0.47, p<0.002. A statistically significant correlation between FSH and AMH was detected only in groups I (r=-0.41, p<0.02 and II (r=-0.55, p<0.0001. A statistically significant correlation existed between FSH and AFC only in group III (r=-0.42, p<0.006, as well as between age and AFC only in group I (r=-0.35, p<0.03. Conclusion: Currently, AMH should be considered as the more reliable of the ovarian reserve assessments tests compared to FSH. There is a strong positive correlation between serum AMH level and AFC. The use of AMH combined with AFC may improve ovarian reserve evaluation.

  3. 一氧化氮在四磨汤诱导大鼠胃窦平滑肌收缩中的作用%Effect of Nitric Oxide on Gastric Antral Smooth Muscle Contraction Induced by Simo Decoction in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴迟兵; 刘娜; 钱伟; 侯晓华

    2012-01-01

    Simo Decoction is proved to have prokinetic effect on whole digestive tract in clinical practice. Since nitric oxide (NO) is an important neurotransmitter in relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle modulated by enteric nerve system, it is presumed to be involved in the modulation of antral smooth muscle contraction by Simo Decoction. Aims: To investigate the effect of NO on gastric antral smooth muscle contraction induced by Simo Decoction in rats. Methods: Antral longitudinal and circular muscle strips of rats were isolated and treated with either consecutive concentrations of Simo Decoction (1-200 μL) or L-arginine (donor of NO, 10-4 mol/L) plus consecutive concentrations of Simo Decoction (1-200 μL). Contractile activity of the muscle strips under baseline and adding of the medication was recorded. Results: Simo Decoction dose-dependently increased the contraction of antral longitudinal and circular muscle strips (P =0.000). After L-arginine pretreatment, the dose effect curve of Simo Decoction on contractile activity of antral longitudinal and circular muscle strips was obviously shift down (L-arginine plus 5-200 μL Simo Decoction vs. 5-200 μL Simo Decoction alone, P<0.05 for all), which indicated that the excitatory effect of Simo Decoction on antral smooth muscle could be partly inhibited by NO. Contractile activity of circular muscle strips treated by L-arginine plus Simo Decoction at low to moderate concentrations (1-50 μL) was significantly lower than that of longitudinal muscle strips (P<0.05 for all). Conclusions: Simo Decoction can promote the contraction of antral smooth muscle in rats, which partly depends on inhibiting the release of NO. The excitatory effect of Simo Decoction on antral circular muscle is more dependent on inhibition of NO release when compared with that on longitudinal muscle.%临床实践显示四磨汤具有全胃肠促动力效应.鉴于一氧化氮(NO)在胃肠神经介导胃肠平滑肌松弛中起重要中介作用,

  4. Diagnostic role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for follicular lymphoma with gastrointestinal involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaya Iwamuro; Hiroyuki Okada; Katsuyoshi Takata; Katsuji Shinagawa; Shigeatsu Fujiki; Junji Shiode; Atsushi Imagawa

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the capacity for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)to evaluate patients with gastrointestinal lesions of follicular lymphoma.@@METHODS:This retrospective case series consisted of 41 patients with follicular lymphoma and gastrointestinal involvement who underwent 18F-FDG-PET and endoscopic evaluations at ten different institutions between November 1996 and October 2011.Data for endoscopic,radiological,and biological examinations performed were retrospectively reviewed from clinical records.A semi-quantitative analysis of 18F-FDG uptake was performed for each involved area by calculating the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax).Based on the positivity of 18F-FDG uptake in the gastrointestinal lesions analyzed,patients were subdivided into two groups.To identify potential predictive factors for 18F-FDG positivity,these two groups were compared with respect to gender,age at diagnosis of lymphoma,histopathological grade,pattern of follicular dendritic cells,mitotic rate,clinical stage,soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels detected by 18F-FDG-PET,lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels,hemoglobin levelsbone marrow involvement,detectability of gastrointestinal lesions by computed tomography (CT) scanningand follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) risk.@@RESULTS:Involvement of follicular lymphoma in the stomach,duodenum,jejunum,ileum,cecum,colon,and rectum was identified in 1,34,6,3,2,3,and 6patients,respectively.No patient had esophageal involvement.In total,19/41 (46.3%) patients exhibited true-positive 18F-FDG uptake in the lesions present in their gastrointestinal tract.In contrast,false-negative 18F-FDG uptake was detected in 24 patients (58.5%),while false-positive 18F-FDG uptake was detected in 5 patients (12.2%).In the former case,2/19 patients had both 18F-FDG-positive lesions and 18F-FDG-negative lesions in the gastrointestinal tract.In patients with 18F-FDG avidity,the SUVmax value of

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OOCYTE MATURITY FOR FERTILIZATION AND PRE-OVULATORY FOLLICULAR FLUID HORMONE LEVELS IN INDUCED OVULATORYCY CLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYong

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between haman oocyte matarity for fcrtilization andpre-ovulalory follicular fluid hormone levels in induced ova]story cycle by trealmcm withclomiphenz+HMG or clomiphene+HMC+HCG. 32 hours after urine LH--surge or 34

  6. Follicular lymphoma (in situ) pattern in the bone marrow: does it indicate an early stage in disease evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobeid, Bachir; Mears, John Gregory; Bhagat, Govind

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Bone marrow involvement by an isolated interstitial lymphoid aggregate exhibiting the pattern and phenotype described for follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS) has not been reported before. The detection of clinically silent FL in this case highlights the necessity of complete staging workup when such lesions are encountered in biopsies. PMID:26185645

  7. Efficacy of Asparagus recemosus (Satavar in stimulating follicular growth and ovulation in anovulatory infertility: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima Majeedi

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The effect of test drug was comparable with that of control drug in stimulating follicular growth and ovulation, though the drug was not as effective as control drug to achieve conception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 310-316

  8. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  9. Oncocytic follicular nodules of the thyroid with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: An institutional experience

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    Sule Canberk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Oncocytic follicular (OF cells can be a prominent component of fine needle aspiration (FNA specimens from neoplasms (adenomas and carcinomas and nodules arising in multinodular goiter and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT. Because OF cells can be present in non-neoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions it can be challenging to differentiate between these two in FNA specimens. The aims of this study were to determine the risk of malignancy in cases diagnosed as either oncocytic follicular neoplasm (OFN or hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule with OF on FNA and to identify clinicopathologic features that may help in predicting malignancy in such cases, especially the presence or absence of CLT. Design : We retrospectively searched the computerized laboratory information system at our institution between 1998 and 2009 for thyroid US guided FNA specimens in which the term "oncocytic/oncocytes" was mentioned in the final cytopathologic diagnosis. A total of 340 cases were selected for this study. The following data points were collected: Patient demographics, site of thyroid biopsy, size of lesion, FNA diagnosis, histopathologic follow-up and presence of CLT. Surgical pathology follow-up (SPFU was available in 269 (79% cases. Results : Two hundred and sixty patients were females and 80 males (average age 53 years. The lesion size was <3.0 cm in 241 (71% and ≥ 3.0 cm in 99 (29% cases. Cytologic diagnoses included: Follicular neoplasm with oncocytic features (FNOF 321 and suggestive of FNOF 19 cases; a secondary cytologic diagnosis of CLT was made in 20 cases. SPFU was available in 269 (79% cases; it was benign in 213 (213/267 = 79% and malignant in 56 (56/269 = 21% cases. The background thyroid showed CLT in 67 (25% cases; 24% (48/196 neoplasms occurred with versus 76% (147/196 without CLT. The rate of malignancy was lower in nodules measuring less than 3.0 cm as compared to those equal or greater than 3.0 cm in size (17% vs. 28

  10. Expression of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in mouse oocytes, eggs and ovarian follicular development

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    De Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-3-3 (YWHA proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. Seven mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3 are known (β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ and, σ. These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. We are particularly interested in the role of 14-3-3 in meiosis in mammalian eggs and the role 14-3-3 proteins may play in ovarian function. Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. Results We have determined that all of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in mouse eggs and ovarian follicular cells including oocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated oocytes and eggs confirmed the presence of all of the isoforms with characteristic differences in some of their intracellular localizations. For example, some isoforms (β, ε, γ, and ζ are expressed more prominently in peripheral cytoplasm compared to the germinal vesicles in oocytes, but are uniformly dispersed within eggs. On the other hand, 14-3-3η is diffusely dispersed in the oocyte, but attains a uniform punctate distribution in the egg with marked accumulation in the region of the meiotic spindle apparatus. Immunohistochemical staining detected all isoforms within ovarian follicles, with some similarities as well as notable differences in relative amounts, localizations and patterns of expression in multiple cell types at various stages of follicular development. Conclusions We found that mouse oocytes, eggs and follicular cells within the ovary express all seven isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein. Examination of the

  11. Hypoxia induces miR-210, leading to anti-apoptosis in ovarian follicular cells of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma

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    Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Jing-Woei; Chan, Ting-Fung [School of Life Sciences, Hong Kong Bioinformatics Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wu, Rudolf Shiu-Sun [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lai, Keng-Po, E-mail: balllai@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate hypoxia induced miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells. • We show anti-apoptotic roles of miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells under hypoxia. • Apoptotic genes (DLC1, SLK, TNFRSF10B, RBM25, and USP7) are target of miR-210. • MiR-210 is vital for ovarian follicular cells proliferation in response to hypoxia. - Abstract: Hypoxia is a major global problem that impairs reproductive functions and reduces the quality and quantity of gametes and the fertilization success of marine fish. Nevertheless, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced female reproductive impairment remains largely unknown. There is increasing evidence that miRNA is vital in regulating ovarian functions and is closely associated with female fertility in humans. Certain miRNAs that regulate apoptotic genes can be induced by hypoxia, resulting in cell apoptosis. Using primary ovarian follicular cells of the marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, as a model, we investigated the response of miR-210 to hypoxic stress in ovarian tissues to see if it would interrupt reproductive functions. A significant induction of miR-210 was found in primary ovarian follicular cells exposed to hypoxia, and gene ontology analysis further highlighted the potential roles of miR-210 in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis. A number of miR-210 target apoptotic genes, including Deleted in liver cancer 1 protein (DLC1), STE20-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (SLK), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10B), RNA binding motif protein 25 (RBM25), and Ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7), were identified. We further showed that ectopic expression of miR-210 would result in down-regulation of these apoptotic genes. On the other hand, the inhibition of miR-210 promoted apoptotic cell death and the expression of apoptotic marker – caspase 3 in follicular cells under hypoxic treatment, supporting the regulatory role of mi

  12. Effect of dietary organic zinc, manganese, copper, and cobalt supplementation on milk production, follicular growth, embryo quality, and tissue mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

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    Hackbart, K S; Ferreira, R M; Dietsche, A A; Socha, M T; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated potential effects of organic trace mineral supplementation on reproductive measures in lactating dairy cows. Cows were blocked by breed and randomly assigned at dry-off to receive inorganic trace mineral supplementation (control; n = 32) or to have a portion of supplemental inorganic Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co replaced with an equivalent amount of the organic forms of these minerals (treatment; n = 31). Trace minerals were provided through control or treatment premixes fed at 100 g·cow(-1)·d(-1). Premixes were fed to dry cows (range = 40 to 72 d before calving) in 1.8 kg·cow(-1)·d(-1) concentrate pellets through a computer feeder to provide 40, 26, 70, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively, and to lactating cows (range = 69 to 116 d after calving) in a total mixed ration to provide 22, 14, 40, and 100% of supplemented Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co, respectively. Treatment increased milk production at wk 14 (P = 0.047) postcalving, milk urea N content (P = 0.039), and BW loss from calving to 1 mo postcalving (P = 0.040), and decreased milk fat percentage (P = 0.045) and BCS (P = 0.048). Treatment tended to increase milk production at wk 13 (P = 0.089) postcalving and endometrial tissue concentrations of Fe (P = 0.070), BW at mo 1 (P = 0.056), and milk protein percentage (P = 0.064). Treatment did not affect (P > 0.1) DMI, health events, first-wave follicular dynamics, first cycle luteal measures, embryo quality, liver trace mineral concentrations, or luteal trace mineral concentrations. Cows with a rectal temperature ≥39°C at the time of AI had a smaller percentage of fertilized entities (P 0.1) by treatment. We conclude that replacing a portion of inorganic supplemental trace minerals with an equivalent amount of these organic trace minerals (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Co) increased milk production in mid-lactation, but did not affect postpartum follicular dynamics, embryo quality, or liver and luteal trace mineral concentrations.

  13. Resistin levels of serum and follicular fluid in non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome during IVF cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiu-e; HUANG He-feng; LI Mei-gen; ZHU Yi-min; QIANG Yu-li; DONG Min-yue

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To measure serum and follicular resistin, steroids hormone levels in women with PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) (BMI (body mass index)<25 kg/m2), to assess possible correlations of resistin to hormonal and metabolic parameters and to analyze the clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with PCOS and tubal infertility. Study design: We analyzed the clinical outcomes of IVF-ET in women with PCOS (BMI<25 kg/m2) and tubal infertility during the years 2002 to 2004 and compared the serum and follicular fluid resistin levels, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), testosterone (T)levels in 20 PCOS and 20 healthy, age-matched women without PCOS during IVF-stimulated cycles. The correlations between the resistin levels and the outcomes of IVF-ET were evaluated. Results: No significant differences in resistin levels of either serum or follicular fluid between PCOS and control group were found. However, resistin levels in serum were higher than that in follicular fluid in both groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that resistin levels in serum did not correlate with BMI, estradiol, LH (luteinizing hormone) and insulin level in fasting blood. No significant correlations were found between follicular fluid reisistin levels and fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate or early miscarriage rate in both PCOS and control groups.Conclusion: Our results show that resistin does not have correlation with the hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as the outcomes of IVF. These data suggest that resistin is unlikely to be a local determinant factor in steroidogenesis and growth and maturation of oocytes during IVF-ET in lean women with PCOS.

  14. Immunohistochemical expressions of fatty acid synthase and phosphorylated c-Met in thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin.

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    Liu, Jing; Brown, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy and the first cause of death among endocrine cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and c-Met are overexpressed in many types of human cancers. Recent studies have suggested a functional interaction between FASN and c-Met. However, their roles in thyroid carcinomas have not been fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated the expressions of FASN and phosphorylated (p)-c-Met by using immunohistochemistry in thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin, from 32 patients. The adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid tissue was also evaluated for comparison. Immunoreactive intensity and extensiveness were semi-quantified. The overexpression of FASN was observed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) including the classical type and tall cell, follicular, trabecular/insular and diffuse sclerosing variants, a subset of follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), and the PTC and FTC components in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). No overexpression was observed in the ATCs per se and the columnar cell, solid, and cribriform variants of PTCs. All Hürthle cell variant FTCs and non-neoplastic Hürthle cells demonstrated positive staining for FASN while the non-neoplastic follicular cells without Hürthle cell change were negative. An association in overexpression between FASN and p-c-Met was observed in the majority of carcinomas as well as in the non-neoplastic Hürthle cells. In conclusion, overexpressions of FASN and p-c-Met were observed in a subset of thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin, which may be of values for targeted therapy and predicting prognosis while the positive immunostaining for these immunomarkers may be nonspecific for Hürthle cell thyroid carcinomas.

  15. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

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    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  16. Thyrotoxicosis due to functioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma after twelve I-131 therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Xu, Wengui; Meng, Zhaowei; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Fuhai; Jia, Qiang; Liu, Xuehui

    2009-09-01

    We present a case of functioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) causing severe thyrotoxicosis despite four years 12 iodine-131 therapies (1.461 Ci cumulatively). Initially, the patient had ostalgia and fracture in the right femur. Surgery-confirmed metastatic bone FTC and thyroidectomy-confirmed FTC. One month later, iodine-131 treatment commenced. During the follow-up, different metastatic sites showed different outcomes. Lung metastases disappeared, a thigh metastasis persisted, a new metastasis in the head occurred and pelvic metastases deteriorated into a huge mass elevating thyroglobulin and causing thyrotoxicosis within 3 months. Presurgical PET/CT also demonstrated the massiveness of the pelvic metastases. Thyrotoxicosis disappeared after surgical removal of the pelvic lesion.

  17. Low-dose total body irradiation versus combination chemotherapy for lymphomas with follicular growth pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Somers, R; Sizoo, W; Glabbeke, M V; Duez, N; de Wolf-Peeters, C

    1991-10-01

    The treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with follicular growth pattern and advanced stage of disease remains controversial. Treatments varying from no initial treatment up to aggressive combination chemotherapy have been advocated. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group has performed a randomized prospective trial comparing short duration low dose total body irradiation (TBI) vs combination chemotherapy (CHVmP) + consolidation radiotherapy. Ninety-three patients were entered; of 84 evaluable patients, 44 received TBI and 40 CHVmP. Complete remission (CR) rates were 36%--TBI and 55%--CHVmP, but overall response rates were identical, 76 versus 69%. No significant difference in freedom from progression or survival was observed. No unexpected toxicity was seen. Although numbers are small, we cannot conclude that aggressive combination chemo-radiotherapy resulted in a better survival. Our analysis confirms that there is a constant risk of relapse. Other approaches should be explored if survival benefit is the ultimate goal in treatment of this patient population.

  18. UPDATE ON THE ROLE OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cabrero

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL remains incurable despite advances in new strategies of treatment, including monoclonal antibodies (MoAb. Except for early stages, FL is characterized by responses to treatments and systematic relapses. The main objective in this disease is to achieve a better progression free survival (PFS and to increase overall survival (OS, mainly in young patients. In order to improve the results of conventional chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT is a feasible treatment in these patients. In this moment, ASCT is not recommended as first line treatment, except for transformed FL, but is a good strategy as salvage therapy with an improved PFS and OS. New drugs have been introduced to enhance responses of ASCT, but nowadays they are not part of conventional conditioning regimen.

  19. UPDATE ON THE ROLE OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cabrero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Follicular lymphoma (FL remains incurable despite advances in new strategies of treatment, including monoclonal antibodies (MoAb. Except for early stages, FL is characterized by responses to treatments and systematic relapses. The main objective in this disease is to achieve a better progression free survival (PFS and to increase overall survival (OS, mainly in young patients. In order to improve the results of conventional chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT is a feasible treatment in these patients. In this moment, ASCT is not recommended as first line treatment, except for transformed FL, but is a good strategy as salvage therapy with an improved PFS and OS. New drugs have been introduced to enhance responses of ASCT, but nowadays they are not part of conventional conditioning regimen.

  20. Update on the Role of Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, Mónica; Redondo, Alba; Martin, Alejandro; Caballero, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) remains incurable despite advances in new strategies of treatment, including monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Except for early stages, FL is characterized by responses to treatments and systematic relapses. The main objective in this disease is to achieve a better progression free survival (PFS) and to increase overall survival (OS), mainly in young patients. In order to improve the results of conventional chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is a feasible treatment in these patients. In this moment, ASCT is not recommended as first line treatment, except for transformed FL, but is a good strategy as salvage therapy with an improved PFS and OS. New drugs have been introduced to enhance responses of ASCT, but nowadays they are not part of conventional conditioning regimen. PMID:23205262

  1. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: an unusual cause of thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, David Owen; Anthony, Victoria Angharad; Jones, Keston; Stephens, Jeffrey W

    2015-05-06

    Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule is rare. A further complexity is added when interpretation of the histopathology itself is not straightforward. We describe a case of a 16-year-old girl presenting with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis, and a 4 cm thyroid mass. An ultrasound and thyroid uptake scan demonstrated a toxic adenoma. Owing to the nodule size, fine needle aspiration of the thyroid adenoma was performed, which showed findings consistent with toxic adenoma. However, in view of the size of the nodule, a hemithyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination of the thyroid revealed a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, and the patient underwent completion thyroidectomy. We report on the case and briefly review the available literature relating to the diagnostic challenge of this presentation.

  2. Parotid gland carcinosarcoma with follicular dendritic cell sarcoma as mesenchymal component: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiang; ZHU Jian-shan; XU Yan-ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The WHO has classified malignant mixed tumours of salivary glands into noninvasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, invasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, carcino-sarcoma and metastasizing mixed tumour.1 Carcinosarcoma, or true malignant mixed tumour, is a tumour composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. It is an exceedingly rare tumour of the salivary glands and only about 60 cases have been reported.2 In this report we describe a case of carcinosarcoma of a parotid gland that contained an unusual mesenchymal component (follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, FDCS) in a 55-year-old man with cytological, histological and immunohistochemical findings. To our knowledge, this histological pattern has not been reported previously in the English literature.

  3. Thyroid follicular adenoma with accumulation of collagen type IV in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasako, K; Doi, T; Kanno, T; Wako, Y; Hamamura, M; Tsuchitani, M

    2014-01-01

    A thyroid tumour was identified in a 10-year-old male common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The tumour was encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue and compressed the adjacent normal thyroid. The tumour was composed of variably sized and irregularly shaped thyroid follicles lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells. Eosinophilic material at the base of the neoplastic cells stained black with periodic acid-methenamine silver and red with periodic acid-Schiff. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that this eosinophilic material was collagen type IV. Ultrastructurally, highly dense and amorphous material was observed at the base of the neoplastic cells. Small vesicles in the basolateral cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained similar material to that at the base of the cells. The tumour was diagnosed as a thyroid follicular adenoma with accumulation of collagen type IV. This is the first description of an endocrine tumour with accumulation of collagen type IV in animals.

  4. Comparative Study of Efficacy of Epidermal Melanocyte Transfer Versus Hair Follicular Melanocyte Transfer in Stable Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaparthi, Navya; Chopra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo surgery has come up a long way from punch skin grafts to epidermal cell suspension and latest to the extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension (EHFORSCS) transplantation. The progressive development from one technique to the other is always on a quest for the best. In the latest development, EHFORSCS, which is an enriched source of follicular inactive melanocyte (melanocyte stem cells), seems to be a good addition to the prevailing cell-based therapies for vitiligo. However, it needs to be explored further in larger, clinical trials. Methodology: A total of 11 patients with sixty stable vitiligo sites attending dermatology outpatient department were included for the open-labeled, prospective, comparative study. The sites were sequentially distributed into two groups of thirty each. Sites of one group were subjected to epidermal melanocyte transfer (EMT) and the others to hair follicular melanocyte transfer (HFMT). Response to treatment was evaluated on the basis of degree of repigmentation; final evaluation of area of involvement was done after completion of 6 months. Results: At the end of 6 months, repigmentation >90% was observed in 83.33% patches of EMT group and 43.33% in HFMT group. Repigmentation >75% was observed in 90% of patches in Group A and 43.34% of patches in Group B, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the overall pigmentation between these two groups. Conclusion: Both noncultured autologous epidermal cell suspension transfer and noncultured EHFORSCS transfer are safe and effective surgical modalities in the management of stable vitiligo though EMT has shown a better response in the present study. Outer root sheath cell suspension transfer is a novel, minimally invasive technique in its nascent stage in the surgical management of vitiligo which requires further larger clinical trials for evaluation of its efficacy. PMID:27904182

  5. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a report of six cases and a review of the Chinese literature

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    Wen Jifang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Goals The main purpose of this study is to broaden the clinicopathological spectrum and increase recognition of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS through analysis of the clinical and pathological features of 50 cases. Methods The clinicopathological features of total 50 cases of FDCS were analyzed including a review of 44 cases reported in Chinese literature before October 2009 and six original cases from the pathology files conducted by the authors. Results The youngest patient came under observation in this study is only seven years old. Including the cases contributed by the authors, our literary review indicated that male dominated the tumor cases (M: F = 3: 2. 28 cases (56% present with this disease in extranodal sites. Tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for the follicular dendritic cell markers CD21 (47/49, CD35 (43/45, CD23 (20/23 and CD68 (23/25. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was performed in 10 cases. Nevertheless, EBV expression was absent in all these cases. The follow-up analysis of all cases shows that 26 (81.2% patients were alive and disease free; 6 (18.8% patients were alive with recurrent disease or metastasis; and nobody had died of this disease at the time of last follow-up. Conclusions The diagnosis of the FDCS is based on the findings of morphology and immunohistochemistry. The FDCS occurred in China should be viewed and treated as a low-grade sarcoma, and the role of the EBV in the pathogenesis of this tumor is still uncertain. There is a possibility that the tumor might be racial or geographic correlated, because most cases were reported from Eastern Asia area; it's particular the case of the liver or spleen tumor.

  6. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A

    2013-04-01

    Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss.

  7. Critical appraisal of rituximab in the maintenance treatment of advanced follicular lymphoma

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    Aguiar-Bujanda D

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available David Aguiar-Bujanda, María Jesús Blanco-Sánchez, María Hernández-Sosa, Saray Galván-Ruíz, Samuel Hernández-Sarmiento Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Abstract: Rituximab is an IgG1, chimeric monoclonal antibody specifically designed to recognize the CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of normal and malignant B-lymphocytes, from the B-cell precursor to the mature B-cells of the germinal center, and by most neoplasms derived from B-cells. After 2 decades of use, rituximab is firmly positioned in the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL, both in the front line and in the relapsing disease, improving previous results by including it in classical chemotherapy regimens. However, the pharmacology of rituximab continues to generate controversial issues especially regarding the mechanisms of action in vivo. The contribution of rituximab as a maintenance treatment in FL has been significant progress in the management of this disease without an increase in side effects or a decrease in the quality of life of patients. With the widespread use of rituximab, there are new security alerts and side effects not previously detected in the pivotal trials that clinicians should learn to recognize and manage. In this article, we will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rituximab, the management issues in the treatment of advanced FL focusing on maintenance rituximab, its long-term efficacy and safety profile, and its effect on the quality of life. Keywords: follicular lymphoma, long-term efficacy, maintenance, rituximab, toxicity

  8. Effect of stress hormone antagonists on ovarian follicular development in pre-pubertal rat

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    Kalid Hamood Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of stress on pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development was studied. Fifteen day old female rats were administered under stress (exposed to maternal separation; 6 hours/day from post-natal day 15 to 21 for 7 days, and appropriate controls were maintained. The time of exposure was randomly changed every day during light phase (7AM to 7 PM of the day to avoid habituation. There was a significant decrease in serum estrogen levels on post-natal day 21 in stress group rats compared to controls indicating stress response in these rats. However, mean number of healthy follicles in all categories of follicles were significantly lower in stressed rats compared to controls. Concomitant with these changes, mean number of atreitic follicles showed an increase over control values in stressed rats. In contrast administration of Naltrexone (5μg NTX/rat/day, Mifepristone (1 μg MP/rat/day, FSH (10 IU FSH/rat/day with stressed the significant increases in the relative weight of ovary, uterus, fallopian tube, body weight and the mean number of healthy follicles in the ovary compared to the controls. In the ovary treatment of stressed did not affect primordial follicles. Primordial follicles were reduced in number significantly in the ovary of controls and treated groups when compared with the initial controls whereas there was no significant variation among the controls and the treated groups. The results indicate that stress dose not interfere with the progress of pre-pubertal follicular development. However, it causes increased loss of follicles by atretia.

  9. Follicular cell differentiation in polytrophic ovaries of a moth midge, Tinearia alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Marta; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Dipteran ovaries consist of structural-functional units termed egg chambers. Each egg chamber is composed of a cluster of germ cells enveloped by a simple somatic follicular epithelium. With the progress of oogenesis, initially an almost uniform population of follicular cells (FCs) becomes diversified into a few subgroups, which significantly differ in their function and behaviour. From the extensive genetic and molecular studies on Drosophila it became evident that the mode of diversification of FCs and the interactions between distinct FC subpopulations and the germ-line cells are essential for a proper course of oogenesis and the generation of oocyte/embryo polarity. Recent comparative studies showed that major dipteran lineages may significantly differ in the mode of FC differentiation. The most essential difference occurs in the ability of the FCs to undertake migrations within the egg chamber. In contrast to long distance, invasive migrations characteristic of distinct FC subgroups in the egg chambers of the most derived flies (Brachycera), including Drosophila, the FCs in the ovaries of more ancestral Nematocera lack migratory activity and change their location only within the epithelial layer. Comparative analyses indicate that the FCs in the representatives of particular evolutionary lineages within Nematocera may differ in their behaviour during oogenesis. In this report we describe the FC differentiation pathway in the egg chambers of a moth midge, T. alternata (Psychodomorpha). Comparison with representatives of craneflies (Nematocera: Polyneura) showed that differences in the behaviour of FCs and in the number of FC subpopulations between Polyneura and Psychodomorpha, may depend on different oogenesis dynamics. In spite of the observed differences, some functional homologies between distinct subsets of the FCs in dipteran ovaries are postulated.

  10. New insights into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus: the role of T follicular helper cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Huijuan; Wan Suigui; Xia Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the development of T follicular helper (TFH) cells and their role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis,the effect of dendritic cells (DCs) on TFH cells in SLE,as well as the potential use of TFH cells as a new therapeutic target in clinical practice.Data sources The data used in this review were retrieved mainly from the PubMed database (1989-2013).The terms used in the literature search were "T follicular helper cells," "systemic lupus erythematosus," and "dendritic cells." Study selection Relevant publications about the TFH cells development,the interaction between the TFH cells and the DCs,and the clinical applications of TFH cells were identified,retrieved,and reviewed.Results TFH cells,a novel distinct CD4+ T cell subset,are specialized in providing help to B cells in the formation of germinal centers (GCs) and long-term protective humoral immune responses.The development of TFH cells from na(i)ve CD4+ T cell is a multistep process.As the pivot of immunoregulation,DCs are indispensable for TFH cells generation.In addition to receptor-ligand interactions between TFH cells and DCs,the cytokines secreted by DCs are also necessary for TFH cell generation.TFH cell dysregulation has been implicated in the development of SLE.More evidence from animal models of SLE and SLE patients suggests that TFH cells are necessary for pathogenic autoantibody production.Therefore,therapeutically targeting TFH cells can be a promising approach to treat antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases including SLE.Conclusion TFH cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of SLE,making them attractive therapeutic targets in clinical practice.

  11. Microneedling dilates the follicular infundibulum and increases transfollicular absorption of liposomal sepia melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Serrano,1 Patricia Almudéver,2 Juan M Serrano,3 Julio Cortijo,2 Carmen Faus,1 Magda Reyes,1 Inmaculada Expósito,3 Ana Torrens,3 Fernando Millán1 1Clínica Dermatológica Serrano, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Valencia, 3Research and Development Department, Sesderma Laboratories, Valencia, Spain Abstract: Encapsulation of chemicals in liposomes and microneedling are currently used techniques to enhance the penetration of several substances through skin and hair. In this study, we apply a liposomal melanin–fluorescein compound to an ex vivo model of human skin, using a new electrical microneedling device (Nanopore turbo roller. The product was applied by hand massage (A or with the assistance of the electrical roller for 2 minutes (B. An additional test was performed free of product and with only the E-roller (C. Histological changes and product absorption were evaluated by optical and fluorescent microscopy 60 and 90 minutes after the treatment. Site B showed larger deposits of melanin–fluorescein at superficial and deep levels of hair structures in comparison to site A. Light, epidermal deposits of the melanin–fluorescein complex were also observed. Sites B and C showed a significant widening (47% of the follicular infundibulum which could explain the increased penetration of the formulation. Microneedling also removed the scales and sebum residues in the neighborhood of the infundibulum. Targeting hair follicles with melanin may be useful to dye poorly pigmented hairs, improving laser hair removal. The procedure accelerates the delivery of melanin into hair structures allowing an even absorption, larger pigment deposits, and deeper penetration of the formulation into the hair. Keywords: liposomes, melanin, microneedling, follicular infundibulum, hair removal

  12. Age-dependent role of steroids in the regulation of growth of the hen follicular wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Vladimir A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ovaries are the primary targets of senescence effects in mammalian and avian species. In the present study, relationships between reproductive aging, sex steroids and the growth pattern of the pre-ovulatory follicle wall were investigated using young hens with long clutch (YLC, old hens with long clutch (OLC, old hens with short clutch (OSC, and old hens with interrupted long clutch (OILC. Methods Experiment 1: Hens were sacrificed 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation. Experiment 2: YLC and OILC hens were sacrificed 3.5 h after treatments with LH and/or aminoglutethimide (AG, an inhibitor of steroid synthesis. Volumes of pre-ovulatory follicles (F1-F5 and plasma concentrations of ovarian steroids were determined. Experiment 3: Granulosa and theca cells from F3 follicles of OSC and/or YLC hens were exposed in vitro to estradiol-17beta (E2, testosterone (T and LH and the proliferative activity of the cells was examined using CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Assay. Results In YLC and OLC groups, the total volume of F1-F5 follicles rose between 1.5 and 14.5 h after ovulation (P 2 (P 2 and the follicular volume (P 2 (r = -0.54, P 2 enhanced proliferation of granulosa cells from YLC and OSC groups. The proliferative activity of granulosa and theca cells of YLC hens depended on the interaction between T and LH (P Conclusions These data indicate for the first time that the growth pattern of pre-ovulatory follicles during the ovulatory cycle changes in the course of reproductive aging. E2 seems to play a dual role in this adjustment; it stimulates the growth of the follicular wall in reproductive aged hens, whereas it may inhibit this process in young birds. T and LH are apparently involved in the growth regulation during the pre-ovulatory surge in young hens.

  13. Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma: a biologically distinct lymphoma with frequent MAPK pathway mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Abner; Schafernak, Kristian T; Geyer, Julia T; Kovach, Alexandra E; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Gratzinger, Dita; Roth, Christine G; Paxton, Christian N; Kim, Sunhee; Namgyal, Chungdak; Morin, Ryan; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Neuberg, Donna S; South, Sarah T; Harris, Marian H; Hasserjian, Robert P; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Garraway, Levi A; Harris, Nancy Lee; Weinstock, David M

    2016-08-25

    Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma (PTNFL) is a variant of follicular lymphoma (FL) characterized by limited-stage presentation and invariably benign behavior despite often high-grade histological appearance. It is important to distinguish PTNFL from typical FL in order to avoid unnecessary treatment; however, this distinction relies solely on clinical and pathological criteria, which may be variably applied. To define the genetic landscape of PTNFL, we performed copy number analysis and exome and/or targeted sequencing of 26 PTNFLs (16 pediatric and 10 adult). The most commonly mutated gene in PTNFL was MAP2K1, encoding MEK1, with a mutation frequency of 43%. All MAP2K1 mutations were activating missense mutations localized to exons 2 and 3, which encode negative regulatory and catalytic domains, respectively. Missense mutations in MAPK1 (2/22) and RRAS (1/22) were identified in cases that lacked MAP2K1 mutations. The second most commonly mutated gene in PTNFL was TNFRSF14, with a mutation frequency of 29%, similar to that seen in limited-stage typical FL (P = .35). PTNFL was otherwise genomically bland and specifically lacked recurrent mutations in epigenetic modifiers (eg, CREBBP, KMT2D). Copy number aberrations affected a mean of only 0.5% of PTNFL genomes, compared with 10% of limited-stage typical FL genomes (P < .02). Importantly, the mutational profiles of PTNFLs in children and adults were highly similar. Together, these findings define PTNFL as a biologically and clinically distinct indolent lymphoma of children and adults characterized by a high prevalence of MAPK pathway mutations and a near absence of mutations in epigenetic modifiers.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase activity in follicular fluid from women undergoing ovarian stimulation: role in maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Susana; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Larreategui, Zaloa; Ferrando, Marcos; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2014-10-01

    Female infertility involves an emotional impact for the woman, often leading to a state of anxiety and low self-esteem. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are used to overcome the problem of infertility. In a first step of the in vitro fertilization therapy women are subjected to an ovarian stimulation protocol to obtain mature oocytes, which will result in competent oocytes necessary for fertilization to occur. Ovarian stimulation, however, subjects the women to a high physical and psychological stress, thus being essential to improve ART and to find biomarkers of dysfunction and fertility. GSH is an important antioxidant, and is also used in detoxification reactions, catalysed by glutathione S-transferases (GST). In the present work, we have investigated the involvement of GST in follicular maturation. Patients with fertility problems and oocyte donors were recruited for the study. From each woman follicles at two stages of maturation were extracted at the preovulatory stage. Follicular fluid was separated from the oocyte by centrifugation and used as the enzyme source. GST activity was determined based on its conjugation with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene and the assay was adapted to a 96-well microplate reader. The absorbance was represented against the incubation time and the curves were adjusted to linearity (R(2)>0.990). Results showed that in both donors and patients GST activity was significantly lower in mature oocytes compared to small ones. These results suggest that GST may play a role in the follicle maturation by detoxifying xenobiotics, thus contributing to the normal development of the oocyte. Supported by FIS/FEDER (PI11/02559), Gobierno Vasco (Dep. Educación, Universiades e Investigación, IT687-13), and UPV/EHU (CLUMBER UFI11/20 and PES13/58). The work was approved by the Ethics Committee of the UPV/EHU (CEISH/96/2011/RUIZLARREA), and performed according to the UPV/EHU and IVI-Bilbao agreement (Ref. 2012/01).

  15. Making waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Traveling waves propagating along surfaces play an important role for intracellular organization. Such waves can appear spontaneously in reaction-diffusion systems, but only few general criteria for their existence are known. Analyzing the dynamics of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli, Levine and Kessler (2016 New J. Phys. 18 122001) now identified a new mechanism for the emergence of traveling waves that relies on conservation laws. From their analysis one can expect traveling waves to be a generic feature of systems made of proteins that have a cytoplasmic and a membrane-bound state.

  16. Janus Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  17. 加味半夏泻心汤治疗慢性胃窦炎临床观察%Clinical Observation of Jiawei Banxiaxiexin Decoction in the Treatment of Chronic Antral Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍武

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察加味半夏泻心汤治疗慢性胃窦炎的临床疗效。方法:将120例寒热错杂型慢性胃窦炎患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,分别给予加味半夏泻心汤、斯达舒胶囊,均以30 d为一疗程。观察治疗后两组患者总有效率及治疗前后各组患者中医症候学评分,判断临床疗效。结果:治疗后,两组总有效率分别为81.67%和65.00%,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.01)。在中医症候学评分方面,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:加味半夏泻心汤对寒热错杂型慢性胃窦炎有较好的疗效。%Objective:To observe the clinical effect of Jiawei Banxiaxiexin decoction in treatment of chronic antral gastritis.Method:120 cases of chronic coldheat complex antral gastritis were randomized into treatment group and control group,treated respectively with Jiawei Banxiaxiexin decoction,Vitamin U, belladonna and aluminium capsules.To observed total efficiency of patients with evaluate the clinical effect,and Traditional Chinese Medicion(TCM) syndrome score after 30 days follow-up in the two groups.Result:After treatment,the total effective rate of treatment group(81.67%) was obviously better than that of control group(65.00%)(P<0.01).TCM symptom score between treatment group and control group showed significant differences (P<0.05).Conclusion:The therapeutic efect of Jiawei Banxiaxiexin decoction on chronic coldheat complex antral gastritis is satisfactory.

  18. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  19. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  20. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N;

    1994-01-01

    fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular......-free conditions with VIP and PHM in varying concentrations (0.1, 10, 1000 nmol/l). [3H]Thymidine incorporation in the cells and oestradiol as well as progesterone concentrations in the culture medium were measured. The mean (+/- SEM) concentrations of VIP and PHM were 6.8 +/- 0.1 and 7.7 +/- 0.8 pmol...

  2. Waves, damped wave and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Kim Dang

    2009-01-01

    We consider the wave equation in a bounded domain (eventually convex). Two kinds of inequality are described when occurs trapped ray. Applications to control theory are given. First, we link such kind of estimate with the damped wave equation and its decay rate. Next, we describe the design of an approximate control function by an iterative time reversal method.

  3. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

    2012-05-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  4. Infertile women below the age of 40 have similar anti-Müllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count compared with women of the same age with no history of infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, H. W.; Bentzen, J. G.; Thuesen, L. L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile...... patients aged 20-39 years compared with a control group of the same age with no history of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: The management of patients with a low ovarian reserve and a poor response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) remains a challenge in assisted reproductive technologies (ART......). Both AMH levels and AFC reflect the ovarian reserve and are valuable predictors of the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotrophins. However, there is a large inter-individual variation in the age-related depletion of the ovarian reserve and a broad variability in the levels of AMH and AFC compatible...

  5. Metabolism alteration in follicular niche: The nexus among intermediary metabolism, mitochondrial function, and classic polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongcui; Zhao, Yue; Li, Tianjie; Li, Min; Li, Junsheng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Classic polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a high-risk phenotype accompanied by increased risks of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities; however, the local metabolism characteristics of the ovaries and their effects on germ cell development are unclear. The present study used targeted metabolomics to detect alterations in the intermediate metabolites of follicular fluid from classic PCOS patients, and the results indicated that hyperandrogenism but not obesity induced the changed intermediate metabolites in classic PCOS patients. Regarding the direct contact, we identified mitochondrial function, redox potential, and oxidative stress in cumulus cells which were necessary to support oocyte growth before fertilization, and suggested dysfunction of mitochondria, imbalanced redox potential, and increased oxidative stress in cumulus cells of classic PCOS patients. Follicular fluid intermediary metabolic profiles provide signatures of classic PCOS ovary local metabolism and establish a close link with mitochondria dysfunction of cumulus cells, highlighting the role of metabolic signal and mitochondrial cross talk involved in the pathogenesis of classic PCOS.

  6. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions: follicular spongiosis may be characteristic of early allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    1999-01-01

    differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  7. A Rare Presentation of In Situ Mantle Cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Taverna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old gentleman presented with left groin swelling over the course of two months. Physical exam revealed nontender left inguinal adenopathy, and computed tomography scans detected multiple lymph nodes in the mesenteric, aortocaval, and right common iliac regions. An excisional lymph node biopsy was performed. Pathologic evaluation demonstrated follicular center site which stained positive for PAX5, CD20, CD10, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, and mantle zone cells. These findings demonstrated CCND1 and CD5 positivity, suggesting composite lymphoma comprising follicular lymphoma (FL with in situ mantle cell lymphoma (MCLIS. FL is known as indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, the clinical significance of a coexisting MCLIS continues to be elusive, and optimal management of these patients remains largely unknown. This case illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of composite lymphomas. This paper also discusses advances in molecular pathogenesis and lymphoma genomics which offer novel insights into these rare diseases.

  8. Comparative Study of a Novel Tool for Follicular Unit Extraction for Individuals with Afro-textured Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hair transplantation involving patients with tightly curled Afro-textured hair using follicular unit extraction (FUE) employing conventional rotary punches frequently leads to unacceptably high transection rates. These patients are unsuitable candidates for FUE hair transplantation. Transection rates were observed during FUE in a case series of 18 patients with tightly curled Afro-textured hair using different punches. Methods: Three different punches were sequentially used in patients to extract follicular units with several needle gauges until satisfactory transection rates occurred: conventional sharp and dull rotary punches, followed by a 2-pronged curved nonrotary punch. Results: In all instances, the curved nonrotary punch had the best transection rate of hair can overcome high transection rates experienced using conventional sharp or dull rotary punches. Limitations of this study include it being a small, retrospective case series, and that the new technique that could require additional training by current FUE hair transplant practitioners.

  9. [Effects of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase b/bone morphogenetic protein-15 pathway on the follicular development in the mammalian ovary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-qing; Chen, Li-yun; Zhang, Zheng-hong; wang, Zheng-chao

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, ovarian follicle is made of an oocyte with its surrounding granulosa cells and theca cells. Follicular growth and development is a highly coordinated programmable process, which guarantees the normal oocyte maturation and makes it having the fertilizing capacity. The paracrine and autocrine between oocytes and granulosa cells are essential for the follicular development to provide a suitable microenvironment. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase /protein kinase B is one of these important regulatory signaling pathways during this developmental process, and bone morphogenetic protein-15 an oocyte-specific secreted signal molecule, which regulates the follicular development by paracrine in the mammalian ovary. The present article overviewed the role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / protein kinase B signaling during the follicular development based on our previous investigation about protein kinase B /forkhead transcription factor forkhead family of transcription factors -3a, and then focused on the regulatory effects of bone morphogenetic protein-15, as a downstream signal molecule of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase / forkhead family of transcription factors -3a pathway, on ovarian follicular development, which helped to further understand the molecular mechanism regulating the follicular development and to treat ovarian diseases like infertility.

  10. Genome haploidisation with chromosome 7 retention in oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem E Corver

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC is a rare disease. We initially characterized 27 recurrent NMTC: 13 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC, 10 oncocytic follicular carcinomas (FTC-OV, and 4 non-oncocytic follicular carcinomas (FTC. A validation cohort composed of benign and malignant (both recurrent and non-recurrent thyroid tumours was subsequently analysed (n = 20. METHODS: Data from genome-wide SNP arrays and flow cytometry were combined to determine the chromosomal dosage (allelic state in these tumours, including mutation analysis of components of PIK3CA/AKT and MAPK pathways. RESULTS: All FTC-OVs showed a very distinct pattern of genomic alterations. Ten out of 10 FTC-OV cases showed near-haploidisation with or without subsequent genome endoreduplication. Near-haploidisation was seen in 5/10 as extensive chromosome-wide monosomy (allelic state [A] with near-haploid DNA indices and retention of especially chromosome 7 (seen as a heterozygous allelic state [AB]. In the remaining 5/10 chromosomal allelic states AA with near diploid DNA indices were seen with allelic state AABB of chromosome 7, suggesting endoreduplication after preceding haploidisation. The latter was supported by the presence of both near-haploid and endoreduplicated tumour fractions in some of the cases. Results were confirmed using FISH analysis. Relatively to FTC-OV limited numbers of genomic alterations were identified in other types of recurrent NMTC studied, except for chromosome 22q which showed alterations in 6 of 13 PTCs. Only two HRAS, but no mutations of EGFR or BRAF were found in FTC-OV. The validation cohort showed two additional tumours with the distinct pattern of genomic alterations (both with oncocytic features and recurrent. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that recurrent FTC-OV is frequently characterised by genome-wide DNA haploidisation, heterozygous retention of chromosome 7, and endoreduplication of a near-haploid genome. Whether normal

  11. PET/CT before autologous stem cell transplantation predicts outcome in refractory/relapsed follicular lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, Marion; Tilly, Herve [Universite de Rouen, Service d' Hematologie, Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen (France); Dupuis, Jehan; Haioun, Corinne [CHU Henri Mondor et Universite Paris-Est, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Unite Hemopathies Lymphoides, Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny (France); Mareschal, Sylvain; Dubois, Sydney [Centre Henri Becquerel, IRIB, Unite Inserm U918, Rouen (France); Julian, Anne [CHU Purpan, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Toulouse (France); Cottereau, Anne Segolene; Becker, Stephanie [Centre Henri Becquerel, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rouen (France); Oberic, Lucie; Huynh, Anne; Laurent, Guy; Ysebaert, Loic [IUCT-Oncopole, Departement d' Hematologie, Toulouse (France); Meignan, Michel [CHU Henri-Mondor, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France)

    2014-09-20

    Salvage of young patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) after R-CHOP includes salvage immunochemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Previous studies dealing with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma have shown the prognostic value of PET/CT prior to ASCT. We retrospectively analysed 59 patients with refractory/relapsed FL after first-line R-CHOP who were chemosensitive (as evaluated by CT) to the salvage treatment and who proceeded to ASCT. The role of PET/CT in this setting to define chemosensitivity is not definitely established. So we focused on the prognostic value of PET/CT performed after salvage treatment, before ASCT. The estimated 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 63.1 % (50.9-78.3 %) and 90.5 % (82.8 - 98.8 %), respectively, and did not differ significantly according to their Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index at relapse, conditioning regimen, or type of salvage. PFS was significantly lower in PET/CT-positive patients, according to the International Harmonization Project revised response criteria, with a 3-year PFS of 45.5 % (26.6 - 77.8 %) versus 72.6 % (58.5 - 90.0 %; p = 0.039). To better refine prognosis, we applied two types of thresholds: a Deauville five-point scale positive threshold of ≥3 (3-year PFS of 74.9 %, range 61.0 - 92.1 % %, versus 42.8 %, range 24.7 - 74.4 %; p = 0.02), and a ≥70 % ∇SUV{sub max} threshold between presalvage and pre-ASCT PET/CT (3-year PFS of 72.4 %, range 57.5 - 91.3 % versus 13.3 %, 2.2 - 81.7 %; p < 10{sup -3}). The PET/CT findings before ASCT were independently correlated with PFS in our series. PET/CT negativity before ASCT is a desirable and achievable goal in the management of chemosensitive FL relapsing after first-line R-CHOP. (orig.)

  12. Computer-assisted quantification of CD3+ T cells in follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Fazly S; Shana'ah, Arwa; Christian, Beth; Hasserjian, Robert; Louissaint, Abner; Pennell, Michael; Sahiner, Berkman; Chen, Weijie; Niazi, Muhammad Khalid Khan; Lozanski, Gerard; Gurcan, Metin

    2017-01-22

    The advance of high resolution digital scans of pathology slides allowed development of computer based image analysis algorithms that may help pathologists in IHC stains quantification. While very promising, these methods require further refinement before they are implemented in routine clinical setting. Particularly critical is to evaluate algorithm performance in a setting similar to current clinical practice. In this article, we present a pilot study that evaluates the use of a computerized cell quantification method in the clinical estimation of CD3 positive (CD3+) T cells in follicular lymphoma (FL). Our goal is to demonstrate the degree to which computerized quantification is comparable to the practice of estimation by a panel of expert pathologists. The computerized quantification method uses entropy based histogram thresholding to separate brown (CD3+) and blue (CD3-) regions after a color space transformation. A panel of four board-certified hematopathologists evaluated a database of 20 FL images using two different reading methods: visual estimation and manual marking of each CD3+ cell in the images. These image data and the readings provided a reference standard and the range of variability among readers. Sensitivity and specificity measures of the computer's segmentation of CD3+ and CD- T cell are recorded. For all four pathologists, mean sensitivity and specificity measures are 90.97 and 88.38%, respectively. The computerized quantification method agrees more with the manual cell marking as compared to the visual estimations. Statistical comparison between the computerized quantification method and the pathologist readings demonstrated good agreement with correlation coefficient values of 0.81 and 0.96 in terms of Lin's concordance correlation and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively. These values are higher than most of those calculated among the pathologists. In the future, the computerized quantification method may be used to investigate

  13. Expression of Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Related Genes and Plasticity of Aspirated Follicular Cells Obtained from Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Dzafic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After removal of oocytes for in vitro fertilization, follicular aspirates which are rich in somatic follicular cells are discarded in daily medical practice. However, there is some evidence that less differentiated cells with stem cell characteristics are present among aspirated follicular cells (AFCs. The aim of this study was to culture AFCs in vitro and to analyze their gene expression profile. Using the RT2 Profiler PCR array, we investigated the expression profile of 84 genes related to stemness, mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs, and cell differentiation in AFCs enriched by hypoosmotic protocol from follicular aspirates of infertile women involved in assisted reproduction programme in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and fibroblasts. Altogether the expression of 57 genes was detected in AFCs: 16 genes (OCT4, CD49f, CD106, CD146, CD45, CD54, IL10, IL1B, TNF, VEGF, VWF, HDAC1, MITF, RUNX2, PPARG, and PCAF were upregulated and 20 genes (FGF2, CASP3, CD105, CD13, CD340, CD73, CD90, KDR, PDGFRB, BDNF, COL1A1, IL6, MMP2, NES, NUDT6, BMP6, SMURF2, BMP4, GDF5, and JAG1 were downregulated in AFCs when compared with BM-MSCs. The genes which were upregulated in AFCs were mostly related to MSCs and connected with ovarian function, and differed from those in fibroblasts. The cultured AFCs with predominating granulosa cells were successfully in vitro differentiated into adipogenic-, osteogenic-, and pancreatic-like cells. The upregulation of some MSC-specific genes and in vitro differentiation into other types of cells indicated a subpopulation of AFCs with specific stemness, which was not similar to those of BM-MSCs or fibroblasts.

  14. Apoptosis in Granulosa cells during follicular atresia:relationship with steroids and insulin-like growth factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Song YU; Hong Shu SUI; Zheng Bin HAN; Wei LI; Ming Jiu LUO; Jing He TAN

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that during mammalian ovarian follicular development, the majority of follicles undergo atresia at various stages of their development. However, the mechanisms controlling this selection process remain unknown. In this study, we investigated apoptosis in granulosa cells during goat follicular atresia by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The changes in the levels of steroids, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF receptors were studied by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We found that the percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells in the atretic (A) follicles was significantly higher than that in the slightly atretic (SA) and healthy (H) follicles. The level of estradiol and the ratio of estradiol to progesterone in H follicles were significantly higher than those in A follicles. On the other hand, the level of progesterone was not significantly different among these follicle types. We also found that the level of IGF-I in H follicles was higher than in SA and A follicles, whereas the amount of IGF-Ⅱ did not vary significantly. The expression of IGF receptor also decreased in A follicles as compared to that in H and SA follicles. These results suggested that estradiol and IGF-I might be involved in controlling apoptosis in granulosa cells during follicular atresia.

  15. Stromal tissue as an adjunct tool in the diagnosis of follicular thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kien T.; Hogan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stroma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid lesions has not been well investigated. Design: We studied 256 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB prepared with traditional smear technique. The stroma was categorized: Type 1a consisted of long (more than 3 mm), broad bands composed of mesh containing collagen fibrils thickened by entrapped blood components and follicular cells. Type 1b consisted of dense strands/bands. Type 2 was similar to Type 1a but with shorter (papillary architectures or fragments of capsule. Type 1b stroma likely represented thick/collagenized fibrous septae. Incomplete or complete rings of small encapsulated tumor were occasionally identified. These frameworks of stroma were frequently associated with multinodular goiters (MNGs) which are often hypocellular and follicular neoplasms/papillary thyroid carcinoma with increased cellularity. Type 2 was associated with microfollicles in encapsulated neoplasms or with macrofollicles in MNG. Follicular lesions of unknown significance (n = 41) either negative (n = 26) or positive (n = 15) for carcinoma in subsequent follow-up were frequently associated with stroma characteristic of MNG and carcinoma, respectively. Conclusion: The preservation of the in vivo architecture of Type 1 is likely due to its elasticity. Recognition of the stromal architecture will likely facilitate the diagnosis. PMID:27651822

  16. [Para-neoplastic autoimmune multi-organ syndrome associated with follicular lymphoma: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Lin, C Y; Han, X; Chen, B; Lu, Z H; Chang, X Y; Duan, M H

    2016-12-14

    Objective: To broaden our knowledge of para-neoplastic autoimmune multi-organ syndrome (PAMS). Methods: A patient with PAMS associated with follicular lymphoma and bronchiolitis obliterans treated in our hospital was retrospectively analyzed and the clinical features of PAMS were reviewed. Results: A 49-year-old female patient suffered from painful ulcers in the oral cavity and vagina, dry cough and dyspnea. Imaging examinations suggested multiple lymph node enlargements. Inguinal lymph node biopsy revealed follicular lymphoma. Although the oral and vaginal ulcers went into remission with glucocorticoid and thalidomide therapy and follicular lymphoma gained partial remission with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) chemotherapy, respiratory failure still progressed. Conclusion: PAMS should be considered in patients with unexplained oral mucosa ulcers and dyspnea, which didn't match with the chest image manifestations. Extensive work-up should be performed to find out the potential tumor after diagnosis of PAMS. Early diagnosis and complete removal of tumor were essential to PAMS treatment.

  17. Janus Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens. Analytic formulas for the intensity distribution after focusing are derived, while numerical and experimental demonstrations are given for some of the most interesting members of this family, the accelerating Airy and ring-Airy beams.

  18. Reflections of hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical and spike activities of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2012-11-01

    Manifestations of hunger and satiation in myoelectric activity patterns in different portions of the stomach were studied in chronic experiments. The state of hunger manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow electric activity of muscles in the stomach body and antrum in the form of bimodal distributions of slow electric wave periods, while satiation as unimodal distribution. In hunger-specific bimodal distribution of slow electric wave periods generated by muscles of the stomach body and antrum, the position of the first maximum carries the information about oncoming food reinforcement, since this particular range of slow wave fluctuations determines temporal parameters of slow electric activity of muscles in all stomach regions in the course of subsequent successive food-procuring behavior. Under conditions of hunger, the pacemaker features of muscles in the lesser curvature are realized incompletely. Complete realization is achieved in the course of food intake and at the state of satiation.

  19. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  1. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  2. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during this ext......Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...... power of the device. The project development team has gained much soft experience from working in the harsh offshore environment. In particular the effect of marine growth in the draft tubes of the turbines has been investigated. The control of the device has been a focus for development as is operates...... automatically for most of the time. This has led to improvements in the power take off, trim control and stability of the device....

  3. Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.

  4. Microneedling dilates the follicular infundibulum and increases transfollicular absorption of liposomal sepia melanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan M; Cortijo, Julio; Faus, Carmen; Reyes, Magda; Expósito, Inmaculada; Torrens, Ana; Millán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Encapsulation of chemicals in liposomes and microneedling are currently used techniques to enhance the penetration of several substances through skin and hair. In this study, we apply a liposomal melanin–fluorescein compound to an ex vivo model of human skin, using a new electrical microneedling device (Nanopore turbo roller). The product was applied by hand massage (A) or with the assistance of the electrical roller for 2 minutes (B). An additional test was performed free of product and with only the E-roller (C). Histological changes and product absorption were evaluated by optical and fluorescent microscopy 60 and 90 minutes after the treatment. Site B showed larger deposits of melanin–fluorescein at superficial and deep levels of hair structures in comparison to site A. Light, epidermal deposits of the melanin–fluorescein complex were also observed. Sites B and C showed a significant widening (47%) of the follicular infundibulum which could explain the increased penetration of the formulation. Microneedling also removed the scales and sebum residues in the neighborhood of the infundibulum. Targeting hair follicles with melanin may be useful to dye poorly pigmented hairs, improving laser hair removal. The procedure accelerates the delivery of melanin into hair structures allowing an even absorption, larger pigment deposits, and deeper penetration of the formulation into the hair. PMID:26170707

  5. Detection and Measurement of the Intracellular Calcium Variation in Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Herrera-Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method for measuring the variation of intracellular calcium in follicular cells. The proposal consists in two stages: (i the detection of the cell’s nuclei and (ii the analysis of the fluorescence variations. The first stage is performed via watershed modified transformation, where the process of labeling is controlled. The detection process uses the contours of the cells as descriptors, where they are enhanced with a morphological filter that homogenizes the luminance variation of the image. In the second stage, the fluorescence variations are modeled as an exponential decreasing function, where the fluorescence variations are highly correlated with the changes of intracellular free Ca2+. Additionally, it is introduced a new morphological called medium reconstruction process, which helps to enhance the data for the modeling process. This filter exploits the undermodeling and overmodeling properties of reconstruction operators, such that it preserves the structure of the original signal. Finally, an experimental process shows evidence of the capabilities of the proposal.

  6. How T follicular helper cells and the germinal centre response change with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linterman, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Normal ageing is accompanied by a decline in the function of the immune system that causes an increased susceptibility to infections and an impaired response to vaccination in older individuals. This results in an increased disease burden in the aged population, even with good immunisation programmes in place. The decreased response to vaccination is partly due to the diminution of the germinal centre response with age, caused by impaired T-cell help to B cells. Within the germinal centre, T-cell help is provided by a specialised subset of CD4(+) T cells; T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Tfh cells provide survival and selection signals to germinal centre B cells, allowing them to egress from the germinal centre and become long-live plasma cells or memory B cells, and provide life-long protection against subsequent infection. This review will discuss the cellular and molecular changes in both Tfh cells and germinal centre B cells that occur with advancing age, which result in a smaller germinal centre response and a less effective response to immunisation.

  7. PPARγ negatively regulates T cell activation to prevent follicular helper T cells and germinal center formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong-Jai; Kim, Do-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Ji Yun; Senejani, Alireza G; Hwang, Soo Seok; Kim, Lark Kyun; Tobiasova, Zuzana; Lee, Gap Ryol; Craft, Joseph; Bothwell, Alfred L M; Choi, Je-Min

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. Although studies of PPARγ ligands have demonstrated its regulatory functions in inflammation and adaptive immunity, its intrinsic role in T cells and autoimmunity has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we used CD4-PPARγKO mice to investigate PPARγ-deficient T cells, which were hyper-reactive to produce higher levels of cytokines and exhibited greater proliferation than wild type T cells with increased ERK and AKT phosphorylation. Diminished expression of IκBα, Sirt1, and Foxo1, which are inhibitors of NF-κB, was observed in PPARγ-deficient T cells that were prone to produce all the signature cytokines under Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 skewing condition. Interestingly, 1-year-old CD4-PPARγKO mice spontaneously developed moderate autoimmune phenotype by increased activated T cells, follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) and germinal center B cells with glomerular inflammation and enhanced autoantibody production. Sheep red blood cell immunization more induced TFH cells and germinal centers in CD4-PPARγKO mice and the T cells showed increased of Bcl-6 and IL-21 expression suggesting its regulatory role in germinal center reaction. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARγ has a regulatory role for TFH cells and germinal center reaction to prevent autoimmunity.

  8. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as follicular isthmus cysts in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Layne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was examined for swelling of the right upper lip. The cat had been receiving oral ciclosporin A for eosinophilic plaques. The swelling appeared clinically and cytologically consistent with an abscess; exudate was cultured and treatment consisted of antibiotic therapy and surgical curettage. Five months of antibiotic therapy with three separate surgical treatments resulted in minimal improvement; three separate biopsy samples demonstrated epithelial cysts with severe dermal inflammation. Swelling and drainage of purulent material from the affected lip persisted and progressed to involve the left upper lip. Euthanasia was elected 13 months after initial examination due to disease progression. On necropsy, histopathology demonstrated multiple isthmus cysts intermixed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Relevance and novel information The clinical and histopathologic features were unusual for feline cutaneous SCC. The cystic nature and lack of epidermal involvement suggest the tumor arose from non-epidermal squamous cells such as follicular isthmus or ductal epithelium. There is a pattern of SCC recognized in human renal transplant patients with features of epidermal inclusion cysts. These features have not been previously reported in SCC from a cat.

  9. CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells and HIV Infection: Friends or Enemies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukambi, Félicien; Rodrigues, Vasco; Fortier, Yasmina; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Borde, Chloé; Krust, Bernard; Andreani, Guadalupe; Silvestre, Ricardo; Petrovas, Constantinos; Laforge, Mireille; Estaquier, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, are essential for memory B cell activation, survival, and differentiation and assist B cells in the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Work performed in recent years pointed out the importance of Tfh cells in the context of HIV and SIV infections. The importance of tissue distribution of Tfh is also an important point since their frequency differs between peripheral blood and lymph nodes compared to the spleen, the primary organ for B cell activation, and differentiation. Our recent observations indicated an early and profound loss of splenic Tfh cells. The role of transcriptional activator and repressor factors that control Tfh differentiation is also discussed in the context of HIV/SIV infection. Because Tfh cells are important for B cell differentiation and antibody production, accelerating the Tfh responses early during HIV/SIV infection could be promising as novel immunotherapeutic approach or alternative vaccine strategies. However, because Tfh cells are infected during the HIV/SIV infection and represent a reservoir, this may interfere with HIV vaccine strategy. Thus, Tfh represent the good and bad guys during HIV infection.

  10. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Causes Ultimate Depletion of Follicular Th Cells in AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-11-01

    CD4(+) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for the generation of humoral immune responses to pathogenic infections, providing help for B cell development, survival, and affinity maturation of Abs. Although CD4(+) Tfh cells are reported to accumulate in HIV or SIV infection, we found that germinal center Tfh cells, defined in this study as CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH)CD4(+) T cells, did not consistently accumulate in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques compared with those infected with less pathogenic simian HIV, vaccinated and SIVmac-challenged, or SIVmac-infected Mamu-A*01(+) macaques, all of which are associated with some control of virus replication and slower disease progression. Interestingly, CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymphoid tissues were eventually depleted in macaques with AIDS compared with the other cohorts. Chronic activation and proliferation of CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh were increased, but PD-L2 expression was downregulated on B cells, possibly resulting in germinal center Tfh cell apoptosis. Together, these findings suggest that changes in CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymph nodes correlate with immune control during infection, and their loss or dysregulation contribute to impairment of B cell responses and progression to AIDS.

  11. Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungalee, Stéphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grégoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z.; Morehouse, Christopher A.; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Céline; Menard, Cédric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C.; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stéphane J.; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A.; Higgs, Brandon W.; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)+ memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation–induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)+ precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

  12. A Case of Follicular Occlusion Triad%毛囊闭锁三联征1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭生红; 彭科; 王婷婷; 汪盛; 李薇

    2012-01-01

    患者男,33岁,头面部反复粉刺、丘疹、结节、脓肿伴破溃10年,累及颈部、腋窝、臀部6年.红肿皮损组织病理检查示;表皮呈假上皮瘤样增生,真皮内弥漫性浆细胞、较多淋巴细胞、中性粒细胞浸润.诊断:毛囊闭锁三联征;库欣综合征;糖尿病;体癣;甲真菌病;脂肪肝;骨质疏松症;低蛋白血症.子敏感抗生素、维甲酸类、性激素、手术治疗、理疗及对症支持等治疗,疗效较好.%A 33-year-old male had recurrent comedones, papules, nodules, abscesses with uleeration on the head and face for 10 years, and involved his neek, axillary fossa and gluteal region for6 years. Hislopathology examination showed pseudoepithpliomatous hyperplasia in the epidermis and plasmaeytes, lymphocytes and neutro-phils infdlralion in the dermis. The diagnosis was follicular occlusion triad, compliraled vvith cushing syndrome, diabetes mellitus, tinea corporis, onychomycosis, fatly liver, osteoporosis and hypoproteinemia. Thf patient got improvmenl after receicing treatment with sensitive antibiotics, retinoid, sex hormone, surgery, physiotherapy etc.

  13. Inter-reader variability in follicular lymphoma grading: Conventional and digital reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Lozanski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pathologists grade follicular lymphoma (FL cases by selecting 10, random high power fields (HPFs, counting the number of centroblasts (CBs in these HPFs under the microscope and then calculating the average CB count for the whole slide. Previous studies have demonstrated that there is high inter-reader variability among pathologists using this methodology in grading. Aims: The objective of this study was to explore if newly available digital reading technologies can reduce inter-reader variability. Settings and Design: In this study, we considered three different reading conditions (RCs in grading FL: (1 Conventional (glass-slide based to establish the baseline, (2 digital whole slide viewing, (3 digital whole slide viewing with selected HPFs. Six board-certified pathologists from five different institutions read 17 FL slides in these three different RCs. Results: Although there was relative poor consensus in conventional reading, with lack of consensus in 41.2% of cases, which was similar to previously reported studies; we found that digital reading with pre-selected fields improved the inter-reader agreement, with only 5.9% lacking consensus among pathologists. Conclusions: Digital whole slide RC resulted in the worst concordance among pathologists while digital whole slide reading selected HPFs improved the concordance. Further studies are underway to determine if this performance can be sustained with a larger dataset and our automated HPF and CB detection algorithms can be employed to further improve the concordance.

  14. Anti-tumor activity of obinutuzumab and rituximab in a follicular lymphoma 3D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaup, E; Jean, C; Laurent, C; Gravelle, P; Fruchon, S; Capilla, F; Marrot, A; Al Saati, T; Frenois, F-X; Laurent, G; Klein, C; Varoqueaux, N; Savina, A; Fournié, J-J; Bezombes, C

    2013-08-09

    Follicular lymphomas (FLs) account for 35-40% of all adult lymphomas. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy combined with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (MAb) rituximab (RTX). The development of the type II anti-CD20 MAb obinutuzumab (GA101) aims to further improve treatment. Here, using FL cells we show that RTX and GA101 display a similar activity on RL cells cultured in 2D. However, 2D culture cannot mimic tumor spatial organization and conventional 2D models may not reflect the effects of antibodies as they occur in vivo. Thus, we created a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) 3D culture system, termed multicellular aggregates of lymphoma cells (MALC), and used it to compare RTX and GA101 activity. Our results show that both antibodies display greater activity towards FL cells in 3D culture compared with 2D culture. Moreover, we observed that in the 3D model GA101 was more effective than RTX both in inhibiting MALC growth through induction of (lysosomal) cell death and senescence and in inhibiting intracellular signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, Akt, PLCgamma (Phospholipase C gamma) and Syk. Altogether, our study demonstrates that spatial organization strongly influences the response to antibody treatment, supporting the use of 3D models for the testing of therapeutic agents in NHL.

  15. Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Unusual Thyroid Follicular-Like Morphologic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Elmugtaba; Abadeer, Kerolos; Zhai, Qihui (Jim)

    2017-01-01

    We describe a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor of a 57-year-old Thai woman who presented in 2004 with a suspicious mass in the left hepatic lobe. She underwent left hepatectomy for the 10.5-cm mass, called intermediate grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin, likely metastatic. The tumor recurred in 2007, then called recurrent primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), and the patient underwent liver transplant. Because of similarity between the neuroendocrine tumor and a thyroid tumor—specifically, follicular-like characteristics—immunohistochemical stains for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and calcitonin were performed. However, all were negative. All imaging studies revealed no evidence of a primary lesion other than the liver mass. In 2008, the patient's liver transplant failed because of ischemic cholangiopathy, and she underwent a second liver transplant. Seven years later, in 2015, she presented with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of intermediate grade to the lung, consistent with metastatic PHNET. She underwent left upper-lobe wedge resection to remove the tumor. The patient is alive with no evidence of disease at 13 years after initial diagnosis. This rare variant of PHNET had thyroid-like morphologic characteristics but there is no evidence of primary thyroid tumor or thyroid markers in the primary and recurrent hepatic tumors and lung metastasis.

  16. Rapid Decline of Follicular Lymphoma-Associated Chylothorax after Low Dose Radiotherapy to Retroperitoneal Lymphoma Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Van De Voorde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chylothorax is caused by disruption or obstruction of the thoracic duct or its tributaries that results in the leakage of chyle into the pleural space. A number of interventions have been used to treat chylothorax including the treatment of the underlying disease. Lymphoma is found in 70% of cases with nontraumatic malignant aetiology. Although patients usually have advanced lymphoma, supradiaphragmatic disease is not always present. We discuss the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with progressive respiratory symptoms due to chylothorax. She was diagnosed with a stage IIE retroperitoneal grade 1 follicular lymphoma extending from the coeliac trunk towards the pelvic inlet. Despite thoracocentesis and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, diet chylothorax reoccurred. After low dose radiotherapy (2×2 Gy to the abdominal lymphoma there was a marked decrease in lymphadenopathy at the coeliac trunk and a complete regression of the pleural fluid. In this case, radiotherapy was shown to be an effective nontoxic treatment option for lymphoma-associated chylothorax with long-term remission of pleural effusion.

  17. Follicular Helper CD4+ T Cells in Human Neuroautoimmune Diseases and Their Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH cells play a fundamental role in humoral immunity deriving from their ability to provide help for germinal center (GC formation, B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, and antibody production in secondary lymphoid tissues. TFH cells can be identified by a combination of markers, including the chemokine receptor CXCR5, costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD-1, transcription repressor Bcl-6, and cytokine IL-21. It is difficult and impossible to get access to secondary lymphoid tissues in humans, so studies are usually performed with human peripheral blood samples as circulating counterparts of tissue TFH cells. A balance of TFH cell generation and function is critical for protective antibody response, whereas overactivation of TFH cells or overexpression of TFH-associated molecules may result in autoimmune diseases. Emerging data have shown that TFH cells and TFH-associated molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroautoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS, neuromyelitis optica (NMO/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD, and myasthenia gravis (MG. This review summarizes the features of TFH cells, including their development, function, and roles as well as TFH-associated molecules in neuroautoimmune diseases and their animal models.

  18. Interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and TGF-beta in follicular tissue of impacted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Abolfathi, Ali Akbar; Dastgiri, Saeed; Shaaker, Maghsod; Vatankhah, Amir Mansour; Solehakahnamoiee, Shiva; Darabi, Masoud

    2011-06-01

    The clinical evaluation and management of impacted third molars remain challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between follicular tissue cytokines and radiographic manifestations of impacted third molar. The population included 72 patients who underwent surgical extraction of impacted third molars. All these patients underwent a preliminary panoramic radiograph. Levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in tissue extracts were determined using ELISA. There were no significant differences between bony and tissue impaction as regards IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β levels. Moreover, the same results were obtained as far as the amount of pericoronal space and the presence or absence of a history of pericoronitis are concerned. These results suggest that radiographic findings or a history of pericoronitis are not associated with levels of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients undergoing surgical removal of impacted third molars. However, further studies are needed to address the possibility of variability during disease progression.

  19. The transcriptional coactivator Bob1 promotes the development of follicular T helper cells via Bcl6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Dennis; Brunner, Cornelia; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Höpken, Uta E; Lipp, Martin; Müller, Gerd

    2016-04-15

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells are key regulators of the germinal center reaction and long-term humoral immunity. Tfh cell differentiation requires the sustained expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6; however, its regulation in CD4(+)T cells is incompletely understood. Here, we report that the transcriptional coactivator Bob1, encoded by thePou2af1gene, promotes Bcl6 expression and Tfh cell development. We found that Bob1 together with the octamer transcription factors Oct1/Oct2 can directly bind to and transactivate theBcl6andBtlapromoters. Mixed bone marrow chimeras revealed that Bob1 is required for the expression of normal levels of Bcl6 andBTLA, thereby controlling the pool size and composition of the Tfh compartment in a T cell-intrinsic manner. Our data indicate that T cell-expressed Bob1 is directly involved in Tfh cell differentiation and required for mounting normal T cell-dependent B-cell responses.

  20. Identification of some unknown transcripts from SSH cDNA library of buffalo follicular oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, S K; Kumar, P; Roy, B; Verma, A; Pandey, H P; Singh, D; De, S; Datta, T K

    2013-03-01

    A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.

  1. TCF1 Is Required for the T Follicular Helper Cell Response to Viral Infection

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    Tuoqi Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (TFH and T helper 1 (Th1 cells generated after viral infections are critical for the control of infection and the development of immunological memory. However, the mechanisms that govern the differentiation and maintenance of these two distinct lineages during viral infection remain unclear. We found that viral-specific TFH and Th1 cells showed reciprocal expression of the transcriptions factors TCF1 and Blimp1 early after infection, even before the differential expression of the canonical TFH marker CXCR5. Furthermore, TCF1 was intrinsically required for the TFH cell response to viral infection; in the absence of TCF1, the TFH cell response was severely compromised, and the remaining TCF1-deficient TFH cells failed to maintain TFH-associated transcriptional and metabolic signatures, which were distinct from those in Th1 cells. Mechanistically, TCF1 functioned through forming negative feedback loops with IL-2 and Blimp1. Our findings demonstrate an essential role of TCF1 in TFH cell responses to viral infection.

  2. Gpr97 is essential for the follicular versus marginal zone B-lymphocyte fate decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhang, L-L; Zhang, Hong-x; Shen, C-L; Lu, S-y; Kuang, Y; Wan, Y-h; Wang, W-g; Yan, H-m; Dang, S-y; Fei, J; Jin, X-l; Wang, Z-g

    2013-10-10

    Gpr97 is an orphan adhesion GPCR and is highly conserved among species. Up to now, its physiological function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Gpr97 deficiency results in an extensive reduction in B220(+) lymphocytes in mice. More intensive analyses reveal an expanded marginal zone but a decreased follicular B-cell population in Gpr97(-/-)spleen, which displays disorganized architecture characterized by diffuse, irregular B-cell areas and the absence of discrete perifollicular marginal and mantle zones. In vivo functional studies reveal that the mutant mice could generate antibody responses to T cell-dependent and independent antigens, albeit enhanced response to the former and weakened response to the latter. By screening for the molecular events involved in the observed phenotypes, we found that lambda 5 expression is downregulated and its upstream inhibitor Aiolos is increased in the spleen of mutant mice, accompanied by significantly enhanced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of cAMP response element-binding protein. Interestingly, increased constitutive Nf-κb p50/p65 expression and activity were observed in Gpr97(-/-) spleen, implicating a crucial role of Gpr97 in regulating Nf-κb activity. These findings uncover a novel biological function of Gpr97 in regulating B-cell development, implying Gpr97 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of immunological disorders.

  3. A human follicular lymphoma B cell line hypermutates its functional immunoglobulin genes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Pelkonen, E; Knuutila, S; Kaartinen, M

    1995-12-01

    The functional immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of B lymphocytes undergo somatic mutations during immune responses. These mutations modify the antigen binding site of the immunoglobulins, thereby enhancing the average affinity of the antibodies produced. The molecular mechanism underlying these B cell hypermutations remains unresolved, partly because it is difficult to grow normal B cells in long-term cell cultures and because there is no suitable transformed or malignant B cell line which generates mutations in its immunoglobulin genes in vitro. Here, we show that the recently established follicular lymphoma line HF-1.3.4 generates somatic hypermutations in vitro at a high frequency of 0.7 x 10(-6) mutations per base pair per generation in standard cell cultures (RPMI 1640 + 5% fetal calf serum). This shows for the first time that B cell hypermutation can occur without T cells or T cell factors. The mutation frequency increased approximately tenfold to 1 x 10(-5) mutations/base pair/generation with B cell-specific growth factors (interleukins-2 and -4 and three antibodies stimulatory to HF-1.3.4 cells). This HF-1.3.4 lymphoma line may help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of Ig gene hypermutation.

  4. Effect of graded radiation doses on ovarian follicular system and adenohypophysis in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendarcik, J.; Tokos, M. (Vysoka Skola Veterinarska, Kosice (Czechoslovakia)); Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta); Balun, J. (Ustredna Veterinarna Nemocnice, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-10-01

    The impact was monitored of the stepping up of radiation doses applied directly to the ovaries during laparotomy on the qualitative and quantitative changes in the follicular system of the ovaries and on adenohypophysis of sheep in the anoestric period and the repair processes taking place in the said organs some time after irradiation. Some time after irradiation of ovaries with a dose of 4.79 Gy the ovaries were found to have an increased weight. At days 10 and 30 after irradiation the number of tertiary follicles dropped, at day 100 it quadrupled as compared with day 10. In the adenohypophysis the increase was observed in the number of PAS-positive cells. Following irradiation of the ovaries with a dose of 9.57 Gy the ovaries were least damaged on day 10 after irradiation, on days 30 and 100 all present tertiary follicles were atretic. As compared with the control group the number of gonadotrophic cells of the adenohypophysis rose gradually following a rapid drop immediately after irradiation. Following irradiation of the ovaries with a dose of 19.4 Gy all tertiary follicles were atretic and the number of PAS-positive cells of the adenohypophysis was lower as compared to the control group.

  5. Circulating CCR7+ICOS+ Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Fan

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at examining the potential roles of circulating memory T follicular helper (Tfh cells in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS.The numbers of different subsets of circulating memory Tfh cells in 25 patients with relapsed MS before and after treatment as well as 14 healthy controls (HC were examined by flow cytometry. The levels of plasma IL-21 in all patients and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-21 in some MS patients and controls with non-inflammatory neuronal diseases (NND were measured by ELISA.In comparison with that in the HC, the numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+CXCR5+CD45RA-, ICOS+, CCR7+ and CCR7+ICOS+ memory Tfh cells and the levels of plasma IL-21 significantly increased in MS patients, but significantly decreased in the patients with complete remission (CR. The levels of CSF IL-21 were significantly higher in the MS patients than that in the NND patients. The numbers of CCR7+ICOS+ memory Tfh cells were positively correlated with the EDSS scores, the levels of plasma and CSF IL-21, IgG, MBP-Ab or MOG-Ab.Our findings indicated that circulating memory Tfh cells, especially CCR7+ICOS+ memory Tfh cells, may be associated with the relapse of MS and may serve as a new therapeutic target.

  6. Applications and limitations of lipid nanoparticles in dermal and transdermal drug delivery via the follicular route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Andreas; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-11-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (LN) such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanolipid carriers (NLC) feature several claimed benefits for topical drug therapy including biocompatible ingredients, drug release modification, adhesion to the skin, and film formation with subsequent hydration of the superficial skin layers. However, penetration and permeation into and across deeper skin layers are restricted due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC). As different kinds of nanoparticles provide the potential for penetration into hair follicles (HF) LN are applicable drug delivery systems (DDS) for this route in order to enhance the dermal and transdermal bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Therefore, this review addresses the HF as application site, published formulations of LN which showed follicular penetration (FP), and characterization methods in order to identify and quantify the accumulation of API delivered by the LN in the HF. Since LN are based on lipids that appear in human sebum which is the predominant medium in HF an increased localization of the colloidal carriers as well as a promoted drug release may be assumed. Therefore, sebum-like lipid material and a size of less or equal 640 nm are appropriate specifications for FP of particulate formulations.

  7. Impact of Exogenous Gonadotropin Stimulation on Circulatory and Follicular Fluid Cytokine Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ellissa Baskind

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The natural cycle is the prototype to which we aspire to emulate in assisted reproduction techniques. Increasing evidence is emerging that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH with exogenous gonadotropins may be detrimental to oogenesis, embryo quality, and endometrial receptivity. This research aimed at assessing the impact of COH on the intrafollicular milieu by comparing follicular fluid (FF cytokine profiles during stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF and modified natural cycle (MNC IVF. Methods. Ten women undergoing COH IVF and 10 matched women undergoing MNC IVF were recruited for this pilot study. 40 FF cytokine concentrations from individual follicles and plasma were measured by fluid-phase multiplex immunoassay. Demographic/cycle/cytokine data were compared and correlations between cytokines were computed. Results. No significant differences were found between COH and MNC groups for patient and cycle demographics, including outcome. Overall mean FF cytokine levels were higher in the MNC group for 29/40 cytokines, significantly so for leukaemia inhibitory factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Furthermore, FF MNC cytokine correlations were significantly stronger than for COH data. Conclusions. These findings suggest that COH perturbs intrafollicular cytokine networks, in terms of both cytokine levels and their interrelationships. This may impact oocyte maturation/fertilization and embryo developmental competence.

  8. Postnatal lineage mapping of follicular melanocytes with the Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melissa L; Pavan, William J

    2013-03-01

    One of the main advantages of using inducible and conditional transgenes to study pigment cell biology is that they allow for genetic manipulation within melanocytes after roles in general neural crest or melanoblast development have been fulfilled. Specifically, we focus here on the ability of the Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgenic line to alter genes within follicular melanocytes postnatally. Using the Gt(ROSA)26Sor(tm1sor) reporter allele, we present in detail the expression and activity of Tyr::CreER(T) (2) when induced during hair morphogenesis and adult hair cycling. We find that despite similarities in expression pattern to endogenous TYR, Tyr::CreER(T) (2) is effective at targeting both undifferentiated and differentiated melanocytes within the hair follicle. We also find that Tyr::CreER(T) (2) provides the highest levels of recombination when induced during the early phases of hair growth. In conclusion, the descriptions provided here will guide future analyses of gene function within the melanocyte system of the hair follicle when using this Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgene.

  9. A Honey Trap for the Treatment of Acne: Manipulating the Follicular Microenvironment to Control Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Anne Eady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, as 40 years ago, we still rely on a limited number of antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide to treat inflammatory acne. An alternative way of suppressing the growth of Propionibacterium acnes is to target the environment in which it thrives. We conjecture that P. acnes colonises a relatively “extreme” habitat especially in relation to the availability of water and possibly related factors such as ionic strength and osmolarity. We hypothesise that the limiting “nutrient” within pilosebaceous follicles is water since native sebum as secreted by the sebaceous gland contains none. An aqueous component must be available within colonised follicles, and water may be a major factor determining which follicles can sustain microbial populations. One way of preventing microbial growth is to reduce the water activity ( of this component with a biocompatible solute of very high water solubility. For the method to work effectively, the solute must be small, easily diffusible, and minimally soluble in sebaceous lipids. Xylose and sucrose, which fulfil these criteria, are nonfermentable by P. acnes and have been used to reduce water activity and hence bacterial colonisation of wounds. A new follicularly targeted topical treatment for acne based on this approach should be well tolerated and highly effective.

  10. Effect of low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure on oocyte differentiation and follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Roshangar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF as an environmental factor on different organs including female reproductive system is of critical concern. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of low-frequency (LF-EMF on oocyte differentiation and follicular development. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in animal lab of Faculty of Medicine Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. For this purpose, the BALB/c mice were divided into control and experimental group in animal lab. The pregnant mice in the experimental group were exposed to 3 mT EMF field, 4 h/day during the pregnancy period. The LF-EMF was produced by a system using 50 Hz alternative current, in the control group the pregnant mice were kept in a similar condition without exposure to EMF. The neonatal mice from both groups were sacrificed immediately after birth and their ovary was dissected apart and prepared for light and electron microscopy. Result : Microscopy revealed that in the experimental group, in comparison to control group, oocyte nests were mostly broken and irregularly arranged. The primordial follicles were less developed and nuclei of oocytes with an electron microscope appeared heterochromatic, shrunken and had vacuolated cytoplasm. Conclusion: It is concluded that exposure to EMF during the developmental period could affect both oocyte differentiation and folliculogenesis and may result in reduced fertility, by decreasing ovarian reservoir.

  11. Body Hair Transplant by Follicular Unit Extraction: My Experience With 122 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sanusi

    2016-01-01

    Background Body hair shafts from the beard, trunk, and extremities can be used to treat baldness when patients have inadequate amounts of scalp donor hair, but reports in the literature concerning use of body hair to treat baldness are confined to case reports. Objectives This study aimed to assess the outcome of body hair transplanted to bald areas of the scalp in selected patients. Methods From 2005 through 2011, 122 patients preselected for adequate body hair had donor hair transplanted from the beard, trunk, and the extremities to the scalp by follicular unit extraction (FUE) by the author at a single center. All patients were emailed surveys to assess surgical outcomes and overall satisfaction. Results Seventy-nine patients (64.8%) responded with a mean time of 2.9 years between date of last surgery and time of survey. Patients were generally very satisfied with results of their procedure, giving mean scores of at least a 7.8 on a Likert-like scale of 0 to 10 for their healing status, hair growth in recipient areas, and overall satisfaction with their surgeries. These scores were comparable to mean scores provided by patients whose transplants included scalp donor sources. Conclusions FUE using body hair can be an effective hair transplantation method for a select patient population of hirsute individuals who suffer from severe baldness or have inadequate scalp donor reserve. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:27241361

  12. [Primary gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma of the small intestine with massive hemorrhage: a report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akiyasu; Tsujimura, Hideki; Sugiyama, Takahiro; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamada, Shuhei; Ono, Keiko; Wang, Xiaofei; Sugawara, Takeaki; Ise, Mikiko; Itami, Makiko; Kumagai, Kyouya

    2016-03-01

    Primary gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma (FL) has an indolent clinical presentation and many of cases are diagnosed incidentally during routine endoscopic examinations. Herein, we present 3 cases with FL of the small intestine developed massive intestinal hemorrhage that necessitated blood transfusion. In all three patients, upper and lower endoscopic examinations failed to detect the bleeding sites. Eventually, video capsule endoscopies identified ulcerative lesions in the jejunum and biopsies using single- or double-balloon endoscopy confirmed the FL diagnosis in our three cases. The respective clinical stages according to the Lugano system were I, II-1 and II-1. PET-CT did not play a significant role in identifying the gastrointestinal lesions. Two patients received rituximab monotherapy and achieved a complete response. The other remains under observation after termination of antiplatelet drug therapy. Generally, the macroscopic appearance of multiple whitish nodules and the absence of symptoms represent the typical clinical picture of gastrointestinal FL. However, this study demonstrates that patients with ulcerative lesions may be at risk for massive bleeding. Further discussion is required to determine the optimal indications for total endoscopic examination of the small intestine.

  13. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  14. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions and wedge waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray Q.Lin; Will Perrie

    2005-01-01

    A tetrad mechanism for exciting long waves,for example edge waves,is described based on nonlinear resonant wave-wave interactions.In this mechanism,resonant interactions pass energy to an edge wave,from the three participating gravity waves.The estimated action flux into the edge wave can be orders of magnitude greater than the transfer fluxes derived from other competing mechanisms,such as triad interactions.Moreover,the numerical results show that the actual transfer rates into the edge wave from the three participating gravity waves are two-to three- orders of magnitude greater than bottom friction.

  15. Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Monteros Alvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los nódulos tiroideos de origen folicular abarcan procesos no neoplásicos y neoplásicos. No existen métodos de diagnóstico ni rasgos citológicos por punción con aguja fina (PAF que los delimiten, constituyendo un dilema su diagnóstico diferencial. Analizamos la asociación existente entre variables clínicas y métodos de diagnóstico prequirúrgicos en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular, con el objetivo de definir riesgo de neoplasia.Se estudiaron 92 pacientes con bocios nodulares de estirpe folicular por citología, tratados con tiroidectomía. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, tamaño del nódulo, características ecográficas, diagnóstico citológico, nivel de TSH y resultados del centellograma. De los 92 casos, 74 fueron neoplásicos (56 adenomas y 18 carcinomas diferenciados y 18 nódulos no neoplásicos, hiperplásicos o adenomatosos. Los marcadores que se relacionaron con alto riesgo de neoplasia folicular correspondieron al diagnóstico citológico de proliferación folicular de alto grado, en nódulos iso o hipoecogénicos, e hipocaptantes con I131. Los carcinomas presentaron citología de proliferación folicular de alto grado en nódulos hipoecogénicos, de bordes irregulares con microcalcificaciones e hipocaptantes, en pacientes varones o menores de 20 años. La presencia de macrocalcificaciones e hipercaptación estarían a favor de nódulo de origen benigno.La correlación de los métodos de diagnóstico y variables clínicas en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular nos permitirían delimitar el riesgo de neoplasia y carcinoma para planificar un tratamiento quirúrgico selectivo.Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes. No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing association between clinical

  16. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  17. Transgenic expression of CD95 ligand on thyroid follicular cells confers immune privilege upon thyroid allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, L; Malassagne, B; Batteux, F; Fabre, M; Mistou, S; Lallemand, E; Lores, P; Chiocchia, G

    2001-08-01

    Constitutive Fas ligand (FasL) expression by specialized cells in the body participates in the immune privilege status of tissues containing these cells. This property has been used to prevent rejection of allogeneic grafts. Nevertheless, the mechanism responsible for such protection has not been fully elucidated. Unfortunately, grafting of FasL transgenic (TG) tissues has been unsuccessful. We have generated TG mice expressing FasL (soluble + membrane bound) on thyroid follicular cells (TFC), and used them to show that ectopic FasL expression prevents thyroid allograft rejection. FasL expression on TFC led to markedly decreased anti-allogeneic, cytotoxic, and helper T lymphocyte activities. The alloantibody response in TG thyroid recipients was either completely inhibited or switched toward a T2-Ab response. Surprisingly, the beneficial effect of FasL on TG thyroid grafts was abolished by host CD4(+) T cell depletion. Host CD8(+) T cell depletion improved nontransgenic (NTG), but not TG graft survival. Altogether, our results suggest that FasL-induced tolerance is concomitant with a move away from a T1 type response, and a CD4 T cell-mediated regulation of the allocytotoxic T cell response. These results were dependent upon the level of FasL expression on TFC, in that low expression of FasL led to a less marked effect compared with the effect observed with high expression of FasL. These results provide some insight into the role of FasL in regulating destructive alloimmune responses in the case of whole organ grafting, and they have important implications for the development of FasL-based immunotherapy in organ transplantation.

  18. Durable Effect of Radioactive Iodine in a Patient with Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey A. Carhill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and fastest increasing of all cancers in both men and women in the United States. Traditionally, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC carries a good prognosis when diagnosed early, but increasingly patients are presenting with late-stage disease and bone metastasis which carries a poor prognosis. Treatment of DTC involves surgical resection followed by radioactive iodine (RAI, which conventionally is thought to reach maximal effectiveness between 6 and 12 months following treatment. We report a case and review the literature surrounding long-term effect of radioactive iodine treatment in metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Methods. Patient clinical encounter and the literature review. Results. We describe a 49-year-old woman with symptomatic metastatic follicular thyroid cancer (FTC to the spine and radiographic evidence of spinal cord compression who was effectively treated with RAI. Her initial serum thyroglobulin (Tg levels following total thyroidectomy were 1,343 ng/mL which dramatically dropped to less than 100 ng/mL following RAI. Forty-three months following treatment with RAI, she has experienced complete resolution of her symptoms and continues to maintain persistently low-thyroglobulin levels of less than 100 ng/mL. Conclusions. RAI is believed to reach peak efficacy within 6–12 months; however, little has been reported regarding the long-term duration of benefit. This case demonstrates that the benefits of RAI therapy may be enduring, even in patients with widely metastatic thyroid cancer. It suggests in clinically stable patients with declining thyroglobulin after treatment, that there may not be an immediate need for additional therapy as RAI treatment may provide lasting effects.

  19. Durable effect of radioactive iodine in a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhill, Aubrey A; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and fastest increasing of all cancers in both men and women in the United States. Traditionally, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) carries a good prognosis when diagnosed early, but increasingly patients are presenting with late-stage disease and bone metastasis which carries a poor prognosis. Treatment of DTC involves surgical resection followed by radioactive iodine (RAI), which conventionally is thought to reach maximal effectiveness between 6 and 12 months following treatment. We report a case and review the literature surrounding long-term effect of radioactive iodine treatment in metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Methods. Patient clinical encounter and the literature review. Results. We describe a 49-year-old woman with symptomatic metastatic follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) to the spine and radiographic evidence of spinal cord compression who was effectively treated with RAI. Her initial serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels following total thyroidectomy were 1,343 ng/mL which dramatically dropped to less than 100 ng/mL following RAI. Forty-three months following treatment with RAI, she has experienced complete resolution of her symptoms and continues to maintain persistently low-thyroglobulin levels of less than 100 ng/mL. Conclusions. RAI is believed to reach peak efficacy within 6-12 months; however, little has been reported regarding the long-term duration of benefit. This case demonstrates that the benefits of RAI therapy may be enduring, even in patients with widely metastatic thyroid cancer. It suggests in clinically stable patients with declining thyroglobulin after treatment, that there may not be an immediate need for additional therapy as RAI treatment may provide lasting effects.

  20. Difference between papillar y and follicular thyroid carcinoma outcomes:an experience from Egyptian institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engy M Aboelnaga; Rehab Allah Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) are classiifed into papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). DTCs are analyzed as a single group in clinical studies that investigated the prognostic factors and prognosis of these malignancies. However, the biological behaviors of these carcinomas signiifcantly differ. In the present study, we aimed to detect differences in the outcomes between PTC and FTC in Mansoura University Hospital in Egypt. Methods:A total of 558 patients with histologically proven thyroid carcinomas from January 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. hTe clinical and pathological data of patients were reviewed. Results:Large primary tumor size, lymph node involvement, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis were signiifcant poor prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in old PTC patients. Cox hazard analysis showed that the patient’s age, extra thyroid extension, and distant metastasis were the only independent prognostic factors. In FTC patients, only the distant metastasis and degree of tumor invasion were signiifcant poor prognostic factors in OS univariate analysis. However, these factors were nonsignificant in multivariate analysis. The 10-year OS rates were 97%and 89%for PTC and FTC, respectively (P=0.003). hTe 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.2%in PTC vs. 65%in FTC (P=0.179). Conclusion:hTe signiifcant prognostic factors vary between the two types of DTCs. hTerefore, PTC and FTC patients need to be analyzed and reported independently. PTC survival is widely and signiifcantly affected by age, extrathyroid extension, and distant metastasis. By contrast, these factors were nonsigniifcant in FTC, which showed poorer survival than PTC.