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Sample records for antofagasta region northern

  1. Recent crustal deformation in the Antofagasta region (northern Chile) and the subduction process

    OpenAIRE

    Delouis, B.; Philip, H.; Dorbath, Louis; Cisternas, A.

    1998-01-01

    New neotectonic observations, along with a detailed aerial photograph analysis, allow a new interpretation of the recent tectonic behaviour of the outer forearc in northern Chile between 22.5°S and 24.5°S (Antofagasta region). Both the Coastal Cordillera and the Mejillones Peninsula are under E-W extension. Normal faults dipping east with an almost N-S orientation are predominant. Large-scale Neogene to Recent deformation is characterized by vertical uplift and subsidence related to normal fa...

  2. ESO Helps Antofagasta Region after the Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    On November 14 at 12:41 local time, a major earthquake with magnitude 7.7 on the Richter scale affected the north of Chile. The epicentre was located 35 km from the city of Tocopilla and 170 km of Antofagasta. Two persons died and tens were injured, while buildings were damaged in several cities. In the Maria Elena-Tocopilla area, several thousand homes were destroyed or damaged. In an act of solidarity with the local community and its authorities, ESO immediately announced a donation of 30 millions Chilean pesos (around 40,000 euros) to Antofagasta's Regional Government to support reconstruction in the Region II. ESO and its staff have been shocked by the earthquake and its impact on local communities, especially on the people of Tocopilla. The ESO Representation in Chile formally contacted the regional authorities to explore with them possible ways to collaborate in this difficult moment. In addition, many of ESO staff are personally cooperating with the victims, under the coordination of Cruz Roja, the organisation currently in charge of implementing individual efforts.

  3. A study of SO2 emissions and ground surface displacements at Lastarria volcano, Antofagasta Region, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewcun, Lucie G.

    Lastarria volcano (Chile) is located at the North-West margin of the 'Lazufre' ground inflation signal (37x45 km2), constantly uplifting at a rate of ˜2.5 cm/year since 1996 (Pritchard and Simons 2002; Froger et al. 2007). The Lastarria volcano has the double interest to be superimposed on a second, smaller-scale inflation signal and to be the only degassing area of the Lazufre signal. In this project, we compared daily SO2 burdens recorded by AURA's OMI mission for 2005-2010 with Ground Surface Displacements (GSD) calculated from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images for 2003-2010. We found a constant maximum displacement rate of 2.44 cm/year for the period 2003-2007 and 0.80- 0.95 cm/year for the period 2007-2010. Total SO 2 emitted is 67.0 kT for the period 2005-2010, but detection of weak SO2 degassing signals in the Andes remains challenging owing to increased noise in the South Atlantic radiation Anomaly region.

  4. Discursos sobre la Región de Antofagasta en el contexto de la migración regional

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to fill the existing gap on the social representation of regions and how it affects the process of internal migration. The case of the Region of Antofagasta, a mining region in Northern Chile, is analyzed. It is widespread the idea that this region has a negative image in the rest of the country which reduces the region appeal as a work, residence and tourism place. We did not have, however, empirical information about this image. We use the sociological discourse analysis with...

  5. Analysis of the dynamic of underground water in Agua Verde, Quebrada de Taltal, region of Antofagasta, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme aridity and geological situation in northern. Chile requires an exhaustive investigation on water resources for supporting rational usage. The Direccion General de Aguas and Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear have performed studies in arid zones in northern Chile using isotopic and hydrochemical tools. In Quebrada de Taltal's basin, located in one of the must arid arid zones of Chile (Segunda Region de Antofagasta), was studies groundwater dynamics and recharge process from a geochemical approach in terms of water quality, temperature and isotopic composition (2H, 18O, 3H, 14C). The recharge generated above 3000 m a.s.t has a slow dynamics and involve little flow (author)

  6. The Ordovician Quebrada Grande Formation, Cordón de Lila (Antofagasta Region, northern Chile: stratigraphicand paleogeographic significance La Formación QuebradaGrande, del Ordovícico, Cordón de Lila (Región de Antofagasta, norte de Chile: significado estratigráfico y paleogeográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cordón de Lila is located immediately to the south of the Salar de Atacama, in northern Chile. The geology of the Cordón de Lila is characterized by extensive outcrops of Early Paleozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (Cordón de Lila Igneous and Sedimentary Complex; CISL that form the 'Arco magmático occidental' (AMO which is intruded by a multiple suite of Middle Ordovician to Lower Silurian granitoids. In this contribution we report the results of a sedimentological and paleontological study of a recently discovered 1,600 m thick marine Ordovician sedimentary sequence (Quebrada Grande Formation which unconformably overlies the CISL. The Quebrada Grande Formation comprises three mayor facies associations. In stratigrafic order, these facies associations are: matrix-supported conglomerates (1, interbedded sandstones and siltstones (2 and clast-supported conglomerates (3. Facies association (1 is interpreted as debris flow deposits accumulated in a proximal marine fan-delta setting while the overlying sandstones and siltstones facies (2 represent open-marine platform deposits. Clast-supported conglomerates (3 are the record of high-energy sedimentary episodes during which coarse sediments reached the distal part of the fan-delta. The detrital fraction of the Quebrada Grande Formation is derived from the erosion of the Cambrian?-Lower Ordovician? CISL volcanic arc, the plutonio roots of the arc and its continental basement. The age of this formation is well constrained by the occurrence of brachiopods (Paralenorthis sp., Monorthis transversa Benedetto, and Mollesella? sp. near the base and graptolites (Tetragraptus sp. and Cryptograptus? sp. towards the middle of the succession. Both brachiopods and graptolites indicate an Arenigian to early Llanvirnian (Darriwilian age. The brachiopod assemblage from Cordón de Lila displays affinities with the Famatina basin fauna of western Argentina. The absence of taxa in common between the AMO and

  7. Precipitations in the II region Antofagasta-Chile and their negative impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has the purpose to acknowledge a diagnosis in relation to rainfalls motivated by the action of a frontal system and its negative impacts in the second Region-Antofagasta taken place on Tuesday 18 of June In 1991. The study looks at the synoptic situation that prevails in the Region, historical rainfalls period 1904-1991, floods caused by the effect of rain, the atmospheric situation that has affected the region on days June 17 and 18, lessons, education and propositions, in order to diminish in the future the negative impacts, human danger, technology-housing-located in the zones of high risks

  8. The Ordovician Quebrada Grande Formation, Cordón de Lila (Antofagasta Region, northern Chile): stratigraphicand paleogeographic significance La Formación QuebradaGrande, del Ordovícico, Cordón de Lila (Región de Antofagasta, norte de Chile): significado estratigráfico y paleogeográfico

    OpenAIRE

    Javier González; Hans Niemeyer; Juan L. Benedetto; Edsel D Brussa

    2007-01-01

    The Cordón de Lila is located immediately to the south of the Salar de Atacama, in northern Chile. The geology of the Cordón de Lila is characterized by extensive outcrops of Early Paleozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (Cordón de Lila Igneous and Sedimentary Complex; CISL) that form the 'Arco magmático occidental' (AMO) which is intruded by a multiple suite of Middle Ordovician to Lower Silurian granitoids. In this contribution we report the results of a sedimentological and paleontologica...

  9. First record of Cymatium keenae Beu, 1970 (Mollusca: Ranellidae) from Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile, in connection with El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Tom; Riascos, Jose M.; Pacheco, Aldo

    2008-03-01

    Cymatium ( Monoplex) keenae Beu, 1970, the neopolitan triton, is a Ranellidae predator distributed in tropical and subtropical waters. In this study we report this species for the first time in Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile. Adult specimens have been found since June 2003 at depths ranging from 5 to 15 m in La Rinconada Marine Reserve (23°28'18″S, 70°30'46″W) in Antofagasta Bay, near a scallop farming facility. The present findings clearly extend the geographic range of C. keenae, which previously had been reported from La Paz, Gulf of California (Mexico) to Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) in the SE Pacific. Previous evidence strongly suggests that the intrusion of this tropical immigrant can be related to warm El Niño episodes. We analyze the key role of the oceanographic characteristics of Antofagasta Bay as potential temporal refuge for this species.

  10. [Epidemiological status of Chagas disease in the endemic area from Region II of Antofagasta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, J; Burchard, L; Bahamonde, M I; Contreras, M C; García, A; Rojas, A; Schenone, H; Lorca, M

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 a seroepidemiological study on Chagas' disease was carried out in 18 localities of three provinces (Tocopilla, El Loa and Antofagasta) of Region II (20 degrees 56'-26 degrees South Lat.; 70 degrees 38'-67 degrees West Long.), in order to assess the impact of the control program against Triatoma infestans launched in 1988, based on insecticide spraying of dwellings. By means of ELISA and an indirect hemagglutination test for Chagas' disease blood samples from 1,034 children under 10 years of age were examined, arising a 0.5% (3 cases) positivity. Test resulted positive in 2 (0.9%) children from the locality of San Pedro de Atacama and 1 (0.4%) from Calama city, all in the age group 6-10 year-old. However, none of their dwellings were found infested with T. infestants. These results indicate that the control program has a good possibility to prevent new human infections. It is advisable to continue the seroepidemiological and entomological vigilance and remark the necessity of increasing the effort in the study of transmission through other routes, to adopt or reinforce the pertinent preventive measures. PMID:10488587

  11. Variación fenotípica y genética en el tunicado Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878 en el área norte de la Bahía de Antofagasta, Chile Phenotypic and genetic variation in tunicate Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878 in the northern sac of the Antofagasta Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA ASTORGA

    2002-09-01

    localities in the northern sac of the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile, and distributed along a wave exposure gradient. A total of 17 enzymatic loci were assayed by horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis, three of which (IDH-1, MDH-1 and PGM-1 were polymorphic. The results showed significant genetic differences among localities, but not among morphotypes. These results are contrasted with similar studies conducted on the same species in Australia, on the base that P. praeputialis has recently colonized Antofagasta from Australia. It is suggested that the differences among the morphotypes from Antofagasta are intraspecifics and those from Australia are interspecifics. The possible explanations for the genetic and morphological differences among localities are discussed

  12. ORALIDAD Y ARQUEOLOGÍA: UNA LÍNEA DE TRABAJO EN LAS TIERRAS ALTAS DE LA REGIÓN DE ANTOFAGASTA ORALITY AND ARCHAEOLOGY: A RESEARCH APPROACH IN THE HIGHLANDS OF THE REGION OF ANTOFAGASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aldunate

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Con un enfoque etnoarqueológico, integrando sistemas interpretativos tales como la comprensión étnica del paisaje y el rescate de la oralidad como fuente complementaria de conocimiento para la arqueología, se plantea una investigación de rutas y senderos prehispánicos en la cordillera andina de la Región de Antofagasta (Chile y se comentan sus resultados preliminares.This paper explores prehispanic roads and paths in the Andean Cordillera of Antofagasta, Chile. It uses ethno-archaeological interpretative systems, such as cultural landscapes and vernacular oral history, as complementary sources for archaeological interpretation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  13. Paleomagnetism of Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous rocks from the Antofagasta region, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, K.; Peña, M.; Bascuñán, S.; Becerra, J.; Gómez, I.; Deckart, K.; Munizaga, F.; Maksaev, V.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2015-12-01

    New paleomagnetic data from Permo-Triassic and Late Cretaceous rocks yield a consistent trend of vertical-axis-tectonic-rotations which are consistent with the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP). However, three sites in the Tuina Formation and one site in the Purilactis Group record large rotations (80°). These mayor rotations are probably due to dextral-transpressive deformation occurring in close relation with the Incaic tectonic phase. Consequently, it is possible to infer that previous tectonic phases Peruvian and K-T would not have produced significant tectonic rotations in the area.

  14. Diversidad y patrones de distribución geográfica de insectos coleópteros en ecosistemas desérticos de la región de Antofagasta, Chile Diversity and geographic distribution patterns of coleopteran insects in desert ecosystems of the Antofagasta region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIANE JEREZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La fauna coleopterológica de la Región de Antofagasta, ha sido objeto de diversos trabajos, pero hasta el momento falta un análisis de conjunto de la diversidad y distribución espacial de las especies. En este trabajo se da a conocer la diversidad de Coleoptera, rangos de distribución de las especies y se analiza las relaciones biogeográficas que pueden existir entre los distintos ecosistemas descritos para la Región. Para ello se elaboró un catastro georreferenciado en base a revisión bibliográfica, material de colección y prospecciones en terreno. La distribución espacial de los taxa se estableció en relación a 11 ecosistemas descritos para la Región y se determinaron áreas de endemismo mediante análisis de parsimonia biogeográfico. La composición taxonómica de Coleoptera está formada por 21 familias, 86 géneros y 167 especies, siendo Tenebrionidae la familia más diversa con 23 géneros y 78 especies. Los ecosistemas que presentan mayor diversidad específica son Estepa subdesértica de la puna (52 sp., Desierto costero de Tocopilla (50 sp., Desierto del Salar de Atacama (35 sp., Desierto costero de Taltal (32 sp., Desierto de los aluviones (22 sp. y Estepa arbustiva (17 sp.. Sin embargo los ecosistemas que concentran el mayor porcentaje de endemismo son Desierto costero de Tocopilla (72%, Desierto costero de Taltal (62,5%, Estepa subdesértica de la puna (55,8%, Desierto del Salar de Atacama (51,4 %, Estepa arbustiva (47% y Desierto de los aluviones (36,3%. Se delimitaron tres áreas de endemismo para la Región de Antofagasta y que corresponden a tres grandes ecosistemas distribuidos en un gradiente altitudinal: Desierto litoral, Desierto de los aluviones y Zona tropicalThe coleopterologic fauna of the Antofagasta Region has been the object of diverse studies, but until now, an analysis of both the diversity and spatial distribution of the species was lacking. In this paper, the diversity of coleopteran species and

  15. TRICOMONOSIS EN ADOLESCENTES EMBARAZADAS DE ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE

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    HERNAN SAGUA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los problemas de salud de la adolescencia se caracterizan por una carga psicosocial elevada y un nivel de daño relativamente bajo en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad, sin embargo, la disminución de la edad promedio de la menarquia y el inicio precoz de actividad sexual coital son factores de riesgo para el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS entre los adolescentes. En este trabajo se investigó la infección por Trichomonas vaginalis y los factores epidemiológicos y obstétricos relacionados entre 300 adolescentes embarazadas de la ciudad de Antofagasta, cuyas edades variaron entre 12 y 18 años, de las cuales el 87,7 % se concentró en el rango 15 y 17 años, en tanto que el 76,0 % tuvo su menarquia entre los 12 - 14 años y el 27,3 % inició su actividad sexual antes de los 15 años. Se determinó una tasa de infección por T. vaginalis de un 5,7 % .TRICHOMONOSIS IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENT FROM ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE A large psychosocial load and a relatively lower impact in terms of morbidity and mortality characterize adolescence’s health problems. For adolescents, however, a decrease in the average for the first menstruation and an early start in sexual activity, are two risk factors for both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this work, we have investigated Trichomonas vaginalis’ infection and its related epidemiological and obstetric factors, among 300 pregnant adolescents from Antofagasta in northern Chile, between the ages of 12 to 18. Most adolescents studied (87.7% were in the range of 15-17 years old; 76.0% had the first menstruation at the range of 12-14 years old and 27.3 % started sexual activity before the age 15. A T. vaginalis’ infection rate of 5.7 % was obtained

  16. Late Mesozoic to Paleogene stratigraphy of the Salar de Atacama Basin, Antofagasta, Northern Chile: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpodozis, Constantino; Arriagada, César; Basso, Matilde; Roperch, Pierrick; Cobbold, Peter; Reich, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The Salar de Atacama basin, the largest "pre-Andean" basin in Northern Chile, was formed in the early Late Cretaceous as a consequence of the tectonic closure and inversion of the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Tarapacá back arc basin. Inversion led to uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko (CD), a thick-skinned basement range bounded by a system of reverse faults and blind thrusts with alternating vergence along strike. The almost 6000-m-thick, upper Cretaceous to lower Paleocene sequences (Purilactis Group) infilling the Salar de Atacama basin reflects rapid local subsidence to the east of the CD. Its oldest outcropping unit (Tonel Formation) comprises more than 1000 m of continental red sandstones and evaporites, which began to accumulate as syntectonic growth strata during the initial stages of CD uplift. Tonel strata are capped by almost 3000 m of sandstones and conglomerates of western provenance, representing the sedimentary response to renewed pulses of tectonic shortening, which were deposited in alluvial fan, fluvial and eolian settings together with minor lacustrine mudstone (Purilactis Formation). These are covered by 500 m of coarse, proximal alluvial fan conglomerates (Barros Arana Formation). The top of the Purilactis Group consists of Maastrichtian-Danian alkaline lava and minor welded tuffs and red beds (Cerro Totola Formation: 70-64 Ma K/Ar) deposited during an interval of tectonic quiescence when the El Molino-Yacoraite Late Cretaceous sea covered large tracts of the nearby Altiplano-Puna domain. Limestones interbedded with the Totola volcanics indicate that this marine incursion advanced westwards to reach the eastern CD slope. CD shortening in the Late Cretaceous was accompanied by volcanism and continental sedimentation in fault bounded basins associated to strike slip along the north Chilean magmatic arc to the west of the CD domain, indicating that oblique plate convergence prevailed during the Late Cretaceous. Oblique convergence seems to have

  17. Diversidad y patrones de distribución geográfica de insectos coleópteros en ecosistemas desérticos de la región de Antofagasta, Chile Diversity and geographic distribution patterns of coleopteran insects in desert ecosystems of the Antofagasta region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    VIVIANE JEREZ

    2000-01-01

    La fauna coleopterológica de la Región de Antofagasta, ha sido objeto de diversos trabajos, pero hasta el momento falta un análisis de conjunto de la diversidad y distribución espacial de las especies. En este trabajo se da a conocer la diversidad de Coleoptera, rangos de distribución de las especies y se analiza las relaciones biogeográficas que pueden existir entre los distintos ecosistemas descritos para la Región. Para ello se elaboró un catastro georreferenciado en base a revisión biblio...

  18. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, D S

    1990-01-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference.

  19. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  20. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in a desert region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM10 and PM2.5 measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO3− and SO4=), atomic absorption (Na+, K+) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM2.5 fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM10 fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM10 is 50 μg/m3 and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m3. For the PM2.5 fraction, suspended soil dust contributes with an average of 9.3 μg/m3 and a peak daily

  1. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Eulenfeld [Richter; Günter Asch; Rainer Kind

    2011-01-01

    We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such ear...

  3. Migración y representaciones regionales: Discursos sobre la Región de Antofagasta

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Rodrigo; Miguel Atienza

    2012-01-01

    El estudio de la migración interna se ha basado tradicionalmente en una concepción banal del espacio, sin tener en cuenta cómo las representaciones regionales, el espacio construido socialmente, afectan la decisión de migrar a otra región. Este trabajo utiliza las metodologías del grupo de discusión y el análisis sociológico del discurso para identificar los discursos de los futuros profesionales de otras regiones de Chile sobre la Región de Antofagasta, área minera localizada en el norte del...

  4. Northern Ireland regional breastfeeding peer support training

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    This resource�has been produced for breastfeeding coordinators and breastfeeding peer support trainers who provide training for peer support volunteers. �� The resource has been distributed by PHA directly to those involved in breastfeeding peer support programmes in Northern Ireland. Further copies can be requested as applicable from Lesley Blackstock at: The CD supports delivery of eight peer support teaching sessions (two hours each), which meet Open College Net...

  5. Source apportionment of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in a desert region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorquera, Héctor, E-mail: jorquera@ing.puc.cl; Barraza, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}), atomic absorption (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM{sub 2.5} fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM{sub 10} fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM{sub 10} is 50 μg/m{sup 3} and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m{sup 3}. For the

  6. Socio-economic development of northern regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusif Alimovich Gadzhiev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the characteristics and trends of socio-economic development of northern regions. To assess the socio-economic differentiation, groups of 21 primary indicator were selected (five economic, three financial, eleven social and two spacial. With the help of the statistical characteristics, the degree of economic and social divergence and convergence of the territories is determined. On the basis of principal component factor analysis and Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis, four groups of regions in terms of socio-economic development were identified - highly developed, developed, underdeveloped and problematic. A meaningful characterization of these clusters, which allows differential regulation of the development in the northern regions, is given. With respect to each type is necessary to develop a focused state regional policy in order to soften the uneven development and improve social and economic development of northern regions.

  7. A planning survey of the Northern Region, Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); J. de Jong (Jan); J. Sterkenburg (Jan)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis regional planning survey of the Northern Region has been written at the request of the Town Planning Department of the Ministry of Works and Supplies. Initially, it was intended to restrict the survey to the physical aspects of planning, the aspects of settlements, services, service

  8. Elusive Ethylene Detected in Saturns Northern Storm Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesman, B. E.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Sada, P. V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Lunsford, A. W.; Fletcher, L. N.; Boyle, R. J.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Nixon, C. A.; Irwin, P. G.

    2013-01-01

    The massive eruption at 40 deg. N (planetographic latitude) on Saturn in 2010 December has produced significant and lasting effects in the northern hemisphere on temperature and species abundances. The northern storm region was observed on many occasions in 2011 by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). In 2011 May, temperatures in the stratosphere greater than 200 K were derived from CIRS spectra in the regions referred to as "beacons" (warm regions in the stratosphere). Ethylene has been detected in the beacon region in Saturn's northern storm region using CIRS. Ground-based observations using the high-resolution spectrometer Celeste on the McMath-Pierce Telescope on 2011 May 15 were used to confirm the detection and improve the altitude resolution in the retrieved profile. The derived ethylene profile from the CIRS data gives a C2H4 mole fraction of 5.9 +/- 4.5 x 10(exp -7) at 0.5 mbar, and from Celeste data it gives 2.7 +/- 0.45 x 10(exp -6) at 0.1 mbar. This is two orders of magnitude higher than the amount measured in the ultraviolet at other latitudes prior to the storm. It is also much higher than predicted by photochemical models, indicating that perhaps another production mechanism is required or a loss mechanism is being inhibited.

  9. Cross-border Identity in Building a Regional Brand: the Northern Transylvania Region

    OpenAIRE

    Soproni, Luminita

    2006-01-01

    Northern Transylvania region is looking now for a cross-border identity, trying to raise awareness among the population about belonging to this region and to inform foreign investors about the best investment opportunities. The cross-border dimension represents one of the main points of this regional identity.

  10. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  11. Mobility Challenges in the Region of Northern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Lund; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Jensen, Ole B.;

    This paper seeks to investigate the Mobility challenges in the region of Northern Jutland in the tension field between physical and virtual mobility and global and local perspectives. The region of North Jutland is placed in the periphery of the national territory and on top of that large parts of...... large distance between home and work and the possibility for job changes is declining. In this paper we would argue that as opposed to many traditional regional geography approaches or tourism studies this analysis put focus on the challenges to a peripheral region from the vantage point of an explicit...... mobilites perspective. Thus in accordance with the mobilities perspective (Urry 2002, Lassen, Jensen 2003, Cresswell 2010) we see that what may be thought of as issues of lack of tourism infrastructures also relate in a very detailed manner to the internal mobilities potentials of the residents in the...

  12. Urological anomalies in the Northern Region Fetal Abnormality Survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J. E.; Renwick, M

    1993-01-01

    From 1 January 1985 to 31 December 1990, the Northern Region Fetal Abnormality Survey received 736 notifications of fetuses with suspected urological abnormalities; a prevalence of three per 1000 births. There was a male:female ratio of 2:1, the ratio was higher in obstructive than in intrinsic renal parenchymal lesions. Overall diagnostic sensitivity was 68.9% and positive predictive value 50.8%. Hydronephrosis was the most frequent antenatal diagnosis (421 cases, 57.2%): 233 (55.3%) of thes...

  13. The Evolution of Hydrocarbons in Saturn's Northern Storm Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, B. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.

    2012-01-01

    The massive storm at 40N on Saturn that began in December 2010 has produced significant and lasting effects in the northern hemisphere on temperature and species abundances (Fletcher et aL 2011). The northern storm region was observed on several occasions between March 2011 and April 2012 by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) at a spectral resolution (0.5/cm) which permits the study of trace species in Saturn's stratosphere. During this time period, stratospheric temperatures in regions referred to as "beacons" (warm regions at specific longitudes at the latitude of the storm) became significantly warmer than pre-storm values of 140K, peaking near 220K, and subsequently cooling. These warm temperatures led to greatly enhanced infrared emission due to C4H2, C3H4, C2H2, and C2H6 in the stratosphere as well as the first detection of C2H4 on Saturn in the thermal infrared (Hesman et al. 2012). Using CH4 as a thermometer of Saturn's stratosphere in the beacon regions, we can derive the mixing ratios of each of these molecules. The most common hydrocarbons (C2H2 and C2H6) serve as dynamical tracers on Saturn and their abundances may constrain vertical motion in the stratosphere. All of these hydrocarbons are products of methane photolysis. Since many of the photochemical reactions that produce heavier hydrocarbons such as C4H2 and C3H4 are temperature sensitive, the beacon region provides a natural laboratory for studying these reactions on Saturn. We will discuss the time evolution of the abundances of each of these hydrocarbons from their pre-storm values, through the period of maximum heating , and during the period of cooling that is taking place in Saturn's stratosphere.

  14. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  15. Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Sapey, E; K. Adusei-Fosu; D. Agyei-Dwarko; G. Okyere-Boateng

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R)-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I). The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavoura...

  16. Segmentation of Seismicity in the Mejillones Region, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Joern; Bloch, Wasja; Salazar, Pablo; Wigger, Peter; Shapiro, Serge A.

    2016-04-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula constitutes a widely accepted seismic barrier which separates two major segments of the Andean subduction zone. There is no evidence that past earthquake ruptures have traversed the barrier. We recently deployed a dense seismic monitoring system on Mejillones to study the local structure and seismicity distribution in greater detail. Between June 2013 and October 2015 we detected about 3000 micro seismic events with magnitudes down to Ml = 0.5 and determined P- and S- arrival times. Precise event location was performed using a regionally updated velocity model and waveform similarity- based improved arrival time picks. This provides a detailed seismicity image of the Mejillones region. Despite clear evidence for young active faults on Mejillones, upper crustal seismicity is only minor. Earthquakes along the interface occur continuously from 25 to 40km depth. Activity is also observed within the oceanic crust and is particularly high on the near-vertical rupture fault of a Mw6.8 intra-slab earthquake which followed only weeks after the 2007 Mw7.7 Tocopilla earthquake. Slab-related seismicity partly correlates with the coastline and is higher offshore. We also observe a North-South segmentation with a high level of seismicity at the northern and southern borders of the Mejillones Peninsula and less seismicity in its central part, both onshore and offshore.

  17. Regional distribution of uranium deposits in Northern Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern Asia, including the southern territories of Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and the northern China is known as an important distribution region of uranium deposits and occurrences. Since the 60s of 20th century, after the successful development of in-situ leach technology for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, numerous uranium deposits previously discovered in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have become economically amenable low-cost uranium resources. Subsequently, prospecting efforts in Russia, Mongolia and China resulted in the discovery of a series of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in this region. At present, most uranium deposits in above countries are located in the so-called 'Central-Asia Mobile belt' and the periphery of its adjacent old continental blocks. The mobile belt is bound by the East-European and Siberian platforms from the north, and the Tarim-North-China platform from the south. Here, there occur various types of uranium deposits: volcanic-type (Streltsov, Russia), sandstone-type of interlayer oxidation zone (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan), sandstone-type of basal-channel (Dalmatov, Russia), and metasomatite type (Elikon, Russia). It is reported, that 70-75% of uranium resources in Russia are concentrated in the mobile belt. The Central-Asia Mobile belt sandwiched in between two groups of large continental blocks experienced long tectonic evolution, including multistage extension and closure from the Baikal orogeny up to Hercynian-Indosinian orogeny resulting in the welding of the mobile belt together with the two groups of old continental blocks. Though the mobile belt experienced multiple extension, no open ocean appeared during its evolution and the belt generally represents a mature continental crust. The multiple closures led to the occurrence of numerous uranium-rich acidic-intermediate igneous rocks indicating the significant transformation of uranium and other lithophile elements towards the upper earth crust contributing to

  18. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  19. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  20. Characterization of kinetic handling in a primary care center of Antofagasta in year 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Soto B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Musculoskeletal pathologies are prevalent in primary care, affecting 50.6% of women and 31.4% of men between 45 and 64 years old. In the kinetic care service of CESFAM Corvallis in Antofagasta, physiotherapy management is performed at acute musculoskeletal pathologies. OBJECTIVE : Characterization of kinesiology care of musculoskeletal pathologies in CESFAM Corvallis. MATERIAL AND MET HOD : Cross-sectional study, all treated patients with available data were included, so that there was no exclusion. The daily schedule data were used in the study, analyzing the following variables: age, sex and diagnosis. RESULTS : Of 604 patients, the average age was 56,4 years old, being 78% women. The more frequent age range was between 45 and 64 years old with 48.2%. According to anatomical region, 51.5% were in upper extremities, 33.9% in head and spine and 14.1% in lower extremities. In upper extremities the most frequent was painful shoulder syndrome with 48.1% and rotator cuff tendinitis with 12.3%. In head and spine was mechanical low back pain with 42.9% and cervicobrachialgia with 16.1%. In lower extremities, knee osteoarthritis with 23.5%, ankle sprain with 17.6%, and plantar fasciitis with 15.3%. DISCUSSION : The results are consistent with national studies, showing dominance in women and the most common age range is between 45 and 64 years old. The higher frequency of upper extremities pathologies in this study in comparison with national statistics may be due to overdiagnosis, geographic or biopsycosocial factors. Implementation of an adequate registration system is needed for an adequate patient follow-up.

  1. Geothermal regimes of the Clearlake region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, M. [ed.; Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M.

    1998-06-01

    The first commercial production of power from geothermal energy, at The Geysers steamfield in northern California in June 1960, was a triumph for the geothermal exploration industry. Before and since, there has been a search for further sources of commercial geothermal power in The Geysers--Clear Lake geothermal area surrounding The Geysers. As with all exploration programs, these were driven by models. The models in this case were of geothermal regimes, that is, the geometric distribution of temperature and permeability at depth, and estimates of the physical conditions in subsurface fluids. Studies in microseismicity and heat flow, did yield geophysical information relevant to active geothermal systems. Studies in stable-element geochemistry found hiatuses or divides at the Stoney Creek Fault and at the Collayomi Fault. In the region between the two faults, early speculation as to the presence of steamfields was disproved from the geochemical data, and the potential existence of hot-water systems was predicted. Studies in isotope geochemistry found the region was characterized by an isotope mixing trend. The combined geochemical data have negative implications for the existence of extensive hydrothermal systems and imply that fluids of deep origin are confined to small, localized systems adjacent to faults that act as conduits. There are also shallow hot-water aquifers. Outside fault-localized systems and hot-water aquifers, the area is an expanse of impermeable rock. The extraction of energy from the impermeable rock will require the development and application of new methods of reservoir creation and heat extraction such as hot dry rock technology.

  2. Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Karen D., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The foothills of the Brooks Range contain an enormous accumulation of zinc (Zn) in the form of zinc sulfide and barium (Ba) in the form of barite in Carboniferous shale, chert, and mudstone. Most of the resources and reserves of Zn occur in the Red Dog deposit and others in the Red Dog district; these resources and reserves surpass those of most deposits worldwide in terms of size and grade. In addition to zinc and lead sulfides (which contain silver, Ag) and barite, correlative strata host phosphate deposits. Furthermore, prolific hydrocarbon source rocks of Carboniferous and Triassic to Early Jurassic age generated considerable amounts of petroleum that may have contributed to the world-class petroleum resources of the North Slope. Deposits of Zn-Pb-Ag or barite as large as those in the Brooks Range are very rare on a global basis and, accordingly, multiple coincident favorable factors must be invoked to explain their origins. To improve our understanding of these factors and to contribute to more effective assessments of resources in sedimentary basins of northern Alaska and throughout the world, the Mineral Resources Program and the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a project that was aimed at understanding the petroleum maturation and mineralization history of parts of the Brooks Range that were previously poorly characterized. The project, titled ?Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska,? was undertaken in collaboration with industry, academia, and other government agencies. This Circular contains papers that describe the results of the recently completed project. The studies that are highlighted in these papers have led to a better understanding of the following: *The complex sedimentary facies relationships and depositional settings and the geochemistry of the sedimentary rocks that host the deposits (sections 2 and 3). *The factors responsible for formation of the barite and zinc deposits

  3. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and

  4. Regional Business Competitiveness: Medium and Low-Technology Production Systems in Northern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Theodosios Palaskas; Maria Tsampra; Chrysostomos Stoforos

    2013-01-01

    Successful regional integration in global competitive networks depends more than ever before on regional capacities for technological absorption and diffusion. Regional development inequalities are the outcome of different levels of technological adjustment and innovativeness in the regional business sector. This paper explores the technological adjustment capacity of the industrial regions of Northern Greece, which are characterised by traditional manufacturing specialisation – for long now ...

  5. Trace metal variability in coastal waters of San Jorge Bay, Antofagasta, Chile: An environmental evaluation and statistical approach to propose local background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, J; Román, D; Guiñez, M; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P; Castillo, A

    2015-11-15

    Between 2008 and 2011, twelve metals from 384 coastal waters samples from San Jorge Bay (Antofagasta, northern Chile) were collected and analyzed. The goal was to evaluate the quality of the bay's water bodies according to the current Chilean Quality Guideline and to establish background levels for these metals. The result suggests that the coastal waters of San Jorge Bay are of very good quality suitable for recreational activities involving human body contact. The natural background thresholds established for this bay were significantly lower than primary and secondary water quality guidelines. The distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb, along the bay's coastline provides evidence of the effects of industrial activity. Both situations suggest that the threshold indicated in the environmental guidelines of the Chilean legislation may be overestimated and do not represent pollution-free environments. PMID:26365501

  6. Two Years of Regional Cabled Seafloor Observations Across Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Juniper, K.; Heesemann, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Matabos, M.; Mihaly, S.; Scherwath, M.

    2012-04-01

    NEPTUNE Canada completed the installation and is now operating an 800 km, regional cabled ocean network that spans the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate and continental shelf/slope in the northeastern Pacific. The NEPTUNE Canada network is part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. Public data flow started in 2009 and interactive instruments continue to be added to this technically advanced system which provides continuous power and high bandwidth for enabling the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Recent results at five NEPTUNE nodes are presented. Inshore at Folger Passage and Barkley Sound experiments focus on understanding biological productivity and the effects that marine processes have on fish and marine mammals. Experiments further offshore at Barkley Canyon allow quantification of changes in benthic activity with nutrient and sediment transport. Barkley Canyon and further north along the mid-continental slope near ODP Site 889, instruments are monitoring changes in the distribution, structure, related biotas and venting of gas hydrates. A Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) at our mid-plate site (ODP 1027) monitors crustal temperature and pressure, particularly related to triggered events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hydrothermal convection. On the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Endeavour node observes volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal, and associated biological processes. NEPTUNE Canada provides high resolution acoustic and seismic monitoring across the entire network, important for understanding subduction earthquake processes and contributing to a near-field tsunami detection system. An array of bottom pressure recorders is used for the determination of trans-Pacific open ocean tsunami amplitude, propagation direction, and as model input to examine tsunami interaction with the complex coast

  7. Characterization of kinetic handling in a primary care center of Antofagasta in year 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Soto B; Gino Sturione K.; Diego González S.; Jessica Troncoso A.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : Musculoskeletal pathologies are prevalent in primary care, affecting 50.6% of women and 31.4% of men between 45 and 64 years old. In the kinetic care service of CESFAM Corvallis in Antofagasta, physiotherapy management is performed at acute musculoskeletal pathologies. OBJECTIVE : Characterization of kinesiology care of musculoskeletal pathologies in CESFAM Corvallis. MATERIAL AND MET HOD : Cross-sectional study, all treated patients with available data were include...

  8. Del asentamiento minero al espacio continental: Chuquicamata (Chile y la contribución de la minería a la configuración del territorio y el desarrollo social y económico de la Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIO GARCES FELIÚ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente paper tiene por objetivo analizar las contribuciones de Chuquicamata al desarrollo territorial, social y económico de la II Región de Antofagasta durante el siglo XX, a partir de su condición de complejo industrial y company town minero, que evoluciona desde las rentas y aportes propios de un campamento del cobre hasta su despliegue a escala regional, con alcances y encadenamientos continentales, contribuyendo al desarrollo social y económico de la región y el país. En esta perspectiva, el Norte de Chile y, en particular esta región, ostentan importantes ventajas comparativas y competitivas, extensivas al siglo XXI, tanto para la explotación de minerales como para su encadenamiento con otros sectores productivos, en un proceso que genera nuevas configuraciones de ordenamiento territorial, basadas no sólo en la dinámica urbana de los company totvns sino que también en la extensión y complejidad del "territorio minero", activado económicamente por la minería.This article analyzes the contributions of Chuquicamata to the territorial, social and economic development of the II Region of Antofagasta during the twentieth century. The process begins with the local contributions of an industrial complex and company town, that evolves from profits and contributions specific to a copper mining settlement to a situation of regional significance, generating continental economic relations and linkages which contribute to the social and economic development of the region and he country. From this perspective, Northern Chile, and this region in particular, hold important comparative and competitive advantages that extend into the twenty first century, both for the exploitation of mineral resources and for increasing linkages with other productive sectors, in a process that generates new spatial configurations, based not only on the urban dynamics of the company town, but also through the extent and complexity of the mining territory

  9. PRIMEROS AVANCES EN LA CARACTERIZACIÓN GEOQUÍMICA DE VULCANITAS DE AFLORAMIENTOS DE ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA (PROV. DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / First advances in the geochemical characteristics of volcanic outcrops of Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra M. Elías

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En distintos sectores de la microrregión de Antofagasta de la Sierra (Provincia de Catamarca, Puna Meridional Argentina se registran afloramientos de vulcanitas (rocas volcánicas con proporciones de vidrio menores a 80%, sensu Aschero et al. 2002/2004 macroscópicamente muy similares. Con el objetivo de diferenciarlas y aportar, de esta forma, a su identificación en el registro arqueológico, se aplicaron diversos métodos y técnicas sobre muestras de estas rocas procedentes de los distintos afloramientos. En esta instancia, se exponen los resultados obtenidos a partir de caracterización geoquímica por medio de Fluorescencia de Rayos X de Energía Dispersiva. Las vulcanitas procedentes de los diferentes afloramientos tienden a presentar disímiles concentraciones de ciertos elementos. Estos resultados son prometedores y estimulan a continuar investigando la aplicación de métodos geoquímicos en la diferenciación y determinación de la procedencia de estas rocas volcánicas. Cabe destacar que en el Noroeste Argentino los métodos geoquímicos fueron exclusivamente aplicados sobre una roca volcánica específica, la obsidiana, y aún no habían sido utilizados en otras rocas volcánicas anisótropas, con superficies, texturas y estructuras más irregulares. Abstract   In different sectors of the Antofagasta de la Sierra micro-region (Catamarca Province, Southern Argentine Pune outcrops of macroscopically very similar vulcanites (volcanic rocks with ratios of glass below 80%, sensu Aschero et al. 2002/2004 have been recorded. In order to differentiate between these and contribute to their identification in the archaeological record, various methods and techniques were applied to samples of these rocks. In this instance, the initial results obtained from geochemical characterization, through Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, are presented. The vulcanites from different outcrops tend to show different concentrations for some elements

  10. Aluviones históricos en Antofagasta y su relación con eventos El Niño/Oscilación del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vargas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Historic mudflows in Antofagasta, Chile, and their relationship to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation events. The coastal zone of the Atacama Desert is submitted to an extremely arid climate, characterized, in Antofagasta, by mean annual rainfall of 4 mm (1904-1998. However, the sporadic occurrence of heavy rainfall, together with the geomorphologic situation of the city, may produce debris and mud flows (' aluviones '. The occurrence of alluvial flows during the 20th century was investigated through the study of newspapers (available from 1916, instrumental data of precipitation (from 1904 and the observation of alluvial deposits which include anthropic remains (principally after 1900. The relationship between these evidences of alluvial activity with the occurrence of El Niño events was examined through a comparison between historical data, SOI (Southern Oscillation Index data, and rainfall data in Antofagasta. Between 1916 and 1999, the city was affected by alluvial events in seven oportunities: 1925, 1930, twice in 1940, 1982, 1987 and 1991, with the most important episodes in 1940 and 1991. In all the cases, the rains occurred during the winter period of the developpement phase of El Niño (ENOS events (very strong to moderate intensity, and were associated to frontal systems coming from higher latitudes, which also struck a major part of northen Chile. The convective character of the rainstorms is the cause of the great spatial zonification in the precipitations, within the same rainfall event. The comparison of annual rainfall data in Antofagasta with tendencies, at both regional and global scales, of the air temperature and the sea surface temperature, shows a coincidence between periods with more important precipitations and particular conditions, at an interdecadal scale, of the ocean-atmosphere global system. During the 20th century, alluvial episodes in the coastal area of northen Chile were coeval with periods during which a

  11. Analysis of Northern regional folk culture on the Paper-cut art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Dong; QI De-jin

    2014-01-01

    Northern regional folk culture and art is colorful, bright vibrant, showing a flourishing pomp, The paper-cut art is one of the essential of the Pearl.The following article is based on the premise of the relationship between the North and the surround-ing area customs and cultural heritage of folk art paper-cut, carrys on the review and analysis, focuses on northern folk paper-cut of origin, schools,, characteristics and the differences between the North and South.

  12. Water asset utilization for renewable energy generation in the northern periphery region

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, V.

    2014-01-01

    Water and energy resources are crucial topics on the current European political agenda. At the same time, there is no coherence between the two sectors in terms of legislation: both on EU and national levels, such as Finland. This thesis aims to underline a potential for utilization of renewable energy sources in the Finnish water industry. In the theoretical part, overview of water services in the Northern Periphery Region (Finland, Norway, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Ireland) is provi...

  13. THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF NORTHERN PORTUGAL AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR A REGIONAL BRANDING STRATEGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i) is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to inte

  14. Regional characteristics of spring Asian dust and its impact on aerosol chemistry over northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available TSP and PM2.5 aerosol samples were synchronously collected at six sites along the transport pathway of dust storm from desert regions to coastal areas in the spring of 2004. The aerosol concentration and composition were measured to investigate the regional characteristics of spring Asian dust and its impact on aerosol chemistry over northern China. Based on the daily PM10 concentrations in 13 cities, the northern China could be divided into five regions, i.e., Northern Dust Region, Northeastern Dust Region, Western Dust Region, Inland Passing Region, and Coastal Region. Northern Dust Region was characterized by high content of Ca and Northeastern Dust Region was characterized by low one instead. Northeastern Dust Region was a relatively clean area with the lowest concentrations of pollutants and secondary ions among all sites. Inland Passing Region and Coastal Region showed high concentrations of pollutants, of which As and Pb in Inland Passing Region, and Na+, SO42− and NO3 in Coastal Region were the highest, respectively. The impact of dust on air quality was the greatest in the cities near source regions, and this impact decreased in the order of Yulin/Duolun > Beijing > Qingdao/Shanghai as the increase of transport distance. The spring Asian dust was inclined to affect the chemical components in coarse particles near source regions and those in fine particles in the cities far from source regions. Dust storm could mix significant quantities of pollutants on the pathway and carry them to the downwind cities or dilute the pollutants in the cities over northern China. Each dust episode corresponded to a low ratio of NO3/SO42− with the lowest value appearing after the peak of dust storm. Asian dust played an important role in buffering and neutralizing the acidity of atmosphere in the cities over northern China

  15. Real Estate Issues in the Far Northern Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, R.; M.M.Soloviev Platonova; M.M. Soloviev; V. Platonova

    2007-01-01

    The demand for energy has led to demands for investment in the Far North regions. The regions are rich in mineral wealth but are characterised by difficult conditions in which to live and work. Exploitable resources are widely scattered with difficulties in accessing them. They are located in areas with fragile ecologies, which are indigenous peoples with their own cultures and traditional economies. Disruption to these by the demands of mineral exploitation or hydro-electricity can have a de...

  16. Plants of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published and unpublished lists of plants of the Alligator Rivers Region have been combined into a single, up-to-date check-list. The list has been designed to replace fragmented, regional listings with a single document suitable for use by both professional and amateur botanists. The list is ordered in the taxonomic sequence adopted for the Flora of Australia and includes 1346 species from 165 families. These are 1275 native and 71 alien species listed. Separate lists of rare species are given and discussed

  17. A Critical Assessment and Projection of Urban Vertical Growth in Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerra Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical cities’ growth is argument of discussion worldwide. Population increases and a better soil use are needed, in terms of efficiency and density, in many cities of the world. However, an excessive vertical growth seems to be harmful, especially near the green areas of midtowns. In this paper, the case of Antofagasta is studied. The paper studies different possible future evolutions searching for a bearable development, respecting the society needs and the environment. Parameters analyzed are: temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction in the studied area. Results show the impact of building growth in terms of overheating and wind reduction on the ground area studied. Additionally, the social impact of living in towers is also discussed in the paper, searching for better design in order to guarantee user’s comfort, satisfaction and stimulation in their residences. Thermal, visual and acoustical effects produced by towers are considered in the critical evaluation of the Antofagasta city evolution. Part of this work relates to architectural workshop “energy and architecture” conducted by the authors at the School of Architecture of the Catholic University of the North (UCN in 2012.

  18. Food Expenditures in Rural Households in the Northern Region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Ting; Wojciech J. FLORKOWSKI; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to identify farmer and farm characteristics that determine the food expenditure in rural households in the Northern Region of Ghana. The results indicate income, implicit wealth, age, family structure, cultivation staple or cash crop, and buying dry goods in bulks are the major determinants.

  19. Petrology of the Northern Adula Region, Switzerland (with particular reference to the Glaucophane-Bearing Rocks)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der L.

    1959-01-01

    Geological and petrographical investigations were carried out in the northern part of the so-called Adula Nappe, one of the deepest Pennine nappes. The area under consideration lies in the SE of Switzerland, near Vals, S of Ilanz. This area is situated north of the Lepontinic gneiss-region, the deep

  20. Emerging scrub typhus infection in the northern region of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeepan, Jebananthy Anandaselvam; Ketheesan, Natkunam; Murugananthan, Kalamathy

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increasing trend in rickettsioses or typhus fevers in the island of Sri Lanka. The seroepidemiological mapping previously published did not include the northern region of the island. This study was conducted to demonstrate the presence of scrub typhus (ST) and to characterise the clinical presentation of ST in this region. Findings Serum samples from patients (n = 64) with clinical symptoms suspected of typhus fever following exclusion of other common febrile illnesses ...

  1. Belize’s Northern Region; Its Economic Performance in the post-independence period

    OpenAIRE

    Ken, Crucita

    2008-01-01

    Belize got its Independence when the region was going through an economic crisis with debt burden and traditional export prices reduction. The northern region, once the most important economically, faced major challenges which prompted the introduction of fiscal incentive programs to alleviate the growing unemployment and decreasing economic activity. As an international border, it also faced, during the eighties and nineties, the effects of the Mexican peso devaluation. However, Mexico also ...

  2. Competition, Cooperation, and the Emergence of Regional Centers in the Northern Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Abigail Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Regional centers with dense populations developed in the Titicaca Basin during the late Middle (ca. 1300-500 BC) and early Upper Formative (ca. 500 BC- AD 400) Periods. These aggregated settlements have long been considered the hallmark of intermediate societies. This dissertation focuses on the transition from small village societies to ones with pronounced social, political, and economic hierarchies. In the northern Titicaca region, only two sites--Taraco and Pukara--became powerful cent...

  3. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Milin, Cedomila; Giacometti, Jasminka

    2001-01-01

    Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino). The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, p...

  4. Impact of land surface degradation in northern China and southern Mongolia on regional climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingyong; DONG Wenjie; FU Congbin

    2005-01-01

    Clear evidence provided by the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation data identifies that there exists a sensitive region of vegetation-climate interaction located in the transitional zone over northern China and its surrounding areas, where the vegetation cover change has the most significant influence on summer precipitation over China. Comparison of reanalysis data with station data provides a good method to assess the impacts of land use change on surface temperature, and the most obvious contribution of land use change may be to lead to notable warming over northern China in the interdecadal time scale. Based on the new statistical results, a high-resolution regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS) is employed to investigate the effects of land surface degradation over the transitional zone and its surrounding areas (northern China and southern Mongolia) on the regional climate. Land degradation results in the decreases in precipitation over northern and southern China, and the increase in between, and increased and decreased temperature over vegetation change areas and the adjacent area to the south, respectively. Not only would it change the surface climate, but also bring the significant influence on the atmospheric circulation. Both the surface climate and circulation changes generally agree to the observed interdecadal anomalies over the last five decades. These integrated statistical and simulated results imply that land surface degradation over the transitional zone in northern China and its surrounding areas could be one of the main causes responsible for the climate anomalies over China, especially the drought over northern China.

  5. Potential source regions of dust accumulated in northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowska, S.; Woronko, B.

    2012-04-01

    Iguidi and Chech-Adrar, although the most probable source area is Erg Occidental. Tunisian dusts come from vast expanses of Erg Oriental and Chott-el-Jerid. The potential source of the dusts accumulated in Alexandria could be Libyan Desert. This does not preclude also much more distant sources of sediment, as for instance ergs from North Sudan. From the other hand the presence of shell parts of diatoms of the Actinoptychus genus may indicate the dispelling of the Nile alluvium. Key words: source region, aeolian accumulation, north Africa, textural features of grains, aeolian dust, meteorological situation, Sahara, SEM analysis

  6. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism. PMID:26181687

  7. ELUSIVE ETHYLENE DETECTED IN SATURN'S NORTHERN STORM REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesman, B. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Nixon, C. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N. [NASA/GSFC Code 693, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sada, P. V. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Monterrey, Garza Garcia, NL 66238 (Mexico); Jennings, D. E. [NASA/GSFC Code 693 and Code 500, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lunsford, A. W. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Boyle, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013 (United States); Simon-Miller, A. A., E-mail: brigette.e.hesman@nasa.gov [NASA/GSFC Code 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The massive eruption at 40 Degree-Sign N (planetographic latitude) on Saturn in 2010 December has produced significant and lasting effects in the northern hemisphere on temperature and species abundances. The northern storm region was observed on many occasions in 2011 by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). In 2011 May, temperatures in the stratosphere greater than 200 K were derived from CIRS spectra in the regions referred to as 'beacons' (warm regions in the stratosphere). Ethylene has been detected in the beacon region in Saturn's northern storm region using CIRS. Ground-based observations using the high-resolution spectrometer Celeste on the McMath-Pierce Telescope on 2011 May 15 were used to confirm the detection and improve the altitude resolution in the retrieved profile. The derived ethylene profile from the CIRS data gives a C{sub 2}H{sub 4} mole fraction of 5.9 {+-} 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} at 0.5 mbar, and from Celeste data it gives 2.7 {+-} 0.45 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} at 0.1 mbar. This is two orders of magnitude higher than the amount measured in the ultraviolet at other latitudes prior to the storm. It is also much higher than predicted by photochemical models, indicating that perhaps another production mechanism is required or a loss mechanism is being inhibited.

  8. Cacao 3 (Cc 3, Arte rupestre del formativo temprano en Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rodrigo Martel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo hemos abordado el estudio de la producción del arte rupestre del sitio Cacao 3 –Cc3- (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca con relación a las prácticas socioculturales de grupos agropastoriles del periodo Formativo Temprano en la Puna meridional argentina, haciendo hincapié en el emplazamiento del sitio y su asociación contextual con las demás evidencias arqueológicas conocidas para el área de estudio y estableciendo las relaciones entre las manifestaciones rupestres de Cc3 con las de otros sitios, a nivel micro y macrorregional, a través de indicadores estilísticos

  9. The Demographic Situation in the Northern Economic Region of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIU BACIU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic situation within the Northern Economic Region is worse than the national average. This fact is determined by the decrease of the birth rate values, the increase of the mortality values and the negative natural and migration growth. They also lead to a change of the rate between age groups, in favour of the elderly. In order to diminish such a situation, urgent measures should be taken (policies for economic increase and income increase at local, department and regional level, to stop the deep demographic crisis of the region.

  10. Artificial collection and early growth of spat of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819), in La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño D., Miguel; Cantillánez S., Marcela; Thouzeau, Gérard; Peña, Juan B.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial collection of early juveniles ("spat") of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus in Japanese-type collectors was evaluated between January 2001 and July 2002 in the La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile. This area of Antofagasta Bay has in the past been noted for the retention of scallop larvae by local gyres, in which their numbers can vary between 89 and 34175 larvae m-3, producing larval sets of 400 to 15340 post-larvae (spat) per collector. The results showed no quantitati...

  11. Population data on nine STRs from Cantabria, a mountainous region in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabeitia, M T; Riancho, J A

    2001-11-01

    Allele frequencies for nine STRs loci included in the AmpFlTR Profiler Plus kit (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820) were obtained from a sample of 158 unrelated individuals living in Cantabria, a region in northern Spain. PMID:11672975

  12. Agricultural credit utilization among farmers in Bole district of Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    GIDEON DANSO-ABBEAM; MENSAH TAWIAH COBBINA; RANDY APPIAH ANTWI

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing the probability of farmers accessing agricultural credit as well as the amount of received credit allocated to farming operations in the Bole district of Northern region, Ghana. A sample size of 100 respondents were randomly selected and interviewed through a well-structured questionnaire. Paired sample t-test was used to test whether there exist a significant difference between the amount of credit received and the amount allocated to farm sectors. Pro...

  13. Diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Arusha region, northern Tanzania by microscopy and clinical manifestations in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lukambagire, Abdul-Hamid Settenda; Mchaile, Deborah N.; Nyindo, Mramba

    2015-01-01

    Background Human fascioliasis (HF) is a zoonotic disease that has been identified in many countries worldwide. This report concerns the identification and clinical management of cases of human fascioliasis in the suburbs of Arusha city, northern Tanzania in 2013. Fascioliasis is included among the WHO’s Neglected Tropical Diseases as a plant transmitted trematode infection. Human fascioliasis has not been described before in the East Africa region, including Tanzania. Methods Patients present...

  14. Developing a clinical research network : the Northern Region Endoscopy Group experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekhar, P.; Rees, C. van; Rutter, M; Hungin, P

    2014-01-01

    Research is central to the National Health Service. Clinical trial recruitment has been aided by the National Institute for Health Research's Comprehensive Research Network but these networks do not support development of research. The Northern Region Endoscopy Group (NREG) was founded in 2007, encompasses 17 endoscopy units and has become a highly successful collaborative research network. The network is now a major contributor to UK trials, has published over 20 papers (>60 abstracts) and h...

  15. Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Estimation of the Desertification of Northern Caspian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabanov Dmitriy Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caspian Region is a part of the territory of Russia. On the territory of the Northern Caspian Region arid and semi-arid landscapes exist and are used as pastures for ages. Mining, construction, installation and operation of communications, cultivation of land make significant impact to the environmental change of this territory. Desertification is the most typical respond to irrational environmental impact for the arid areas, and assessment of the current status and trends of desertification of the territory are necessary to determine the plans for the development and environment restoration missions. Four scenes from Landsat-8 (OLI, June 2014 have been processed via ENVI software. Top of the surface reflectance have been calculated, supervised and classified using ROI based on ground truth data. Based on the remote sensing data area of desertification was estimated and created a map “Desertification of the Northern Caspian Region.” The obtained data are preliminary and require further clarification, including verification by ground truth and further research.

  16. Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sapey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I. The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavourable weather conditions. Only Dura (D forms of Oil palm were present without the existence of the other forms. The smallest shell thickness recorded was 1.6 mm. Data on stem height, bunch weight, bunch length, bunch depth, bunch diameter, bunch width, bunch spine length, bunch stalk weight, fruit length and width were recorded in-situ. Mesocarp, kernel and shell to fruit ratios were computed. Data collected were analysed using standard procedures; Elementary statistics (mean values, standard error, range and co-efficient of variation were computed. Results revealed some variation for both qualitative and quantitative traits assessed on the accessions. Seedlings have been raised from these accessions for testing for drought screening and yield evaluation.

  17. Indigenous vegetation burning practices and their impact on the climate of the northern Australian monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-H. Wyrwoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we pose the question: was there a downturn in summer monsoon precipitation over northern Australia due to Aboriginal vegetation practices over prehistoric time scales? In answering this question we consider the results from a global climate model incorporating ocean, land, ice, atmosphere and vegetation interactions, reducing the total vegetation cover over northern Australia by 20% to simulate the effects of burning. The results suggest that burning forests and woodlands in the monsoon region of Australia led to a shift in the regional climate, with a delayed monsoon onset and reduced precipitation in the months preceding the "full" monsoon. We place these results in a global context, drawing on model results from five other monsoon regions, and note that although the precipitation response is highly varied, there is a general but region specific climate response to reduced vegetation cover in all cases. Our findings lead us to conclude that large-scale vegetation modification over millennial time-scales due to indigenous burning practices, would have had significant impacts on regional climates. With this conclusion comes the need to recognise that the Anthropocene saw the impact of humans on regional-scale climates and hydrologies at much earlier times than generally recognized.

  18. Indigenous vegetation burning practices and their impact on the climate of the northern Australian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, K.-H.; McRobie, F. H.; Notaro, M.; Chen, G.

    2013-08-01

    Here we pose the question: was there a downturn in summer monsoon precipitation over northern Australia due to Aboriginal vegetation practices over prehistoric time scales? In answering this question we consider the results from a global climate model incorporating ocean, land, ice, atmosphere and vegetation interactions, reducing the total vegetation cover over northern Australia by 20% to simulate the effects of burning. The results suggest that burning forests and woodlands in the monsoon region of Australia led to a shift in the regional climate, with a delayed monsoon onset and reduced precipitation in the months preceding the "full" monsoon. We place these results in a global context, drawing on model results from five other monsoon regions, and note that although the precipitation response is highly varied, there is a general but region specific climate response to reduced vegetation cover in all cases. Our findings lead us to conclude that large-scale vegetation modification over millennial time-scales due to indigenous burning practices, would have had significant impacts on regional climates. With this conclusion comes the need to recognise that the Anthropocene saw the impact of humans on regional-scale climates and hydrologies at much earlier times than generally recognized.

  19. Ecological and Social Aspects of Ecological Restoration: New Challenges and Opportunities for Northern Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Nilsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in ecological restoration has recently intensified as scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders use restoration in management strategies to address and mitigate global climate change and biodiversity loss. Northern ecosystems offer special challenges to restoration managers because of their short growing seasons and long recovery periods. This special feature of Ecology and Society on ecological restoration in northern regions draws together 11 papers based on presentations from the conference "Restoring the North", convened in October 2011 in Selfoss, Iceland. We summarize two themes of this conference: (1 setting objectives and evaluating success in restoration, and (2 legislation, policy, and implementation of restoration. We conclude that northern countries altogether comprise a significant knowledge base and suggest five actions to enhance restoration practices within them: (1 improved documentation of restoration actions, including objectives, measures and results, (2 regular evaluation of restoration progress and outcome, (3 coordination of conservation actions among northern countries, including location of restoration actions to sites where they are most useful in a global context, (4 formation of a common platform to strengthen development of research about ecological, political, social, and technical aspects of ecological restoration, and (5 education of new generations of restoration actors who can work in diverse biogeographic settings and cultures.

  20. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  1. Serological survey of human Toxoplasma gondii infection in northern and central regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic protozoan parasite that can infect man and animals. The pathogen can infect the fetus by congenital transmission during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate T. gondii infection in people referred to health care centers in northern and central regions of Iran.Materials and methods: Serum samples from 712 individuals in Mazandaran, Isfahan and ChaharmahalvaBakhtiari provinces, Iran, were examined for the levels of anti-T. Gondii IgG by ELISA. Prevalence of T. gondii infection in respect of gender and age was analyzed. Results: The overall anti-T. gondii IgG prevalence in the study population was 72.05%. In Mazandaran, Isfahan and ChaharmahalvaBakhtiari provinces,in male population respectively 87.6, 41.46 and 61.81% and in female population respectively 89.31, 47.61 and 64.44% were sero-positive with anti-T. gondii IgG. Sero-prevalance of anti-T.gondii IgG in the females was higher than in the males in the northern and central regions of Iran. Discussion and conclusion:The present study demonstrates high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in northern and central regions of Iran and a higher prevalence of T. gondii infection was observed in females. Significant difference in infection rate between individuals living in northern and central areas in Iran was found (p <0.05, which indicated that T. gondii infection is dependent on living places. Deeper investigations for the potential risk factors that threat the Iranian populations, especially female are recommended.

  2. Developments in regional scale simulation: modelling ecologically sustainable development in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines one way in which researchers can make a positive methodological contribution to the debate on ecologically sustainable development (ESD) by integrating dynamic modelling and geographical information systems to form the basis for regional scale simulations. Some of the orthodox uses of Geographic Information System (GIS) are described and it is argued that most applications do not incorporate process based causal models. A description of a pilot study into developing a processed base model of ESD in the Northern Territory is given. This dynamic process based simulation model consists of two regions namely the 'Top End' and the 'Central' district. Each region consists of ten sub-sectors and the pattern of land use represents a common sector to both regions. The role of environmental defence expenditure, including environmental rehabilitation of uranium mines, in the model is noted. Similarly, it is hypothesized that the impact of exogenous changes such as the greenhouse effect and global economic fluctuations can have a differential impact on the behaviour of several sectors of the model. Some of the problems associated with calibrating and testing the model are reviewed. Finally, it is suggested that further refinement of this model can be achieved with the pooling of data sets and the development of PC based transputers for more detailed and accurate regional scale simulations. When fully developed it is anticipated that this pilot model can be of service to environmental managers and other groups involved in promoting ESD in the Northern Territory. 54 refs., 6 figs

  3. THE ROLE OF NORTHERN OLTENIA REGION INTO THE NATIONAL ENERGY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts from the reality that "energy" is the engine of growth and economic development of the country in general and especially North Oltenia region, bringing a constant real value that can be likened to the "flywheel" for storage and energy conservation. The region that we consider a model of the subject of research and I called it generic, "Northern Oltenia" has the best possible conditions in order to become a real and major regional power pole, providing most of energy in the national energy system in conditions of maximum security, which can be at the same time achieved an export surplus value generator. In these circumstances, local communities with a tradition of energetic in Romania, in Northern Oltenia Basin will receive the attention it deserves by promoting regional development projects of scale, and a retraining and professional reorientation of skilled human resource. Romanian energy industry has significant resource potential of all categories of expertise supported by the best specialists in the field, Romanian and foreign, as well as significant opportunities for the recovery of the national economy, making a significant contribution to strengthening Romania's position as a major regional pole among EU states.

  4. Incidence of respiratory tract sarcoidosis in southern and northern regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk G.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a comparative survey of incidence and prevalence of pulmonary sarcoidosis in Southern (Crimean AR and Northern (Zhytomyr region regions of Ukraine by means of analysis of self-referred cases and cases, revealed at prophylactic radiological examination in 2011. The incidence of sarcoidosis in Crimea was 1.08 per 100 000 adult inhabitants; the prevalence was 4,59 per 100 000. In Zhytomyr region the incidence value (2,62 per 100 000 exceeded an equivalent value in Crimea by 2,4 times. The prevalence (7,86 per 100 000 was also higher than in Crimea by 1,7 times. Taking into account a significant impact of climate factor on sarcoidosis epidemiology, the incidence and prevalence of disease in Northern and Southern regions should be considered polar as for the regions of Ukraine. This makes it possoble to conclude that mean incidence of sarcoidosis in Ukraine ranges from 1,1 to 2,6 per 100 000 adult population, whereas the prevalence – from 4,6 to 7,9 per 100 000, which is equivalent to the level of Southern European countries.

  5. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  6. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the west-central Buffalo National River region in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the region lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the map area spans the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone and the higher Boston Mountains to the south, held up by Pennsylvanian rocks. The Buffalo River flows eastward through the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion of an approximately 1,600-ft- (490-m-) thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Quaternary surficial units are present as alluvial deposits along major streams, including a series of terrace deposits from the Buffalo River, as well as colluvium and landslide deposits mantling bedrock on hillslopes.

  7. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    , there are no existing empirical accounts comprehensively validating the concept. Here an attempt to shed some light into this “black box” is made by addressing this research gap via empirical material from Northern European cross-border regions. Specifically this is done by applying data on publications......-border scientific collaboration are described through preliminary descriptive statistics. This provides an answer to the specific research question of this paper: does high levels of proximity guarantee subsequent high levels of scientific collaboration and integration in a cross-border context? Consequently, the......A novel approach, namely cross-border regional innovation system, has been recently introduced to the literature on economic geography as a framework for studying innovation and scientific collaboration in a cross-border context. However, despite the importance of the topic for cross-border regions...

  8. Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permafrost carbon–climate feedback is one of the major mechanisms in controlling the climate–ecosystem interactions in northern high latitudes. Of this feedback, methane (CH4) emission from natural wetlands is critically important due to its high warming potential. The freeze–thaw transition has been confirmed to play an important role in annual CH4 budget, yet the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. An intensive field campaign was carried out in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China to estimate the CH4 emission in the spring freeze–thaw transition period. The observation concluded that a large CH4 source was caused by spring thaw; the maximum hourly emission rate was 48.6 g C m−2 h−1, more than three orders of the regularly observed CH4 emission rate in the growing season. In some sporadically observed ‘hot spots’, the spring thawing effect contributed to a large CH4 source of 31.3± 10.1 g C m −2, which is approximately 80% of the previously calculated annual CH4 emission in the same study area. If our results are typical for natural wetlands in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region, we estimate a global CH4 source strength of 0.5–1.0 Tg C (1 Tg =1012 g) caused by spring thaw in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region in the year 2011. Combining with available satellite and flask data, a regional extrapolation reaches a temporal pattern of CH4 emission during 2003–2009 which is consistent with recently observed changes in atmospheric CH4 concentration in the high latitudes. This suggests that the CH4 emission upon spring thaw in the high latitudes might be enhanced by the projected climate warming. These findings indicate that the spring thawing effect is an important mechanism in the permafrost carbon–climate feedback and needs to be incorporated in Earth system models. (letter)

  9. Slab flattening, dynamic topography and normal faulting in the Cordillera Blanca region (northern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, A.; Robert, X.; Laurence, A.; Gautheron, C.; Bernet, M.; Simon-Labric, T.; Hall, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Processes driving surface uplift in the Andes are still debated and the role of subduction processes as slab flattening on surface uplift and relief building in the Andes is not well understood. Some of the highest Andean summits, the Cordillera Blanca (6768 m) and the Cordillera Negra (5187 m), are located above a present flat subduction zone (3-15°S), in northern Peru. In this area, both the geometry and timing of the flattening of the slab are well constrained (Gutscher et al., 1999; Rosenbaum et al., 2005). This region is thus a perfect target to explore the effect of slab flattening on the Andean topography and uplift. We obtained new apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from three vertical profiles located in the Cordillera Blanca and the Cordillera Negra. Time-temperature paths obtained from inverse modeling of the thermochronological data indicates a Middle Miocene cooling for both Cordillera Negra profiles. We interpret it as regional exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental starting in Middle Miocene, synchronous with the onset of the subduction of the Nazca ridge (Rosenbaum et al., 2005). We propose that the Nazca ridge subduction at 15 Ma and onset of slab flattening in northern Peru drove regional positive dynamic topography and thus enhanced exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental. This study provides new evidence of the impact subduction processes and associated dynamic topography on paleogeography and surface uplift in the Andes.

  10. Discussion on uranium metallogenetic characteristics in northern Guangxi region based on gravity and magnetic fields study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravity and magnetic fields are intimately related to uranium mineralization in northern Guangxi region and characteristics of geophysical field reflect the geological environments relevant to uranium metallogenesis. The study shows that uranium mineralization in northern Guangxi region mainly exhibit the following several obvious features: (1) uranium mineralization is located at the margin of geophysical fields or anomalies on different scale, especially large-scaled uranium mineralization is present at the margin of regional gravity low anomalies (corresponding to the crustal thickening area, i.e. mantle depression area); (2) The deep geological processes such as the tilting and subsiding of Moho discontinuity, large-scaled deep magmatism and deep faulting are main controlling factors for uranium metallogenesis; (3) Granitic bodies are not only the uranium source body for granite type uranium mineralization, but also for carbonate-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium mineralization. Moreover, the stronger the magmatic dynamic field, the higher the uranium content in granitic bodies and the more favourable for uranium metallogenesis; (4) Hydrothermal fluids relevant to uranium metallogenesis are of nonmagnetic origin, having strong demagnetization capability and granite offered dynamics for hydrothermal circulation; (5) Pyrite closely associated with uranium mineralization is mainly derived from 'magnetic crust' of the granitic bodies; (6) Uranium deposits were formed in mesoepithermal, shallow surface geological environments

  11. Investigating malaria risk in the northern region of Nigeria using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emetere, M. E.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Olawole, O. F.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of infectious diseases are dependent on salient environment and climate factors which are directly proportional to its transmission. Malaria is a common disease of typical tropics of the West African sub-region. The influences of malaria transmission via meteorological and environmental parameters were examined. Remotely sensed parameters i.e. skin temperature, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and total precipitation were obtained from the NASA-MERRA. The results show that the meteorological and environmental parameters of northern Nigeria favour the long malaria dominance.

  12. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites in northern regions: a synthesis of full-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of a proprietary technology (biopiling) developed by BIOGENIE INC, a firm specializing in contaminated site remediation, is discussed. The technology has been applied at more than 20 different sites located in northern regions, or operated under winter conditions. The sites treated ranged in size from 80 to 90,000 tons, some under very difficult conditions ( no roads, no electricity, etc). In all cases, the process produced successful results and achieved compliance with environmental regulations. The paper provides details of the biopile system, and describes some of the projects and results obtained since the technology was introduced in 1991. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Pharmaceutical intervention in menopausal patients with hormone replacement therapy in a community pharmacy from Antofagasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Alucema

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is the most widely used treatment for controlling the effects of menopause. This type of therapy causes some drug-related problems (DRP, which requires monitoring to control the negative effects and ensure patient adherence to therapy. Aims: Perform a pharmacotherapeutic monitoring and educate to menopausal patients in HRT of a community pharmacy from the city of Antofagasta. Methods: A 98-menopausal patients underwent a pharmaceutical intervention to identify the PRM and its resolution. It was applied to them a survey before and after educational activities about this disease and HRT to determine the knowledge on the subject. Results: During the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring was determined that 55% of patients using combined HRT. 62 DRPs were detected, of which 43 were resolved (69%; the most were Patient-Pharmacist (73%. The better resolution DRP were DRP 4(b “frequency of inadequate administration” and DRP 2(a “no medical indication”. At baseline, 90% had an inadequate level of knowledge about the disease and THR, 8% intermediate, and only 2% adequate. After the implementation of the education strategy, the level of knowledge increased, achieving at the end of the study only intermediate (10% and adequate (90% levels. Conclusions: The results confirm the importance of pharmaceutical intervention for the identification and resolution of DRP and the requirement to establish educational strategies to increase the knowledge about menopause and HRT in menopausal patients.

  14. Population structure and relatedness among female Northern Pintails in three California wintering regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Fowler, Ada C.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) were sampled in California's three main Central Valley wintering regions (Sacramento Valley, Suisun Marsh, San Joaquin Valley) during September–October before most regional movements occur and microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were analyzed to examine population structure and relatedness. Despite reportedly high rates of early-fall pairing and regional fidelity, both sets of markers indicated that there was little overall genetic structuring by region. Pintails from Suisun Marsh did exhibit higher relatedness among individuals and capture groups than in the Sacramento or San Joaquin Valleys, likely reflecting a sample comprised of a greater proportion of local breeders. The lack of genetic structuring among regions indicates that a high degree of movement and interchange occurs among pintails wintering in the Central Valley. Thus, although maintaining the existing distribution of pintails among Central Valley regions is important for other reasons, it does not appear to be critical to retain current patterns of population genetic variation. Because of potential lack of independence among highly related study individuals, researchers should consider regional differences in relatedness when designing sampling schemes and interpreting research findings.

  15. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  16. Crop Production of Northern Mindanao, Philippines: Its contribution to the Regional Economy and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejarme-Calalang, GM.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of primary agricultural crops produced in Northern Mindanao to its economy and food security of people with the situational analysis and insights of the authors. Rice as the staple food of most Filipinos is insufficient in quantity produced. Corn production is more than enough for the total regional demand. White corn is preferred as secondary staple food, however the corn industry emphasizes yellow corn production and the bulk of this goes to raw materials for livestock and poultry feeds. Coconut, sugar, pineapple and bananas significantly contribute to agricultural exports. Coconut is processed before exporting which can offer employment in the rural areas. Sugarcane, pineapple and bananas have created a change in the land use and hence compete with rice and corn. Northern Mindanao is one of the leading producers of tomatoes, carrots and potatoes, yet farmers have encountered deterring factors in attaining potential income from these products. Although Bukidnon province is the top agricultural producer in the region, poverty in the area remains high.

  17. APPROACH TO THE REGIONALIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL PASTURALIZATION AROUND CHANGSHAN ISLANDS IN NORTHERN YELLOW SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the data of resources, environment and foundation of production, applying principal components-clustering quantitative analysis, this article divides the maritime space of Changshan Islands into three regions ofagricultural-pasturalization, providing a scientific basis for the rational distribution of marine cultivation. The three regions are as follows: 1 )The region of an agricultural-pasturalization in the northern part of maritime space. It includes DaWangjia and Shicheng islands. The main production is cultivation of prawn and molluscs in sea beach, float raft cultureof mussel in shallow sea and scallop, and breeding of sea cucumber in submarine. 2) The region of agricultural-pasturalization in the middle western part of maritime space. It includes Da Changshan and Guanglu islands, and westem part of Xiao Chengshan Island. The main production is float raft culture of mussel and scallop in shallow sea, and breeding of sea cucumber in submarine. 3)The region of agricultural-pasturalization of the southeastern part of maritime space.It includes the eastern part of Xiao ChangShan Island, Haiyang and Zhangzi islands. The main production is breeding ofabalone, sea cucumber, algaes and fish.

  18. A seismic swarm and regional hydrothermal and hydrologic perturbations: The northern Endeavour segment, February 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, Emilie E. E.; Patel, Hemalinee; Wilcock, William; Becker, Keir; Butterfield, David; Davis, Earl; Dziak, Robert; Inderbitzen, Katherine; Lilley, Marvin; McGill, Paul; Toomey, Douglas; Stakes, Debra

    2010-12-01

    The February 2005 swarm at the overlapping spreading center (OSC) on the northern end of the Endeavour segment is the first swarm on the Juan de Fuca Ridge recorded on a local seafloor seismic network. The swarm included several larger earthquakes and caused triggered seismicity and a hydrothermal response in the Endeavour vent fields as well as regional-scale hydrologic pressure perturbations. The spatial and temporal pattern of over 6000 earthquakes recorded during this seismic sequence is complex. Small-magnitude events dominate, and seismicity rates wax and wane, indicating a magmatic process. The main swarm initiates at the northern end of the Endeavour ridge. However, most of the moment release, including six strike-slip events, occurs in the southwest Endeavour Valley, where the swarm epicenters generally migrate south. The main swarm is contemporaneous with a hydrologic pressure response at four sealed seafloor boreholes, ˜25-105 km away. We infer that the seismic sequence is driven by a largely aseismic magma intrusion at the northern Endeavour axis. Resulting stress changes trigger slip on tectonic faults and possibly dike propagation at the opposing limb of the Endeavour OSC in the southwest Endeavour Valley, consistent with the eventual decapitation of the Endeavour by the West Valley segment. Furthermore, 2.5 days after the start of the main swarm, seismicity is triggered beneath the Endeavour vent fields, and temperature increases at a diffuse vent in the Mothra field. We infer that this delayed response is due to a hydrologic pressure pulse that diffuses away from the main magma intrusion.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE VERTICAL PROFILES OF HUMIDITY FROM RADIOSONDE SOUNDINGS LAUNCHED FROM ANTOFAGASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Otárola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La región del Desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile alberga algunos de los más recientes observatorios astronómicos, equipados con instrumentos que cubren varias bandas espectrales de interés, incluyendo: microondas, milimétrica, sub-milimétrica, infrarrojo medio, infrarrojo cercano y visible. Entre otros, la región hospeda al Very Large Telescope (VLT ubicado en Cerro Paranal, al Gran Arreglo Milimétrico de Atacama (ALMA, actualmente en construcción en el LLano de Chajnantor en la ladera occidental de la cordillera de Los Andes, y ha sido la región seleccionada para la instalación del Telescopio Europeo Extremadamente Grande (E-ELT. Debido al rol del vapor de agua atmosférico como una fuente de absorción de radiación en varias bandas espectrales, además de introducir fluctuaciones de fase en el frente de onda detectado por interferómetros tal como ALMA, hace del estudio de vapor de agua atmosférico un tema relevante en esta región. Este trabajo presenta un análisis de los perfiles verticales de humedad obtenidos por medio de radiosondas lanzadas desde las cercanías de la ciudad de Antofagasta, y se focaliza en la magnitud del sesgo seco en los perfiles de humedad relativa que se origina en un cambio de temperatura de los sensores de humedad relativa, respecto al ambiente circundante, producido por radiación solar directa sobre los sensores.

  20. Mercado de trabalho feminino: um estudo empírico, na região mineira de antofagasta, chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Paulina; Reyes, Claudia; Romaní, Gianni; Ziede, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo, produto de uma pesquisa realizada no mercado de trabalho da Região de Antofagasta, examina a baixa participação das mulheres na zona e descreve os fatores associados a esta situação. A análise dos resultados realizou-se com base nos depoimentos de 87 trabalhadoras (assalariadas e/ou microempresárias) de distintos setores profissionais da Região, identificando-se os obstáculos para aceder ao mercado, as razões do retraimento deste setor, e as medidas que reverteriam esta con...

  1. Viajes comerciales de intercambio en el departamento de Antofagasta de la Sierra, Puna meridional argentina : pasado y presente

    OpenAIRE

    García, Silvia P.; Rolandi, Diana; López, Mariana; Valeri, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Los viajes hacia valles interserranos a lomo de mula fueron una experiencia compartida por todos en esta región de la puna argentina, hasta hace veinte años. En este trabajo se relacionan los datos obtenidos a través de entrevistas a informantes en el departame nto de Antofagasta de la Sierra, con los surgidos tras la consulta de las Actas del Registro Civil y se arriba a conclusiones respecto de los vínculos de parentesco que unieron a quienes comerciaban e intercambiaban mercaderías produci...

  2. Characterisation of Agri-Landscape Systems at a Regional Level: A Case Study in Northern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariassunta Galli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.

  3. Regional potential yields of short rotation willow plantations on agricultural land in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)), email: blas.mola@uef.fi

    2010-07-01

    The development of short rotation forestry for bioenergy requires accurate and reliable yield estimates. This paper analyses the current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for six countries in Northern Europe. The estimations for present productivity are based on empirical models, using data regarding management, and local productivity based on the regional cereal yields. The estimates of expected yield rely on the current trends of yield increase from commercial willow plantations in the region. The estimates for potential yield are based on climatic restrictions. The results show potential average yields of 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 odt ha-1 yr-1 for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. The results of the study also show that there is a wide regional variation between the different countries. In Denmark, Finland and Sweden there is a convergence between the future forecasts and the climatic potential yields in the areas of high productivity. The Baltic countries seem to present lower estimates of present productivity, reflecting possible socio-economic restrictions, although they show a high biomass potential. The methods presented in this study can be further developed in other areas where willow cultivation is considered, and can serve as a basis for future economic considerations. (orig.)

  4. Dimensionless Analysis for Designing Domestic Rainwater Harvesting Systems at the Regional Level in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsien Liaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A regional-level and dimensionless analysis for designing a domestic rainwater harvesting system (DRWHS was developed. To consider various combinations of water demand, storage capacity, effective roof area, and rainfall in DRWHS design, two dimensionless ratios were used, namely, demand fraction and storage fraction, along with a relationship between the two ratios. Firstly, Northern Taiwan was divided into four sub-regions through cluster analysis based on the average annual 10-day rainfall distribution at rainfall stations and administrative districts. Easy-to-use dimensionless curves between demand fraction and storage fraction were obtained for five rainwater supply reliabilities of the DRWHS for the four sub-regions. Based on the dimensionless curves, a nomogram was constructed for designing DRWHSs at a rainwater supply reliability of 95% in the sub-region I. Storage capacities determined from the dimensionless curves showed a close fit with those determined from simulated values, but were larger than the values estimated from the method presented in the Green Building Evaluation Manual in most situations. The methodology developed herein can be used effectively for the preliminary design of a DRWHS and for overcoming the difficulties faced in designing a DRWHS without rainfall data and with incomplete rainfall data.

  5. Climate change: Its possible impact on the environment and the people of northern regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed overview is presented of the possible impacts of climate change on the Arctic environment, ecosystems, and human activities. The extent of global climate change is examined through the use of historical and paleoclimatologic records of temperature and stratospheric ozone. The effects of precipitation distribution and airborne particulates on climate change are also outlined. Changes in the Arctic are then examined, with an explanation of why global change in the Arctic is likely to be exaggerated. Likely scenarios of Arctic climate change involve milder winter temperatures, wetter and cloudier summers, more stormy weather and snowfall, greater variability in regional weather patterns, and dramatic changes in the extent of sea ice. Biological responses of wetland, northern forest, tundra, Arctic desert, below-ground, and marine ecosystems are assessed. Features of northern and Arctic ecosystems that may be particularly vulnerable to climate change are noted. Finally, the impacts of climate change on traditional activities and lifestyles, resource management and harvesting, agriculture, forestry, mining and fossil-fuel development, offshore operations, and human infrastructures are summarized. 5 figs

  6. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  7. Distribution, facies, ages, and proposed tectonic associations of regionally metamorphosed rocks in northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Brosge, W.P.; Till, A.B.; Doyle, E.O.; Mayfield, C.F.; Reiser, H.N.; Miller, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately half of the exposed bedrock in northern Alaska has been regionally metamorphosed. In the southern Brooks Range and on the Seward Peninsula, continental rocks experienced a clockwise pressure-temperature path that evolved during Middle Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous time from the low- to high-temperature subfacies of the blueschist facies and, finally, due to decreasing pressure, evolved to the greenschist facies. Metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range was associated with north-vergent compression along a south-dipping subduction zone that emplaced the oceanic rocks of the Angayucham terrane onto the continental margin. High-pressure metamorphism on the Seward Peninsula probably had a similar origin to that in the southern Brooks Range, but remnants of the overriding plate have not been identified, and the mechanism by which the high-pressure rocks in the two areas were separated is not known. In the Ruby geanticline, glaucophane, attesting to high-pressure metamorphism, is sporadically developed both within the continental rocks of the lower plate and, less commonly, near the base of the overlying oceanic thrust sheets. Although the majority of the metamorphic episodes that affected northern Alaska occurred during the Mesozoic, older episodes have been documented or are suspected in a few areas.

  8. Trends of deposition fluxes and loadings of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the artificial Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest across northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Gao, Hong; Shen, Yanjie; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This study provides the first estimate of dry deposition fluxes of criteria air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) across the Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest (TNRSF) region in Northern China and their long-term trends from 1982 to 2010 using the inferential method. Dry deposition velocities of SO2 and NOx increased in many places of the TNRSF up to 118.2% for SO2 and 112.1% for NOx over the last three decades due to the increased vegetation coverage over the TNRSF. The highest atmospheric deposition fluxes of SO2 and NOx were found in the Central-North China region, followed by the Northeast and the Northwest China regions of the TNRSF. A total of 820,000 t SO2 and 218,000 t NOx was estimated to be removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition process over the TNRSF from 1982 to 2010. About 50% of the total removal occurred in the Central-North China region. The estimated total SO2 and NOx dry deposition fluxes from 1982 to 2010 between a TNRSF site in this region and an adjacent farmland outside the TNRSF showed that the fluxes of these two chemicals at the TNRSF site were the factors of 2-3 greater than their fluxes in the farmland. PMID:26412263

  9. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Decadal gully development in Northern Ethiopia: Understanding networks, volumes and regional variability from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Scholiers, Nelles; Jacob, Miro; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Understanding historical and present-day gully development is essential when addressing the causes and consequences of land degradation. For Northern Ethiopia, several reports exist on the severity of gully erosion, yet few studies quantified gully development. In this paper, gully network and volume development were quantified over the period 1963-2010 for an area of 123 km², representative for the regional variability in environmental characteristics. Gully networks were mapped from small-scale aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images. As only gully length could be accurately defined from the aerial photographs and satellite images, quantifying gully volume development required to establish relations between gully network volume (V) and length (L) (or catchment area, A). Field observations indicated that the lithology and the presence/or absence of check dams or low-active channels were the most important controls of gully cross-sectional shape and size. From the network and volume development over the period 1963-2010, the occurrence of one cut-and-fill cycle is apparent. From a largely low-dynamic gully system in the 1960s, network expansion and increased erosion rates in the 1980s and 1990s caused the drainage density and volume to peak in 1994. The total gully density (Dtotal) was then 2.52 km km-2, coinciding with soil losses of 17.6 ton ha-1 y-1 over the period 1963/1965-1994. By 2010, improved land management and the region-wide implementation of soil and water conservation measures caused 25% the gully network to stabilize, resulting in a recent net infilling of the gully channels. The study validates previous findings that land degradation by gullying was severe in Northern Ethiopia in the second half of the 20th century, but also shows that when proper land management is applied, gullies can be transformed into a linear oasis, which increases the resistance of gullies to further erosion.

  11. Groundwater Quality in the Sahelian Region of Northern Ghana, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Cobbina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In many arid ecological zones of the world, the utilization of groundwater for various purposes is common due to the scarcity of surface water. In the sahelian regions of northern Ghana, groundwater serves as a major source of freshwater for domestic and agricultural purposes. This study investigated the quality of groundwater from 129 boreholes in the Sawla-Tuna-Kalba district in the Sahelian region of northern Ghana, to promote and enhance the proper utilization of the resource. Samples were collected and analyzed for various water quality parameters to evaluate its usefulness for domestic and agricultural use. Results indicates that groundwater in the study is generally fresh and hard. It was found that majority of samples belong to the Ca- Mg-HCO3 hydrochemical facies. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR for all groundwater samples in the district ranged from 0.18-3.61 (mean 1.00, implying that all the boreholes samples had excellent water that could be used for irrigation. This was confirmed by analytical data plot on the US salinity diagram which illustrates that majority of groundwater samples fall in the field of C2S1; indicating medium salinity and low sodium water. Though many of the analysed parameters fall within acceptable range and thus most of the boreholes had water which were chemically suitable for drinking, a few recorded total iron, manganese, lead, arsenic and fluoride concentrations above permissible WHO levels, suggesting some concern in terms of potability, especially since such water sources are extensively patronised by inhabitants for drinking and agricultural purposes.

  12. Determinants of Caesarean Risk Factor in Northern Region of Bangladesh: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafizur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesarean section (c-section rates have been increasing dramatically in the past decades around the world. This increase has been attributed to multiple factors such as maternal, socio-demographic and institutional fac-tors. Therefore, this study examines the impact of maternal, socio-demographic and relevant characteristics on caesar-ean delivery in the northern region of Bangladesh.This study is based on a total of 1142 delivery cases from four private hospitals and four public hospitals during the period of January to March 2010. The study was carried out using a cross-sectional design where data were collected by simple random sampling. In order to data analysis, first, an initial bivariate analysis was performed by the chi-square and Fisher exact test. Secondly, the risk factors which are associated with c-section identify by logistic re-gression model. Finally, a stepwise regression analysis was carried out to isolate the most influential risk factors.Among the 17 risk factors, nine were found significantly associated with type of delivery. Eight of the risk factors i.e. previous c-section, pregnancy-induced swollen of leg, prolonged labour, maternal education status, mater-nal age more than 25 years, low birth order, length of baby more than 45cm and irregular intake of a balanced diet remained independently significant for caesarean delivery. The value of P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Maternal complications were found to be more significant in public hospitals than in private ones and conversely for the demographic characteristics.The findings of this study suggested that the above factors may influence the health-seeking behaviour of women in the northern region of Bangladesh.

  13. [Potential vulnerability to flooding at public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Arroyo-Hernández, Hugo; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Rubilar-González, Juan; Gutierrez-Lagos, Edith

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the potential vulnerability of public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru to the possible effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed using the geo-referenced points for at-risk areas based on the activation of gullies that were reported by the National Water Authority, and the location of the four regional public health facilities of the Ministry of Health. Concentric areas of influence were simulate from the points of risk towards the public health facilities using radii of 200, 1000 and 1500 meters. The Tumbes region would be the most affected with 37.2% of its health facilities being affected by floods and landslides. The I-2 and I-3 categories of health facilities appeared to be the most affected with 28.9% and 31.6% respectively. Therefore, public health facilities near the risk zones may be affected by the ENSO. PMID:27384627

  14. Comparison between active stress field and tectonic structures in Northern Italy, Lombardy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Montone

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to understand the complex pattern of active stress field orientations revealed by borehole breakout analysis with respect to the tectonic structures in a wide region of Northern Italy. The area is located in the central-western part of the Po Plain between the south verging Southern Alps structures and the north verging buried folds and thrusts of the Monferrato and Emilia arcs. Little information concerning the active stress field is available because of the low seismicity level and the thick layer of sediments that covers the entire zone. A detailed borehole breakout analysis has been performed in 36 wells with depths ranging from 2.2 to 7.3 km, whose data have been supplied by Eni. Breakout analysis determined the minimum and maximum horizontal stress directions (Shmin and SHmax. The results show a very complex pattern, pointing out that the stress field is not uniform. In this area the regional stress field seems not «strong» enough, compared to the local one, so most of the wells detect only the local field. This work contributes to clarify the various Shmin orientations observed in this area, pointing out at wide scale, a general compression in NNE-SSW direction in this complex region.

  15. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  16. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. PMID:26278373

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  18. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  19. Regional Attenuation in Northern California: A Comparison of Five 1-D Q Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S

    2007-08-03

    The determination of regional attenuation Q{sup -1} can depend upon the analysis method employed. The discrepancies between methods are due to differing parameterizations (e.g., geometrical spreading rates), employed datasets (e.g., choice of path lengths and sources), and the methodologies themselves (e.g., measurement in the frequency or time domain). Here we apply five different attenuation methodologies to a Northern California dataset. The methods are: (1) coda normalization (CN), (2) two-station (TS), (3) reverse two-station (RTS), (4) source-pair/receiver-pair (SPRP), and (5) coda-source normalization (CS). The methods are used to measure Q of the regional phase, Lg (Q{sub Lg}), and its power-law dependence on frequency of the form Q{sub 0}f{sup {eta}} with controlled parameterization in the well-studied region of Northern California using a high-quality dataset from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network. We investigate the difference in power-law Q calculated among the methods by focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area, where knowledge of attenuation is an important part of seismic hazard mitigation. This approximately homogeneous subset of our data lies in a small region along the Franciscan block. All methods return similar power-law parameters, though the range of the joint 95% confidence regions is large (Q{sub 0} = 85 {+-} 40; {eta} = 0.65 {+-} 0.35). The RTS and TS methods differ the most from the other methods and from each other. This may be due to the removal of the site term in the RTS method, which is shown to be significant in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to completely understand the range of power-law Q in a region, it is advisable to use several methods to calculate the model. We also test the sensitivity of each method to changes in geometrical spreading, Lg frequency bandwidth, the distance range of data, and the Lg measurement window. For a given method, there are significant differences in the power-law parameters, Q{sub 0} and {eta

  20. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  1. The Sources of History of Social-economic Development of Northern Bukovyna and Hotyn Region in 1918-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Руснак, Олександр Валерійович

    2016-01-01

    In the article the sources’ base of investigation of problems of the social-economic development of Northern Bukovyna and Hotyn region in the interwar period is characterized. The author analyzed a lot of dossiers of the State archives of Chernivtsi region and National archives of Romania (Direction Suchava), collected documents and legislative acts, statutes and official reports of different establishments, statistical collections, remembrances of contemporaries, which reflect the state of p...

  2. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples

  3. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Miranda, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile)], E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples.

  4. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database: spatially distributed datasets of soil coverage and soil carbon storage in the northern permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, G.; Tarnocai, C.; Broll, G.; Canadell, J. G.; Kuhry, P.; Swanson, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude terrestrial ecosystems are key components in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimates of global soil organic carbon (SOC), however, do not include updated estimates of SOC storage in permafrost-affected soils or representation of the unique pedogenic processes that affect these soils. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) was developed to quantify the SOC stocks in the circumpolar permafrost region (18.7 × 106 km2). The NCSCD is a polygon-based digital database compiled from harmonized regional soil classification maps in which data on soil order coverage have been linked to pedon data (n = 1778) from the northern permafrost regions to calculate SOC content and mass. In addition, new gridded datasets at different spatial resolutions have been generated to facilitate research applications using the NCSCD (standard raster formats for use in geographic information systems and Network Common Data Form files common for applications in numerical models). This paper describes the compilation of the NCSCD spatial framework, the soil sampling and soil analytical procedures used to derive SOC content in pedons from North America and Eurasia and the formatting of the digital files that are available online. The potential applications and limitations of the NCSCD in spatial analyses are also discussed. The database has the doi:10.5879/ecds/00000001. An open access data portal with all the described GIS-datasets is available online at: http://www.bbcc.su.se/data/ncscd/.

  5. Ethnic and Regional Differences in Prevalence and Correlates of Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors in Northern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joykrishna Sarkar, MSc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe investigated ethnic and geographic variations in major chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada, an area that is undergoing rapid changes in its social, cultural, and physical environments.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents from the 3 regions of northern Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Crude prevalence estimates, adjusted odds ratios (AORs, and confidence intervals were calculated for multiple chronic diseases and risk factors.ResultsThe percentage of Aboriginal respondents who reported having any chronic health condition increased between the 2 cycles of data collection, but did not change for non-Aboriginal respondents. AORs for heart disease, arthritis, and asthma varied by ethnicity or region. AORs for overweight, obesity, daily smoking, regular and binge drinking, and infrequent physical/leisure activity were also substantially different for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents or among respondents from the 3 northern regions.ConclusionThe changing profile of health in northern Canada suggests a need for action on health policy about the delivery of community-based primary prevention interventions and further research about the determinants of health and health care use.

  6. Initiation and Development Processes of Tunnel Systems in the Hilly Loess Region of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.X.ZHU

    2006-01-01

    Tunnel systems in the hilly loess region of northern China are among the largest and most complicated in the world. Tunnel formation and development processes were investigated in the Yangdaogou catchment over the period of 1989 through 2002. Newly formed tunnels on the roads in the Wangjiagou watershed were also examined in detail during a single storm in 2002. Soil samples were taken from various locations of the tunnel systems in the Yangdaogou catchment for chemical and physical analyses.The controlling factors of tunnel formation are surface drainage conditions and soil materials. Rapid downward mechanical erosion by storm flows seems to be responsible for the original formation of inlets. All tunnels are found in loess and none was found in red Tertiary earth. Underground tunnel paths often develop right above an impeding layer, mainly resulting from mechanical erosion rather than chemical dissolution.New inlets develop in old tunnel systems in two major ways. One is roof collapses of an existing tunnel path and the other is the mechanical scouring action of storm flows. A tunnel system can expand upslope or downslope but the associated processes differ. Upslope expansion often starts with the formation of one or more inlets resulting from surface washes, followed by the development of an underground tunnel path. Downslope development of a tunnel system is characterized by uneven enlargement of tunnel paths. This study suggests that the key to control of tunnel development is reducing surface water entering a tunnel.

  7. Essential oils from Leptospermums of the Sunshine Coast and Northern Rivers Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor Sarah Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the turn of this century, the oil yield and chemical composition of Australian Leptospermum species was analysed. Since that time, research has been focused on their use as phytomedicines. The oil yield and composition of essential oils from Australian Leptospermum species directly impacts their commercialisation for medicinal use. Results The essential oils from Leptospermum (L. juniperinum, L. laevigatum, L. liversidgei, L. polygalifolium, L. semibaccatum, L. speciosum, L. trinervium and L. whitei have been examined from specimens in the Sunshine Coast (Queensland and Northern Rivers (New South Wales Regions. Both chemotypes of L. liversidgei were observed. However, only chemotype II of L. semibaccatum and chemotype I of L. trinervium were identified. The only subspecies observed of L. polygalifolium was L. polygalifolium wallum. Conclusions L. liversidgei chemotypes I and II have the potential for phytomedical use as antibacterial or anti-inflammatory agents. Chemotype I has the potential for use as an insect repellent and chemotype II may provide antifungal activity.

  8. DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH OF POSITION OF WOMAN IN REGIONAL COMMUNITY OF THE REPUBLIC NORTHERN OSSETIAALANYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Barsukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the analysis of possible directions of studying of position of woman in regional community of the Republic Northern Ossetia-Alania are given in article. The purpose of article consists in definition of a circle of problems which research will allow to characterize the economic status of Ossetian woman through identification of level of her labor loading, gender inequality concerning employment of women in the labor sphere, female unemployment in its comparison with man's, financial position, personal income. Marital status can be defined by means of characteristic of relationship status of woman, satisfaction by it, its roles in a family as housewives. Indicators can treats the sphere of distribution of duties and solution of financial questions in a family, reasons of emergence of conflict situations, participation of family members in education of children and influence of labor employment of woman on her marital status. Detection of characteristics of social status of Ossetian woman with specification as far as traditions and customs cause its situation in society can become one of research problems and whether violate its rights as member of society, discrimination, self-realization, social portrait of the woman.

  9. Engineering-geological monitoring within the Soviet global change program (the Northern regions of Western Siberia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of investigation and control of the changes in the natural environment of the northern regions of Western Siberia, a special service of engineering-geological monitoring (IGM) was created within the system of the USSR State Gas Concern. The engineering-geological monitoring of geotechnical systems involves tracking, evaluation, analysis and prediction of ongoing changes in their geologic environment and their negative after-effects for interacting technosphere objects. Also, scientific and engineering substantiation of preventive and restorative measures and other management decisions as well as technological provisions for their realization are included. In addition to observing the state of the geologic environment (settling and displacement of buildings, structures and communications, causes of deformation and forecasting their further development) the main tasks of this service are the elaboration of scientifically grounded recommendations and design concepts for prevention and elimination, recultivation of damaged landscapes, development of repair and restoration work technology and participation in performing responsible operations. Most important of the latter are stabilization of damaged soil bases, consolidation of deformed foundations, curing and recultivation of damaged and polluted areas of the geologic environment, recovery of water-intake wells and industrial effluent-disposal wells. The leading establishment of this service is the Trust of Engineering-Geological Monitoring and Research (TIGMI) in Novy Urengoy. TIGMI maintains close contacts with the USSR National Global Change Committee through the Geophysical Committee of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The Trust activities are presented in the first part of the Global Change Data Bank Catalogue

  10. Regional integrated solid waste management: an optimization model for northern Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.Increased environmental concerns and the emphasis on material and energy recovery are gradually changing the orientation of municipal solid waste (MSW) management and planning. In this context, the application of optimization techniques have been introduced to design the least cost solid waste management systems, considering the variety of management processes (recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration and land filling) and the existence of uncertainties associated with the number of system components and their interrelations. This study presents a model that was developed and applied to serve as a solid socio-economic and environmental considerations. The model accounts for solid waste generation rates, composition, collection, treatment, disposal as well as potential environmental impacts of various MSW management techniques. The model follows a linear programming formulation with the framework of dynamic optimization. The model can serve as a tool to evaluate various MSW management alternatives and obtain the optimal combination of technologies for the handling, treatment and disposal of MSW in an economic and environmentally sustainable way. The sensitivity of various waste management policies is also addressed. Finally, the region of Northern Lebanon was considered as a case study with data collected for the year 2000, to demonstrate the applicability of the model

  11. Origin of Elblag Upland, northern Poland, and glaciotectonism in the southern Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, James S.; Ruszczyńska-Szenajch, Hanna

    1997-07-01

    Elblag Upland is a complex glaciotectonic landform located near Gdansk Bay in northern Poland. We conducted surface, subsurface, and remote-sensing investigations to elaborate the internal structure and morphology of the upland. The upland covers some 390 km 2 and rises more than 150 m. Elbląg Upland consists almost entirely of Pleistocene strata, many of which are strongly deformed, anomalously thick, and situated high above their normal levels. These deformed sediments were derived from source basins located to the northeast and possibly west of the upland. Elbląg Upland was created by North Polish (Vistulian = Weichselian) ice advances, which pushed locally from the northeast and possibly the west. The upland was then overridden by ice coming from the north-northwest. We propose that glaciotectonic deformation occurred as a result of ice-lobe advances — possibly surges — over unconsolidated and unfrozen sediments, in which high pore-water pressures existed in confined aquifers. Surges may have been either local or regional in character, and surging may have taken place repeatedly during Vistulian glaciation. Glaciotectonism played a prominent role in shaping the southern Baltic basin, which represents a geomorphic end-product of multiple Pleistocene glaciations.

  12. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Soils: Some Data from Northern Italian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Petrella

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that soil plays, within terrestrial ecosystems, an essential role in many biogeochemical cycles and in the regulation of greenhouse gas fluxes. Less known, and often underestimated, is the importance of carbon sequestration potential of soil, especially trough humified carbon. Even within the agro-forestry practices of the Kyoto Protocol, most of the attention is devoted to the biomass carbon storage, rather than soil carbon sequestration. The highest potentialities for carbon sequestration are related to the arable lands, that accounts for the 11% of earth surface; the increase of 0.1% of organic carbon content in the 0-30 cm layer of cultivated soils, achievable with minor adjustment of agronomic practices, is equivalent to the sequestration of 5,000 millions t of carbon. On the other hand, the conversion of a grasslands into cultivated land determine, during 50-70 years, a release of 80-150 t CO2 ha-1.Within this paper the estimate of soil organic carbon of three Northern Italian regions is presented.

  13. Digital resource modeling of the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions: Top producing coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Jenkins, J.; Tully, J. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The US Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation`s coal resources for the next few decades. In partnership with the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland, six coal beds will be digitally assessed in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal region. In ascending stratigraphic order, the beds which range from the Lower Pennsylvanian Pocahontas Formation to the Upper Pennsylvanian Monongahela Group are the Pocahontas No. 3, Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, and Pittsburgh coals. Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the coal beds. Maps that show the extent and mined areas of the beds, structure contour, isopach, and overburden thickness have been compiled for the Pittsburgh coal bed and are in preparation for the other coal beds. The resource model for the Pittsburgh coal bed indicates that of the original 33.6 billion short tons (30.5 billion tonnes) of Pittsburgh coal, approximately 15.9 billion short tons (14.4 billion tonnes) remain. The remaining coal is, however, higher in ash and sulfur, and generally thinner and under thicker overburden cover.

  14. CONTENEDORES Y CONTENIDOS. EXPLORANDO EL CONSUMO DE VEGETALES DURANTE EL PERÍODO TARDÍO (ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA, PROVINCIA DE CATAMARCA / Containers and contents. Exploring the vegetable consumption during the Late Period (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Pro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Inés Gasparotti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos de la integración de diversas líneas de evidencia vinculadas al estudio de un recipiente cerámico recuperado en el sitio Corral Alto (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Prov. de Catamarca. Se analizan las características morfo-tecnológicas de este recipiente, en relación a su uso, para indagar en las prácticas cotidianas relacionadas con la obtención, consumo, procesamiento o almacenamiento de recursos vegetales. Al mismo tiempo, a través del análisis múltiple de microfósiles (fitolitos y almidones entre otras evidencias, se intenta una aproximación al uso y/o consumo de recursos vegetales silvestres y domesticados por parte de grupos agro-pastoriles durante el período Tardío (ca. 1000- 500 AP en la Puna Meridional. AbstractIn this paper we present the results of the integration of various lines of evidence related to the study of a ceramic container recovered at the site of Corral Alto (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Prov. Catamarca. We analyze morpho- technological characteristics of the vessel related to their use to enquire into the daily practices related to the collection, use, processing or storage of vegetal resources. At the same time, we conducted a multiple microfossil analysis (phytoliths and starches among other evidences to identify the use and /or consumption of wild and domesticated plant resources by agro-pastoralist groups during the Late Period (ca. 1000- 500 BP in the Southern Puna.

  15. Characteristics of trace gaseous pollutants at a regional background station in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Meng

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present measurement results of trace gaseous pollutants obtained at the Shangdianzi (SDZ Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW regional station in Northern China, from September 2003 to December 2006. The gases include ozone (O3, nitrogen oxide(s (NOx=NO+NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO. During the study period, the mean annual O3 concentrations were 30.1±21.0, 32.8±19.1 and 30.9±19.8 ppbv in 2004, 2005 and 2006. The corresponding NOx values were 14.5±14.0, 11.0±11.3 and 12.7±11.8 ppbv, respectively. The mean annual SO2 concentrations were 5.9±10.0, 6.1±9.9 and 7.6±10.2 ppbv in 2004, 2005 and 2006, while the mean CO levels were 586±415 and 742±558 ppbv in 2005 and 2006. The data obtained at SDZ station are compared with the results measured at other background sites in China as well as abroad. The concentrations of O3, NOx, SO2, and CO at the SDZ background station are found to have clear seasonal and diurnal variations. The impacts of local and remote pollution sources on the regional air quality are assessed using trace gases concentration roses and 3-day back trajectories of air masses arriving at the SDZ station.

  16. Local weather, regional climate, and annual survival of the northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.; Olson, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    We used an information-theoretical approach and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for open populations in program MARK to examine relationships between survival rates of Northern Spotted Owls and a variety of local weather variables and long-term climate variables. In four of the six populations examined, survival was positively associated with wetter than normal conditions during the growing season or high summer temperatures. At the three study areas located at the highest elevations, survival was positively associated with winter temperature but also had a negative or quadratic relation with the number of storms and winter precipitation. A metaanalysis of all six areas combined indicated that annual survival was most strongly associated with phase shifts in the Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which reflect large-scale temperature and precipitation patterns in this region. Climate accounted for a variable amount (1-41%) of the total process variation in annual survival but for more year-to-year variation (3-66%) than did spatial variation among owl territories (0-7%). Negative associations between survival and cold, wet winters and nesting seasons were similar to those found in other studies of the Spotted Owl. The relationships between survival and growing-season precipitation and regional climate patterns, however, had not been reported for this species previously. Climate-change models for the first half of the 21st century predict warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers for the Pacific Northwest. Our results indicate that these conditions could decrease Spotted Owl survival in some areas. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  17. Characteristics of soil moisture in relation to microtopography in the Loess region of Northern Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yaojun; Zhu, Qingke; Zhao, Weijun

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture is the primary factor limiting plant growth and vegetation rehabilitation in the loess region of northern Shaanxi, China. This 5-year (2008-2012) study investigated methods of selecting appropriate microsites for vegetation restoration based on efficient use of soil moisture; 5-year data were compared with 56 years of precipitation data using standardized precipitation index. In addition, the effects of microtopography on the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture were analyzed at the Wuqi Ecological Station of Beijing Forestry University. Results showed that average annual precipitation during last 5 years fell by 12.4% during the growing season compared with 1957-2012 data and soil moisture content at depth of 0-160 cm under went dramatic changes and became relatively low in July and August. Soil moisture content varied in different microtopographical units as follows: gullies > gently-sloped terraces > collapsed soils > undisturbed slopes (control) > furrows > escarpments. The vertical distribution of soil moisture content in different microtopographical units showed dramatic changes at depth of 0-40 cm. Soil moisture content of gently-sloped terraces, gullies, collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes was highest at depth of 80-160 cm with a level of instability at depth of 40-80 cm. For gently-sloped terraces and gullies, soil moisture content followed the order of 40-80 cm > 0-40 cm; for collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes, soil moisture content follows the order of 0-40 cm > 40-80 cm. For escarpments, soil moisture content varied with depth in a different pattern: 0-40 cm > 80-160 cm > 40-80 cm. This study is of theoretical significance and will help guide the sustainable development of ecological restoration and vegetation rehabilitation in the Loess region. PMID:25004762

  18. Demographic potential of the Russia’s northern regions as a factor and condition of economic development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vilgelmovich Fauzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the research relevance of all aspects of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation consists the fact that in spite of limited stocks in the old rendered habitable regions of the country, Arctic is considered as a source of resources for socio-economic development of Russia. Based on the recognition that the territory is like a separate object of state observation, it is noted that the best resources for labor of the economy of Arctic may become demographic potential of adjacent northern regions. The different points of view and approaches to the definition of the demographic potential and a set of indicators by its assessment are given. On the basis of the statistical analysis of population dynamics and a level of birth rate and mortality, it is shown that quantitative demographic potential of the northern regions since 1990s significantly decreased. It was affected by the migratory outflow. It is revealed that in northern regions, there are still positive differences in age and sexual structure. Regional governments can use the results while drawing up Strategic plans of socio-economic development of territories. The article concludes with recommendations

  19. General geology, alteration, and iron deposits in the Palaeoproterozoic Misi region, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Niiranen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleoproterozoic Misi region forms the northeastern part of the Peräpohja Schist Belt in northern Finland. The area comprises mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks, differentiated gabbros, and late-orogenic granitoids. Three geochemically different mafic volcanic units were recognised: LREE-depleted amygdaloidal lavas, slightly LREE-enriched lavas, and mafic tuffs that have a flat REE pattern. Sedimentary rocks include arkosites, mica gneisses, dolomitic marbles, quartzites, tuffites, mica schists, calc-silicate rocks and graphite-bearing schists. Two types of gabbros wereidentified: one with a LREE-enriched pattern and another with flat REE pattern. The age of the former is according to Perttunen and Vaasjoki (2001 2117±4 Ma, whereas there is no age determination for the latter. The granitoid intrusions belong to the ca. 1800 Malate-orogenic group of the Central Lapland Granitoid Complex. The geochemistry and the stable isotope data on mafic lavas and dolomitic marbles show similarities with the mafic volcanic rocks and marbles of the lower part of the Kivalo group in the western part of Peräpohja Schist Belt. Peak metamorphic conditions in the region vary from upper-greenschist to upper-amphibolite facies. Three major stages of deformation were distinguished: N-S compressional D1 with ductile deformation, NE-SW compressional D2 with ductile to brittle-ductile deformation, and E-W compressional D3 with brittle deformation. Several magnetite occurrences are known in the region and four of those have been mined for iron. The ores are mainly composed of magnetite with minor haematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite. Besides iron, the ores contain small amounts of P, S and V aswell as trace amounts of Cu, Co, Te and Au. The magnetite bodies are hosted by skarnoids within the ca. 2220–2120 Ma dolomitic marble-quartzite sequence, and highly differentiated, intensely albitised, LREE-enriched gabbro. Multistage and -type alteration is

  20. Attenuation Properties of Regional Phases from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Morozov, I. B.; Smithson, S. B.; Morozova, E. A.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the data from Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) profiles in Russia for amplitude ratios and coda properties, with an objective to provide a detailed characterization of regional phase propagation in northern Eurasia. Logarithms of Lg/Sn and Lg/Pcoda amplitude ratios at frequencies of 0.5-3 Hz show a consistent decay with the source-receiver distance, with regionally-dependent decay rates. These decay rates appear to correlate best with the variations of two crustal parameters: 1) Moho depth gradient measured away from the source and 2) the travel-time within the sediments (product of the slowness and thickness of the sedimentary cover). The variation of the crustal thickness is the more significant factor affecting Lg propagation and is interpreted as causing defocusing of Lg energy. Moreover, crustal thinning affects Lg propagation stronger than thickening, apparently causing the energy to leak into the mantle or become backscattered). The correlation of the Lg decay rates with the travel times within the sedimentary layers could be explained by seismic attenuation within the sediments. Another striking observation from comparative analysis of the PNEs is the difference of Lg coda decay characters across the study area. Within the East European Platform and south-west West Siberian Basin, Lg coda amplitude decays exhibit a relatively low frequency dependence of about power 0.13 of the frequency. By contrast, within the Siberian Craton, the coda exhibits a nearly constant decay rate for all frequencies, corresponding to the Q vs. frequency exponent of 0.8-1.0. However, such a strong frequency dependence of Q could actually be due to frequency-independent attenuation caused by geometric spreading and leakage of the seismic energy from the crust. Using this model, the geometric spreading parameter was found to be constant for the entire region, and crustal quality Q=470 west of the Urals and an infinite Q within the Sibarian Craton. Such low

  1. Regional geomagnetic field variations and seismic activity of the northern Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. At present the problem of short-term earthquake prediction based on 'precursors' (featured variations of various geophysical fields) is far from solving. At the same time an evidence of earthquake triggering by natural and man-made factors is world-wide verified. Based on well-monitored triggering impacts the new concept of earthquake prediction may be developed. One of the possible powerful triggering mechanisms was proposed by G. Duma and Yu. Ruzhin [2003], indicating the generation of mechanical force in the Earth crust due to interaction of telluric currents with geomagnetic field. For verification of this hypothesis a territory of Bishkek geodynamical proving ground was selected where seismic, geomagnetic, magnetotelluric, and GPS observatories are concentrated, and extensive geophysical databases are available. Possible correlations of seismic activity of the Northern Tien Shan region (40.5 deg-44.5 degN, 71.5 deg-78.5 degE) and variations of geomagnetic magnetic field, as well as and lunar-solar tides within the period 1994-2007 are analyzed. Various statistical methods (cross-correlation, spectral analysis) were employed. The earthquake daily frequency distribution shows a common performance with the regular diurnal geomagnetic field variations. Time difference [T(E)-T(Max GMF)] between the earthquake occurrence and time of maximal daily geomagnetic field has normal distribution. 40% of earthquakes occurred in the range of -4 to +4 hour from maximal daily geomagnetic field. The effect is more pronounced for weak earthquakes (M<4), but it is observed for the whole seismic activity as well. There are a number of common long periods (7, 9, 14, 28 days) in the z-component of the earth tide and seismic activity. Nevertheless, no effect of the diurnal tidal cycle on the seismicity has been revealed. The geomagnetic correlations, which have been found, are observed for the entire region under study, and they do not depend on

  2. Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, T.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.

    2011-12-01

    We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such earthquakes seismic velocities may be changing (e.g. Brenguier et al. 2008). The first method is testing for phase shifts in receiver functions. To avoid varying travel paths of different events we compare events located in small source regions. Although temporal variations have been found in receiver functions for the Parkfield M6.0 and San Simeon M6.5 earthquakes (Audet 2006) we cannot find any variations exceeding the noise level of our dataset at the time of the M7.0 earthquake near Tocopilla. Therefore the data is analyzed with the help of cross-correlation technique of ambient seismic noise (Bensen et al. 2007). Compared to the first method it has the advantage of regularly available correlation functions (e.g. 1 per day). We report on first results.

  3. WMO SDS-WAS NAMEE Regional Center: Towards continuous evaluation of dust models in Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, Sara; García-Castillo, Gerardo; Cuevas, Emilio; Terradellas, Enric

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important activities of the Regional Center for Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe of the World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS, http://sds-was.aemet.es) is the dust model intercomparison and forecast evaluation, which is deemed an indispensable service to the users and an invaluable tool to assess model skills. Currently, the Regional Center collects daily dust forecasts from models run by nine partners (BSC, ECMWF, NASA, NCEP, SEEVCCC, EMA, CNR-ISAC, NOA and UK Met Office). A multi-model ensemble has also been set up in an effort to provide added-value products to the users. The first problem to address the dust model evaluation is the scarcity of suitable routine observations near the Sahara, the world's largest source of mineral dust. The present contribution presents preliminary results of dust model evaluation using new observational datasets. The current routine evaluation of dust predictions is focused on total-column dust optical depth (DOD) and uses remote-sensing retrievals from sun-photometric (AERONET) and satellite (MODIS) measurements. However, most users of dust forecasts are interested in the concentration near the surface (in the air we breathe) rather than in the total column content. Therefore, evaluation of the predicted surface concentration is also necessary. In this context, the initiative of the African Monsoon Interdisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) International Program to establish permanent measuring stations in the Sahel is extremely important. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) monitors continuously record PM10 in M'Bour (Senegal); Cinzana (Mali) and Banizoumbou (Niger). This surface model evaluation is complemented with the PM10 observation from the Air Quality Control and Monitoring Network (AQCMN) of the Canary Islands (Spain). The region, located in the sub-tropical Eastern Atlantic (roughly 100 km west of the Moroccan coast), is

  4. Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  5. Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  6. Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  7. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan region, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  8. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  9. Heat flow and hot dry rock geothermal resources of the Clearlake Region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal anomaly is an area of high heat flow in northern California. The anomaly is caused by abnormally high heat flows generated by asthenospheric uplift and basaltic magmatic underplating at a slabless window created by passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. The Clear Lake volcanic field is underlain by magmatic igneous bodies in the form of a stack of sill-form intrusions with silicic bodies generally at the top and basic magmas at the bottom. The tabular shape and wide areal extent of the heat sources results in linear temperature gradients and near-horizontal isotherms in a broad region at the center of the geothermal anomaly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) portion of The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal field is that part of the geothermal anomaly that is external to the steamfield, bounded by geothermal gradients of 167 mW/m2 (4 heat flow units-hfu) and 335 mW/m2 (8 hfu). The HDR resources, to a depth of 5 km, were estimated by piece-wise linear summation based on a sketch map of the heat flow. Approximately, the geothermal {open_quotes}accessible resource base{close_quotes} (Qa) is 1.68E+21 J; the {open_quotes}HDR resource base{close_quotes} (Qha) is 1.39E+21 J; and the {open_quotes}HDR power production resource{close_quotes} (Qhp) is 1.01E+21 J. The HDR power production resource (Qhp) is equivalent to 2.78E+ 11 Mwht (megawatt hours thermal), or 1.72E+11 bbls of oil.

  10. Analysis of seasonal and annual rainfall trends in the northern region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Rahman, M. Tauhid Ur; Hoque, Muhammad Azizul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate 50 years (1964-2013) of seasonal and annual rainfall trends and their fluctuation over time in northern Bangladesh. After testing the autocorrelation, non-parametric Mann-Kendall test along with Sen Slope estimator was used to examine rainfall trends and their magnitudes. The sequential Mann-Kendall test was used to identify any fluctuations in the trends over time and to detect the possible points of change in the rainfall series. We found that pre-monsoon and post-monsoon rainfall is increasing in most of the rainfall stations. The only decrement in pre-monsoon rainfall was found for Ishurdi (1.28 mm/year). However, the sequential Mann-Kendall test detected decreasing pre-monsoon rainfall trend after early the 1990s. Monsoon rainfall showed a decreasing trend in the majority of the area studied. The maximum decrement in monsoon rainfall was found for Sylhet station (8.10 mm/year) and minimum in Mymensingh (1.53 mm/year). An upward monsoon rainfall trend was found for Rangpur (2.02 mm/year). Annual rainfall followed the monsoon rainfall trend. However, all of the positive and negative trends were found statistically non-significant at 95% confidence limit with the only exception for monsoon and annual rainfall at Rajshahi station. Rajshahi station was the only region where the monsoon and annual rainfall has a significant negative trend at 95% confidence limit. The sequential Mann-Kendall test detected several non-significant points of change for seasonal and annual rainfall at most of the stations. Periodic fluctuations were also detected. We observed that there were decreasing seasonal rainfall trend after early the 1990s for the majority of the stations.

  11. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database: spatially distributed datasets of soil coverage and soil carbon storage in the northern permafrost regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hugelius

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High latitude terrestrial ecosystems are key components in the global carbon (C cycle. Estimates of global soil organic carbon (SOC, however, do not include updated estimates of SOC storage in permafrost-affected soils or representation of the unique pedogenic processes that affect these soils. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD was developed to quantify the SOC stocks in the circumpolar permafrost region (18.7 × 106 km2. The NCSCD is a polygon-based digital database compiled from harmonized regional soil classification maps in which data on soil order coverage has been linked to pedon data (n = 1647 from the northern permafrost regions to calculate SOC content and mass. In addition, new gridded datasets at different spatial resolutions have been generated to facilitate research applications using the NCSCD (standard raster formats for use in Geographic Information Systems and Network Common Data Form files common for applications in numerical models. This paper describes the compilation of the NCSCD spatial framework, the soil sampling and soil analyses procedures used to derive SOC content in pedons from North America and Eurasia and the formatting of the digital files that are available online. The potential applications and limitations of the NCSCD in spatial analyses are also discussed.

    The database has the doi:10.5879/ecds/00000001. An open access data-portal with all the described GIS-datasets is available online at: http://dev1.geo.su.se/bbcc/dev/ncscd/.

  12. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  13. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X. B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage) and residue application methods on soil water profile with time and water use, as well as corn yields. Conservation tillage practices for corn in Shouyang resulted in significantly higher soil wat...

  14. Culture, Values and Social Basis of Northern Italian Centrifugal Regionalism. A Contextual Political Analysis of the Lega Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Biorcio, Roberto; Vitale, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    The Lega Nord intended to create a party which represented the whole of the northern regions, capable to defend their interests and culture. If we examine the profile of people that voted for the Lega Nord, we find some discordant features compared to the project. A large majority of the party’s electorate naturally supports federalism and devolution. However, the party’s electorate paradoxically displays value trends and convictions that, for many aspects are in countertendency compared to t...

  15. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Araya; Ricardo Catalán

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recor...

  16. Improving the organisation and commercialisation of small coffee and cocoa producers in the Northern Amazon Region of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri, Oswaldo; Ramos Martín, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Coffee and cocoa represent the main sources of income for small farmers in the Northern Amazon Region of Ecuador. The provinces of Orellana and Sucumbios, as border areas, have benefited from investments made by many public and private institutions. Many of the projects carried out in the area have been aimed at energising the production of coffee and cocoa, strengthening the producers’ associations and providing commercialisation infrastructure. Improving the quality of life of this populati...

  17. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; García-Pérez Javier; López-Cima María; López-Abente Gonzalo; Tardón Adonina; Pollán Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based...

  18. Communities of the blessed : the origins and development of regional churches in Northern Italy, c.250 - 381 C.E.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Mark,

    1997-01-01

    This thesis argues that the origins and evolution of Christian communities in Northern Italy between c. 250 and 381 are comprehensible only within the region's social environment. Whereas previous studies of early Christianity in Italy have sought to explain its origins in terms of modern diocesan structures, this thesis shows that the evidence for this view is untrustworthy and that a new methodology is needed to explain the rise of the church. To this end, the thesis describe...

  19. Flash Flood Prediction by Coupling KINEROS2 and HEC-RAS Models for Tropical Regions of Northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Quang Nguyen; Jan Degener; Martin Kappas

    2015-01-01

    Northern Vietnam is a region prone to heavy flash flooding events. These often have devastating effects on the environment, cause economic damage and, in the worst case scenario, cost human lives. As their frequency and severity are likely to increase in the future, procedures have to be established to cope with this threat. As the prediction of potential flash floods represents one crucial element in this circumstance, we will present an approach that combines the two models KINEROS2 and HEC...

  20. ASSESSING LAND SUITABILITY FOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERMAFROST REGIONS: A MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH TO LAND-USE PLANNING IN NORTHERN QUEBEC, CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    KATERINE GRANDMONT; Cardille, Jeffrey A.; DANIEL FORTIER; TANIA GIBÉRYEN

    2012-01-01

    Northern Quebec (Nunavik) presents an important intersection between population growth and climate change. The Inuit population of Nunavik has the fastest growth rate in any region of Canada. Land-use planning is an urgent and pressing need for northern communities built on permafrost, where there are considerable risks to development in areas where permafrost may thaw. As northern communities work to adapt to climate changes, they will be in great need of confident recommendations about loca...

  1. Monitoring mercury in freshwater fish in the oil sands region of Northern Alberta : spatial and temporal comparisons to regional mercury concentrations in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) was launched to provide a better understanding of the potential effects of oil sands development on aquatic systems, and to address issues important to communities of northern Alberta, such as mercury concentrations in fish. Muskeg dewatering, deforestation, flooding, and air emissions are among the potential mercury sources entering the aquatic systems within the oil sands region. RAMP collects non-lethal tissue samples on an annual basis for mercury analysis from northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in various rivers and lakes within the oil sands region. The purpose is to evaluate the suitability of fisheries resources for human consumption and to evaluate the potential cumulative biological effects on fish. A mercury database was developed based on studies in other regions in Alberta and across Canada in order to provide a regional context to the RAMP monitoring results. Data points from 1975 to 2009 were mapped to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in mercury concentrations and any exceedances of subsistence and general consumption guidelines. This monitoring effort has been instrumental in determining whether changes in mercury concentrations in fish are localized to a specific waterbody or regional in nature.

  2. Pre-selection of geological disposal reservoir sites of high-level waste in northern Sichuan-southern Shaanxi regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper states the petrography, the features of structure and neo-tectonics in northern Sichuan and southern Shaanxi regions. Four stable regions are divided within the region on the basis of this characteristic and the distributions of earthquake risk zoning. Then according to contents of wall rocks, hydrogeology, engineering geology and physical and economic geography of the stable regions, four candidates regions of disposal reservoir sites are determined. Some feasible studies have been done on the sites. The paper also proved that granite is the advantageous wall-rock of the disposal reservoir, and the pre-selection principle of the reservoir is stated in terms of the working experience of several years

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of zircon from the northern Western Gneiss Region: Insights into the Caledonian tectonic history of western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stacia M.; Whitney, Donna L.; Teyssier, Christian; Fossen, Haakon; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway is divided by the Møre-Trøndelag shear zone (MTSZ) into a southern region that contains domains of Caledonian ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks (> 2.5 GPa) and a northern area of similar Caledonian-aged rocks that record a maximum pressure reported thus far of ~1.5 GPa. Although both regions contain similar lithologies (primarily migmatitic quartzofeldspathic gneiss containing mafic lenses) and structural relationship of basement rocks to infolded nappes, this difference in maximum pressure implies a difference in tectonic history (continental subduction south of the shear zone, none to the north) and raises questions about the role of the MTSZ in the metamorphic history (including exhumation) of the WGR. Previous geochronology results indicated a difference in timing of peak metamorphism (older in north, younger in south). In order to better understand the tectonic history of the northern WGR and the MTSZ, and in particular the late- to post-Caledonian tectonic history, U-Pb zircon geochronology and trace-element abundances were obtained using the split-stream, laser-ablation ICPMS technique from metabasaltic lenses and migmatitic quartzofeldspathic host rocks from the structurally lowest exposed region of the northern WGR (Roan Peninsula basement), as well as leucosomes from an intercalated portion of the Seve Nappe Complex and a pegmatite in the MTSZ. Zircon from Roan gneiss and metabasite yield metamorphic ages of ca. 410-406 Ma, and zircon from a variety of migmatite samples (foliation-parallel leucosome to dikes) indicate melt crystallization at ca. 410 to 405 Ma. The Seve Nappe leucosomes yield only early Caledonian dates that cluster at ca. 437 Ma and ca. 465 Ma, suggesting that the allochthons in this region did not experience (or record) the same Scandian tectonic history as the basement rocks. Zircon from a weakly deformed pegmatite dike within the MTSZ crystallized at ca. 404 Ma, indicating that this

  4. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockmann Keith D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study

  5. Rapid regional surface uplift of the northern Altiplano plateau revealed by multiproxy paleoclimate reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nandini; Garzione, Carmala N.; Jaramillo, Carlos; Shanahan, Timothy; Carlotto, Victor; Pullen, Alex; Moreno, Federico; Anderson, Veronica; Moreno, Enrique; Eiler, John

    2016-08-01

    The central Altiplano is inferred to have experienced ∼ 2.5 ± 1km surface uplift between ∼10 and 6 Ma, while the southern Altiplano experienced a similar magnitude of surface uplift that began earlier, between ∼16 and 9 Ma. To properly constrain the along strike timing of the Altiplano plateau surface uplift, it is necessary to know how and when the northernmost part of the Altiplano plateau evolved. We reconstruct the paleoclimate and infer the corresponding paleoelevation from the Miocene-Pliocene deposits of the Descanso-Yauri basin (14-15°S) in the northernmost part of the Altiplano plateau using 4 different proxies, including carbonate clumped isotope composition (i.e., Δ47 values), carbonate δ18Oc, leaf wax δDwax and pollen assemblages from paleosol, lacustrine and palustrine carbonates and organic-rich sediments. The isotopic signatures reflect past climate conditions of mean annual air temperature (Δ47) and meteoric water isotope values (δ18Oc, δDwax). Our results show that the northernmost plateau remained at low elevation (0.9 ± 0.8 to 2.1 ± 0.9km) until late Miocene time (∼9 Ma) characterized by ∼15 °C warmer than modern temperature (mean annual air temperature of 23 ± 4 °C, 2σ), low elevation vegetation and precipitation signature with reconstructed □ δ18Omw (VSMOW) of - 8.3 ± 2.0 ‰ (2 σ) from carbonate (δ18Oc) and - 8.6 ± 1.8 ‰ (2 σ) from leaf wax (δDwax). Modern elevations of 4 km were not reached until 5.4 ± 1.0Ma, as indicated by a negative shift in δDwax (VSMOW) from - 143.4 ± 12.8 ‰ (2 σ) to - 209.2 ± 21.1 ‰ (2 σ) between 9.1 ± 0.7 and 5.4 ± 1.0Ma. The timing of surface uplift of the northernmost Altiplano is consistent with the evidence for late Miocene surface uplift of the central Altiplano (16-19°S) between 10 and 6 Ma, and indicates that regional scale uplift in the northern-central plateau significantly postdates the onset of surface uplift in the southern Altiplano (19-22°S) between ∼16

  6. La provincia de Antofagasta. Creación y consolidación de un territorio nuevo en el Estado chileno: 1888-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Pizarro, José Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines diverse factors —geographic, economic, demographic, political and legal— which influenced the parliamentary debate and the subsequent creation of the province of Antofagasta under the government of Balmaceda. One of the most important differences of this province in comparison with other Chilean territories resulted from the municipal powers inherited from the Bolivian administration that contributed to the hardening of regionalist discourse in the face of the Chilean government’s aim of juridical uniformity. The article reviews the different proposals for a political-administrative structure for the Antofagasta territory and the different modifications affecting it from 1888 until 1933. Emphasis is placed on the complexity of the territory at the local, national and international levels.

    Se examinan los diversos factores —geográficos, económicos, demográficos, políticos y legales— que incidieron en el debate parlamentario y posterior creación de la provincia de Antofagasta durante el gobierno de Balmaceda. Entre los aspectos diferenciadores que exhibió la provincia respecto a otros territorios chilenos, resaltó la herencia del periodo del la administración boliviana, en lo concerniente a las facultades municipales que incidió en el fortalecimiento de un discurso regionalista ante las pretensiones del estado chileno, respecto a la uniformidad jurídica. Se pasa revista a las diversas propuestas de estructuración político-administrativa del territorio de Antofagasta y las distintas modificaciones que afectaron a éste desde 1888 hasta 1933, poniendo énfasis en la complejidad del territorio en el ámbito internacional, nacional y local.

  7. A survey of district heating systems in the heating regions of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the status quo of heating supply and the impact of energy saving policies in northern China, a survey was conducted on the DHSs (district heating systems) in 15 Chinese cities. The average heating energy consumption was 19.2% lower than in 2008 due to the corresponding policies formulated and promoted by the authorities. Additionally, parameters of DHSs in cold and severe cold zones were collected, which include the energy consumption, operating efficiency, monitoring and control level, and gas emissions. These essential data can serve as a reference for energy efficiency retrofits and further analysis of comprehensive energy consumption of the DHSs in northern China. Finally, suggestions for improving existing policies during “the Twelfth Five-Year Plan” period are put forward to further improve the energy efficiency of DHSs. - Highlights: • To find out the status quo of DHSs (district heating systems) in northern China, a survey was conducted. • Through analyzing the results of survey, main parameters of DHS can be concluded. • By analyzing the existing problems of DHS, the way of retrofit is proposed. • Suggestions are presented to improve relevant policies of DHS in northern China

  8. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  9. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  10. Hydrology, element budgets, acidification, nutrient N in a climate change perspective for the northern forest region

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential impact of climate change on element budgets and acidity in northern forest ecosystems. A catchment approach should provide the most appropriate unit and to be investigated in several spatial scales. Future monitoring has also to address tree composition, forestry activities, follow the soil organic matter storage and include changes in hydrology with episodic extremes.

  11. Risk factors and drug-resistance patterns among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in northern Karnataka region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan S Gaude

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is one of the high tuberculosis (TB-burden countries in the world. Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drugs has already become an important and alarming threat in most of the regions worldwide. India ranks second in the world in harbouring multi-drug resistant cases (MDRTB. Prevalence of MDR-TB mirrors the functional state and efficacy of TB control programmes and realistic attitude of the community towards implementation of such programmes. The most important risk factor in the development of MDRTB is improper implementation in the guidelines in the management of TB, and high rate of defaults on the part of the patients. The study was carried out to evaluate the drug resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs in Northern Karnataka region, India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at J. N. Medical College and its associated Hospitals, Belgaum. Between January 2011 and December 2012, 150 sputum samples of suspected pulmonary TB patients based on the history were examined for the AFB culture by Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture technique. A total of two early morning samples were collected for the smear [Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN staining] and culture methods. It was observed that ZN staining for AFB was positive in 113 patients (75%, while AFB culture by LJ medium yielded growth in 66 cases (44%. Thus, a total of 66 AFB culture-positive samples by LJ medium were subjected for AFB drug-sensitivity testing (DST. DST was done for Isoniazid (INH, Rifampicin (RIF, Pyrazinamide (PZA, Ethambutol (EMB and Streptomycin (SM after isolation by using the resistance proportion method. Results: A total of 66 AFB culture-positive specimens, 20 (30.3% cases were sensitive to all the five drugs while 46 (69.7% cases showed resistance to one or more drugs. Among these, the resistance to rifampicin was highest (80.4%, while resistance to isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin were observed to be 60%, 58.7%, 52

  12. Advance of the Monitor of Drought for the Northern Region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gomez, V. M.; Nunez Lopez, D.

    2007-05-01

    In the last 13 years, the State of Chihuahua suffered a lingering drought that caused social, economical and environmental impacts hardly quantifiable. Since 2002, a monitoring system was implemented to watch the evolution of the meteorological drought in Chihuahua, recently being broadened for the states in the North of Mexico. Evaluation of the Meteorological Drought The Monitoring System on the Drought in Chihuahua includes the following steps: missing data gaps were completed basing on the statistical procedures described by Young (1992); the source code, was compiled to create a computer program, with which it can be derived a level of climatic station, historical series of values for the SPI in time scales of 1 to 48 months; under this classification scheme, it is considered that a drought event begins when the values of the SPI are inferior to -0.7 (McKee et al. 1995). The spatial distribution of the SPI was determined through spatial interpolation techniques using a reverse method of the distance between stations included in Arc/Info©. This same procedure was applied for the States of Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango and Zacatecas with the purpose of implementing this tool for the north of Mexico. Advances on the Monitoring System The monitoring system allows an analysis of the frequency, duration and intensity of the drought events that took place in several climatic regions (Núñez-López et al., 2005); un map of spatial distribution of the SPI for the northern region of Mexico, in the States of Sonora, Sinaloa, Durango and Chihuahua. The generated map will be published in a section on the CEISS web page (www.sequia.edu.mx), together with the monthly bulletin available to the public in general; it is monitoring to an annual scale, the tendencies of the deficits or surplus of the runoff volumes on three of the main dams in the State of Chihuahua Conclusions The Drought Monitoring System in Chihuahua complies with the following international rules for the

  13. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  14. Burried MIS 5 abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic) confirm long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2016-04-01

    implies an average subsidence rate of the area between 0.28 and 0.38 mm/year, which agrees with previously published data for the Gulf of Trieste. This new dataset demonstrates that the Bay of Koper was connected to the Adriatic Sea approximately 125.000 ky ago during the MIS 5 sea-level highstand. Together with marine abrasion platforms and well data previously documented in the northeastern part of the Gulf of Trieste and well data from the northwestern part of the gulf our data corroborates the long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region.

  15. Comparison of Predicted and Measured Soil Retention Curve in Lombardy Region Northern of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassar, Fatma; Rienzner, Michele; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Water retention characteristics are crucial input parameters in any modeling study on water flow and solute transport. These properties are difficult to measure and therefore the use of both direct and indirect methods is required in order to adequately describe them with sufficient accuracy. Several field methods, laboratory methods and theoretical models for such determinations exist, each having their own limitations and advantages (Stephens, 1994). Therefore, extensive comparisons between estimated, field and laboratory results to determine it still requires their validity for a range of different soils and specific cases. This study attempts to make a contribution specifically in this connection. The soil water retention characteristics were determined in two representative sites (PMI-1 and PMI-5) located in Landriano field, in Lombardy region, northern Italy. In the laboratory, values of both volumetric water content (θ) and soil water matric potential (h) are measured in the same sample using the tensiometric box and pressure plate apparatus. Field determination of soil water retention involved measurements of soil water content with SENTEK probes, and matric potential with tensiometers. The retention curve characteristics were also determined using some of the most commonly cited and some recently developed PTFs that use soil properties such as particle-size distribution (sand, silt, and clay content), organic matter or organic Carbon content, and dry bulk density. Field methods are considered to be more representative than laboratory and estimation methods for determining water retention characteristics (Marion et al., 1996). Therefore, field retention curves were compared against retention curves obtained from laboratory measurements and PTFs estimations. The performances of laboratory and PTFs in predicting field measured data were evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE) and bias. The comparison showed that laboratory measurements were the most

  16. Water use options for regional development : potentials of new water technologies in Central Northern Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Lux, Alexandra; Janowicz, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    The CuveWaters project relates the alignment and implementation of innovative water technologies to an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin, which lies in Central Northern Namibia. The aim here is to improve inhabitants’ living conditions by means of appropriate technical schemes and measures – particularly with a view to enhancing water supply and basic sanitation (incl. waste water disposal). A focal part of Cuve-Waters concerns the re-use of water, effic...

  17. Characteristics of trace gaseous pollutants at a regional background station in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Z. Y.; X. B. Xu; Yan, P; Ding, G. A.; Tang, J; W. L. Lin; Xu, X. D.; Wang, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of trace gaseous pollutants were taken at the Shangdianzi site, a WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) background station in Northern China. The results are presented for the period from September 2003 to December 2006. Seasonal and diurnal variations of the O3, NOx, SO2, and CO concentration are characterized and possible causes for them are discussed. The observed levels of the trace gases are comparable to those...

  18. The Effects of Conflicts Handling In Teamwork of Hotel Industry Located In Northern Region of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi Noraini Bt Mohd Yusuf; Siti Norsyafawani Bt Shamsul Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Conflict is part and parcel of people?s awareness in all aspects of life. There are few key factors affecting conflict handling in any teamwork, such as leadership effectiveness, employee satisfaction, behavior/ personality, communication and lastly, the role of the gender. The paper?s primary contribution in conducting this study are firstly to find out factors that influence conflicts handling in teamwork of hotel industry in northern areas and secondly to examine the parties responsible be...

  19. How Does the Agricultural Ecosystem Productivity Respond to Climate Fluctuations in the Northern Farming-pastoral Region?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tesheng; SUN; Bo; LI; Xinshi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Using meteorological data and mathematical statistics analysis,we take Jungar Banner in the northern farming-pastoral region of China for example,to analyze the fluctuations in the precipitation and average temperature in Jungar Banner during the period 1961-2009.We calculate the NPP of agricultural ecosystem and climatic yield of the main crops in the region during the period 1961-2009,and expound the response of agricultural ecosystem productivity to climate fluctuations in Jungar Banner.Indubitably the climate changes impose great effects on the structure and function of regional ecosystem,and there is a need to take a number of measures to minimize the detrimental effects of climate changes on climatic yield of the main crops.

  20. Natural radioactivity in some drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria have been determined. Samples were collected during the year of 2000 at two periods from the main water sources, from which water being transported for drinking or from houses. Results have shown that most concentrations of the measured naturally occurring radionuclides (222Rn, 222Ra, 210Po, 234U, 238U) were within the natural levels and below the higher permissible limits of International Organizations. In addition, variations in concentrations from region to another have been observed; these variations may be due to differences in geological formations and water sources (well, spring, surface water). Moreover, the obtained data in this study and other published data for other regions can be used for establishing the radiation map for natural radioactivity in drinking water in Syria. (author)

  1. Regional magnetic anomalies, crustal strength, and the location of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    The northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt in Canada and Alaska is at the boundary between the broad continental margin mobile belt and the stable North American craton. The fold-and-thrust belt is marked by several significant changes in geometry: cratonward extensions in the central Yukon Territory and northeastern Alaska are separated by marginward re-entrants. These geometric features of the Cordilleran mobile belt are controlled by relations between lithospheric strength and compressional tectonic forces developed along the continental margin. Regional magnetic anomalies indicate deep thermal and compositional characteristics that contribute to variations in crustal strength. Our detailed analysis of one such anomaly, the North Slope deep magnetic high, helps to explain the geometry of the fold-and-thrust front in northern Alaska. This large magnetic anomaly is inferred to reflect voluminous mafic magmatism in an old (Devonian?) extensional domain. The presence of massive amounts of malic material in the lower crust implies geochemical depletion of the underlying upper mantle, which serves to strengthen the lithosphere against thermal erosion by upper mantle convection. We infer that deep-source magnetic highs are an important indicator of strong lower crust and upper mantle. This stronger lithosphere forms buttresses that play an important role in the structural development of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Simultaneous observations of F2 layer stratification and spread F at postmidnight over a northern equatorial anomaly region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Deng, Chi; Zhou, Chen; Zhu, Peng; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Song, Huan; Lan, Ting; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yuannong

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous observations of F2 layer stratification and spread F at postmidnight (00:00 LT to 05:00 LT) were carried out on 22, 23, and 28 November 2013, using ionosondes distributed over a northern equatorial anomaly region at three specific locations, i.e., Puer (PUR, 22.7°N, 101.05°E, dip latitude 12.9°N), Chiang Mai (CMU, 18.8°N, 98.9°E, dip latitude 9.04°N), and Chumphon (CPN, 10.7°N, 99.4°E, dip latitude 0.93°N). The results show that both the PUR and CMU stations observed the F2 layer stratification at postmidnight in the Northern Hemisphere, frequently accompanied with gravity waves (the periods~30-100 min). It is reported that F2 layer stratification at postmidnight can be observed in the Northern Hemisphere for the first time. It is suggested that the thermospheric neutral wind triggered by gravity waves strongly contribute to the altitude dependence of the combined vertical plasma velocity, which consequently poses significant impacts on the occurrence of the low-latitude F2 layer stratification at postmidnight. In addition, the spread F other than F2 layer stratification was observed at the CPN station located at the geomagnetic equator, suggesting that smaller geomagnetic inclination tend to inhibit the postmidnight F2 layer stratification in the equatorial region. Furthermore, on 23 November 2013 a good correlation was identified between the F2 layer stratification at PUR and the spread F at both CMU and CPN, possibly due to that the large-scale gravity waves originating at middle latitudes contribute to the nighttime spread F observed in the low-latitude and equatorial regions.

  3. Viajes comerciales de intercambio en el departamento de Antofagasta de la Sierra, Puna meridional argentina: pasado y presente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Silvia P.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Los viajes hacia valles interserranos a lomo de mula fueron una experiencia compartida por todos en esta región de la puna argentina, hasta hace veinte años. En este trabajo se relacionan los datos obtenidos a través de entrevistas a informantes en el departamento de Antofagasta de la Sierra, con los surgidos tras la consulta de las Actas del Registro Civil y se arriba a conclusiones respecto de los vínculos de parentesco que unieron a quienes comerciaban e intercambiaban mercaderías producidas en alturas diferentes. También se compara la situación de entonces con la actualidad. En la capital del departamento los viajes de intercambio han desaparecido casi en su totalidad, en cambio en otras poblaciones del mismo departamento se han modificado incluyendo en ellos a las mercaderías obtenidas por compra y utilizando la sal como principal elemento de canje.

  4. Vertical Specialisation and Regional Trade Integration. A Study on Italy and Northern African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cor�; Marco Giansoldati; Mario Volpe

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a multistage approach to investigate the role of Italy in the Northern African countries, both in terms of trade and investment. In particular, we show that Italian import flows for two typically Made in Italy industries, namely textile and clothing on one hand, and leather and footwear on the other hand, are strongly related not only to export flows of the same sector, but also to a set of variables capturing features of the Italian and the foreign country. In this way, we su...

  5. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  6. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of

  7. Caracterización de estudiantes desde sus potencialidades y Talentos Académicos en la región de Antofagasta, Chile / Students Characterization from their Potential and Academic Talent in Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caridad García Cepero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La coyuntura actual de políticas educativas de cobertura, calidad, equidad y diversidad imponen desafíos a los establecimientos educacionales, especialmente a los municipales, los cuales deben desarrollar estrategias orientadas a satisfacer las necesidades de los estudiantes que se encuentran en sus aulas, capitalizando sus fortalezas. Esta investigación es de naturaleza exploratoria con una metodología mixta explicativa. Se presentan los resultados de la primera fase del estudio que corresponde al análisis de proyectos educativos y a la caracterización de estudiantes sobresalientes. Se analizaron los resultados obtenidos de 1.536 estudiantes provenientes de 18 establecimientos educacionales de las comunas de Antofagasta y Calama (Chile. A partir del análisis y de acuerdo a indicadores de talento académico, la muestra fue caracterizada en cuatro grupos de estudiantes: estudiantes sobresalientes, sub-nominados, sobre-exigidos y promedio. La categoría de estudiantes subnominados plantea cuestionamientos referentes a la metodología de identificación de estudiantes con talento en los programas chilenos, fuertemente cimentada en la nominación docente. Se advierte la necesidad de generarrutas alternativas, como la autonominación. Para concluir, se hacen algunas sugerencias alrededor de las políticas públicas en relación con la educación para estudiantes sobresalientes en particular para Chile, pero pueden ser en buena medida transferidas a otros casos a través de Iberoamérica.

  8. Possible Changes in the Characteristics of the Rainy Season over Northern South America: Results from a Regional Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco; Costa, Alexandre; Gandu, Adilson; Sales, Domingo; Araújo, Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Simulations were performed with RAMS6.0 to evaluate possible changes in the behaviour of the rainy season over the Amazon region, within the CORDEX domain of the Inter-tropical Americas. We forced the regional model using data from one of the CMIP5 participants (HadGEM2-ES), both for the Historical Experiment (1980-2005) and along the XXI century under RCP 8.5 (heavy-emission scenario). Regarding projections, we analyzed results for three time slices, short (2014-2035), middle (2044-2065) and long term (2078-2099), according to the following steps. First, the spatially averaged precipitation in non-overlapping pentads over 7 sub-regions over northern South America was calculated ("boxes" 1 to 7). Then, we calculated the climatological annual cycle for each one of them. Finally, dates of the onset and demise of the rainy season are found, validating the model results against GPCP observations and checking for projected changes. In general, in the Historical Experiment, the model delays the onset of the rainy season over the northern areas and anticipates it over most inland sub-regions. Over eastern Amazon, the regional model represents it properly, besides a delay in the demise of about one month. In short-term projections, there is a slight increase in precipitation and a modest anticipation of the rainy season onset in the coastal areas. Projected changes in the annual cycle of most sub-regions are relatively modest for the short-term and mid-term periods, but may become very significant by the end of the century. Over Colombia (Box 1), which has a bimodal precipitation annual cycle, the model projects a late century increase in the first precipitation peak. Little change is projected for the two boxes roughly covering Venezuela, the Guianas and the northernmost portion of northern Brazilian states (Boxes 2 and 3). The box covering northern Peru and Ecuador (Box 4) shows increased March-April precipitation, but with no significant changes in the

  9. Regional multi-compartment ecological risk assessment: Establishing cadmium pollution risk in the northern Bohai Rim, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajuan; Wang, Ruoshi; Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Johnson, Andrew C; Sweetman, Andrew; Jones, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Ecological risk assessment (ERA) has been widely applied in characterizing the risk of chemicals to organisms and ecosystems. The paucity of toxicity data on local biota living in the different compartments of an ecosystem and the absence of a suitable methodology for multi-compartment spatial risk assessment at the regional scale has held back this field. The major objective of this study was to develop a methodology to quantify and distinguish the spatial distribution of risk to ecosystems at a regional scale. A framework for regional multi-compartment probabilistic ecological risk assessment (RMPERA) was constructed and corroborated using a bioassay of a local species. The risks from cadmium (Cd) pollution in river water, river sediment, coastal water, coastal surface sediment and soil in northern Bohai Rim were examined. The results indicated that the local organisms in soil, river, coastal water, and coastal sediment were affected by Cd. The greatest impacts from Cd were identified in the Tianjin and Huludao areas. The overall multi-compartment risk was 31.4% in the region. The methodology provides a new approach for regional multi-compartment ecological risk assessment. PMID:27286039

  10. Dust deposition during the Early Holocene on the loess plateaus of the Vojvodina region in Northern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Slobodan; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Stevens, Thomas; Guo, Zhengtang; Hao, Qingzhen; Song, Yang; Hambach, Ulrich; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Peric, Zoran; Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Gavrilov, Milivoj

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Serbian province of Vojvodina is a lowland area encompassing the confluence of the Danube, Sava, Tisa (Tisza), Drava, Morava and Tamiš (Temes, Timiş) rivers, which separate several remnant loess plateaus. Loess sediments in the Vojvodina region are among the oldest and most complete loess-paleosol formations in Europe. These thick sequences contain a detailed paleoclimatic record since the Early Pleistocene. The better preservation of Serbian loess-paleosol sequences compared to other European loess records is most likely related to the persistence of much drier conditions in the region, coupled with "plateau-like" dust accumulation style. Recently and through detailed luminescence-based chronological investigations of accumulation derived from several loess sections we aimed at addressing the timing of the onset of Holocene soil (S0) formation in the wider region. So far, the chronological results demonstrate a lack of intensive pedogenesis coeval with the postulated Holocene onset (ie., 11.7 ka BP), and continuation of Aeolian dust deposition during the Early Holocene in some of the investigated sections. Lake sediment and speleothem records from the wider area also suggest that, at least regionally, the hydroclimatic characteristics of the Early Holocene differed markedly. This evidence leads to an important question about the validity of previously generalized direct stratigraphic correlations between regional terrestrial environmental archives and global marine and ice core records (direct synchronization of records vs. acknowledging leads/lags), that employ the Late Pleistocene/Holocene boundary at 11.7 as an absolute tie point.

  11. The Yalahau Regional Wetland Survey: Ancient Maya Land Use in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Daniel Ian

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on a little-explored system of freshwater wetlands in the northeastern Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Previous archaeological research at one wetland in the Yalahau region found evidence for manipulation in the form of constructed rock alignments, which likely functioned as dikes and dams to control soil and water for food production. There are 175 wetlands in the Yalahau region, therefore the goal of the regional survey was to assess the extent of wetland manipulatio...

  12. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  13. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  14. Industry 4.0 and SMEs in the Northern Jutland Region:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    . These expected changes will be driven by technical innovations which are characterised by the terms Internet of Things, Integrated Manufacturing or Cloud Computing. Increased interconnectivity result in new ways of interactions between humans, machines, thereby changing the nature of networks and impacting......The term Industry 4.0 refers to the expectations that a forth industrial revolution is underway, in which value creation process at the horizontal and vertical level will lead to new modes of end-to-end configurations of global value chains and creation of new inter-corporation value networks...... of change can produce opportunities for new entrants and innovation but are also likely to present important challenges for established actors. In this article, by investigating a sample of six firms, we gauge the preparedness of firm in Northern Jutland to embark on the voyage to Industry 4.0 and what...

  15. Environmental impact of the Ranger uranium mine, Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringent environmental controls have been applied to the Ranger mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, because of its location in an area of outstanding natural and cultural values. The adjacent Kakadu National Park contains a wild and extensive biodiversity, striking landscapes, ancient Aboriginal rock art and a living Aboriginal culture. A special regime of biological, radiological and chemical monitoring has been applied to protect the environment and detect even very low intensity impacts. The results from this regime demonstrate to the government and general public that the high conservation values of the national park around the mine are being properly protected. This paper describes the techniques used to measure environmental impact at Ranger, and summarizes the results of over 20 years of monitoring. The overwhelming conclusion is that a very high standard of environmental protection has been achieved. (author)

  16. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experiences regarding their rights in hospital settings in northern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews of 22 patients, who have had experience of health care service in the hospital setting. The patients were selected from the outpatient and inpatient departments of referral and district hospitals in northern Ethiopia. The interview data were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated, reviewed, and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Categories of descriptions were constructed based on the patients’ conceptions and ways of understanding the phenomenon of patients’ rights practice.Results: The findings revealed four main qualitatively different ways of understanding patients’ rights practice from the patients’ perspective. These main categories of description were patient-centered practice, being secured, respecting patients’ dignity, and getting referral.Conclusion: The different conceptions of patient rights give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience patients’ rights practice. The result provides a foundation for developing health care practice that equips the patient with a positive experience, thus contributing in drafting patients’ bill of rights in the local context.Keywords: patient rights, phenomenography, hospital health care, patient experience

  17. Assessment of the Vulnerability of Water Resources to Seasonal Fires Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the distribution of Saharan dust and other airborne matter around the region and to other parts of the world, the genesis of global atmospheric circulation, and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation. In this presentation, we will examine the theoretical linkages between these processes, discuss the preliminary results based on satellite data analysis, and provide an overview of plans for more integrated research to be conducted over the next few years.

  18. Global and regional factors contributing to the past and future sea level rise in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2013-07-01

    This study aims at discussing evolution of Sea Level (SL) in the Northern Adriatic Sea for the 20th and 21st century. A Linear Regression Model (LRM) which aims at describing the effect of regional processes, is built and validated. This LRM computes the North Adriatic mean SL variations using three predictors: the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) in the Gulf of Venice, the mean Sea Temperature (ST) of the water column in the South Adriatic and the Upper Level Salinity (ULS) in the central part of the basin. SL data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges distributed along the Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL, Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). MSLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean ST and ULS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual SL variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent, so that the Northern Adriatic SL can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste. The LRM is found to be robust, very successful at explaining interannual SL variations and consistent with the physical mechanisms responsible for SL evolution. Results show that observed SL in the 20th century has a large trend, which cannot be explained by this LRM, and it is interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause (such as polar ice melting). When the LRM is used with the MSLP, ST and ULS from climate model projections for the end of the 21st century (A1B scenario), it produces an SL rise in the range from 2.3 to 14.1 cm, with a best estimate of 8.9 cm. However, results show that the behavior of the remotely forced SL rise is the main source of future SL uncertainty and extrapolating its present trend to the future would expand the range of SL uncertainty from 14 to 49 cm.

  19. The Early Andean Magmatic Province (EAMP): 40Ar/ 39Ar dating on Mesozoic volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Coastal Cordillera, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Féraud, Gilbert; Aguirre, Luis; Fornari, Michel; Morata, Diego

    2006-10-01

    The Early Andean Magmatic Province (EAMP), consists of about 150 000 km 3 of volcanic and plutonic units in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru and represents a major magmatic Mesozoic event in the world, for which the precise age of the thick volcanic series was unknown. Thirty 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses were carried out on primary mineral phases of volcanic and plutonic rocks from northern Chile (18°30'-24°S). Reliable plateau and "mini plateau" ages were obtained on plagioclase, amphibole and biotite from volcanic and plutonic rocks, despite widespread strong alteration degree. In the Arica, Tocopilla and Antofagasta (700 km apart) regions, the ages obtained on lava flows constrain the volcanic activity between 164 and 150 Ma and no N-S migration of volcanism is observed. The uppermost lava flows of the volcanic sequence at the type locality of the La Negra Formation extruded at ca. 153-150 Ma, suggesting the end of the volcanic activity of the arc at that time. The oldest volcanic activity occurred probably at ca. 175-170 Ma in the Iquique area, although no plateau age could be obtained. The plutonic bodies of the same regions were dated between ca. 160 and 142 Ma, indicating that they were partly contemporaneous with the volcanic activity. At least one volcanic pulse around 160 Ma is evidenced over the entire investigated reach of the EAMP, according to the ages found in Arica, Tocopilla, Michilla and Mantos Blancos regions. The episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related volcanism is observed throughout the whole Andean history and particularly during the Jurassic (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). These events probably correspond to periodic extensional geodynamic episodes, as a consequence of particular subduction conditions, such as change of obliquity of the convergence, change in the subduction angle, slab roll back effect or lower convergence rate, that remain to be precisely defined.

  20. Assessments of regional climate change and its impacts in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Reckermann, Marcus; Quante, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Regional climate change assessments are urgently needed to complement the big picture with regional results and scenarios of higher resolution and with relevance for local decision makers and stakeholders. A new type of assessment report originated in the original BACC report of 2008 (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea region) which has served as role model for other assessments published or in preparation. It represents an approach to assessing and making available current knowledge on regional climate change and its regional impacts on the physical, biogeochemical and biological environment (ecosystems, socio-economic sphere). Reports of this type which are available or underway are the original BACC book (2008), the second BACC book (2015), the climate report for the greater Hamburg area (2011), and the NOSCCA report (North Sea Climate Change Assessment) which is expected to be published in 2016. The assessments are produced by teams of scientists from the region, led by lead authors who recruit experts from relevant topics to contribute. The process is not externally funded and completely based on published scientific evidence, and not biased by political or economic interest groups. The BACC-type reports aim to bring together consolidated knowledge that has broad consensus in the scientific community, but also acknowledging issues for which contradicting opinions are found in the literature, so that no consensus can be reached ("consensus on dissensus"). An international steering committee is responsible for overlooking the process, and all manuscripts are anonymously peer-reviewed by independent international experts. An outstanding outreach aspect of these reports is the close collaboration with regional stakeholders (for the BACC reports: HELCOM, the intergovernmental Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission and the major regional science-policy interface in the Baltic Sea region; for the Hamburg climate report: the Hamburg city

  1. Temporal evolution, petrography and composition of dolostones in the Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage, southern Estonia and northern Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleesment

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage in southern Estonia and northern Latvia is represented by dolostones containing interlayers of dolomitic marlstones and limestones. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe and isotope techniques were used to investigate diagenetic evolution of dolostones. The rock succession has been affected by multiple dia­genetic events. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, six dolomite textures were identified. The crystal size (5–1200 μm and morphology of dolomites are variable. Commonly, dolomites are close to the stoichiometric composition, with low iron and manganese content. Their stable isotope composition (δ13C, δ18O differs greatly from that of dolomite precipitated from Frasnian seawater. Dolomitization is more pronounced in the lower part of the studied sequence, in the Snetnaya Gora Formation and Lower Pskov unit where carbonates are completely dolomitized, whereas upwards in the section the dolomite content decreases. Voids and pores of the Lower Pskov unit are mainly open, but partly or completely occluded in the Upper Pskov unit. Void-filling dolomite has slightly and void-filling calcite notably depleted stable isotope signatures. Major dedolomitization and calcite-filling processes took place during the final uplift and emergence of the northern part of the Baltic basin, connected with the migration of karst-related meteoric waters into previously dolomitized horizons within carbonate rocks.

  2. Diagnóstico socio-ambiental para un desarrollo sustentable de la Puna Meridional Argentina, Localidad de Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M. Manzi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un diagnóstico socio-ambiental realizado en la comunidad de Antofagasta de la Sierra, Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina, siendo tomados en consideración las unidades sociales de producción, los rebaños, las pasturas disponibles y los patrones de uso y tenencia de la tierra. Se pretende identificar y evaluar la incidencia del actual uso del espacio sobre el medio natural y discutir las iniciativas oficiales de desarrollo económico para este sector de la Puna argentina.

  3. A key Paleozoic section in the northern part of the Western Siberian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashov, B. I.; Bochkarev, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    A few of our predecessors considered the Eastern Siberian Region to be a huge territory with similar geological history without hydrocarbon prospecting opportunities. It was also proposed to search for oil and gas in the seas of the Arctic Ocean. Not denying these search directions, we have offered to explore the Western Siberian Region by analysis of numerous deep wells, variable facial zones of Paleozoic complexes, and real prospects of searching for oil and gas fields.

  4. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  5. OLTENIA NORTHERN MEDICAL TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Enea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Health tourism in Romania is at the beginning - it exists, develops in some areas, shy, we do not boast of many tourists who come to us for such services, however, the data provided by NATA, now a year or two there were over 60,000 people who came to our country for health tourism. Of course, data are incomplete because not all tourists coming to say. But it seems that 250 million would have entered this area. Potential exists, and curiosity and demand for Romania there. But there is enough interest for the development of such tourism. Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the media to rapidly growing phenomenon of crossing international borders to obtain health care services. The paper tries to highlight the chances for Romania, more specifically, Northern Oltenia become a specific area of medical tourism or medical tourism practiced in other countries, to local patient survival chance.

  6. Fiscal and tax policy support for energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings (EERERB) in China's northern heating region is an important component of the national energy strategy. The main content and related subject in EERERB performance is the basis of understanding and developing targeted policies. So, this paper designed the content system of EERERB. And then, provided a cost-benefit analysis on related subjects, assessed the government's function in EERERB, and come to the conclusion that the Chinese government should increase fiscal fund investment and implement more fiscal and tax incentive policies. Moreover, in view of China's current policy, which lacks long-term mechanism and flexibility, this paper proposed specific policy recommendations, including clarifying the government's corresponding responsibilities at all levels and increasing the intensity of the central government's transfer payments. It further proposed targeted financial and tax policies for supporting and encouraging heating enterprises and owners, as well as policies to cultivate energy-saving service markets and to support the ESCO.

  7. The freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi - a monitor for radium-226 pollution in the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of knowledge of the biology and radioecology of the freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi, is reviewed. The theoretical response is calculated, in terms of gross parameters suitable for monitoring purposes, for a range of predicted water contaminating events at the Ranger Uranium Mine site in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory. These results suggest that mussels would be useful biological monitors for events that lead to an increase in the Ra/Ca ratio for the receiving waters. Suitable measurement parameters are Ra:Ca tissue concentration regression and the microstructure of radium distribution within the mussel shell. On the basis of available field data for one event (enhanced erosion of pit borrow material into Georgetown waterhole during the 1980-81 wet season), which had no conventional water quality fingerprint, mussels were shown to be a suitable monitor of such events

  8. Catchment-specific element signatures in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porous) from the Alligator river region, Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U and Ti were determined in the osteoderms and/or flesh of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) captured in three adjacent catchments within the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) of northern Australia (Table 1 and 2, Figure 1). Results from multivariate analysis of variance showed that when all metals were considered simultaneously, catchment effects were significant (P = 0.05). Despite considerable within-catchment variability, linear discriminant analysis showed that differences in elemental signatures in the osteoderms and/or flesh of C. porosus amongst the catchments were sufficient to classify individuals accurately to their catchment of occurrence (Figure 2). Using cross-validation, the accuracy of classifying a crocodile to its catchment of occurrence was 76% for osteoderms and 60% for flesh. These data suggest that osteoderms provide better predictive accuracy than flesh for discriminating crocodiles amongst catchments

  9. Northern region production cultivation technology of yam%北方地区山药生产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景玉

    2012-01-01

    According to the local actual production, the author summarizes the suitable for the north area of cultivation technology of yam, yam preparations before seeding, planting, field management, disease control and harvesting is described in detail, for the northern region to provide reference of yam cultivation.%根据本地的生产实际,作者总结出了适合北方地区山药生产的栽培技术,对山药的播前准备、种植方式、田间管理、病害防治和收获都进行了详尽的描述,为北方地区种植山药提供了参考依据。

  10. The northern and central Appalachian basin coal region -- The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal bed assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Freeman, P.; Tully, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal beds are two of six coal beds being assessed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region. The coal resource assessments were designed to provide up-to-date, concise data on the location, quantity, and quality of US coals for Federal agencies, the public, industry and academia. Assessment products are fully digital and include original and remaining resource estimates; maps depicting areal extent, mined areas, geologic structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness, ash yield, sulfur content, calorific value, and selected trace-element contents; and public domain geochemical and stratigraphic databases. The assessment methodology and a few results are presented.

  11. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that

  12. Impacts of uplift of northern Tibetan Plateau and formation of Asian inland deserts on regional climate and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Sun, Hui; Miao, Yunfa; Dong, Buwen; Yin, Zhi-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Based on the geological evidence that the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) had an uplift of a finite magnitude since the Miocene and the major Asian inland deserts formed in the early Pliocene, a regional climate model (RegCM4.1) with a horizontal resolution of 50 km was used to explore the effects of the NTP uplift and the related aridification of inland Asia on regional climate. We designed three numerical experiments including the control experiment representing the present-day condition, the high-mountain experiment representing the early Pliocene condition with uplifted NTP but absence of the Asian inland deserts, and the low-mountain experiment representing the mid-Miocene condition with reduced topography in the NTP (by as much as 2400 m) and also absence of the deserts. Our simulation results indicated that the NTP uplift caused significant reductions in annual precipitation in a broad region of inland Asia north of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) mainly due to the enhanced rain shadow effect of the mountains and changes in the regional circulations. However, four mountainous regions located in the uplift showed significant increases in precipitation, stretching from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Qilian Mountains in the east. These mountainous areas also experienced different changes in the rainfall seasonality with the greatest increases occurring during the respective rainy seasons, predominantly resulted from the enhanced orographically forced upwind ascents. The appearance of the major deserts in the inland Asia further reduced precipitation in the region and led to increased dust emission and deposition fluxes, while the spatial patterns of dust deposition were also changed, not only in the regions of uplift-impacted topography, but also in the downwind regions. One major contribution from this study is the comparison of the simulation results with 11 existing geological records representing the moisture conditions from Miocene to Pliocene. The

  13. Case history of the discovery of the Jabiluka uranium deposits, East Alligator River region, Northern Territory of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancontinental Mining Limited acquired exploration rights over an area in the East Alligator River Region, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970. Subsequently, Getty Oil Development Company Limited acquired a substantial minority interest in the property. The Jabiluka deposits were discovered during the course of exploration and are currently the largest of the four major uranium deposits in the East Alligator River Region. This region at present contains 24% of the western world's reasonably assured resources of uranium. The exploration techniques employed during primary and secondary exploration on the property between 1971 and 1975 and during the delineation of the Jabiluka deposits are discussed in detail. The case history illustrates the exploration philosophy which was successfully employed on the Jabiluka property. The philosophy encompasses the following points: The need for an assessment on the limits of airborne radiometric surveys; the necessity for detection and evaluation of point source anomalies; the necessity for exploration along extensions of favourable lithologies; and the desirability of modification of exploration techniques on different types of anomalies. Some aspects of this philosophy may be useful in exploration for similar stratabound uranium deposits in other areas. (author)

  14. Sedimentological dynamics of the Orlovat loess-paleosol sequence (Northern Serbia) show both local and regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schulte, Philipp; Hambach, Ulrich; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The last glacial cycle as recorded in the Orlovat loess section (Northern Serbia) gives insight into both local and regional paleoenvironmental conditions. The Orlovat section is a unique section in the Carpathian Basin and it is characterized by irregularities in sedimentology, magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and other paleoproxies. Therefore the local conditions need to be understood before making claims on a regional scale. Especially the grain size distribution indicates that the Orlovat site was influenced by specific paleoenvironmental conditions. Relatively coarse grained sand was delivered during interglacials, probably from the Deliblato sands by the Košava wind. However, commonly applied methods such as grain size and rock magnetic investigations could not explain the unique situation during the MIS 3, where a paleosol is missing. Therefore, for the first time in the studies of the region, we applied high resolution X-ray fluorescence analysis to trace the changing source areas of sediment material during the Last Glacial. These changes in the provenance of the sediment might be associated with stronger river activities and erosion. This study highlights the importance of a sedimentological understanding for a reliable paleoenvironmental evaluation.

  15. Stable water isotopes of precipitation and firn cores from the northern Antarctic Peninsula region as a proxy for climate reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernandoy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the climate variability in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, this paper focuses on the relationship between stable isotope content of precipitation and firn, and main meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea surface temperature, and sea ice extent. Between 2008 and 2010, we collected precipitation samples and retrieved firn cores from several key sites in this region. We conclude that the deuterium excess oscillation represents a robust indicator of the meteorological variability on a seasonal to sub-seasonal scale. Low absolute deuterium excess values and the synchronous variation of both deuterium excess and air temperature imply that the evaporation of moisture occurs in the adjacent Southern Ocean. The δ18O-air temperature relationship is complicated and significant only at a (multiseasonal scale. Backward trajectory calculations show that air-parcels arriving at the region during precipitation events predominantly originate at the South Pacific Ocean and Bellingshausen Sea. These investigations will be used as a calibration for ongoing and future research in the area, suggesting that appropriate locations for future ice core research are located above 600 m a.s.l. We selected the Plateau Laclavere, Antarctic Peninsula as the most promising site for a deeper drilling campaign.

  16. Effects of land-conversion in a biosphere–atmosphere model of Northern South America – Part 1: Regional differences in hydrometeorology

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, R. G.; Longo, M; A. L. S. Swann; Zhang, K.; Levine, N. M.; Moorcroft, P. R.; R. L. Bras

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how landuse changes over northern South America, driven by human interventions, have affected the regional patterns of hydrology. Comparisons are made to scenarios where no human disturbance of the regional vegetation is assumed. A numerical model of the terrestrial biosphere (Ecosystem Demography Model 2 – ED2) is combined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System – BRAMS) to investigate how land conve...

  17. Regionalisation of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening improves compliance with guidelines: an audit of ROP screening in the Northern Region of England

    OpenAIRE

    Ziakas, N; Cottrell, D; Milligan, D; Pennefather, P; Bamashmus, M.; Clarke, M.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—This project was designed to determine whether a coordinated regional strategy can improve the implementation of national guidelines for screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to identify causes for failure of compliance.
METHODS—Retrospective case note audit relating to two periods, 1990-1 and 1994, involving all 17 neonatal intensive care units in the Northern Region of England. Between the two periods, a regional strategy was instituted in an endeavour to improve complian...

  18. Management of Ranger uranium mine waters, Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, development and operation of the Ranger Uranium Mine's water management system are discussed. The discharge standards for release of excess mine water to Magela Creek are described and mine water quality data presented. It can be confidently concluded that controlled release will not cause detriment to the aquatic ecosystems of the Kakadu region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. [Obstetrical activity of a regional hospital center in the northern Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L

    1989-05-01

    Rupture of the uterus remains, in some countries, a frequent occurrence. This report of the obstetrical activity of a Regional Hospital Center in the Ivory Coast, demonstrates all the difficulties of a disconcerting pathology for visiting physicians, not used to this type of accident in Europe. PMID:2544976

  20. Ideas and perspectives: why Holocene thermokarst sediments of the Yedoma region do not increase the northern peatland carbon pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, G.; Kuhry, P.; Tarnocai, C.

    2015-11-01

    Permafrost deposits in the Beringian Yedoma region store large amounts of organic carbon (OC). Walter Anthony et al. (2014) describe a previously unrecognized pool of 159 Pg OC accumulated in Holocene thermokarst sediments deposited in Yedoma region alases (thermokarst depressions). They claim that these alas sediments increase the previously recognized circumpolar permafrost peat OC pool by 50 %. It is stated that previous integrated studies of the permafrost OC pool have failed to account for these deposits because the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) is biased towards non-alas field sites and that the soil maps used in the NCSCD underestimate coverage of organic permafrost soils. Here we evaluate these statements against a brief literature review, existing datasets on Yedoma region soil OC storage and independent field-based and geospatial datasets of peat soil distribution in the Siberian Yedoma region. Our findings are summarised in three main points. Firstly, the sediments described by Walter Anthony et al. are primarily mineral lake sediments and do not match widely used international scientific definitions of peat or organic soils. They can therefore not be considered an addition to the circumpolar peat carbon pool. Secondly, independent field data and geospatial analyses show that the Siberian Yedoma regions is dominated by mineral soils, not peatlands. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest any systematic bias in the NCSCD field data or maps. Thirdly, there is spatial overlap between these Holocene thermokarst sediments and previous estimates of permafrost soil and sediment OC stocks. These carbon stocks were already accounted for by previous studies and cannot be added to the permafrost OC count. We suggest that statements made in Walter Anthony et al. (2014) resulted from misunderstandings caused by conflicting definitions and terminologies across different geoscientific disciplines. A careful cross-disciplinary review of terminologies

  1. Mesoscale primary production and bio-optical variability off Antofagasta (23-24º S during the transition to El Niño 1997-1998 Variabilidad de la producción primaria y bio-óptica a mesoescala frente a las costas de Antofagasta (23-24º S durante la transición a El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMITA PIZARRO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of primary production (PP, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and the photosynthetic parameters were studied off Antofagasta, Chile (23-24ºS, 70-72º W during austral summer and winter. Between cruises (January and July 1997, significant changes occurred in the water column, including higher temperatures in the euphotic zone (Zeu deepening of thermocline below Zeu, an increase of oxygen concentration and the intrusion of Subtropical Waters with potential limitation of nutrients. These strong physical anomalies due to the transition period of El Niño 1997-1998 appeared in this study area during March 1997. During the July cruise, the El Niño event 1997-1998 was in the middle of its development (IOS-2. The hypothesis that chlorophyll-a concentrations and primary production differ significantly in the coastal areas in the Antofagasta region due to year-round coastal upwelling was tested in this study. Photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-E experiments were performed daily, using simulated in situ incubations with samples collected within the Zeu. Also in vitro incubations were done at several selected stations. For results analyses, stations were pooled in coastal and oceanic sites according to distance from the narrow shelf and differential influence of local upwelling. Integrated Chl-a values during both cruises were significantly higher at the coastal stations, and since between cruises no differences were found, a mean value of 44 mg Chl-a m-2 can be reported for the coastal area. Daily PP values were significantly different in space and time (P Durante el verano e invierno austral, se estudió la variabilidad espacial de la producción primaria (PP, clorofila-a (Cl-a y los parámetros fotosintéticos en las costas de Antofagasta, Chile (23-24º S, 70-72º O. Entre ambos cruceros (enero y julio 1997 hubo cambios significativos en la columna de agua, los que incluyeron aumento de la temperatura en la zona eufótica (Zeu, profundizaci

  2. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    examination of pesticide waste disposal practices on over 150 farms in Northern Oman • Identification of gaps in current government policy towards waste disposal • Identification of mechanisms of knowledge diffusion within the farming community concerning waste disposal practices • Contrasting behaviour between farmers within a local association and those not in the association • Weakness of the local state extension service is bridged by the activities of the farmers association.

  3. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    examination of pesticide waste disposal practices on over 150 farms in Northern Oman • Identification of gaps in current government policy towards waste disposal • Identification of mechanisms of knowledge diffusion within the farming community concerning waste disposal practices • Contrasting behaviour between farmers within a local association and those not in the association • Weakness of the local state extension service is bridged by the activities of the farmers association

  4. Łódź Region and its Northern Vicinity under Vistulian Glaciation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview of palaeogeographical findings of the last glacial period (MIS 5d-MIS 2 has been given for the Łódź region. Processes which influenced the area outside of ice-sheet margin are presented with respect to space and time, as predominantly driven by different types of periglacial environment. Attention was paid to leading accumulative and erosional processes and resulting landforms, still well-pronounced in the landscape. Recently, the picture of the area discussed, during the Vistulian was completed and identified was the mechanism of the LGM ice-sheet advance onto the Płock lobe. Borderline location of the Łódź region offers comprehensive research on the time and processes and determines its significance on the geomorphological map of Poland.

  5. The Northern Regional Programme for the acceptance testing of X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1984 the Regional Medical Physics Department has participated in a regional acceptance testing programme for all X-ray equipment from mobile units to computed tomography scanners. The organizational and radiation physics aspects of the programme are described. Three levels of tests are performed by physicists: the first on installation, the second after 3 months, and the final visit just prior to the end of the manufacturer's warranty. The second test is only performed if any aspect of performance requires rechecking as a result of the first visit. Acceptance test protocols are based on those published by the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine. Details of the limiting values for the acceptance test measurements are given. The results of the programme are discussed. In some instances the testing has resulted in modifications to the design and construction of X-ray equipment. Acceptance testing is important in determining a baseline standard of performance against which routine quality assurance may be assessed. (author)

  6. The current state of birth outcome and birth defect surveillance in northern regions of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Arbour, Laura; Melnikov, Vladimir; McIntosh, Sarah; Olsen, Britta; Osborne, Geraldine; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Little is known about the rates of congenital anomalies in the northernmost regions of the world. As in other parts of the world, it is crucial to assess the relative rates and trends of adverse birth outcomes and birth defects, as indicators of population health and to develop public health strategies for prevention. The aim of this review is to catalogue existing and developing birth outcome and birth defect surveillance within and around the geographic jurisdiction of the Inter...

  7. Changes on Northern Geopolitics - from a frontier (of confrontation) to a region (of peace)

    OpenAIRE

    Heininen, Lassi

    2010-01-01

    At the early-2010s there are two main discourses on a state and geopolitical situation of the Arctic Region: First, that of stability and peacefulness based on institutionalized cooperation across borders by the eight Arctic states and non-states actors. Second, that of a ‘race' of natural resources and emerging conflicts, and an emphasis of state sovereignty and national interests by the five littoral states. The former discourse is (still) much the mainstream discourse, while the latter one...

  8. Local and regional climatic controls on high-resolution rainfall and cave dripwater oxygen isotopes in northern Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, J. W.; Cobb, K. M.; Adkins, J. F.; Sodemann, H.; Clark, B.; Tuen, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between climate variability and rainfall isotopic variability is poorly constrained, especially in the tropics, where many key high-resolution paleoclimate records rely on past rainfall isotopes as proxies for hydroclimate. Multi-year, high-resolution monitoring studies of modern rainfall isotopes are needed in order to inform interpretations of isotope-based paleoclimate reconstructions, yet such studies are rarely undertaken. Here we present a daily-resolved, 5-yr-long timeseries of rainfall oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and 3-yr-long timeseries of bi-weekly dripwater δ18O from Gunung Mulu National Park, located in northern Borneo (4° N, 114° E), which we compare to instrumental records of local precipitation amount as well as globally-gridded climate variables. Daily variations in rainfall δ18O, ranging from +0.5 to -18.5‰, exhibit an inverse relationship with daily local precipitation amount (R = -0.20, p tracks a 2-3-month average of the rainfall δ18O timeseries, with a 1-2 month lag evident in the dripwaters. There is no difference in the absolute value of rainfall δ18O and dripwater δ18O over the study period, suggesting that evaporation is not an important source of dripwater δ18O variability in the Mulu karst system. We conclude that the three Mulu drips studied here are characterized by residence times of 2-3 months, over which time appreciable mixing occurs in the epikarst. While the 6‰ interannual variations of Mulu rainfall δ18O are largely preserved in both the fast [35 drips per minute (dpm)] and slow (7 dpm) dripping sites in Wind Cave, signal amplitude is reduced to approximately 3‰ at the moderate (14 dpm) dripping site in Lang's Cave. Overall, our study illustrates the great potential to reconstruct past ENSO variability from sufficiently fast-growing northern Borneo stalagmites, and more generally, strongly supports the interpretation of northern Borneo stalagmite δ18O records as proxies for regional hydroclimate

  9. Discovery of the Jabiluka uranium deposits, East Alligator River Region, Northern Territory of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jabiluka One and Two uranium deposits occur in Lower Proterozoic metasediments of the Cahill Formation. The observed part of the Cahill Formation exhibits four horizons which are favourable hosts for uranium mineralization. The host rocks are mainly chlorite and/or graphite schists and their brecciated equivalents which have undergone initial regional prograde metamorphism to amphibolite facies, then retrograde metamorphism to greenschist facies. Mineralization consists of uraninite, mainly filling open spaces and to a lesser extent in disseminated form. Chlorite alteration is intimately associated with the uranium mineralization. A portion of the Jabiluka Two deposit contains economic concentrations of gold. Although the deposits are generally stratabound, structural preparation appears to be the most significant ore control on a local scale. The Jabiluka case history illustrates an effective philosophy which was successful in exploration for stratabound uranium deposits in the East Alligator River Region. This philosophy encompassed the following points: (a) The value of regional appraisals in selection of a property; (b) The recognition of the detection limits of airborne radiometric surveys; (c) The importance of ground prospecting for low-order point-source radiometric anomalies which cannot be detected by airborne survey; (d) The importance of evaluating all anomalies and the flexibility to change priorities as further exploration results are obtained; (e) The necessity of establishing the controls on the mineralization before proceeding with further exploration; (f) The necessity of exploring extensions of favourable lithologies to test for periodicity of mineralization even where cover precludes surface expression; and (g) The desirability for modification of exploration techniques on different types of anomalies

  10. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  11. Last interglacial marine environments in the White Sea region, northern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Funder, Svend; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig;

    2006-01-01

    water was stronger and probably penetrated further eastwards than at present. The molluscs, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifers reflect the warmer than present conditions and that the optimum temperature occurred at the time of the early Eemian global sea-level rise. Around 128 kyr BP, the eustatic.......5 kyr in age). The Late Saalian deglaciation was characterized by Arctic conditions, but a few centuries into the Eemian the Gulf Stream System carried warm Atlantic water into the region. At 129.8 kyr BP there was a marked increase in the influx of Atlantic water and the advection of warm Atlantic...

  12. Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Particles Distribution and Their Radiative Feedback over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Y.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.

    2015-12-01

    Stretching from southern boundary of Sahara to the equator and expanding west to east from Atlantic Ocean coasts to the India Ocean coasts, the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region has been subject to intense biomass burning. Comprised of savanna, shrub, tropical forest and a number of agricultural crops, the extensive fires burn belt covers central and south of NSSA during dry season (from October to March) contributes to one of the highest biomass burning rate per km2 in the world. Due to smoke particles' absorption effects of solar radiation, they can modify the surface and atmosphere temperature and thus change atmospheric stability, height of the boundary layer, regional atmospheric circulation, evaporation rate, cloud formation, and precipitation. Hence, smoke particles emitted from biomass burning over NSSA region has a significant influence to the air quality, weather and climate variability. In this study, the first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) emissions of several smoke constituents including light-absorbing organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) are applied to a state-of-science meteorology-chemistry model as NOAA Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We analyzed WRF-Chem simulations of surface and vertical distribution of various pollutants and their direct radiative effects in conjunction with satellite observation data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) to strengthen the importance of combining space measured emission products like FEER.v1 emission inventory with mesoscale model over intense biomass burning region, especially in area where ground-based air-quality and radiation-related observations are limited or absent.

  13. Comparing ape densities and habitats in northern Congo: surveys of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in the Odzala and Ndoki regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Céline; Sanz, Crickette; Morgan, David; Onononga, Jean-Robert; Laporte, Nadine; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2008-05-01

    The conservation status of western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees in western equatorial Africa remains largely speculative because many remote areas have never been surveyed and the impact of emergent diseases in the region has not been well documented. In this study, we compared ape densities and habitats in the Lokoué study area in Odzala National Park and the Goualougo Triangle in Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in northern Republic of Congo. Both of these sites have long been considered strongholds for the conservation of chimpanzees and gorillas, but supposedly differ in vegetative composition and relative ape abundance. We compared habitats between these sites using conventional ground surveys and classified Landsat-7 ETM+ satellite images. We present density estimates via both standing-crop and marked-nest methods for the first time for sympatric apes of the Congo Basin. The marked-nest method was effective in depicting chimpanzee densities, but underestimated gorilla densities at both sites. Marked-nest surveys also revealed a dramatic decline in the ape population of Lokoué which coincided with a local Ebola epidemic. Normal baseline fluctuations in ape nest encounter rates during the repeated passages of marked-nest surveys were clearly distinguishable from a 80% decline in ape nest encounter rates at Lokoué. Our results showed that ape densities, habitat composition, and population dynamics differed between these populations in northern Congo. We emphasize the importance of intensifying monitoring efforts and further refinement of ape survey methods, as our results indicated that even the largest remaining ape populations in intact and protected forests are susceptible to sudden and dramatic declines. PMID:18176937

  14. The origin of regional ecological problems within the northern Tyumen Oblast, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northwestern areas of the Western Siberia are subjected to intensive anthropogenic pressure, mainly by the oil and gas extraction industries, reindeer herding, hunting, and fishing. Localized activities, rather than regional-scale activities have led to the degradation of the natural environment on a regional scale. These processes include (1) transfer of pollutants by water and atmosphere; (2) expansion and merging of oil and gas development sites; (3) degradation of the key wildlife habitats (reproduction sites of fish, animals, birds, migration routes, etc.); and (4) more intensive use of remaining pastures and hunting areas by the indigenous population due to loss of large areas of pasture and hunting territories to the oil and gas industries. Analysis of the existing situation within northwest Siberia suggests that in the future, the situation will continue to worsen unless there is significant improvement in land-use management and technology of oil and gas industry. Degradation processes may also be exacerbated by global warming. Concurrently local changes themselves may lead to negative changes on the global scale

  15. Preliminary results of SIB-IMRT in head and neck cancers: Report from a regional cancer center in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Santam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Intensity-modulated radiotherapy using simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT is an attractive method for the treatment of head and neck cancers with sparing of the salivary function. Aims : To assess the feasibility, toxicity, and tumor control using SIB-IMRT in locally advanced head and neck cancers in the Indian setting. Settings and Design : The study was conducted in a regional cancer center in northern India. A review of the treatment result of the first 20 patients is presented. Methods and Materials : SIB-IMRT was planned for 20 patients-14 patients were treated with the SIB-72 schedule delivering a dose of 72 Gy, 66 Gy, and 57 Gy to the PTV GTV , PTV CTV1 , and PTV CTV2 in 33 fractions. Six patients were treated with the SIB-66 schedule delivering 66 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy to the above-mentioned volumes in 30 fractions. Patients were monitored for toxicity using the CTCAE v 3.0 criteria. Descriptive analysis of toxicity and actuarial estimates of the loco-regional control and survival are presented. Results : Grade III mucositis was seen in 65% patients. None of the patients had Grade III dermatitis. The projected 2-year overall survival was 95%. Conclusion : SIB-IMRT schedules evaluated were found to be safe and effective and are being subjected to further prospective studies.

  16. Mining in the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia: Assessing potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to surface water contamination arising from uranium mining activities in the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) of northern Australia, and a program of research and monitoring that must assess the potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health. The program of assessing effects on aquatic ecosystems involves a four-tiered approach including the derivation of local water quality guideline trigger values, direct toxicity assessment of mine waters prior to their release, creekside or in situ monitoring for early warning of adverse effects during mine water release, and longer-term monitoring of macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Bioaccumulation in aquatic biota is also assessed, and is an issue of importance not only to ecosystem health, but also to the health of local Aboriginal people. The aquatic animals they consume represent potential sources of radiological dose, and as a result, a major component of the program to assess potential effects on human health is the prediction of doses to Aboriginal people living downstream of mining activities. Acknowledging the assumptions and uncertainties, the calculation of concentration factors for local aquatic (and other) food sources allows the prediction of potential radiological exposure to people following hypothetical mine water releases. The approaches described form the basis of best-practice protocols that are relevant at both regional and national levels

  17. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631

  18. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided.

  19. Regional demographic trends from long-term studies of saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) across the northern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Ten saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) populations in the northern Sonoran Desert were monitored from 1959 to 2005 to discriminate how climate influences plant growth, abundance, reproductive potential, survivorship, age structure and regeneration trends. Thousands of saguaros were measured to determine site-specific growth rates and survivorship through time. Observed growth rates were used to predict the ages of saguaros and reconstruct local and regional regeneration patterns back to the late 18th century. Both growth rates and degree of branching generally tracked temperature and moisture gradients. Site-specific age-height models explained 89-97% of variance in observed ages, with a slope of nearly one. Regeneration was more consistent at sites in the western (hotter/drier) than eastern (cooler/wetter) sites, which exhibited clear multidecadal variability in regeneration rates. Averaged across the region, saguaro regeneration rates were highest from 1780 to 1860, coincident with wet conditions and high Pinus ponderosa recruitment in the highlands. Milder and wetter winters and protection from livestock grazing likely promoted late 20th century regeneration surges at some sites. Predictions of saguaro population dynamics in the 21st century likely will be confounded by the saguaro's episodic and asynchronous regeneration, continued urbanization, ongoing grass invasions and associated wildfires, and changing climate.

  20. Amplified warming projections for high altitude regions of the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes from CMIP5 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use output from global climate models available from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios to investigate whether the projected warming in mountains by the end of the 21st century is significantly different from that in low elevation regions. To remove the effects of latitudinal variation in warming rates, we focus on seasonal changes in the mid-latitude band of the northern hemisphere between 27.5° N and 40° N, where the two major mountain systems are the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayas in Asia and the Rocky Mountains in the United States. Results from the multi-model ensemble indicate that warming rates in mountains will be enhanced relative to non-mountain regions at the same latitude, particularly during the cold season. The strongest correlations of enhanced warming with elevation are obtained for the daily minimum temperature during winter, with the largest increases found for the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayas. The model projections indicate that this occurs, in part, because of proportionally greater increases in downward longwave radiation at higher elevations in response to increases in water vapor. The mechanisms for enhanced increases in winter and spring maximum temperatures in the Rockies appear to be influenced more by increases in surface absorption of solar radiation owing to a reduced snow cover. Furthermore, the amplification of warming with elevation is greater for a higher greenhouse gas emission scenario. (letter)

  1. Hydrogeological framework of the northern Draa-Catchment, Morocco: Results of local and regional scale investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research) project: 'Global change of the water cycle', IMPETUS West Africa focuses on water as a scarce resource. IMPETUS is an interdisciplinary and application-orientated approach from a research group of the universities Bonn and Cologne. As one of the investigation areas the Draa-Catchment in Morocco has been selected. Within the overall goal of IMPETUS: 'An integrated approach to the efficient management of scarce water resources' groundwater is of significant importance. In order to develop a conceptional hydrogeological model of the Draa-Catchment different scale approaches have been applied. Together with other disciplines investigations have been carried out in local test sites representative for geological and hydrological catchment areas and situated along a gradient of aridity and elevation. Based on natural labeling combined with classical hydrogeological and hydrological investigations for those testsites storage and discharge behavior of the various geological units have been defined. Besides local scale (IMPETUS test sites) regional scale approach was selected to understand the hydrogeological framework. The purpose of local scale investigation is to define the hydrogeological characteristics of each IMPETUS's test site commonly selected as a representative for the specific geological areas of the Draa catchment. In a further step this side specific information will be applied to a hydrogeological regional scale model. Basic requirements for a reliable hydrogeologic characterization are information on the geological structure as well as on the groundwater quantity/quality including hydrodynamics. Based on detailed geological mapping in the framework of master thesis geological and structural map, geological profiles and lithological description are available for four testsites

  2. Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986-88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0744-2.0954 and 0.8413-0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0856-2.1397 and 0.8554-0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.

  3. The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2014-07-24

    Background:Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Methodology/Principal Findings:Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters.Conclusions/Significance:The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  4. Picos de Europa National and Regional parks (Northern Spain): the karst underground landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst caves represent an environmental with a high value from the Geoheritage and Geodiversity points of view given by hidden underground landscape practically reserved to the speleologists. Nevertheless, cave surveys, 3d models of caves and DEMs, and pictures can be used to approach the endokarst geoheritage characterization. The Picos de Europa National and Regional parks include the 14% of World's Deepest Caves (>1 km depth); moreover these parks shows a high environmental value related with seven protection figures: Biosphere Reserve, Special Protection Area, the Site of Community Importance, and four Natural Monument. The aim of this work is to present the Geoheritage values of the underground landscape of the Picos de Europa National and Regional parks. These parks involve several alpine karst massifs up to 700 km2 and 2,600 m asl, as the Picos de Europa mountains (declared Global Geosite by its geomorphological interest), the Mampodre Massif, and the Peñas Pintas and Yordas peaks (sited in Riaño dam area). The alpine karst involves a large underground landscape formed by more than 3,700 epigenic caves with 403 km of conduits. The 95 % of the cave conduits are located in the Picos de Europa mountains and correspond to caves up to 18.9 km length and 1.6 km depth; the 5 % of cave conduits are sited in other small karst areas and include caves up to 1.5 km length and 200 m depth. The karst caves present high natural, scientific and cultural values. The natural value corresponds to the singularity and the spectacular vertical development of the caves and a very high Geodiversity of cave features. The karst shows a high concentration of deep caves (81 caves deeper than 500 m) that is twice higher than the concentration of other karst areas, as Arabika Massif (Western Caucasus). The natural value is mainly related to the presence of geomorphological and hydrogeological features, highlighting high vadose canyons and shafts, old phreatic and epiphreatic conduits

  5. Prevalence of genotype D in chronic liver disease patients with occult HBV infection in northern region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meher Rizvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Etiology of nearly 30% cases of chronic viral hepatitis remains undetected. Occult HBV infection (OBI has emerged as an important clinical entity in this scenario. Apart from prevalence and clinical outcome of OBI patients genotype was determined in northern region of India. Materials and Methods: A total of 847 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD were screened for common viral etiologies and others serological markers of HBV. Amplification of surface, precore and polymerase genes of HBV was performed in patients negative for other etiologies. Genotyping and sequencing of the precore region was performed for OBI cases. Results: Twenty-nine (7.61% cases of OBI were identifiedof which 9 had chronic liver disease (CHD, 11 liver cirrhosis (LC and 9 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Majority of OBI cases were detected by amplification of surface gene 26 (89.6%, followed by pre-core gene 12 (41.3%. Their liver functions tests were significantly deranged in comparison to overt HBV cases. IgG anti HBc was present in 8 (27.6% OBI cases. Mutation was observed in 8 (32% in pre-core region at nt. 1896 of overt HBV cases. Genotype D was the predominant genotype. In conclusion: OBI in our study was characterized by predominance of genotype D and more severe clinical and biochemical profile in comparison to overt HBV. IgG anti HBc positivity could be utilized as a marker of OBI. We recommend use of sensitive nested PCR for diagnosis of OBI, amplifying at least surface and precore gene.

  6. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-05-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?-9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900-13,800 and 12,700-9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  7. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

  8. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  9. Hydrogeological framework of the northern Draa-catchment, Morocco: Results of local and regional scale investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the framework of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Research) project 'Global change of the water cycle', IMPETUS West Africa focuses on water as a scarce resource. IMPETUS is an interdisciplinary and application-orientated approach from a research group of the universities Bonn and Cologne. As one of the investigation areas the Draa-Catchment in Morocco has been selected. Within the overall goal of IMPETUS: 'An integrated approach to the efficient management of scarce water resources' groundwater is of significant importance. In order to develop a conceptional hydrogeological model of the Draa-Catchment different scale approaches have been applied. Together with other disciplines investigations have been carried out in local test sites representative for geological and hydrological catchment areas and situated along a gradient of aridity and elevation. Based on natural labeling combined with classical hydrogeological and hydrological investigations for those testsites storage and discharge behavior of the various geological units have been defined. Besides local scale (IMPETUS test sites) regional scale approach was selected to understand the hydrogeological framework. The purpose of local scale investigation is to define the hydrogeological characteristics of each IMPETUS's test site commonly selected as a representative for the specific geological areas of the Draa catchment. In a further step this side specific information will be applied to a hydrogeological regional scale model. Basic requirements for a reliable hydrogeologic characterization are information on the geological structure as well as on the groundwater quantity/quality including hydrodynamics. Based on detailed geological mapping in the framework of master thesis geological and structural maps (1 : 25,000), geological profiles and lithological description are available for four testsites. Accompanied by chemical and environmental isotope measurements, carried out during

  10. Measuring Capacity for Resilience among Coastal Counties of the US Northern Gulf of Mexico Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Margaret A.; Lam, Nina S. N.; Baker, Ariele

    2016-01-01

    Many have voiced concern about the long-term survival of coastal communities in the face of increasingly intense storms and sea level rise. In this study we select indicators of key theoretical concepts from the social-ecological resilience literature, aggregate those indicators into a resilience-capacity index, and calculate an index score for each of the 52 coastal counties of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. Building upon Cutter’s Social Vulnerability Index work [1], we use Factor Analysis to combine 43 variables measuring demographics, social capital, economic resources, local government actions, and environmental conditions within the counties. Then, we map the counties’ scores to show the spatial distribution of resilience capacities. The counties identified as having the highest resilience capacities include the suburban areas near New Orleans, Louisiana and Tampa, Florida, and the growing beach-tourist communities of Alabama and central Florida. Also, we examine whether those counties more active in oil and gas development and production, part of the region’s “energy coast”, have greater capacity for resilience than other counties in the region. Correlation analyses between the resilience-capacity index scores and two measures of oil and gas industry activity (total employment and number of business establishments within five industry categories) yielded no statistically significant associations. By aggregating a range of important contextual variables into a single index, the study demonstrates a useful approach for the more systematic examination and comparison of exposure, vulnerability and capacity for resilience among coastal communities.

  11. Study of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus in Central and Northern Regions of Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jafarpour

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of dispersion of alfalfa mosaic virus (ALMV infection based on DAS-ELISA indicated that the fields of Alfalfa, potatoes and tomatoes from Chenaran, Ghochan, Shirvan, Mashhad, Neishaboor and Torbat Heydarieh were infected with the virus. The Statistical analysis indicated that the amount of infection did not differ in the surveyed regions and total mean of infection was 53 percent. The samples collected from the Alfalfa field of Mashhad was propagated in the Nicotiana tabacum L.cv Samsun and then virus was purified. The Mechanical inoculation of this isolate of the alfalfa mosaic virus (ALMV induced the local lesion in Chenopodium quinoa,C. amaranticolor,Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris cv Redkidney and the systemic vein clearing and mosaic in Nicotiana glutinosa, N. tabacum cv. Samsun, Ocimum basilicum, Cicer arietinum and Lycopersicon esculentum. In the case of the infected Cucumis sativus, no symptoms was observed. ALMV was purified by the method of the kaiser and Robertson(1976. The virus yield was 11/05 mg per 100g of infected tissue on the basis of serological properties. This isolate of ALMV is similar to the American isolation in SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis,the molecular weight of the virus coat proteins were estimated at about 24000 daltons.in this regard,this isolation of ALMV is similar to the other isolates of ALMV reported elswhere.

  12. Propagation of coastally trapped waves in the Northern Benguela studied with hydrographic moorings and a regional circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Lydia; Junker, Tim; Mohrholz, Volker; Schmidt, Martin; van der Plas, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Upwelling in the Northern Benguela is mainly driven by local winds but nutrient and oxygen conditions on the shelf are largely determined by the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) through the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF). The poleward spreading of tropical waters is related to the propagation of Kelvin and continental shelf waves originating from the Equatorial Atlantic and bending poleward at the African coast. The strength of this remote forcing is thought to be especially relevant to the interannual variability of the upwelling system. We test the hypothesis that the poleward spreading of tropical water is driven by the combined action of both I) coastally trapped waves of equatorial origin bringing tropical water to the ABF zone and II) locally forced waves generating the undercurrent which advects SACW onto the shelf. Signals of poleward propagating waves were found in satellite altimeter data up to 12°S. To detect the propagation of coastally trapped waves further south in-situ measurements have been conducted. Three hydrographic moorings equipped inter alia with ADCPs have been deployed and maintained within the framework of the projects GENUS, SACUS and PREFACE. For the first time, simultaneous current measurements on the Namibian shelf have been realized at three different positions. The moorings are located in the Cunene cell, the Northern Namibian cell and the Central Namibian cell. By means of a regional circulation model based on MOM the propagation of coastally trapped waves are investigated with high spatial and temporal resolution (about 8km along the Namibian coast, 2-hour averages). It has been demonstrated that modelled meridional transports correspond well with long term measurements obtained by a mooring off Walvis Bay. The power spectral density shows sharp peaks for the tidal and inertial frequencies. A large proportion of kinetic energy accounts for the sub-inertial frequency range. Meridional transport signals were found to

  13. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of 238U, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. 238U, 232Th and 40K activities range 24–231, 20–70, and 242–1434 Bq kg−1 respectively. The geographic distribution of 238U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of 238U than of 232Th. The 238U activities become lower than 232Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. 137Cs activity ranges 0.4–86.8 kBq m−2. The lowest activity of 137Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The 137Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to 137Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. - Highlights: • A monitoring campaign of agricultural soils was carried out in Lombardia, Italy. • 156 topsoils were sampled according to the European standard procedure LUCAS.

  14. Compositional Variations of Primary Basalts in the Poison Lake Chain, Lassen Region of Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G. T.; Teasdale, R.; Wenner, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    useful for recognizing similar petrogenetic processes in other regions of the Cascades arc.

  15. Mecanismo de emplazamiento del Plutón Sierra de Varas Norte, Región de Antofagasta, Chile Emplacement mechanism of the Sierra de Varas Norte Pluton, Antofagasta Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Niemeyer

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El Plutón Sierra de Varas Norte es un cuerpo intrusivo de forma elíptica en planta (12x8 km y de embudo en perfil, formado , principalmente, por tonalitas de carácter calcoalcalino. Se emplazó durante el Carbonífero tardío en la Formación Sierra de Varas de edad pennsylvaniana a ¿pérmica?. Presenta una foliación magmática concéntrica con fuerte manteo, realzada por `schlieren', diques sinplutónicos estrangulados y enclaves microdioríticos. Los enclaves microdioríticos son más abundantes en el borde del plutón y se interpretan como genéticamente ligados con los diques. La forma de los enclaves es la de un elipsoide oblado dado por un parámetro de Flinn k=0,5 con eje X mayor que el eje Y, cuyo plano XY está contenido en la foliación magmática. La deformación es más intensa hacia el borde del plutón, lo cual señala que ésta se realizó, en gran parte, por un aplastamiento lateral. El elipsoide deducido a partir de la deformación de oncolitos contenidos en la roca de caja coincide en forma,orientación y parámetro de Flinn k=0,5 con aquél de los enclaves. El plegamiento, el clivaje y el metamorfismo de contacto en la Formación Sierra de Varas aumentan en intensidad hacia el contacto con el plutón, lo cual refuerza la idea de un aplastamiento lateral. Se interpretan las estructuras del plutón y de la roca de caja como consecuencia de una deformación concomitante derivada del emplazamiento forzado por `ballooning' del primero, ocurrido en niveles superficiales de la corteza continental. La forma oblada alargada del elipsoide de deformación (X mayor que Y, así como el buzamiento de la lineación en la roca de caja hacia el centro del plutón, se relacionarían con la conservación de la `memoria' de un ascenso diapíricoThe Sierra de Varas Norte pluton is a tonalitic intrusive body with an elliptical shape on the horizontal, it has a 12 km long axis by a recostructed 8 km width. It has a funnel shape in vertical section and is calcalkaline in composition. It was emplaced during the Late Carboniferous into a stratigraphic succession of Pennsylvanian to Permian? age which belongs to the Sierra de Varas Formation. The pluton contains a concentric, steeply inclined magmatic foliation enhanced by concordant 'schlieren', strangled synplutonic microdioritic dykes and microdioritic enclaves. The enclaves are more abundant towards the pluton margin and they are probably related to the dykes. Ellipticity measurements on the enclaves yield an oblated strain ellipsoid with Flinn parameter k=0,5, characterized by an X axis longer than the Y axes, with the XY plane contained in the magmatic foliation. In the deformed country rock an oblate strain ellipsoid also with Flinn parameter k=0,5 was obtained from deformed oncolites. The folding, axial plane cleavage and contact metamorphism in the country rock are more intense towards the contact with the pluton. This strongly suggests a mostly lateral flattening. The pluton and the country rock fabrics are interpreted to be concurrent and derived from a ballooning forceful emplacement of the pluton in shallow levels of the continental crust. The stretched oblate form of the strain ellipsoid (X longer than Y, and also the plunge towards the centre of the pluton of the stretching lineation in the country rock , suggest that the pluton-country rock system retained the memory of a diapiric ascent

  16. Ideas and perspectives: Holocene thermokarst sediments of the Yedoma permafrost region do not increase the northern peatland carbon pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, Gustaf; Kuhry, Peter; Tarnocai, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost deposits in the Beringian Yedoma region store large amounts of organic carbon (OC). Walter Anthony et al. (2014) describe a previously unrecognized pool of 159 Pg OC accumulated in Holocene thermokarst sediments deposited in Yedoma region alases (thermokarst depressions). They claim that these alas sediments increase the previously recognized circumpolar permafrost peat OC pool by 50 %. It is stated that previous integrated studies of the permafrost OC pool have failed to account for these deposits because the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) is biased towards non-alas field sites and that the soil maps used in the NCSCD underestimate coverage of organic permafrost soils. Here we evaluate these statements against a brief literature review, existing data sets on Yedoma region soil OC storage and independent field-based and geospatial data sets of peat soil distribution in the Siberian Yedoma region. Our findings are summarized in three main points. Firstly, the sediments described by Walter Anthony et al. (2014) are primarily mineral lake sediments and do not match widely used international scientific definitions of peat or organic soils. They can therefore not be considered an addition to the circumpolar peat carbon pool. We also emphasize that a clear distinction between mineral and organic soil types is important since they show very different vulnerability trajectories under climate change. Secondly, independent field data and geospatial analyses show that the Siberian Yedoma region is dominated by mineral soils, not peatlands. Thus, there is no evidence to suggest any systematic bias in the NCSCD field data or maps. Thirdly, there is spatial overlap between these Holocene thermokarst sediments and previous estimates of permafrost soil and sediment OC stocks. These carbon stocks were already accounted for by previous studies and they do not significantly increase the known circumpolar OC pool. We suggest that these inaccurate

  17. Hydrological Modeling in Northern Tunisia with Regional Climate Model Outputs: Performance Evaluation and Bias-Correction in Present Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Foughali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the performance of a hydrological balance model in a watershed located in northern Tunisia (wadi Sejnane, 378 km2 in present climate conditions using input variables provided by four regional climate models. A modified version (MBBH of the lumped and single layer surface model BBH (Bucket with Bottom Hole model, in which pedo-transfer parameters estimated using watershed physiographic characteristics are introduced is adopted to simulate the water balance components. Only two parameters representing respectively the water retention capacity of the soil and the vegetation resistance to evapotranspiration are calibrated using rainfall-runoff data. The evaluation criterions for the MBBH model calibration are: relative bias, mean square error and the ratio of mean actual evapotranspiration to mean potential evapotranspiration. Daily air temperature, rainfall and runoff observations are available from 1960 to 1984. The period 1960–1971 is selected for calibration while the period 1972–1984 is chosen for validation. Air temperature and precipitation series are provided by four regional climate models (DMI, ARP, SMH and ICT from the European program ENSEMBLES, forced by two global climate models (GCM: ECHAM and ARPEGE. The regional climate model outputs (precipitation and air temperature are compared to the observations in terms of statistical distribution. The analysis was performed at the seasonal scale for precipitation. We found out that RCM precipitation must be corrected before being introduced as MBBH inputs. Thus, a non-parametric quantile-quantile bias correction method together with a dry day correction is employed. Finally, simulated runoff generated using corrected precipitation from the regional climate model SMH is found the most acceptable by comparison with runoff simulated using observed precipitation data, to reproduce the temporal variability of mean monthly runoff. The SMH model is the most accurate to

  18. EXAMINATION OF THE SOLVENCY OF ENTERPRISES DEALING WITH ACCOMMODATION SERVICE PROVIDING IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika FENYVES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of tourism, as an economic and social phenomenon is that it has become a leading sector of the Hungarian economy. The importance of this sector is faithfully reflected by the fact that tourism gives nearly 9% of the GDP. Of course, aim of the enterprises of this type is the liquidity as well i.e. to maintain the short-term solvency that is essential for the long-term successful and smooth operation. The other aim of enterprises is to be solvent for the long-term as well, furthermore, to increase the corporate value and to maximize the ownership value. In our treatise, we have carried out the financial analysis and bankruptcy prediction of those enterprises providing accommodation service which are the biggest from the point of view of employment in the Northern Great Plain region. We think that, due to seasonality, even greater emphasis shall be placed on this area where useful information can be obtained from and the results of bankruptcy model can also provide further useful information and ”problem alerts”.

  19. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote energy efficiency and emission reduction, the importance of improving building energy efficiency received sufficient attention from Chinese Government. The heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings of 0.15 billion m2 in northern heating regions of China was initiated in 2007 and completed successfully at the end of 2010. This article introduced the background and outline of the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan. Numerous achievements that received by retrofit such as environmental protection effect, improvement of indoor environment, improvement of heating system, investment guidance effect, promotion of relevant industries and increasing chances of employment were concluded. Valuable experience that acquired from the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan was also summarized in this article. By analyzing the main problems emerged in the past, pertinent suggestions were put forward to promote a larger scale and more efficient retrofit project in the period of 12th five-year plan. - Highlights: →Successful implementation of a retrofit project in China is introduced. → Significance of the project contributing to emission reduction is analyzed. →Achievements are summarized and future suggestions are put forward.

  20. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL ACARICIDES INDICATE RESISTANT POPULATIONS OF RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS IN NORTHERN REGION OF MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eckstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments. This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average 100 engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. The association cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos + citronellal showed satisfactory efficiency (> 95% in all the properties (mean 99.86% in properties, followed by trichlorfon (83.45%, amitraz (72.33%, neem oil (67.23% and cypermethrin (22.97%, which was not effective in any property. It indicates the use of the association cypermethrin +chlorpyrifos+ citronellal on evaluated properties for control of cattle tick effectively.

  1. Quantification and multivariate analysis of water erosion in the Mediterranean region. A case study of the Isser basin. northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggane, Houari; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the specifisity of erosion stems from a particularly contrasted climate, drought, and from summer and autumn severe thunderstorms. The process of erosion generates substantial loss of soil and affects any kind of crop. The adopted approach aims to establish regression models in order to highlight the relationship between solid and liquid flows at four measurement stations in the Isser catchement area, northern Ageria. The Power Model seems to explain this relationship. The quantification and temporal analysis of solid matter transport showed that the rates of erosion are high along the study area. The annual mean solid matter transport for the whole basin is about 2 200 t/km2.year, of which the main part is recorded in autumn during peak flows. The different factors involved in the process of water erosion are determined in advance in order to establish a model between the predictand variable, which is the specific erosion, and other predictors. Besides, a functional relationship has been highlighted between water erosion and the mean slope, the drainage density and the lithology index.

  2. Improving vehicle adaptability to the operating conditions of «smart» cities in the northern regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews a relevant problem of providing a higher quality of people’s living in the northern regions by the application of the modern technologies within transport in order to improve its environmental performance and efficiency. The aim of the research is to substantiate methods of increasing the adaptability of vehicles to variable low-temperature operating conditions based on a neural control system of preheating and maintaining the optimum temperature of technological fluids by SHF radiation and improving diesel fuel properties by introducing a multifunctional additive. It has been found that SHF radiation influences the physical and chemical parameters of diesel fuel, as well as the engine output parameters. SHF radiation results in a reduction of fuel consumption to 7%, smoke from the exhaust to 15%, and nitrogen oxide emission to 30%. A conclusion is made that using SHF radiation for technological fuel preheating is essential. An approach has been developed that improves low-temperature properties of diesel fuels and increases engine operation efficiency under severe climatic conditions by introducing a multifunctional additive. The additive will enable a significant decrease in fuel consumption under low-temperature operating conditions and a complex improvement of fuel properties.

  3. Flash Flood Prediction by Coupling KINEROS2 and HEC-RAS Models for Tropical Regions of Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quang Nguyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Northern Vietnam is a region prone to heavy flash flooding events. These often have devastating effects on the environment, cause economic damage and, in the worst case scenario, cost human lives. As their frequency and severity are likely to increase in the future, procedures have to be established to cope with this threat. As the prediction of potential flash floods represents one crucial element in this circumstance, we will present an approach that combines the two models KINEROS2 and HEC-RAS in order to accurately predict their occurrence. We used a documented event on 23 June 2011 in the Nam Khat and the larger adjacent Nam Kim watershed to calibrate the coupled model approach. Afterward, we evaluated the performance of the coupled models in predicting flow velocity (FV, water levels (WL, discharge (Q and streamflow power (P during the 3–5 days following the event, using two different precipitation datasets from the global spectral model (GSM and the high resolution model (HRM. Our results show that the estimated Q and WL closely matched observed data with a Nash–Sutcliffe simulation efficiency coefficient (NSE of around 0.93 and a coefficient of determination (R2 at above 0.96. The resulting analyses reveal strong relationships between river geometry and FV, WL and P. Although there were some minor errors in forecast results, the model-predicted Q and WL corresponded well to the gauged data.

  4. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  5. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  6. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies of groundwater in the middle voltaian aquifers of the Gushegu district of the Northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Musah; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Anim-Gyampo, Maxwell; Appenteng, Michael; Saka, David; Aidoo, Felix; Gampson, Enoch; Sarfo, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This work is to establish the hydrochemistry and origin of groundwater in some parts of the Gushegu district of the Northern Region of Ghana. Hydrochemical data from 19 groundwater and 7 rock samples have been used to evaluate water quality, water types, and sources of various ions as well as origin of the groundwater. The study results show that the quality of groundwater from the area is generally not good due to their fluoride (F-), bicarbonate (HCO3 -) and electrical conductivity (EC) concentrations. The F- contents of the groundwater have values as high as 1.97 mg/L, with 53 % of the groundwater having concentrations of F- exceeding the WHO recommended allowable limits. These high F- values have the potential of causing serious health problems such as kidney failure, dental and skeletal fluorosis, reproductive problem and reduction in intelligent quotient of consumers. A plot of Gibbs diagram reveals that rock weathering and precipitation are the major hydrogeochemical processes regulating the water chemistry of the study area. Petrographic thin-section analyses of rock samples identify minerals present to be muscovite, plagioclase feldspars, quartz, sericite and iron oxide. Stable isotope (18O and 2H) composition of the waters reveals that most of the groundwater is likely to be recharged from local precipitation, indicating their meteoric origin. Some samples, however, showed considerable evaporation.

  7. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  8. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  9. Quaternary glacial geomorphosites from the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Iberian Peninsula): the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    the Quaternary glaciations, especially after the last local glacial maximum. Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., García-Ruiz, J.M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Farias, P., Valero-Garcés, B., Moreno, A., Rico, M., Valcárcel, M., in press. A review of glacial geomorphology and chronology in northern Spain: timing and regional variability during the last glacial cycle. Geomorphology, doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.06.009. Serrano, E., González-Trueba, J.J., Pellitero, R., González-García, M., Gómez-Lende, M., in press. Quaternary glacial evolution in the Central Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain). Geomorphology, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.05.001. Research funded by the project CANDELA (CGL2012-31938) of the Spanish national research program in Earth Sciences and Hydric Resources (MICINN) and the project FC-11-PC-10-14 (FICYT-Asturias). L. Rodríguez-Rodríguez has developed her research under a grant of the Severo Ochoa Program (FICYT- Asturias).

  10. Soil carbon and plant diversity distribution at the farm level in the savannah region of Northern Togo (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-T. Sebastià

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In western Africa, soil organic matter is a source of fertility for food provision and a tool for climate mitigation. In the Savannah region, strong soil degradation linked to an increase in population threatens organic matter conservation and agricultural yield. Soil degradation is also expected to impact biodiversity and, with it, increase the vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services, including the storage of soil organic carbon. Studies of land use, plant species composition and soil fertility were conducted for a conservation project at a demonstration farm in Northern Togo (West Africa, host to various management regimes. Results showed a low organic matter content of the surface soil horizons, often around 0.5%. The highest values were found in a sacred forest within the farm (2.2%. Among crops, rice had the highest soil organic matter, around 1%. In a survey of grasslands, pastures showed the highest organic matter content, with vegetation composition differing from grazed fallows and abandoned grasslands. Plant species richness showed a positive relationship with soil organic matter (R2adj=41.2%, but only by the end of the wet season, when species richness was also highest. Sampling date had a strong effect on vegetation composition. Results showed a strong influence of human activity on soil formation and distribution, and also on plant diversity. The soil characteristics found under the permanent forest suggest a high potential of the soils of the region for improvement of both agricultural yields and as a potential carbon sink relevant to global change policies.

  11. Diversidad y biomasa de macro-invertebrados en matrices intermareales del tunicado Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878) en la Bahía de Antofagasta, Chile Diversity and biomass of macro-invertebrates in intertidal matrices of the tunicate Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878) in the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MAURICIO CERDA; JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA

    2001-01-01

    Se analiza la diversidad biológica y biomasa de macro-invertebrados asociados a los mantos intermareales del tunicado Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878) en la Bahía de Antofagasta, donde la especie se encuentra casi exclusivamente confinada a lo largo de aproximadamente 70 km de extensión costera de dicha bahía. En la bahía se seleccionaron tres sitios para el análisis de los mantos de piures: uno localizado aproximadamente en el centro de la distribución del tunicado y dos cercanos a los lími...

  12. Incoming sediments and its deformation observed on high resolution seismic profiles in the northern Japan Trench axis region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.; Miura, S.; Fujie, G.; Strasser, M.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Usami, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Japan Trench axis area has been intensively investigated since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake because the large slip reached to the vicinity of the trench axis. We have conducted three high resolution seismic cruises in the northern part of the Japan Trench axis region. The trench area between 38 - 40 N was covered by 81 E-W seismic lines with 2 - 4 km line interval. A 1200 m-long, 192 channel streamer cable and a cluster gun array with volume of 320 - 380 inch3 were used for these surveys. Post-stack time migrated sections provide detailed image of sediments above the subducting Pacific plate and its deformation by the bending-related normal faults on the outer trench slope, thrust faults and possible slope failures in the trench axis and inner trench slope. The deformation style of the sediments in the trench axis shows variation along the trench strike. To the south of the survey area in 38 - 39 N, the trench axis shows imbricate thrust-and-fold packages, which could be related to the interaction between the frontal prism toe and horst-graben structure. To the north around 40 N, the trench axis is located on a horst, and frontal thrust and imbricate structure are clearly observed on the seismic profiles. Around 39.5 N, the trench inner slope is very steep. It is suggested that slope failures as rotational slumps have occurred in this area. The trench axis is filled by slump deposits and debris with chaotic acoustic characteristics, which is similar with that in the seaward portion of the frontal prism. Seismic profiles on the outer trench slope show the variation on the thickness of the incoming sediments along the trench strike. It is thick, ~ 500 ms, in the northern part of the survey area around 40 N, and it is ~ 250 ms in the southern part around 38 N. The thickness is varied in the area between 38.5 - 39.5 N, and is very thin at 39.5 N. Sediments on the trench outer slope basically conformably cover the igneous basement of the Pacific plate and they were

  13. Formation process of the widespread extreme haze pollution over northern China in January 2013: Implications for regional air quality and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Xiong, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Meigen; Ma, Pengfei; Tao, Jinhua; Wang, Zifeng

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we present a regional insight into characteristics and formation process of the widespread extreme haze pollution in northern China during January of 2013 using integrated satellite observations and ground measurements. Different from common regional pollution, dense haze clouds during the most polluted period not only wandered over northern China for more than one week, but also exhibited large spatial variations with some abrupt peak values in Beijing. High UV Aerosol Index (UVAI) values >2.5 indicate prevalent absorbing aerosols in upper part of the haze clouds. CALIPSO vertical detection shows that the haze layers were more than 3 km thick, with strong extinction within 1 km near surface and elevated dust layers above. Top of the more than 2 km thick dust plumes can reach 5 km, having a substantial contribution to the haze clouds. Movement of high aerosol loading regions with aerosol optical depth (AOD) exceeding 2.0 shows a notable superposition of different pollution processes within boundary layer, which largely enhanced the haze pollution. Peak value of PM10 in industrial cities of Hebei was around 1000 μg/m3, almost twice of that in usual pollution. Subsequent peak values of PM10 from south to north confirm the intense regional transport, which could be the main cause of sudden record-breaking particle concentration in Beijing. Anomalous weather conditions facilitated the unusual heavy pollution became extremely severe. Our results indicate close connections between variation of atmospheric circulation and the regional heavy pollution over northern China.

  14. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  15. Crecimiento y estructura demográfica de Argopecten purpuratus en la Reserva Marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los parámetros de crecimiento L∞ = 120.38 mm y K = 0.9668 para el banco de Argopecten purpuratus de la Reserva Marina La Rinconada (Antofagasta, Chile, obtenidos entre marzo de 2001 y mayo de 2003 usando métodos de marcaje y recaptura de ejemplares. La elevada recaptura de individuos marcados (60–80% indica baja mortalidad natural y una conducta sedentaria del recurso. Las evaluaciones anuales realizadas para estimar el tamaño del banco confirmaron tal conducta, encontrándose la mayoría de los individuos agregados en el centro, con densidades que variaron entre años de 9 a 14.8 ind m–2. La abundancia de ejemplares también mostró variabilidad interanual, con cifras de 10.1 × 106 en 2001, 8.2 × 106 en 2002 y 12.4 × 106 en 2003. Estas evaluaciones mostraron, además, una disminución en la talla media de la estructura demográfica del banco entre un año y otro, reduciéndose de 75.8 mm en 2001 a 62.1 mm en 2002 y a 51.7 mm en 2003. Esta disminución también ocurrió con el número de ejemplares mayores o iguales a la talla mínima legal (90 mm, reduciéndose de 2.6 × 106 ejemplares presentes en 2001 a 3.7 × 105 ejemplares en 2003. La aplicación de los parámetros de crecimiento sobre la estructura poblacional del banco entre 2002 y 2003 señaló la integración de una nueva clase anual de 6.5 × 106 de ejemplares en 2002 y de 11.2 × 106 de individuos en 2003. El descuento de estas cifras, del número total de ejemplares presentes en ambos años, demuestra una pérdida cercana a los 8.4 × 106 de ostiones en 2002 y de cerca de 7.0 × 106 de individuos en 2003. Estas pérdidas correspondieron a ejemplares con tallas superiores a los 60 mm, lo cual es corroborado con el análisis de la curva de captura realizado con el programa Fisat, cuyos resultados señalan una mortalidad Z = 2.15 en 2002 para el segmento de la población entre 67.5 y 115.5 mm, y Z = 3.08 en 2003 para el segmento de 64.3 a 112.5 mm. Los

  16. The Vocalism Quantity of Pre-Stressed Syllables in the Subdialect of the Central Region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with phonetic peculiarity of the quantity of pre-stressed syllables in the subdialect of the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga dictinguishing this subdialect from the neighbouring one of Telšiai region. The reseach was done with the help of both self-observing and experimental methods using the following programmes: Cool Edit Pro, PRAAT4.0.31 sound analysis programme created by Paul Boersma and David Weenink, the scientists of the university of Amsterdam. The statistical analysis was performed by the help of programme STUDENT (programming language TURBO-PASCAL, v. 7.0 created by Prof. Dr Habil of Vilnius university Aleksas Girdenis. The Analysis showed that the lengthening of long vowels and diphthongs of the first component is typical to the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga.While analysing the average of their duration, it was determined that the general vowel lengthening average in mixed diftongs, in fact, does not differ from the average length of the average of long vowels, such as i˙ , u˙, i. e the ratio of average duration is 1: 1,07. Unstressed syllables when preceeded by either short or semi-long stressed syllables in the subdialect of the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga are shorter when preceeded by long syllables. The presumption could be drawn that in the subdialect of the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga the lenght of pre-stressed syllables is the result of the communication between Žemaitians and Curonians. This reseach stimulates the interest to go deeper into those problems, which might specify the vocalism changes of that period.

  17. The 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla northern Chile earthquake sequence: Implications for along-strike and downdip rupture segmentation and megathrust frictional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Rosenau, M.; Wang, R.; Oncken, O.; Barrientos, S.; Salazar, P.; Vilotte, J.-P.

    2012-05-01

    In 2007 a M7.7 earthquake occurred near the town of Tocopilla within the northern Chile seismic gap. Main shock slip, derived from coseismic surface deformation, was confined to the depth range between 30 and 55 km. We relocated ˜1100 events during six months before and one week after the main shock. Aftershock seismicity is first congruent to the main shock slip and then it spreads offshore west and northwest of Mejillones Peninsula (MP). Waveform modeling for 38 aftershocks reveals source mechanisms that are in the majority similar to the main shock. However, a few events appear to occur in the upper plate, some with extensional mechanisms. Juxtaposing the Tocopilla aftershocks with those following the neighboring 1995 Antofagasta earthquake produces a striking symmetry across an EW axis in the center of MP. Events seem to skirt around MP, probably due to a shallower Moho there. We suggest that the seismogenic coupling zone in northern Chile changes its frictional behavior in the downdip direction from unstable to mostly conditionally stable. For both earthquake sequences, aftershocks agglomerate in the conditionally stable region, whereas maximum inter-seismic slip deficit and co-seismic slip occurs in the unstable region. The boundary between the unstable and conditionally stable zones parallels the coastline. We identify a similar segmentation for other earthquakes in Chile and Peru, where the offshore segments break in great M > 8 earthquakes, and the onshore segments in smaller M < 8 earthquakes. Using critical taper analysis, we demonstrate a causal relationship between varying slip behavior on the interface and forearc wedge anatomy that can be attributed to spatial variations in the rate-dependency of friction.

  18. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  19. CentralBeaufort_shorelines.shp - Shorelines for the northern Alaska coastal region used in shoreline change analysis, 1947 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  20. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in the sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  1. Evaluation of the urban/rural particle-bound PAH and PCB levels in the northern Spain (Cantabria region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Axel; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Irabien, Ángel

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in PM(10) and PM(2.5), at one rural and three urban sites in the Cantabria region (northern Spain). From all of these pollutants, benzo(a)pyrene is regulated by the EU air quality directives; its target value (1 ng/m(3)) was not exceeded. The concentration values of the studied organic pollutants at the studied sites are in the range of those obtained at other European sites. A comparison between the rural-urban stations was developed: (a) PAH concentration values were lower in the rural site (except for fluorene). Therefore, the contribution of local sources to the urban levels of PAHs seems relevant. Results from the coefficient of divergence show that the urban PAH levels are influenced by different local emission sources. (b) PCB rural concentration values were higher than those found at urban sites. Because no local sources of PCBs were identified in the rural site, the contribution of more distant emission sources (about 40 km) to the PCB levels is considered to be the most important; the long-range transport of PCBs does not seem to be significant. Additionally, local PAH tracers were identified by a triangular diagram: higher molecular weight PAHs in Reinosa, naphthalene in Santander and anthracene/pyrene in Castro Urdiales. A preliminary PAH source apportionment study in the urban sites was conducted by means of diagnostic ratios. The ratios are similar to those reported in areas affected by traffic emissions; they also suggest an industrial emission source at Reinosa. PMID:22210123

  2. Muscoid Diptera as potential vectors of bacterial agents on dairy farms in the northern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josaine Leila Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the isolation frequency and microbial sensitivity profiles of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from synanthropic flies captured in entomological traps placed near the milking parlors of 30 dairy farms located in Northern Paraná, Brazil. In total, 192 flies were captured, and the isolation frequencies of muscids (21/30 = 70% and califorids (27/30 = 90% were significantly higher than that of sarcophagids (7/30 = 23.3%. Bacteriological tests on the internal contents and external surfaces of the flies showed that E. coli was present only in muscids (14.3% and caliphorids (33.3%. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 9.5% of the muscids, 7.4% of the caliphorids, and 14.29% of the sarcophagids. Staphylococcus spp. was isolated from 28.5% of the muscids and 29.6% of the caliphorids. E. coli isolation was more frequent in flies captured on farms at which domestic chickens were housed near the milking parlors (p = 0.031 and which did not use sugarcane for animal feed (p = 0.042. Two out of 27 (7.4% Staphylococcus spp. strains presented a phenotype of coagulase enzyme production. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Tetracycline was the least effective antibiotic against the isolates. The Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated did not show the phenotype of oxacillin resistance. We conclude that regional flies are potential mechanical vectors of microbial agents able to cause enteritis in goats, mastitis in cows, and contamination of milk products for human consumption.

  3. A database on the distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera) in northern Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Dirk; Vanreusel, Wouter; Herremans, Marc; Vantieghem, Pieter; Brosens, Dimitri; Gielen, Karin; Beck, Olivier; Van Dyck, Hans; Desmet, Peter; Natuurpunt, Vlinderwerkgroep

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, we describe two datasets derived from two sources, which collectively represent the most complete overview of butterflies in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region (northern Belgium). The first dataset (further referred to as the INBO dataset - http://doi.org/10.15468/njgbmh) contains 761,660 records of 70 species and is compiled by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) in cooperation with the Butterfly working group of Natuurpunt (Vlinderwerkgroep). It is derived from the database Vlinderdatabank at the INBO, which consists of (historical) collection and literature data (1830-2001), for which all butterfly specimens in institutional and available personal collections were digitized and all entomological and other relevant publications were checked for butterfly distribution data. It also contains observations and monitoring data for the period 1991-2014. The latter type were collected by a (small) butterfly monitoring network where butterflies were recorded using a standardized protocol. The second dataset (further referred to as the Natuurpunt dataset - http://doi.org/10.15468/ezfbee) contains 612,934 records of 63 species and is derived from the database http://waarnemingen.be, hosted at the nature conservation NGO Natuurpunt in collaboration with Stichting Natuurinformatie. This dataset contains butterfly observations by volunteers (citizen scientists), mainly since 2008. Together, these datasets currently contain a total of 1,374,594 records, which are georeferenced using the centroid of their respective 5 × 5 km² Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid cell. Both datasets are published as open data and are available through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:27199606

  4. A database on the distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera) in northern Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Dirk; Vanreusel, Wouter; Herremans, Marc; Vantieghem, Pieter; Brosens, Dimitri; Gielen, Karin; Beck, Olivier; Van Dyck, Hans; Desmet, Peter; Natuurpunt, Vlinderwerkgroep

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, we describe two datasets derived from two sources, which collectively represent the most complete overview of butterflies in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region (northern Belgium). The first dataset (further referred to as the INBO dataset – http://doi.org/10.15468/njgbmh) contains 761,660 records of 70 species and is compiled by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) in cooperation with the Butterfly working group of Natuurpunt (Vlinderwerkgroep). It is derived from the database Vlinderdatabank at the INBO, which consists of (historical) collection and literature data (1830-2001), for which all butterfly specimens in institutional and available personal collections were digitized and all entomological and other relevant publications were checked for butterfly distribution data. It also contains observations and monitoring data for the period 1991-2014. The latter type were collected by a (small) butterfly monitoring network where butterflies were recorded using a standardized protocol. The second dataset (further referred to as the Natuurpunt dataset – http://doi.org/10.15468/ezfbee) contains 612,934 records of 63 species and is derived from the database http://waarnemingen.be, hosted at the nature conservation NGO Natuurpunt in collaboration with Stichting Natuurinformatie. This dataset contains butterfly observations by volunteers (citizen scientists), mainly since 2008. Together, these datasets currently contain a total of 1,374,594 records, which are georeferenced using the centroid of their respective 5 × 5 km² Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid cell. Both datasets are published as open data and are available through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:27199606

  5. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39, which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92, residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38. In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76, whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  6. Investigations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure and oscillations over sub-tropical regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Som; Kumar, Prashant; Jethva, Chintan; Vaishnav, Rajesh; Bencherif, Hassan

    2016-08-01

    The temperature retrieved from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) onboard Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite during January 2002 to September 2015 are used in this study to delineate the differences of middle atmospheric thermal structure in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH). Two stations namely Mt. Abu (24.59°N, 72.70°E) in NH and Reunion Island (21.11°S, 55.53°E) in SH are chosen over sub-tropical regions. Temperature climatology from SABER observations suggests that stratopause is warmer, and upper mesosphere is cooler in NH as compared to SH. Three atmospheric models are used to understand the monthly thermal structure differences for different altitudes. Moreover, semi-annual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations are studied using Lomb Scargle Periodogram and Wavelet transform techniques. Over NH, summer and winter season are warmer (~4 K) and cooler (~3 K) respectively in stratosphere as compared to SH. It is important to note here that Mt. Abu temperature is warmer (~9 K) than Reunion Island in winter but in summer season Mt. Abu temperature is cooler in upper mesosphere and above mesosphere NH shows warming. Results show that annual oscillations are dominated in both hemisphere as compared to semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations. In upper mesosphere, strength of annual oscillations is substantial in NH, while semi-annual oscillations are stronger in SH. Wavelet analyses found that annual oscillations are significant in NH near mesopause, while semi-annual oscillations are strengthening in SH.

  7. The role of ants in minesite restoration in the Kakadu region of Australia's Northern Territory, with particular reference to their use as bioindicators. Supervising Scientist report 130

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of land rehabilitation following mining in environmentally sensitive areas is often ecosystem restoration, rather than simply revegetation. This is the case at Ranger uranium mine (RUM) in the Alligator Rivers Region of Australia's Northern Territory. Effective methods of monitoring ecological restoration are therefore required. Ants have frequently been used as indicators of restoration success following mining in northern Australia, but the extent to which ants actually provide a reliable indication of ecological change has been poorly documented. This study aimed, primarily, to investigate the degree to which ants provide an indication of the general status of ecosystems and, secondarily, to examine the direct role of ants in ecosystem restoration. The final outcome was the development of procedures for using ants as bioindicators of restoration success following mining in the Ranger uranium mine region

  8. A new data set for estimating organic carbon storage to 3 m depth in soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, G.; Bockheim, J.G.; Camill, P.; Elberling, B.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J.W.; Johnson, K.; Jorgenson, T.; Koven, C.D.; Kuhry, P.; Michaelson, G.; Mishra, U.; Palmtag, J.; Ping, C.-L.; O'Donnell, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Sheng, Y.; Smith, L.C.; Strauss, J.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude terrestrial ecosystems are key components in the global carbon cycle. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) was developed to quantify stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the northern circumpolar permafrost region (a total area of 18.7 × 106 km2). The NCSCD is a geographical information system (GIS) data set that has been constructed using harmonized regional soil classification maps together with pedon data from the northern permafrost region. Previously, the NCSCD has been used to calculate SOC storage to the reference depths 0–30 cm and 0–100 cm (based on 1778 pedons). It has been shown that soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region also contain significant quantities of SOC in the 100–300 cm depth range, but there has been no circumpolar compilation of pedon data to quantify this deeper SOC pool and there are no spatially distributed estimates of SOC storage below 100 cm depth in this region. Here we describe the synthesis of an updated pedon data set for SOC storage (kg C m-2) in deep soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost regions, with separate data sets for the 100–200 cm (524 pedons) and 200–300 cm (356 pedons) depth ranges. These pedons have been grouped into the North American and Eurasian sectors and the mean SOC storage for different soil taxa (subdivided into Gelisols including the sub-orders Histels, Turbels, Orthels, permafrost-free Histosols, and permafrost-free mineral soil orders) has been added to the updated NCSCDv2. The updated version of the data set is freely available online in different file formats and spatial resolutions that enable spatially explicit applications in GIS mapping and terrestrial ecosystem models. While this newly compiled data set adds to our knowledge of SOC in the 100–300 cm depth range, it also reveals that large uncertainties remain. Identified data gaps include spatial coverage of deep (> 100 cm) pedons in many regions as well as the spatial extent of areas

  9. Airborne radiometric survey data and a DTM as covariates for regional scale mapping of soil organic carbon across Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A potential covariate for mapping of SOC (soil organic carbon) is airborne gammaradiometric data. These are measurements of emission of gamma rays due to decay of radionuclides in the top 50 cm of the soil, including potassium (gamma-K). We might expect spatial correlation between gamma-K and SOC content for two reasons. First, the well-established spatial correlation between gamma-ray attenuation and soil moisture extends to SOC because the latter accumulates in soils which are wet for much of the year. Second, for soils with a wide range of SOC contents over the same parent material, the mineral content (and gamma emission) will be smaller when diluted by larger organic matter contents. We used data from the recent TELLUS survey of Northern Ireland including airborne radiometry and ground-based soil carbon measurements (n=6862; loss-on-ignition) to investigate the potential for improved regional-scale (13,360 square km) estimation of SOC. We split the data at random into prediction (n=3000) and validation subsets. We fitted linear mixed models of the spatial variation of SOC to the prediction data and then used the empirical best linear unbiased predictor to predict the SOC concentration at the validation sites. We incorporated gamma-K and altitude (50 m resolution DTM) as fixed effects in these linear mixed models in order to test the effectiveness of these covariates for prediction, in terms of the root mean squared errors (RMSEs) of the predictions at the validation sites.We also tested how these RMSEs varied with n (the number of SOC observations in the prediction set). Exploratory analysis revealed that the frequency distribution of SOC was bi-modal. We attempted to analyze the two peaks of this distribution separately by applying a three-fold (organic, organo-mineral and mineral) classification to the samples (1:50,000 soil maps). Our tests confirmed that splitting the samples in this manner does improve the accuracy of the SOC predictions in the

  10. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristezavirus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6–20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an ...

  11. Experiences of primary health care nurses regarding the provision of free health care services in the Northern region of the Limpopo Province

    OpenAIRE

    VO Netshandama; L Nemathaga; SN Shai-Mahoko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of primary health care nurses working in the clinics and health centres involved in the provision of free health care services. The research design followed was exploratory, descriptive and qualitative. The population of the study included all primary health care nurses working at the clinics and health centres in the Vhembe (northern) region of the Limpopo Province. The sampling method used was purposive for the samples of both the clin...

  12. An investigation of long-term changes in rainfall over the equatorial Indian Ocean trough region during northern summer using multisatellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Satya; Mahesh, C.; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Gairola, R. M.; Mitra, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    During the Indian monsoon season, organized convection in the form of inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) originates from the equatorial trough (ET) region over the equatorial Indian Ocean, propagates northward towards the heated Indian landmass at intraseasonal timescales (30-60 days). In this paper, the long-term changes in rainfall over the ET region during the northern summer season has been investigated for a 34-year (1979-2012) period using gauge-adjusted multisatellite Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) rainfall data set. Rainfall over this region shows a pronounced seasonality and the eastern ET (EET) receives higher rainfall than the western ET (WET) during the northern summer season. Moreover, the northern summer rainfall over the WET and EET are not significantly correlated with each other. Linear trend analysis of domain-mean seasonal rainfall shows a statistically significant increasing trend of 0.4 mm day-1 decade-1 during the northern summer over the WET, whereas no significant trend is observed over the EET. The long-term changes in the associated variables linked through the moisture budget equation are also examined over both regions of ET for the study period. Even though evaporation over both WET and EET shows statistically significant increasing trend associated with an increase in sea surface temperature and near-surface wind, the vertically integrated moisture convergence shows no significant change over the WET whereas it shows a decrease over the EET during the study period. These might be the possible reasons behind a significant increase in rainfall over the WET with an insignificant change in rainfall over the EET.

  13. Site testing for the VLT in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) will need sites for three telescopes. The telescopes considered include the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope to be completed in 1987, the 15 m Swedish-ESO mm/submm telescope, and the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The first two telescopes will probably be placed on La Silla. However, because of humidity considerations, a later transfer of the 15 m mm/submm telescope to a drier site appears possible. The main reason for conducting a new site survey is related to the VLT. Possible areas for establishing an observatory in the Southern Hemisphere are examined, taking into account Northern Chile. Attention is given to an area south of Antofagasta, mountains west of the Salar de Punta Negra, mountains between San Pedro de Atacama and El Tatio, mountains east of La Silla, problems regarding the observation of faint objects, water vapor content, and difficulties due to wind.

  14. Short communication: a new dataset for estimating organic carbon storage to 3 m depth in soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hugelius

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude terrestrial ecosystems are key components in the global carbon (C cycle. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD was developed to quantify stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC in the northern circumpolar permafrost region (18.7 × 106 km2. The NCSCD is a digital Geographical Information systems (GIS database compiled from harmonized regional soil classification maps, in which data on soil coverage has been linked to pedon data from the northern permafrost regions. Previously, the NCSCD has been used to calculate SOC content (SOCC and mass (SOCM to the reference depths 0–30 cm and 0–100 cm (based on 1778 pedons. It has been shown that soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region also contain significant quantities of SOC in the 100–300 cm depth range, but there has been no circumpolar compilation of pedon data to quantify this SOC pool and there are no spatially distributed estimates of SOC storage below 100 cm depth in this region. Here we describe the synthesis of an updated pedon dataset for SOCC in deep soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost regions, with separate datasets for the 100–200 cm (524 pedons and 200–300 cm (356 pedons depth ranges. These pedons have been grouped into the American and Eurasian sectors and the mean SOCC for different soil taxa (subdivided into Histels, Turbels, Orthels, Histosols, and permafrost-free mineral soil taxa has been added to the updated NCSCDv2. The updated version of the database is freely available online in several different file formats and spatial resolutions that enable spatially explicit usage in e.g. GIS and/or terrestrial ecosystem models. The potential applications and limitations of the NCSCDv2 in spatial analyses are briefly discussed. An open access data-portal for all the described GIS-datasets is available online at: http://dev1.geo.su.se/bbcc/dev/v3/ncscd/download.php. The NCSCDv2 database has the doi:10.5879/ECDS/00000002.

  15. Problems of radio-nuclear risks and radioecological safety, caused by migration and contamination of seas and Arctic Ocean waters in Northern regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern Russian radio-ecological and nuclear risks are connected with several objective factors: disposal, exploitation, supplying of the cycle of atomic military and ice-breaking fleets; disposal of enterprises and bases for maintenance of ships with nuclear-power installations (NPI) in Murmansk and Archangel regions; place the State Atomic Shipbuilding Center (RSASBC) enterprises in Archangel and partly in Murmansk regions; exploitation of the Kola Atomic Station (APS); functioning of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago nuclear range; functioning Russian Plesetsk cosmo-drome. Technical proposals and projects for radio-ecology in the North are outlined. (R.P.)

  16. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  17. Basal respiration and composition of microbial biomass in virgin and agroforest-reclaimed semidesert soils of the Northern Caspian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Sizemskaya, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    Virgin semidesert soils and their analogues subjected to agroforest reclamation 60 years ago were studied in the area of the Dzhanybek Research Station of the Institute of Forest Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the Northern Caspian region. The values of Cmic and soil basal respiration (BR) significantly vary among the separate plots. In the 0- to 10-cm layer, the BR rate is 0.28-2.44 μg C-CO2/(g h); the minimum values are typical for the arable soils of the interbelt area, and the maximum values are found in the meadow-chestnut soils of mesodepressions under the forest belt with a strong zoogenic effect. The content of Cmic increases from 415 to 1388 μg C/g soil in the following series: virgin solonetz-agro-afforested soils- virgin meadow-chestnut soils = their forest analogues. The fungi/bacteria ratio is 1.3-3.0; the fungal component of soils reaches 53-85% of Cmic, and its absolute values increase from 236 to 1040 μg C/g in the same soil series. Correlation was found between Corg and BR ( r = 0.89), between Corg and Cmic ( r = 0.87), and between BR and Cmic ( r = 0.89). The portion of Cmic in Corg is 3.2-8.6%; the minimum values are found for virgin solonetz and meadow-chestnut soil under forest belt with strong zoogenic effect. The values of qCO2 (ratio of BR to Cmic) are in the range of 0.7-2 μg C-CO2/(mg Cmic g h). At the afforestation of soils in natural and artificial mesodepressions, the activation of microbial community and humification processes is noted compared to the virgin analogues; unstable microbiological processes and a decreased Corg content because of deep tillage and the reduced input of plant residues in the permanent bare fallow between forest belts are revealed in the agro-afforested solonetzes and meadow-chestnut soils of microdepressions.

  18. An Assessment of Fire Regime Changes in the Northern Rocky Mountain Region Using Simulated Historical Fire Maps and Remotely Sensed Current Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F.; Zhu, Z.; Huang, C.

    2011-12-01

    Wildland fire is a primary ecosystem process that shapes the landscape of Western United States. Changes in fire regime can therefore have profound impact on ecosystem functions and services, including carbon cycling, habitat conditions, and biodiversity. This poster presents a study on current fire regime and changes in the Northern Rocky Mountain region assessed using contemporary and historical fire regimes. Contemporary fire records from 1984 to 2008 were obtained from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project. Historical (pre-EuroAmerican settlement) fire regimes and fire regime condition class (FRCC), produced by the LANDFIRE project, were simulated using a Landscape Succession Model (LANDSUM). We extracted historical fire frequency (Mean Fire Interval) and fire severity (percentage of severe fire) data from LANDFIRE, and calculated current fire frequency and severity using MTBS data by following the FRCC definition, to evaluate changes in fire regimes in Northern Rocky Mountain area. Preliminary results reveal that the current fire regime in Northern Rocky Mountains may exhibit a general pattern of longer return intervals and more severe fires. Biophysical Setting (BpS) map units from LANDFIRE are used as study units to describe environmental gradients and will be used to further examine whether the observed fire regime changes are controlled by land cover or biophysical settings. The findings of this study will help reveal contemporary fire dynamics in this region and serve for future fire studies and other forest management applications.

  19. Soil respiration patterns for four major land-use types of the agro-pastoral region of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-use types and management practices are critical factors that affect soil CO2 efflux (Rs). In the agro-pastoral area of northern China, land-use types have changed considerably during the last 60 years due to changes in the social-economic status of the human population and associated changes i...

  20. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  1. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  2. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  3. Diversidad y biomasa de macro-invertebrados en matrices intermareales del tunicado Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878 en la Bahía de Antofagasta, Chile Diversity and biomass of macro-invertebrates in intertidal matrices of the tunicate Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878 in the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO CERDA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la diversidad biológica y biomasa de macro-invertebrados asociados a los mantos intermareales del tunicado Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878 en la Bahía de Antofagasta, donde la especie se encuentra casi exclusivamente confinada a lo largo de aproximadamente 70 km de extensión costera de dicha bahía. En la bahía se seleccionaron tres sitios para el análisis de los mantos de piures: uno localizado aproximadamente en el centro de la distribución del tunicado y dos cercanos a los límites norte y sur (ecotonos de dicha distribución. La arquitectura de las matrices de piures genera substrato secundario y bio-hábitat que corresponden a los de una especie bio-ingeniera ecosistémica. En las matrices se encontró una diversidad gama de 96 taxa de macro-invertebrados, pertenecientes a nueve phyla. Entre ellos destaca la riqueza de gastrópodos (28 %, poliquetos (26 %, decápodos (15 % y bivalvos (14 %. Para los macro-invertebrados se registró una biomasa promedio de 246,40 g m-2 . Los atributos de diversidad y biomasa de macro-invertebrados no presentaron diferencias significativas entre sitios, lo cual sugiere que el efecto de estas matrices sobre la diversidad y biomasa de los macro-invertebrados es similar a lo largo del rango de distribución dentro de la bahía. Los resultados son discutidos en términos de los patrones de biodiversidad de macro-invertebrados, sus biomasas y el rol que juega P. praeputialis como especie bio-ingeniera en la zona costera de la Bahía de Antofagasta. Se realizan comparaciones con un estudio similar realizado en mantos de Pyura stolonifera en Natal, Sudáfrica y respecto de la biodiversidad de invertebrados asociadas a otras especies bio-ingenierasThe study was conducted to analyze the biological diversity and biomass of macro-invertebrates in intertidal matrices of Pyura praeputialis (Heller, 1878 in the Bahía de Antofagasta, where the species is confined along approximately 70 km of coastline

  4. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA POPULATIONS FROM A MINING REGION IN NORTHERN ONTARIO (CANADA: EFFECT OF SOIL LIMING AND ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic of metals in soil and plants and population diversity in Northern Ontario is essential in determining progress toward ecosystem sustainability in reclaimed sites. The objectives of the present study were to assess the levels of metal content in soils and their accumulation in red oak plants from limed and unlimed sites. Genetic variation in red oak populations from the Northern Ontario region was also analyzed. The levels of soil acidity was lower in limed areas compared to un limed sites, an indication of the prolonged beneficial effect of liming 20 to 30 years ago on soil toxicity. The levels of total metals were very high for most elements, but the proportion of metals that were bio available and readily available to plants was very small. The enrichment factors were16.78, 4.98 and 2.94 for total arsenic, copper and nickel, respectively. The Translocation Factor (TF values for available metals from soil to branches were high. There was more metal accumulation in leaves compared to branches. The degrees of genetic variability in red oak populations from limed and unlimed areas were compared using ISSR markers. The levels of polymorphic loci were moderate to high ranging from 44 to 65%. There were no significant differences in polymorphisms between areas that were limed and unlimed. Overall the red oak populations in stressed areas in Northern Ontario are sustainable.

  5. Identification of new NE-trending deep-seated faults and tectonic pattern updating in northern Tunisia (Mogodos-Bizerte region), insights from field and seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, El Mabrouk; Kadri, Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-07-01

    The northern Tunisia is occupied by the Tellian domain constituent the eastern end of the Maghrebides, Alpine fold-thrust belt. Study area includes partially the Tellian domain (Mogodos belt) and its foreland (Bizerte region). Most of this region outcrops consist of Numidian thrust sheet flysch attributed to the lower Oligocene-Burdigalian. In the study area, the major fault systems are still subject of discussion. The Numidian nappe structure, the distribution of basalt and Triassic outcrops within and at the front of this Tellian domain deserve more explanation. In this work we intend to update the structural scheme and the tectonic evolution of the northern Tunisia, taking into account salt tectonics and magmatism. The updated tectonic evolution will be integrated in the geodynamic framework of the Central Mediterranean. For this purpose, we have analyzed morphologic, seismic and structural data. The compilation of the results has allowed the identification of new regional NE-trending faults dipping towards the NW: the Bled el Aouana-Bizerte, the Sejnane-Ras Enjla and the Oued el Harka faults. They correspond to the reactivation of deep-seated normal faults splaying on the Triassic evaporites. This fault system constitutes the main component of the northern Tunisia structural scheme and has influenced its tectonic evolution marked by the main following stages. The Tellian thrust-sheets were immobilized at the uppermost Langhian. During the major Tortonian NW-trending compressive phase, these faults were reactivated with reverse kinematics and controlled the distribution of the post-nappes Neogene continental deposits. At the early Pleistocene, a compressive NNW-trending event has reactivated again these faults with sinistral-reverse movements and deformed the post-nappes Neogene series. Late Quaternary to Actual, the tectonic regime continues to be compressive with a NNW-trending maximum horizontal stress.

  6. Na and K Levels in forage species from the communal grazing lands during the dry season at some locations in the Northern Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forage species were taken, during the dry season, from five districts in the Northern Region of Ghana and analysed for Na and K using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The Na level varied in plants species as well as location. The level ranged between 0.049 g/kg DM and 1.14 g/kg DM. This was found to be inadequate for the animals and require supplementation during the dry season. Potassium level in the forage species was between 7.8 to 91.3g/kg DM and appeared to be adequate for the grazing animals. (author)

  7. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marelle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem simulations combined with high resolution, real-time STEAM2 shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS campaign, which was conducted in summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of NOx and SO2 are derived for specific ships from in-situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (−57 to +148 % for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and O3 production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (10 enhancements due to ships are moderately sensitive (15 % to resolution. The 15 km resolution WRF-Chem simulations are used to estimate the local and regional impacts of shipping pollution in northern Norway. Our results indicate that ship emissions are an important local source of pollution, enhancing 15 day averaged surface concentrations of NOx (∼ +80 %, O3 (∼ +5 %, black carbon (∼ +40 % and PM2.5 (∼ +10 % along the Norwegian coast. Over the same period ship emissions in northern Norway have a shortwave (direct + semi-direct + indirect radiative effect of −9.3 m W m-2 at the global scale.

  8. Research on the evaluation system for heat metering and existing residential building retrofits in northern regions of China for the 12th five-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of ERBR (existing residential building retrofit) work in the 11th five-year period, energy efficiency retrofits for old residential buildings have been further promoted in northern regions of China during the 12th five-year period. ERBR projects are capable of not only achieving energy conservation and emissions reductions but also providing warmer rooms for residents during cold winters. Therefore, this project should be continued in northern regions of China following a long-term management mode. With the aim of exploring methods and mechanisms for the evaluation of the retrofit effect, an evaluation method was established with the application of the multi-level expert evaluation method. The evaluation indexes cover the aspects of policy mechanisms, financing modes and technical measures. A rewards and punishment mechanism according to the evaluation system was also suggested. Such an evaluation system can be used as a valuable reference for future implementation of energy efficiency retrofit work. - Highlights: • With the AHPD method, the evaluation system of the ERBR was set up to complete. • There are 29 indicators, including policies, financings and technologies. • Rewards and punishment mechanisms are offered to the ERBR. • For weight value more than 0.06, long-term practice and accumulation are needed

  9. Serological detection of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil. A total of 1703 blood samples were collected from cattle from 100 farms distributed among 37 municipalities in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Tocantins. The search for antibodies was conducted using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and antibodies were observed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and A. marginale in cattle from Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Pará at rates of 99%, 90% and 41%; 99%, 70% and 52%; and 97%, 97% and 75%, respectively. The results show that the analyzed regions exhibit enzootic stability for infection with B. bovis and B. bigemina, whereas the same result was not observed with A. marginale.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Inter-basin Groundwater Flow into Northern Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Using the Death Valley Regional Flow System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann Karl,Ye Ming

    2012-03-01

    Models of groundwater flow for the Yucca Flat area of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) are under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for corrective action investigations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU). One important aspect of these models is the quantity of inter-basin groundwater flow from regional systems to the north. This component of flow, together with its uncertainty, must be properly accounted for in the CAU flow models to provide a defensible regional framework for calculations of radionuclide transport that will support determinations of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine contaminant boundary. Because characterizing flow boundary conditions in northern Yucca Flat requires evaluation to a higher level of detail than the scale of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model can efficiently provide, a study more focused on this aspect of the model was required.

  11. Improved regional groundwater flow modeling using drainage features: a case study of the central northern karst aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Yu, Xue; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2016-04-01

    In northern Puerto Rico (USA), subsurface conduit networks with unknown characteristics, and surface features such as springs, rivers, lagoons and wetlands, drain the coastal karst aquifers. In this study, drain lines connecting sinkholes and springs are used to improve the developed regional model by simulating the drainage effects of conduit networks. Implemented in an equivalent porous media (EPM) approach, the model with drains is able to roughly reproduce the spring discharge hydrographs in response to rainfall. Hydraulic conductivities are found to be scale dependent and significantly increase with higher test radius, indicating scale dependency of the EPM approach. Similar to other karst regions in the world, hydraulic gradients are steeper where the transmissivity is lower approaching the coastline. This study enhances current understanding of the complex flow patterns in karst aquifers and suggests that using a drainage feature improves modeling results where available data on conduit characteristics are minimal.

  12. Initiatives of Application of the Bakun-Wentworth's Method for the Estimation of Macroseismic Parameters in the Northern South America and the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Capera, A.; Bindi, D.; Cifuentes, H.; Choy, J.; Chuy Rodriguez, T.; Garcia, J.; Massa, M.; Palme, C.; Pierristal, G.; Salcedo Hurtado, E.; Sanchez Vasquez, A.

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of location, magnitude and uncertainties of great historical earthquakes is a key issue for understanding the seismic potential and PSHA of a region. In the last years independent techniques using only macrosesismic data points have been developed as, for example, the approach of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) or BW. This method has been largely applied in different tectonic contexts (Bindi et al., 2013), in different UE international projects and in estimations of location, magnitude and epistemic uncertainties (Bakun et al., 2011). We focus on some regional calibration initiatives in Northern South America and areas of the Caribbean Region. BW has been calibrated by Palme et al. (2005) and Choy et al. (2012) for earthquakes of the Mérida Andes and the Venezuela Central Regions. As well, BW calibrations have been proposed for the interandean Valley in Ecuador (Beauval et al., 2010), in the Hispaniola (Bakun et al, 2012) and for the northeastern Caribbean region (ten Brink et al., 2011). Preliminary BW calibration for the southeastern region of Cuba has been proposed by Gómez-Capera et al. (2012). Applications to historical earthquakes in Cuba have given encouraging results mainly for offshore events and are presented in the present study. We also present preliminary results for some earthquakes that have been recently studied in literature as for example the historical earthquakes of 1743 (Salcedo Hurtado and Gómez-Capera in press) and 1785 (Salcedo Hurtado and Castaño Castaño, 2011) which occurred close to Bogotá, BW method and intensity relationship of the literature were used. We present comparisons and sensibility analysis of the different relationships obtained in the region as well as uncertainty assessment. We also note that the magnitude parameter depends strongly on the regional calibration. Because of the availability of new macroseismic studies in Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2013

  13. Pliocene-Quaternary contourites along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin: sedimentary stacking pattern and regional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llave, Estefanía; Matias, Hugo; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Ercilla, Gemma; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Medialdea, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    This study reports novel findings on the Pliocene-Quaternary history of the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin and the spatiotemporal evolution of the associated contourite depositional system. Four major seismic units (P1, P2, QI and QII) were identified in the Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary record based on multichannel seismic profiles. These are bounded by five major discontinuities which, from older to younger, are the M (Messinian), LPR (lower Pliocene revolution), BQD (base Quaternary discontinuity), MPR (mid-Pleistocene revolution) and the actual seafloor. Unit P1 represents pre-contourite hemipelagic/pelagic deposition along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin. Unit P2 reflects a significant change in margin sedimentation when contourite deposition started after the Early Pliocene. Mounded elongated and separated drifts were generated during unit QI deposition, accompanied by a general upslope progradation of drifts and the migration of main depocentres towards the north and northwest during both the Pliocene and Quaternary. This progradation became particularly marked during QII deposition after the mid-Pleistocene (MPR). Based on the spatial distribution of the main contourite depocentres and their thickness, three structural zones have been identified: (1) an eastern zone, where NE-SW diapiric ridges have controlled the development of two internal sedimentary basins; (2) a central zone, which shows important direct control by the Guadalquivir Bank in the south and an E-W Miocene palaeorelief structure in the north, both of which have significantly conditioned the basin-infill geometry; and (3) a western zone, affected in the north by the Miocene palaeorelief which favours deposition in the southern part of the basin. Pliocene tectonic activity has been an important factor in controlling slope morphology and, hence, influencing Mediterranean Outflow Water pathways. Since the mid-Pleistocene (MPR), the sedimentary stacking pattern of contourite drifts has been

  14. Spatio-temporal snow cover change and hydrological characteristics of the Astore, Gilgit and Hunza river basins (western Himalayas, Hindukush and Karakoram region) - Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Lane, Stuart; Terzago, Silvia; Adamowski, Jan Franklin

    2015-04-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is drawn from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) ranges. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its high-altitude snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - southern part of the UIB), Gilgit (Hindukush - western part of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - northern part of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal evolution and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This study compares data from the Astore, Gilgit and Hunza River basins (mean catchment elevation, 4100, 4250 and 4650 m ASL, respectively), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images. The hydrological regime of these sub-catchments was analyzed using hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin areas. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas), western (Hindukush) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff in the southern part, but snow and glacier melt is dominant in the northern and western parts of the catchment. Despite similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing), different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and Gilgit, decreasing in Hunza) suggest that a sub-catchment level study of the UIB is needed to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management and to quantify how the system is being forced by changing climate.

  15. Gravity waves in mesopause region induced by thunderstorms over Northern China observed by a no-gap OH airglow imager network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiyao

    2016-07-01

    A no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of 6 all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. A large number of gravity wave events in the mesopause region induced by thunderstorms were observed by the network during the past 4 years. A comparison of the observations in 2012, 2013, and 2014 are made, which shows that there were more strong thunderstorms take place in 2013 in the northern China and produce more Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events. Especially, a series of CGW events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were also observed by satellite sensors from FY-2, AIRS/Aqua, and VIIRS/Suomi NPP. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multi-level observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this talk, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail and movies of the two events are displayed. One is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths agree with the GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. A gravity wave with horizontal wavelength of about 20 km propagates horizontally to more than 800 km in the mesopause region, probably due to a ducting layer. Another CGW event was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 09 August 2013. Multi-scale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed. Many ripples were found, probably due to the breaking of strong gravity waves with large relative OH intensity perturbations of 10%.

  16. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruti, A. [Universidad de Cantabria, Dep. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, Avda. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Fernandez-Olmo, I., E-mail: fernandi@unican.es [Universidad de Cantabria, Dep. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, Avda. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Irabien, A. [Universidad de Cantabria, Dep. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, Avda. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: > The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. > The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. > The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. > The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  17. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristeza virus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6-20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an isolate, CTV Pant 4 was characterized. Isolate Pant 4 could be graft transmitted to Kinnow, Nagpur and Darjeeling mandarins, Mosambi sweet orange, Kagzi lime, Sweet lime, Sour orange but not to Rough lemon. The sequence analyses of the 5'ORF1a (3038 nucleotides) of LPro domain and 3'end (2058 nt) covering ORF7-ORF10 regions of the CTV genome revealed that Pant 4 was closely related to the previously reported Indian CTV isolate, Kpg3 from Northeastern Himalaya region with 97 and 98 % sequence identity, respectively. Whereas, it differed from the previously reported CTV isolate B165 from Southern India with 79 and 92 % identity, respectively for 5'ORF1a and 3' end regions. Recombination and SplitsTree decomposition analyses indicated that CTV isolate Pant 4 was a recombinant isolate originating from Kpg3 as a major and B165 as a minor donor. PMID:24426255

  18. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region, Northern Qiangtang depression: Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; FU XiuGen; CHEN WenXi; WANG ZhengJiang; TAN FuWen; CHEN Ming; ZHUO JieWen

    2008-01-01

    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The sents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain,as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  19. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region,Northern Qiangtang depression:Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The vitric tuff from the base of these strata gives a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 216 ± 4.5 Ma, which represents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain, as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  20. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  1. High resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of carbonate cementation in Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-L. Eocene) from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Omer, Dilshad; Zebari, Bahroz Gh.

    2014-12-01

    A combination of high resolution cathodoluminsecnce-spectroscopy (HRS-CL) with spatial electron microprobe analysis and optical microscopy is used to determine paragenesis and history of cementation in the limestones and dolostones of Khurmala Formation which is exposed in many parts of Northern Iraq. Khurmala Formation was subjected to different diagenetic processes such as micritization, compaction, dissolution, neomorphism, pyritization and cementation that occurred during marine to shallow burial stages and culminated during intermediate to deep burial later stages. Five dolomite textures are recognized and classified according to crystal size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity that pre-and postdates dissolution and corrosion; meanwhile such porosity was not noticed in the associated limestones. Microprobe analysis revealed three types of cement, calcite, dolomite and ankerite which range in their luminescence from dull to bright. Cathodoluminescence study indicated four main texture generations. These are (1) unzoned microdolomite of planar and subhedral shape, with syntaxial rim cement of echinoderm that show dull to red luminescence, (2) equant calcite cements filling interparticle pores which shows dull luminescence and weak zonal growth, (3.1) homogenous intrinsic blue stoichiometric calcite with dull luminescence and without activators, (3.2) coarse blocky calcite cement with strong oscillatory zoning and bright orange luminescence which postdates other calcite cements, (4) ankerite cement with red to orange, non-luminescence growth zonation which is the last formed cement.

  2. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in the sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Friis, Henrik

    2014-03-01

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic studies showed that the silica cementation occurred in five successive phases which can be distinguished by their luminescence pattern. The precipitations of two phases have predated the major compaction process while the other phases are younger. The successive phases represent a sequence of changes in silica supply which were classified as very early and early, derived from dissolved biogenic silica that precipitated as opal/microquartz, possibly pre-compactional and of non-luminescent quartz overgrowth type. This was followed by phases whose silica supply derived from pressure solution of quartz, dissolution of feldspar, and hydrothermal fluids related to major thrust fault event. These successive quartz cement phases showed an increase in luminescence and the development of complicated zonation pattern in late-stage quartz cementation.

  3. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  4. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA Y TAFONOMÍA DEL PERÍODO TARDÍO-INCA EN PEÑAS COLORADAS, ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA (PUNA DE CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA/Zooarchaeology and taphonomy of the Late Period-INCA in Peñas Coloradas, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Puna of Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Guillermo Ortiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el análisis integrado del conjunto arqueofaunístico, constituido por vertebrados e invertebrados, del sitio Peñas Coloradas 3-cumbre (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina. El sitio se localiza en la cumbre de un farallón de ignimbrita y está conformado por estructuras arquitectónicas asignadas a momentos Tardíos-Incas, algunas de las cuales han sido reutilizadas hasta principios del siglo XX. Con la finalidad de complementar los datos y reconstruir la historia tafonómica de los conjuntos faunísticos, se estudió el contexto sedimentario mediante métodos físico-químicos (textura; pH; determinación de albúmina, P y MO. Los materiales analizados brindaron datos sobre algunas de las actividades realizadas en las estructuras, el consumo de animales, temporalidad, estacionalidad de las ocupaciones, y sobre los procesos diagenéticos actuantes. La integración contextual de los datos materiales analizados y del emplazamiento del sitio y sus estructuras, nos permite inferir prácticas sociales diferenciadas entre las estructuras con cubierta y sin cubierta. Las primeras, se vinculan a depósitos de alimentos y manufacturas, mientras que las segundas se asocian con  prácticas residenciales, procesamiento y consumo de alimentos. Abstract In this paper, an integrated analysis of archaeofaunal data consisting of vertebrates and invertebrates of the Peñas Coloradas 3-summit (PC3-c, Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina is conducted. The site is located at the top of an ignimbrite hill and is composed of architectural structures attributed to Late Inca times, some of which had been re-used until the early 20th century. In order to complement the data and reconstruct the taphonomic history of the faunal assemblages, we studied the sedimentary context by physicochemical methods (texture, pH, determination of albumin, P and MO. The material tested has provided data on some of the activities in the structures

  5. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Bordignon Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast Asia/South Pacific and III were identified. This recent co-circulation of different DENV-3 genotypes in South America may have implications for pathological and epidemiological dynamics.

  6. Assessment of the potential of the Mainfranken region, northern Bavaria, for underground storage of geothermal energy; Erkundung des regionalen Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (UTEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, R.; Heinrichs, G.; Udluft, P. [Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Geologie, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Ebert, H.P.; Fricke, J. [Abt. Waermedaemmung/Waermetransport, Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V., Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The following paper presents a research project that is planned as a cooperation of the Geological Institute, University of Wuerzburg and the Bavarian Center of Applied Energy Research. In this project the potentials for underground thermal energy storage will be investigated in the region of Mainfranken, Northern Bavaria (Main = the river `Main`, Franken = Franconia). All aspects of underground storage will be studied with respect to the specific geographical and geological situation of the area. The study will provide a detailed map of possible storage sites, from which several case studies and at least one demonstration projects will result. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird ein Forschungsprojekt vorgestellt, das gemeinsam vom Institut fuer Geologie der Universitaet Wuerzburg und dem Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung in Bayern geplant wird. Ziel des Projekts ist die Erkundung des Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (Nordbayern). Alle Aspekte der Untergrundspeicherung werden regionalspezifisch betrachtet. Neben der Erstellung differenzierter Karten geeigneter Standorte sind Fallstudien und Demonstrationsprojekte in Planung. (orig.)

  7. Mineralogical and structural transformations related to alterations in hydrothermal and climatological conditions of basic vulcanic rocks from northern Parana (Ribeirao Preto region, SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies of the basic vulcanic rocks of northern Parana basin (Region of Ribeirao Preto, SP) reveled that these rocks were affected by pre-meteoric activity (hydrothermal alteration) before being exposed to the supergene system of alteration linked to the lithosphere/atmosphere interface. Mineralogical and structural transformation are studied. The appearance of sequential crystalline-chemical paragenesis in zones suggest that the hydrothermal activity occurred during two successives processes of alteration: the expulsion of the water from the rock during the later stages of magma cooling and the continous process of dissolution of the rock wall and the ionic diffusion involving the rock sistem of structural voids. The hydro-thermal action was followed by weathering action developing a thin 'front' of superficial alteration. This alteration system, can lead to the formation of three major levels of alteration horizons and superficial accumulations: alterites, glebular and suil surface materials. (C.D.G.)

  8. ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES OF FARMERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON RICE PRODUCTION IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Nantui Mabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the adaptive capacities of farmers to climate change adaptation strategies and their effects on rice production in the Northern Region of Ghana. The adaptive capacities of rice farmers were estimated quantitatively and categorized into high, moderate and low adaptive capacities. Double logarithmic regression model of Cobb-Douglas production function was used to quantity the effects of adaptive capacities of farmers on rice production. On the average, the farmers interviewed are moderately adaptive to climate change. Also, high adaptive farmers obtain nine more bags of 50 kg bag of paddy rice than farmers with low adaptive capacities. Therefore, the more a farmer has the ability to adjust to climate change, the more the number of bags of rice he or she obtains. Rice farmers should be empowered through better extension services in order to attain high adaptive capacity status so as to help them obtain more rice output.

  9. Application Self-organizing Map Type in a Study of the Profile of Gasoline C Commercialized in the Eastern and Northern Parana Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Ramazzoti Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks self-organizing map type (SOM was used to classify samples of automotive gasoline C marketed in the eastern and northern regions of the state of Paraná, Brazil. The input order of parameters in the network were the values of temperature of the first drop, the 10, 50 and 90% distilled bulk, the final boiling point, density, residue content and alcohol content. A network with a topology of 25x25 and 5000 training epochs was used. The weight maps of input parameters for the trained network identified that the most important parameters for classifying samples were the temperature of the first drop and the temperature of the 10% and 50% of the distilled fuel. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.732 

  10. Genetic structure of Afghan Pika (Ochotona rufescens populations based on D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome in Northern Khorasan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olyagholi Khalilipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for genetic diversity of Afghan Pika (Ochotona rufescens among four different populations in Northern Khorasan Province using D-Loop region of mitochondrial gene. The sixteen specimens were trapped from four different sanctuaries (Ghorkhod, Golol-Sarani, Salouk and Sarigol and transferred to Laboratory. The intra and inter population genetic factors (haplotype and nucleotide diversity, haplotype differentiation among populations, Fst, Nm, gamma distribution parameter, mismatch distribution, Tajima'D neutrality test and Isolation by distance were estimated and the results were compared among the populations. Finally, data set with 483 bp was used for each individual. The results showed 25 polymorphic, 457 conserved sites and 10 different haplotypes. The low value of Fst (Fst=0.21, P0.5 and Tajima 'D test (0.37, P>0.1 showed no population expansion and relatively stable population sizes.

  11. Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15°W–42°E, 13°S–17°N) and monthly averages of column PM2.5 loading, surface PM2.5 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA. (paper)

  12. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Direct Radiative Effect to the Emission Inventory: a Case Study in Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; da Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15degW-42degE, 13degS-17degN) and monthly averages of column PM(sub 2.5) loading, surface PM(sub 2.5) concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

  13. Experiments with Seasonal Forecasts of ocean conditions for the Northern region of the California Current upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Samantha A.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Hermann, Albert J.; Nguyen, Thanh Tam; Bond, Nicholas A.; Newton, Jan A.; Williams, Gregory D.; Peterson, William T.; Alin, Simone R.; Feely, Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Resource managers at the state, federal, and tribal levels make decisions on a weekly to quarterly basis, and fishers operate on a similar timeframe. To determine the potential of a support tool for these efforts, a seasonal forecast system is experimented with here. JISAO’s Seasonal Coastal Ocean Prediction of the Ecosystem (J-SCOPE) features dynamical downscaling of regional ocean conditions in Washington and Oregon waters using a combination of a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry and forecasts from NOAA’s Climate Forecast System (CFS). Model performance and predictability were examined for sea surface temperature (SST), bottom temperature, bottom oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation state through model hindcasts, reforecast, and forecast comparisons with observations. Results indicate J-SCOPE forecasts have measurable skill on seasonal timescales. Experiments suggest that seasonal forecasting of ocean conditions important for fisheries is possible with the right combination of components. Those components include regional predictability on seasonal timescales of the physical environment from a large-scale model, a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry that simulates seasonal conditions in hindcasts, a relationship with local stakeholders, and a real-time observational network. Multiple efforts and approaches in different regions would advance knowledge to provide additional tools to fishers and other stakeholders.

  14. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Senthilkumar; R Arumugam; D Gnanasundar; D S C Thambi; E Sampath Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water resources. Geologically, the area is characterized by charnockites and garnetiferous biotite gneiss. Groundwater in this region is found to occur in the weathered portion under unconfined condition and in fractured/fissured portions under unconfined to semi-confined condition. Existence of deep-seated fractures are minimal. Lineaments/dykes play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the region. Lineaments/dykes of the study area can be broadly divided into two types: north–south and west–east oriented structures. Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east oriented dykes in this region are highly potential and act as a conduit for groundwater movement from recharge areas to the discharge area.

  15. Virological investigation of four outbreaks of influenza B reassortants in the northern region of Taiwan from October 2006 to February 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuan-Hsuan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From October 2006 to February 2007, clinical specimens from 452 patients with symptoms related to respiratory tract infection in the northern region of Taiwan were collected. Real-time PCR and direct immunofluorescent antibody tests showed that 145 (32% patients had influenza B virus infections. Subsequently, nucleotide sequence analyses of both hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of 39 isolates were performed. Isolated viruses were antigenically characterized using hemagglutinin inhibition (HI test. Findings Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the B reassortant lineage with HA gene belonged to the B/Victoria/2/87 lineage and the NA gene belonged to the B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage. In addition, a group of children aged between 6 to 8 years old resided in Yilan county were infected with a variant strain. Hemagglutinin inhibition (HI tests confirmed that all the reassortant influenza B viruses were B/Malaysia/2506/04-like viruses. Pre- and post-immunized serum samples from 4 normal volunteers inoculated with 2007 influenza vaccine were evaluated for their HI activity on 6 reassortant B isolates including two variants that we found in the Yilan county. The results demonstrated that after vaccination, all four vaccinees had at least 4-fold increases of their HI titers. Conclusion The results indicate that the 2006–2007 seasonal influenza vaccine was effective in stimulating protective immunity against the influenza B variants identified in Yilan county. Continuous surveillance of emerging influenza B variants in the northern region of Taiwan is important for the selection of proper vaccine candidate in the future.

  16. Experiences of primary health care nurses regarding the provision of free health care services in the Northern region of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VO Netshandama

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of primary health care nurses working in the clinics and health centres involved in the provision of free health care services. The research design followed was exploratory, descriptive and qualitative. The population of the study included all primary health care nurses working at the clinics and health centres in the Vhembe (northern region of the Limpopo Province. The sampling method used was purposive for the samples of both the clinics and the nurses. The inclusion criteria for the nurses included experience of two or more years in providing primary health care. The inclusion criteria for the selection of clinics included being a busy clinic (a minimum of 2000 patients per month with a staff establishment of four or more primary health care nurses. In conducting this research, ethical principles were taken into account. Data was collected from 23 participants in the Northern Region. The research question read as follows: What are your experiences regarding the provision of free health care services? An open coding method consisting of eight steps provided by Tesch's (1990:140-145 eight-step method of analysing data was used. The research findings revealed that the primary health care nurses working in the clinics experience feelings of failure to provide adequate primary health care services due to the increased workload, misuse of the service, and fear associated with lack of security in the clinics and health centres. The conclusions drawn from this research are that on the one hand a poor mechanism exists for the monitoring of the implementation of free health services, and on another hand, there has been misuse of the facilities by the community. The concept “free health care service” has been misinterpreted.

  17. Experiences of primary health care nurses regarding the provision of free health care services in the northern region of the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netshandama, V O; Nemathaga, L; Shai-Mahoko, S N

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of primary health care nurses working in the clinics and health centres involved in the provision of free health care services. The research design followed was exploratory, descriptive and qualitative. The population of the study included all primary health care nurses working at the clinics and health centres in the Vhembe (northern) region of the Limpopo Province. The sampling method used was purposive for the samples of both the clinics and the nurses. The inclusion criteria for the nurses included experience of two or more years in providing primary health care. The inclusion criteria for the selection of clinics included being a busy clinic (a minimum of 2000 patients per month) with a staff establishment of four or more primary health care nurses. In conducting this research, ethical principles were taken into account. Data was collected from 23 participants in the Northern Region. The research question read as follows: What are your experiences regarding the provision of free health care services? An open coding method consisting of eight steps provided by Tesch's (1990:140-145) eight-step method of analysing data was used. The research findings revealed that the primary health care nurses working in the clinics experience feelings of failure to provide adequate primary health care services due to the increased workload, misuse of the service, and fear associated with lack of security in the clinics and health centres. The conclusions drawn from this research are that on the one hand a poor mechanism exists for the monitoring of the implementation of free health services, and on another hand, there has been misuse of the facilities by the community. The concept "free health care service" has been misinterpreted. PMID:15850154

  18. Prospects of potential fodder-crops in hilly regions, especially northern areas of pakistan, their production and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of green-fodder and dry-matter yields in various winter cereal fodder crops showed that oat is a high fodder-yielding and more nutritive crop than barley, cereal rye wheat and triticale. Average of the three locations in northern areas of Pakistan (i.e. Gilgit, Chilas and Skardu) indicated that green-fodder yield obtained from oats was 54% higher than barley and 50% than cereal rye. It was also determined that oats and barley have greater re-growth potential than triticale. In oats, it was assessed that whole dose of N=75 kg/ha applied at the time of sowing and the split doses of N at the time of sowing and at vegetative stage of the crop increased green-fodder yield by 250% and 287% respectively than control. Improved varieties of oats viz. PD2L V65 and S-81 produced the highest total green-fodder yields of 87.34 and 86.10 t/ha under two cut system. Also re-growth potential of these varieties was the highest than the other cultivars. In winter legume fodder crops, berseem produced two times more green and dry matter yields as compared to shaftal at Gilgit and Chilas. Berseem harvested 6 cm above ground level and 45 days interval showed good results. Protein percentage decreased as cutting intervals increased in berseem crop. The improved lucerne variety Sundor was superior to local variety both in green-fodder and dry-matter yields. The yield of lucerne decreased with the increase in altitude which might be due to low temperattlre, variation in soil fertility and short growing seasons. Green forage and pasture crop species are dried enough to permit their safe storage, without spoilage or serious loss of nutrients. About 70-90% of water present in standing crop at mowing is reduced to 18-20% by sun and wind without adversely affecting nutritive value. (author)

  19. Prevalence of antibody to human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 among aboriginal groups inhabiting northern Argentina and the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeot, S; Nates, S; Recalde, A; Gallego, S; Maturano, E; Giordano, M; Serra, H; Reategui, J; Cabezas, C

    1999-04-01

    We carried out a seroepidemiologic survey to define the prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) infections among aboriginal populations from isolated regions of northern Argentina and the Amazon region of Peru. Antibodies against HTLV were measured with agglutination tests and confirmed with by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting. Five (6.94%) of 72 samples from the Tobas Indians in Argentina were positive by the IFA; two samples were typed as HTLV-1 (2.78%), two as HTLV-2 (2.78%), and one (1.39%) could not be typed because it had similar antibody titers against both viruses. No positive samples were found among 84 Andinos Puneños and 47 Matacos Wichis Indians. Seroprevalences of 2.50% (1 of 40) and 1.43% (1 of 70) for HTLV-1 were observed among Wayku and San Francisco communities in the Amazon region of Peru, and seroprevalences of 4.54% (1 of 22) and 2.38% (1 of 42) for HTLV-2 were observed among Boca Colorada and Galilea communities. No serologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found among the Indians tested. These results indicated the presence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in the indigenous populations of Argentina and Peru. Moreover, the lack of HIV infection indicates that the virus has probably not yet been introduced into these populations. PMID:10348238

  20. Place branding in strategic spatial planning : an analysis at the regional scale with special reference to Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis brings together the strategic spatial planning approach and place branding, specifically at the regional scale. It critically scrutinizes the actual or potential roles of place branding as an instrument for the attainment of strategic spatial planning goals. This discussion is curren

  1. Molecular clonality and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Infantis from broilers in three Northern regions of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmani, Maral; Peighambari, Seyed Mostafa; Svendsen, Christina Aaby;

    2013-01-01

    isolates exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin caused by a single mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA. For all strains this mutation occurred in the codon of Asp87 leading to a Asp87-Tyr, Asp87-Gly or Asp87-Asn substitutions. All S. Infantis (n = 27...

  2. Long-term spatial and temporal variations of soil organic carbon in the Handan region in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling an NIU; Jinmin HAO; Baozhong ZHANG; Xinsheng NIU; Zhenyu LU

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a long-term study and a system-atic analysis on the spatial and temporal variations of the soil organic carbon contents in the counties of Handan Prefecture in Hebei Province, on the North China Plains. The analysis was based on the data collected in soil sur-veys conducted in 1980, 1993 and 2003, as well as the data from specific investigations using GIS and GPS receivers.The soil organic carbon content was higher in the west-ern mountainous region than in the eastern plain region in 1980, and the difference in the average values was enced by natural factors, such as climate and rainfall. In 1993, the soil organic carbon content showed an upward trend in the eastern plain region and a downward trend in the western mountainous region. The difference in the reflected the changes in farming practices where tra-ditional farming was changed into modern farming gradu-ally by increasing farming investment and output of grains. In 2003, the soil organic carbon content was high on the whole, and the difference in the average values was played an important role. In Cixian, Linzhang, Wuan and Handan counties, the increased value of soil organic to the advocated application of straw and farmyard man-ure in these counties, but in Weixian, Jize and Quzhou counties, the soil organic carbon content was maintained increase carbon sequestration in soil, adoption of conser-vation tillage to increase soil organic carbon storage in the soil is recommended.

  3. Regional Analysis of Lg Attenuation: Comparison of 1D Methods in Northern California and Application to the Yellow Sea / Korean Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Mayeda, K M; Walter, W R; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S

    2007-07-06

    The measurement of regional attenuation Q{sup -1} can produce method dependent results. The discrepancies among methods are due to differing parameterizations (e.g., geometrical spreading rates), employed datasets (e.g., choice of path lengths and sources), and methodologies themselves (e.g., measurement in the frequency or time domain). We apply the coda normalization (CN), two-station (TS), reverse two-station (RTS), source-pair/receiver-pair (SPRP), and the new coda-source normalization (CS) methods to measure Q of the regional phase, Lg (Q{sub Lg}), and its power-law dependence on frequency of the form Q{sub 0}f{sup {eta}} with controlled parameterization in the well-studied region of northern California using a high-quality dataset from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network. We test the sensitivity of each method to changes in geometrical spreading, Lg frequency bandwidth, the distance range of data, and the Lg measurement window. For a given method, there are significant differences in the power-law parameters, Q{sub 0} and {eta}, due to perturbations in the parameterization when evaluated using a conservative pairwise comparison. The CN method is affected most by changes in the distance range, which is most probably due to its fixed coda measurement window. Since, the CS method is best used to calculate the total path attenuation, it is very sensitive to the geometrical spreading assumption. The TS method is most sensitive to the frequency bandwidth, which may be due to its incomplete extraction of the site term. The RTS method is insensitive to parameterization choice, whereas the SPRP method as implemented here in the time-domain for a single path has great error in the power-law model parameters and {eta} is greatly affected by changes in the method parameterization. When presenting results for a given method it is best to calculate Q{sub 0}f{sup {eta}} for multiple parameterizations using some a priori distribution. We also investigate the difference in

  4. Stable isotope records for the last 10 000 years from Okshola cave (Fauske, northern Norway, and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Linge

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of terrestrial environments to past changes in heat transport is expected to be manifested in Holocene climate proxy records on millennial to seasonal timescales. Stalagmite formation in the Okshola cave near Fauske (northern Norway began at about 10.4 ka, soon after the valley was deglaciated. Past monitoring of the cave and surface has revealed stable modern conditions with uniform drip rates, relative humidity and temperature. Stable isotope records from two stalagmites provide time-series spanning from ca. 10 380 yr to AD 1997; a banded, multi-coloured stalagmite (Oks82 was formed between 10 380 yr and 5050 yr, whereas a pristine, white stalagmite (FM3 covers the period from ~7500 yr to the present. The stable oxygen isotope (δ18Oc, stable carbon isotope (δ13Cc, and growth rate records are interpreted as showing i a negative correlation between cave/surface temperature and δ18Oc, ii a positive correlation between wetness and δ13Cc, and iii a positive correlation between temperature and growth rate. Following this, the data from Okshola show that the Holocene was characterised by high-variability climate in the early part, low-variability climate in the middle part, and high-variability climate and shifts between two distinct modes in the late part.

    A total of nine Scandinavian stalagmite δ18Oc records of comparable dating precision are now available for parts or most of the Holocene. None of them show a clear Holocene thermal optimum, suggesting that they are influenced by annual mean temperature (cave temperature rather than seasonal temperature. For the last 1000 yr, δ18Oc display a depletion-enrichment-depletion pattern commonly interpreted as reflecting the conventional view on climate development for the last millennium. Although the δ18Oc records show

  5. Stable isotope records for the last 10 000 years from Okshola cave (Fauske, northern Norway and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Linge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of terrestrial environments to past changes in heat transport is expected to be manifested in Holocene climate proxy records on millennial to seasonal timescales. Stalagmite formation in the Okshola cave near Fauske (northern Norway began at about 10.4 ka, soon after the valley was deglaciated. Past monitoring of the cave and surface has revealed stable modern conditions with uniform drip rates, relative humidity and temperature. Stable isotope records from two stalagmites provide time-series spanning from c. 10 380 yr to AD 1997; a banded, multi-coloured stalagmite (Oks82 was formed between 10 380 yr and 5050 yr, whereas a pristine, white stalagmite (FM3 covers the period from ~7500 yr to the present. The stable oxygen isotope (δ18Oc, stable carbon isotope (δ13Cc, and growth rate records are interpreted as showing i a negative correlation between cave/surface temperature and δ18Oc, ii a positive correlation between wetness and δ13Cc, and iii a positive correlation between temperature and growth rate. Following this, the data from Okshola show that the Holocene was characterised by high-variability climate in the early part, low-variability climate in the middle part, and high-variability climate and shifts between two distinct modes in the late part.

    A total of nine Scandinavian stalagmite δ18Oc records of comparable dating precision are now available for parts or most of the Holocene. None of them show a clear Holocene thermal optimum, suggesting that they are influenced by annual mean temperature (cave temperature rather than seasonal temperature. For the last 1000 years, δ18Oc values display a depletion-enrichment-depletion pattern commonly interpreted as reflecting the conventional view on climate development for the last millennium. Although the δ18

  6. Influences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plume on air quality in the northern Alpine region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schäfer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of major eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland started on 14 April 2010 and continued until the end of May 2010. The volcanic emissions moved over nearly the whole of Europe and were observed first on 16 April 2010 in Southern Germany with different remote sensing systems from the ground and space. Enhanced PM10 and SO2 concentrations were detected on 17 April at mountain stations (Zugspitze/Schneefernerhaus and Schauinsland as well as in Innsbruck by in situ measurement devices. On 19 April intensive vertical mixing and advection along with clear sky-conditions facilitated the entrainment of volcanic material down to the ground. The subsequent formation of a stably stratified lower atmosphere with limited mixing near the ground during the evening of 19 April led to an additional enhancement of near-surface particle concentrations. Consequently, on 19 April and 20 April exceedances of the daily threshold value for particulate matter (PM10 were reported at nearly all monitoring stations of the North Alpine foothills as well as at mountain and valley stations in the northern Alps. The chemical analyses of ambient PM10 at monitoring stations of the North Alpine foothills yielded elevated Titanium concentrations on 19/20 April which prove the presence of volcanic plume material. Following this result the PM10 threshold exceedances are also associated with the volcanic plume. The entrainment of the volcanic plume material mainly affected the concentrations of coarse particles (>1 μm – interpreted as volcanic ash – and ultrafine particles (<100 nm, while the concentrations of accumulation mode aerosol (0.1–1 μm were not changed significantly. With regard to the occurrence of ultrafine particles, it is concluded that their formation was triggered by high sulphuric acid concentrations which are necessarily generated by the photochemical processes in a plume rich in

  7. Veiki-moraine-like landforms in the Nereidum Montes region on Mars: Insights from analogues in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, A.; Reiss, D.; Hauber, E.; Johnson, M. D.; Olvmo, M.; Hiesinger, H.

    2015-10-01

    Mars is a cold hyper-arid planet where liquid water is extremely rare [1]. Most water is instead locked in a number of frozen reservoirs such as the polar caps, latitude-dependent near surface ground ice and as glacier ice. Previously, numerous studies reported on glacier landforms such as viscous flow features and lobate debris aprons where water-ice is believed to be present under insulating debris cover[2].This notion was confirmed by SHARAD measurements [3].However, very little is known about glacial landforms in which water is an important factor. Most studies have focused on moraine- like ridges that are associated to gully systems in crater environments[4], glacier landforms at the equatorial volcanic province [5]and drop-moraines from CO2 glaciers [6]. Here we report on unusual irregular ring-shaped landforms within a mountain complex in Nereidum Montes, Mars. These landforms are well-preserved and may suggest recent ablation of a debris-covered,cold-based glacier. These martian ring-shaped moraine-like landforms show a striking resemblance to the Veiki moraine in northern Sweden. Veiki moraines are believed to have formed at the lobate margins of a stagnant ice- sheet during the first Weich selian glaciation as it sharply ends to the east [7].The Veiki-moraine is characterized by ridged plateaus that are more or less circular and surrounded by a rim ridge. The newly acquired national LiDAR data over Sweden enable us studying these landforms in unprecedented detail. They also enable us exploring geomorphological similarities between Earth and Mars in large spatial contexts. This study aims to increase our understanding of glacial landforms on Mars by comparison to terrestrial analogues. Questions addressed are: (1) how morphological similar are the Martian landforms to the Veiki moraine of Sweden? (2) How does the moraine-like landform relate to other, well-preserved, glacial landforms within the mountain complex? (3) Do the moraine-like land forms indicate

  8. Characterization of Soil Particle Size Distribution with a Fractal Model in the Desertified Regions of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang-Lei; Ding, Guo-Dong; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Guo, Jian-Bin; Qin, Shu-Gao; Bao, Yan-Feng; Yu, Ming-Han; Liu, Yun-Dong

    2016-02-01

    We constructed an aeolian soil database across arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, China. Soil particle size distribution was measured with a laser diffraction technique, and fractal dimensions were calculated. The results showed that: (i) the predominant soil particle size distributed in fine and medium sand classifications, and fractal dimensions covered a wide range from 2.0810 to 2.6351; (ii) through logarithmic transformations, fractal dimensions were significantly positive correlated with clay and silt contents (R2 = 0.81 and 0.59, P desertification degree. In a large spatial scale, fractal dimensions are still sensitive to wind-induced desertification. Therefore, we highly recommend that fractal dimension be used as a reliable and quantitative parameter to monitor soil environment changes in desertified regions. This improved information provides a firm basis for better understanding of desertification processes.

  9. Human Elephant Conflict in the Waza-Logone Region of Northern Cameroon: An Assessment of Management Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchamba, MN.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the current level of humanelephant conflicts in the Waza Logone region was carried out during the 2005 rainy season to assess the effectiveness of conflict management. This was done by talking mainly to wildlife authorities, the local agricultural service, the local communities and consulting sequential reports from the nearest enumerators. The number of villages affected was declining in the dry season compared to the rainy season crop raiding. However, general pattern indicates a decline in the number of villages impacted by elephants since the 1992 to 1993 surveys, but comparatively more damaging as shown by the estimated costs. Therefore, the improve in ecological management of the Waza National Park and its elephant population has had a positive impact in the number of villages crop raided but has not definitely resolved the conflicts between man and elephant. Other approaches are needed to buttress the effort been undertaken in the region to date.

  10. Geophysical evidence for a major palaeochannel within the Obosum Group of the Volta Basin, Northern Region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Jessell, Mark; Boamah, K.; Duodu, J. A.; Ley-Cooper, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a 230 km long palaeochannel cutting through the sediments of the Obosum Group within the Volta Basin, Ghana. The channel is visible in regional airborne magnetic data as a pair of parallel magnetic anomalies which we interpret to be lateral terrace placer deposits of magnetite or maghemite and show both meandering and braided geometries. The palaeochannel is also visible in the airborne radiometric data for part of its length, as well as in airborne electromagnetic data, wh...

  11. Soil carbon and plant diversity distribution at the farm level in the savannah region of Northern Togo (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastià, M.-T.; E. Marks; Poch, R. M.

    2008-01-01

    In western Africa, soil organic matter is a source of fertility for food provision and a tool for climate mitigation. In the Savannah region, strong soil degradation linked to an increase in population threatens organic matter conservation and agricultural yield. Soil degradation is also expected to impact biodiversity and, with it, increase the vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services, including the storage of soil organic carbon. Studies of land use, plant species composition and soil ...

  12. Assessment of zonal distribution of methane on MSW landfills in northern regions for its usage in local power engineering

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Chusov; V.I. Maslikov; D.V. Molodtsov; V.V. Zhazhkov; O.A. Riabuokhin

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills located in regions of Russia with low temperatures and relatively low rainfall averages are considered unpromising in terms of their biogas potential; however, these claims have not been substantiated. Assessment of the biogas potential of such landfills requires special field research for analyzing biogas composition and emission speed, which could define the processes taking place inside a landfill. We should note that the use of mathematical models tha...

  13. ISM gas studies towards the TeV PWN HESS J1825-137 and northern region

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, F; Burton, M G; Walsh, A; Fukui, Y; Aharonian, F

    2016-01-01

    HESS J1825-137 is a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) whose TeV emission extends across ~1 deg. Its large asymmetric shape indicates that its progenitor supernova interacted with a molecular cloud located in the north of the PWN as detected by previous CO Galactic survey (e.g Lemiere, Terrier & Djannati-Ata\\"i 2006). Here we provide a detailed picture of the ISM towards the region north of HESS J1825-137, with the analysis of the dense molecular gas from our 7mm and 12mm Mopra survey and the more diffuse molecular gas from the Nanten CO(1-0) and GRS $^{13}$CO(1-0) surveys. Our focus is the possible association between HESS J1825-137 and the unidentified TeV source to the north, HESS J1826-130. We report several dense molecular regions whose kinematic distance matched the dispersion measured distance of the pulsar. Among them, the dense molecular gas located at (RA, Dec)=(18.421h,-13.282$^{\\circ}$) shows enhanced turbulence and we suggest that the velocity structure in this region may be explained by a cloud-cloud...

  14. Regulation of eutrophication susceptibility in oligohaline regions of a northern Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors regulating the eutrophication susceptibility of seven oligohaline regions in the sub-estuaries of Mobile Bay, Alabama were examined in a comparative analysis. The oligohaline regions differed primarily by the dominant land-use of their upstream watersheds, with two of the regions being primarily urban, two being primarily agricultural, and three being primarily forested. A stepwise model selection procedure was used to determine a suite of multiple regression models describing eutrophication response, in terms of a chlorophyll a (chla) on a sampling event basis, in relation to estuarine mixing time scales, nutrient concentrations, light availability, and watershed delivery of freshwater and nutrients. The models indicated a strong positive relationship between chla and mixing time scales (i.e., residence time or freshwater flushing time). Mixing time scales longer than five days allowed maximum chla (64 μg l-1), while lowest chla (-1) occurred when mixing time scales were less than two days. Of the watershed inputs, chla exhibited opposing relationships with the components of freshwater load, having a negative relationship with discharge and a positive relationship with incoming freshwater nitrogen concentrations. Estuarine phosphorus concentrations and photosynthetically active radiation were also found to be good descriptors of chla. The comparative approach employed here allowed for the development of empirical models that were used to determine the nutrient concentration reductions required to achieve a trophic state of -1 chla. The average reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus needed to achieve this trophic state ranged from 0 to 32%

  15. LOS POTREROS DE ANTOFAGASTA. TRABAJO INDÍGENA Y PROPIEDAD (FINALES DEL SIGLO XVIII Y COMIENZOS DEL XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos N. Quesada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos la forma en que el trabajo de los campesinos indígenas de la puna meridional organizó, de acuerdo a una lógica local, la producción agrícola que le permitió su reproducción y articulación con la economía regional a finales del siglo XVIII y comienzos del XIX. El uso co de metodologías y técnicas históricas y arqueológicas nos permite proponer una visión alternativa de las formas locales de producción agrícola, poniendo en evidencia procesos de trabajo y mecanismos de apropiación que de otra forma permanecían invisibilizados.

  16. ISM gas studies towards the TeV PWN HESS J1825-137 and northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, F.; Rowell, G.; Burton, M. G.; Walsh, A.; Fukui, Y.; Aharonian, F.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1825-137 is a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) whose TeV emission extends across ˜1 . Its large asymmetric shape indicates that its progenitor supernova interacted with a molecular cloud located in the north of the PWN as detected by previous CO Galactic survey (e.g. Lemiere, Terrier & Djannati-Ataï). Here, we provide a detailed picture of the interstellar medium (ISM) towards the region north of HESS J1825-137, with the analysis of the dense molecular gas from our 7 and 12 mm Mopra survey and the more diffuse molecular gas from the Nanten CO(1-0) and GRS 13CO(1-0) surveys. Our focus is the possible association between HESS J1825-137 and the unidentified TeV source to the north, HESS J1826-130. We report several dense molecular regions whose kinematic distance matched the dispersion measured distance of the pulsar. Among them, the dense molecular gas located at (RA, Dec.) = (18h421h,-13.282°) shows enhanced turbulence and we suggest that the velocity structure in this region may be explained by a cloud-cloud collision scenario. Furthermore, the presence of a H α rim may be the first evidence of the progenitor supernova remnant (SNR) of the pulsar PSR J1826-1334 as the distance between the H α rim and the TeV source matched with the predicted SNR radius RSNR ˜ 120 pc. From our ISM study, we identify a few plausible origins of the HESS J1826-130 emission, including the progenitor SNR of PSR J1826-1334 and the PWN G018.5-0.4 powered by PSR J1826-1256. A deeper TeV study however, is required to fully identify the origin of this mysterious TeV source.

  17. Chimpanzee insectivory in the northern half of Uganda's Rift Valley: do Bulindi chimpanzees conform to a regional pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2014-04-01

    Insects are a nutritious food source for many primates. In chimpanzees, insectivory is most prevalent among communities that manufacture tools to harvest social insects, particularly ants and termites. In contrast to other long-term study sites, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest and Kibale National Park, Uganda, rarely eat insects and have small foraging tool kits, supporting speculation that infrequent insectivory--technically aided or otherwise--characterises chimpanzees in this part of Uganda's Rift Valley. To expand the dataset for this region, insect foraging was investigated at Bulindi (25 km from Budongo) over 19 months during two studies in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013. Systematic faecal analysis demonstrated that insectivory is a habitual foraging activity at this site. Overall levels of insect consumption varied considerably across months but were not predicted by monthly changes in rainfall or fruit intake. Unlike their Budongo and Kibale counterparts, Bulindi chimpanzees often consume ants (principally weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda) and use sticks to dig out stingless bee (Meliponini) ground nests. In other respects, however, insectivory at Bulindi conforms to the pattern observed elsewhere in this region: they do not manufacture 'fishing' or 'dipping' tools to harvest termites and aggressive or hard-to-access ants (e.g., army ants, Dorylus spp.), despite availability of suitable prey. The Bulindi data lend support to the supposition that chimpanzees in this part of the Rift Valley rarely exploit termites and Dorylus ants, apparently lacking the 'cultural knowledge' that would enable them to do so most efficiently (i.e., tool use). The study's findings contribute to current debates about the relative influence of genetics, environment and culture in shaping regional and local variability in Pan foraging ecology. PMID:24522970

  18. Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will describe a project to between ecologists and climate scientists to inform National Park Service managers who are developing scenario planning for their parks and surrounding areas; this effort is advancing scenario methodologies and improving delivery mechanisms and applications to decision-making for National Parks. Climate change is expressed in both regional climatic shifts (e.g., temperature and precipitation changes) and local resource impacts. Resource management in a changing climate is challenging because future climate change and resource responses cannot be precisely predicted. Scenario planning is a tool to assess the range of plausible future conditions. However, selecting, acquiring, synthesizing, and scaling climate information for scenario planning requires significant time and skills. This project, which was recently selected for funding by the NC CSC, has three goals: 1) synthesize climate data into 3-5 distinctly different but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; 2) craft summaries of these climate futures that are relevant to local land management units; and 3) apply these local summaries to further develop quantitative climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and simulation models. We will engage multiple stakeholders in two focal areas within the region: southwestern South Dakota in the vicinity of Badlands National Park, and central North Dakota in the vicinity of Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. This effort will increase climate change planning efficiency in the region; promote collaborations across jurisdictions; and develop a prototype for a novel, efficient, and replicable form of scenario planning that could serve additional management units.

  19. ESA-MERIS 10-Year Mission Reveals Contrasting Phytoplankton Bloom Dynamics in Two Tropical Regions of Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blondeau-Patissier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton blooms was investigated in two tropical coastal regions of northern Australia using the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS full mission (2002–2012 reduced resolution dataset. Satellite-derived proxies for phytoplankton (Chlorophyll-a (Chl, Fluorescence Line Height (FLH, Maximum Chlorophyll Index (MCI and suspended sediment (Total Suspended Matter (TSM were jointly analyzed for two clusters of the Great Barrier Reef Wet tropics (GBRW; 15°–19.5°S; Queensland and the Van Diemen Gulf (VDG; 9°–13°S; Northern Territory. The analysis of time-series and Hovmöller diagrams of the four MERIS products provided a unique perspective on the processes linking phytoplankton blooms and river runoff, or resuspension, across spatio-temporal scales. Both regions are characterized by a complex oceanography and seasonal inflows of sediment, freshwater and nutrients during the tropical wet season months (November to April. The GBRW is characterized by a great variability in water clarity (Secchi depth 0–25 m. A long history of agricultural land use has led to a large increase in the seasonal discharge of sediments and nutrients, triggering seasonal phytoplankton blooms (>0.4 mg∙m−3 between January and April. In contrast, the VDG is a poorly flushed, turbid (Secchi depth <5 m environment with strong tidal-energy (4–8 m and very limited land use. Phytoplankton blooms here were found to have higher Chl concentrations (>1.0 mg∙m−3 than in the GBRW, occurring up to twice a year between January and April. Over the 10-year MERIS mission, a weak decline in Chl and TSM was observed for the VDG (Sen slope: −2.85%/decade, τ = −0.32 and −3.57%/decade, τ = −0.24; p 0.05, while no significant trend in those two satellite products was observed in the GBRW. Cyanobacteria surface algal blooms occur in both regions between August and October. The MCI and FLH products were found to

  20. Monitoring of Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water of the Karst Region in Northern Puerto Rico for Assessment of Sources and Fate and Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Cotto, I.; Torres, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The karst aquifer region of northern Puerto Rico is the area with the highest groundwater extraction in the island. Urban and industrial development has led to extensive contamination of the groundwater in the region. Of particular concern, is the presence of emerging and legacy organic contaminants, such as phthalates and chlorinated organic compounds (CVOCs), because there high risk for exposure and adverse health impact. Variable sources and the heterogeneous and dynamic conditions of karst groundwater systems, limits the ability to properly assess and manage the water quality of these precious water resources. This work develops a monitoring and water analysis scheme to assess spatial-temporal exposure of hazardous contaminants trough karst water in northern Puerto Rico. Groundwater and tap water are sampled in the region and analyzed for phthalates, CVOCs, and common ions. Detections and concentrations of phthalates and CVOCs are determined by using modified EPA methods, which rely on liquid-liquid extractions and gas chromatography techniques. The modified methods have reduced the volume of samples and solvent waste, decreased the time of analysis, increased analysis outcomes, and lower potential for hazardous exposure. Results show intermittent presence of di-ethyl, di-butyl and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalates in 36% of the groundwater and 53% of tap water samples, with detected concentrations ranging between 0.1-88.7 μg/L. These results indicate that karst groundwater can serve as a route of exposure for phthalates, but there are additional disperse sources in the water system. CVOCs are detected in groundwater at much higher frequencies (50%) than phthalates, and include trichloromethane (TCM), carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (TCE). CVOCs, except for TCM, are found at lower frequencies on tap water (5.8%) than groundwater (27%). TCM is detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in tap water (56.8%) than

  1. Air quality and radiative impacts of Arctic shipping emissions in the summertime in northern Norway: from the local to the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelle, Louis; Thomas, Jennie L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Roiger, Anke; Schlager, Hans; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we quantify the impacts of shipping pollution on air quality and shortwave radiative effect in northern Norway, using WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with chemistry) simulations combined with high-resolution, real-time STEAM2 (Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model version 2) shipping emissions. STEAM2 emissions are evaluated using airborne measurements from the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) aircraft campaign, which was conducted in the summer 2012, in two ways. First, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are derived for specific ships by combining in situ measurements in ship plumes and FLEXPART-WRF plume dispersion modeling, and these values are compared to STEAM2 emissions for the same ships. Second, regional WRF-Chem runs with and without STEAM2 ship emissions are performed at two different resolutions, 3 km × 3 km and 15 km × 15 km, and evaluated against measurements along flight tracks and average campaign profiles in the marine boundary layer and lower troposphere. These comparisons show that differences between STEAM2 emissions and calculated emissions can be quite large (-57 to +148 %) for individual ships, but that WRF-Chem simulations using STEAM2 emissions reproduce well the average NOx, SO2 and O3 measured during ACCESS flights. The same WRF-Chem simulations show that the magnitude of NOx and ozone (O3) production from ship emissions at the surface is not very sensitive (important source of pollution along the Norwegian coast, enhancing 15-day-averaged surface concentrations of NOx ( ˜ +80 %), SO2 ( ˜ +80 %), O3 ( ˜ +5 %), black carbon ( ˜ +40 %), and PM2.5 ( ˜ +10 %). The residence time of black carbon originating from shipping emissions is 1.4 days. Over the same 15-day period, ship emissions in northern Norway have a global shortwave (direct + semi-direct + indirect) radiative effect of -9.3 m Wm-2.

  2. Interannual variation in summer N2O concentration in the hypoxic region of the northern Gulf of Mexico, 1985–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.-N. Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence of temporal variation in nitrous oxide (N2O concentrations in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM hypoxic zone. The analysis is based on a conceptual model simulating N2O biogeochemical processes in conjunction with water-column O2 levels, derived from summer Texas–Louisiana shelf-wide hydrographic data for twenty Julys between 1985 and 2007. The mean modeled nGOM N2O concentration was 7.7 ± 6.7 nmol L−1, and was significantly correlated with the areal extent of hypoxia. Our modeling analysis indicates that the nGOM is a persistent summer source of N2O, and nitrification is a primary factor leading to its production in this region. Based on the ongoing increase in the areal extent of hypoxia in the nGOM, we conclude that N2O emission from this environmentally stressed region will continue to increase into the future contributing to the global increase in greenhouse gases.

  3. Acoustic estimates of methane gas flux from the seabed in a 6000 km2 region in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas C.; Mayer, Larry; Jerram, Kevin; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Rzhanov, Yuri; Lovalvo, Dave

    2014-05-01

    of free methane gas escaping the seabed can be found throughout the ocean basins. To understand the role of methane gas seeps in the global carbon cycle—including both gas added to the atmosphere and that which is dissolved and potentially oxidized in the ocean volume—it is important to quantify the amount of methane escaping the seabed. Few large-scale mapping projects of natural methane seeps have been undertaken, however, and even among these, quantitative estimates of flux are rare. Here we use acoustic mapping techniques to survey 357 natural methane seeps in a large region (6000 km2) of the northern Gulf of Mexico and outline a general approach for methane seep mapping using a combination of multibeam and split-beam echo sounders. Using additional measurements collected with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) together with the acoustic mapping results, we estimate the total gas flux within the 6000 km2 region to be between 0.0013 and 0.16 Tg/yr, or between 0.003 and 0.3% of the current estimates for global seabed methane seepage rates.

  4. Life in the sea of plenty: Seasonal and regional comparison of physiological performance of Euphausia hanseni in the northern Benguela upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thorsten; Buchholz, Cornelia; Buchholz, Friedrich

    2015-09-01

    Variability in upwelling events may lead to periods of constrained food availability in the northern Benguela upwelling system (NBUS), thereby affecting the physiological state and metabolic activity of euphausiids. Most attention has so far been paid to seasonal effects but little is known about regional variability. Metabolic activity (expressed by respiration and excretion rates) and physiological state (expressed by reproductive effort and moult activity) in Euphausia hanseni were examined at different stations during austral summer (minimum upwelling) and austral winter (maximum upwelling). Overall, regional differences in physiological state, influencing metabolic activity, were greater than seasonal ones, indicating favourable conditions for growth and reproduction year-round. Higher respiration rates were found for females in more advanced stages of sexual development. Moult stage did not affect oxygen consumption rates, however. The physiological state of E. hanseni at the time of capture may serve as a meaningful indicator of the associated hydrographic conditions in the NBUS, to be further used in eco-system analysis on seasonal or long-term time scales. A latitudinal comparison of species highlights the extraordinary physiological plasticity of euphausiids.

  5. Extent freshwater limestone bank at Iván-halála Valley, Gerecse Mts., Northern Hungary: a key to understand the uplift history of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, Zsófia; Kovács, András; Molnár, Gábor; Bereczki, László; Timár, Gábor; Csillag, Gábor; Fodor, László; Kercsmár, Zsolt

    2015-04-01

    DC geoelectrical measurements (VES and multielectrode sounding) have been carried out in the western Gerecse Mountains (northern Hungary), east of the village of Dunaszentmiklós, in between the Tekeres stream and the Nagy-Somló Hill, in order to understand the geological structure and partially the geological evolution of the Mesosoic rocks dominated region. Evaluating the measurements a well defined, high resistivity, 5-20 m thick layer in shallow depth was outlined on the hilltops of two sides of the valley. In one side, this bank is found at a point with elevated position, while on the other side, the 5-10 m thick bank covers an extent, 250 meters wide area, with a dip of cca. 5-6 degrees WNW, covering the slope itself. This layer corresponds to a Pleistocene freshwater limestone formation that was not known until now on the research area. The presence and the spatial extension of the limestone body is a key for understanding the (neo)tectonic evolution of the study area. Freshwater limestones mark paleo-surfaces that can be originally horizontal and tilt later because of regional structural or local slope movements - and the paleosurface itself could be originally tilt, too. However, it is an interesting puzzle tile to understand of the uplift history of the western Gerecse mountains and this part of the Transdanubian Range. This research is supported by the Project OTKA NK83400 (SourceSink Hungary).

  6. GPS based TEC measurements for a period August 2008–December 2009 near the northern crest of Indian equatorial ionospheric anomaly region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Karia; K N Pathak

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, measurements of total electron content (TEC) have gained importance with increasing demand for the GPS-based navigation applications in trans-ionospheric communications. To study the variation in ionospheric TEC, we used the data obtained from GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC monitoring (GISTM) system which is in operation at SVNIT, Surat, India (21.16°N, 72.78°E) located at the northern crest of equatorial anomaly region. The data collected (for the low sunspot activity period from August 2008–December 2009) were used to study the diurnal, monthly, seasonal semi-annual and annual variations of TEC at Surat. It was observed that the diurnal variation at the region reaches its maximum value between 13:00 and 16:00 IST. The monthly average diurnal variations showed that the TEC maximizes during the equinox months followed by the winter months, and are lowest during the summer months. The ionospheric range delay to TEC for the primary GPS signal is 0.162 m per TECU. The diurnal variation in TEC shows a minimum to maximum variation of about 5 to 50 TECU (in current low sunspot activity periods). These TEC values correspond to range delay variations of about 1 to 9 m at Surat. These variations in the range delay will certainly increase in high sunspot activity periods. Detected TEC variations are also closely related to space weather characterizing quantities such as solar wind and geomagnetic activity indices.

  7. Uranium statistical and geological evaluation of airborne spectrometric data in the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings (Area-3), Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis have been applied to the Airborne spectrometric data from the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings (Area-3), Northern Palmyrides, Syria. It was shown that equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 22.33 ppm. The probability graph has been used to compute the threshold level of uranium in the study area. It was found that this threshold level of 5.54 ppm agrees well with that obtained by traditional statistical computation (X-bar+2 sigma). Uranium prospecting methodology is proposed in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings in Area-3, and to determine the dominant geological conditions that effectively contribute to the radioactive anomalies occurring in the study area. Four radioactive-geological profiles have been established in Area-3, where their analysis and study reveal that lowlands and basins, the unconformity between Palaeogene and Neogene, the contact between Cretaceous and Palaeogene and the phosphate beds themselves are considered favorable environments for uranium deposits. The proposed methodology is proven and field verified and can be therefore applied in other areas considered as promising for uranium deposits. (author)

  8. Factors affecting distribution of microbiotic crusts in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in the grain-for-green land of the loess region,northern Shaanxi,China,from July to August of 2005 to provide a scientific evaluation of the grain-for-green project,including its soil and water conservation and other ecological benefits for the region.The distribution of microbiotic crusts were studied,while human disturbance,aspect,topography,vegetation structure and other factors affecting it were obtained from the analysis of survey data from 78 sample plots.Results show that crust coverage is larger on lessdisturbed plots than on highly-disturbed ones,on northfacing plots than on south-facing ones and on gully-slopes than on ridge-slopes.Coverage increases with herbal coverage and trees can provide better conditions for distribution of crusts than shrubs.Therefore,crust coverage is larger in herb-dominated plots than in tree-dominated ones and crusts in shrub-dominated plots are smaller.However,we made no progress in our study on deciding how slope degrees and herb species affect the distribution of crusts.We believe that more studies are necessary for a further exploration of the relationship between them.

  9. The 14 November, 2007 Mw 7.8 Tocopilla, northern Chile earthquake within the Iquique seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Motagh, M.; Krüger, F.; Asch, G.; Anderssohn, J.; Sobiesiak, M.; Kind, R.; Sodoudi, F.; Ohrnberger, M.; Chong Díaz, G.; Vilotte, J.; Oncken, O.

    2008-05-01

    A prominent seismic gap persisted in northern Chile between the towns of Antofagasta and Arica for 130 years. This 500 km segment along the South American subduction zone last ruptured in 1877 in a devastating M9 earthquake. On November 14th 2007, an Mw 7.8 earthquake started near the coastal town of Tocopilla to break the southernmost 200 km of the seismic gap. In Tocopilla and several other communities in the backcountry, a majority of the structures were destroyed. Commencing in 2006, in close cooperation between the GFZ Potsdam (Germany), IPG Paris (France), the Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta and Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile), a network of 15 observatories equipped with seismic broadband and strong motion sensors, GPS receivers and magnetotelluric probes is being established to monitor the seismic gap. At the time of the Tocopilla earthquake, 12 sites were already deployed with the seismological instruments. Based on these data we relocate the mainshock and early aftershocks. The surface deformation field derived from InSAR data in Wide Swath and Image modes from ascending and descending tracks will be inverted for a distributed slip model using a grid of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space. We use broadband stations at teleseismic distances to image the spatio-temporal characteristics of seismic energy release during the earthquake. This analysis indicates a rupture length of approximately 200 km with almost unilateral southward propagation and a duration of approximately 200s. Rupture terminated on Mejillones Peninsula, exactly where an earlier large earthquake, the Mw 8 1995 Antofagasta event, had its northern limit. This is also where most of the early aftershocks focus. The structure beneath the Mejillones Peninsula seems to form a persistent barrier in the northern Chilean earthquake cycle. Based on our analysis, the fault plane of the Tocopilla earthquake fills roughly the southernmost third of the Iquique seismic gap

  10. Geomorphological analysis, monitoring and modeling of large rock avalanches in northern Chile (Iquique area) for regional hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugsi Molina, F. X.; Hermanns, R. L.; Crosta, G. B.; Dehls, J.; Sosio, R.; Sepúlveda, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    mapped characterized by well defined lateral levees and clear internal morphological features (ridges and furrows, hummocks). Rock avalanche run out simulations have been carried out to back analyze the sites using DAN 3D and a 3 m pixel resolution digital elevation model (DEM) obtained from stereoscopic Geoeye-1 images to assess parameters that controlled propagation mechanism and impact area extent of the events. The older lobes were dated by radiocarbon methods. Results indicate ages higher than 40,000 yr BP for the northern site. The second site could only be dated relatively with an underlying terrace that resulted older than the age limit of radiocarbon dating (43.500 yr BP). All the deposits are positioned well above (40-70 m) the present sea level rise, and at the reported uplift rates for the area, they could be associated to events older than some hundreds of thousand years. A more complete record of the failure history of the sites will be obtained when results of cosmogenic nuclides (CN) and luminescence dating will become available later this year. Several other smaller rock avalanches have been mapped in the study area. Satellite-based radar interferometry (InSAR) was performed using ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes from 1995-2000 as well as ENVISAT ASAR scenes from 2004-2010. Both datasets show only small deformation in the area. This deformation includes sliding of small surficial slope deposits and subsidence apparently due to local groundwater withdrawal. No deformation of bedrock along the escarpment edge is observed. Results show that only major rock avalanches could reach the main access roads to Iquique and currently no large slope segments show signs of large displacement rates. Moreover, there is no strong correlation between M > 8 earthquakes return periods and age of the dated deposits, which implies that large rock avalanches could have been triggered by other factors. Hence, from a hazard and risk perspective, it is unlikely that large rock avalanches

  11. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  12. Land application of waste waters in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory - environmental constraints on design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing uranium mines in the Alligator River Region presently operate under a no release water management regime for water stored within the designated restricted release zones (RRZ). This water is of variable quality ranging from rainwater influenced by runoff from the mill sites and ore stockpiles to mill process water stored within the trailings repositories. There is a pressing need to reduce the volume of stored RRZ water at Nabarlek as a prerequisite to decommissioning. There is also a requirement at Ranger to rapidly reduce the volume of stored water in the mine pit at the end of the season to allow the mining of ore. Land application of RRZ water by spray irrigation has been investigated at both sites because it offers the benefits of applying chemical constituents in the wastewater within a clearly defined irrigation area. the environmental planning for the design of a land application system involves calculations of the chemical load in the wastewater and evaluation of the assimilative capacity of the soil-plant system. The monsoon climate, lateritic soil and fluctuating water table creates a unique set of environmental constraints and conditions in which to design and operate a successful land application system for the treatment of stored water at minesites within ecologically sensitive areas

  13. Assessment of zonal distribution of methane on MSW landfills in northern regions for its usage in local power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Chusov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW landfills located in regions of Russia with low temperatures and relatively low rainfall averages are considered unpromising in terms of their biogas potential; however, these claims have not been substantiated. Assessment of the biogas potential of such landfills requires special field research for analyzing biogas composition and emission speed, which could define the processes taking place inside a landfill. We should note that the use of mathematical models that do not take into account the specifics of a particular landfill makes it impossible to get detailed and reliable information about its biogas potential. This work contains the results of research conducted for assessing the biogas potential of three municipal solid waste landfills located in various zones of the Northwestern Federal District with Atlantic continental and moderately continental climate. The research showed that biochemical processes of waste decomposition accompanied by the emission of biogas with high (50 vol% and above methane content are possible even in areas with a relatively cold climate. This confirms the presence of the energy potential of these landfills, which can be used for the needs of heat, electricity and gas supply to the population, etc.

  14. Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

    2012-04-01

    An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic

  15. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure. PMID:25604215

  16. Analysis of soil moisture condition under different land uses in arid region of Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, C.; Musa, A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Land use plays an important role in controlling spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture by influencing infiltration rates, runoff, and evapotranspiration, which is substantive meaning to crop growth and vegetation restoration in semiarid environments, such as the Horqin Sandy Land in north China. However, few studies have been conducted comparing differences of dynamics of soil water conditions and the responses of soil water to precipitation infiltration under different land use types in this semiarid region. Five different land use types were selected to analyze soil moisture variations in relation to land use patterns during the growing season of two years. Results showed that soil moisture condition was affected by different land uses in semi-arid sandy land. The order of soil moisture (from high to low) among different land uses was grassland, cropland, poplar land, inter-dunes and shrub land. The temporal variations of soil moisture in different land uses were not always consistent with the rainfall due to the dry sequence. Moreover, soil water in surface, root zone and deep soil layer indicated statistical difference for different land covers. Meanwhile, temporal variations of soil moisture profile changed with precipitation. However, in deep soil layer, there was a clear lag in response to precipitation. In addition, seasonal variations of profile soil moisture were classified into two types: increasing and waving types. And the stable soil water layer was at 80-120 cm. Furthermore, the infiltration depth exhibited a positive correlation with precipitation under all land uses. This study provided an insight into the implications for land and agricultural water management in this area.

  17. Deforestation and Forest Fires in Roraima and Their Relationship with Phytoclimatic Regions in the Northern Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  18. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter hazy pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2015-08-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter hazy pollutions (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship to the atmospheric circulations in middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter hazy pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. Both the visibility and number of hazy days can be estimated well by using the six indices and fitting and the cross-validation with leave-N-out method, respectively. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter hazy pollutions in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. However, we also noted that the statistic estimation models would be largely influenced by the artificial control of a pollutant discharge. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take actions in advance in dealing with probably severe hazy pollutions in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  19. Forest Carbon Storage in the Northern Midwest, USA: A Bottom-Up Scaling Approach Combining Local Meteorological and Biometric Data With Regional Forest Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, P. S.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    Carbon (C) storage increasingly is considered an important part of the economic return of forestlands, making easily parameterized models for assessing current and future C storage important for both ecosystem and money managers. For the deciduous forests of the northern midwest, USA, detailed information relating annual C storage to local site characteristics can be combined with spatially extensive forest inventories to produce simple, robust models of C storage useful at a variety of scales. At the University of Michigan Biological Station (45o35`' N, 84o42`' W) we measured C storage, or net ecosystem production (NEP), in 65 forest stands varying in age, disturbance history, and productivity (site index) using biometric methods, and independently measured net C exchange at the landscape level using meteorological methods. Our biometric and meteorological estimates of NEP converged to within 1% of each other over five years, providing important confirmation of the robustness of these two approaches applied within northern deciduous forests (Gough et al. 2005). We found a significant relationship between NEP, stand age ( A, yrs), and site index ( Is, m), where NEP = 0.134 + 0.022 * (LN[ A* Is]) (r2 = 0.50, P forests of similar species composition reported in the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis database (ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/) to estimate forest C storage at different scales across the upper midwest, Great Lakes region. Model estimates were validated against independent estimates of C storage for other forests in the region. At the local ecosystem-level (~1 km2) C storage averaged 1.52 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Scaling to the two-county area surrounding our meteorological and biometric study sites, average stand age decreased and site index increased, resulting in estimated storage of 1.62 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, or 0.22 Tg C yr-1 in the 1350 km2 of deciduous forest in this area. For the state of Michigan (31,537 km2 of deciduous forest), average uptake was estimated at 1

  20. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter haze pollution (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship with the atmospheric circulations at middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter haze pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. In the raw (unfiltered) correlations, the correlation coefficients between the six indices and the winter visibility (number of hazy days) varied from 0.57 (0.47) to 0.76 (0.6) with an average of 0.65 (0.54); in the high-frequency ( level, and is then accompanied by a reduction (increase) of horizontal advection and vertical convection (relative humidity) in the lowest troposphere and a reduced boundary layer height in BTH and its neighboring areas, which are favorable for the formation of haze pollution in BTH winter, and vice versa. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter haze pollution in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take action in advance in dealing with probably severe haze pollution in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  1. Geology and hydrogeology of the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland. Synthesis of regional investigations 1981-1993 within the Nagra radioactive waste disposal programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of regional geological investigations that were carried out by Nagra (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) in Northern Switzerland. These investigations assessed the suitability of the crystalline basement as a host rock for a repository for high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste. The investigation programme was conducted during 1981-1993 and included the following: - a deep drilling campaign that consisted of seven boreholes, predominantly cored, with depths that range from 1306 to 2482 m (5900 meters in the crystalline basement and 6400 meters in the overlying sediments) and an extensive programme of logging, packer tests and water sampling, - geophysical investigations that consisted of 400 km of reflection seismics and 230 km of refraction seismics, gravimetry and aeromagnetic surveys, - long-term monitoring of hydraulic pressures, - hydrochemical investigations, - geological mapping and compilation of geological maps, - geological studies of outcrops of the crystalline basement in the Southern Black Forest (Germany), - neotectonic studies, including installation of a network of seven stations for measuring microearthquakes, geodetic measurements, geomorphological studies and stress measurements. Data from the investigation programme were analysed in detail and the resulting information is contained in more than 100 Nagra Technical Reports. This report synthesises all of those results. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  2. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  3. Regional-scale nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for the northern (14°S) and central (17°S) Great Barrier Reef shelf ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, M.; Alongi, D.; McKinnon, D.; Trott, L.; Skuza, M.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonally averaged N and P box model budgets were constructed for two regional-scale sections of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf, one in the near-pristine far-northern GBR (13.5-14.5°S) and the other in the central GBR (17-18°S) adjacent to more intensively farmed wet tropics watersheds. We were unable to simultaneously balance shelf-scale N and P budgets within seasonal or annual time frames, indicating that magnitudes of a number of key input and, especially, loss processes are still poorly constrained. In most cases, current estimates of system-level N and P sources (rainfall, runoff, upwelling, N-fixation) are less than estimated loss processes (denitrification, cross-shelfbreak mixing and burial). Nutrient dynamics in both shelf sections are dominated by the tightly coupled uptake and mineralization of soluble N and P in the water column and the sedimentation-resuspension of particulate detritus. On an area-averaged basis, internal cycling fluxes are an order of magnitude greater than input-output fluxes. Denitrification in shelf sediments is a significant sink for N while lateral mixing is both a source and sink for P.

  4. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5x108 m2 of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested.

  5. Lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt--On deep-seated xenoliths in Minggang region of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Fengxiang; WANG; Chunyang; ZHENG; Jianping

    2004-01-01

    Swarms of mafic-intermediate volcaniclastic bodies occur in the Minggang region of Henan Province, a tectonic boundary between the North Qinling and the North China Block, and emplaced at (178.31±3.77) Ma. These volcanic rocks are subalkaline basaltic andesites and contain abundance of lower crust and mantle xenoliths. Thus this area is an ideal place to reveal the lithospheric composition and structure beneath the northern margin of the Qinling orogenic belt. Geochemical data indicate that these mafic granulites, eclogites and metagabbros have trace elemental and Pb isotopic characteristics very similar to those rocks from the South Qinling Block, representing the lower part of lower crust of the South Qinling which subducted beneath the North China Block. Talcic peridotites represent the overlying mantle wedge materials of the North China Block, which underwent the metasomatism of the acidic melt/fluid released from the underlying lower crust of the South Qinling Block. Deep tectonic model proposed in this paper is that after the Late Paleozoic South Qinling lithosphere subducted northward and decoupled, the upper part of the lithosphere emplaced under the North Qinling and the lower part continuously subducted northward under the North China Block. In Early Mesozoic, the North Qinling Block obducted northward and the North China Block inserted into the Qinling orogenic belt in a crocodile-mouth shape.

  6. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, Lv [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yong, Wu [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 2} of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested. (author)

  7. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. PMID:25529669

  8. Developments Related to Tourism and Their Effects in Debrecen Following the Turn of the Millennium (Northern Great Plain Region, Hungary Success Or Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Vasvári

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the developments related to tourism and their effects in Debrecen, the largest city in the Northern Great Plain Region most of all in the time period after the country joining the European Union. The tourist industrial development regarding the infrastructure and supra-structure inDebrecen is presented. These developed further the traditionally popular attractions (Great Forest of the city. Relationship between the demand and reception conditions are described reflecting statistic data and the role of Debrecen in the market is analysed in relation to several other greater towns of the country. Data reveal that the number of visitors did not increase despite the developments related to tourism in the years following the turn of the millennium, even so it decreased after 2008 similarly to other greater towns of the country. Our questionnaire survey performed among the inhabitants and visitors as well revealed that the realized investments and the produced new attractions have only a slight role in attracting the target audience. Still the traditionally popular attractions attract most of the visitors to Debrecen therefore the most important task for the leaders of the Debrecen-Hortobágy Tourism Destination Management founded in 2010 is to propagate the new attraction elements.

  9. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  10. Evaluation of the contribution of local sources to trace metals levels in urban PM2.5 and PM10 in the Cantabria region (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Axel; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Irabien, Angel

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of local emission sources to the selected trace metals levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Mn, Cu, Mo and Hg) in urban particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, in the Cantabria region (Northern Spain) during the year 2008. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected and characterized in an urban sampling site at Santander (Cantabria); additional PM10 samples were collected at a rural site at Los Tojos (50 Km SW) to evaluate both the urban and rural environment. The particulate matter and the metals regulated by the EC air quality directives (Pb, As, Ni and Cd) did not exceed the EC limit or target values in the Cantabria region. The metal concentrations were much lower at the rural site except for Ni. Different techniques were used to analyse the possible sources of the studied metals: enrichment factor, urban impact, wind and pollutant roses and principal component analysis (PCA). A combination of these techniques allowed us to demonstrate that the local emission sources of metals in the particulate matter at Santander city were the most important. Ti, Ni, As and V were identified as the main urban background tracers while Mn and Pb were the main local industrial tracers. The urban background was found to be the major contributor to PM10. The relationship between the emission tracers and the major air pollutants (NO(2), NO, CO, SO(2),O(3) and PM(10)) was also studied by PCA; a significant relationship between tracers and the major air pollutants was not found, showing a decoupled relationship between major pollutants and metal species in particulate matter. PMID:20517581

  11. New records of bats from the northern region of the Peruvian Amazon%秘鲁亚马孙北部地区蝙蝠新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Mónica Díaz

    2011-01-01

    The northern Amazon Basin in Peru is one of the most diverse areas for small mammals in the world. In this work, I present information related to the diversity of bat species in the Amazonian region of Iquitos, Peru, where nearly 60% of the 152 bat species known to Peru recorded. Unlike in previous investigations in this area, bat surveys were designed to detect species living in urban and rural areas. The results have added a new bat species (Eumops delticus) to the Peruvian fauna, eight new species for the region around Iquitos (Peropteryx macrotis, Peropteryx pallidoptera, Anoura caudifer, Lionycteris spurrelli, Vampyrum spectrum, Thyroptera lavali, Cynomops planirostris, and Molossus coibensis), and a new species for Northeast Peru (Eumops maurus).%位于秘鲁的亚马孙盆地北部是世界小型哺乳动物多样性最高的地区之一.该文报道了亚马孙流域在秘鲁伊基托斯的蝙蝠物种多样性:这里的蝙蝠物种数约占秘鲁已知152个蝙蝠物种的60%.与在该地区之前开展的研究不同,本次调查范围为城市和农村地区.结果发现1个秘鲁新记录(Eumops delticus)、8个伊基托斯新记录(Peropteryx macrotis、Peropteryx pallidoptera、Anoura caudifer、Lionycteris spurrelli、Vampyrum spectrum、Thyroptera lavali、Cynomops planirostris和Molossus coibensis)和1个秘鲁东北部新记录(Eumops maurus).

  12. The Cretaceous Duimiangou adakite-like intrusion from the Chifeng region, northern North China Craton: Crustal contamination of basaltic magma in an intracontinental extensional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lebing; Wei, Junhao; Kusky, Timothy M.; Chen, Huayong; Tan, Jun; Li, Yanjun; Shi, Wenjie; Chen, Chong; Zhao, Shaoqing

    2012-03-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope compositions of the Duimiangou (DMG) quartz monzonite from the Chifeng region on the northern North China Craton (NCC) were studied to investigate its derivation, evolution and geodynamic significance. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U-Pb dating yields an emplacement age of 128 ± 1 Ma for this intrusion, with numerous Mesozoic inherited zircons clustering at 219 ± 12 Ma and 161 ± 3 Ma, along with some ancient zircons with ages of 2.5 Ga, 1.77 Ga and 324 Ma. Bulk-rock analyses show that this intrusion is characterized by variable SiO2 (63.4-69.4 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.5-16.3 wt.%), Na2O + K2O (8.01-8.95 wt.%), and Mg# (41.3-48.0). They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements without significant Eu anomalies (mostly between 0.89-1.10), and depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements, with high Sr/Y (63.7-101.7) and (La/Yb)N (20.5-31.0) ratios. The DMG intrusion formed in an intracontinental extensional setting contemporaneous with the formation of pull-apart basins, metamorphic core complexes and intense magmatism, rather than in a convergent margin. It has homogeneous Sr ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7059-0.7066), Nd (εNd(t) = - 6.2 to - 7.2) and Pb ((206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.289-17.375, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.359-15.463, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.130-37.472) isotope compositions. Sr-Nd isotope modeling results, plus relatively young Nd model ages (1522-1618 Ma) and the presence of relict zircons, suggest that this intrusion could have originated from crustal contamination of newly formed basaltic melts derived from asthenospheric mantle, accompanied by fractional crystallization of K-feldspar, biotite, apatite, Fe-Ti oxides and minor hornblende and plagioclase. Thus, the DMG adakite-like intrusion may record the magmatic event associated with underplating of asthenospheric magma in an intracontinental extensional

  13. Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en un consultorio de atención primaria de Antofagasta durante el año 2011.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Soto B; Gino Sturione K.; Diego González S.; Jessica Troncoso A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN : Las patologías músculoesqueléticas son prevalentes en atención primaria, alcanzando 50,6% en mujeres y 31,4% de los hombres entre 45 y 64 años. En la sala de atención kinésica del CESFAM Corvallis de Antofagasta, se realiza manejo kinésico a las patologías musculoesqueléticas agudas. OBJETIVO : Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en patologías musculoesqueléticas en CESFAM Corvallis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO : Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Se incluyeron todos los pacien...

  14. Regional Equivalent Water Thickness Modeling from Remote Sensing across a Tree Cover/LAI Gradient in Mediterranean Forests of Northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedia Chakroun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of vegetation indexes derived from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors is explored for drought monitoring in the forests of Northern Tunisia; representing a transition zone between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. We investigated the suitability of biomass and moisture vegetation indexes for vegetation water content expressed by the equivalent water thickness (EWT in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem with contrasted water budgets and desiccation rates. We proposed a revised EWT at canopy level (EWTCAN based on weekly field measurements of fuel moisture in seven species during the 2010 dry period; considering the mixture of plant functional types for water use (trees; shrubs and herbaceous layers and a varying vegetation cover. MODIS vegetation indexes computed and smoothed over the dry season were highly correlated with the EWTCAN. The performances of moisture indexes (Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII6 and NDII7; and Global Moisture Vegetation Index (GVMI6 and GVMI7 were comparable; whereas; for biomass vegetation indexes; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI and Adjusted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ANDVI performed better than Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI. We also identified the effect of Leaf Area Index (LAI on EWTCAN monitoring at the regional scale under the tree cover/LAI gradient of the region from relatively dense to open forest. Statistical analysis revealed a significant decreasing linear relationship; indicating that for LAI less than two; the greater the LAI; the less responsive are the vegetation indexes to changes in EWTCAN; whereas for higher LAI; its influence becomes less significant and was not considered in the inversion models based on vegetation indexes. The EWTCAN time-course from LAI-adapted inversion models; based on significantly-related vegetation

  15. Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Niños Escolarizados Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in School Age Children in Antofagasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFONSO URZÚA M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia encontrada del Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad en la ciudad de Antofagasta. Método: A través de las Escalas Attention Deficit Hiperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV [ADHD RS-IV] fueron evaluados apoderados y profesores de 640 niños (290 niños y 350 niñas entre 6 y 11 años, provenientes de establecimientos educacionales públicos, subvencionados y privados. Resultados: Se encuentran prevalencias que oscilan entre un 5% a un 15% dependiendo del informante, las cuales disminuyen a un 2% considerando criterios cumplidos en dos ambientes. Existen diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres, así como entre rangos de edad. Conclusión: La prevalencia estimada de TDAH es mayor en hombres entre 6 a 8 años, siendo el subtipo más frecuente el combinado.Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in the city of Antofagasta. Patients and Methods: Teachers and parents of 640 children (290 boys and 350 girls between 6 and 11 years, from public, subsidized and private schools were evaluated through the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV [ADHD-RS IV]. Results: Utilizing the ADHD Scale independently, the prevalence ranged between 5% and 15% depending on the informant. This number decreased to 2% when the criteria were required both at home and school environments. Conclusion: In our population the prevalence of ADHD is highest in boys 6 to 8 years of age, being the combined disorder the most common subtype found in this group.

  16. Long-term persistence of subduction earthquake segment boundaries: Evidence from Mejillones Peninsula, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, P.; Sobiesiak, M.; Glodny, J.; Nielsen, S. N.; Oncken, O.

    2011-02-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula in northern Chile has been recognized as the surface expression of a segment boundary for large subduction zone earthquakes. The sharp contact between the rupture planes of two instrumentally recorded earthquakes, the Mw = 8.0 Antofagasta (1995) and the Mw = 7.7 Tocopilla (2007) events, is located beneath the central part of Mejillones Peninsula. We present new chronostratigraphic and structural data that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Peninsula at the surface and correlation of the latter with seismic cycle deformation on the plate interface. Uplift commenced after 3.4 Myr, as recorded in the western highland. The central graben area on the Peninsula started uplifting above sea level as an anticlinal hinge zone prior to 400 kyr ago, most probably 790 kyr ago. The resulting E-W trending hinge exactly overlies the limit between the rupture planes of the Antofagasta and Tocopilla earthquakes. By correlating the uplift data with the slip distribution of the above earthquakes, we demonstrate that deformation and uplift is focused during the postseismic and interseismic periods of the megathrust seismic cycle with coseismic deformation opposed to the long-term motion. Additionally, the slip deficit beneath the Peninsula accumulating between events is probably largely recovered by creep. Hence we suggest that Mejillones Peninsula owes its existence to the lateral variation of the propensity for unstable slip at the interface. Since the latter is a material property, the long-term spatial stability of the Peninsula as a barrier to rupture propagation since at least the middle Pleistocene is a necessary consequence.

  17. A regional view of urban sedimentary basins in Northern California based on oil industry compressional-wave velocity and density logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Compressional-wave (sonic) and density logs from 119 oil test wells provide knowledge of the physical properties and impedance contrasts within urban sedimentary basins in northern California, which is needed to better understand basin amplification. These wire-line logs provide estimates of sonic velocities and densities for primarily Upper Cretaceous to Pliocene clastic rocks between 0.1 - and 5.6-km depth to an average depth of 1.8 km. Regional differences in the sonic velocities and densities in these basins largely 1reflect variations in the lithology, depth of burial, porosity, and grain size of the strata, but not necessarily formation age. For example, Miocene basin filling strata west of the Calaveras Fault exhibit higher sonic velocities and densities than older but finer-grained and/or higher-porosity rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Great Valley Sequence. As another example, hard Eocene sandstones west of the San Andreas Fault have much higher impedances than Eocene strata, mainly higher-porosity sandstones and shales, located to the east of this fault, and approach those expected for Franciscan Complex basement rocks. Basement penetrations define large impedence contrasts at the sediment/basement contact along the margins of several basins, where Quaternary, Pliocene, and even Miocene deposits directly overlie Franciscan or Salinian basement rocks at depths as much as 1.7 km. In contrast, in the deepest, geographic centers of the basins, such logs exhibit only a modest impedance contrast at the sediment/basement contact at depths exceeding 2 km. Prominent (up to 1 km/sec) and thick (up to several hundred meters) velocity and density reversals in the logs refute the common assumption that velocities and densities increase monotonically with depth.

  18. Molluscan life and death assemblages of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuschin, Martin; Gützer, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). Most case studies on LD agreement were performed in temperate environments. We studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea, which is under increasing anthropogenic pressure from tourism. A total of 3,566 molluscs from nine tidal flat and nine sublittoral stations were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 97 recorded species, one potamidid gastropod dominated strongly and another 4 species were numerically abundant. There were many more dead (70.3%) than living individuals, with large differences between gastropods (57.5% dead) and bivalves (95.5% dead), and between the intertidal (49.3% dead) and the subtidal (96.2% dead). The mean number of species per sample is lower in the intertidal than in the subtidal, and this difference is much higher in the death assemblage than in the life assemblage. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, however, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. More samples would be necessary to account for the diversity of living molluscs in the study area, which is, however, well recorded in the death assemblages. There is no indication of a major environmental change over the last decades in this area.

  19. Relative impact of previous disturbance history on the likelihood of additional disturbance in the Northern United States Forest Service USFS Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Landsat archive is increasingly being used to detect trends in the occurrence of forest disturbance. Beyond information about the amount of area affected, forest managers need to know if and how disturbance regimes change. The National Forest System (NFS) has developed a comprehensive plan for carbon monitoring that requires a detailed temporal mapping of forest disturbances across 75 million hectares. A long-term annual time series that shows the timing, extent, and type of disturbance beginning in 1990 and ending in 2011 has been prepared for several USFS Regions, including the Northern Region. Our mapping starts with an automated detection of annual disturbances using a time series of historical Landsat imagery. Automated detections are meticulously inspected, corrected and labeled using various USFS ancillary datasets. The resulting maps of verified disturbance show the timing and types are fires, harvests, insect activity, disease, and abiotic (wind, drought, avalanche) damage. Also, the magnitude of each change event is modeled in terms of the proportion of canopy cover lost. The sequence of disturbances for every pixel since 1990 has been consistently mapped and is available across the entirety of NFS. Our datasets contain sufficient information to describe the frequency of stand replacement, as well as how often disturbance results in only a partial loss of canopy. This information provides empirical insight into how an initial disturbance may predispose a stand to further disturbance, and it also show a climatic signal in the occurrence of processes such as fire and insect epidemics. Thus, we have the information to model the likelihood of occurrence of certain disturbances after a given event (i.e. if we have a fire in the past what does that do to the likelihood of occurrence of insects in the future). Here, we explore if previous disturbance history is a reliable predictor of additional disturbance in the future and we present results of applying

  20. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  1. Geological analysis and petrographic training Tarata in careers (Upper Paleozoic)-test paleoclimatic interpretation in the light of the glacial episode devono-carboniferous (Arlit region, northern Niger)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I - Lower Carboniferous glacial Designed west of the Air (northern Niger), it consists mainly of coarse sandstone with few pebbles scattered or polygenic conglomerate matrix abundant silty-clay sandstone. The ice structures, such as eskers, kames and Pingo are very well represented, but are smaller. The glacial facies are characterized by rapid lateral variations and fall into a narrow submeridional. The small extension of these facies and the position of this region at about 50 degrees south latitude in the Carboniferous period Devono-lead to believe that these phenomena related to valley glaciers mountain, but not necessarily requiring very high altitude at this latitude. II - Formation of Tarat:1-Stratigraphy. The sedimentological and petrographic study of tarat in the quarries in the region SOMAIR Arlit shows that this training has three distinct lithostratigraphic units separated by erosive surfaces of discontinuities with a major tarat located between the middle and upper Tarat . Biostratigraphy made from pollen analysis and paleobotanical studies confirm that major lithologic discontinuity between the deposition of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Permian those with a gap in the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian, it will be specified by further studies.2-Paleoclimatology. The new observations in the same career and the existence of glacial phenomena mentioned above before submitting the formation of tarat, led to consider the latter assuming a palaeoenvironment periglacial hypothesis that, in light periglacial seems to reject. Indeed, many characters observed (solifluction, grooves and ridges possible, relatively fresh feldspar) can also be observed in temperate and cold at that time, the region was located approximately 40 degrees south latitude.3-Volcanism.The existence of volcanism contemporaneous with deposition of Tarat was highlighted on one hand with the study of elements vitroclastiques, other hand with the cluster analysis of zircon, the zirconium

  2. Cruise report for a seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Mississippi Canyon region, northern Gulf of Mexico; cruise M1-98-GM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan K.; Hart, Patrick E.; Pecher, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    During June 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of Mississippi Marine Minerals Technology Center (MMTC) conducted a 12-day cruise in the Mississippi Canyon region of the Gulf of Mexico (Fig. 1). The R/V Tommy Munro, owned by the Marine Research Institute of the University of Southern Mississippi, was chartered for the cruise. The general objective was to acquire very high resolution seismic-reflection data across of the upper and middle continental slope (200-1200-m water depths) to study the acoustic character, distribution and potential effects of gas hydrates within the shallow subsurface, extending from the sea floor down to the base of the gas-hydrate stability zone. The Gulf of Mexico is well known for hydrocarbon resources that include petroleum and related gases. Areas of the Gulf that lie in waters deeper than about 250 m potentially have conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, near-surface gas content, etc.) that are right for the shallow-subsurface formation of the ice-like substance (gas and water) known as gas hydrate (Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrates have previously been sampled in sea-floor cores and observed as massive mounds in several parts of the northern Gulf, including the Mississippi Canyon region (e.g., Anderson et al., 1992). Extensive seismic data have been recorded in the Gulf, in support of commercial drilling efforts, but few very high resolution data exist in the public domain to aid in gas-hydrate studies. Studies of long-term interest include those on the resource potential of gas hydrates, the geologic hazards associated with dissociation and formation of hydrates, and the impact, if any, of gas-hydrate dissociation on atmospheric warming (i.e., via release of methane, a "greenhouse" gas). Several very high resolution seismic systems (surface-towed, deep-towed, and sea-floor) were used during the cruise to test the feasibility of using such data for detailed structural (geometric) and stratigraphic (physical

  3. Mineralogía y evolución de las salmueras madres en el yacimiento de nitratos Pedro de Valdivia, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pueyo

    1998-07-01

    disposición rellenando fisuras (y porosidades, la casi ausencia de crecimientos desplazativos (configurando nódulos o enterolitos y de otras estructuras características de las evaporitas.ABSTRACT Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta,Chile.The Chilean nitrate deposits have been formed by a complex paragenesis of saline minerals that infill the porosity and open spaces of different country rocks. The study of the mineral infilling sequences in the rock porosities at the Pedro de Valdivia deposit has enabled to gain information about the evolution of the parental brines of the saline (nitrate bearing paragenesis. This evolution is revealed by the precipitation of a sequence of progressively more soluble minerals: silicates (zeolites; calcite; Ca-, Na-, (K- and Mg-sulphates; Na- and KMg-nitrate-sulphates; nitratine; and small amounts of iodates, Na- and KMg-iodate-sulphates, chromates, borates and perchlorates. Two specific trends have been distinguished in the general sequence. A Na- trend characterised by the association glauberite-darapskite-(hectorfloresite, and a K-Mg-Na- trend related to bloedite-polyhalite-humberstonite-niter-(fuenzalidaite. Parental brines of the deposit were Oligocene-Miocene (but older that 6 Ma the age of the mineralisation. The main physiographic features were similar to the recent ones in this period, the climate being more humid. The genesis of the parental brines of the Chilean nitrate deposits is assumed to include thermal processes and recycling by leaching of previous salts formed in the arid environment of the Atacama Desert. Evaporation has also been involved in their genesis. It is the only mechanism effective enough to saturate the brines in very soluble minerals. Nevertheless, the nitrate ores cannot be considered as true evaporites owing to their arrangement infilling veins (and porosities and the almost complete absence of displacive growths (as nodules or enterolithes and

  4. Behavioural ecology of captive otters Lutra lutra in the Breeding Centre of the Natural Park of Ticino Valley (Piemonte Region, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fumagalli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted on a pair of otters (Lutra lutra housed in an enclosure of 1.64 ha, located within a wet wood in the Natural Park of the Ticino Valley (northern Italy, Piemonte region. This enclosure contained two ponds (0.2 and 0.45 ha with fairly good cover vegetation, where a fish biomass of 201.5 kg/ha, represented by 14 fish species, was assessed by electrofishing. Though the food supply for otter was fairly good, the animals were daily fed with 1.5 kg of chicks, meat or rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri. In order to evaluate the habitat selection of otters, the enclosure was divided into 15 environmental units (EU. Hunting, swimming and playing (exclusively in pair were the main behavioural activities and were preferentially performed close to the ponds' bank, where a thick cover occurred. Otters selected patches for foraging where fish was concentrated and particularly vulnerable to predation. The hunting impact in a given EU (defined as ratio between the number of prey caught in the EU and the total number of prey was correlated with the hunting time spent in the same EU. Habitat use evaluated by direct observations differed from that determined by considering the marking level (number of spraints and anal secretions. The consumption of the different fish species did not seem to be determined by their relative abundance. Perca fluviatilis was particularly selected. Riassunto Ecologia comportamentale della lontra Lutra lutra nel centro di studio del Parco Naturale della Valle del Ticino (Regione Piemonte - Lo studio è stato condotto su una coppia di lontra (Lutra lutra tenuta in un ampio recinto (1.64 ha, situato nel Parco Naturale della Valle del Ticino (Regione Piemonte, Provincia di Novara. L'area cintata è ritagliata all'interno di un bosco planiziale e comprende 2 bacini idrici (0,2 e 0,4 ha bordati da discreta copertura

  5. Changing source regions of magmas and crustal growth in the Trans-Himalayas: evidence from the Chalt volcanics and Kohistan batholith, Kohistan, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, M. G.; Windley, B. F.

    1991-03-01

    The Kohistan batholith and Chalt volcanics form a major part of the Kohistan island arc terrane in northern Pakistan. They record some 70-80 Ma of magmatism within the northwestern Himalayan orogen; the Chalt volcanics are Albian-Aptian (mid-Cretaceous), and currently available Rb sbnd Sr age data for the batholith indicate an intrusive age span of 102 to 30 Ma. The volcanics are composed of medium-K, calc-alkaline andesites and low-K, high-Mg, tholeiites, some of which have boninitic and basaltic komatiitic chemistry. Three intrusive stages are recognised in the batholith: (1) (110-90 Ma) comprises low-K trondhjemites and medium-high-K calc-alkaline gabbro-diorites with associated hornblendite cumulates; (2) (85-40 Ma) comprises low-high-K, calc-alkaline gabbro-diorites (with hornblendite cumulates, granodiorites and granites; and (3) (circa 30 Ma) comprises biotite ± muscovite ± garnet leucogranites. 87Sr/ 86Sr 0 for the batholith range between 0.7039 and 0.7052. Four magmatic source regions (Sce 1-Sce 4) have been identified. Sce 1 is a variably metasomatised mantle wedge situated above an active subduction zone during stages 1 and 2. Sce 2 is a harzburgite depleted with respect to major elements and incompatibles, whilst retaining "subduction-related" trace element ratios. Sce 2 melted during stage 1 within a fore-arc position during the subduction of young, hot oceanic crust to provide the necessary extra thermal input for harzburgite anatexis. Melts from Sce 2 produced the high-Mg tholeiitic volcanics. Sce 3 melted during stage 1 to produce the low-K trondhjemites, and it is envisaged as incompatible element-depleted primitive arc crust with a similar composition to the depleted Chalt volcanics. Sce 4 melted at 30 Ma during stage 3 as India underthrust Eurasia: frictional heating and dehydration of the Indian plate caused crustal anatexis within the deep Kohistan arc and these melts formed the stage 3 leucogranites. The low 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios for the

  6. 北方地区中幼龄林抚育管护的经济效益分析%Strengthening the Economic Benefits of Young Forest Tending Maintenance in the Northern Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军

    2016-01-01

    The northern area is rich in forest resources, for example, the Greater Khingan Range and the Little Xingan Ridge, through the management and protection of forest resources can improve its production capacity, improve the quality of forest resources. Important stage in which the conservation of forest resources in the young forest stage, the stage of the conservation of forest resources for the future growth of trees pad set a good basis for promoting the sustainable use of forest resources, and produce good economic returns. This paper analyzes the economic benefits of strengthening of the northern areas of young forest tending maintenance, in order to strengthen the northern region of tending young forest maintenance efforts to promote the healthy growth of forest resources in the northern region.%北方地区森林资源丰富,比如东北的大小兴安岭,对森林资源进行管护可以提高其生产能力,提高森林资源质量。其中对森林资源管护的重要阶段是中幼龄林阶段,这一阶段对森林资源的管护为林木以后的成长垫定良好基础,促进森林资源可持续利用,并且会产生良好的经济效益。加强北方地区中幼龄林抚育管护的经济效益进行分析,旨在加强对北方地区中幼龄林的抚育养护力度,促进北方地区森林资源健康成长。

  7. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza; Nelcimar Reis Sousa; Ricardo Lopes; André Luiz Atroch; Edson Barcelos; Everton Cordeiro; Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira; Rafael Moisés Alves; João Tomé de Farias Neto; Hiroshi Noda; Danilo F Silva Filho; Kaoru Yuyama; Caio Márcio Vasconcellos Cordeiro de Almeida; Maria Teresa Gomes Lopes; Selma Toyoko Ohashi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in ec...

  8. Regional conductivity data used to reassess Early Palaeozoic structure in the Northern Ireland sector of the Southern Uplands-Down-Longford terrane

    OpenAIRE

    Beamish, D.; G. S. Kimbell; Stone, P.; Anderson, T B

    2010-01-01

    A high-resolution, airborne conductivity survey has proved spectacularly successful in delineating the zones of carbonaceous mudstone (Moffat Shale Group) that form the structural and stratigraphical base of various sandstone-dominated tracts within the Northern Ireland sector of the Southern Uplands–Down–Longford Ordovician–Silurian accretionary terrane. The anomalies associated with mudstone both at outcrop and concealed allow the major tract boundary faults to be plotted across large areas...

  9. 桂北地区文化共享工程培训工作的实践与思考%Considerations about the Practice of Training Work for Cultural Sharing Project in Northern Guangxi Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白薇

    2015-01-01

    全面介绍了桂北地区开展文化共享工程培训工作的基本情况和具体做法,阐述了桂北地区开展文化共享工程培训工作的体会和思路。%This paper carries out a comprehensive introduction to the basic situation of and concrete measures for the training work of North Guangxi Region’s cultural sharing project, and describes the experiences and ideas of Northern Guangxi Region to carry out the training work of cultural sharing project.

  10. Ship-based observations of atmospheric potential oxygen and regional air-sea O2 flux in the northern North Pacific and the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Ishidoya, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Hiroshi; Sasano, Daisuke; Kosugi, Naohiro; Taguchi, Shoichi; Ishii, Masao; Morimoto, Shinji; Tohjima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murayama, Shohei; Aoki, Shuji; Ishijima, Kentaro; Fujita, Ryo; Goto, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Takakiyo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of atmospheric potential oxygen (APO=O2+1.1×CO2) and air–sea O2 flux, derived from dissolved oxygen in surface seawater, were carried out onboard the research vessel MIRAI in the northern North Pacific and the Arctic Ocean in the autumns of 2012–2014. A simulation of the APO was also carried out using a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model that incorporated a monthly air–sea O2 flux climatology. By comparing the observed and simulated APO, as well as the obs...

  11. Interannual variation in summer N2O concentration in the hypoxic region of the northern Gulf of Mexico, 1985–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, I.-N.; Lee, K; H. W. Bange; Macdonald, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial nitrous oxide (N2O) production in the ocean is enhanced under low-oxygen (O2) conditions. This is especially important in the context of increasing hypoxia (i.e., oceanic zones with extremely reduced O2 concentrations). Here, we present a study on the interannual variation in summertime nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), which is well-known as the site of the second largest seasonally occurring hypoxic zon...

  12. Interannual variation in summer N2O concentration in the hypoxic region of the northern Gulf of Mexico, 1985–2007

    OpenAIRE

    I.-N. Kim; Lee, K; H. W. Bange; Macdonald, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present evidence of temporal variation in nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) hypoxic zone. The analysis is based on a conceptual model simulating N2O biogeochemical processes in conjunction with water-column O2 levels, derived from summer Texas–Louisiana shelf-wide hydrographic data for twenty Julys between 1985 and 2007. The mean modeled nGOM N2O concentration was 7.7 ± 6.7 nmol L−1, and was significantly correlated wit...

  13. Production function analysis for smallholder semi-subsistence and semi-commercial poultry production systems in three agro-ecological regions in Northern provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tung, Dinh Xuan; Rasmussen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A formal cross section survey of 360 smallholder poultry keeping farms located in three agro-ecological regions in Vietnam was conducted. Cobb-Douglas production functions were applied to analyse and compare semi-subsistence and semi-commercial smallholder poultry systems in three regions. The...... general assumption is that the poultry production output at the farm level depends on the number of birds, feed amount, labor amount, garden size, income level and veterinary costs. In this study statistical tests were conducted to analyze the differences between regions and production systems. The...... Midland region. Regardless of region and system, the results indicate that the farm poultry output was most responsive to the variable feed per bird. However, the influence differed between production systems and regions. The major conclusion of the analysis is that there was a significant difference in...

  14. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  15. From regionally predictable to locally complex population structure in a freshwater top predator: River systems are not always the unit of connectivity in Northern Pike Esox lucius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Jacobsen, Lene; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer;

    2015-01-01

    structure from local to regional scales is relatively poorly described, in spite of its significance to developing conservation measures. We analysed microsatellite variation in a total of 1185 North European pike from 46 samples collected across both local and regional scales, as well as over time, to...... address two overarching questions: Is pike population structure associated with local and/or regional connectivity patterns, and which factors likely have the main influence on the contemporary distribution of genetic diversity? To answer this, we combined estimators of population diversity and structure...... to assess evidence of whether populations within (i) habitats, (ii) drainage systems and (iii) geographical regions are closer related than among these ranges, and whether patterns are temporally stable. Contrasting previous predictions that genetic drift obscures signals of postglacial colonisation...

  16. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  17. Late Cenozoic Deformation of the Coastal Cordillera, Northern Chilean Forearc, 18- 25°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; González, G.; Loveless, J. P.; Carrizo, D.

    2007-12-01

    Overlying the only part of the South American continental crust that is in direct contact with the subducting Nazca Plate, the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru should provide the most complete geological record of the coupling between the two plates. This record of coupling is exquisitely preserved in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This preservation is both one of the major advantages and major challenges of working in this region: On the positive side, exposure of geomorphic surfaces is complete and unencumbered by erosion or vegetation, and brittle saline soils preserve subtle deformation features that would quickly be obliterated in more humid environments. On the negative side, ancient geomorphic features are just as fresh as Recent one and the lack of organic material precludes radiocarbon dating, a traditional tool of paleoseismology. During the last several years, we have concentrated on documenting three fundamental characteristics of late Cenozoic forearc deformation: (1) NS shortening on reverse faults striking at a high angle to, and dextral-reverse faults striking oblique to, the continental margin; (2) N-striking normal faults of the forearc and their reactivation, locally, as reverse faults; and (3) extensive suites of tension cracks. Reverse faults striking at a high angle to the margin are present between 19 and 21.5°S, straddling the topographic symmetry plane that marks the axis of the Bolivian orocline. Limited dating of tuffs and surfaces shows that these structures have been active for at least the last 6 Ma. At least 5 of these structures -- Atajaña, Pisagua, Iquique north and south, and Barranco Alto -- cut the Pleistocene marine terraces of the coastal platform, producing 20 to 50 m of vertical offset. A forearc crustal earthquake just south of Pisagua in March 2007 demonstrates that margin parallel shortening continues to the present and that permanent deformation occurs during the interseismic part of the plate

  18. Multiple Sulfate Isotopic Evidence on the Formation of Oxide Copper Ore at Spence, Atacama Desert, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Bao, H.; Reich, M.; Palacios, C.

    2007-12-01

    In the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, one of the world's richest metallogenic provinces, porphyry copper deposits are characterized by the unique occurrence of atacamite in their oxidized zones. The origin and formation of the oxide zone of these copper deposits is, however, controversial. It was proposed that Cl-rich deep formation water pumping-up events along faults by earthquakes, after onset of the hyperaridity, were required (Cameron et al., 2007). Their model would imply that supplies of saline deep formation water from fractures to the surface should have left behind a homogeneous or fracture-controlled salt profile from surface down to the oxide zone. While no excluding the deep formation water model in other deposit, here we propose that, in our sampling region, the alternative saline source, which is critical for atacamite formation, could be locally evaporated groundwater, Cl-rich salts leached from arid surface by meteoric water, or brines from eastern salar basins at a time when the climate in northern Chile was changing from arid to hyperarid. At this climate transition, arid- requiring minerals such as atacamite in the oxide zone were formed and, more importantly, preserved upon evaporation beneath the surface alluvial deposits. Since salt accumulation at the surface remain active during hyperarid condition, our model would predict that water-soluble salt profile from surface to the oxide zone should have a characteristic pattern: salts with an atmospheric component on the surface gradually transitioning to salts of the oxide ore zone on the bottom and a mixing zone in between. To test these two alternative models, we focus on sulfate salts, one of the common water-soluble salts in arid environments. An added advantage is that sulfate accumulated on desert surface has a secondary atmospheric component that bears a unique triple oxygen isotope signature, easily distinguishable from sulfate formed by the oxidation of sulfide minerals at the oxide

  19. Occurrence of arsenic species in algae and freshwater plants of an extreme arid region in northern Chile, the Loa River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Albert; Márquez, Anna; López-Sánchez, José Fermín; Rubio, Roser; Barbero, Mercedes; Stegen, Susana; Queirolo, Fabrizio; Díaz-Palma, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study reports data on arsenic speciation in two green algae species (Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.) and in five aquatic plants (Azolla sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, Phylloscirpus cf. desserticola, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia filifolia and Zannichellia palustris) from the Loa River Basin in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Arsenic content was measured by Mass spectrometry coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), after acidic digestion. Liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation, using both anionic and cationic chromatographic exchange systems. Inorganic arsenic compounds were the main arsenic species measured in all samples. The main arsenic species in the extracts of freshwater algae and plants were arsenite and arsenate, whereas glycerol-arsenosugar (gly-sug), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and methylarsonic acid (MA) were present only as minor constituents. Of the samples studied, algae species accumulated more arsenic than aquatic plants. Total arsenic content ranged from 182 to 11100 and from 20 to 248 mg As kg(-1) (d.w.) in algae and freshwater plants, respectively. In comparison with As concentration in water samples, there was hyper-accumulation (>0.1% d.w.) in Cladophora sp. PMID:22981629

  20. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM2.5 aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈5.5μgm(-3)) and the lowest in the warm months (≈2.7μgm(-3)) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈1.4μgm(-3)) in comparison with spring/summer (≈0.6μgm(-3)). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (pplants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OCsec. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids - to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol - anhydrosugars - to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning - bio-sugars - to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources - and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. PMID:26925729

  1. Radionuclide migration around uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory, Australia - analogue of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate geochemical analogues may be used to reduce the uncertainties in predicting the long-term transport of actinides, radium and fission products from laboratory adsorption and hydrological data. In this study the migration of uranium series nuclides within, and down-gradient of ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers uranium province of the Northern Territory of Australia is described. A mathematical framework was developed to permit calculation of the rate of leaching or deposition of uranium and radium between defined zones of the ore bodies, and the rate of loss of the nuclides due to groundwater transport and surface erosion. A detailed study was made of the distribution of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes within various minerals comprising the weathered ore assemblage. Uranium and thorium concentrate principally in the iron minerals and radium in the clay-quartz phases. Substantial disequilibria are observed, which are attributed to a combination of α-recoil and chemical effects. Evidence of the relative lability of iron phases is presented. The transport of uranium series nuclides in groundwater intersecting the deposits was investigated. Down-gradient of the Ranger One deposit, the maximum retardation factor of uranium is 250. The role of colloids in groundwater transport is being studied. Uranium is transported principally in solution. There appears to be an equilibrium between solute and articulate uranium

  2. Influence of regional pollution and sandstorms on the chemical composition of cloud/fog at the summit of Mt. Taishan in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jia; Wang, Tao; Ding, Aijun; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yang; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-03-01

    Cloud/fog samples were collected during spring of 2007 in the highly polluted North China Plain in order to examine the impact of pollution and dust particles on cloud water chemistry. The volume weighted mean pH of cloud water was 3.68. The cloud acidity was shown to be associated with air mass origins. Cloud water with its air mass trajectories originating from the southern part of China was more acidic than those from northern China. Anthropogenic source and dust had obvious impact on cloud water composition as indicated by the very high mean concentrations of SO42- (1331.65 μeq L- 1), NO3- (772.44 μeq L- 1), NH4+ (1375.92 μeq L- 1) and Ca2+ (625.81 μeq L- 1) in the observation periods. During sandstorm days, cloud pH values were relatively high, and the concentrations of all the ions in cloud water reached unusual high levels. Significant decreases in the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were observed during cloud events. The average scavenging ratio for PM2.5 and PM10 was 52.0% and 55.7%, respectively. Among the soluble ions in fine particles, NO3-, K+ and NH4+ tend to be more easily scavenged than Ca2+ and Na+.

  3. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A; Fernández-Olmo, I; Irabien, A

    2011-05-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. PMID:21376438

  4. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, PO Box 321, Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedead@squ.edu.om [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2015-01-01

    The level of uptake and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by farm workers in Oman is low; the conditions under which pesticides are stored are frequently below acceptable international standards. Research was undertaken to explore the drivers working against safe storage of agrochemicals and effective personal protection usage by pesticide application personnel. Results from a survey of over 200 respondents, representing workers in, and owners of, farms either within or outside a local farmer's association (FA), suggest that FA membership raises standards of behaviour both in terms of safe pesticide storage and use of PPE. Age of respondents had no apparent effect on the likelihood of PPE (gloves and masks) use. PPE use was, however, highest among respondents with more advanced educational backgrounds. Positive responses for glove and mask use, when applying pesticides, were higher for owners and workers in FA farms compared to non-FA farms. Lowest reported use of PPE was among workers in non-FA farms. Analysis of responses appears to indicate that behaviour patterns of workers in FA farms mirror that of the farm owners. This was not the case in non-FA farms. The results suggest that conformity to social norms, in this case acceptable work-environment behaviour, is a powerful driver behind raised usage levels of PPE in farms in Oman. - Highlights: • Pesticide-related safety standards are frequently poor on many farms in Northern Oman. • Pesticides are frequently stored within the living accommodation of farm workers. • Safety standards generally increase with the education status of farm workers. • A local farmers’ association (FA) has the effect of raising safety standards on member’s farms. • FA farm workers are more likely to conform to the behaviour shown by owners of FA farms.

  5. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of uptake and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by farm workers in Oman is low; the conditions under which pesticides are stored are frequently below acceptable international standards. Research was undertaken to explore the drivers working against safe storage of agrochemicals and effective personal protection usage by pesticide application personnel. Results from a survey of over 200 respondents, representing workers in, and owners of, farms either within or outside a local farmer's association (FA), suggest that FA membership raises standards of behaviour both in terms of safe pesticide storage and use of PPE. Age of respondents had no apparent effect on the likelihood of PPE (gloves and masks) use. PPE use was, however, highest among respondents with more advanced educational backgrounds. Positive responses for glove and mask use, when applying pesticides, were higher for owners and workers in FA farms compared to non-FA farms. Lowest reported use of PPE was among workers in non-FA farms. Analysis of responses appears to indicate that behaviour patterns of workers in FA farms mirror that of the farm owners. This was not the case in non-FA farms. The results suggest that conformity to social norms, in this case acceptable work-environment behaviour, is a powerful driver behind raised usage levels of PPE in farms in Oman. - Highlights: • Pesticide-related safety standards are frequently poor on many farms in Northern Oman. • Pesticides are frequently stored within the living accommodation of farm workers. • Safety standards generally increase with the education status of farm workers. • A local farmers’ association (FA) has the effect of raising safety standards on member’s farms. • FA farm workers are more likely to conform to the behaviour shown by owners of FA farms

  6. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  7. Prevalence of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the surface water of a livestock production region in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Zhang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L(-1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment.

  8. Mixing state and sources of submicron regional background aerosols in the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the influence of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. J.; Chen, S. R.; Xu, Y. S.; Guo, X. C.; Sun, Y. L.; Yang, X. Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. D.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to obtain morphology, size, composition, and mixing state of background aerosols with diameter less than 1 μm in the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) during 15 September to 15 October 2013. Individual aerosol particles mainly contained secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA - sulfate and nitrate) and organics during clean periods (PM2.5 mass concentration less than 2.5 μg m-3). The presence of K-Na-Cl associated with organics and an increase in soot particles suggest that an intense biomass burning event caused the highest PM2.5 concentrations (> 30 μg m-3) during the study. A large number fraction of the fly-ash-containing particles (21.73 %) suggests that coal combustion emissions in the QTP significantly contributed to air pollutants at the medium pollution level (PM2.5: 10-30 μg m-3). We concluded that emissions from biomass burning and from coal combustion both constantly contribute to anthropogenic particles in the QTP atmosphere. Based on size distributions of individual particles at different pollution levels, we found that gas condensation on existing particles is an important chemical process for the formation of SIA with organic coating. TEM observations show that refractory aerosols (e.g., soot, fly ash, and visible organic particles) likely adhere to the surface of SIA particles larger than 200 nm due to coagulation. Organic coating and soot on surface of the aged particles likely influence their hygroscopic and optical properties, respectively, in the QTP. To our knowledge, this study reports the first microscopic analysis of fine particles in the background QTP air.

  9. Environmental factors influencing the distribution of three species within the genus Persephona Leach, 1817 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Leucosiidae in two regions on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela T Pereira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of spatio-temporal distribution of Brachyura are determined by the interaction among life history traits, inter and intraspecific relationships, as well as by the variation of abiotic factors. This study aimed to characterize patterns of spatio-temporal distribution of Persephona lichtensteinii, Persephona mediterranea and Persephona punctata in two regions of the northern coast of São Paulo State, southeastern region of Brazil. Collections were done monthly from July 2001 to June 2003 in Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba, using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with double-rig nets. The patterns of species distribution were tested by means of redundancy analysis (RDA and generalized linear mixed models (GLMM in relation to the recorded environmental factors (BT: bottom temperature, BS: bottom salinity, OM: organic matter and granulometry (Phi. The most influent environmental factor over the species distribution was the Phi, and the ascendant order of influence was P. lichtensteinii, P. punctata and P. mediterranea. The greater abundance of P. mediterranea showed a conservative pattern of distribution for the genus in the sampled region. The greater occurrence of P. punctata and P. lichtensteinii, in distinct transects than those occupied by P. mediterranea, seems to be a strategy to avoid competition among congeneric species, which is related to the substratum specificity.

  10. 中国北部海域主要无脊椎动物群落结构及多样性%Community structure and diversity of invertebrates in northern region of China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强; 王俊; 金显仕; 李忠义; 陈瑞胜

    2011-01-01

    根据2010年5月、8月在渤海及黄海北部进行的底拖网定点调查资料,分析了中国北部海域无脊椎动物群落结构及其生物多样性.中国北部海域共捕获无脊椎动物32种,其中虾类15种,蟹类10种,头足类7种;在渤海,虾类占主导地位,春季其生物量及密度比例分别为86.57%和96.55%,夏季为46.16%和80.85%;在黄海北部,春季蟹类在生物量组成中占绝对优势地位(91.07%),夏季则为头足类占优势地位(80.41%).运用相对重要性指数(IRI)研究了渤海及黄海北部的优势种类组成,优势种类随季节及海区的变化差异较大.使用多样性指数D、H’、J’分析了无脊椎动物群落的多样性,渤海生物多样性高于黄海北部.分析了渤海及黄海北部群落物种组成相似性,两个海区物种组成相似性分别为春季0.315和夏季0.297.使用季节更替指数和迁移指数研究了两个海区无脊椎动物群落的稳定性,表明从春季至夏季,黄海北部部分种类向渤海迁移.%We evaluated the community structure and diversity of invertebrates in the northern region of China Sea using data collected from bottom trawl surveys in May and August 2010. We collected a total of 32 invertebrate species, including IS species of shrimp, 10 species of crab, and 7 species of squid. Shrimps were dominant in Bohai Sea, accounting for 86.57% of the biomass and 96.55% of individuals in May and 46.16% of the biomass and 80.85% of individuals in August. In contrast, the north region of the Yellow Sea was dominated by crabs in May (91.07% of the biomass) and squid in August (80.41% of the biomass). We quantified the ecological dominance of a species using an index of relative importance (IRI). The dominant species changed between seasons and regions. We calculated three diversity indexes to analyze the diversity of invertebrates: the species abundance index (D), the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), and the species evenness

  11. Requirements for neonatal cots. Northern Neonatal Network.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    A prospective survey of activity in neonatal nurseries associated with 17 specialist maternity units delivering some 38,700 babies in the Northern region was undertaken during 1991. Data were collected concerning the numbers of babies requiring various forms of neonatal care, using a nursing dependency scale validated by work study. Facilities for prolonged high dependency care are partially decentralised in the Northern region, with a network of five units operating on a flexible and collabo...

  12. Eruption probabilities for the Lassen Volcanic Center and regional volcanism, northern California, and probabilities for large explosive eruptions in the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Chronologies for eruptive activity of the Lassen Volcanic Center and for eruptions from the regional mafic vents in the surrounding area of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range are here used to estimate probabilities of future eruptions. For the regional mafic volcanism, the ages of many vents are known only within broad ranges, and two models are developed that should bracket the actual eruptive ages. These chronologies are used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to match the data for time intervals between eruptions. For the Lassen Volcanic Center, the probability of an eruption in the next year is 1.4x10-4 for the exponential distribution and 2.3x10-4 for the mixed exponential distribution. For the regional mafic vents, the exponential distribution gives a probability of an eruption in the next year of 6.5x10-4, but the mixed exponential distribution indicates that the current probability, 12,000 years after the last event, could be significantly lower. For the exponential distribution, the highest probability is for an eruption from a regional mafic vent. Data on areas and volumes of lava flows and domes of the Lassen Volcanic Center and of eruptions from the regional mafic vents provide constraints on the probable sizes of future eruptions. Probabilities of lava-flow coverage are similar for the Lassen Volcanic Center and for regional mafic vents, whereas the probable eruptive volumes for the mafic vents are generally smaller. Data have been compiled for large explosive eruptions (>≈ 5 km3 in deposit volume) in the Cascade Range during the past 1.2 m.y. in order to estimate probabilities of eruption. For erupted volumes >≈5 km3, the rate of occurrence since 13.6 ka is much higher than for the entire period, and we use these data to calculate the annual probability of a large eruption at 4.6x10-4. For erupted volumes ≥10 km3, the rate of occurrence has been reasonably constant from 630 ka to the present, giving

  13. Jurassic metabasic rocks in the Kızılırmak accretionary complex (Kargı region, Central Pontides, Northern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Chiaradia, Massimo; Marzoli, Andrea; Özkan, Mutlu; Billor, Zeki; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-03-01

    The Kızılırmak accretionary complex near Kargı is tectonically bounded by the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous metamorphic massives of the Central Pontides. It consists mainly of serpentinite, serpentinized peridotite, gabbro, basalt, metabasite and deep-marine sedimentary rocks. The metabasites in the Kızılırmak accretionary complex are tectonically located within a serpentinite, radiolarian chert, spilitized basalt, gabbro association and commonly display a steep contact with serpentinites. Amphiboles from metabasites yielded robust 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging between 159.4 ± 0.4 Ma and 163.5 ± 0.8 Ma. These are interpreted as cooling ages of the metabasites. The metabasites have 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7035 and 0.7044 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 18.18 and 18.92. The gabbros have higher 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7044 and 0.7060 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 17.98 and 18.43. Three basalt samples display 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7040 and 0.7059. Their 206Pb/204Pb(i) are unrealistically low (15.42 and 15.62), suggesting, most likely, Pb loss which results in over-corrected values for decay through time. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for all samples consistently plot between the fields of MORB or the Depleted MORB Mantle reservoirs and enriched mantle reservoirs (EMII rather than EMI). All the samples (except one dolerite dike) have negative ɛNdDM(t = 160 Ma) values, suggesting derivation from a reservoir more enriched than the depleted mantle. The protoliths of metabasites correspond to diverse sources (N-MORB, E-MORB, OIB and IAT) based on whole rock major and trace element composition. An IAT-like protolith for the metabasites indicates that the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean domain was subducting and the tectonic regime was compressional during Late Jurassic and before. The protoliths of these rocks were metamorphosed during the subduction/accretion processes, as observed in the metamorphic rocks located along the Balkan, Northern Turkey and

  14. Northern overexposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, D J

    1998-01-01

    The top of the world may look pristine, but the Arctic environment and its inhabitants contain surprisingly high levels of heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants such as pesticides, and nuclear radiation. Although the Arctic has few significant pollution sources, the contaminants are swept northward on ocean currents and winds from industrial regions. Once contaminants arrive, low temperatures and limited sunlight slow their decay, and bioaccumulation concentrates some of them to dangero...

  15. The Impact of Leadership Styles Used by the Academic Staff in the Jordanian Public Universities on Modifying Students' Behavior: A Field Study in the Northern Region of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Akif Lutfi Al-Khasawneh; Sahar Mohd Futa

    2012-01-01

    This study aims first to identify the leadership style which is used the most by the instructors in the Jordanianuniversities, and second to examine the impact of three leadership styles (Autocratic, Laissez-Faire andDemocratic) on modifying student's behavior. The study population was the students studying at the faculty ofeconomics and administrative sciences in 3 public universities, at the north region of Jordan, a random sampleof students were selected. 600 questionnaires were distribute...

  16. Integrating geophysical data and upscaling techniques to support regional groundwater flow modelling: A practical example of the Lagan Valley, Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, Neil; Comte, Jean-Christophe; McKinley, Jennifer; Ofterdinger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    When studying heterogeneous aquifer systems, especially at regional scale, a degree of generalization is anticipated. This can be due to sparse sampling regimes, complex depositional environments or lack of accessibility to measure the subsurface. This can lead to an inaccurate conceptualization which can be detrimental when applied to groundwater flow models. It is important that numerical models are based on observed and accurate geological information and do not rely on the distribution of...

  17. Identifying risk for dementia across populations: A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed across populations with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Keeping this in view, a study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and ...

  18. Identifying risk for dementia across populations: A study on the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed across populations with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Keeping this in view, a study was planned to evaluate the prevalence of dementia in tribal elderly population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase one involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase two involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that no individual above 60 years of age in the studied population was diagnosed as a case of dementia. Thereby, pointing out at some unknown factors, which are responsible for prevention of dementia. Discussion: The differences between the prevalence rate in this study and other studies in India appear to be a function of a valid regional difference. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic factors may contribute to regional and racial variations in dementia. Societies living in isolated hilly and tribal areas seem less predisposed to dementia, particularly age related neurodegenerative and vascular dementia, which are the most common causes for dementia in elderly. This may be because some environmental risk factors are much less prevalent in these settings.

  19. Discussion on deep fault features and their relation with uranium mineralization in a certain region at the northern margin of north China platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years with the raising of precision in aeromagnetic survey and with the increasing of information content from the magnetic field, the regularity of the magnetic field is more striking. The geological effect of aeromagnetic survey on the study of regional deep fault structures is relatively evident, especially the data processing such as vertical derivative and directional filtering are conducted by means of aeromagnetic anomalies which are indicated more clearly on the faults. On the basis of the research on deep faults inferred by aeromagnetic survey. The author discusses the relation between deep faults and uranium mineralization

  20. The alerting system for hydrogeological hazard in Lombardy Region, northern Italy: rainfall thresholds triggering debris-flows and "equivalent rainfall" method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, A.; Valsecchi, I. Q.; Alberti, M.; Fassi, P.; Molari, M.; Mannucci, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Centre (CFMR) of the Civil Protection of the Lombardy Region, North Italy, has the main task of monitoring and alerting, particularly with respect to natural hazards. The procedure of early warning for hydrogeological hazard is based on a comparison of two quantities: thresholds and rainfall, both referred to a defined area and an exact time interval. The CFMR studied 52 landslide events (1987-2003) in Medium-Low Valtellina and derived a model of the critical detachment rainfall, in function of the local slope and the Curve Number CN (an empirical parameter related with the land cover and the hydrological conditions of the soil): it's physically consistent and allows a geographically targeted alerting. Moreover, rainfall thresholds were associated with a typical probability of exceedance. The processing of rainfall data is carried out through the "equivalent rainfall" method, that allows to take into account the antecedent moisture condition of the soil: in fact the hazard is substantially greater when the soil is near to saturation. The method was developed from the CN method and considers the local CN and the observed rainfall of the previous 5 days. The obtained value for the local equivalent rainfall, that combines rainfall (observed and forecasted) and local soil characteristics, is a better parameter for the evaluation of the hydrogeological hazard. The comparison between equivalent rainfall and thresholds allows to estimate the local hydrogeological hazard, displayed through hazard maps, and consequently to provide a reliable alerting activity (even localized to limited portions of the region).

  1. Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en un consultorio de atención primaria de Antofagasta durante el año 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Soto B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN : Las patologías músculoesqueléticas son prevalentes en atención primaria, alcanzando 50,6% en mujeres y 31,4% de los hombres entre 45 y 64 años. En la sala de atención kinésica del CESFAM Corvallis de Antofagasta, se realiza manejo kinésico a las patologías musculoesqueléticas agudas. OBJETIVO : Caracterización de las atenciones kinésicas en patologías musculoesqueléticas en CESFAM Corvallis. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO : Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes atendidos con disponibilidad de datos, por lo que no hubo exclusión. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo y diagnóstico en las hojas de estadística diaria. RESULTADOS : Del total de 604 pacientes, la edad promedio fue 56,4 años, siendo 78% mujeres. El rango de edad más frecuente fue entre 45 y 64 años (48,2%. Según región anatómica, 51,3% fue en extremidades superiores, 33,9% en cabeza y columna y 14,1% en extremidades inferiores. De extremidades superiores la más frecuente fue hombro doloroso (48,1% y tendinitis del manguito rotador (12,3%. En cabeza y columna la más frecuente fue lumbago mecánico (42,9%, seguido de cervicobraquialgia (16,1%. En extremidades inferiores, la más frecuente fue la artrosis de rodilla (23,5%, seguido de esguince de tobillo (17,6% y fascitis plantar (15,3%. DISCUSIÓN : Los resultados son compatibles con estudios nacionales, mostrando predominio en mujeres, así como rango de edad más frecuente entre los 45 y 64 años. La mayor frecuencia de patologías en extremidades superiores en este estudio pudo deberse a un sobrediagnóstico, factores geográficos o biopsicosociales. Es necesaria la implementación de un sistema de registro adecuado para el seguimiento de estos pacientes.

  2. Atmospheric teleconnections and regional-scale atmospheric anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere%北半球大气遥相关型与区域尺度大气扰动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱维宏; 梁浩原

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric teleconnections in the Northern Hemisphere such as Arctic Oscillation (AO). North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection can be explained by the physical decomposition of geopotential height. The result shows that the AO reflects planetary-scale zonal-mean anomalies in the Arctic region; the PNA results from persistent regional-scale atmospheric anomaliesj NAO is a combined result of both planetary-scale zonal-mean and regional-scale anomalies. The rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) of planetary-scale zonal-mean and regional-scale anomalies riot only confirms the already known regional oscillations and wave trains, but also discovers new patterns, such as "twin dipole oscillations" in the Arctic region, Euro-Asia Oscillation (EAO) and Atlantic-Euro-Asia (AEA) wave-train pattern. These oscillations or wave trains are linked to adjacent regional weather anomalies and climate anomalies.%北极涛动(AO)、北大西洋涛动(NAO)和太平洋—北美型(PNA)等北半球大气遥相关型,可以用大气位势高度的物理分解扰动分量解释.结果发现,AO反映的是北极地区行星尺度纬圈平均扰动分量的变化,PNA与持续性天气尺度扰动分量相联系,NAO是行星尺度纬圈平均扰动与天气尺度扰动共同作用的结果.对行星尺度纬圈平均扰动分量和天气尺度扰动分量用旋转经验正交函数(REOF)展开,不但可以证实人们已经命名的区域性大气涛动,还新发现了北极地区的两对偶极涛动、欧亚涛动(EAO)和“大西洋-欧亚型”(AEA)波列.这些涛动连接了相邻地区的异常天气和异常气候.

  3. Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya during the nineties preceded recent mass loss

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    C. Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1. Using satellite digital elevation models (DEM differencing and field measurements, we measure a negative mass balance (MB between 1999 and 2010 (−4.8 ± 1.8 m w.e. corresponding to −0.44 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr−1. Thus, we deduce a slightly positive or near-zero MB between 1988 and 1999 (+1.0 ± 2.7 m w.e. corresponding to +0.09 ± 0.24 m w.e. yr−1. Furthermore, satellite DEM differencing reveals that the MB of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (−0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e. yr−1 has been only slightly less negative than the MB of a 2110 km2 glaciarized area in the Lahaul and Spiti region (−0.44 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1 during 1999−2011. Hence, we conclude that the ice wastage is probably moderate in this region over the last 22 yr, with near equilibrium conditions during the nineties, and an ice mass loss after. The turning point from balanced to negative mass budget is not known but lies probably in the late nineties and at the latest in 1999. This positive or near-zero MB for Chhota Shigri Glacier (and probably for the surrounding glaciers of the Lahaul and Spiti region during at least part of the 1990s contrasts with a recent compilation of MB data in the Himalayan range that indicated ice wastage since 1975. However, in agreement with this compilation, we confirm more negative balances since the beginning of the 21st century.

  4. Structural Analysis of Recent and Active Faults and Regional State of Stress in the Epicentral Area of the 1978 Thessaloniki Earthquakes (northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jacques-Louis; Carey-Gailhardis, Evelyne; Mouyaris, Nicolas; Simeakis, Konstantinos; Roundoyannis, Theodora; Anghelidhis, Christos

    1983-12-01

    During spring and summer 1978, Macedonia (Greece) suffered damaging seismic activity. During the two main shocks which occurred on May 23 (Mb = 5.7) and June 20 (Mb = 6.1), seismic open cracks and faults were formed in the epicentral area, 25 km NNE from Thessaloniki. They have been mapped and their kinematics analyzed. These studies have shown that they result from the reactivation of existing faults of Pleistocene, Recent, and historical age and that the crust is stretching along a N-S to NNE-SSW direction in that part of the North Aegean. Principal stress directions have been computed from the slip vectors measured on recent neotectonic faults and seismic cracks and faults, this computation utilizing a simple mechanical model (homogeneous deformation through the addition of small and independent displacements of rigid blocks in a highly fractured body). A striking feature of this analysis is that the tensional directions σ3 deduced from seismic faulting and from recent neotectonic faulting are nearly the same. They are compatible with the regional tension axis deduced from focal mechanisms of North Aegean and with the focal mechanisms of the 1978 Thessaloniki main shocks. They are also compatible with in situ stress measurements in this region. Studies of superficial seismic faulting strongly support previous assumptions proposed from aftershock distribution: the 1978 Thessaloniki earthquakes resulted from reactivation of several different faults situated within the same NE dipping fault zone of Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene age (and older) separating the Serbo-Macedonian Massif from the Peonias (East Vardar) zone.

  5. The potential role of mother-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a mixed methods study from the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania

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    Leshabari Sebalda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Methods The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. Results The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored.

  6. Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-03-01

    In this study, a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17' N, 126°47' E; 340 m a.s.l.) in the Verkhoyansk Mountains was used to reconstruct vegetation and climate change since about 15 kyr BP. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that open cool steppe (STEP) and grass and sedge tundra (TUND) communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer (CLDE) trees in the regional vegetation during the Late Glacial. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the Last Glaciation, particularly during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the relatively cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon), spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies) pollen, indicating mid-Holocene spread of boreal forest

  7. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  8. Metagenomics of Water Column Microbes Near Brine Pool NR1 and adjacent regions of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Collected in Fall 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. M.; Goodwin, K. D.; Brami, D.; Schwartz, A.; Toledo, G.

    2012-12-01

    High-throughput sequencing was applied to eight water column samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico in 2009 in regions SW and west of the 2010 Macondo oil spill. Samples were collected by Niskin-equipped CTD (~200 and ~650 m depths) at two locations, including a site over a methane brine pool (Brine Pool NR1). In addition, seawater was collected ~3m lateral of the pool (649m depth) via Niskin bottle equipped on the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible. Unassembled reads were submitted to the Synthetic Genomics bioinformatics pipeline for taxonomic analysis. The distribution of Bacteria (56-73%), Archae (7-16%), Eukaryotes (12-23%), and unclassified sequences (6-10%) were similar for all samples. However, certain taxonomic classifications were relatively more abundant in deeper samples, and differences were noted for samples collected by submersible. For example, Methylophaga was classified as 38% of the order Thiotrichales for the Niskin/submersible sample compared to 0% in the 200m-depth samples and 3-11% in the 650m samples. Methylophaga is a genus of indigenous methylotrophs reported to respond during the Deepwater Horizon event of 2010. In contrast, sequence abundance for Oceanospirillales, also reported to respond during the event, was similar for all samples (6-9% of the gamma-proteobacteria).

  9. Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable isotopes in modern and Holocene Protothaca staminea shells from a northern California coastal upwelling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, R.K.; VanGeen, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the potential of intertidal Protothaca staminea shells as high-resolution geochemical archives of environmental change in a coastal upwelling region. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were analyzed by excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at sub-weekly temporal resolution in shells growing ???1 mm per month. Growth patterns of a modern P. staminea shell from Humboldt Bay, California, collected in December 1999 made it possible to infer a lifespan from 1993 to 1998. Growth hiatuses in the shell may have excluded records of extreme events. Mg/Ca ratios appeared to be partly controlled by water temperature; the correlation coefficient between temperature and Mg/Ca was r = 0.71 in one of four growth increments. Significant year-to-year differences in the sensitivity of Mg/Ca to temperature in P. staminea could not be explained, however. Sr/Ca ratios appeared to be more closely related to shell growth rate. Oxygen isotopes, measured at 2-week temporal resolution in the same shell, did not show a clear relation to local temperature in summer, possibly because temperatures were higher and less variable at the King Salmon mudflat, where the shell was collected, than in the main channel of Humboldt Bay, where water properties were monitored. Negative shell ??13C values (upwelling events. The Mg contents of P. staminea midden shells dated to ???3 ka and ???9 ka were significantly lower than in the modern shell. This may have resulted from degradation of a Mg-rich shell organic matrix and precluded quantitative interpretation of the older high-resolution records. Elevated ??13C values in the ???3 ka shell suggested that the individual grew in highly productive or stratified environment, such as a shallow coastal embayment or lagoon. Copyright ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Florabank1: a grid-based database on vascular plant distribution in the northern part of Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Van Landuyt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Florabank1 is a database that contains distributional data on the wild flora (indigenous species, archeophytes and naturalised aliens of Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region. It holds about 3 million records of vascular plants, dating from 1800 till present. Furthermore, it includes ecological data on vascular plant species, redlist category information, Ellenberg values, legal status, global distribution, seed bank etc. The database is an initiative of “Flo.Wer” (www.plantenwerkgroep.be, the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO: www.inbo.be and the National Botanic Garden of Belgium (www.br.fgov.be. Florabank aims at centralizing botanical distribution data gathered by both professional and amateur botanists and to make these data available to the benefit of nature conservation, policy and scientific research.The occurrence data contained in Florabank1 are extracted from checklists, literature and herbarium specimen information. Of survey lists, the locality name (verbatimLocality, species name, observation date and IFBL square code, the grid system used for plant mapping in Belgium (Van Rompaey 1943, is recorded. For records dating from the period 1972–2004 all pertinent botanical journals dealing with Belgian flora were systematically screened. Analysis of herbarium specimens in the collection of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium, the University of Ghent and the University of Liège provided interesting distribution knowledge concerning rare species, this information is also included in Florabank1. The data recorded before 1972 is available through the Belgian GBIF node (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/10969/, not through FLORABANK1, to avoid duplication of information. A dedicated portal providing access to all published Belgian IFBL records at this moment is available at: http://projects.biodiversity.be/ifblAll data in Florabank1 is georeferenced. Every record holds the decimal centroid coordinates of the

  11. Contraceptive utilization and associated factors among HIV positive women on chronic follow up care in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Adama Melaku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In sub-Sahara Africa, more than 60% of all new HIV infections are occurring in women, infants and young children. Maternal to child transmission is responsible for 90% of childhood HIV infection. Preventing unwanted pregnancy among HIV positive women is imperative to reduce maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 964 HIV positive women in selected 12 health centers of Tigray region. In this paper, analysis was restricted only for 847 women who were sexually active and non-pregnant. In each health center the number of study participants was allocated proportionally to the load of HIV positive women in chronic care clinics. The data were entered into EpiData version 3.1, and cleaned and analyzed using Stata version 11.1. Descriptive summary of data and logistic regression were used to identify possible predictors using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05. FINDINGS: Three hundred ninety four (46.5% of all HIV positive women had intension to have more children. Three hundred seventy five (44.3% were using contraceptive methods at time of survey. Injectable (70.7% and male condom (47.6% were most commonly used type of contraceptives. In the multivariable analysis, women who were urban dwellers (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.27, 5.02, completed primary education (AOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.86 and those openly discussed about contraceptive methods with their husbands or sexual partners (AOR = 6.3; 95% CI: 3.42, 11.76 were more likely to use contraceptive. Women who have one or more living children were also more likely to use contraceptive compared with women with no child. CONCLUSION: Less than half of women used contraceptive methods. The use of condoms could impact unintended pregnancies and reduced risks of vertical and sexual transmission. Efforts to increase contraceptive utilization focusing on the barrier methods should be strengthen in HIV

  12. Escalas de producción en economías mineras: El caso de Chile en su dimensión regional

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    Nathaly Rivera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Una proporción importante de la producción de cobre en Chile está geográficamente concentrada en dos regiones: Antofagasta y Atacama. A pesar de la evolución positiva del precio del cobre, el ingreso promedio de estas localidades ha presentado variaciones. Así, durante periodos de incrementos en el precio del cobre el ingreso promedio de Atacama ha aumentado, mientras que lo mismo no ha ocurrido en Antofagasta· Este trabajo analiza esta diferencia a partir del rol de las escalas de producción en el sector minero. Utilizando un análisis de sensibilidad para un modelo insumo-producto desagregado, se calculan encadenamientos y multiplicadores por escalas de producción a nivel regional. Esta estrategia permite identificar y cuantificar el impacto de cada escala de producción, confirmando efectos heterogéneos de la minería sobre la producción e ingreso local, aspectos que adquieren especial relevancia al analizarse la política minera actual en Chile.

  13. A seismic-reflection investigation of gas hydrates and sea-floor features of the upper continental slope of the Garden Banks and Green Canyon regions, northern Gulf of Mexico: report for cruise G1-99-GM (99002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan; Twichell, David; Hart, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    During April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a 13-day cruise in the Garden Banks and Green Canyon regions of the Gulf of Mexico. The R/V Gyre, owned by Texas A&M University, was chartered for the cruise. The general objectives were (1) to acquire very high resolution seismic-reflection data and side-scan sonar images of the upper and middle continental slope (200-1200-m water depths), (2) to study the acoustic character and features of the sea floor for evidence of sea-floor hazards, and (3) to look for evidence of subsurface gas hydrates and their effects. The Gulf of Mexico is well known for hydrocarbon resources, with emphasis now on frontier deep-water areas. For water depths greater than about 250 m, the pressure-termperature conditions are correct for the development of shallow-subsurface gas hydrate formation (Anderson et al., 1992). Gas hydrates are ice-like mixtures of gas and water (Kvenvolden, 1993). They are known to be present from extensive previous sampling in sea-floor cores and from mound-like features observed on the sea floor in many parts of the northern Gulf, including the Green Canyon and Garden Banks areas (e.g., Roberts, 1995). Seismic-reflection data are extensive in the Gulf of Mexico, but few very-high-resolution data like those needed for gas-hydrate studies exist in the public domain. The occurrence and mechanisms of gas hydrate formation and dissociation are important to understand, because of their perceived economic potential for methane gas, their potential controls on local and regional sea-floor stability, and their possible effects on earth climates due to massive release of methane greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Three high-resolution seismic-reflection systems and one side-scan sonar system were used on the cruise to map the surface reflectance and features of the sea floor and the acoustic geometries and character of the shallow sub-surface. The cruise was designed to acquire regional and detailed local

  14. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  15. 秦岭南北风速时空变化及突变特征分析%Spatial-Temporal Variation and Mutation of Wind Speed in the Northern and Southern Regions of the Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 王飞; 刘焱序; 穆兴民; 李锐

    2013-01-01

    根据秦岭南北47个气象站1960~2011年逐月风速和气温资料,采用样条曲线插值法(Spline)、Pettitt突变点检验、气候倾向率和相关分析等方法对该区风速的空间分布、时空演变特征及其可能影响因素进行了分析.结果表明:①秦岭南北风速空间分布呈东高西低、北高南低格局,按其大小排序为秦岭以北>秦岭南坡>汉水流域>巴巫谷地.四季风速排序为春季>冬季>夏季>秋季,均以秦岭以北最大.②近52 a来,秦岭南北整体和各子区年平均风速呈现一致的显著下降趋势,下降最快的为秦岭南坡,最慢的为汉水流域.四季风速下降速率排序为冬季>春季>秋季>夏季.③年和季节尺度风速的突变集中出现在1969~1974、1978~1981和1990~1994年间,秦岭南北整体于1981年突变.④气象台站周边的城市化发展和风速测量仪器的更换都对风速的变化产生了一定影响,但都不是风速显著下降的主要原因,大气环流变化和气候变暖才是造成风速减小的可能原因.%Wind speed time series have been subject to far fewer trend analysis than temperature and precipitation records, in part because of data homogeneity issues. However, understanding how evolution of the global climate system has been manifest as changes in near-surface wind regimes in the past and how near-surface wind speed regimes might alter in the future is of great relevance to the insurance industry, the construction and maritime industries, surface energy balance estimation, the community charged with mitigating coastal erosion, the agricultural industry, forest and infrastructure protection communities, and the burgeoning wind energy industry. Based on the temperature and wind speed data between 1960 and 2011 in the northern and southern region of Qinling Mountains, with the methods of Spline interpolation, Pettitt abrupt change point detection as well as correlation analysis, the

  16. Spectral and informational analysis of seismicity: An application to the 1996-2012 seismicity of the Northern Caucasus-Azerbaijan part of the greater Caucasus-Kopet Dag region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Babayev, Gulam; Kadirov, Fakhraddin

    2013-12-01

    The time series analysis of seismic sequences needs proper methodologies that allow us to capture the main features of the time dynamics of earthquakes. Among these features, the identification of periodicities along with the quantification of their intensity represents an important task, concerning the detection of regular dynamical behaviours, with clear implications for earthquake prediction. In the present study, we applied three different methods to investigate the time dynamics of the seismic activity of the Northern Caucasus-Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus-Kopet Dag region. We analysed the monthly number of earthquakes which occurred between 1996 and 2012 by means of: (i) the robust estimation of the periodogram, (ii) the singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and (iii) the Fisher-Shannon method. Two main significant periodicities are detected: 102 months and 20 months. The first corresponds actually to the long-term variation of the monthly seismic activity of the area, while the second represents the more intense cyclic component. Periodicities of 7 and 30 months are also identified, but with a lower intensity than the 20-month periodicity. The Fisher-Shannon method has revealed that the long-term variation of the series is also characterized by higher organization and lower degree of disorder. The present study shows how the application of methods from statistical mechanics could contribute to unveil dynamical features in seismicity.

  17. Northern Jutland as an Intertextual Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    With the region of Northern Jutland as a concrete case, the discussion about peripheral areas in Denmark will be contextualized in Augé's theory about anthropological places and non-places, and his theory will be expanded constructively and critically with the concept of intertextual locations. The...... Northern Jutland can be regarded as a location potential of this kind, which is can promote film and media production in the region. An important point in this connection will be that there may be a local and peripheral wish to become an intertextual location because this may lead to regional development...

  18. Detrital and volcanic zircon U-Pb ages from southern Mendoza (Argentina): An insight on the source regions in the northern part of the Neuquén Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naipauer, Maximiliano; Tapia, Felipe; Mescua, José; Farías, Marcelo; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    The infill of the Neuquén Basin recorded the Meso-Cenozoic geological and tectonic evolution of the southern Central Andes being an excellent site to investigate how the pattern of detrital zircon ages varies trough time. In this work we analyze the U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages from sedimentary and volcanic rocks related to synrift and retroarc stages of the northern part of the Neuquén Basin. These data define the crystallization age of the synrift volcanism at 223 ± 2 Ma (Cerro Negro Andesite) and the maximum depositional age of the original synrift sediments at ca. 204 Ma (El Freno Formation). Two different pulses of rifting could be recognized according to the absolute ages, the oldest developed during the Norian and the younger during the Rhaetian-Sinemurian. The source regions of the El Freno Formation show that the Choiyoi magmatic province was the main source rock of sediment supply. An important amount of detrital zircons with Triassic ages was identified and interpreted as a source area related to the synrift magmatism. The maximum depositional age calculated for the Tordillo Formation in the Atuel-La Valenciana depocenter is at ca. 149 Ma; as well as in other places of the Neuquén Basin, the U-Pb ages calculated in the Late Jurassic Tordillo Formation do not agree with the absolute age of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary (ca. 152 Ma). The main source region of sediment in the Tordillo Formation was the Andean magmatic arc. Basement regions were also present with age peaks at the Carboniferous, Neoproterozoic, and Mesoproterozoic; these regions were probably located to the east in the San Rafael Block. The pattern of zircon ages summarized for the Late Jurassic Tordillo and Lagunillas formations were interpreted as a record of the magmatic activity during the Triassic and Jurassic in the southern Central Andes. A waning of the magmatism is inferred to have happened during the Triassic. The evident lack of ages observed around ca. 200 Ma suggests

  19. Northern communities sustainable energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltman, Ursula; Widmeyer, Scott; Moen, Harlan

    2010-09-15

    The Circumpolar North may provide the solution to the world's most urgent problems. Combining new technologies with the resources, opportunities and needs of the north, the Arctic region may become instrumental in promoting nature's ability to sequester natural carbons while supplying future energy demands to the world. With the technologies for efficiencies and CCS, the abundant supply of natural gas exists for an efficient northern network of electrical generating facilities in the circumpolar region. A symbiotic relationship between facilities can ensure dependable clean electricity and support East-West distribution of power across international time zones strategically connected to southern grids.

  20. Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along sheltered coastlines between Point Barrow and Icy Cape for the time period 1947 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  1. Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along exposed coastlines between Point Barrow and Icy Cape for the time period 1947 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  2. Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along exposed coastlines between the Colville River Delta and Point Barrow for the time period 1947 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  3. Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along sheltered coastlines between the Okpilak-Hulahula River Delta and the Colville River Delta for the time period 1947 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  4. Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along exposed coastlines between the Okpilak-Hulahula River Delta and the Colville River Deltas for the time period 1947 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  5. WestBeaufort_sheltered_baselines.shp - Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along sheltered coastlines between the Colville River Delta and Point Barrow for the time period 1947 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  6. Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along sheltered coastlines between the U.S.-Canadian border and the Okpilak-Hulahula River Delta for the time period 1947 to 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  7. Offshore baseline for the northern Alaska coastal region generated to calculate shoreline change rates along exposed coastlines between the U.S.-Canadian border and the Okpilak-Hulahula River Delta for the time period 1947 to 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities, and...

  8. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  9. The use of ambient air quality modeling to estimate individual and population exposure for human health research: a case study of ozone in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L

    2006-07-01

    Ambient monitors are commonly used to estimate exposure for epidemiological studies, and air quality modeling is infrequently applied. However air quality modeling systems have the potential to alleviate some, although not all, of the limitations of monitoring networks. To investigate this application, exposure estimates were generated for a case study high ozone episode in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States based on measurements and concentration estimates from an air quality modeling system. Hourly estimates for 2268 4-km by 4-km gridcells were generated in a domain that includes only eight ozone monitors. Individual and population-based ozone exposures were estimated using multiple approaches, including area-weighted average of modeled estimates, nearest monitor, and spatial interpolation by inverse distance weighting and kriging. Results based on concentration fields from the air quality modeling system revealed spatial heterogeneity that was obscured by approaches based on the monitoring network. With some techniques, such as spatial interpolation, monitoring data alone was insufficient to estimate exposure for certain areas, especially for rural populations. For locations far from ozone monitors, the estimates from the nearest monitor approach tended to overestimate exposure, compared to modeled estimates. Counties in which one or more monitors were present had statistically higher population density and modeled ozone estimates than did counties without monitors (p-value <0.05). This work demonstrates the use of air quality modeling to generate higher spatial and temporal resolution exposure estimates, and compares the advantages of this approach to traditional methods that use monitoring data alone. The air quality modeling method faces its own limitations, such as the need to thoroughly evaluate concentration estimates and the use of ambient levels rather than personal exposure. PMID:16516968

  10. Seromonitoring of rinderpest in Northern Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seromonitoring of rinderpest was carried out in the Northern region of Uganda which covers the sub-regions of West Nile, Northern Uganda, and N.E. Uganda. Three thousand nine hundred ninety two serum samples were collected and tested using the competitive ELISA. The antibody prevalence ranged from 21% to 81%. Although the areas at high risk of rinderpest had low antibody levels their neighbors seem to be establishing immune barrier. Since all the sampled districts were equally supported to carry out vaccination, this survey has emphasized the usefulness of sero monitoring in assessing the success of vaccination programmes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite (IOA) type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits. They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Both IOCG and IOA deposits are characterized by abundant low-Ti Fe oxides, an enrichment in REE, and intense sodium and potassium wall-rock alteration adjacent to the ores. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements (REE) or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and 2500 Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date (with grades of 30 to 70 wt.% Fe), the genesis of these deposits is poorly understood: theories of a magmatic vs. a hydrothermal or metasomatic origin have been debated, and the timing of mineralization of the ores in the Norbotten region has never been directly dated. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks, their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. This includes in situ U/Pb geochronology of zircon, monazite, and titanite to constrain the timing between host rock emplacement, alteration and mineralization. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE. Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks, ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  13. 秦岭南北地区光合有效辐射时空变化及突变特征%Distribution and change of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) in the northern and southern regions of Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 朱枫; 杨陈; 王飞; 穆兴民; 李锐

    2013-01-01

    基于秦岭南北地区47个气象站1960-2011年的逐日气象数据,通过Angstrom方程和Penman-Monteith公式计算了各站点的光合有效辐射(PAR),并借助Spline空间插值、Pettitt突变点检验和相关分析等手段对PAR的空间分布、时空演变、突变特征及其可能成因进行了分析.结果表明:①秦岭南北地区PAR的时间和空间分布特征明显,在空间上呈北高南低的分布格局;在季节分布上,夏季、春季、秋季、冬季依次减小.②52年间,该地区年PAR整体呈显著下降趋势,下降速率由南向北,由东向西递减;时间变化方面,春季PAR呈现不显著的上升趋势,其余季节均呈下降趋势,夏季减小最快,其次为冬季,秋季最小.③该地区89%的站点年PAR存在突变,突变站点中的85%发生于1979-1983年间;夏季89%的站点发生突变,突变站点中的90%发生于1979-1983年间;冬季68%的站点发生突变,但突变时间同步性和一致性较差;春季和秋季突变现象不甚明显.④气候变化(风速下降)、城市化进程加快以及工业生产导致的气溶胶增多是导致PAR显著下降的主要原因,而火山爆发引发的气溶胶增加则是PAR波动的主要原因.%Based on 52-year (1960-2011) daily data from 47 meteorological stations in the northern and southern regions of Qinling Mountains, the annual and seasonal Photosynthetically Active Radiations (PAR) were calculated with equations of Angstrom and FAO Penman-Monteith. The spatial distribution, change trends and their causes were analyzed and detected with spatial analysis method of spline interpolation, Pettitt abrupt change point detection method and correlation analysis between PAR and relative factors. The results were as followed: (1) the PAR became weaker from north part to south part, i.e. from northern region of Qinling Mountains (NQ), to southern region of Qinling Mountains (SQ), to Han River Basin (HB) and to Valleys of Ba and Wu

  14. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  15. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  16. Earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams and nuclear power plants. Setting of nuclear power plants becomes of increasing important in northern Egypt with the commitment towards promoting nuclear electric generation. Therefore, the annual seismic hazard maps with non-exceedence probability of 80%, 85% and 90% are given. These maps show that northern Egypt is severely affects by earthquakes from potential sources around Sinai peninsula. Three sites (Nile Delta, Cairo, and Ismailia region) have been chosen to estimated the earthquake hazard in more detailes to serve as a basic parameter to the safety factor of different projects in these regions. A seismic safety factor of intensity 8.5 should be considered in designing the vital projects in northern Egypt. (author)

  17. Abandoned Beach Ridges in the Mejillones Peninsula, Northern Chile: Implications for Paleoseismology of Great Subduction Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, I. A.; Gonzalez, G.; Antinao, J. L.; McDonald, E.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Shrivastava, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula, in northern Chile, shows a well-preserved set of beach ridges parallel to the present coast. These beach ridges can be observed up to 20 km inland and at 200 m above sea level. Previous dating performed in fossils extracted from the oldest beach ridges yielded ages of 400 ka (Victor et al., 2011). However, numerical ages for younger beach ridges have not been determined, therefore a complete time record is not available. InSar data show that the Mejillones Peninsula was uplifted several centimeters during the last two subduction earthquakes (Antofagasta Mw 8.1, 1995 earthquake and the Mw 7.7, 2007 Tocopilla earthquake) occurred in the area (Loveless et al., 2010). A permanent GPS station deployed by CALTECH (http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~jeff/andes/) in this peninsula has measured a coseismic uplift during the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake. This data suggest that the beach ridges were abandoned as a consequence of coseismic uplift during great subduction earthquakes and therefore they represent the long-term record of past earthquakes. In order to prove this hypothesis we excavated five trenches across the beach ridges. Our idea is to look for stratigraphic evidence of the abandonment mechanism and to collect samples for dating the beach ridges using the method of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The ages will be used to estimate long-term uplift rate and temporal variation of this rate. By confronting short-term uplift rate provided by GPS data with long-term rate we hope to know what it is the amount of the coseismic slip that remain in the geological record.

  18. Fisheries potential of village dams in northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abban, E.K.; Ofori-Danson, P.K.; Biney, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Results of a twelve-month assessment of the fisheries and aquaculture potential of small waterbodies (SWBs) in the West Gonja District of Northern Ghana are presented. The primary objectives of the project were to established whether the fisheries within the reservoir basins in the West Gonja and Nanumba Districts (Northern Region) could be enhanced and aquaculture associated with the SWBs could be viable.

  19. Study on Biological Diversity of Several Different Forest Community Types in Northern Subtropical Region%北亚热带不同森林群落类型的生物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁增发; 张瑶; 刘俊龙; 马永春; 吴中能

    2011-01-01

    北亚热带地区的人工针叶纯林可以通过抚育间伐或者封山育林等措施大大加快其向着该地区的顶级群落方向演替。该地区几种典型群落的乔木层生物多样性指数大小依次为:针阔混交林〉〉常绿阔叶纯林〉马尾松纯林(郁0.5)〉马尾松纯林(CK组)〉杉木纯林(修枝)〉杉木纯林(间伐10%);灌木层生物多样性指数大小排序为:马尾松纯林(CK组)〉杉木纯林(间伐10%)〉杉木纯林(修枝)〉常绿阔叶纯林〉马尾松纯林(郁0.5)〉针阔混交林。%The succession process from artificial pure coniferous forests to climax communities could be accelerated greatly by tending thinning or mountain closure for forest recovery in the northern subtropical region.The sequence of the tree layer diversity indexes of several typical forest communities is: Mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest Evergreen broadleaved pure forest Masson pine pure forest(crown density 0.5) Masson pine pure forest(CK group) Chinese fir pure forest(pruned) Chinese fir pure forest(thinned by 10%).The sequence of shrub layer diversity indexes is: Masson pine pure forest(CK group) Chinese fir pure forest(thinned by 10%) Chinese fir pure forest(pruned) Evergreen broadleaved pure forest Masson pine pure forest(crown density 0.5) Mixed coniferous and broad leaved forest.

  20. Evaluación de riesgo por plaguicidas sobre aguas superficiales de la Región Norpatagónica argentina Assessing Pesticide Hazards On Surface Water From The Northern Patagonian Region-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía P. Tosi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aunque el manejo integrado de plagas se aplica en forma creciente en la Región Norpatagónica, todavía una amplia gama de plaguicidas es utilizada con el fin de controlar apropiadamente las principales plagas agrícolas. Otros agroquímicos también son aplicados en las actividades industriales asociadas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el impacto potencial causado por estos plaguicidas sobre los organismos acuáticos y para ello se utilizan datos bibliográficos de toxicidad aguda y resultados analíticos locales. Se utilizó un procedimiento escalonado, permitiendo la selección de aquellos xenobióticos ambientales que justificarían un estudio de ecotoxicidad posterior. Los residuos máximos de metil azinfos (S-(3,4-dihydro-4-oxobenzo[d]-[1,2,3]- triazin-3-ylmethylO,O-dimethyl phosphordithioate, indican la probabilidad de efectos agudos en el 37% de las especies estudiadas en el río, principalmente peces y zooplancton. Este valor se incrementa en los drenajes hasta un 42%. En el caso del carbaril (1-napthylmethylcarbamate los residuos encontrados en drenajes afectarían al 14% de las especies estudiadas, mientras que en el río el impacto es despreciable.Although the Integrated Pest Management (IPM is increasingly being applied in the Northern Patagonia Region, different pesticides are still used in order to properly control agricultural pests. Other agrochemicals are also applied in the agriculture associated activities like conservation and packaging industries. The potential impact caused by these pesticides on aquatic organisms is assessed in the present study by means of acute toxicity data available in the literature and local analytical results. A tiered procedure was used allowing the selection of those environmental xenobiotics that need further ecotoxicity studies. The observed maximum residues of azinphos-methyl, (S-(3,4-dihydro-4-oxobenzo[d]-[1,2,3]-triazin-3-ylmethylO,O-dimethyl phosphordithioate, indicate the

  1. Detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double-dating of Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic Zagros foreland basin strata in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NW Zagros orogen is the result of the multistage collisional history associated with Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian continents and final closure of Neotethys. Siliciclastic strata preserved within a ~400 km segment of the NW Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) provide a widespread record of exhumation and sedimentation. As a means of assessing NW Zagros foreland basin evolution and chronostratigraphy, we present coupled detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb and (U-Th)/He geo-thermochronometric data of Upper Cretaceous to Pliocene siliciclastic strata from the Duhok, Erbil, and Suleimaniyah provinces of IKR. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age analyses reveal that the foreland basin fill in IKR in general was dominantly derived from Pan-African/Arabian-Nubian, Peri-Gondwandan, Eurasian, and Cretaceous volcanic arc terrenes. However, the provenance of these strata varies systematically along strike and through time, with an overall increase in complexity upsection. DZ age distribution of Paleocene-Eocene strata is dominated by a ~95 Ma grain age population, likely sourced from the Late Cretaceous Hassanbag-Bitlis volcanic arc complex along the northern margin of Arabia. In contrast, DZ U-Pb age distributions of Neogene strata show a major contribution derived from various Eurasian (e.g., Iranian, Tauride, Pontide; ~45, 150, 300 Ma) and Pan-African (~550, 950 Ma) sources. The introduction of Eurasian DZ ages at the Paleogene-Neogene transition likely records the onset of Arabian-Eurasian collision. Along strike to the southeast, the DZ U-Pb spectra of Neogene strata show a decreased percentage of Pan-African, Peri-Gondwandan, Tauride, and Ordovician ages, coupled with a dramatic increase in 40-50 Ma DZ ages that correspond to Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic rocks in Iran. Combined with paleocurrent data, this suggests that Neogene sediments were transported longitudinally southeastward through an unbroken foreland basin

  2. Mining and energy in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Included in this book is a section on each of the major minerals of present or future importance to the Northern Territory. Brief details of the uranium mining projects at Nabarlek, Ranger, Koongarra and Jabiluka in the Alligator Rivers regions are given. Subjects such as environmental protection, Aboriginal land rights and the geology of the area are also considered

  3. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  4. Levantamento da infestação de plantas daninhas associada a uma pastagem cultivada de baixa produtividade no Nordeste Paraense Survey of weeds associated to cultivated low yield pastures in the northern region of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Modesto Júnior

    2001-04-01

    in 0.33 ha pastures covered with Brachiaria humidicola in Terra Alta, located at the northern region of Pará - Brazil (0º 58" S e 47º 52" W. Gr.. The 4,700 specimens were sorted out in 17 botanical families with 35 species belonging to Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Solanaceae, with five, five, four, three and three species being found, respectively. The most important weed species in the community were Borreria verticillata, Hyptis atrorubens, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Panicum pilosum, Davilla rugosa, Imperata brasiliensis, Paspalum maritimum, Vernonia scorpioides and Vismia guianensis.

  5. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  6. Northern Lights Chase Tours : Experiences from Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bertella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of northern lights chase tourism, a particular type of northern lights tourism consisting in guided tours that have the goal to find good views of the northern lights. The theoretical approach is based on the understanding of the northern lights experience as a visual experience, and on the recognition of the tourism practitioners as the driving force to new product development. The empirical case concerns the recent development of northern lights chas...

  7. Spatial distribution of pingos in Northern Asia

    OpenAIRE

    G. Grosse; Jones, B M

    2010-01-01

    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of more than 6000 pingo locations in a 3.5 × 106 km2 region of Northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteri...

  8. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed...... strategic environment. This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....... to the increased international interest for the northern part of Europe: climate change resulting in ice melting in Greenland and the Arctic, and new resources and shipping routes opening up across the polar basin foremost among them. The world is no longer "unipolar" and not yet "multipolar," but...

  9. Assessment units of northern Afghanistan (auafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes polygons and regions that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of northern Afghanistan. Each...

  10. Preface to: Marine micropaleontological studies from the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.

    Indian Ocean is unique, being land-locked towards the northern margin, and experiences, highest reported oceanic productivity. It is also the locale for the most severe oxygen depleted waters in the coastal and intermediate depth regions...

  11. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em diferentes coberturas vegetais na região norte Fluminense Characterization of soil fauna in different vegetation covers in the northern Fluminense region (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kellen da S. Moço

    2005-07-01

    (wet summer and dry winter under five different vegetation covers (eucalyptus, non-preserved forest, preserved forest, regenerating forest ('capoeira', and pasture in the northern Fluminense region (RJ, Brazil. Both soil and litter under the natural forest covers, in particular the preserved and non- preserved forest, generally showed higher organism density and abundance values than eucalyptus and pasture for in both collecting seasons. In general, there was no preference of organism groups for soil or litter. The organisms density and abundance, Shannon's index and Pielou's index also varied according to the season of the year and the differences among vegetation covers were more distinct in the summer than in the winter season. The Pielou's index was the most stable variable and, therefore, the most appropriate to study the dissimilarities among the vegetation covers in terms of distribution of groups of organisms.

  12. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  13. Prevalência de carrapatos em cães de áreas rurais da região norte do Estado do Paraná Prevalence of ticks on dogs from rural areas at northern region of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, M. B.; S.L.P. Souza; J.S. Guimarães Jr.; R.C. Pacheco; Pinter, A; Gennari, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    During January and February, 2000, 133 dogs from 21 farms located in eight diferent counties at the northern region of Paraná, Brazil, were examined for ticks. Ticks found on dogs were collected and identified. Information about dog rearing system was also obtained. Fifty-five ticks were collected on 19 dogs (14.3%) from 11 farms (52.4%). Four species were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (20 ticks on nine dogs from seven farms), Boophilus microplus (15 ticks on five dogs from five farms)...

  14. Illuminating Northern California's Active Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Furlong, Kevin P.; Phillips, David A.

    2009-02-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google Earth™ and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2).