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Sample records for antlers

  1. Antler development in reindeer in relation to age and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Amund Høymork; Eigil Reimers

    2002-01-01

    Yearling male and adult female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are similar in size and shape. If sexual clues are hidden, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. Antlers can be a useful aid in classifying yearling males and adult females, depending on whether specific antler characteristics are identifiable for these two groups. We recorded antler characteristics in a domestic reindeer herd (Vågå) and found considerable overlap in antler height, width and circumfere...

  2. Antler development in reindeer in relation to age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amund Høymork

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Yearling male and adult female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are similar in size and shape. If sexual clues are hidden, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. Antlers can be a useful aid in classifying yearling males and adult females, depending on whether specific antler characteristics are identifiable for these two groups. We recorded antler characteristics in a domestic reindeer herd (Vågå and found considerable overlap in antler height, width and circumference between the different age and sex groups. Total tines and number of tine split-offs are use¬ful for the field biologist when discriminating among adult females, yearling males and 2.5 year-old males. For example, when using the tine split-offs with the suggested classification, 79% of the observed adult females and 76% of the yearling males were classified correctly. The antler height, width and circumference provide other biological dif¬ferences between groups, but are not easy to use to identify free ranging reindeer. This is due to the great overlap in antler size between the groups and measuring difficulties in a field study situation. Male and female calves have very similar antlers, and only the antler width is possible for sex discrimination, giving 67% accuracy of discriminating between these two groups.

  3. The antler finds at Bilzingsleben, excavations 1969-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Vollbrecht

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available 2820 antler remains from the Lower Palaeolithic site of Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, Germany (excavations 1969-1993 were the subject of detailed investigations. The two major goals were: 1.the consideration of taphonomic aspects 2.the critical evaluation of suggestions about artificial modifications to the antler material A detailed morphological description of the antler material provided the basis for the investigation. A prerequisite was the transfer of provenance data onto an x-y coordinate grid. Taphonomic aspects considered in this work include the relative frequencies of antler elements, estimates regarding the minimum number of individual deer, their age structure and seasonality, and, insofar as the condition of the antlers allowed, the classification of surface preservation, size classes and spatial distribution of the finds. The assemblage of antler finds, the majority of which seems to have come from red deer, is dominated by small fragments, mostly of tines. About one quarter of the finds are larger than 150 mm. Lower beams are more abundant than upper beams (e.g. crowns. Detailed counting, substantiated by systematic reconstruction, shows that in general the antlers are incomplete. After reconstruction of unshed antlers, it was possible to assess the minimum number of heads at 150 animals. Preliminary counting of postcranial and cranial (non antler cervid material points to about 70 cervids. Intentional accumulation of antlers by hominids can only be accepted as the reason for these disproportionate figures if other site formation processes can be ruled out. In fact, the correlation between sediment thickness and maximum antler densities, at least for finds smaller than 120mm, suggests that fluvial accumulation has to be taken into account as a probable element of the site formation history. Further, the mixture of unifacially abraded finds together with finds that exhibit bifacial abrasion points to a succession of changing fluvial

  4. 鹿茸干细胞与鹿茸再生%Antler Stem Cells and Antler Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明立; 褚文辉; 赵海平; 李春义

    2011-01-01

    鹿茸是唯一能够完全再生的哺乳动物器官,因而成为良好的生物医学研究模型.研究发现,鹿茸的再生是一个基于干细胞的过程,其内在的生长机制和调控模式对再生医学等研究领域具有重大的意义.本文对鹿茸的组织学、形态学及鹿茸干细胞的发现/鉴定进行了总结,进而探讨了鹿茸干细胞内与再生相关的基因.%Antler is the unique mammalian organ that can regenerate completely, so it is a very good biomedical research model. The studies find that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process and that its inner mechanism and regulatory mode of antler growth is of great significance for us to research the area of regeneration medicine. The article summarizes the histology and morphology of velvet antler, then reviews the discovery and identification of antler stem cells, and last further discusses the related genes of antler regeneration in the antler stem cells.

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is...

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers...

  7. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is an important...

  8. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Moen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and lactation. We used data on dietary digestibility, protein, calcium and phosphorus content, and seasonal patterns in body mass to predict the energy, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances of a "generic" male and female caribou. Antler growth in males increased energy requirements during antler growth by 8 to 16%, depending on the efficiency with which energy was used for antler growth. Female energy requirements for antler growth were proportionately much smaller because of the smaller size of female antlers. Protein requirements for antler growth in both males and females were met by forage intake. Calcium and phosphorus must be resorbed from bone during peak antler growth in males, when > 25 g/day of calcium and > 12 g/day of phosphorus are being deposited in antlers. Females are capable of meeting calcium needs during antler growth without bone resorption, but phosphorus was resorbed from bone during the final stages of antler mineralization. After energy, phosphorus was most likely to limit growth of antlers for both males and females in our simulations. Input parameters can be easily changed to represent caribou from specific geographic regions in which dietary nutrient content or body mass patterns differ from those in our "generic" caribou. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the evolutionary basis for development of antlers in female caribou, and the relationship between body mass and antler size in the Cervidae.

  9. MicroRNA profiling of antler stem cells in potentiated and dormant states and their potential roles in antler regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Hengxing; Wang, Datao; Li, Chunyi

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can effectively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play a critical role in tissue growth, development and regeneration. Our previous studies showed that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process and antler stem cells reside in the periosteum of a pedicle, the permanent bony protuberance, from which antler regeneration takes place. Antlers are the only mammalian organ that can fully regenerate and hence provide a unique opportunity to identify miRNAs that are involved in organ regeneration. In the present study, we used next generation sequencing technology sequenced miRNAs of the stem cells derived from either the potentiated or the dormant pedicle periosteum. A population of both conserved and 20 deer-specific miRNAs was identified. These conserved miRNAs were derived from 453 homologous hairpin precursors across 88 animal species, and were further grouped into 167 miRNA families. Among them, the miR-296 is embryonic stem cell-specific. The potentiation process resulted in the significant regulation (>±2 Fold, q value stem cell potentiation process. This research has identified miRNAs that are associated either with the dormant or the potentiated antler stem cells and identified some target miRNAs for further research into their role played in mammalian organ regeneration. PMID:26738876

  10. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S.; Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L.; Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana; Preoteasa, E. A.; Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M.

    2016-03-01

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. "mineral age" of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  11. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Moen; John Pastor

    1998-01-01

    We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and ...

  12. Identification of Genetic Variants Within Androgen Receptor Gene of Sika Deer and its Association with Antler Production

    OpenAIRE

    Liguo Yang; Shujun Zhang; Lijun Huo; Pu Zhang; Bin Fan; Lei Shen; Guohua Hua; Feifei Yang; Jiajun Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Antler production is one of the most important economical traits of Sika deer. However, the genetic mechanism of antler growth and genetic markers associated with antler yield remain unclear. In the present study Androgen Receptor (AR) gene has been considered as a candidate gene to identify the polymorphisms. Besides, its effect on antler production was investigated in Chinese Sika deer. Genomic sequences of exons1-7 of Sika deer have been successfully obtained and showed high homogeneity wi...

  13. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyun; Jeon, Byongtae; Kang, Sungki; Oh, Mirae; Kim, Myonghwa; Jang, Seyoung; Park, Pyojam; Kim, Sangwoo; Moon, Sangho

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12) which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001), and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth. PMID:26194228

  14. Effects of PTHrP on chondrocytes of sika deer antler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Wang, Shou-Tang; Duan, Cui-Cui; Li, Dang-Dang; Tian, Xue-Chao; Wang, Qu-Yuan; Yue, Zhan-Peng

    2013-11-01

    Parathyroid-hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is an important regulator of chondrocyte differentiation in growth plates but little is known about its role in deer antler cartilage. The aim of the present study was to use the deer antler as a model to determine the possible role of PTHrP in regulating chondrocyte differentiation of deer antler. PTHrP and its receptor PTH1R mRNA were highly expressed in the perichondrium and cartilage of sika deer antler, as shown by in situ hybridization. Chondrocytes of deer antler were identified by toluidine blue staining of glycosaminoglycan and immunocytochemical staining of type II collagen (Col II). Treatment with PTHrP (1-34) reduced the expression of prehypertrophic chondrocyte marker Col IX and hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Col X. In order to confirm the mechanism of action of PTHrP, we initially examined the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in sika deer antler by in situ hybridization and found that cyclin D1, Runx2 and Bcl-2 mRNA were also expressed in antler chondrocytes. Exogenous PTHrP induced the expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 mRNA by various signalling pathways, whereas it inhibited Runx2 expression through PKA, p38MAPK, MEK and PI3K signalling pathways. Thus, PTHrP might promote the proliferation of antler chondrocytes and prevent their differentiation; it might furthermore influence the growth and development of sika deer antler. PMID:23824099

  15. Mule deer antlers as biomonitors of strontium-90 on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated deer antlers as indicators of animal uptake of localized 90Sr contamination on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Levels of 90Sr were examined in 38 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) antler samples collected near and distant from previously active nuclear reactor facilities and from a reference site in central Oregon. Results showed that 90Sr concentrations in antlers collected near reactor facilities were significantly higher (P90Sr compared with Hanford. Strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers collected at the reference locations were higher than Hanford site deer, presumably because the deer inhabited mountain regions during the summer months that received more atmospheric fallout from historic weapons testing

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age...

  17. Rapid assessment of quality of deer antler slices by using an electronic nose coupled with chemometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guojie Xu; Caili Liao; Xiaolei Ren; Xue Zhang; Xinyue Zhang; Siqi Liu; Xiaorui Fu; Haozhong Wu; Luqi Huang; Chunsheng Liu; Xueyong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Deer antler is a precious animal-sourced traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices by electronic nose so that we can ensure medical safety. In this study, response intensity of the electronic nose was favorably optimized, and samples were well assessed by using an electronic nose based on LDA model. The results obtained herein suggested that electronic nose could be an effective method to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices, and co...

  18. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  19. Antlers of Cervus elaphus as biomonitors of {sup 90}Sr in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Vallejo, I. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.e [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Salas, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Adequate radioprotection of the environment requires the identification of biomonitors sensitive to the variation of its radionuclide content. Due to the chemical similarities between calcium and strontium, calcified tissues of mammals are considered to be good {sup 90}Sr biomonitors. This work considered Cervus elaphus antlers which, being shed annually, can give information about the importance of radiostrontium contamination in an ecosystem in the time period required for the growth of the antler. The samples were collected at various points of W and SW Spain. The mean value of their {sup 90}Sr content was (70 {+-} 43 (S.D.)) Bq/kg d.w., range (16-218) Bq/kg d.w., and the radionuclide was evenly distributed in the different parts of the antler. There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. The antlers' content of {sup 226}Ra (from the natural uranium series) and the contents of some stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, and K) were also determined. The values for these stable elements were practically constant in the analyzed samples, and the concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr > {sup 90}Sr > {sup 226}Ra - Research highlights: {yields} There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. {yields} The content of stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, K) in the analyzed antlers were practically constant. {yields} The concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr >{sup 90}Sr >{sup 226}Ra.

  20. Chondroitin sulphate extracted from antler cartilage using high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Tai Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate (CS, a major glycosaminoglycan, is an essential component of the extracellular matrix in cartilaginous tissues. Wapiti velvet antlers are a rich source of these molecules. The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective isolation procedure of CS from fresh velvet antlers using a combination of high hydrostatic pressure (100 MPa and enzymatic hydrolysis (papain. High CS extractability (95.1 ± 2.5% of total uronic acid was obtained following incubation (4 h at 50 °C with papain at pH 6.0 in 100 MPa compared to low extractability (19 ± 1.1% in ambient pressure (0.1 MPa. Antler CS fractions were isolated by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography and identified by western blot using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody. The antler CS fraction did not aggregate with hyaluronic acid in CL-2B chromatography and possessed DPPH radical scavenging activity at 78.3 ± 1.5%. The results indicated that high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis procedure may be a useful tool for the isolation of CS from antler cartilaginous tissues.

  1. Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-jie Li; Zheng Li; Li-juan Gu; Yun-bo Wang; Mi-ra Lee; Chang-keun Sung

    2014-01-01

    Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1 mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth p...

  2. Rapid assessment of quality of deer antler slices by using an electronic nose coupled with chemometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a precious animal-sourced traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices by electronic nose so that we can ensure medical safety. In this study, response intensity of the electronic nose was favorably optimized, and samples were well assessed by using an electronic nose based on LDA model. The results obtained herein suggested that electronic nose could be an effective method to rapidly assess the quality of deer antler slices, and could also be an important tool for categorization of complex aroma mixtures for the control of quality of drugs or food.

  3. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in elk antler bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Chen, Po-Yu; McKittrick, Joanna; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-11-23

    Bone is an adaptative material that is designed for different functional requirements; indeed, bones have a variety of properties depending on their role in the body. To understand the mechanical response of bone requires the elucidation of its structure-function relationships. Here, we examine the fracture toughness of compact bone of elk antler which is an extremely fast growing primary bone designed for a totally different function than human (secondary) bone. We find that antler in the transverse (breaking) orientation is one of the toughest biological materials known. Its resistance to fracture is achieved during crack growth (extrinsically) by a combination of gross crack deflection/twisting and crack bridging via uncracked 'ligaments' in the crack wake, both mechanisms activated by microcracking primarily at lamellar boundaries. We present an assessment of the toughening mechanisms acting in antler as compared to human cortical bone, and identify an enhanced role of inelastic deformation in antler which further contributes to its (intrinsic) toughness.

  4. Innervation and anesthesia of the antler pedicle in wapiti and fallow deer.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodbury, M R; Haigh, J C

    1996-01-01

    The heads from 6 mature male wapiti and 8 mature male fallow deer were dissected to provide a description of the nerves supplying the antler pedicles. Innervation in both species was found to resemble that of the red deer, with major contributions coming from the infratrochlear and zygomaticotemporal nerves. All heads displayed a dorsal branch from the auriculopalpebral nerve, but in only 2 wapiti and 3 fallow deer heads was this branch observed travelling to the pedicle. The dorsal branches ...

  5. Studies on the purification of polypeptide from sika antler plate and activities of antitumor

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Qi, Lin; Tian, Yu H.; Hu, Rui; Wu, Lei; Meng, Xing Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background We isolated a novel monomeric peptide from antler plate polypeptide (APP) of sika deer and found that it inhibited rat breast cancer cell proliferation and telomerase activity. Methods The molecular mass and purity of this polypeptide was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and Bruker micOTOF OllQ TOF mass spectrometry, respectively. The full amino-acid sequence of the monomeric peptide was analyzed by sequential Edman degradation using a protein/peptide se...

  6. Antler and Body Size in Black-Tailed Deer: An Analysis of Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Thalmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-lived species, environmental factors experienced early in life can have lasting effects persisting into adulthood. Large herbivores can be susceptible to cohort-wide declines in fitness as a result of decreases in forage availability, because of extrinsic factors, including extreme climate or high population densities. To examine effects of cohort-specific extrinsic factors on size of adults, we performed a retrospective analysis on harvest data of 450 male black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus over 19 years in central California, USA. We determined that population density of females had a more dominant effect than did precipitation on body size of males. Harvest of female deer resulted in increases in the overall size of males, even though a 6-year drought occurred during that treatment period. Body size was most influenced by female population density early in life, while antler size was highly affected by both weather early in life and the year directly before harvest. This study provides insights that improve our understanding of the role of cohort effects in body and antler size by cervids; and, in particular, that reduction in female population density can have a profound effect on the body and antler size of male deer.

  7. Genotyping of velvet antlers for identification of country of origin using mitochondrial DNA and fluorescence melting curve analysis with locked nucleic acid probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong Jin; Kim, Youngjoo; Hong, Ji Young; Kim, Gi Won; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2016-07-01

    Velvet antlers are used medicinally in Asia and possess various therapeutic effects. Prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. Additionally, antlers of the Canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. Thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA, fluorescence melting curve analysis and analysis of locked nucleic acids (LNA). This combined method is capable of identifying five genotypes of velvet antlers in a single experiment using two probes. It also has advantages in multiplexing, simplicity and efficiency in genotyping, when compared to real-time PCR or microarrays. The developed method can be used to improve identification rates in the velvet antler market and, by extension, research based on polymorphisms in DNA sequences. PMID:26094991

  8. Sika Deer Antler Collagen Type I-Accelerated Osteogenesis in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the Smad Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Min; Drummen, Gregor P C; Zhao, Yu; Tan, Yin Fen; Luo, Su; Qu, Xiao Bo

    2016-01-01

    Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone injury and/or in scaffolds for bone replacement strategies. Finally, isolation of SDA-Col I from deer antler represents a renewable, green, and uncomplicated way to obtain a biomedically valuable therapeutic. PMID:27066099

  9. Sika Deer Antler Collagen Type I-Accelerated Osteogenesis in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the Smad Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Na Li; Min Zhang; Gregor P. C. Drummen; Yu Zhao; Yin Fen Tan; Su Luo; Xiao Bo Qu

    2016-01-01

    Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone...

  10. ON THE USAGE OF ANIMAL BONES AND ANTLER DURING THE MIDDLE AGES (9th - 13th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Весна Р. Манојловић-Николић

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The processing and production of the bone and antler objects could be traced deep into the past. The most beautiful specimens were known as the objects of Paleolithic art, but the tools were also made of these materials. The peak in bone and antler processing was reached during Roman period. During the Middle Ages, mostly utilitarian items were produced especially in the period from the ninth to the thirteenth century.From the chemistry view, the bones were composed of organic and inorganic substances. The bones had tenacity thanks to minerals, but the organic substances gave them flexibility. The most important organic and inorganic components of the bone tissue weree not chemically bounded, so it was possible to make changes in their ratio by physical or chemical acting. The data about technology and processing of the bone and antler objects that referred to the craft in this period could not be found in the written sources. Reconstruction of the processing could be made on the basis of ethnological data and partly modern industry.The bone and antler objects are usually classified in two main groups: tools, essentials in everyday life, and decorative objects made by more skillful craftsmen. The further classifying is done on the basis of their shape and function. It is possible to mark off the items: tools, decorative and toilette requisites, game objects, musical instruments and the parts of the horse equipment. This is the most usual classification of the bone and antler objects in literature. Majority of bone and antler objects, modest for processing but with emphasized functionality, were used during everyday jobs such as skin processing, footwear and clothing making, sewing, fisherman nets making, pottery vessels decorating etc. All the necessary items were made in this way in a settlement. Their functionality, simplicity in making and readily available materials were the reflection of that processing. The found bone and antler objects

  11. Isolation and characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 from antler base of sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yin, Yongguang; Zhou, Yajun; He, Guidan; Qi, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are secreted innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. In this study, a new peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 named cnPGRP1 was isolated from an antler base of sika deer Cervus nippon. The antler base antimicrobial proteins (AAP) were subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods connected to Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column (CM) anion-exchange column, and RP-HPLC. The molecular weight of cnPGRP1 was 17.2 kDa under SDS-PAGE, and peptide mass fingerprint analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS as peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 matched to Dasypus novemcinctus. The matched amino acids sequences were RLYEIIQKWPHYRA. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be killed by cnPGRP1 in the 50-250 μg/mL range through in vitro. Furthermore, cnPGRP1 has been found to bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and even fungus. PMID:24360898

  12. [Molecular identification of hairy antler by analysis of high resolution melting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Jin, Yan

    2015-02-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) , an important technology for genotyping and mutation scanning, has broad prospects in the authenticity of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper selected universal CO I primers and used HRM to establish a new method for authenticity of Hairy Antler. PCR was conducted at the annealing temperature of 60 °C and 45 cycles. The range of the DNA template concentration, the primer concentration and the Mg2+ ion concentration were further optimized. The results showed that the Tm values of Cervus nippon were (81.96 ± 0.07), (84.51 ± 0.03) °C and Cervus elaphus was(82.58 ± 0.13), (85.95 ± 0.05) °C with 10-100 mg · L(-1) DNA template, 0.2 µLmol · L(-1) primer, 2.0 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+. This method can authenticate of hairy antler and is simple, fast, high-throughput, visualization. PMID:26137679

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of enzymatic hydrolysates of velvet antler in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and zebrafish model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Yang, Hye-Won; Ding, Yuling; Wang, Yanmei; Jeon, You-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Sung, Si-Heung

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis has been successfully used for the extraction of numerous biologically active components from a wide variety of natural sources. In the present study, velvet antler was subjected to the extraction process using Alcalase protease. We analyzed bioactive components, such as uronic acid, sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sulfated-GAGs), and sialic acid, present in the velvet antler Alcalase hydrolysate (VAAH) and assessed their anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish as well as in ...

  14. CONTROLLING ANTLER GROWTH IN A CASTRATED INDOCHINESE SIKA DEER CERVUS NIPPON PSEUDAXIS USING A COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TRENBOLONE ACETATE AND ESTRADIOL IMPLANT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Janis A; Storms, Timothy

    2015-12-01

    A captive Indochinese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) was castrated at the age of 5 yr. The resultant abnormal antler growth over the next few years became difficult to manage from both the veterinary and husbandry standpoints. Using a commercially available trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant marketed for domestic cattle heifers, normal mineralization of the abnormal antlers was achieved along with the expected normal casting. The deer was then maintained for 6 yr using an annual implant regimen. PMID:26667563

  15. microRNA-18b modulates insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in deer antler cell proliferation by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Li, Mu; Hu, Rui; Li, Ting; Meng, Xingyu

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a multipromoter gene that has complex biological functions and plays an important role in Chinese sika deer antler cell differentiation and proliferation. microRNAs and their roles in deer antler growth have attracted much attention. In the present study, to investigate the effect of microRNAs on the regulation of IGF-1 during the rapid growth of antlers, miRNA GeneChip analysis and TargetScan Human software were used to screen microRNAs that bind to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of IGF-1. The results indicated that a significantly differential expression of miR-18b was observed in cartilage and mesenchymal of antler tip tissue and the presence of miR-18b-binding sites within the IGF-1 3'UTR. A miR-18b mimic was then transfected into antler cartilage cells to overexpress miR-18b and the expression levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Real-time PCR showed that the expression level of miR-18b in transfected cells was significantly increased compared with the control group (psika deer antler. PMID:25756952

  16. microRNA-18b Modulates Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Expression in Deer Antler Cell Proliferation by Directly Targeting Its 3′ Untranslated Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Hu, Rui; Li, Ting; Meng, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a multipromoter gene that has complex biological functions and plays an important role in Chinese sika deer antler cell differentiation and proliferation. microRNAs and their roles in deer antler growth have attracted much attention. In the present study, to investigate the effect of microRNAs on the regulation of IGF-1 during the rapid growth of antlers, miRNA GeneChip analysis and TargetScan Human software were used to screen microRNAs that bind to the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of IGF-1. The results indicated that a significantly differential expression of miR-18b was observed in cartilage and mesenchymal of antler tip tissue and the presence of miR-18b-binding sites within the IGF-1 3′UTR. A miR-18b mimic was then transfected into antler cartilage cells to overexpress miR-18b and the expression levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Real-time PCR showed that the expression level of miR-18b in transfected cells was significantly increased compared with the control group (psika deer antler. PMID:25756952

  17. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MUREŞ-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciucălău Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mureș-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  18. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 (90Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed 90Sr concentrations. 90Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention

  19. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg−1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo. PMID:26608944

  20. Full length cDNA cloning and expression analysis of annexinA2 gene from deer antler tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hao; Xianghong Xiao; Heping Li

    2014-01-01

    ANXA2(AnnexinA2), a calcium-dependent phospholipid bind-ing protein, is involved in various Ca2+-related biological activities. In the present study, full-length cDNA of ANXA2 was isolated from the velvet antler tip tissue of sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum);the amino acid sequence and gene expression was analyzed by using bioinformatics and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals that the full-length cDNA of the ANXA2 gene was 1372 bp, of which 1020 bp was in the open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 339 amino acids; its relative mo-lecular weight was 38.3 kDa; and isoelectric point was 6.72. Sequence analysis indicates that the protein includes four conserved tan-dem-duplication ANX domains. The gene-accession nucleotide sequence number in GenBank is JX315571. Expression analysis by RT-PCR re-veals that ANXA2 gene expression has a significant positive correlation with the antler-tissue mineralization process, indicating that this gene may play an important role in the regulation of antler-tissue mineraliza-tion.

  1. 3D-ANTLERS: Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; De Feo, E.

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to establish a procedural method for measuring and cataloguing antlers through the use of laser scanner and of a 3D reconstruction of complex modeling. The deer's antlers have been used as a test and subjected to capture and measurement. For this purpose multiple data sources techniques have been studied and compared, (also considering low-cost sensors) estimating the accuracy and its errors in order to demonstrate the validity of the process. A further development is the comparison of results with applications of digital photogrammetry, considering also cloud computing software. The study has began with an introduction to sensors, addressing the underlying characteristics of the technology available, the scope and the limits of these applications. We have focused particularly on the "structured light", as the acquisition will be completed through three-dimensional scanners: DAVID and the ARTEC MH. The first is a low-cost sensor, a basic webcam and a linear laser pointer, red coloured, that leads to acquisition of three-dimensional strips. The other one is a hand scanner; even in this case we will explain how to represent a 3D model, with a pipeline that provides data export from the "proprietary" to a "reverse engineering" software. Typically, these are the common steps to the two approaches that have been performed in WRAP format: point sampling, manual and global registration, repair normals, surface editing and texture projection. In fact, after a first and common data processing was done with the use of a software supplied with the equipment, the proto-models thus obtained were treated in Geomagic Studio, which was also chosen to allow the homogenization and standardization of data in order to make a more objective comparison. It is commonplace to observe that the editing of the digital mock-up obtained with the DAVID - which had not yet been upgraded to the 3.5 release at the time of this study - is substantially different

  2. Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs and antler units (AUs—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone and paracrine (particularly IGF1 factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs.

  3. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  4. First Evidence that Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Velvet Antler Extract Suppresses Migration of Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, YuJiao; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Wang, Yanmei; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Park, Pyo-Jam; Moon, Sang Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Deer velvet antler (DVA) is one of the most popular medicines in China. Numerous studies have demonstrated that velvet antler possess biological effects. However, data regarding its anti-migration activity on prostate cancer is scarce. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of top DVA (T-DVA) on the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and migration-related genes in the human prostate cancer cell, LNCaP. The T-DVA down-regulated the expression of PSA. In addition, the Radius(TM) assay revealed that T-DVA inhibited the migration behavior of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also decreased with T-DVA. On the contrary, T-DVA increased the tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and (TIMP)-2. Taken together, our findings indicate that the T-DVA possesses anti-migration activity on prostate cancer cells. This is the first study of DVA to report the anti-migration activity on prostate cancer. PMID:26761873

  5. Study on Deer Antler Growth Behavior of Captive Manchurian Wapiti%圈养东北马鹿鹿茸生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝京民; 何绍纯; 由玉岩

    2012-01-01

    2012年3月8日至5月22日,对北京动物园圈养的一只雄性东北马鹿鹿茸生长进行了研究。每间隔8~12d对鹿茸进行拍照,按比例测算鹿茸的相对长度,在锯鹿茸当日测定鹿茸重量。结果表明:圈养条件下,东北马鹿鹿茸主干生长随时间变化呈"S"型生长曲线,即呈缓慢、快速和减速生长3个阶段。第1阶段为第0~29天,平均生长速度为0.17cm/d;第2阶段为第30~56天,平均生长速度为1.30cm/d;第3阶段为第57天后,鹿茸平均生长速度为0.94cm/d。鹿茸3个阶段生长速率差异显著(P〈0.01)。第72天鹿茸锯下时重量4.0kg,平均增重0.05kg/d;右角主干长度54.5cm,平均生长速度0.76cm/d;左角主干长度56.5cm,平均生长速度0.78cm/d。%From March 8th,2012 to May 22nd,2012,the deer antler growth behavior of a male Cervus elaphus xanthopygus was studied in Beijing Zoo using focal animal sampling method. The sampling intervals were 8-12 days. Different stages of deer antler were taken pictures, the data of the deer antler relative lengths were calculated ,and the deer antler was weighted when amputated. The results showed that the growth of the deer antler main branch of the captive manchurian wapiti was in a ' S' shaped growth curve, which composed by three stages, with time going showed slow, fast and deceleration respectively. The first stage was at 0-29 days of the deer antler trunk growth ,with an average growth rate of 0.17 cm/d. The second stage was at 30-56 days, with an average growth rate of 1.30 cm/d. The third stage was after 57 days,with average growth rate of 0.94 cm/d. The growth rate in three stages were significantly different (P〈0.01).The deer antler was 4.0 kg when sawed after 72 days. The weight increased by 0.05kg/d.The right main branch of the deer antler was 54.5 cm in length, and the average growth rate was 0.76 cm/d. The left main branch of the deer antler was 56.5 cm in length, and the average growth rate was 0.78 cm/d.

  6. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of enzymatic hydrolysates of velvet antler in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and zebrafish model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Yang, Hye-Won; Ding, Yuling; Wang, Yanmei; Jeon, You-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Sung, Si-Heung

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis has been successfully used for the extraction of numerous biologically active components from a wide variety of natural sources. In the present study, velvet antler was subjected to the extraction process using Alcalase protease. We analyzed bioactive components, such as uronic acid, sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sulfated-GAGs), and sialic acid, present in the velvet antler Alcalase hydrolysate (VAAH) and assessed their anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish as well as in vitro using cell lines. VAAH mainly contained uronic acid (78.22 mg/g) and sulfated-GAGs (50.47 mg/g), while the amount of sialic acid was negligible (5.55 mg/g). VAAH inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cells in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect of VAAH on NO production was higher than that of hot water extracts. VAAH treatment also reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, we evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of VAAH using LPS-stimulated zebrafish. Treatment with LPS significantly increased cell death, NO, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in zebrafish. Notably, VAAH significantly inhibited the extent of LPS-stimulated cell death and generation of NO and ROS in zebrafish. These results suggest that VAAH alleviated inflammation and cell death by inhibiting the generation of ROS induced by LPS treatment. Thus, VAAH could be used as a potential natural remedy with a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, we believe that based on our present results, enzymatic hydrolysis of velvet antler may be an effective process to make antler products acceptable as elements of health foods and nutraceutical components with increased biological activity. PMID:27152107

  8. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kittisak Buddhachat; Sarisa Klinhom; Puntita Siengdee; Brown, Janine L.; Raksiri Nomsiri; Patcharaporn Kaewmong; Chatchote Thitaram; Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh; Korakot Nganvongpanit

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biologic...

  9. Identification of microRNA-18a as a novel regulator of the insulin-like growth factor-1 in the proliferation and regeneration of deer antler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Li, Ting; Wu, Lei; Li, Mu; Meng, Xingyu

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of miR-18a on the regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) during growth of antlers in sika deer, miRNA Chip analysis, Target Scan and real-time PCR analysis were used to identify miRNAs that bind to the 3'-UTR of IGF-1. An miR-18a mimic was transfected into antler cartilage cells and the expression levels were quantified by real-time PCR. Dual luciferase assays revealed that miR-18a binds to the 3'-UTR of the IGF-1 gene thus indicating this to be a target gene regulated by miR-18a. MTT assays and cell-cycle analyses confirmed that miR-18a significantly inhibited proliferation of cartilage cells. In contrast, transfection of miR-18a inhibitors increased proliferation. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that over-expression of miR-18a down-regulated IGF-1 protein levels while IGF-1 expression was increased after transfection of miR-18a inhibitors. Thus, miR-1 down-regulated IGF-1 expression thus implicating miR-18a as an important regulator of antler proliferation. PMID:24563285

  10. 马鹿茸多肽的提取分离及基质辅助激光解吸飞行时间质谱分析%Separation and Analysis of Velvet Antler Polypeptide by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季怡萍; 张红明; 朱文彬

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, active components of velvet antler polypeptide were extracted and separated. The molecular weight and purity of velvet antler polypeptide were determined by MALDI-TOFMS. The different influence factors such as matrix, sample concentration and laser energy were studied. This method is convenient and suitable for the identification of congener biochemical samples.

  11. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongran Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elk velvet antler (EVA has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age, and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  12. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  13. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  14. Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. Y. [Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N. D. [Department of Physics, Illinois State University, 61790, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X., E-mail: xiw77@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -}→(ℓ{sup +}D{sup 0})(ℓ{sup -}D{sup -bar0}) at high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (non-chiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  15. Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.Y. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Physics, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N.D. [Illinois State University, Department of Physics, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} → (l{sup +}D{sup 0})(l{sup +} anti D{sup 0}) at highenergy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (nonchiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. (orig.)

  16. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  17. Effects and efficiency of consolidation treatments on Palaeolithic reindeer antler. Multi-analytical study by means of XRD, FT-IR microspectroscopy, SEM, TEM and μ-PIXE/PIGE analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadefaux, C.; Vignaud, C.; Menu, M.; Reiche, I.

    2008-07-01

    Bone materials record information on palaeodiets and palaeoenvironment, contained in their chemical and isotopic composition. Therefore, it is very important, while preserving these objects, to keep an open access to this information. In the present paper, we characterise the effects of consolidation treatments on the structure and chemical composition of archaeological reindeer antler at different hierarchical scales. X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with an X-ray analysing system and proton-induced X-ray and γ-ray emission were used to reveal the state of preservation of reindeer antler and to evaluate the effectiveness of their consolidation treatments. These treatments are shown not to affect the chemical composition, but the crystallinity of the solid phase, as far as Palaeolithic material is concerned. In terms of penetration, the most efficient treatment, among those tested, seems to be the Rhodopas 15% single-bath treatment.

  18. Histologi dan Histomorfometri Testis dan Epididimis Muncak (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak pada Periode Ranggah Keras (HISTOLOGY AND HISTOMORPHOMETRY OF THE TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS OF MUNTJAC (MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK MUNTJAK DURING HARD ANTLER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the histology and histomorphometry of testis and epididymisof muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak during hard antler period. The tissues of the testis and epididymisof an adult male muntjac were processed for histological examination and stained with haematoxylineosine(HE. The parenchyma of muntjac’s testis during hard antler period showed tubuli seminiferi waslined with germinal epithelium: spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid that differentiated intospermatozoa. Sertoli cells were found among the germinal cells. In addition, Leydig cells were foundaround the blood vessel of interstitial tissue along with macrophages. Diameter of the seminiferous tubuleand epithelial thickness were 176,60±7,06 ?m and 50,27±3,62 ?m respectively. The epididymal duct wassubdivided into three segments: caput, corpus and cauda. They were lined predominantly withpseudostratified columnar epithelium which was varied in its thickness. The largest diameter of epididymalduct was found in cauda region (324,26±25,79 ?m, while caput epididymidis had the thickest of epithelialcell (62,21±4,21 ?m and tended to ce thinner in corpus (49,53±3,01 ?m and cauda epididymidis(16,30±2,27?m. The density of spermatozoa was observed the most in the lumen of cauda region comparedto caput and corpus epididymidis. In conclusion, the structure of histology and histomorphometry of theseminiferous tubule of testis and epididymal duct of muntjac were similar with small ruminants andother Cervidae during hard antler period.

  19. Effect of the Velvet Antler of Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei on the Prevention of an Allergic Airway Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yun Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mouse models were used to assay the antiallergic effects of the velvet antler (VA of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei in this study. The results using the ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mouse model showed that the levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE were reduced after VA powder was administrated for 4 weeks. In addition, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of T helper cell 1 (Th1, regulatory T (Treg, and Th17 cytokines by splenocytes was significantly increased (P<0.05 when VA powder was administered to the mice. Furthermore, OVA-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated with VA powder showed a strong inhibition of Th2 cytokine and proinflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in the regulatory T-cell population of splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of VA was also observed. All the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including airway inflammation and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were reduced by treatment with VA. These findings support the hypothesis that oral feeding of VA may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  20. 梅花鹿三种深加工制品的营养保健成分研究%Studies on Nutritious Health- Protecting Component of Wine from Pilose Antler Blood Deer's Heart Flake and deer's Penis Pantocrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董万超; 赵伟刚; 张秀莲; 张宝香; 赵立波; 赵景辉

    2001-01-01

    This test hasanalysed and determinal the contents for protein, grease, polysaccharide, Vitamin and inorganic element of the wine from pilose antler, deer's heart flake and deer's penis pantocrin.The test has obviously showed that three products of that are good for nutritious health - protecting function after experiment.%分析测定了鹿茸血酒,鹿心片和鹿鞭精中的蛋白质、脂肪、总糖、维生素及无机微量元素的含量。结果表明,它们是优良的营养保健佳品。

  1. Antilipid peroxidation of polyamines from pilose antler%鹿茸多胺的抗脂质过氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓光; 金淑莉; 邸琳; 刘新宇; 张晓宇

    2004-01-01

    目的研究鹿茸多胺的抗氧化作用.方法测定鹿茸多胺在体外对NADPH-维生素C和Fe 2+-半胱氨酸系统诱发的微粒体脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成)的影响,对黄嘌呤-黄嘌呤氧化酶系统超氧阴离子自由基(O-2)产生(还原型细胞色素C形成)的影响,在体内对CCl4和乙醇诱发的小鼠肝脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成)的影响.结果鹿茸多胺在体外能明显抑制NADPH-维生素C和Fe2+-半胱氨酸系统诱发的大鼠脑、肝、肾微粒体脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成),及黄嘌呤-黄嘌呤氧化酶系统O-2的产生(还原型细胞色素C形成).在体内能抑制CCl4和乙醇诱发的小鼠肝脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成).结论鹿茸多胺具有抗氧化作用.%Object To investigate the antioxidant activity of polyamines isolated from pilose antler(paipa).Mthods The effects of PAIPA ON the lipid peroxidation(MDA formation)in microsomes of rat brain,liver ,and kidney induced by NADPH-Vitamine C(Vc)and ferrous-cysteine systems in vitro,the superoxide anion radical production(reduced cytochrome C formation)inxanthine-xanthine oxidase system in vitro,and the CCL4-and ethanol-induced MDA formation in mice liver in vivo were evaluated.Results PAIPA could significantly inhibit the lipid peroxidation(MDA formation)in microsomes of rat brain,liver,and kidney induced by NADPH-Vc and ferrous -cyctein,the superoxide anion radical produc-tion(formation of reduced cytochrome C)in xanthine-oxidase system in vitro,and the CCL4-and ethanol-induced MDA formation in mice liver in vivo.Conclusion PAIPA exhibits an antioxidant activity.

  2. 麋鹿角醇提取液改善衰老小鼠免疫功能%Elk antlers ethanolic extract improves immunological function of aging mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦红兵; 杨朝晔; 于广华; 朱清

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Elk antlers ethanolic extract (EAEE) on immunological function of aging mice. Methods Fifty-four mice were randomly divided into 4 groups of normal controKgroup NG, 12 mice) and three aging model groups(MG, LG and HG) with 14 mice each. The aging model was induced by D-galactose(D-gal) 120 mg/kg per day for six weeks. During oral administration of D-gal, EAEE 2 g· Kg~(-1)21·~(-1) was given in group HG and 4 g · kg~(-1)·d~(-1) in group LG. Some parameters related to immunological function were examined with MTT, ELISA and RT-PCR methods. Results The D-gal induced aging mice model, which was characterized by depression, loss of appetite, weight loss, pelage losing sheen, lacking of skin elasticity and so on. The serum IgG level, lymphocyte transforming SI of the spleen, serum concentration of interferon-gama (IFN-γ), IFN-γ mRNA and interleukin-2(IL-2) were reduced in aging models of group MG, which were all increased in group HG. Conclusion EAEE improves cellular and humoral immunological function of the aging model of mice induced by D-gal.%目的 观察麋鹿角醇提液对D-半乳糖(D-gal)诱导衰老模型小鼠免疫功能的影响.方法 54只小鼠随机分成正常对照(NG)组和三个D-gal诱导衰老模型(MG、LG、HG)组.在造模同时,LG、HG两组分别给予麋鹿角醇提液2 g/kg和4 g/kg.测定部分免疫相关的血清指标.结果 小鼠经D-gal处理6周后出现衰老体征.MG组血清IgG水平下降,脾淋巴细胞转化刺激指数下降,血清IFN-γ浓度IFN-γ mRNA表达水平下降.HG组小鼠IgG水平、脾淋巴细胞转化刺激指数、血清中IL-2和IFN-γ的浓度升高,并增强模型鼠脾淋巴细胞IL-2、IFN-γ mRNA的表达.结论 麋鹿角醇提液能增强D-gal诱导的衰老模型小鼠体液免疫及细胞免疫功能.

  3. 不同部位鹿茸水提液对NRK-49F细胞促增殖作用的研究%Comparative Analysis of Promoting Effects on NRK-49F Cells Proliferation by Different Sections of Velvet Antler Water Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴帆; 董玲; 王春梅; 丁倩男; 刘建亭; 赓迪; 戴俊东

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究鹿茸不同部位水提液体外对细胞促增殖作用的差异。方法:以大鼠肾成纤维细胞NRK-49F作为模型,以MTT法检测鲜鹿茸上、中、下三部分水提液的促细胞增殖率,以BCA法检测样品蛋白浓度,SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)方法分析样品蛋白组成的差异。结果:上、中、下部鹿茸样品可溶性蛋白含量分别为17.89、16.04和6.89 mg·mL-1,从顶端到基部,鹿茸可溶性蛋白的含量依次降低。加样24 h时,鹿茸上部和中部样品分别在蛋白浓度800μg·mL-1和600μg·mL-1时达到最大促增殖率,分别为66.76%和64.36%,下部样品在1000μg·mL-1时达到最大促增殖率,为58.87%。作用48 h后,鹿茸上部和中部样品均在蛋白浓度800μg·mL-1时达到最大促增殖率,分别为219.56%和215.86%,下部样品在蛋白浓度1000μg·mL-1时达到最大促增殖率,为169.20%。鹿茸样品对细胞的增殖促进作用远大于10%胎牛血清。3个部位样品蛋白组成的SDS-PAGE图谱差异不大。结论:所有样品对细胞增殖均有促进作用,且呈现浓度依赖效应。不同部位样品主要蛋白组成差异不大。%This study was aimed to explore differential effects of various sections of the velvet antler on promoting cell proliferation in vitro. The NRK-49F cell line from rat kidney fibroblasts was used as the cell model. The cell proliferation rates of the water extracts from the upper, middle and lower section of fresh velvet antler were measured by the MTT method. BCA method was used in the detection of protein concentration. The SDS-PAGE method was used in the analysis of difference composition of the sample protein. The results showed that soluble protein content of the upper, middle and lower section were 17.89, 16.04 and 6.89 mg·mL-1, respectively. From the top to the base, the soluble protein content of velvet antler was decreased. After 24 h treatment, when the protein

  4. Combination of Supercritical Fluid Extraction with Ultrasonic Extraction for Obtaining Sex Hormones and IGF-1 from Antler Velvet%超临界萃取技术结合超声强化技术提取鹿茸中性激素和IGF-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冉; 李淑芬; 张大成

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction technology and ultrasonic technology were used to extract two active sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) from antler velvet. The effects of SC-CO2 extraction condition on the extraction yield and content of sex hormones, the ultrasonic extraction condition on the content of IGF-1 and the SC-CO2 extraction condition on the activity remaining of IGF-1 were studied. The optimal conditions were obtained. The experimental results velvet residue, when the pHIO ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer solution was used as the solvent, the ratio of solvent to sample was 20/1 (volume/mass), the extraction temperature was 0-35℃, and the extraction time was 4×15 min. Under these conditions, 93.68% activity remaining of IGF-1 in the residue was obtained, while little IGF-1 activity exists in traditional residue. The experimental results indicate that the technology of SC-CO2 with co-solvent is of advantage for getting high content sexual hormones and keeping high activity of IGF-1 in the residue, which can not be achieved by traditional extraction methods.

  5. Suvemaja, Antler Island, Fairy Lake, Ontario / Ants Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Ants, 1917-2012

    1997-01-01

    Tuli projekteerida suvila kasvavale perele, mis algusest peale kasutamiskõlblikuna areneks koos perekonna laienemisega. Kerged paviljonid meenutavad küla. Ehitati 1966-1989. Arhitekt Elmar Tampõld. Joonised, vaated.

  6. Therapeutic effect of pilose antler polypeptides (PAP) on experimental fracture and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To test the therapeutic effect of PAP on experimental fracture and its mechanism. Methods: Effect of PAP on the incorporation of [3H]-TdR into DNA syntheses in the cells of rabbits costal cartilage and human embryonic joint as well as osteoblast precursor cells of embryonic chick calvaria in vitro and effect of PAP on the experimental radius fracture in rats in vivo were observed. Results: PAP of 10∼50 μg·ml-1 showed mitogenic activities and significant promotion of DNA syntheses for various cartilage cells in vitro. In vivo experimental results revealed that PAP 10 and 20 mg·kg-1 could promote healing of radius fracture, accelerate osteotylus formation and increase contents of calcium and oxyproline. Conclusion: PAP accelerates fracture healing through promoting multiplications of cartilage and osteoblast precursor cells, collagen accumulation and calcium precipitation in osteotylus

  7. 麋鹿角的FTIR指纹图谱分析%The FTIR fingerprint analysis of Elk's antler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严加琴; 王丽娟; 周逸芝; 刘训红

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立麋鹿角傅立叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)指纹图谱分析方法.方法 用傅立叶变换红外光谱技术对不同年龄阶段不同部位的麋鹿角进行分析,测定其指纹图谱,并进行相似度评价.结果 初步建立了麋鹿角的对照FTIR指纹图谱.结论 该法准确可靠,重现性好,FTIR指纹图谱分析方法可用于麋鹿角药材的品质评价.

  8. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Haallnaes; Monitoring Forsmark. Aelgstammens aalderssammansaettning reproduktion och hornutveckling i Haallnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil (Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Haallnaes, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Haallnaes with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Haallnaes is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Haallnaes, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the moose population in Haallnaes. Time series of good quality data will reveal important information about changes in moose population structure and/or fodder status in the area

  9. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Forsmark; Monitoring Forsmark. Aelgstammens aalderssammansaettning reproduktion och hornutveckling i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil (Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Forsmark, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Forsmark with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Forsmark is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Forsmark, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the moose population in Forsmark. Time series of good quality data will reveal important information about changes in moose population structure and/or fodder status in the area

  10. Comparative element analysis on femur of antler hemo-treated ovariectomized Wistar rats by SRXRF%鹿茸血处理前后去势大鼠股骨的SRXRF分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建虹; 费聿荣; 曹毅; 王瑞林; 黄宇营; 何伟; 刘兢

    2007-01-01

    运用同步辐射X射线荧光(Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence,SRXRF)技术分析鹿茸血处理前后的去势大鼠股骨元素含量及与骨密度(Bone mineral density,BMD)的关系.分别取出假手术组、去势组和去势后经鹿茸血处理组的雌性Wistar大鼠的左股骨,经SRXRF分析,结果显示:元素Ca、P、Zn和Sr之间有非常好的正相关性.与假手术组相比,去势大鼠股骨元素Ca、P、Zn和Sr的相对强度均有降低,其中元素Ca、P的相对强度明显降低(p<0.05),其BMD也显著降低(p<0.05),说明由于Ca和P元素的大量丢失,导致骨质疏松.用鹿茸血处理后,去势大鼠股骨元素Ca、P、Zn的相对强度都有不同程度的升高,因而其BMD也显著升高(p<0.05),骨质疏松得到显著恢复.结果表明:鹿茸血有助于维持骨组织中微量元素Zn的含量,进而保持骨Ca和P的含量,从而提高BMD,减少骨质疏松的发生.

  11. 马鹿茸多肽的提取分离及基质辅助激光解吸飞行时间质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季怡萍; 张红明; 朱文彬

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, active components of velvet antler polypeptide were extracted and separated. The molecular weight and purity of velvet antler polypeptide were determined by MALDI-TOFMS. The different influence factors such as matrix, sample concentration and laser energy were studied. This method is convenient and suitable for the identification of congener biochemical samples.

  12. 75 FR 65028 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the cultural items. The National..., 1 antler awl fragment, 3 bone awl fragments, 1 bone shaft wrench, 1 bone tube, 17 worked antlers,...

  13. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  14. СПОСОБЫ ПОЛУЧЕНИЯ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИ АКТИВНЫХ ВЕЩЕСТВ ИЗ ПАНТОВ СЕВЕРНЫХ ОЛЕНЕЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Г.И. Тюпкина; А.А. Кайзер; Н.И. Кисвай; ПРОКУДИН А.В.

    2004-01-01

    It was studied the composition of the extracts from the antlers of a young reindeer stag obtained when using ethanol as an extragent in the concentration of 96–70 % (sample No 1) and 70– 70 % (sample No 2), and also the composition of a fine-dispersed powder from the antlers of a young reindeer stag. Their biological activity was assessed. In future when making new compositions of biologically active additives it is more preferable to use a fine-dispersed powder obtained from the antlers of y...

  15. Deer Management Assistance Reports at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge for 2011 and 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest forms are from Hillside during the 2011-2012 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  16. Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Morgan Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  17. Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Deer Harvest Records are from 2008 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs during the 2008 and 2014 deer seasons. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of...

  18. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  19. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Mathews Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  20. Deer Velvet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer velvet covers the growing bone and cartilage that develops into deer antlers. People use deer velvet as medicine for a wide range of health problems. Deer velvet is used to boost strength and endurance, ...

  1. Deer Management Assistance Reports Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge for 2012 and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These checklists are produced by the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks and measure harvest weights and antler indexes as well as recommending...

  2. Structure of the Paleozoic rocks in the Tonkin Summit Quadrangle, Eureka County, Nevda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Eric

    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Simpson Park Range, Tonkin Summit Quadrangle, are comprised of the syn-orogenic Roberts Mountains allochthon, the postorogenic Permian Garden Valley Formation, and autochthonous Devonian carbonates. Complex deformation includes the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian, Antler Orogeny, post-Antler thrusting, and Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The Roberts Mountains thrust caused eastward advancement of deep marine, mainly siliciclastic strata on top of the shelfal, mainly carbonate platform during the Antler Orogeny. This study shows that an east-vergent, post-Antler thrust, emplace the topographically higher carbonate outliers of the autochthon on top of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. These carbonate masses sit on top of the Henderson thrust in the Tonkin Summit Quadrangle and timing of this thrust is constrained to be post-Permian.

  3. Ornament Complexity Is Correlated with Sexual Selection: (A Comment on Raia et al., "Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Luke; Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Raia et al. propose that the evolution of the shape and complexity of animal ornaments (e.g., deer antlers) can be explained by interspecific variation in body size and is not influenced by sexual selection. They claim to show that ornament complexity is related to body size by an 0.25-power law and argue that this finding precludes a role for sexual selection in the evolution of ornament complexity. However, their study does not test alternative hypotheses and mismeasures antler shape allometry by omitting much of the published data. We show that an index of sexual selection (sexual size dimorphism) is positively correlated with size-corrected antler complexity and that the allometric slope of complexity is substantially greater than 0.25, contra Raia et al. We conclude that sexual selection and physical constraints both affect the evolution of antler shape. PMID:27420791

  4. Like a fish out of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    Terrestrial herbivores are usually considered "safe" for radiocarbon dating, as they incorporate carbon in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Radiocarbon reservoir effects are therefore not expected in these animals. One species, however, might show reservoir effects: the elk/moose (Alces alces) is...... their time cooling down in lakes and rivers, munching away on the aquatic vegetation. This is the season when the antlers are formed, so the reservoir effect is expected to be greatest in the antlers. In this study, radiocarbon dating of historical known-age samples, archaeological elk bones from secure...... contexts, and paired samples of elk and terrestrial samples, or of elk bones and antlers, will show how great the risk of reservoir effects in elk is. I aim at a great temporal and geographical variety of sample origins, with a special focus on areas with carbonate-rich water, where the largest effects are...

  5. Development of multiplex PCR assay for authentication of Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum in traditional Chinese medicine based on cytochrome b and C oxidase subunit 1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lijun; Xia, Wei; Ai, Jinxia; Li, Mingcheng; Yuan, Guanxin; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    This study describes a method for discriminating the true Cervus antlers from its counterfeits using multiplex PCR. Bioinformatics were carried out to design the specific alleles primers for mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b (Cyt b) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (Cox 1) genes. The mt DNA and genomic DNA were extracted from Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum through the modified alkaline and the salt-extracting method in addition to its counterfeits, respectively. Sufficient DNA templates were extracted from all samples used in two methods, and joint fragments of 354 bp and 543 bp that were specifically amplified from both of true Cervus antlers served as a standard control. The data revealed that the multiplex PCR-based assays using two primer sets can be used for forensic and quantitative identification of original Cervus deer products from counterfeit antlers in a single step. PMID:26287950

  6. Dama roberti, a new species of deer from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, and the origins of modern fallow deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Marzia; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-06-01

    The ancestry of the modern fallow deer, Dama dama, has been tentatively traced back to Pliocene/Early Pleistocene forms referred to 'Pseudodama', characterized by unpalmated three- or four-point antlers. By the late Middle Pleistocene, Dama with palmated antlers appears, as Dama dama clactoniana. However, fallow deer from the interim period, the early Middle Pleistocene, are poorly-known. A new specimen from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK), represented by a portion of cranium with a substantial part of both antlers plus a mandible and scapula, is the most complete medium-sized deer specimen from the British early Middle Pleistocene (ca 700 ka). The position and orientation of the basal tine, together with dental characters and mandibular morphology, are typical of fallow deer. The narrow palmation is reminiscent of D. dama clactoniana, but the lack of palmation tines is unique. Moreover, the lack of second (and third) tines in an adult specimen differs from both D. dama dama and D. d. clactoniana, being a primitive character shared with the last representatives of 'Pseudodama' which, on the other hand, has a circular beam lacking any palmation. This combination of features justifies the erection of a new species provisionally placed within the genus Dama, Dama roberti n. sp. Another specimen, from Soleilhac (Auvergne, France), represented by portions of the two antlers, a mandible and a tibia, shares antler morphology with the Pakefield specimen and can be ascribed to the same new species. Isolated antler and dental remains from coeval British sites are tentatively ascribed to D. roberti n. sp. The new species has implications for the ancestry of modern fallow deer.

  7. Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane P. Mahoney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The demographic and environmental influences on large mammal morphology are central questions in ecology. We investigated the effects of population abundance and climate on body size and number of male antler points for the La Poile and Middle Ridge caribou (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758 herds, Newfoundland, Canada. Across 40 years and 20-fold changes in abundance, adult males and females exhibited diminished stature as indicated by jawbone size (diastema and total mandible length and the number of antler points at the time of harvest. Associations between jawbone size and population abundance at birth were consistently negative for both herds, both sexes, and all age classes. Large-scale climate patterns, as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation in the winter prior to birth, were also negatively associated with jawbone size. Declines in male antler size, as measured by the number of antler points, were not well predicted by either abundance or climate, suggesting other factors (e.g., current, rather than latent, foraging conditions may be involved. We conclude that these morphological changes indicate competition for food resources.

  8. Råmaterialer, forarbejder, spild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Dobat, Andres S.; Pedersen, Unn;

    2014-01-01

    Finds from Aggersborg: raw iron, off-cuts and a ?bar, hammer-scale, slag, rough-outs of arrow-heads and leister-prongs, lead waste, copper-alloy raw material and waste, gold and amber waste, raw material, rough-outs and waste of bone, antler and horn, soapstone, pigment?...

  9. 水池边的牡鹿%THE · STAG· AT· THE· POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A thirsty Stag went to a Pool to drink. As he saw his own reflection(倒影) in the water, he was struck with admiration (钦慕) for his fine antlers(角), but at the same time felt disgust for the weakness and slendemess of his legs.

  10. PALEOZOOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151109Deng Tao(Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins,Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100044,China);Lu Xiaokang A New Species of Crown-Antlered Deer Stephanocemas(Cervidae,Artiodactyla)from the Middle

  11. 78 FR 3879 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ..., south of Big Summit Prairie. The four allotments are Antler, Brush Creek, Fox Canyon, and Gray Prairie....), Two B (74 ac.), Three (173 ac.), Four (52 ac.), Five (60 ac.), Six (82 ac.), and Seven (168 ac).The... aspens stand is not found to provide adequate protection. Seven Pasture Planting hardwoods, and...

  12. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

  13. Geophysical expression of the Ghost Dance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along surveyed traverses across Antler and Live Yucca Ridges, on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, reveal small-scale faulting associated with the Ghost Dance and possibly other faults. These studies are part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Deer antler:A stem cell-based organ regeneration research model%基于干细胞的器官再生研究模型-鹿茸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚文辉; 王大涛; 鲁晓萍; 李春义

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Deer antlers are the unique mammalian organs which can periodical y regenerate, and the process is known as a stem cel-based event. Exploring the underlying mechanism of deer antler regeneration and indentifying the functional role of stem cellin mammalian organ regeneration are of great importance to regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. OBJECTIVE:To review the relevant literatures of the research progress in antler regeneration, as wel as effects of stem cells and cytokines on antler regeneration. METHODS:A computer-based online search of PubMed (1994-01/2012-10) was performed for acquiring the articles in English by using the key words of“deer antler;antler regeneration;stem cell. In addition, manual search was also performed for those literatures that cannot be readily obtained from internet search. Articles concerning antler regeneration histology, morphology, antler stem cells and micro-environmental studies, and related cytokines. Repetitive studies or articles that are unrelated to the criteria set for the article were excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A total of 87 articles were obtained and final y 31 articles were selected. The key tissue types for antler regeneration are antlerogenic periosteum and pedicle periosteum, the cells within which are known as antler stem cells. The covering skin of antlerogenic periosteum and pedicle periosteum constitutes the functional niche for antler stem cells. Numerous cytokines are involved in the process of antler fast growing and ful regeneration, including insulin-like growth factor, sex hormones, human epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. It is vital y important to identify the interacting molecules between the antler stem cells and their niche celltypes, and to define the role of each molecule that plays in antler regeneration, which wil greatly advance our knowledge of the stem cel-based mammalian organ regeneration.%背景:鹿茸是惟一能够周期性再生

  15. Conflicts between reindeer herding and an expanding caribou herd in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L. Finstad

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reindeer industry has existed in Alaska since 1892. This industry has largely been concentrated on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska because suitable habitat has been available and caribou have been absent here for over 100 years. Until recently, reindeer meat and velvet antler production consistently generated millions of dollars in revenue critical to the economies of rural Alaskan communities. From 1976 to 1996 the Western Arctic Caribou Herd (WACH increased from about 75 000 to 463 000 animals. Concurrently, seasonal range use of the WACH shifted westward onto traditional reindeer ranges of the Seward Peninsula. Reindeer herders lost 75-100% of their herds through commingling and out¬migration with wild caribou. This loss of over 12 000 reindeer represents a potential economic value of 13 million dollars. Sustainable meat and velvet antler production and the economies of western Alaskan are likely to be affected by these changes.

  16. [Prevention and therapeutic effects of sika deer velvet collagen hydrolysate on osteoporosis in rats by retinoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinqing; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Xiaodi; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of the collagen hydrolysate extracted from Sika deer velvet (CSDV) on osteoporosis rats induced by retinoicacid. Histomorphometric indices and serum biochemical parameters were measured in osteoporosis rats treated with/without antler collagen and in sham-operated rats. Our results were as follows: compared with the osteoporosis group, significant elevation in the levels of bone mineral density (BMD), Ca, P and static histomorphometric indexes and biomechanical properties, but reduction in the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed in antler collagen-treated groups. However, the above function with the collagenase solution velvet material varied with the different doses. In conclusion, the extracted collagen is found to play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis rats by retinoic acid. PMID:20545204

  17. Current Situation of Venison Processing and Utilization%鹿肉的加工及利用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓侠; 刘芳; 马进喜; 张铁华; 秦凤贤; 胡铁军; 孙尧; 刘晶; 王朝晖; 张凤宽; 尤丽新; 于研

    2014-01-01

    鹿全身都是宝,鹿茸、鹿托盘、鹿血等都是经过研究具有很高的营养价值。目前,鹿肉的利用还不是很多,本文主要介绍了鹿肉的国内外发展现状、鹿肉的相关产品、鹿肉的未来发展前景和对鹿肉未来市场的展望。%In China, deer is an important economic animal. No part of deer goes to waste; the antler, antler base and blood have been demonstrated to have high nutritional value. However, to date venison has been utilized scarcely. This review focuses on the current situation of deer meat processing and related products as well as future development and market prospects.

  18. Talking about Dragon in the Dragon Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    In the five-thousand-year history of Chinese nation,dragon is the embodiment of Chinese culture,It represents the profound cultural deposits and expresses the cultural features of China.The characteristics of dragon are snake's body,eagle's claws,deer's antlers and tiger's teeth-the most featured and powerful pans from various animals.It indicates that Chinese culture absorbs merits of other cultures and integrates them,which is also the distinctive feature of Chinese culture.

  19. From flakes to grooves: a technical shift in antlerworking during the last glacial maximum in southwest France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétillon, Jean-Marc; Ducasse, Sylvain

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of antlerworking technology in Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe, especially the production of splinters, is usually described as a cumulative process. A progressive increase in blank standardization and productivity was prompted by the application of a key technical process, the groove and splinter technique (GST). The Badegoulian, however, appears as an interruption in this continuum. According to the original definition of this post-Solutrean, pre-Magdalenian archeological culture, one of its distinctive features is the absence of the GST and the manufacture of antler blanks by knapping only. However, this conception has been recently questioned, leading to an alternative hypothesis suggesting that both GST and knapping were used during the Badegoulian. In this article, we present new evidence from several sites in southwest France, which sheds new light on the issue of Badegoulian antlerworking and the transition with the subsequent Lower Magdalenian. Our study is based on two complementary methods: the technological analysis of antler assemblages well-dated to the Badegoulian (Le Cuzoul de Vers) or to the Lower Magdalenian (La Grotte des Scilles, Saint-Germain-la-Rivière), and the direct (14)C dating of specific antler artifacts from mixed or problematic contexts (Cap-Blanc, Reverdit and Lassac). The results firmly establish that, in southwest France, knapping is the only method used for the production of antler splinters during the Badegoulian, before ca. 20,500 cal BP (calibrated years before present), and that it is rapidly replaced by the GST at the beginning of the Lower Magdalenian, after ca. 20,500 cal BP. This technical shift is not linked to an influx of new human populations, environmental change or the supposed economic advantages of the GST. Instead, it must be understood as one of the expressions of a broader reconfiguration of the technical world that starts to take shape in the middle of the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:22386151

  20. Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Shane P. Mahoney; Jackie N. Weir; J. Glenn Luther; Schaefer, James A; Shawn F. Morrison

    2011-01-01

    The demographic and environmental influences on large mammal morphology are central questions in ecology. We investigated the effects of population abundance and climate on body size and number of male antler points for the La Poile and Middle Ridge caribou (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758) herds, Newfoundland, Canada. Across 40 years and 20-fold changes in abundance, adult males and females exhibited diminished stature as indicated by jawbone size (diastema and total mandible length) and the numb...

  1. Bionics: Biological insight into mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Michael H

    1999-01-01

    When pressed with an engineering problem, humans often draw guidance and inspiration from the natural world (1). Through the process of evolution, organisms have experimented with form and function for at least 3 billion years before the first human manipulations of stone, bone, and antler. Although we cannot know for sure the extent to which biological models inspired our early ancestors, more recent examples of biomimetic designs are well documented. For example, birds and bats played a cen...

  2. PLAG (1-Palmitoyl-2-Linoleoyl-3-Acetyl-rac-Glycerol) Modulates Eosinophil Chemotaxis by Regulating CCL26 Expression from Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jinseon; Kim, Young-Jun; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Joo Heon; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung-Jae; Han, Yong-Hae; Chong, Saeho; Kim, Jae Wha

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of eosinophils in the circulation and sputum is associated with the severity of asthma. The respiratory epithelium produces chemokine (C-C motif) ligands (CCL) which recruits and activates eosinophils. A chemically synthesized monoacetyl-diglyceride, PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol) is a major constituent in the antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) which has been used in oriental medicine. This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanis...

  3. Model for predicting 90Sr levels in mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model was developed to estimate the strontium-90 levels in male mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from known 90Sr intake rates. The model was formulated on results from a study on the effects of age and season on Sr kinetics in mule deer. Captive deer of various ages, at selected times throughout the year, were given acute oral doses of 85SrCl2 and whole body counted to determine the retention function. A two-component exponential equation was used to mathematically describe the retention of 85Sr. The average for the slopes of the short component (1.09 day-1) corresponded very closely with the mean retention time for insoluble material in the gastrointestinal tract. For male deer, the value of the fractional intercept of the long component generally increased with age. The fractional intercepts also varied with the time of year the deer was administered the 85Sr, ranging from an average of 0.0539 during antler dormancy to 0.154 during periods of antler growth. The average of the observed values for the slope of the long component was 0.00365 day-1 for all deer. For the bucks, the slope of the long component was observed to decrease with age at time of spiking and to vary from a minimum for those spiked during antler dormancy to a maximum for those spiked during the antler growth period. There were no apparent effects of age and season on the kinetics of Sr in female deer. The model was developed to describe the uptake and retention of chronically ingested Sr. Due to the variations in the fractional intercept and slope of the long component, both associated with skeletal bone remodeling, the model utilized varying parameters. The predicted values were compared with those observed in a wild deer population and the close agreement added credibility to the coefficients of the total body retention equations utilized in the model

  4. Selection of trees for rubbing by red and roe deer in forest plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Jaime; Bugalho, Miguel; Cortez, José Paulo; Iason, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Antler rubbing is a form of behaviour by which deer may damage and ultimately induce mortality of trees. Understanding factors affecting selection of trees for rubbing may contribute to mitigation of negative effects of such behaviour in plantations or woodlands. We analysed characteristics of trees rubbed by red and roe deer along transects established in plantations of Pinus pinaster (Aiton), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Betula alba L. and Quercus robur L. in Northeast Portugal. T...

  5. Pregnancy in Premature Ovarian Failure after Therapy Using Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiouh-Lirng Chao; Lee-Wen Huang; Hung-Rong Yen

    2003-01-01

    We present ovulation that occurred after the administration of traditional Chinese herbalmedicine for 3 months in a woman with premature ovarian failure (POF) and secondaryamenorrhea for 8 years. Traditional Chinese medicine concentrated herbal extracts ofcooked rehmannia, Chinese yam, wolfberry fruit, dogwood fruit, cyathula root, dodder seed,antler glue, tortoise-plastron glue, epimedium and morinda root were prescribed, which werea modification of the herbal formula Zuo-gui-wan. When the p...

  6. Preparation of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt and its performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Long metal fibers were manufactured in horizontal lathe with a multi-tooth tool. Based on the coarse antler surface structure of copper fibers, a new sintering technology was put forward to manufacture a kind of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt. The sintering mechanism of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt was studied. Compared with sintered copper-wire felt, the characteristics of sintered copper-fiber felts were analyzed in details. Owing to the coarse antler surface structure of copper fibers,oriented linear copper-fiber felt was sintered under the condition of micro/nano scale range, and copper fibers easily bonded together in the sintering process. Microchannels with micro-scale coarse antler surface structure were constructed. These characters give oriented linear copper fiber felt some new merits: high filtration accuracy, high flow capability, low resistance loss, good capability to resistance pressure, stable and uniform pore, high specific surface area. The properties of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt were analyzed.

  7. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max, oat (Avenasaliva, ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum and barley (Hordeum vulgare. Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.

  8. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  9. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken 乌鸡白凤丸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@*Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition) *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder. *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation. *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia

  10. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    *Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition)  *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder.  *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation.  *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge  *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia……

  11. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  12. Nytt om runer, Nr. 7 (1992)

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Nytt om runer, sjuende årgang, s. 3. Arbejdet ved Runologisk-epigrafisk Laboratorium, København, s. 3. Die Runenarbeit am Seminar für Deutsche Philologie (Arbeitsstelle: Germanische Altertumskunde), Göttingen, s. 5. New runic fragment from the Isle of Man, s. 6. German runes in Kent?, s. 7. Comment on the Boarley inscription, Kent, s. 8. Comment on the deer's antler from Brandon, Suffolk, s. 8. Runen aus neuerer Zeit, s. 9. Arbeidet ved Runearkivet, Oslo, s. 10. ...

  13. Danielle Bassett: Opening Up the Brain with Network Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Here's the drill. Upon waking, count down from 100 to one as quickly as possible. Next, recite the alphabet, giving each letter a corresponding word partner (A, antler; B, bargain; C, cartoon, for example). After that, crank out several lists, numbering each of the items: 20 men's names, 20 women's names, 20 food items, 20 words beginning with the same letter. When you're done, close your eyes, count to 20, and open them. Your mind, according to Mental Aerobics: Exercises for a Stronger, Healthier Mind [1], is now warmed up and ready to face the day. PMID:27414627

  14. Elements of the Yue Culture in Jade Ornaments in the Ancient Yun- nan-Guizhou Plateau%云贵高原古代玉饰的越文化因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建芳

    2004-01-01

    In remote antiquity, members of the Yue people in the region south of the Five Ridges migrated westward by the water route of Xijiang-Yujiang-Yongjiang-Youjiang and settled in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. This led to the wide spread of the jades originally prevailing in the territory ofthe Yue people, such as "horned", crescent and square jue penannular ornaments, necked bracelets and mushroom-shaped fittings for sword butt-ends. With the development of amalgamation of ethnic groups, these types of jades (along with a few antler artifacts) became ornaments of the natives in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, including the Yelang, Dian, Qiongdu and Quting groups.

  15. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus) (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus) (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto; Tereza Cristina Castellano Margarido

    2000-01-01

    The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W) at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young lea...

  16. 黑龙江海林市细林河遗址出土的动物骨骼遗存研究%A Study of the Animal Remains from the Xilinhe Site in Hailin City, Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全家; 张伟; 王培新

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, a batch of animal remains was unearthed from the Xilinhe site in Hailin City, Heilongjiang Province. It falls into two categories: domesticated and wild. The former includes horse's, cattle's, dog's and pig's bones; the latter, brown bear's, wolf's, horse's, deer's and roe deer's remains. In the present paper, the authors report their analysis of the traces on the surface of animal bones, the making techniques of the bone and antler objects, the proportion of animal husbandry to hunting reflected from the site, and the then natural-ecological settings. These researches resulted in the achievement of a great amount of important information on man's action and other fields.

  17. Game species: extinction hidden by census numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of game species may involve a risk of alteration of their genetic properties. Local adaptations may be disrupted if artificially selected individuals from farms or those belonging to distant geographical areas are introduced to increase population density or trophy ‘quality’. In Spain, red deer (Cervus elaphus from different European subspecies have been introduced to increase the size of trophies (antlers of local populations. Legislation against these introductions is not effective for various reasons, and once the individuals are in the Iberian peninsula it is virtually impossible to prevent their spreading throughout the whole territory without a genetic tool to distinguish between autochthonous and foreign specimens. We have developed such a genetic test and propose a strategy to dissuade land-owners from importing foreign deer. Since deer are bred mainly for their antlers, our strategy is based on an agreement with the National Trophy Body in Spain which rejects trophies from foreign populations. Rejection decreases the value of the trophy so that it becomes more profitable to produce autochthonous deer. Using such a strategy at some critical step in the production or commercialisation process may be a good model to apply in protecting genetic properties of exploited species.

  18. Growth and reproductive performance of sambar deer in Sabal Forest Reserve of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ismail; Dawend, Jiwan

    2013-10-01

    We examined the growth, reproduction, rutting behavior, and health status of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in secondary Acacia mangium plantation. The data were collected over 11 years from a breeding herd of 21 stags and 33 hinds in Sabal Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia. Brody's growth model of the pooled data is Y t  = 148.56 (1 - 0.98e(-0.023t)), which estimates that maximum weights of adults are 184 and 115 kg for males and females respectively. Sambar deer are nonseasonal breeders with the breeding peak in February. Although the earliest age at which a female reached sexual maturity was 11 months, the mean age was 23 ± 7 months. Mean age of first fawning was 32 ± 8 months. Mean gestation period was 259 ± 12 days (n = 82). Stags shed antlers mostly between March and July. Velvet hardens at 103 ± 27 days (n = 23), and velvet harvesting is best at 7-9 weeks when antler length is 25-30 cm. Sambar deer are suitable as a farm species in forest plantations and have a vast potential to uplift rural living standards. PMID:23475732

  19. Protective effect of EC-18, a synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride on lung inflammation in a murine model induced by cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Shin, Na-Rae; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Ryu, Hyung Won; Kim, Jae Wha; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung Jae; Han, Yong-Hae; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    The antler of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) has been used a natural medicine in Korea, China and Japan, and a monoacetyldiaglyceride (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol, PLAG) was found in the antler of Sika deer as a constituent for immunomodulation. In this study, we investigated protective effects of EC-18 (a synthetic copy of PLAG) on inflammatory responses using a cigarette smoke with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation model. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1h per day for 3days. Ten micrograms of LPS dissolved in 50μL of PBS was administered intra nasally 1h after the final cigarette smoke exposure. EC-18 was administered by oral gavage at doses of 30 and 60mg/kg for 3days. EC-18 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils, reactive oxygen species production, cytokines and elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with the cigarette smoke and LPS induced mice. Histologically, EC-18 attenuated airway inflammation with a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression in lung tissue. Additionally, EC-18 inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. Our results show that EC-18 effectively suppresses neutrophilic inflammation induced by cigarette smoke and LPS exposure. In conclusion, this study suggests that EC-18 has therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:26655742

  20. The mechanical properties of the dentine and cement of the tusk of the narwhal Monodon monoceros compared with those of other mineralized tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brear, K; Currey, J D; Pond, C M; Ramsay, M A

    1990-01-01

    Values for Young's modulus of elasticity, ultimate and yield stresses, ultimate and yield strains, work under the stress-strain curve and work of fracture were obtained from tensile and bending tests on specimens of narwhal tusk dentine and cement, femoral bone from young and mature cattle, and reindeer antler. Compared with the cattle bone the narwhal tissues had low Young's moduli, low yield stresses, rather low ultimate stresses and high ultimate strains. In all these properties they were similar to reindeer antler. The calcium content and hardness of the narwhal tissues were compared with those of human and cattle dental tissues. The narwhal dentine was considerably softer and less mineralized than human and cattle dentine. Human cementum was softer and less mineralized than cattle cementum, and was like narwhal cementum. In general, the mechanical properties of the narwhal tusk tissues were as would be expected from their mineral content, except that the stiffness of the cementum was low. It is likely that narwhal dentine is not very similar to human and cattle dentine in its mechanical properties. PMID:2256815

  1. Public health impact of fallout from British nuclear weapons tests in Australia, 1952-1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1952-1957, Britain conducted 12 full-scale nuclear weapons tests in Australia in five series, viz. Hurricane(1952), Totem(1953), Mosaic(1956), Buffalo(1956) and Antler(1957). Radioactive fallout from the tests reached many parts of Australia. This report reviews the pathways by which the radionuclides in the fallout could have irradiated the population. The methodology is presented for estimating the radiation doses and values are derived from the available data. The possible effect that the radiation exposure had on public health is assessed. Estimation of the radiation doses is approached in two parts: (a) the contributions from the Mosaic, Buffalo and Antler series which were monitored, and (b) the contributions from the Hurricane and Totem series for which there are few fallout data. In part (a), the activities of the radionuclides making up the measured fallout are established by calculation. Standard models are then used to derive the radiation doses for the population centres - from external radiation, from ingestion of radionuclides in food and from inhalation of radionuclides in air. A simple treatment is adopted to estimate radiation doses from drinking contaminated water. For Part (b), the data assembled in (a) provide the basis for developing statistical models for predicting radiation doses from weapon yields and trajectories of the radioactive clouds. The models are then applied to give the radiation doses to population centres following the tests in Hurricane and Totem, using their yields and trajectories. 71 refs., 20 tabs., 8 figs

  2. An Alternative Interpretation of Plasma Selenium Data from Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer ( Hippocamelus bisulcus )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Werner T. [National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET), Bariloche (Argentina); Univ. of Basel (Switzerland). Swiss Tropical and Public Health Inst.; ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M. [Univ. Atlantida Argentina, Bariloche (Argentina). Inst. of Natural Resources Analysis; Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Dept.; Winkel, Lenny H. H.E. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorf (Switzerland). Eawag; ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of osteopathology in 57% in the endangered adult Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus), malformed antler development, and general lack of recovery were previously suggested to possibly be related to mineral imbalances like selenium (Se) deficiency, and not to stem from fluorosis. From recent bone analyses of these diseased huemul, fluoride levels averaged 58 ppm (SE=10.7), thus eliminating fluorosis as a causal factor for the osteopathology reported in huemul. In contrast, when analyzing high-elevation sites commonly used by extant populations, we found soils deficient in Se. Ashes from recent volcanism also were very low in Se. As Se-responsive diseases in livestock have been documented in Chile, we reclassified recently published Se levels in huemul and determined that 73% were deficient and 18% marginal. Together with these several lines of indirect evidence, we conclude that Se deficiency plays a role in the lack of recovery of huemul populations.

  3. An Alternative Interpretation of Plasma Selenium Data from Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer ( Hippocamelus bisulcus )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of osteopathology in 57% in the endangered adult Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus), malformed antler development, and general lack of recovery were previously suggested to possibly be related to mineral imbalances like selenium (Se) deficiency, and not to stem from fluorosis. From recent bone analyses of these diseased huemul, fluoride levels averaged 58 ppm (SE=10.7), thus eliminating fluorosis as a causal factor for the osteopathology reported in huemul. In contrast, when analyzing high-elevation sites commonly used by extant populations, we found soils deficient in Se. Ashes from recent volcanism also were very low in Se. As Se-responsive diseases in livestock have been documented in Chile, we reclassified recently published Se levels in huemul and determined that 73% were deficient and 18% marginal. Together with these several lines of indirect evidence, we conclude that Se deficiency plays a role in the lack of recovery of huemul populations.

  4. Reconstructing semi-invisible events in resonant tau pair production from Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Konar, Partha

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility of utilising the constrained mass variable, $M_{2Cons}$, in reconstructing the semi-invisible events originated from a resonant production at the LHC. While this proposal is effective for any similar antler type production mechanism, here we demonstrate with potentially interesting scenario, when the Higgs boson decays into a pair of third generation $\\tau$ leptons. Buoyed with a relatively large Yukawa coupling, the LHC has already started exploring this pair production to investigate the properties of Higgs in the leptonic sector. Dominant signatures through hadronic decay of tau, associated with invisible neutrinos compound the difficulty in the reconstruction of such events. Exploiting the already existing Higgs mass bound, this new method provides a unique event reconstruction, together with a significant enhancement in terms of efficiency over the existing methods.

  5. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    culture as well as ethnographic samples. Finally, the lack of wood suitable for building efficient bows during the earlier part of the Late Glacial (GI-1e/Bølling chronozone) is considered. It is suggested that composite bows consisting of reindeer antler and/or compression wood of pine were used....... cran). Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether these points tipped arrows fired from bows, darts launched with the help of spear-throwers, or some other projectile delivery weapon. This paper approaches the question of Hamburgian weapon delivery technology from a quantitative...... comparative angle. Lithic metric data as well as information on presumed Hamburgian projectile shafts are used to demonstrate that the bow-and-arrow was the most likely weapon delivery method. This is reflected in the shape similarity with both later prehistoric arrow-points and shafts of the Ahrensburgian...

  6. Dowling-Degos Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Emre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dowling-Degos Disease (DDD, is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited pigmentation disorder. It is characterized by slowly progressive mottled or reticulated pigmented macules on the axillae, groins, perineum, inframammary regions and other flexural areas. The disease appears after puberty, most frequently during the fourth decade of life. Herein, we report a 42-year old female patient who presented with dark brown hyperpigmented macules on her groins, perineum and inframammary areas at our outpatient clinic. The histopathological examination showed elongation of rete ridges from epidermis to dermis with a filiform or antler-like pattern. Increased melanin pigmentation on the peak of the rete ridges and melanophages in the papillary dermis were seen. Depending on these clinical and histopathological findings, DDD was diagnosed. DDD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disorders with flexural pigmentation.

  7. Dowling-Degos Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Emre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dowling-Degos Disease (DDD, is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited pigmentation disorder. It is characterized by slowly progressive mottled or reticulated pigmented macules on the axillae, groins, perineum, inframammary regions and other flexural areas. The disease appears after puberty, most frequently during the fourth decade of life. Herein, we report a 42-year old female patient who presented with dark brown hyperpigmented macules on her groins, perineum and inframammary areas at our outpatient clinic. The histopathological examination showed elongation of rete ridges from epidermis to dermis with a filiform or antler-like pattern. Increased melanin pigmentation on the peak of the rete ridges and melanophages in the papillary dermis were seen. Depending on these clinical and histopathological findings, DDD was diagnosed. DDD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disorders with flexural pigmentation. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 55-7

  8. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  9. Pregnancy in Premature Ovarian Failure after Therapy Using Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiouh-Lirng Chao

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We present ovulation that occurred after the administration of traditional Chinese herbalmedicine for 3 months in a woman with premature ovarian failure (POF and secondaryamenorrhea for 8 years. Traditional Chinese medicine concentrated herbal extracts ofcooked rehmannia, Chinese yam, wolfberry fruit, dogwood fruit, cyathula root, dodder seed,antler glue, tortoise-plastron glue, epimedium and morinda root were prescribed, which werea modification of the herbal formula Zuo-gui-wan. When the patient discontinued theChinese herbal medicine treatment and tried therapy with clomiphene citrate, neither ovulationnor conception occurred. Eight months after beginning clomiphene citrate therapy, theconcentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were still in thepostmenopausal range. The modified formula of Zuo-gui-wan was prescribed again and thepatient conceived 1 month after taking Zuo-gui-wan. Thus, we suggested that Chinese herbalmedicine restored ovarian function effectively and promptly, and offers another option fortreating infertility in patients with POF.

  10. Mesolithic heritage in early Neolithic burial rituals and personal adornments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lenneis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some burial rituals such as cremation or the use of colorants, especially ochre, have old roots in the preceding Mesolithic and even in the Palaeolithic. The evidence for these old rituals is more dense in central or western Europe than in south east Europe, whence most of the new Neo- lithic ideas came. Among the personal adornments a small amount of snail-shell ornaments, stag tusks, tusks of wild boar and pendants made from antler are of special interest. People wearing these very traditional, old adornments are generally equipped with precious ‘new’ things such as Spondylus, ceramics, adzes etc, and therefore show them as high status people in early Neolithic society.

  11. A new Euprox from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China, with interpretation of its paleoenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Yuanmou Basin of Yunnan Province is a hotspot for the research of early hominid evolution and its environmental background. During the implementation of the Program "Research of the Origin and Evolution of Early Man and Its Environmental Background" from 1998 to 2001, a huge quantity of hominoid and mammal fossils were collected. The present report systematically describes an Euprox robustus sp. nov. identified during the recent laboratory work on the collected material. Euprox is a group of earliest cervids with true antlers. The new species is the third one of the genus discovered in China. Judged by its morphologic characteristics, the new species feed on juicy and tender leaves of dicotyledon. It implies that the vegetation of its epoch in the Yuanmou Basin is a kind of southern subtropical evergreen forest and the climate is humid and temperate with evident seasonality. The latter is mostly influenced by the monsoon and secondly by the latitude.

  12. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  13. Characterization of multi-layered fish scales (Atractosteus spatula) using nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Paul G; Rodriguez, Rogie I; Moser, Robert D; Williams, Brett A; Poda, Aimee R; Seiter, Jennifer M; Lafferty, Brandon J; Kennedy, Alan J; Chandler, Mei Q

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchical architecture of protective biological materials such as mineralized fish scales, gastropod shells, ram's horn, antlers, and turtle shells provides unique design principles with potentials for guiding the design of protective materials and systems in the future. Understanding the structure-property relationships for these material systems at the microscale and nanoscale where failure initiates is essential. Currently, experimental techniques such as nanoindentation, X-ray CT, and SEM provide researchers with a way to correlate the mechanical behavior with hierarchical microstructures of these material systems1-6. However, a well-defined standard procedure for specimen preparation of mineralized biomaterials is not currently available. In this study, the methods for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of A. spatula using nanoindentation, FTIR, SEM, with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and X-ray CT are presented. PMID:25046233

  14. Sobre los llamados silbatos celtibéricos. Una propuesta de interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Navarro, Zoa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose a new interpretation for those objects made of deer antler, wich traditionally have been identified as whistles or musical instruments. Starting from other similar European examples, we think that the pieces from the Iberian Peninsula correspond with the cheekpieces of horsebits, psalia, and at the present time must be surely dated to the Second lron Age.

    En el presente artículo proponemos una nueva interpretación para los objetos realizados en asta de ciervo que tradicionalmente se han identificado con silbatos o instrumentos musicales. A partir de otros elementos europeos semejantes, creemos que las piezas de la Península Ibérica se corresponden con camas de bocado de caballo, psalia, y que, hoy por hoy, deben fecharse claramente en la Segunda Edad del Hierro.

  15. Reconstructing semi-invisible events in resonant tau pair production from Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Partha; Swain, Abhaya Kumar

    2016-06-01

    We study the possibility of utilizing the constrained mass variable, M2Cons, in reconstructing the semi-invisible events originated from a resonant production at the LHC. While this proposal is effective for any similar antler type production mechanism, here we demonstrate with a potentially interesting scenario, when the Higgs boson decays into a pair of the third generation τ leptons. Buoyed with a relatively large Yukawa coupling, the LHC has already started exploring this pair production to investigate the properties of Higgs in the leptonic sector. Dominant signatures through hadronic decay of tau, associated with invisible neutrinos compound the difficulty in the reconstruction of such events. Exploiting the already existing Higgs mass bound, this new method provides a unique event reconstruction, together with a significant enhancement in terms of efficiency over the existing methods.

  16. Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

  17. Chronic Wasting Disease: Transmission Mechanisms and the Possibility of Harvest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Alex; Merrill, Evelyn; Pybus, Margo; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of CWD management by nonselective deer harvest, currently the most feasible approach available for managing CWD in wild populations. We use the model to explore the effects of 6 common harvest strategies on disease prevalence and to identify potential optimal harvest policies for reducing disease prevalence without population collapse. The model includes 4 deer categories (juveniles, adult females, younger adult males, older adult males) that may be harvested at different rates, a food-based carrying capacity, which influences juvenile survival but not adult reproduction or survival, and seasonal force of infection terms for each deer category under differing frequency-dependent transmission dynamics resulting from environmental and direct contact mechanisms. Numerical experiments show that the interval of transmission coefficients β where the disease can be controlled is generally narrow and efficiency of a harvest policy to reduce disease prevalence depends crucially on the details of the disease transmission mechanism, in particular on the intensity of disease transmission to juveniles and the potential differences in the behavior of older and younger males that influence contact rates. Optimal harvest policy to minimize disease prevalence for each of the assumed transmission mechanisms is shown to depend on harvest intensity. Across mechanisms, a harvest that focuses on antlered deer, without distinguishing between age classes reduces disease prevalence most consistently, whereas distinguishing between young and older antlered deer produces higher uncertainty in the harvest effects on disease prevalence. Our results show that, despite uncertainties, a modelling approach can determine classes of harvest strategy that are most likely to be effective in combatting CWD. PMID:26963921

  18. Summary of Comments on Analysis of Hungarian red deer trophies by means of Principal component analysis in two different counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna BOKOR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors analyzed data of 9 trophy parameters (weight of the antler, length of main beam, length of brow tine, length of bay tine, length of tray tine, circumference of coronet, lower circumference of main beam, upper circumference of main beam, number of total tines of 6868 red deer stags shot between 1997 and 2007 and estimated ages were between 4-16 years, from two counties of Hungary (5946 from Somogy and 921 Bcs-Kiskun. General linear model was used to evaluate age and county effects on the trophy parameters. Age was a significant source of variation for all studied traits while county affected most of the studied parameters. Consequently the dataset was analyzed separately for each county. Low to high correlations (adjusted for age effect were found both in Somogy (r=-0.04 - 0.80 and for Bcs-Kiskun (r=-0.06 - 0.70. Using principal component analysis (with orthogonal rotation 4 factors were extracted which accounted for 73 % and 75 % of total variance in Bcs-Kiskun and Somogy county respectively. The first factor represents the circumferences of the trophy, the second factor the main tines (brow, bay, tray of the antler. The third and fourth factors represented the number of total tines of the trophies and the length of main beam respectively. These identified factors could be considered in selection/evaluation of the trophies in Hungarian red deer instead of the traditionally used measurements in order to maintain type and quality of the red deer trophy in Hungary.

  19. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  20. The Role of Museums in Recovery From Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Ken‘ichi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku was founded in 1974 as an Inter-University Research Institute housing a museum and graduate school. A museum is more than a place to store intangible and tangible heritage. Along with its responsibility for conserving and passing on cultural materials, it also creates new culture. On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by an earthquake and tsunami of unprecedented proportions. From one month after the disaster, conservation experts from Minpaku participated in the rescue of tangible cultural resources for the period of eight months. At the same time, our disaster response team worked with village residents in damaged localities, assisting their efforts to replace costumes and ornaments for traditional performing arts that had been washed out to sea, or to repair damaged lion heads, to aid in reviving traditional performing arts. We had thought that, in the process of revival and recovery, the re-launch of festivals and traditional performing arts would come later than the construction of the homes and livelihoods of the local people. In one case, Minpaku, based on its research, was able to provide deer antlers for the headdresses needed to revive the deer dance, an intangible cultural heritage of a village in Iwate Prefecture. Village elders worked the antlers we donated, restored the costumes, and within a year were able to produce ten full sets of costumes. Subsequently, the deer dance was performed in village after village to calm the spirits of the dead, ward off evil spirits, and restore the confidence of people afflicted by the disaster. In this way, a traditional performing art contributed to the revival and rebuilding of the affected communities. In another village the repair and restoration of stone lions’ heads and providing aid for refugees from the disaster were further other examples of organized activity carried out in connection with the traditional performing arts. In sum, our experience

  1. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of

  2. Systematic review of the management of canine osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R O; Beata, C; Flipo, R-M; Genevois, J-P; Macias, C; Tacke, S; Vezzoni, A; Innes, J F

    2009-04-01

    This review assesses the evidence for the efficacy of therapies used in the management of osteoarthritis in dogs on the basis of papers published in peer-reviewed journals in English between 1985 and July 2007. Sixty-eight papers were identified and evaluated. They considered four alternative therapies, one use of functional food, two intra-articular agents, six nutraceutical agents, 21 pharmacological agents, two physical therapies, three surgical techniques and two combinations of weight control. There was a high level of comfort (strong evidence) for the efficacy of carprofen, firocoxib and meloxicam, and a moderate level of comfort for the efficacy of etodolac in modifying the signs of osteoarthritis. There was a moderate level of comfort for the efficacy of glycosaminoglycan polysulphate, licofelone, elk velvet antler and a functional food containing green-lipped mussel for the modification of the structures involved in the disease. There was weak or no evidence in support of the use of doxycycline, electrostimulated acupuncture, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, gold wire acupuncture, hyaluronan, pentosan polysulphate, P54FP (extract of turmeric), tiaprofenic acid or tibial plateau levelling osteotomy. PMID:19346540

  3. Ptychographic X-ray nanotomography quantifies mineral distributions in human dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, I.; Enders, B.; Dierolf, M.; Thibault, P.; Gradl, R.; Diaz, A.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Menzel, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Zaslansky, P.

    2015-03-01

    Bones are bio-composites with biologically tunable mechanical properties, where a polymer matrix of nanofibrillar collagen is reinforced by apatite mineral crystals. Some bones, such as antler, form and change rapidly, while other bone tissues, such as human tooth dentine, develop slowly and maintain constant composition and architecture for entire lifetimes. When studying apatite mineral microarchitecture, mineral distributions or mineralization activity of bone-forming cells, representative samples of tissue are best studied at submicrometre resolution while minimizing sample-preparation damage. Here, we demonstrate the power of ptychographic X-ray tomography to map variations in the mineral content distribution in three dimensions and at the nanometre scale. Using this non-destructive method, we observe nanostructures surrounding hollow tracts that exist in human dentine forming dentinal tubules. We reveal unprecedented quantitative details of the ultrastructure clearly revealing the spatially varying mineralization density. Such information is essential for understanding a variety of natural and therapeutic effects for example in bone tissue healing and ageing.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology of captive cervid herds in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Shank, K L; Kaneene, J B

    1997-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the species composition, disease period prevalence, and utilization of preventive practices in captive cervid herds in Michigan. This is the first description of cervid farming in the United States. Data for the 12 months preceding the study were collected by means of a mail questionnaire conducted from March 3 through June 28, 1993. Completed questionnaires were returned by 228 of 362 (63%) farms. Study respondents reported ownership of a total of 4972 (80.9%) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 766 (12.5%) elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), 284 (4.6%) fallow deer (Dama dama), 114 (1.9%) sika deer (Cervus nippon), 6 (0.1%) red deer (Cervus elaphus), 4 (treatment of injuries (27.7% [44/159]), anthelmintic administration (25.2% [40/159]), issuance of health certificates (19.5% [31/159]), diagnosis and treatment of illnesses (17.6% [28/159]), vaccination (13.8% [22/159]), disease diagnosis (treatment provided by farmer) (8.8% [14/159]), foot care (3.8% [6/159]), and other purposes (ie, necropsy, dystocia, antler removal) (11.3% [18/159]). PMID:9208449

  5. Population dynamics of a natural red deer population over 200 years detected via substantial changes of genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gunther Sebastian; Johannesen, Jes; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2016-05-01

    Most large mammals have constantly been exposed to anthropogenic influence over decades or even centuries. Because of their long generation times and lack of sampling material, inferences of past population genetic dynamics, including anthropogenic impacts, have only relied on the analysis of the structure of extant populations. Here, we investigate for the first time the change in the genetic constitution of a natural red deer population over two centuries, using up to 200-year-old antlers (30 generations) stored in trophy collections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the oldest DNA source ever used for microsatellite population genetic analyses. We demonstrate that government policy and hunting laws may have strong impacts on populations that can lead to unexpectedly rapid changes in the genetic constitution of a large mammal population. A high ancestral individual polymorphism seen in an outbreeding population (1813-1861) was strongly reduced in descendants (1923-1940) during the mid-19th and early 20th century by genetic bottlenecks. Today (2011), individual polymorphism and variance among individuals is increasing in a constant-sized (managed) population. Differentiation was high among periods (F ST > ***); consequently, assignment tests assigned individuals to their own period with >85% probability. In contrast to the high variance observed at nuclear microsatellite loci, mtDNA (D-loop) was monomorphic through time, suggesting that male immigration dominates the genetic evolution in this population. PMID:27096075

  6. Validation of doubly labeled water method using a ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 production (CDP, ml CO2 . g-1 . h-1) by captive caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) was measured using the doubly labeled water method (3H2O and H2(18)O) and compared with CO2 expiration rates (VCO2), adjusted for CO2 losses in CH4 and urine, as determined by open-circuit respirometry. CDP calculated from samples of blood or urine from a reindeer in winter was 1-3% higher than the adjusted VCO2. Differences between values derived by the two methods of 5-20% were found in summer trials with caribou. None of these differences were statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Differences in summer could in part be explained by the net deposition of 3H, 18O, and unlabeled CO2 in antlers and other growing tissues. Total body water volumes calculated from 3H2O dilution were up to 15% higher than those calculated from H2(18)O dilution. The doubly labeled water method appears to be a reasonably accurate method for measuring CDP by caribou and reindeer in winter when growth rates are low, but the method may overestimate CDP by rapidly growing and/or fattening animals

  7. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  8. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T; Luepold, Shannon H Buckley; Belote, John M; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-26

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes. PMID:27225128

  9. Information gathering during contests: the relationship between lateralisation and contestant behaviour during fallow deer fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Dómhnall J

    2014-03-01

    One class of model relating to animal contest behaviour assumes that individuals gather information concerning their opponents' competitive ability; these models argue that such a process allows contestants to avoid engaging in dangerous fighting behaviour with a superior opponent. The brain hemispheres of vertebrates are lateralised in that they are specialised for processing different type of information. Within the context of the current study, we might expect that lateralisation would play a role in facilitating the assessment of opponent quality; nevertheless, the degree of lateralisation shown by individuals can vary suggesting that contest behaviour might also vary based on the ability to process information about competitor quality. The current study tests this hypothesis by predicting that the duration that individuals engage in fighting and the rate of aggressive contest actions should decrease as lateralisation increases. There was a positive relationship between two laterality indices and the duration spent in antler contact; thus lateralised individuals experienced greater time costs. Further, lateralised individuals also experienced a greater disparity in contest actions: there was a negative relationship between lateralisation and the difference in the mean number of backward pushes achieved during fights. When only opponent signal rate was considered there was no effect of lateralisation, therefore, there is support for a mutual assessment process. These results suggest that information gathering via lateral displays may be disadvantageous to lateralised individuals during escalated fighting. PMID:24468213

  10. The 750 GeV Diphoton Excess May Not Imply a 750 GeV Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Won Sang; Kong, Kyoungchul; Lim, Sung Hak; Matchev, Konstantin T; Park, Jong-Chul; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-01-01

    We discuss non-standard interpretations of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations which do not involve a new, relatively broad, resonance with a mass near 750 GeV. Instead, we consider the sequential cascade decay of a much heavier, possibly quite narrow, resonance into two photons along with one or more invisible particles. The resulting diphoton invariant mass signal is generically rather broad, as suggested by the data. We examine three specific event topologies - the antler, the sandwich, and the 2-step cascade decay, and show that they all can provide a good fit to the observed published data. In each case, we delineate the preferred mass parameter space selected by the best fit. In spite of the presence of invisible particles in the final state, the measured missing transverse energy is moderate, due to its anti- correlation with the diphoton invariant mass. We comment on the future prospects of discriminating with higher statistics between our scenarios, as we...

  11. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K.; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T.; Luepold, Shannon H. Buckley; Belote, John M.; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male–male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  12. Population dynamics of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Baskin

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Five types of reindeer populations are distinguished in terms of population dynamics, population density, social structure and migration distance. Differences in the biological rhythms of the populations result in calving occuring 20 days before snow melting in all populations as well as maximal utilization by the deer of young green vegetation in summer. The growth of antlers may serve as a regulatior of biological rhytms. Populations differ in the level of social motivation. Formation of groups of not less than 30-35 animals ensures cooperative protection from insects and management of the group by man. The fidelity to the calving sites, summer ranges and constant migration routes is based on the common orientation reactions of the animals and social attraction. The direction and migration routes are detemined by obligate learning. The dynamics of populations depends on the fertility of 2 and 3 year old females which is determined by feeding conditions in summer and the activity of males during the rut. Migration plays an important role in the population dynamics.

  13. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  14. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  15. Secondary Excavation of the Koguryo Mountain Castle at ,Shitaizi,Shenyang City,Liaoning%辽宁沈阳市石台子高句丽山城第二次发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈阳市文物考古工作队

    2001-01-01

    The secondary excavation of the Shitaizi mountain castle was carried out on the basis of the first digging. It covered an area of 450 sq m. The recorded remains include the excavated sites of the northwestern, eastern, southern and southwestern city-gates, the reservoir and officers-mustering terrace vestiges known through trial diggings, and the drains discovered at the northwestern and eastern city-gates. Among the unearthed objects are pottery (the urn, jar, dish, basin, fu cauldron, bowl, dou stemmed vessel, vessel cover, spindle whorl and disc), bronzes (the buckle, arrowhead and plaque), irons(the arrowhead, armor plate, nail, paring knife, awl, hook, ring, axe, door-nail, door-axle and its base,and cap-like cover), stone tools (the perforated stone, grindstone, spindle whorl and adze) and bone and antler artifacts. The present excavation indicates that this mountain castle was twice damaged by fire.The city-gate structural members found on the gate-sites, such as iron-cast door-leaves, door-axles and their bases, rivets and loops, are all discovered for the first time at Koguryo mountain castle and provide very valuable material for studying the shape and structure of mountain-castle gates in that period.

  16. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  17. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  18. Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough, eastern Nevada: preliminary basin analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.

    1987-08-01

    The Lower Permian Dry Mountain trough (DMT) is one of several basins that developed during the Late Pennsylvanian to Permian along the western edge of the North American continent. A tectonic mechanism has been suggested for the subsidence of the DMT, possibly due to reactivation of the Antler orogenic belt during the waning stages of Ancestral Rocky Mountain deformation. The DMT records marked subsidence with the appearance during the Artinskian (latest Wolfcampian) of a deeper water facies that consists of thin-bedded silty micrites and micritic mudstones rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, characterized by a relative abundance of ammonoids, and rarer conodonts and Nereites ichnofacies trace fossils. Taxa recovered from a distinctive concretionary horizon at various locations provide an Artinskian datum on which to palinspastically reconstruct the DMT paleogeography. These taxa include ammonoids: Uraloceras, Medlicottia, Marathonites, Crimites, Metalegoceras, properrinitids; and conodonts: Neogondolella bisselli, Sweetognathus whitei, S. behnkeni, and Diplognathodus stevensi. The western margin facies of the DMT consists of Permian Carbon Ridge/Garden Valley Formations. Here, lowermost black Artinskianage euxinic micrites, considered a potential source rock for petroleum generation, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by base-of-slope carbonate apron deposits, which, in turn, are overlain by a thick, eastwardly prograding conglomerate wedge. Seismic profiles across Diamond Valley indicate a 3.0-4.6-km thick Tertiary sequence above the Paleozoic strata.

  19. Le comportement symbolique dans la Préhistoire de la Roumanie: art mobilier au Paléolithique supérieur en Moldavie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BELDIMAN

    2009-12-01

    in a cave site. The types identified are: bâtons percés worked in horse long bone and in roe-deer antler; lithic and bone pendants; disk in roe-deer antler; perforated teeth; lithic objects in quartzite and graphite as well as bone and antler pieces having linear engraved decoration or notches; decorated roe-deer antler harpoon: ivory mammoth tusk fragment; fossil mollusks of Congeria? species; perforated snails of Succinea oblonga? ou Lithoglyphus naticoides? species. Most of the artifacts are of significant importance for the phenomenon of art and of prehistoric technology in these regions; in this point of view we have to mention the pendants discovered at Mitoc, Botosani County and the fragment of bone discovered in 1998 with the engraved image of an animal’s foot from Piatra Neamt, Neamt County. Another exceptional artifact is the fragment of mammoth tusk from Lespezi, Bacau County dated at around 18 kya showing the débitage traces on the proximal part that prove the using of notching and grooving technique and probably of transverse sawing with fiber; this should be the oldest situation of use of such a technique solution in this part of Europe. Taking into account the extreme rarity of ivory artifacts in the Upper Paleolithic of Romania it is probably that the provenance of the objects can be found in the near territories of Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Ukraine, Republic of Moldavia, Russia where the manufacture and use of such artifacts was common in that epoch. The study contributes essentially to the definition in actual terms of typology and technology of oldest portable art objects from a particular region of Romania as material expression of first spiritual manifestations of huntergatherer communities and allowed to integrate the data of the phenomenon in the South-East and Central European context.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of sika deer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo-Yin; Ba, Heng-Xing; Wang, Gui-Wu; Yang, Ying; Cui, Xue-Zhe; Peng, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Jun-Jun; Xing, Xiu-Mei; Yang, Fu-He

    2016-10-01

    Sika deer is of great commercial value because their antlers are used in tonics and alternative medicine and their meat is healthy and delicious. The goal of this study was to generate transcript sequences from sika deer for functional genomic analyses and to identify the transcripts that demonstrate tissue-specific, age-dependent differential expression patterns. These sequences could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sika deer growth and development. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and profiling analysis across ten tissue types and four developmental stages (juvenile, adolescent, adult, and aged) of sika deer, using Illumina paired-end tag (PET) sequencing technology. A total of 1,752,253 contigs with an average length of 799 bp were generated, from which 1,348,618 unigenes with an average length of 590 bp were defined. Approximately 33.2 % of these (447,931 unigenes) were then annotated in public protein databases. Many sika deer tissue-specific, age-dependent unigenes were identified. The testes have the largest number of tissue-enriched unigenes, and some of them were prone to develop new functions for other tissues. Additionally, our transcriptome revealed that the juvenile-adolescent transition was the most complex and important stage of the sika deer life cycle. The present work represents the first multiple tissue transcriptome analysis of sika deer across four developmental stages. The generated data not only provide a functional genomics resource for future biological research on sika deer but also guide the selection and manipulation of genes controlling growth and development. PMID:27423230

  1. PLAG (1-Palmitoyl-2-Linoleoyl-3-Acetyl-rac-Glycerol) Modulates Eosinophil Chemotaxis by Regulating CCL26 Expression from Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jinseon; Kim, Young-Jun; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Joo Heon; Sohn, Ki-Young; Kim, Heung-Jae; Han, Yong-Hae; Chong, Saeho; Kim, Jae Wha

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of eosinophils in the circulation and sputum is associated with the severity of asthma. The respiratory epithelium produces chemokine (C-C motif) ligands (CCL) which recruits and activates eosinophils. A chemically synthesized monoacetyl-diglyceride, PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol) is a major constituent in the antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) which has been used in oriental medicine. This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PLAG effect on the alleviation of asthma phenotypes. A549, a human alveolar basal epithelial cell, and HaCaT, a human keratinocyte, were activated by the treatment of interleukin-4 (IL-4), and the expression of chemokines, known to be effective on the induction of eosinophil migration was analyzed by RT-PCR. The expression of IL-4 induced genes was modulated by the co-treatment of PLAG. Especially, CCL26 expression from the stimulated epithelial cells was significantly blocked by PLAG, which was confirmed by ELISA. The transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), activated by IL-4 mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, was down-regulated by PLAG in a concentration-dependent manner. In ovalbumin-induced mouse model, the infiltration of immune cells into the respiratory tract was decreased by PLAG administration. Cytological analysis of the isolated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells proved the infiltration of eosinophils was significantly reduced by PLAG. In addition, PLAG inhibited the migration of murine bone marrow-derived eosinophils, and human eosinophil cell line, EoL-1, which was induced by the addition of A549 culture medium. PMID:27010397

  2. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Parfitt, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    A recurring theme of late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian human bone assemblages is the remarkable rarity of primary burials and the common occurrence of highly-fragmentary human remains mixed with occupation waste at many sites. One of the most extensive Magdalenian human bone assemblages comes from Gough's Cave, a sizeable limestone cave set in Cheddar Gorge (Somerset), UK. After its discovery in the 1880s, the site was developed as a show cave and largely emptied of sediment, at times with minimal archaeological supervision. Some of the last surviving remnants of sediment within the cave were excavated between 1986 and 1992. The excavations uncovered intensively-processed human bones intermingled with abundant butchered large mammal remains and a diverse range of flint, bone, antler, and ivory artefacts. New ultrafiltrated radiocarbon determinations demonstrate that the Upper Palaeolithic human remains were deposited over a very short period of time, possibly during a series of seasonal occupations, about 14,700 years BP (before present). The human remains have been the subject of several taphonomic studies, culminating in a detailed reanalysis of the cranial remains that showed they had been carefully modified to make skull-cups. Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism. In a wider context, the treatment of the human corpses and the manufacture and use of skull-cups at Gough Cave have parallels with other Magdalenian sites in central and western Europe. This suggests that cannibalism during the Magdalenian was part of a customary mortuary practice that combined intensive processing and consumption of the bodies with

  3. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

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    Chris T Darimont

    Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access

  4. Evaluation of water resources in part of central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water resources in the Brazos, Red, Colorado, and Trinity River basins, in central Texas, were evaluated. In 1985 there was a little less than 81,000 acre-ft of groundwater pumped from all aquifers in the study area, with a little less than 77,000 acre-ft of groundwater pumped from the Trinity Group aquifer. Irrigation accounted for about 56% of all groundwater pumped. A serious problem associated with the development of groundwater from the Trinity Group aquifer is the decline of artesian pressure in areas of large groundwater withdrawals. Degradation of groundwater within the Antlers and Travis Peak Formations from oil-field brines and organic material are problems in several counties. The deterioration of water qualify for the City of Blum has occurred over a 26-year period and is associated with water level declines in the Hensell Member of the Travis Peak Formation. The Woodbine Group yields good quality water at or near the outcrop; however, the residual sodium carbonate and percent sodium limits its use for irrigation, while high iron and fluoride content restricts its use for public supply. Existing surface reservoirs in the study area alone can supply 296,400 acre-ft of water under 2010 conditions. Nearly all of this water is either currently owned or under contract to supply current and future needs. An additional 176,000 acre-ft of surface water could become available with the development of the proposed Lake Bosque and Paluxy Reservoir projects and with reallocation of storage in existing Lakes Waco and Whitney. The amount of groundwater currently pumped exceeds the estimated annual effective recharge to the Trinity Group aquifer; the groundwater supply for the area will continue to be drawn from storage within the aquifer. 84 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Evaluation of water resources in part of north-central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water resources within the North-Central Texas Region which lies in the Brazos, Red, Sulphur, Sabine, and Trinity River basins, were evaluated. The geologic formations underlying the study area range in age from Paleozoic to Recent. The principal water-bearing formations are the Antlers, Twin Mountains, and Paluxy Formations of the Trinity Group, and the Woodbine Group, all of Cretaceous age. Extensive cones of depression have developed in the piezometric surface of each of the region's principal aquifers, coinciding with areas of large groundwater withdrawals. During the 13-year period 1976 to 1989, water level declines of 25 ft were common in the aquifers studied. The study identified a number of existing and potential water quality problems. Some of these are naturally occurring and are related to geologic structure. Elevated levels of some chemical constituents suggest contamination related to oil-field activities and other industrial sources. The projected water demands for the study area by the year 2010 total over 1.4 million acre-ft. Existing surface-water reservoirs can supply 1.6 million acre ft of water under 2010 conditions. The amount of groundwater currently pumped exceeds the estimated annual effective recharge to the area's aquifers; a portion of the water pumped is drawn from aquifer storage resulting in water level declines. Even though the study area has sufficient surface water to meet projected needs through 2010, rural areas that depend on a groundwater supply could face shortages before 2010 due to the limited availability of groundwater and the high cost of converting to a surface water supply. 93 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  6. The Population Status and Potential Resources' Utilization of Elaphurus davidianus%中国麋鹿种群现状与潜在资源利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树苗; 梁兵宽; 张林源; 李坤

    2009-01-01

    Elaphurus davidianus is one special species in Chinese deer family, belonging to 1st class of protected animals. Its antler, fat, flesh and blood etc possess medical values. Since human being's irregular hunting and environmental changes, Elaphurus davidianus had been become extinct since 1900. In the middle of 1980s, our country initiated Milu's reintroduction program, which made the quantity of Milu over 2000 individuals. The paper analyzes Elaphurus davidianus' values in food, medicine, leather, medical care, beauty, ecological and cultural aspects,and issues in its population development such as kin mating, few distribution spot, density restrict, as well as measures for its protection and sustainable utilization.%麋鹿是中国特有的鹿科动物,是国家Ⅰ级保护动物,其茸、角、脂、血、肉等均具有药用价值.由于人类的猎捕和环境变迁,麋鹿于1900年灭绝.20世纪80年代中期,我国启动了麋鹿重引进项目,现在我国麋鹿数量超过了2 000头.分析麋鹿在食用、药用、制革、保健与美容、观赏、生态及文化方面的价值及目前种群发展存在着的近亲交配、分布点少、密度制约等问题,提出了保护与可持续利用对策.

  7. The earliest case of extreme sexual display with exaggerated male organs by two Middle Jurassic mecopterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many extant male animals exhibit exaggerated body parts for display, defense or offence in sexual selection, such as male birds of paradise showing off colorful and elegant feathers and male moose and reindeers bearing large structured antlers. For insects, male rhinoceros and stag beetles have huge horn-like structure for fighting and competition and some male Leptopanorpa scorpionflies have very long abdominal terminal segments for sexual display and competition. Fossil records of insects having exaggerated body parts for sexual display are fairly rare. One example is two male holcorpids with elongate abdominal segments from sixth (A6 to eighth (A8 and enlarged male genitalia from Eocene, suggesting evolution of these characters occurred fairly late. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We document two mecopterans with exaggerated male body parts from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in northeastern China. Both have extremely extended abdominal segments from A6 to A8 and enlarged genitalia, which might have been used for sexual display and, to less extent, for fighting with other males in the competition for mates. Although Fortiholcorpa paradoxa gen. et sp. nov. and Miriholcorpa forcipata gen. et sp. nov. seem to have affinities with Holcorpidae, we deem both as Family Incertae sedis mainly due to significant differences in branching pattern of Media (M veins and relative length of A8 for F. paradoxa, and indiscernible preservation of 5-branched M veins in hind wing for M. forcipata. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These two new taxa have extended the records of exaggerated male body parts of mecopterans for sexual display and/or selection from the Early Eocene to the late Middle Jurassic. The similar character present in some Leptopanorpa of Panorpidae suggests that the sexual display and/or sexual selection due to extremely elongated male abdominal and sexual organs outweigh the negative impact of bulky body and poor mobility in the

  8. CONSERVATION DEVELOPMENT OF TIMOR DEER (Cervus timorensis AS COMMERCIAL PURPOSE(WITH OPTIMISTIC RATE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the profit obtained from breeding of Timor deer commercially. This research was done in East Java. Survey method was used to answer the objective. The study location were selected by purposive sampling. Usually deer was develop in conservation area, but because the area was decrease so the number of deer also decrease. Model of deer raising development should be improved not only for conservation but also for commercial purpose. The optimum deer raising were considered and monitored with a purpose to maximize commercial Timor deer by using Multiple Objective Goal Programming (MOGP to find the Optimistic Rate Estimation. The result of this study showed to get the optimum benefit, it had to be applied together with conservation and commercial effort at the same time. Results of study showed that profit was taken from selling velvet was 164.46%. Profits taken from selling antler was 350.56%, from selling alive deer was 394.28%, from selling recreation tickets was 259.08%, from selling venison1 was 135.98%, and from selling deer leather was 141.24%. Operational cost spent were 168.46% for feeding cost, 213.23% for maintenance cost, and 232.04% for labors’ salaries. The amount of operational cost required in MOGP model, with lower expenses and commercial priority were 185.54% for feeding cost, 253.13% for maintenance cost, and 246.95% for paying labors’ salaries. The MOGP model result with commercial priority reached 335.21%, while in MOGP model with lower costs and commercial priority gave profit for breeders up to 381.26%.

  9. Burdale: An Anglian Settlement in the Yorkshire Wolds (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D. Richards

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Burdale digital archive (Richards and Roskams 2013 comprises a broad range of primary and secondary data derived from fieldwork and post-excavation analysis. It complements the summary report published as Richards and Roskams (2012. Full stratigraphic reports are downloadable for each season of excavation and can be related to the sequence of CAD plans also available. These can, in turn, be set within the wider site map derived from aerial photography and geophysical survey. Final reports are available for the pottery, spindlewhorls, and worked bone and antler (Ashby 2013. Other finds are simply listed in the finds databases, split by excavation year, with some preliminary notes on the ironwork included in the investigative conservation reports. The non-ferrous finds assemblage was largely missing, apart from a small number of topsoil finds recovered during metal detector surveys. Given the alleged wealth of the site, and the interest in it from 'nighthawks' we have to assume that unfortunately, most of the coinage and copper alloy metalwork has been collected from the ploughsoil over many years and is in private hands or has been sold for profit. In common with other Yorkshire sites Burdale produced very little early medieval pottery but this is likely to be a real absence rather than a product of recovery bias. The animal bone assemblage (Richardson 2010 is one of the most important elements of the archive. Over 300 images are also presented, split by year of excavation. The file downloads are organised in 3 groups: those relating to the whole project and those specifically related to excavations in 2006 (BUR06 or 2007 (BUR07. Referee statement by Gabor Thomas

  10. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  11. Biostratigraphy and structure of paleozoic host rocks and their relationship to Carlin-type gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.G.; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Oscarson, R.L.; Noble, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Jerritt Canyon mining district in the northern Independence Range, northern Nevada, contains multiple, nearly horizontal, thrust masses of platform carbonate rocks that are exposed in a series of north- to northeast-elongated, tectonic windows through rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Roberts Mountains allochthon was emplaced during the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. These thrust masses contain structurally and stratigraphically controlled Carlin-type gold deposits. The gold deposits are hosted in tectonically truncated units of the Silurian to Devonian Hanson Creek and Roberts Mountains Formations that lie within structural slices of an Eastern assemblage of Cambrian to Devonian carbonate rocks. In addition, these multiply thrust-faulted and folded host rocks are structurally interleaved with Mississippian siliciclastic rocks and are overlain structurally by Cambrian to Devonian siliciclastic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. All sedimentary rocks were involved in thrusting, high-angle faulting, and folding, and some of these events indicate substantial late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic regional shortening. Early Pennsylvanian and late Eocene dikes also intrude the sedimentary rocks. These rocks all were uplifted into a northeast-trending range by subsequent late Cenozoic Basin and Range faulting. Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks flank part of the range. Pathways of hydrothermal fluid flow and locations of Carlin-type gold orebodies in the Jerritt Canyon mining district were controlled by structural and host-rock geometries within specific lithologies of the stacked thrust masses of Eastern assemblage rocks. The gold deposits are most common proximal to intersections of northeast-striking faults, northwest-striking dikes, and thrust planes that lie adjacent to permeable stratigraphic horizons. The host stratigraphic units include carbonate sequences that contained primary intercrystalline permeability, which

  12. Modelling the Loktak Lake Basin to Assess Human Impact on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, K.

    2015-12-01

    Loktak Lake is an internationally important, Ramsar designated, fresh water wetland system in the state of Manipur, India. The lake was also listed under Montreux Record on account of the ecological modifications that the lake system has witnessed over time. A characteristic feature of this lake is the extensive occurrence of coalesced, naturally or otherwise, vegetative masses floating over it. A contiguous 40 km2 area of Phumdis, as these vegetative masses are locally referred to, also constitutes the only natural home of the endemic and endangered species of Manipur's brow-antlered deer popularly known as Sangai. Appropriately notified as Keibul Lamjao National Park by Government of India, this natural feature is known to be the world's largest floating park. Water quality and sediment deposition on account of soil erosion in its catchments are some of the emerging concerns along with a reported enhanced frequency and duration of flooding of the shore areas, reduced fish catch within a visibly deteriorated overall natural ecosystem. Disturbances of watershed processes, command area management practices, ineffective as indeed largely absent, waste management practices and management interventions linked to the Loktak Hydroelectric Project are often cited as the principal triggers that are seen to be responsible for the damage. An effective management protocol for the Lake requires a rigorous understanding of its hydrobiology and eco-hydrodynamics. The present study is carried out to establish such a characterization of the various rivers systems draining directly into the Lake using MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 HD and MIKE 11 ECO Lab modelling platforms. Water quality modelling was limited to dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and water temperature. Model calibration was done using the available measured water quality data. The derived results were then investigated for causal correlation with anthropogenic influences to assess human impact on water

  13. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  14. Reconsideration of the systematics of the Early Pleistocene Cervavitus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervavitus were usually found from the Late Miocene and Pliocene deposits in East Europe, Middle Asia and North China, but they were found recently in many Early Pleistocene localities in southern China. The latter resulted in the discussion of their systematic status between Cervavitus and Cervus. Here we show the Early Pleistocene forms from southern China are morphometrically more similar to northern China Cervavitus species, and the cladistic analysis shows that the southern China forms are closer to classic Cervavitus species than Cervus and that also proves their systematic status in Cervavitus rather than in Cervus. Cervavitus originated in Moldovan forests of East Europe in the late Vallesian (MN10 from a brachyodont and holometacarpal ancestor with two/three-tined antlers and Palaeomeryx fold and evolved into C. novorossiae. It dispersed into West Europe forests in the earliest Turolian and further west to France in the Ruscinian. It dispersed into northern China forests in the early Turolian and represented by C. shanxius. The great quantity of C. shanxius specimens with brachyodont teeth and complete lateral metacarpals implies the arid Loess Plateau of today was a humid forested region in the Late Miocene. C. shanxius migrated southwards in the Plio-Pleistocene probably due to the drying environment in northern China with uplifting of Himalayas and evolved into C. ultimus and C. fenqii, which survived in southern China until the Early Pleistocene (MNQ18.La revisión sistemática de Cervivatus sugiere que deriva del principal clado de los cérvidos posteriores a los muntiacinos, e implica que Procervulinae, Dicrocerinae y la primeras formas de Munticiacinae serían holometacarpales, como también lo es Cervivatus, originario en los bosques de Moldavia (Europa del Este durante el Vallesiense final (MN 10, a partir de un antecesor braquiodonto y holometacarpal, con astas con dos o tres candiles y pliegue paleomerícido, y que da lugar a

  15. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    access. During the past two years, non-Indian public concern over big game hunting issues has at times overwhelmed other issues related to the wildlife area. In 2001, the CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee closed the wildlife area to tribal branch antlered bull elk harvest in response to harvest data that indicated harvest rates were greater than expected. In addition, illegal harvest of mature bull elk in southeastern Washington during the 2001 season exceeded the legal tribal and nontribal harvest combined which has created a potential significant regression in the bull;cow ratio in the Blue Mountain Elk herd. CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and staff and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Regional Director and staff have been coordinating regularly to develop strategies to address harvest rates and ensure protection of viable big game herds in southeastern Washington. The CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and WDFW has jointly agreed to continue close coordination on this and other issues and continue working together to ensure the long-term vigor of the elk herd on the Rainwater Wildlife Area. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources.

  16. 麇鹿角醇提液对环磷酰胺致雄鼠性腺损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成海龙; 陈鹤林; 韩中保; 田郡; 陆晓东; 秦红兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察麋鹿角醇提液对环磷酰胺所致雄性小鼠性腺损伤的保护作用.方法:应用腹腔注射环磷酰胺造成小鼠性腺抑制模型,给予麋鹿角醇提液不同剂量进行干预,然后测定小鼠血清中的睾酮以及黄体生成素的水平,检测睾丸以及副性器官质量指数、精子密度和精子活动率,检测睾丸组织中超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)和丙二醛(malonaldehyde,MDA)含量,光镜检测睾丸组织形态学变化.结果:麇鹿角醇提液能良好对抗环磷酰胺引起的睾酮与黄体生成素下降,能提高模型睾丸质量指数,提高模型精子密度与精子活率,增加模型组睾丸SOD活力,并减少其MDA含量,改善环磷酰胺所致模型小鼠睾丸组织的病理性变化.结论:麋鹿角醇提液对环磷酰胺致雄鼠性腺损伤具有保护作用,可能与其促性激素样作用以及抗氧化作用有关.%Objective:To observe the protective effect of Elk antlers ethanolic fluidextract (EAEF) on gonad function impairment of male mice induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods;The model of gonad function depression was prepared by repeatedly in-traperitoneal injection of CP. Low and high dose of EAEF were given to mice with oral administration to intervene this process,then the level of testosterone and luteinizing hormone in serum were detected;the weight index of sex organ and accessory sex organ were observed;sperm density and sperm activity were detected;the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonaldehyde(MDA) content were measured. Meanwhile the histopathological changes in testis were observed by light microscopy. Results;EAEF reversed the decline of testosterone and luteinizing hormone level in serum,enhanced the testicle mass index,sperm density and sperm activity, increased SOD activity and decreased content of MDA in testis,as well alleviated the histologic pathological formation in testis in cyclophosphamide-induced model mice. Conclusion

  17. THE FIRST TRIAL EXCAVATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF WULANMULUN SITE IN 2010 AT ORDOS,INNER MONGOLIA IN NORTH CHINA%内蒙古鄂尔多斯乌兰木伦遗址2010年1期试掘及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚梅; 刘扬; 白林云; 包蕾; 李双; 杨俊刚; 张立民; 张智杰; 王志浩; 杨泽蒙; 甄自明; 张家富; 董为; 袁宝印; 李保生; 黄慰文

    2012-01-01

    The Wulanmulun Site was discovered at left bank of Wulamulun River in Ordos, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in North China with location of 39°35. 152'N, 109°45. 659'E and 1281m above sea level. The first period trial excavation was carried out in early summer of 2010. The main part of deposition were divided into 8 layers with depth of about 5 ~ 8m. Among them seven archaeological layers are recognized according to their existence of geological deposition, mammalian fauna and stone artifacts remains.More than 1500 stone artifacts were yielded and appeared general types of core,flake and major flake tools. Single platform core are very popular. Used flakes were obviously needed with longer and rather straight edge accompanied by natural or backed back. Prepared platform can be observed on few numbers of flakes. Lot of debris by flaking on core or retouching work were fund from excavation. Retouched pieces are mostly made on flakes. There are different types of scrapers like all kinds of concave, convex, straight and concave-convex. Denticulate and notch were very much seen and even made into subtypes. Borer, drill, and various types of points were frequently appeared out. End-scraper, bec and burin were sometimes observed. Multiple functional phenomenon are common on one piece of tool. In summary, the lithic assemblage belongs to flake tool and share some similarity with characters of Middle Paleolithic of European Mousterian tradition.Totally 1213 pieces of mammalian bones were obtained from seven archaeological layers. Based on the numbers of unearthed fossil specimens of Wulanmulun fauna, the wooly rhinos are the most numerous species, followed by Przewalsky's horse, and then Ordos' giant antlered deer. The other taxa are not numerous. Judging by the condition of deciduous and permanent teeth, the juvenile wooly rhinos are more numerous than adult ones. The other taxa are mostly dominated by adult specimens or difficult to judge due to fragmentary and

  18. Renal Parenchyma Lithotomy by Hypothermic Renal Vascular Block%低温下原位肾动脉阻断治疗复杂性肾结石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乙从亮; 杨登伦; 任春凯; 朱巍; 余秋健; 陈令秋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨开放性手术低温条件下采用肾动脉阻断治疗复杂肾结石患者的方法以及临床疗效。方法:对32例复杂性肾结石患者采用静脉注射肌苷2.0 g,原位低温下阻断肾动脉后行肾实质切开取石术。术前经CT、KUB、IVP等检查诊断鹿角形结石或(和)多发结石。平均年龄48(19~65)岁。左肾24例,右肾8例。病史6个月~20年。结石最大直径2.5~7.0 cm,平均为3.5 cm。,术后随访。结果:本组均采用原位低温肾动脉阻断肾实质切开取石术。血流阻断时间15~40分钟,平均25分钟,术中出血量80~300 ml,平均180ml,肾实质切口大小3~5 cm,平均3.5cm,手术操作时间90~150分钟,平均110分钟。术中无大出血及血管损伤。术后并发大出血1例,再次手术缝合止血顺利出院,3例术后肉眼血尿2~3个月,经保守治疗后治愈,无并发症。结论:小切口原位低温下阻断肾动脉配合静脉注射肌苷行肾实质切开取石手术具有方法容易掌握、出血少、创伤小、肾功能损害小、手术安全等特点,是治疗复杂性肾结石安全、有效的方法之一,易于在无条件行微创手术的医院开展。%Objective:Explore the open surgery by renal artery block under the condition of low temperature treatment of complex method and clinical efficacy in patients with kidney stones .Methods:32 cases of patients with renal stones complexity by intravenous in-jection of inosine 2.0 g, block the renal artery in situ low temperature renal parenchyma incision after nephrolithotomy .Preoperative CT, the KUB, IVP, such as inspection diagnosis antlers or (and) multiple stones.The average age is 48 (19-65).The left kidney was 24 cases, 8 cases of right kidney .History was 6 months to 20 years.The stone diameter is from 2.5 to 7.0 cm, with an average of 3.5 cm. Results:All use of in situ cryogenic renal artery block the renal parenchyma

  19. 中国北方"第四纪(或亚代)"环境变化与大哺乳动物演化%QUATERNARY ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND EVOLUTION OF LARGE MAMMALS IN NORTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱占祥

    2006-01-01

    "Quaternary" large mammals. As immigrants from North America, Equus and Megantereon entered Eurasia at the beginning of the period. Large numbers of typical "Quaternary" genera appeared, like Eirictis, Meles, Crocuta, Coelodonta, Eucladoceros, Elaphurus,Leptobos, etc. Climate of this period, especially its later half, was comparatively stable, rather mild in general, as shown in Ding et al. 's Chiloparts. 3 ) 1.3 ~0. 13 Ma is characterized by particular development of Sinomegaceros. Typical Middle Pleistocene species as typified by ZKD fauna appeared, like Canis variabilis , Pachycrocuta sinensis , Megantereon inexpectatus , Dicerorhinus kirchbergensis , etc. A peculiar aspect is the invasion of Oriental elements into the south part of the North China, like Ailuropoda, Stegodon orientalis, Megatapirus, Elaphodus, Capricornis, etc. , at the very beginning of this period. Climate of this period was highly variable, with at least 3 cold and one prolonged warm episodes (L15, L9, L2 and S5 in Chiloparts). Therefore, this period might be further subdivided when in-depth study is carried out in the future. 4) 0. 13 ~0. 011 Ma is characterized by a mixture of survived coldadapted forms with living species. Climate of this period was probably mild. Such a climatic condition might have caused the adaptive radiation of the survived cold-adapted forms, as exemplified by the bizarre-antlered giant deer. 5 ) 0. 011 Ma ~ Recent is equivalent to Holocene. Its mammalian fauna became modernized, with the final extinction of holdovers of the glacial period exemplified by mammoth and woolly rhinoceros.We suggest that the above 4 phases be designated from earliest to latest as NCMQ1 ~4. The NCMQ1 -2 boundary does not coincide with that of Plio-Pleistocene ( 1.8 Ma), neither with that of Early-Middle Pleistocene (0. 78 Ma). However, such a subdivision is rather close to the subdividions based on mammals currently adopted in North America and Europe. The Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary ( in