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Sample records for antlers

  1. Deer antler regeneration: cells, concepts, and controversies.

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    Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Szuwart, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The periodic replacement of antlers is an exceptional regenerative process in mammals, which in general are unable to regenerate complete body appendages. Antler regeneration has traditionally been viewed as an epimorphic process closely resembling limb regeneration in urodele amphibians, and the terminology of the latter process has also been applied to antler regeneration. More recent studies, however, showed that, unlike urodele limb regeneration, antler regeneration does not involve cell dedifferentiation and the formation of a blastema from these dedifferentiated cells. Rather, these studies suggest that antler regeneration is a stem-cell-based process that depends on the periodic activation of, presumably neural-crest-derived, periosteal stem cells of the distal pedicle. The evidence for this hypothesis is reviewed and as a result, a new concept of antler regeneration as a process of stem-cell-based epimorphic regeneration is proposed that does not involve cell dedifferentiation or transdifferentiation. Antler regeneration illustrates that extensive appendage regeneration in a postnatal mammal can be achieved by a developmental process that differs in several fundamental aspects from limb regeneration in urodeles.

  2. A review of factors affecting antler composition and mechanics.

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    Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Estevez, Jose A; Ceacero, Francisco; Garcia, Andres J; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-06-01

    Antlers constitute the only mammal model for limb regeneration. A number of factors affect antler regeneration. In this review, we examine such factors and the potential consequences for organ regeneration. As body mineral stores are depleted to grow antlers, physiological exhaustion is shown in the mineral composition, mechanical performance and, according to preliminary studies, porosity of the antler bone material. Nutrition plays an important role in antler characteristics. Thus, antler composition can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess mineral deficiencies in deer. Studies on ecological effects of exceptional weather in plants suggest that minor minerals, particularly Mn, may play disproportionately roles in mechanical performance of bone material. This suggests that Mn (and perhaps other minerals) is essential to incorporate Ca and P from resorbed skeleton material in antlers. Apart from implications for game management, some effects may have applications for medicine.

  3. Morphological observation of antler regeneration in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

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    Li, Chunyi; Suttie, James M; Clark, Dawn E

    2004-12-01

    Deer antler offers a unique opportunity to explore how nature solves the problem of mammalian appendage regeneration. Annual antler renewal is an example of epimorphic regeneration, which is known to take place through initial blastema formation. Detailed examination of the early process of antler regeneration, however, has thus far been lacking. Therefore, we conducted morphological observations on antler regeneration from naturally cast and artificially created pedicle/antler stumps. On the naturally cast pedicle stumps, early antler regeneration underwent four distinguishable stages (with the Chinese equivalent names): casting of previous hard antlers (oil lamp bowl), early wound healing (tiger eye), late wound healing and early regeneration (millstone), and formation of main beam and brown tine (small saddle). Overall, no cone-shaped regenerate, a common feature to blastema-based regeneration, was observed. Taken together with the examination on the sagittal plane of each regenerating stage sample, we found that there are considerable overlaps between late-stage wound healing and the establishment of posterior and anterior growth centers. Observation of antler regeneration from the artificially created stumps showed that the regeneration potential of antler remnants was significantly reduced compared with that of pedicle tissue. Interestingly, the distal portion of a pedicle stump had greater regeneration potential than the proximal region, although this differential potential may not be constitutive, but rather caused by whether or not pedicle antlerogenic tissue becomes closely associated with the enveloping skin at the cut plane. Antler formation could take place from the distal peripheral tissues of an antler/pedicle stump, without the obvious participation of the entire central bony portion. Overall, our morphological results do not support the notion that antler regeneration takes place through the initial formation of a blastema; rather, it may be a stem

  4. Histological examination of antler regeneration in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

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    Li, Chunyi; Suttie, James M; Clark, Dawn E

    2005-02-01

    Annual antler renewal presents the only case of epimorphic regeneration (de novo formation of a lost appendage distal to the level of amputation) in mammals. Epimorphic regeneration is also referred to as a blastema-based process, as blastema formation at an initial stage is the prerequisite for this type of regeneration. Therefore, antler regeneration has been claimed to take place through initial blastema formation. However, this claim has never been confirmed experimentally. The present study set out to describe systematically the progression of antler regeneration in order to make a direct histological comparison with blastema formation. The results showed that wound healing over a pedicle stump was achieved by ingrowth of full-thickness pedicle skin and resulted in formation of a scar. The growth centers for the antler main beam and brow tine were formed independently at the posterior and anterior corners of the pedicle stump, respectively. The hyperplastic perichondrium surmounting each growth center was directly formed in situ by a single type of tissue: the thickening distal pedicle periosteum, which is the derivative of initial antlerogenic periosteum. Therefore, the cells residing in the pedicle periosteum can be called antler stem cells. Antler stem cells formed each growth center by initially forming bone through intramembranous ossification, then osseocartilage through transitional ossification, and finally cartilage through endochondral ossification. There was an overlap between the establishment of antler growth centers and the completion of wound healing over the pedicle stump. Overall, our results demonstrate that antler regeneration is achieved through general wound healing- and stem cell-based process, rather than through initial blastema formation. Pedicle periosteal cells directly give rise to antlers. Histogenesis of antler regeneration may recapitulate the process of initial antler generation.

  5. Antler development in reindeer in relation to age and sex

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    Amund Høymork

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Yearling male and adult female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are similar in size and shape. If sexual clues are hidden, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. Antlers can be a useful aid in classifying yearling males and adult females, depending on whether specific antler characteristics are identifiable for these two groups. We recorded antler characteristics in a domestic reindeer herd (Vågå and found considerable overlap in antler height, width and circumference between the different age and sex groups. Total tines and number of tine split-offs are use¬ful for the field biologist when discriminating among adult females, yearling males and 2.5 year-old males. For example, when using the tine split-offs with the suggested classification, 79% of the observed adult females and 76% of the yearling males were classified correctly. The antler height, width and circumference provide other biological dif¬ferences between groups, but are not easy to use to identify free ranging reindeer. This is due to the great overlap in antler size between the groups and measuring difficulties in a field study situation. Male and female calves have very similar antlers, and only the antler width is possible for sex discrimination, giving 67% accuracy of discriminating between these two groups.

  6. Deer antler regeneration: a stem cell-based epimorphic process.

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    Li, Chunyi

    2012-03-01

    Full regeneration of deer antlers, a bona fide epimorphic process in mammals, is in defiance of the general rule of nature. Revealing the mechanism underlying this unique exception would place us in a better position to promote organ regeneration in humans. Antler regeneration takes place in yearly cycles from its pedicle, a permanent protuberance on the frontal bone. Both growing antlers and pedicles consist of internal (cartilage and bone) and external components (skin, blood vessels, and nerves). Recent studies have demonstrated that the regeneration of both internal and external components relies on the presence of pedicle periosteum (PP). PP cells express key embryonic stem cell markers (Oct4, Nanog, and SOX2) and are multipotent, so are termed antler stem cells. Now it is clear that proliferation and differentiation of PP cells directly forms internal antler components; however, how PP initiates and maintains the regeneration of external antler components is thus far not known. Based on the direct as well as indirect evidence that is presented in this review, I put forward the following hypothesis to address this issue. The full regenerative ability of external antler tissue components is achieved through PP-derived chemical induction and PP-derived mechanical stimulation: the former triggers the regeneration of these external components, whereas the latter drives their rapid elongation. Eventual identification of the putative PP-derived chemical factors would open up a new avenue for devising effective therapies for lesions involving each of these tissue components, be they traumatic, degenerative, or linked to developmental (genetic) anomalies.

  7. INTEGRATION IN ANTLER REINDEER BREEDING OF THE ALTAI REPUBLIC

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    Glotko A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the questions of vertical integration which is necessary to bring the company of antler reindeer breeding out of crisis are considered. We have presented a scheme of participant of "supplier – consumer” integral interaction

  8. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is an important...

  9. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone...

  10. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age Antlers Sandstone is an...

  11. Identification of key tissue type for antler regeneration through pedicle periosteum deletion.

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    Li, Chunyi; Mackintosh, Colin G; Martin, Shirley K; Clark, Dawn E

    2007-04-01

    Epimorphic regeneration is the "holy grail" of regenerative medicine. Research aimed at investigating the various models of epimorphic regeneration is essential if a fundamental understanding of the factors underpinning this process are to be established. Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages that are subject to an annual cycle of epimorphic regeneration. In our previous studies, we have reported that histogenesis of antler regeneration relies on cells resident within the pedicle periosteum (PP). The present study elaborates this finding by means of functional studies involving the deletion of PP. Four yearling and four 2-year-old stags were selected for total PP deletion or partial PP deletion experiments. Of the animals in the total PP deletion group, one showed no signs of antler regeneration throughout the antler growth season. Two showed substantial and one showed marginal delays in antler regeneration (at 34, 20 and 7 days, respectively) compared with the corresponding sham-operated sides. Histological investigation revealed that the delayed antlers were derived from regenerated PP. Unexpectedly, the regenerative capacity of the antler from the total periosteum-deleted pedicles depended on antler length at surgery. Of the four deer that had partial PP deletion, two regenerated antlers exclusively from the left-over PP on the pedicle shafts in the absence of participation from the pedicle bone proper. The combined results from the PP deletion experiments convincingly demonstrate that the cells of the PP are responsible for antler regeneration.

  12. Getting the timing right: antler growth phenology and sexual selection in a wild red deer population.

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    Clements, Michelle N; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Albon, Steve D; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2010-10-01

    There has been growing interest in the determinants of the annual timing of biological phenomena, or phenology, in wild populations, but research on vertebrate taxa has primarily focused on the phenology of reproduction. We present here analyses of the phenology of the annual growth of a secondary sexual characteristic, antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) males. The long-term individual-based data from a wild population of red deer on the Isle of Rum, Scotland allow us to consider ecological factors influencing variation in the phenology of growth of antlers, and the implications of variation in antler growth phenology with respect to the phenotype of antler grown (antler mass) and annual breeding success. The phenology of antler growth was influenced by local environmental conditions: higher population density delayed both the start date (during spring) and the relative end date (in late summer) of antler growth, and warmer temperatures in the September and April prior to growth advanced start and end dates, respectively. Furthermore, there was variation between individuals in this phenotypic plasticity of start date, although not in that of end date of growth. The phenology of antler growth impacted on the morphology of antlers grown, with individuals who started and ended growth earliest having the heaviest antlers. The timing of antler growth phenology was associated with breeding success in the following mating season, independently of the mass of antlers grown: an earlier start of antler growth was associated with siring a higher number of the calves born the following spring. Our results suggest that the phenology of traits that are not directly correlated with offspring survival may also regularly show correlations with fitness.

  13. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

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    Gomez, S.; Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L.; Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana; Preoteasa, E. A.; Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M.

    2016-03-01

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. "mineral age" of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  14. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S. [Departamento Anatomía Patológica, University of Cadiz (Spain); Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L. [IREC, Sección Albacete (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), University of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete (Spain); Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Preoteasa, E.A., E-mail: eugenpreoteasa@gmail.com [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. “mineral age” of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  15. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

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    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  16. Gene expression of axon growth promoting factors in the deer antler.

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    Wolfgang Pita-Thomas

    Full Text Available The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus. Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin.

  17. Variations of selected trace element contents in two layers of red deer antlers

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    Giżejewska Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hard antlers of deer are unique bioindicators of environmental metal pollutions, but sampling methods presented in the literature are inconsistent. Due to the specific growth pattern of antlers and their histological structure, sampling methods described in the literature were reviewed, the suitability of using mixed samples of both antler layers as element bioindicators was assessed, and the codified method of antler sampling used for bioindication was described. Material and Methods: Lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron in trabecular and cortical parts of hard antlers of red deer (Cervus elaphus were determined using different methods of atomic absorption spectrometry (depending on the element. Results: Mean mercury content in trabecular bone (0.010 ±0.018 mg/kg was 5 times higher than in cortical bone (0.002 ±0.003 mg/kg. Mean iron concentration was approximately 15 times higher in trabecular (239.83 ±130.15 mg/kg than in cortical bone (16.17 ±16.44 mg/kg. Concentrations of other analysed elements did not differ statistically between antler layers. Conclusion: In mixed antler samples, concentrations of mercury and iron depend on the particular antler layer contents. This therefore warrants caution when comparing results across studies and specification of the sampling methodology of antlers is highly recommended.

  18. Preferences of Rusa timorensis to Grasses and Their Body Morphometry and Velvet Antler Characteristics

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    M. Sudibyo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a wild native animal to Indonesia. The stags produce a high economic value of velvet antler (VA. This study was designed to evaluate the feed preference, nutrient consumption, age and morphometric of deer in relation to their velvet antler product (weigth and length and quality (mineral and amino acids. Five stags with three ages classes were offered 3 combinations of 4 grasses in a captive area. Grasses were offered for 3 periods of 12 consecutive days during velvet antler growth period. Velvet antlers were harvested at 36 days old and analysed for their chemical content. The result showed that Timor deer had different preference to the grasses offered. Deer had a high preference on the combination of Pennisetum purpureum, Commelina benghalensis, Hierochloe horsfieldii, and Sorghum caudatum. High intake of grasses increased body weight. The regresion equation between the weight or length of velvet antler withage (year and girth size (cm were: Y (velvet antler weight= 0.43 + 0.03 (age, r2= 0.99, P<0.05, and Y (length of velvet antler = 5.7 + 0.31 (girth size, r2= 0.99, P<0.05. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and proline content of velvel antler were high in the older deer. The older deer having high girth size had the higher quality of velvet antler.

  19. Stem cells responsible for deer antler regeneration are unable to recapitulate the process of first antler development-revealed through intradermal and subcutaneous tissue transplantation.

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    Li, Chunyi; Yang, Fuhe; Haines, Stephen; Zhao, Haiping; Wang, Wenying; Xing, Xiumei; Sun, Hongmei; Chu, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaoping; Liu, Linling; McMahon, Chris

    2010-11-15

    Antlers offer a unique model for the study of whether regeneration recapitulates development in a mammalian organ. Research, to date, supports the full recapitulation in antler, but a recent report that subcutaneously transplanted (ST) pedicle periosteum (PP) failed to induce that ectopic antler formation could argue against recapitulation, as antlerogenic periosteum (AP) can readily do so. However, it was not clear in that study whether the result was caused by inability of the PP to interact with the skin or owing to failure to create the required close contact to it. This study was designed to clarify this uncertainty by adopting intradermal transplantation (IT) to achieve the required close contact without the need for significant mass expansion. The results showed that IT of 1/8 of the original AP mass or more was sufficient for antler induction, whereas ST of 1/4-AP or less could not do so within 2 years. The minimum amount of AP required for antler induction using the IT approach was somewhere between 1/8 and 1/12-AP (development. It is likely that PP has been restricted for antler regeneration and lost the potential to initiate antler development.

  20. Antler regrowth as a form of epimorphic regeneration in vertebrates - a comparative view.

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    Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst

    2012-01-01

    The annual regrowth of deer antlers is a unique case of extensive appendage regeneration in mammals. This review compares basic aspects of antler regeneration with epimorphic regeneration in other vertebrate taxa. The mesenchymal cells that build up the regenerating antler are not derived from dedifferentiated cells in the pedicle stump, but from the proliferation of cells of the pedicle periosteum; and based on different lines of evidence it has more recently been suggested that the pedicle periosteum contains stem cells that are periodically activated to produce a new antler. This constitutes a difference to urodele limb regeneration, where the blastema is (largely) formed from dedifferentiated cells. Antler regeneration involves healing of the large casting wound with no or only minor scarring, making the antler an interesting model for the control of scarring in mammals. Contrary to urodele limb regeneration, antler regrowth does not depend on a functional nerve supply. In our view, a comparative analysis of different regeneration phenomena, including antler regeneration, probably offers the best chance for achieving significant progress in regenerative medicine.

  1. A PCR-based assay for discriminating Cervus and Rangifer (Cervidae) antlers with mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

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    Kim, Young Hwa; Kim, Eung Soo; Ko, Byong Seob; Oh, Seung-Eun; Ryuk, Jin-Ah; Chae, Seong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Go Ya; Seo, Doo Won; Lee, Mi Young

    2012-07-01

    This study describes a method for discriminating Rangifer antlers from true Cervus antlers using agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, and allelic discrimination. Specific primers labeled with fluorescent tags were designed to amplify fragments from the mitochondrial D-loop genes for various Cervus subspecies and Rangifer tarandus differentially. A 466-bp fragment that was observed for both Cervus and Rangifer antlers served as a positive control, while a 270-bp fragment was specifically amplified only from Rangifer antlers. Allelic discrimination was used to differentiate between Cervus and Rangifer antlers, based on the amplification of specific alleles for both types of antlers. These PCR-based assays can be used for forensic and quantitative analyses of Cervus and Rangifer antlers in a single step, without having to obtain any sequence information. In addition, multiple PCR-based assays are more accurate and reproducible than a single assay for species-specific analysis and are especially useful in this study for the identification of original Cervus deer products from fraudulent Rangifer antlers.

  2. Antler stiffness in moose (Alces alces): correlated evolution of bone function and material properties?

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    Blob, Richard W; Snelgrove, Jason M

    2006-09-01

    The material properties of bone can vary considerably among skeletal elements from different parts of the body that serve different functions. However, functional demands placed on a specific type of skeletal element also can vary at a variety of scales, such as between different parts of the element, among individuals of a species, and across species. Variation in bone material properties might be correlated with differing functional demands at any of these scales. In this study we performed three-point bending tests on bone specimens extracted from antlers of moose (Alces alces) to test for three types of variation in bone material stiffness (Young's modulus): within the antler structure, between populations of moose, and between moose and other deer species. Because superficial portions of the antler are exposed to greater bending stress and strain than deeper portions, and because the antler beam (the basal shaft that attaches to the skull) is subjected to greater bending moments than more distal parts of the antler, we predicted that superficial bone and bone from the beam would be stiffer than bone from other parts of the antler. Instead, we identified no significant differences in these comparisons. There were also no significant differences in antler stiffness between moose from Michigan and the Yukon, even though the rapid growth required of antlers from northern latitudes like the Yukon has the potential to compromise bone material properties. However, moose have significantly stiffer antlers (11.6 +/- 0.45 GPa, mean +/- SE) than any other deer in the odocoileine lineage. Moreover, phylogenetic reconstructions of the evolution of antler stiffness in deer indicate a strong potential that high antler stiffness is a derived feature of moose. The unusual palmate shape of moose antlers likely subjects their antler beams to higher bending moments than found in other odocoileines, a factor that may have contributed to the evolutionary divergence of moose antler

  3. Deer antler--a novel model for studying organ regeneration in mammals.

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    Li, Chunyi; Zhao, Haiping; Liu, Zhen; McMahon, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Deer antler is the only mammalian organ that can fully grow back once lost from its pedicle - the base from which it grows. Therefore, antlers probably offer the most pertinent model for studying organ regeneration in mammals. This paper reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying regeneration of antlers, and provides insights into the possible use for human regenerative medicine. Based on the definition, antler renewal belongs to a special type of regeneration termed epimorphic. However, histological examination failed to detect dedifferentiation of any cell type on the pedicle stump and the formation of a blastema, which are hallmark features of classic epimorphic regeneration. Instead, antler regeneration is achieved through the recruitment, proliferation and differentiation of the single cell type in the pedicle periosteum (PP). The PP cells are the direct derivatives of cells resident in the antlerogenic periosteum (AP), a tissue that exists in prepubertal deer calves and can induce ectopic antler formation when transplanted elsewhere on the deer body. Both the AP and PP cells express key embryonic stem cell markers and can be induced to differentiate into multiple cell lineages in vitro and, therefore, they are termed antler stem cells, and antler regeneration is a stem cell-based epimorphic regeneration. Comparisons between the healing process on the stumps from an amputated mouse limb and early regeneration of antlers suggest that the stump of a mouse limb cannot regenerate because of the limited potential of periosteal cells in long bones to proliferate. If we can impart a greater potential of these periosteal cells to proliferate, we might at least be able to partially regenerate limbs lost from humans. Taken together, a greater understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of antlers may provide a valuable insight to aid the field of regenerative medicine. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative

  4. Nerve Growth Factor mRNA Expression in the Regenerating Antler Tip of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)

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    Li, Chunyi; Stanton, Jo-Ann L.; Robertson, Tracy M.; Suttie, James M.; Sheard, Philip W.; John Harris, A.; Clark, Dawn E.

    2007-01-01

    Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs that can fully regenerate each year. During their growth phase, antlers of red deer extend at a rate of approximately 10 mm/day, a growth rate matched by the antler nerves. It was demonstrated in a previous study that extracts from deer velvet antler can promote neurite outgrowth from neural explants, suggesting a possible role for Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in antler innervation. Here we showed using the techniques of Northern blot analysis, denervation, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization that NGF mRNA was expressed in the regenerating antler, principally in the smooth muscle of the arteries and arterioles of the growing antler tip. Regenerating axons followed the route of the major blood vessels, located at the interface between the dermis and the reserve mesenchyme of the antler. Denervation experiments suggested a causal relationship exists between NGF mRNA expression in arterial smooth muscle and sensory axons in the antler tip. We hypothesize that NGF expressed in the smooth muscle of the arteries and arterioles promotes and maintains antler angiogenesis and this role positions NGF ahead of axons during antler growth. As a result, NGF can serve a second role, attracting sensory axons into the antler, and thus it can provide a guidance cue to define the nerve track. This would explain the phenomenon whereby re-innervation of the regenerating antler follows vascular ingrowth. The annual growth of deer antler presents a unique opportunity to better understand the factors involved in rapid nerve regeneration. PMID:17215957

  5. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

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    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations.

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Antlers aquifer in southeastern Oklahoma. The Early Cretaceous-age...

  7. Antler growth in male roe deer in field hunting grounds in Vojvodina: Effect of age on trophy value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gačić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antler growth in male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L was studied on the representative sample consisting of 546 trophies (227 from Bačka and 319 from Banat hunted in the period 19982005. No significant differences in antler characters and trophy values were noted between Bačka and Banat (except weight of antlers for 5 year old males, and the data for both regions were pooled. Antler growth is a curvilinear function of age. Mean values of length, weight and volume of antlers, and total trophy score varied significantly between the males in different age groups. The study results prove that in Vojvodina field hunting grounds, healthy males attain the culmination in antler growth and trophy value at the age of six years but already after the age of seven years, they show the first sign of old age and decline.

  8. Anti-resorptive effect of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Hong; Cao, Yi; Wang, Rui-Lin; Fei, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Pu; Liu, Jing

    2010-06-01

    Anti-bone resorption activity of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) were evaluated in ovariectomized Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized group (OVX) and pilose antler blood treated group. The ovariectomized rats were treated with pilose antler blood orally in 4000 microl/kg daily doses for 10 weeks. Compared with SHAM group, serum 17 beta-estradiol level decreased significantly and osteocalcin level increased significantly in OVX group, indicating successful model of osteoporosis. The experiments showed that the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and left femur in OVX group decreased remarkably compared to SHAM group but normalized by treatment with pilose antler blood. Additionally, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-land testosterone were lower obviously in OVX group than those in SHAM group but preserved by pilose antler blood treatment. However, no obvious changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase and osteoprotegerin were observed among three groups. These results suggested that administration of pilose antler blood was effective in alleviating osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

  9. Improbable appendages: Deer antler renewal as a unique case of mammalian regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Li, Chunyi; Price, Joanna S

    2009-07-01

    Deer antlers are periodically replaced cranial appendages that develop from permanent outgrowths of the frontal bones known as pedicles. Antler re-growth is a unique regenerative event in mammals which in general are unable to replace bony appendages. Recent evidence suggests that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process that depends on the activation of stem cells located in the pedicle periosteum which are presumed to be neural crest-derived. It has been demonstrated that several developmental pathways are involved in antler regeneration that are also known to play a role in the control of skeletal development and regeneration in other vertebrates. However, in contrast to most other natural examples of regeneration of complete body structures, antler regeneration apparently neither depends on a functional nerve supply nor involves a direct contact between wound epithelium and mesenchymal tissue. Antlers thus demonstrate that regeneration of a large bony appendage in a mammal can be achieved by a process that differs in certain aspects from epimorphic regeneration in lower vertebrates.

  10. Adult stem cells and mammalian epimorphic regeneration-insights from studying annual renewal of deer antlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi; Yang, Fuhe; Sheppard, Allan

    2009-09-01

    Mammalian organ regeneration is the "Holy Grail" of modern regenerative biology and medicine. The most dramatic organ replacement is known as epimorphic regeneration. To date our knowledge of epimorphic regeneration has come from studies of amphibians. Notably, these animals have the ability to reprogram phenotypically committed cells at the amputation plane toward an embryonic-like cell phenotype (dedifferentiation). The capability of mammals to initiate analogous regeneration, and whether similar mechanisms would be involved if it were to occur, remain unclear. Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of full renewal, and therefore offer a unique opportunity to explore how nature has solved the problem of mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Following casting of old hard antlers, new antlers regenerate from permanent bony protuberances, known as pedicles. Studies through morphological and histological examinations, tissue deletion and transplantation, and cellular and molecular techniques have demonstrated that antler renewal is markedly different from that of amphibian limb regeneration (dedifferentiation-based), being a stem cell-based epimorphic process. Antler stem cells reside in the pedicle periosteum. We envisage that epimorphic regeneration of mammalian appendages, other than antler, could be made possible by recreating comparable milieu to that which supports the elaboration of that structure from the pedicle periosteum.

  11. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  12. Spin effects in the antler event topology at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Edelhäuser, Lisa; Park, Myeonghun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spin correlation effects in the "antler" event topology pp-> A-> B1, B2 -> l^{-}, C1, l^{+}, C2 at the LHC. We study the shapes of several kinematic variables, including the relative pseudorapidity, relative azimuthal angle and the energies of the two leptons, as well as several mass variables M_{ll}, Meff, \\sqrt{s}_{min}, MT2, MCT and MCTx. We focus on the two kinematic extremes of \\sqrt{s} - threshold and infinity - and derive analytical expressions for the differential distributions of several variables, most notably the cos{\\theta_{ll}}^* variable proposed by Barr in hep-ph/0511115. For all possible spin assignments of particles A, B and C, we derive the cos{\\theta_{ll}}^* differential distribution at threshold, including the effects of spin correlations. Our analytical results help identify the problematic cases for spin discrimination.

  13. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment.

  14. Chondroitin sulphate extracted from antler cartilage using high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Tai Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate (CS, a major glycosaminoglycan, is an essential component of the extracellular matrix in cartilaginous tissues. Wapiti velvet antlers are a rich source of these molecules. The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective isolation procedure of CS from fresh velvet antlers using a combination of high hydrostatic pressure (100 MPa and enzymatic hydrolysis (papain. High CS extractability (95.1 ± 2.5% of total uronic acid was obtained following incubation (4 h at 50 °C with papain at pH 6.0 in 100 MPa compared to low extractability (19 ± 1.1% in ambient pressure (0.1 MPa. Antler CS fractions were isolated by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography and identified by western blot using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody. The antler CS fraction did not aggregate with hyaluronic acid in CL-2B chromatography and possessed DPPH radical scavenging activity at 78.3 ± 1.5%. The results indicated that high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis procedure may be a useful tool for the isolation of CS from antler cartilaginous tissues.

  15. The regenerating antler blastema: the derivative of stem cells resident in a pedicle stump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi; Chu, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Antlers of the deer are the only mammalian organs that can fully grow back once lost from their pedicles, hence offer the only opportunity to learn how nature has bestowed mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Investigations have demonstrated that it is the proliferation and differentiation of pedicle periosteal cells (PPCs), but not dedifferentiation of the local differentiated cells, that give rise to the antler blastema. PPCs express key embryonic stem cell markers and can be induced to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, so are termed antler stem cells. Further research has found that PPCs can initiate antler regeneration only when they have interacted with cells of the pedicle skin. Histologically, the process of early antler regeneration resembles that of healing of a mouse leg stump wound. However what sets these two apart is the difference in proliferation potential between the PPCs and the periosteal cells of the long bone. We believe that if we can impart a greater proliferation potential to the long bone periosteal cells, we might be able to achieve the dream of regenerating limbs in mammals.

  16. Iodine distribution in the environment as a limiting factor for roe deer antler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczki, Róbert; Erdélyi, Károly; Sonkoly, Krisztina; Szemethy, László; Csányi, Sándor

    2011-02-01

    The iodine-containing hormones produced by the thyroid gland play a role in the complex neuro-hormonal regulation of antler development. The proper function of the thyroid depends on the adequate iodine supply of the organism, which is directly related to the iodine content of food and drinking water. The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between the iodine content of the water base, which has a strong correlation with the iodine concentration of environmental components available to animals, and the antler weight of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) shot in Hungarian hunting areas. Using a general linear model, controlling for the collective effects of other environmental factors (deer population density, harvest rate, land use, and soil fertility information), the iodine content of the water base explained 51.4% of the total variance of antler weights. The results suggest that antler weights increase with increasing iodine concentration regardless of other factors; thus, the environmental iodine distribution can be a limiting factor suppressing roe deer performance assessed here as antler weight. Further experimental studies of controlled iodine uptake are needed to define the exact physiological iodine requirements of roe deer bucks.

  17. HPLC-MS/MS shotgun proteomic research of deer antlers with multiparallel protein extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Tao, Dingyin; Shan, Yichu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Huo, Yushu; Zhang, Yukui

    2010-12-15

    Deer antlers mature rapidly in 60 days, and subsequently shed in 5 days with rapid ossification. During this procedure, the function of deer antlers changes significantly. Therefore, the profiling of antler proteome is helpful to discover important growing and shedding regulation proteins, which might be of great significance for studying development and regeneration. In this study, a parallel protein extraction strategy was developed to extract proteins from antlers of red deer with five different lysis solutions, followed by shotgun proteomic analysis by microflow reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (μRPLC-ESI-MS/MS) with a 30 cm-long serially coupled microcolumn. Our experimental results showed that the identified proteins extracted by five kinds of lysis solution were complementary to each other. In total, 416 unique proteins were identified, with relative molecular masses from 2000 to 600,000, and isoelectric points from 3.84 to 11.57. All these results demonstrate that the combination of parallel protein extraction strategy and μRPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis with serially coupled long microcolumns might be of great significance for comprehensive proteomic research of deer antler.

  18. Geohydrology of the Antlers aquifer (Cretaceous), southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Donald L.; Davis, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    The Antlers aquifer, which consists of as much as 900 feet of friable sandstone, silt, clay, and shale, crops out in an area of 1,860 square miles and underlies about 4,400 square miles in southeastern Oklahoma. Precipitation ranges from 35 to 50 inches per year across the outcrop area, which is well suited to allow high rates of infiltration. The aquifer contains an estimated 31,600,000 acre-feet of water having less than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. The average saturated sand thickness is 250 feet. Aquifer tests in the confined part of the aquifer give an average storage coefficient of 0.0005 and an average transmissivity of 1,480 feet squared per day. The estimated specific yield of the unconfined part of the aquifer is 0.15; the transmissivity has not been determined. Large-capacity wells tapping the aquifer commonly yield 100 to 500 gallons per minute; the maximum measured yield is 1,700 gallons per minute. Water usage from the aquifer is very small owing to the availability of an abundance of surface water. Water quality throughout the central and northern part of the aquifer is generally acceptable for municipal use. A few wells, however, yield water containing concentrations of iron and manganese exceeding the limit recommended for municipal use by the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (1972).

  19. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  20. Determination of Sex Hormones in Antler Velvet by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chun-mei; WANG Ming-tai; MU Jun; BAI Yu-ping; DU Jian-shi; ZHANG Han-qi; WANG Jian-wei

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen sex hormones in antler velvet were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.The solid phase extraction was applied to eliminating the matrix effect.The experimental conditions were examined and optimized.Under the optimal conditions,the proposed method provides the good linearities and determination limits(0.2-1.0 μg/kg)of the analytes investigated.The recoveries ranging from 72.3% to 149.5% were obtained for the target analytes at two concentration levels.This method was applied to the determination of eighteen sex hormones in different kinds of antler velvet samples and the obtained results are satisfactory.The results indicate that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of sex hormones in antler velvet samples.

  1. Urban networks and Arctic outlands: Craft specialists and reindeer antler in Viking towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashby, Steven P.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the use of a minimally destructive biomolecular technique to explore the resource networks behind one of the first specialized urban crafts in early mediaeval northern Europe: the manufacture of composite combs of deer antler. The research incorporates the large...

  2. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in elk antler bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Chen, Po-Yu; McKittrick, Joanna; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-11-23

    Bone is an adaptative material that is designed for different functional requirements; indeed, bones have a variety of properties depending on their role in the body. To understand the mechanical response of bone requires the elucidation of its structure-function relationships. Here, we examine the fracture toughness of compact bone of elk antler which is an extremely fast growing primary bone designed for a totally different function than human (secondary) bone. We find that antler in the transverse (breaking) orientation is one of the toughest biological materials known. Its resistance to fracture is achieved during crack growth (extrinsically) by a combination of gross crack deflection/twisting and crack bridging via uncracked 'ligaments' in the crack wake, both mechanisms activated by microcracking primarily at lamellar boundaries. We present an assessment of the toughening mechanisms acting in antler as compared to human cortical bone, and identify an enhanced role of inelastic deformation in antler which further contributes to its (intrinsic) toughness.

  3. Biological effect of velvet antler polypeptides on neural stem cells from embryonic rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lai-jin; CHEN Lei; MENG Xiao-ting; YANG Fan; ZHANG Zhi-xin; CHEN Dong

    2005-01-01

    Background Velvet antler polypeptides (VAPs), which are derived from the antler velvets, have been reported to maintain survival and promote growth and differentiation of neural cells and, especially the development of neural tissues. This study was designed to explore the influence of VAPs on neural stem cells in vitro derived from embryonic rat brain. Methods Neural stem cells derived from E12-14 rat brain were isolated, cultured, and expanded for 7 days until neural stem cell aggregations and neurospheres were generated. The neurospheres were cultured under the condition of different concentration of VAPs followed by immunocytochemistry to detect the differentiation of neural stem cells. Results VAPs could remarkablely promote differentiation of neural stem cells and most neural stem cells were induced to differentiate towards the direction of neurons under certain concentration of VAPs.Conclusion Neural stem cells can be successfully induced into neurons by VAPs in vitro, which could provide a basis for regeneration of the nervous system.

  4. Isolation and characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 from antler base of sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yin, Yongguang; Zhou, Yajun; He, Guidan; Qi, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are secreted innate immunity pattern recognition molecules. In this study, a new peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 named cnPGRP1 was isolated from an antler base of sika deer Cervus nippon. The antler base antimicrobial proteins (AAP) were subjected to consecutive chromatographic methods connected to Sephadex G-25 gel filtration column (CM) anion-exchange column, and RP-HPLC. The molecular weight of cnPGRP1 was 17.2 kDa under SDS-PAGE, and peptide mass fingerprint analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS as peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 matched to Dasypus novemcinctus. The matched amino acids sequences were RLYEIIQKWPHYRA. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be killed by cnPGRP1 in the 50-250 μg/mL range through in vitro. Furthermore, cnPGRP1 has been found to bind Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and even fungus.

  5. Effects of Velvet Antler with Blood on Bone in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chiung Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, both velvet antlers (VA and VA blood can tonify qi, essence, and marrow, nourish the blood, and invigorate bones and tendons. In TCM, the combination of VA and VA blood is believed to have superior pharmacological effects. Scientific evidence supporting the traditional therapeutic preference for redder antler is needed. The effectiveness of the combination therapy of VA middle sections (VAMs and VA blood (VAM-B was first examined in promoting proliferation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1. The anti-osteoporotic activity of VAM-B (ratio of VAM:VA blood = 1:0.2 was evaluated with ovariectomized (OVX rats at a dose of 0.2 g/kg. In VAM-B-treated OVX rats, the body weight decreased 10.7%, and the strength of vertebrae and the femur respectively increased 18.1% and 15.4%, compared to the control. VAM-B treatment also recovered the estrogen-related loss of the right tibial trabecular bone microarchitecture. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP significantly decreased, but estradiol did not significantly change in serum of VAM-B-treated OVX rats. We also provide an effective strategy to enhance the anti-osteoporotic activity of VAM. In conclusion, our results provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional therapeutic preference of redder antler and indicate that VAM-B is a potential therapeutic agent for managing osteoporosis.

  6. Antler and Body Size in Black-Tailed Deer: An Analysis of Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Thalmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-lived species, environmental factors experienced early in life can have lasting effects persisting into adulthood. Large herbivores can be susceptible to cohort-wide declines in fitness as a result of decreases in forage availability, because of extrinsic factors, including extreme climate or high population densities. To examine effects of cohort-specific extrinsic factors on size of adults, we performed a retrospective analysis on harvest data of 450 male black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus over 19 years in central California, USA. We determined that population density of females had a more dominant effect than did precipitation on body size of males. Harvest of female deer resulted in increases in the overall size of males, even though a 6-year drought occurred during that treatment period. Body size was most influenced by female population density early in life, while antler size was highly affected by both weather early in life and the year directly before harvest. This study provides insights that improve our understanding of the role of cohort effects in body and antler size by cervids; and, in particular, that reduction in female population density can have a profound effect on the body and antler size of male deer.

  7. Genotyping of velvet antlers for identification of country of origin using mitochondrial DNA and fluorescence melting curve analysis with locked nucleic acid probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong Jin; Kim, Youngjoo; Hong, Ji Young; Kim, Gi Won; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2016-07-01

    Velvet antlers are used medicinally in Asia and possess various therapeutic effects. Prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. Additionally, antlers of the Canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. Thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA, fluorescence melting curve analysis and analysis of locked nucleic acids (LNA). This combined method is capable of identifying five genotypes of velvet antlers in a single experiment using two probes. It also has advantages in multiplexing, simplicity and efficiency in genotyping, when compared to real-time PCR or microarrays. The developed method can be used to improve identification rates in the velvet antler market and, by extension, research based on polymorphisms in DNA sequences.

  8. The ectopically antler growth of sika deer%梅花鹿鹿茸异位生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志光; 杨福合; 邢秀梅; 高颂; 赵桂炎

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the mechanism of antler development and elucidate the function of antlerogenic periosteum in the process,in we selected four one-year-old male sika deers.a full one side antlerogenic periosteum was removed to the frontal bone by surgery operation.The results showed that there was no antler grows in the place where the periosteum was removed,but the antler grows well in the frontal bone where the periosteum was received.The results in this experiment indicated that antlerogenic periosteum is the histological bases for antler formation.It will be help for increasing the antler production by ectopically antler method.%为了揭示鹿茸发生机理,阐明生茸区骨膜在鹿茸发生中的作用,选择4只1周岁雄性梅花鹿,在鹿茸发生前,通过外科手术将一侧完整的生茸区骨膜摘除并移植到额骨上。结果,摘除骨膜的生茸区没有发生鹿茸,而在被移植的额骨部位上发生了鹿茸且生长发育正常。证明了生茸区骨膜是鹿茸发生的组织基础,同时为通过异位生茸提高鹿茸产量开辟了新的途径。

  9. Can red deer antlers be used as an indicator of environmental and edible tissues' trace element contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giżejewska, Aleksandra; Szkoda, Józef; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Żmudzki, Jan; Giżejewski, Zygmunt

    2017-03-21

    Venison is an attractive product for consumers concerned with healthy lifestyle; however, it can contain high levels of toxic elements, and therefore, it is a possible source of hazardous contaminants in human diet. Antlers are suitable bioindicators of environmental metal contamination, and herein, we assessed the ability of trace element levels in antlers to indicate levels in edible soft tissues. We determined the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in the liver, kidney, muscle, and antlers of 14 free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) from northeastern Poland using atomic absorption spectrometry. We found the highest concentrations of Pb (0.321 ± 0.165 mg/kg), As (0.045 ± 0.074 mg/kg), Zn (105.31 ± 16.33 mg/kg), and Fe (220.92 ± 117.18 mg/kg) in antlers; of Cd (4.974 ± 1.90 mg/kg) and Hg (0.048 ± 0.102 mg/kg) in kidney; and of Cu (7.29 ± 7.02 mg/kg) in the liver. A positive relationship between concentrations in antlers and muscle was found only for Cu (p = 0.001), and it therefore appears that red deer antlers cannot be used as an index for element concentrations in soft tissues. While our results confirm that the Mazury region is little polluted, consumption of red deer offal from this area should be limited according to extant legal limits set for livestock consumption.

  10. Inhibitory effects of deer antler aqua-acupuncture, the pilose antler of Cervus Korean TEMMINCK var mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Kye; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Young-Choon; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2003-07-01

    Water extract of deer antler aqua-acupunture (DAA) prepared from the growing antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, was used to investigate the efficacy of a traditional immunosuppressive and immuno-activating Korean aqua-acupuncture, on the development of type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. The onset of arthritis was observed at the 24th day after the CII-immunization in rats, and the severity of CIA was gradually developed. As compared with rats treated with saline, DAA i.p. injected at doses of more than 50 microg/kg once a day for 14 days inhibited the ability of inguinal lymph node cells to produce T cell cytokines interleukin 2 and interferon-gamma when the cells were obtained from rats 24 days after immunization and cultured in vitro with CII. Treatment with DAA also inhibited the production of macrophage cytokines interleukin-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to in vitro stimulation of lymph node and macrophage cells with CII. In addition, in order to evaluate the influence of DAA on the incidence and development of arthritis in rat CIA, rats were immunized twice at a 3-week interval with bovine CII, with DAA being given i.p. once a day for 14 days with four different regimens. A 14-day course of DAA treatment at a daily dose of 100 microg/kg, which began on the day of the first CII immunization, suppressed the development of arthritis, as well as antibody formation and delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII. Treatment with DAA, which started on the same day as the booster immunization, also resulted in inhibition of development of arthritis and of immune responses to CII. However, treatment with DAA, which was prophylactically started prior to a primary immunization, did not inhibit the development of arthritis and immune response to CII. Furthermore, DAA extract did not affect the established diseases.

  11. Observations on Sambar Rusa unicolor (Cetartiodactyla: Cervidae stags during hard and velvet stages of antler cycle in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Savanth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out at the State Museum and Zoo, Thrissur, Kerala, India from June to October, 2009. The objective was to observe and record the physical and behavioural changes in Sambar Deer Rusa unicolor stags linked to their territorial display during various stages of the breeding cycle. In total, there were 70 Sambar in the enclosure, at the commencement of the study, of which 22 were males including 16 adult stags. Six stags were selected for the study. Observations were made by focal animal sampling technique. An ethogram was devised and behavioural patterns were indicated on it. The behavioural score derived from the ethogram was significantly higher in stags in their hard antler stage when compared to the stags in the velvet stage. The stags in the hard antler stage were more massive, had bigger antlers, darker coat colour, thicker neck, larger scrotum and maintained a larger ‘harem’ in comparison to the velvet stage stags which preferred a rather subdued life. The most dominant stags in the hard antler stage had up to 17 female members in his territory. As the stags in velvet entered the rut season, the dominant stag had up to 19 females in his territory. The study is expected to be useful to evolve strategies to identify and reduce a few males not contributing in breeding in any particular enclosure and thus curtail expenses in management of cervids in captivity.

  12. Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro.

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    Qianqian Guo

    Full Text Available Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs, via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained.

  13. Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianqian; Wang, Datao; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs), via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained. PMID:26308075

  14. Effects of p21 Gene Down-Regulation through RNAi on Antler Stem Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianqian; Wang, Datao; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chunyi

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle is an integral part of cell proliferation, and consists mainly of four phases, G1, S, G2 and M. The p21 protein, a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, plays a key role in regulating cell cyclevia G1 phase control. Cells capable of epimorphic regeneration have G2/M accumulation as their distinctive feature, whilst the majority of somatic cells rest at G1 phase. To investigate the role played byp21 in antler regeneration, we studied the cell cycle distribution of antler stem cells (ASCs), via down-regulation of p21 in vitro using RNAi. The results showed that ASCs had high levels of p21 mRNA expression and rested at G1 phase, which was comparable to the control somatic cells. Down-regulation of p21 did not result in ASC cell cycle re-distribution toward G2/M accumulation, but DNA damage and apoptosis of the ASCs significantly increased and the process of cell aging was slowed. These findings suggest that the ASCs may have evolved to use an alternative, p21-independent cell cycle regulation mechanism. Also a unique p21-dependent inhibitory effect may control DNA damage as a protective mechanism to ensure the fast proliferating ASCs do not become dysplastic/cancerous. Understanding of the mechanism underlying the role played by p21 in the ASCs could give insight into a mammalian system where epimorphic regeneration is initiated whilst the genome stability is effectively maintained.

  15. Anti-bone resorption activity of deer antler aqua-acupunture, the pilose antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe (Nokyong) in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Kap-Sung; Choi, Byeong-Joon; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Seung-Duk; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Kim, Hyung-Min; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-01-15

    Effect of deer antler aqua-acupunture (DAA), prepared from the pilose antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, a traditional immunosuppressive acupuncture, was evaluated to assess the reductions in bone mass, strength, and turnover in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. For measuring the above parameters, a 20-day dosing experiment was performed using 6-week-old female Lewis rats. Arthritis was induced by injecting the adjuvant into the hind paw of the Lewis rats. The age-dependent increases in the body weight, lumbar bone mineral content and density (BMC and BMD) and compressive strength were disturbed in the arthritic rats. At 10 days, the histomorphometric parameters of bone formation (BFR/BS and BFR/BV) and the serum osteocalcin levels were significantly reduced compared with the baseline controls of Lewis rats. However, the BMC values corrected for body weight did not differ significantly between the arthritic and normal rats, and the bone minerals were not reduced when they were compared with the baseline controls. At 20 days, the parameters of bone minerals and strength of the lumbar body in the arthritic rats, both with and without correction for body weight, were significantly reduced compared with the baseline controls. The trabecular mineralizing surface remained significantly reduced and the osteoclast numbers were increased. DAA at the doses of 10, 20, 50 and 100 microg/kg, administered by Shinsu (B23) acupuncture daily from the start of the experiment, significantly prevented the development of the chronic paw edema at 20 days. The reductions in the parameters such as bone minerals, strength, and trabecular bone formation, and the increase in osteoclast number were alleviated by this DAA. Age-dependent increases in the lumbar height, disturbed by the adjuvant injection, were also maintained. These results indicated that a 20-day-period is necessary to obtain sufficient reductions in the bone mass and strength of the lumbar body

  16. Bone regeneration strategy inspired by the study of calcification behavior in deer antler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haishan; Yu, Tao; Li, Zhaoyang; Lu, William; Zhang, Ming; Ye, Jiandong

    2015-12-01

    Bone regeneration has attracted much attention from various researchers and inspired numerous strategies for bone formation. In this study, rapid calcification of deer antlers was studied to unravel bone biology by investigating mineral composition, morphology and microstructure. Calcification model was hypothesized and preliminarily established by in vitro experiments. In our model, mineral deposition and phase conversions in the gel matrix were mimicked. Results revealed that mineral metabolism including deposition and phase conversion plays key roles in calcification in vivo, which inspired the bone regeneration strategy with three main components, i.e. enhanced mineral nucleation, mineral ions sources and crystals habits. Rapid mineral metabolism of implant apatite biomaterials was supposed as the critical aspect of bone regeneration. This study will provide a relatively ideal model for peer bone regeneration studies.

  17. [Simultaneous determination of eleven sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunmei; Wang, Mingtai; Mu, Jun; Lu, Lijun; Zhou, Xiao

    2011-06-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed. The sex hormones in antler velvet were enriched and purified by solid phase extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA). A DB-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 microm) with nonlinear gradient program was used in GC separation. The sex hormones were determined in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method realized the complete separation of 11 sex hormones. The limits of detection of this method were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg for the 11 sex hormones. The correlation coefficients were between 0.991 6 and 0.999 9. The recoveries were in the range of 67.4% - 99.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.6% - 13%. This method is accurate and reliable for the determination of the sex hormones in antler velvet health products.

  18. Full length cDNA cloning and expression analysis of annexinA2 gene from deer antler tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hao; Xianghong Xiao; Heping Li

    2014-01-01

    ANXA2(AnnexinA2), a calcium-dependent phospholipid bind-ing protein, is involved in various Ca2+-related biological activities. In the present study, full-length cDNA of ANXA2 was isolated from the velvet antler tip tissue of sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum);the amino acid sequence and gene expression was analyzed by using bioinformatics and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveals that the full-length cDNA of the ANXA2 gene was 1372 bp, of which 1020 bp was in the open-reading frame (ORF) encoding 339 amino acids; its relative mo-lecular weight was 38.3 kDa; and isoelectric point was 6.72. Sequence analysis indicates that the protein includes four conserved tan-dem-duplication ANX domains. The gene-accession nucleotide sequence number in GenBank is JX315571. Expression analysis by RT-PCR re-veals that ANXA2 gene expression has a significant positive correlation with the antler-tissue mineralization process, indicating that this gene may play an important role in the regulation of antler-tissue mineraliza-tion.

  19. Pilose antler polypeptides promote chondrocyte proliferation via the tyrosine kinase signaling pathway

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    Lin Jian-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pilose antler polypeptides (PAP have been reported to promote chondrocyte proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study was to investigate the effects of PAP on the proliferation of chondrocytes and its underlying mechanism. Methods Chondrocytes isolated from the knee of Zealand white rabbits were cultured. The second generation chondrocytes were collected and identified using safranin-O staining. The chondrocytes were divided into the following 4 groups including serum-free, PAP, genistein (an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, and PAP plus genistein group. Cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution of the chondrocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of cyclin A was detected using immunocytochemical staining. Results No significant difference was observed between serum-free and genistein group. Treatment of the cultures with PAP produced a significant dose-dependent increase in cell viability, the percentage proportion of chondrocytes in the S phase and Cyclin A expression as well. However, the promoting effect of PAP on chondrocyte proliferation were dose-dependently inhibited by genistein, whereas genistein alone had no effect on proliferation of isolated chondrocytes. Conclusions The data demonstrate that PAP promotes chondrocyte proliferation with the increased cell number, percentage proportion of chondrocytes in S phase and expression of protein cyclin A via the TK signaling pathway.

  20. Pilose antler peptide protects osteoblasts from inflammatory and oxidative injury through EGF/EGFR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Yang; Wenjun, Cai; Hui, Wen; Liquan, Sha; Changwei, Zhao; Tianzhu, Zhang; Wenhai, Zhao

    2017-02-16

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EFG receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in the osteoblastogenesis. The potential effects of pilose antler peptide (PAP) on osteoblast cell damages was investigated in our present study through EGF/EGFR signaling. In MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, PAP treatment significantly inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines by decreasing the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). PAP treatment also alleviated the oxidative responses as indicated by increased activities of catalase (SOD) and decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). EGF inhibition, by siRNA knockdown, almost abolished PAP-induced osteoblast cytoprotection against inflammation and oxidant stress. Further, our results showed that PAP stimulated the nuclear erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)2/heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) signaling, and inhibited the activation of uclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells. On the other hand, EGF siRNA knockdown inhibited PAP-induced cytoprotection, which decreased the expression of Nrf-2, HO-1 and increased the level of p-NF-κBp65, p-IκBα in MC3T3-E1 cells. Thus, our research demonstrated that PAP protects osteoblasts from inflammatory and oxidative injury through EGF/EGFR signaling.

  1. First insights into the identification of bone and antler tools used in the indirect percussion and pressure techniques during the early postglacial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Eva; Sørensen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    With the interest for the technological options that were taken by the prehistoric groups to subsist, there is a field of research left empty in terms of archaeological records dated to the 8th and 7th millennia cal BC. It concerns the tool kit made from bone and antler used in Europe by stone...... in the southern Scandinavia at ca. 7300 cal BC. Results are promising and experiments enabling characterization of the bone and antler tools used in the debitage by pressure and indirect percussion will be soon undertaken....

  2. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTION OF POLAR LIPIDS OF MARAL ANTLERS AND PEAT IN EXPERIMENTAL LIVER DAMAGE CAUSED BY ISONIAZIDE AND PARACETAMOL

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    A. I. Yatsenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In experimental liver pathology caused by isoniazide or paracetamol administration to albino rats lipids derived from maral antlers and peat decreased the blood activity of aminotransferases, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, acid and alkaline phosphatases, phospholipase А, content of common bilirubin, activated the detoxication of biliribin, ammonium and phenols, inhibited the liver formation of dienic conjugates, Schiff’s bases, malonic dialdehyde, improve the reduced glutathione function. Maral anthlers and peat lipids in effective doses 30 and 60 mg/kg had the more pronounced hepatoprotective and antioxidant action than lipids in dose 10 mg/kg and essentiale forte N.

  3. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

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    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  4. Historical biomonitoring of fluoride pollution by determining fluoride contents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) antlers and mandibles in the vicinity of the largest Slovene thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenko, Ida; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2010-12-15

    Roe deer antlers/mandibles are a useful tool for determination of ambient fluoride pollution. Antlers have a well-defined annual cycle of growth, therefore they represent a natural standardisation of samples during winter months. On the contrary, mandibles accumulate fluorides during the whole life of an organism, thus they reflect aggregated effect of fluoride pollution trough the life-span of an organism. Both tissues are easily available; mandibles are often systematically collected with the purpose of cognitive management and control, and antlers could be gathered from private well-dated hunters' collections. Considering these benefits, fluoride contents were measured in 141 antlers (period 1960-2007) and 220 mandibles (period 1997-2009) of roe deer, shot in the vicinity of the largest Slovene Thermal Power Plant of Šoštanj (ŠTPP) as one of the major sources of fluorides in Slovenia. Fluoride contents in antlers significantly differed among age categories, and ranged from 110 to 1210 mg/kg in yearlings, 130 to 2340 mg/kg in young adults, and 250 to 2590 mg/kg in older adults, respectively. Fluoride levels in mandibles were also significantly different among age categories, and ranged from 30.0 to 227 mg/kg in fawns, 33.8 to 383 mg/kg in yearlings, and 61.5 to 1020 mg/kg in adults, respectively. Comparison of these results with previously reported fluoride contents in antlers and mandibles of roe deer from different areas of Europe revealed that the study area has never been extensively contaminated with fluorides. Moreover, trends of fluoride contents in both tissues confirmed a significant decrease of fluoride pollution in the area after the years 1995 and 2000, when flue-gas cleaning devices were constructed on the ŠTPP. Indeed, highly positive correlations between annual emissions from the ŠTPP and mean annual fluoride contents in antlers/mandibles confirmed that both tissues may be a useful tool for assessing temporal trends in ambient fluoride

  5. 鹿茸线粒体DNA的指纹鉴定研究%Identification of Velvet Antler by Mitochondrial DNA Fingerprint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷玉娟; 张丽华; 傅桂莲

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare specific primer method and random amplified polymorphic DNA ( RAPD) method for identification of Velvet Antler, thus to choose a simpler method. METHODS DNA samples were extracted from sika deer antler, wild deer antler, reideer pilose antler and commercially available Velvet Antler, and then purified and amplified with specific primer amplification and RAPD amplification. RESULTS The sika deer antler, wild deer antler, reideer pilose antler and some of the commercially available Velvet Antler all showed 313 bp segment in the agarose gel with different brightness while the other commercial products did not show this segment. RAPD not only effectively showed positive and negative DNA amplification results, but also showed the difference in PCR products of sika deer antlerwild deer antler with different strip numbers and strip brightness. CONCLUSION RAPD method is more accurate and rapid and it has wide application prospect.%目的 通过鹿茸特异性引物鉴别和随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)鉴别的比较,选择一种更简便的方法用于鉴别鹿茸.方法 采用盐析法从梅花鹿茸、马鹿茸、驯鹿茸、市售鹿茸等样品中抽提线粒体DNA,并应用试剂盒进行纯化.进行特异性引物扩增和序列测定,同时进行随机扩增多态DNA扩增.结果 梅花鹿茸,马鹿茸,驯鹿茸以及部分市售鹿茸经特异性引物扩增后均可在琼脂糖凝胶中显示313 bp片段,只是条带亮度不同.而其余市售鹿茸无扩增条带;随机扩增多态DNA不仅有效显示阳性与阴性的DNA扩增结果,而且对梅花鹿茸,马鹿茸,驯鹿茸的聚合酶链反应产物的差异,以不同的条带数目和条带亮度得以验证.结论 随机扩增多态DNA鉴别鹿茸真伪的方法更准确快捷,通过随机扩增多态DNA扩增后主条带与梅花鹿茸或马鹿茸扩增的条带大小和亮度一致,则为正品;如不一致,则为《中国药典》规定外的鹿茸或其他混淆品.这种方法

  6. Effects of aging and dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Liu, Mei-Hui; Wang, Ming-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Chin

    2007-12-31

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aging and long-term dietary antler supplementation on the calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in ovariectomized (Ovx) SAMP8 mice. The female SAMP8 mice were divided into four groups (in each group n = 6), Ovx or sham operated at the age of 2 months, and fed with 0.2% antler containing diet or control diet from the age of 2.5 months. The samples were collected at the age of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months, respectively, for physicochemical analyses, biochemical analyses, and the determination of hormones by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that plasma calcium (Ca) concentrations were maintained in a narrow range in all groups throughout the whole experimental period. With aging and/or ovariectomy, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3) levels increased, and plasma phosphorus (P) and calcitonin (CT) levels decreased, and the femoral bone densities and Ca contents increased during the earlier stage, and then decreased gradually in all groups. Plasma PTH and 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the Ovx mice were significantly higher than those in the intact mice, and plasma P concentrations, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents in the Ovx mice were significantly lower than those in the intact mice. In addition, the decreases of plasma P levels, plasma CT levels, femoral bone densities, and femoral Ca contents, and the increases of plasma PTH levels were moderated by antler administration in both Ovx and intact mice. However, there was no effect of the dietary antler supplementation on the plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D3 levels in the female mice. It is concluded that prolonged dietary antler supplementation has important positive effects on bone loss with age and/ or ovarian function deficiency.

  7. Velvet antler peptide prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis via transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 pathway inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihong; Mi, Yang; Guan, Hongya; Xu, Yan; Mei, Yingwu

    2016-07-15

    Velvet antlers (VAs) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and invigorant and contain many functional components for health promotion. The velvet antler peptide sVAP32 is one of active components in VAs; based on structural study, the sVAP32 interacts with TGF-β1 receptors and disrupts the TGF-β1 pathway. We hypothesized that sVAP32 prevents cardiac fibrosis from pressure overload by blocking TGF-β1 signaling. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation. After one month, rats received either sVAP32 (15mg/kg/day) or vehicle for an additional one month. TAC surgery induced significant cardiac dysfunction, fibroblast activation and fibrosis; these effects were improved by treatment with sVAP32. In the heart tissue, TAC remarkably increased the expression of TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), reactive oxygen species levels, and the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). SVAP32 inhibited the increases in reactive oxygen species levels, CTGF expression and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK1/2, but not TGF-β1 expression. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, angiotensin II (Ang II) had similar effects compared to TAC surgery, such as increases in α-SMA-positive cardiac fibroblasts and collagen synthesis. SVAP32 eliminated these effects by disrupting TGF-β1 binding to its receptors and blocking Ang II/TGF-β1 downstream signaling. These results demonstrated that sVAP32 has anti-fibrotic effects by blocking the TGF-β1 pathway in cardiac fibroblasts.

  8. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

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    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  9. The Effects of Velvet Antler of Deer on Cardiac Functions of Rats with Heart Failure following Myocardial Infarction

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    Ming-Jing Shao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Velvet antler of deer (VAD is a commonly-used kidney-Yang supplementing traditional Chinese medication. According to the heart-kidney-related theory, heart Yang originates in kidney Yang and heart failure due to heart Yang deficiency can be treated by tonifying kidney Yang. In this study, we investigated therapeutic effects of VAD on cardiac functions in rats with heart failure following myocardial infarction. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were subjected either to left coronary artery ligation (N=36 or to sham operation (N=12. One week after the surgery, rats with heart failure received daily treatment of double-distilled water, captopril or VAD by gavage for consecutively four weeks, while sham-operated animals were given double-distilled water. Ultrasonic echocardiography was adopted to examine cardiac structural and functional parameters and serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP concentration was measured using radioimmunoassay. We found that VAD partially reversed changes in cardiac functional parameters and serum BNP levels in rats with heart failure. These results provide further evidence for the heart-kidney-related theory and suggest that VAD might be a potentially alternative and complementary medicine for the treatment of heart failure.

  10. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiongran; Yang, Yanfei; Abbasi, Sepideh; Hajinezhad, Daryoush; Kontulainen, Saija; Honaramooz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Elk velvet antler (EVA) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age), and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4-8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  11. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongran Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elk velvet antler (EVA has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age, and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  12. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  13. The antler-like appendages of the primitive deer Dicrocerus elegans: morphology, growth cycle, ontogeny, and sexual dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Males and many females of the primitive deer Dicrocerus elegans from Sansan (Middle Miocene, France bore antler-like appendages consisting of a simple-branched protoantler growing from a rather long pedicle and are decorated with ridges and furrows. The protoantler capacity to be rejected and subsequently re-grow is clearly evidenced by the presence of both pedicle and protoantler cast specimens. The youngest appendage is a long, laterally flattened shaft whose apex is usually forked with no appreciable limit between the pedicle and the protoantler. In females, the anterior and posterior appendage margins form a more acute angle than that of males, and are more parallel when viewed laterally. After the first casting, the protoantler base is larger than the pedicle top and a coronet-like structure appears developed only around the medial side. With successive castings, the pedicles become shorter and their section is more circular, while protoantlers become much bigger, and have much longer and more separated branches. Branches of females are shorter than those of males, especially the anterior one, and appear in a straight line, instead of being bent. In oldest appendages, the branches are shorter and more similar in size. Accessory branches and irregularities of this basic morphology are common. The separation between both sex morphotypes appears clearly evidenced by Discriminant and Principal Component Analyses. Histological features point to important differences with true antlers and suggest that casting could not occur annually. A core of spongy bone trabeculae is not developed. Once growth is completed, the mineralization progress from the core to the periphery and when the final ‘velvet’ protoantler becomes completely petrified, the tissues dies and the velvet-like skin is cleaned. A high degree of both wear and polish of the branch apices evidence the hard, bare, dead protoantler phase before casting. Due to the complete growth cycle

  14. Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.Y. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Physics, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N.D. [Illinois State University, Department of Physics, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} → (l{sup +}D{sup 0})(l{sup +} anti D{sup 0}) at highenergy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (nonchiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. (orig.)

  15. Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. Y. [Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N. D. [Department of Physics, Illinois State University, 61790, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X., E-mail: xiw77@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -}→(ℓ{sup +}D{sup 0})(ℓ{sup -}D{sup -bar0}) at high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (non-chiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  16. Immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohguchi, Michihiro; Kunikata, Toshio; Watanabe, Hikaru; Kudo, Naoki; Shibuya, Takashi; Ishihara, Tatsuya; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2004-04-01

    The immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi, RR), which has been used as a traditional supplement for human health, were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were administered orally with RR for 3 days at a dose of 50 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by splenocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined on day 4. The oral administration of 500 mg/kg of RR resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in IFN-gamma production. Stimulation of splenic adherent cells from these mice with LPS also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in interleukin-12 (IL-12) production compared with that from the control mice, suggesting that splenic macrophages were activated by RR administration. Furthermore, 500 mg/kg of RR administered for 14 days resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in IFN-gamma production by splenocytes in response to both LPS and concanavalin A (Con A). These results suggest that not only splenic macrophages but also T cells were activated by the long-term treatment with RR in vivo. On the other hand, the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), which is known as an allergic disease-related cytokine, was not affected by the long-term treatment with RR. Our results suggest that the oral administration of RR resulted in Th1-associated immuno-potentiating activities in vivo.

  17. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  18. [The influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes during the contest season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, A A; Barabash, L V; Smirnova, I N; Abdulkina, N G; Kremeno, S V; Naumov, A O; Vereshchagina, S V; Shteĭnerdt, S V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of Siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes undergoing heavy physical loads during the contest season. It was shown that the use of such preparations promotes correction of humoral characteristics reflecting the development of iron-deficient conditions.

  19. Collagen Content of Velvet Antlers at Different Growth Stages and Optimization of Extraction Process%不同生长阶段鹿茸中胶原含量比较及提取条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉红; 金秀明; 王珊珊

    2012-01-01

    Velvet antlers were selected as raw materials to extract collagen using enzyme pepsin. Collagen contents at different growth stages were also compared. Results showed that content and the yield of collagen in two branched antler were 65.8 mg/g and 4.53%, respectively, which were significantly higher than three branched antler (P 〈 0.05). Factors of extraction time, enzyme addition and liquid-solid ratio were chosen to research the effects on yield of collagen and Box-Behnken experiment was designed to optimize the extraction conditions. The results showed that extraction time for 52 h, enzyme addition with 5%, liquid-solid ratio at 23:1 (mL/g) were the optimal conditions, the yield of collagen in two-branched antler was 5.92%.%以梅花鹿鹿茸为原料,研究不同生长阶段鹿茸中胶原含量及胶原提取效果并确定适宜提取条件。采用胃蛋白酶法提取胶原,采用Box-Behnken中心组合试验设计优化胶原提取条件。结果表明:二杠茸中胶原含量和得率均高于毛桃茸和三杈茸,分别为65.8mg/g和4.53%;胶原提取适宜工艺条件为提取时间52h、酶用量5%、液料比23:1(mL/g),在此条件下鹿茸胶原得率为5.92%。

  20. Histologi dan Histomorfometri Testis dan Epididimis Muncak (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak pada Periode Ranggah Keras (HISTOLOGY AND HISTOMORPHOMETRY OF THE TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS OF MUNTJAC (MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK MUNTJAK DURING HARD ANTLER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the histology and histomorphometry of testis and epididymisof muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak during hard antler period. The tissues of the testis and epididymisof an adult male muntjac were processed for histological examination and stained with haematoxylineosine(HE. The parenchyma of muntjac’s testis during hard antler period showed tubuli seminiferi waslined with germinal epithelium: spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid that differentiated intospermatozoa. Sertoli cells were found among the germinal cells. In addition, Leydig cells were foundaround the blood vessel of interstitial tissue along with macrophages. Diameter of the seminiferous tubuleand epithelial thickness were 176,60±7,06 ?m and 50,27±3,62 ?m respectively. The epididymal duct wassubdivided into three segments: caput, corpus and cauda. They were lined predominantly withpseudostratified columnar epithelium which was varied in its thickness. The largest diameter of epididymalduct was found in cauda region (324,26±25,79 ?m, while caput epididymidis had the thickest of epithelialcell (62,21±4,21 ?m and tended to ce thinner in corpus (49,53±3,01 ?m and cauda epididymidis(16,30±2,27?m. The density of spermatozoa was observed the most in the lumen of cauda region comparedto caput and corpus epididymidis. In conclusion, the structure of histology and histomorphometry of theseminiferous tubule of testis and epididymal duct of muntjac were similar with small ruminants andother Cervidae during hard antler period.

  1. Determination of the Content of Water-soluble Proteins in Antler Herbs and its Influence Factors%马鹿茸中水溶性蛋白质的含量测定及其影响因素考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄帮蕊; 李佳芮; 王春贺; 金洋; 马方圆; 金向群; 高兵; 常彤

    2016-01-01

    To establish a method for the determination of the content of water -soluble proteins in velvet antler herbs ,and explore the effect of drying methods ,storage time and species on its content .Water soluble proteins in velvet antler herbs were extracted through maceration in low temperature water and dyed by Bradford method .The content of it was determined by visible spectrophotometer .The content of water-soluble protein in the sample has a good linear relationship in the range of 540μg/mL-40μg/mL in terms of bovine serum albumin .The regression e-quation is y=0.0231x+0.1114(R2=0.995) and the recovery rate is 99.33% ,RSD is 0.86% .Moreover ,the content of water-soluble pro-tein in velvet antler alters during storage and in high temperature drying ,which is lower than that in the low temperature drying .Water-soluble protein content among different species is also different .The content determination of water-soluble protein in velvet antler by Bradford method is simple and reliable ,so it can be used as a method of quality control of velvet antler herbs .Storage time and drying method also have influence on water-soluble protein content in antler ,so antler herbs production process should be paid attention to .%建立马鹿茸中水溶性蛋白质含量测定方法,并探讨干燥方法、储存时间对其含量的影响。采用考马斯亮蓝显色法测定马鹿茸中水溶性蛋白质的含量。样品中水溶性蛋白质的含量以牛血清蛋白计在5μg/mL~40μg/mL范围内具有良好线性关系,回归方程为y=0.0231x+0.1114( R2=0.995),平均回收率为99.33%,RSD为0.86%;马鹿茸水溶性蛋白含量随储存时间延长而下降,高温干燥比低温干燥含量低。采用考马斯亮蓝显色法测定马鹿茸水溶性蛋白质的含量,方法简便、可靠,可作为马鹿茸质量控制的方法。存储时间、干燥方法对马鹿茸水溶性蛋白含量有影响,在马鹿茸生产过程中要注意。

  2. Effect of the Velvet Antler of Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei on the Prevention of an Allergic Airway Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yun Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mouse models were used to assay the antiallergic effects of the velvet antler (VA of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei in this study. The results using the ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mouse model showed that the levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE were reduced after VA powder was administrated for 4 weeks. In addition, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of T helper cell 1 (Th1, regulatory T (Treg, and Th17 cytokines by splenocytes was significantly increased (P<0.05 when VA powder was administered to the mice. Furthermore, OVA-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated with VA powder showed a strong inhibition of Th2 cytokine and proinflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in the regulatory T-cell population of splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of VA was also observed. All the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including airway inflammation and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were reduced by treatment with VA. These findings support the hypothesis that oral feeding of VA may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  3. 鹿茸顶端组织端粒酶活性检测及TERT基因的差异表达%Detecting Telomerase Activity and Differential Expression Analysis of TERT Gene in Antler Tip Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡薇; 李沐; 李婷; 田玉华; 孟星宇; 刘宁

    2013-01-01

    为了检测梅花鹿鹿茸顶端组织不同部位的端粒酶活性及端粒酶逆转录酶( TERT )基因的mRNA表达水平,分离鹿茸顶端组织的茸皮层、间充质层及软骨层,并进行细胞培养,利用TRAP银染法测定不同部位的端粒酶活性。再利用TRIzol试剂法分别提取茸皮层、间充质和软骨细胞的总RNA,逆转录合成cDNA。根据Gen-Bank已发表的相关序列设计梅花鹿TERT基因部分序列特异引物并克隆TERT基因,采用相对荧光定量Real-time PCR法检测TERT在鹿茸顶端不同部位细胞的表达丰度。结果表明:在鹿茸顶端组织茸皮层、间充质层和软骨层均检测到了端粒酶活性,其中间充质层的端粒酶活性最高,软骨层次之,茸皮层端粒酶活性最低;而体外培养的不同代数间充质细胞的端粒酶活性无明显差异。成功获得了鹿茸组织TERT基因部分编码区cDNA序列,该基因长915 bp,编码305个AA;与牛、羊TERT基因进行同源性分析显示,核苷酸序列分别为94.89%和94.31%;氨基酸序列分别为92.16%和92.11%。相对荧光定量PCR差异分析发现,TERT基因在鹿茸顶端不同部位组织均有表达。其中,在间充质组织的表达水平高于软骨和茸皮层组织。%In order to detect the telomerase activity of different parts of top tissue of sika deer antler and mRNA expression of TERT gene, the skin of antler, mesenchymal layer and layer of cartilage were separated from the antler tip tissue and cul-tured.TRAP silver staining was improved to detect the telomerase activity of different parts.And total RNA of cartilage layer and the skin layer of antler and mesenchymal layer were isolated by TRIzol reagent to use reverse transcription for synthesizing the cDNA.According to the correlation sequences that GenBank published, sika TERT gene partial sequence special primers were designed and the gene was cloned.The relative fluorescence

  4. 麋鹿角醇提液对雄鼠性腺功能的影响%Effect of Elk antlers ethanolic fluid extract on gonad function of male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成海龙; 田郡; 陆晓东; 秦红兵; 朱清

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Elk antlers ethanolic fluid extract on gonad function of male mice and make a preliminary research on traditional pharmacological actions of Elk antlers strengthening sexual ability. Methods: Repeated electrical stimulation stress was used to copy sexual dysfunction model mice. The influence of Elk antlers ethanolic fluid extract on mature male mice's ability of capturing female mice was observed. Elk antlers ethanolic fluid extract was given to immature male mice for 10 days, then the weight index of sex organ and accessory sex organ were observed, sperm density and sperm activity were detected, and the levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone in serum were determined. Results: Elk antlers ethanolic fluid extract could strengthen the sexual ability of stressed mature male mice in capturing female mice. It decreased latency of licking and mounting behavior, and increased the frequency of the licking and mounting behavior. It raised the mass index of testicle in inmature male mice, but had no effect on the weight index of accessory sex organ and the density and activity of sperm. It elevated the level of luteinizing hormone but not testosterone. Conclusion:Elk antlers ethanolic fluid extract has a protective effect on the sexual dysfunction induced by electrical stimulation stress; and it has certain gonadorelin-like function but may not have sex hormone-like function.%目的:观察麋鹿角醇提液对雄性小鼠性腺功能的影响,对麋鹿角传统的壮阳作用进行初步实验研究.方法:以重复电刺激复制应激小鼠性功能低下模型,观察麋鹿角醇提液对成熟雄鼠捕捉雌性小鼠能力的影响.给正常幼龄雄性小鼠连续灌胃给药10d,观察其性器官以及附性器官的脏器质量指数,检测其精子密度和精子活动率,并测定血清中睾酮与促黄体生成素的水平.结果:麋鹿角醇提液能增加应激后雄鼠捕捉雌鼠的能力,能够缩短跨骑潜伏

  5. 荧光标记鹿茸蛋白提取物胃肠道吸收离体实验研究%In vitro study on gastrointestinal absorption of FITC labeled Pilose Antler protein extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 胡剑江; 周秋丽; 王新月; 王毅

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro detection method of the gastrointestinal absorption of Pilose Antler protein was established for mixed protein activity. Five bands of protein with molecular weight of 17.8-160 kD derived from the Pilose Antler were extracted and sufficiently labeled with FITC (FITC-PE). The stability and variation of FITC-PE in gastrointestinal circumstances were detected by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and confocal laser scanning microscope. Results showed that the main component of FITC-PE kept invariant after being reacted with artificial gastric fluid and artificial intestinal fluid. The fluorescence signal was detected 20 min after administration in the valgus intestinal purse experiment, and three kinds of protein, with molecular weight of 45, 25, and 17.8 kD, were detected in the mixture of absorbent protein. The research laid the foundation for the further in vivo study of Pilose Antler protein. Meanwhile, it would be an in vitro screening method for the absorption, distribution and metabolism of mixed protein from traditional Chinese medicine.%鹿茸是一种名贵的中药,含有丰富的蛋白质及多肽等活性成分,对神经、心血管、免疫、生殖系统有显著的调节作用[1].鹿茸的传统给药方式为口服给药,给药后经消化道相关酶的降解发生一系列的变化,然而,由于检测方法的限制,目前还没有成熟的技术可以对鹿茸中大分子混合物实现活性示踪和综合分析,不能阐明其作用机制及药代动力学信息,因而不能被充分开发利用.

  6. 马鹿茸水溶性总蛋白提取工艺研究%Optimization of Extraction Technology of Soluble Proteins from Velvet Antler of Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:优选鹿茸水溶性蛋白的最佳提取工艺.方法:以马鹿茸为原料,采用组织匀浆结合浸提的方法提取可溶性蛋白,以鹿茸可溶性蛋白得率和含量为评价指标,通过单因素实验研究匀浆方法、匀浆次数、提取溶液浓度和pH对鹿茸可溶性蛋白得率的影响,优化提取工艺.结果:鹿茸可溶性蛋白的最佳提取工艺为,以pH为7,50mmol?L-1的Tris-HCl缓冲溶液为提取溶剂,采用电动匀浆机,匀浆次数为3次.结论:优化得到的提取工艺稳定、可行,可为进一步研究鹿茸蛋白的药理药效提供参考.%Objective To optimize the appropriate extracting technology for soluble proteins from velvet antler.Methods Extracted the soluble proteins with homogenate method, studied the effect of homogenate method, homogenate times, concentration and pH of extraction solvent, using soluble proteins extraction rates and content as the indices. Results: The optimal extraction technology for the soluble proteins was as follows: electric homogenate, the extraction solvent of 50 mmol·L-1, pH of 7.The extraction rate of he soluble proteins from velvet antler was and the content of the soluble proteins was .Conclusion The optimal extraction technology is stable and feasible, and can provide reference for further study on velvet antler.

  7. 鹿茸多糖分离纯化及抗氧化活性研究%Purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from velvet antler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉红; 金秀明; 韩睿

    2012-01-01

    采用DEAE-52离子交换层析和Sepharose CL-6B凝胶排阻层析对鹿茸粗多糖进行分离纯化,并通过对DPPH自由基、羟基自由基(·OH)、超氧阴离子自由基(O2-·)清除能力和还原能力的测定,研究了粗多糖及纯化后多糖的抗氧化能力。结果表明:DEAE-52离子交换层析和Sepharose CL-6B凝胶排阻层析对鹿茸多糖分离效果较好,可以分离纯化得到一种单一多糖;粗多糖和纯化后多糖对DPPH·、·OH、O2-·均有清除作用,且具有一定的还原能力,纯化后多糖抗氧化活性和还原能力均大于粗多糖。%DEAE-52 ion-exchange column chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B gel exclusion chromatography were used to isolate the crude polysaccharide.Antioxidant activities of the crude and purified polysaccharide were evaluated through their capability of scavenging DPPH·,·OH,O-2· radicals and reducing power.The result showed that,DEAE-52 ion-exchange column chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B gel exclusion chromatography were suitable for separating and purifying polysaccharide from velvet antlers,a kind of purified polysaccharide was isolated from the crude polysaccharide.Both of the polysaccharide crude and purified had significant effect on scavenging DPPH·,·OH,O-2· radicals and also had reduction ability.Furthermore purified polysaccharide had more activity antioxidant than crude polysaccharide.

  8. Antilipid peroxidation of polyamines from pilose antler%鹿茸多胺的抗脂质过氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓光; 金淑莉; 邸琳; 刘新宇; 张晓宇

    2004-01-01

    目的研究鹿茸多胺的抗氧化作用.方法测定鹿茸多胺在体外对NADPH-维生素C和Fe 2+-半胱氨酸系统诱发的微粒体脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成)的影响,对黄嘌呤-黄嘌呤氧化酶系统超氧阴离子自由基(O-2)产生(还原型细胞色素C形成)的影响,在体内对CCl4和乙醇诱发的小鼠肝脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成)的影响.结果鹿茸多胺在体外能明显抑制NADPH-维生素C和Fe2+-半胱氨酸系统诱发的大鼠脑、肝、肾微粒体脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成),及黄嘌呤-黄嘌呤氧化酶系统O-2的产生(还原型细胞色素C形成).在体内能抑制CCl4和乙醇诱发的小鼠肝脂质过氧化反应(MDA形成).结论鹿茸多胺具有抗氧化作用.%Object To investigate the antioxidant activity of polyamines isolated from pilose antler(paipa).Mthods The effects of PAIPA ON the lipid peroxidation(MDA formation)in microsomes of rat brain,liver ,and kidney induced by NADPH-Vitamine C(Vc)and ferrous-cysteine systems in vitro,the superoxide anion radical production(reduced cytochrome C formation)inxanthine-xanthine oxidase system in vitro,and the CCL4-and ethanol-induced MDA formation in mice liver in vivo were evaluated.Results PAIPA could significantly inhibit the lipid peroxidation(MDA formation)in microsomes of rat brain,liver,and kidney induced by NADPH-Vc and ferrous -cyctein,the superoxide anion radical produc-tion(formation of reduced cytochrome C)in xanthine-oxidase system in vitro,and the CCL4-and ethanol-induced MDA formation in mice liver in vivo.Conclusion PAIPA exhibits an antioxidant activity.

  9. 鹿茸水提物减轻顺铂所致的小鼠肾损伤%Protective effect of aqueous extract of velvet antler on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董思敏; 王海璐; 王全凯; 张晶

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To study the protective effect of aqueous extract of 2-branched and 3-branched velvet antler on cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity in mice .METHODS:The mouse model of renal injury was induced by intra-gastric administration of CDDP at the dose of 15 mg/kg.After treatment, kidney index (KI), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde ( MDA) in the kidney were determined .The renal pathological changes were observed with HE staining.RESULTS:Aqueous extract of velvet antler at the tested dose markedly decreased BUN , SCr and the content of MDA, and elevated the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in the mice pretreated with CDDP ( P<0.05) .The pathological chan-ges of the renal tissues were improved obviously , and the injury of the epithelial cells of renal tubules was mitigated .The effect of the aqueous extract of 2-branched velvet antler on renal function and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was better than that of 3-branched one at the same concentration .CONCLUSION: The aqueous extract of 2-branched and 3-branched velvet antler has a certain protective effect on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity , which may be associated with in-creasing the anti-oxidative capability of mouse renal tissue .%目的:探讨梅花鹿二杠茸和三岔茸水提物对顺铂( CDDP)所致小鼠肾损伤的影响。方法:采用灌胃给药方式,用顺铂(15 mg/kg)诱导小鼠肾损伤模型,测定小鼠肾脏指数(KI)、血清肌酐(SCr)、血尿素氮(BUN)、肾脏组织中超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶( GSH-Px)活性及丙二醛( MDA)含量,并对肾脏组织进行HE染色,观察肾脏病理学变化,研究梅花鹿二杠茸和三岔茸的水提物各剂量对小鼠肾损伤的影响。结果:与顺铂组相比,各剂量鹿茸水提物可显著降低CDDP诱导肾损伤小鼠SCr

  10. 鹿茸提取物对顺铂诱导人胚肾细胞损伤的影响∗%Effect of Velvet Antler on Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Injury In-duced by Cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧瑜; 王露露; 李冰; 刘芳芳; 孙长波; 张晶

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of pilose antler extractions ( water ex⁃tract, ethanol extract, ether extract, chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract) to protect HEK293 injury induced by cisplatin( CDDP ) . HEK293 was cultured in vitro and the results were determined by MTT and LDH. Pilose antler extractions can protect CDDP⁃induced injury of HEK293, and the death rate was more than half at the level of (0�083±0�030) mmol/L. After HEK293 cells were in⁃cubated for 24 h with different concentrations of extract of pilose antler, CDDP was joined respec⁃tively. It was found that water extraction has better protection on CDDP⁃induced HEK293, and at the level of 1 mg/mL, the survival rate of cells was 62%( P<0�01) . Water extraction can effectively protect CDDP⁃induced HEK293 and maintain cell activity.%建立顺铂(CDDP)诱导人胚肾成纤维细胞(HEK293)细胞损伤模型,通过MTT和LDH测定,比较不同浓度的鹿茸提取物(水提物,醇提物,乙醚提取物,氯仿提取物,乙酸乙酯提取物)诱导HEK293细胞损伤的保护作用。体外培养HEK293细胞,观察鹿茸提取物对CDDP诱导HEK293细胞生长的影响,并用MTT法和LDH法检测鹿茸对CDDP诱导HEK293细胞死亡率的变化。结果表明:鹿茸提取物能够拮抗CDDP诱发的细胞损伤,具有浓度依赖性,其半数致死浓度为(0�083±0�030) mmol/L。当HEK293细胞与不同浓度鹿茸提取物共同孵育24 h,分别加入CDDP后,检测表明鹿茸水提物较其他溶剂提取物对顺铂诱导损伤的HEK293有较好的保护作用,其质量浓度为1 mg/mL时对顺铂诱导损伤的HEK293细胞的保护作用最强,细胞存活率达到62�0%( P<0�01)。鹿茸水提物对CDDP诱导人胚肾细胞损伤的抑制作用最显著,可有效保护细胞活性。

  11. Construction of Full-length cDNA Library for Antler Tip Tissue of Sika Deer%东北梅花鹿鹿茸尖端组织全长cDNA文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽; 李和平; 严厉

    2009-01-01

    为克隆出与鹿茸生长发育相关基因的全长序列,采用SMART技术构建了东北梅花鹿鹿茸尖端组织的全长cDNA文库.用SV Total RNA Isolation System试剂盒提取总RNA,以逆转录酶PowerScriptTM 反转录合成第一链cDNA,然后通过LD-PCR合成并扩增ds cDNA.扩增产物经纯化、SfiⅠ酶切、过CHROMA SPIN-400柱去除小片段后,连接到SfiⅠ消化过的pDNR-LIB质粒载体中,最后用电转化法将重组质粒转化到E. coli DH5α内得到原始文库.经测定,构建的原始文库约含有2.56×10~6个重组子,插入片段多在0.5~2kb之间,平均插入片段长度约1.1kb,重组效率接近100%.结果表明,东北梅花鹿鹿茸尖端组织的全长cDNA文库已构建成功.%A study was conducted to construct full-length cDNA library from antler tip tissues of Sika Deer (Cenna nippon hortu-lonun) by SMART technique in order to clone new special genes for development of antler. The total RNA was extracted u-sing SV Total RNA Isolation System. Single-stranded cDNA was synthesized using PowerScripiTM reverse transcriptase,and double-stranded cDNA was synthesized and amplified by long-distance PCR. The PCR products were digested by pro-teinase K and purified. After digestion with Sfi I and size fractionation using CHROMA SPIN -400TM Columns, SMART cDNA was ligated to the Sfi I-digested, dephosphorylated pDNR-LIB vector, and the ligation mixture was transformed into E. call DH5a by electroporation. The primary cDNA library contained 2.56×10~6 independent clones with DNA inserts of 0.5~2. 0 kb, the average size of inserted cDNAs was 1.1 kb, and the recombination percentage was about 100%. Results showed that the full-length cDNA library from antler tip tissues of Sika Deer was successfully constructed.

  12. Effect of antler velvet alcohol extracts on improving learning and memory sbilities in mice%鹿茸醇提物对小鼠学习记忆功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉红; 张睿; 潘强

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of antler velvet alcohol extract(AVAE)on learning and memory in mice.Methods:One hundred and fifty-six male Kunming mice were randomized into control group(12 mice,given salty water),memory obtain stage group,memory consolidate stage group and memory reappearance stage group(48 mice in each group),each group had 3 small groups:high dose,mid dose and low dose group,given alcohol extract of antler velvet dry matter on 1kg/(kg·d),0.5kg/(kg·d)and 0.1kg/(kg·d)respectively.After 30d,each stage's latency and number of errors of jumping platform experiment as well as swimming time and number of errors of water maze were tested,at the same time,the activity of SOD and the content of MDA in mind were evaluated.Results:The AVAE could prolong the latency(P0.01)of jumping platform experiment on each stage as well as decreasing the number of errors(P0.01)obviously,and decrease the swimming time and the number of errors(P0.01,P0.05)of water maze,then increase the activity of SOD(P0.01,P0.05)and decrease the content of MDA in mice brain(P0.01,P0.05).Conclusions:The AVAE had the function of improving learning and memory impairment obviously.%目的:研究鹿茸醇提物(AVAE)对小鼠学习记忆能力的影响。方法:156只昆明种雄性小鼠分成空白组(12只小鼠,灌胃生理盐水)、记忆获取阶段组、记忆巩固阶段组和记忆再现阶段组(每组48只小鼠),各阶段组中的高、中、低剂量组每天每只小鼠分别灌胃鹿茸乙醇提取物的干粉量为1kg/(kg·d)、0.5kg/(kg·d)和0.1kg/(kg·d)。灌胃30d,测定各个记忆阶段小鼠跳台实验的潜伏期及错误次数、水迷宫实验的游出时间及错误次数和小鼠大脑内的SOD酶活力及MDA含量。结果:鹿茸醇提物能明显延长各个阶段小鼠跳台实验的潜伏期(P〈0.01)并减少错误次数(P〈0.01);缩短小鼠水迷宫实

  13. Cloning of a Full-Length cDNA Encoding Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Its Expression in Antler Tissue%梅花鹿IGF1全长cDNA克隆及在鹿茸组织的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡薇; 孟星宇; 田玉华; 刘宁

    2011-01-01

    The study was to detect expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I(IGF1) from antler tip tissue to provide a theoretical basis for the molecular mechanism of antler growth. Total RNA was isolated from dermis, mesenchyme, pre-cartilage and cartilage layers in growing antler tip tissue respectively. A pair of primers was designed according to the homology region of IGF1 among other species. The cDNA sequence of 1GF1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR technology. Then, real-time PCR was used to detect the expression level of IGF1 in the antler tip. Results showed that the complete coding sequence of IGF1 gene was obtained (GenBank accession No: HQ890468). It has 465 base pairs in length, encoding a predicted protein of 154 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis based on IGF1 genes of red deer, cattle, sheep, horse, pig, human and mouse showed that the homologies of ICF1 to red deer, cattle and sheep were 99.78% , 98.28% and 97. 85% , and the homologies of protein were 99. 35% , 98. 05% and 97. 40% respectively. Results of fluorescence quantification showed that IGF1 was expressed in all the tested organs in antler tip tissue, but its transcript level in cartilage and pre-cartilage layers was much higher than that in mesenchyme and dermis layers.%为了检测梅花鹿鹿茸组织IGF1基因的mRNA表达水平,利用TRIzol试剂法分别提取鹿茸真皮、间充质、前软骨和软骨组织总RNA,逆转录合成cDNA.根据GenBank已发表的相关序列设计梅花鹿IGFI基因特异引物并克隆IGFI基因,将IGF1基因DNA序列递交GenBank,并利用相对荧光定量Real-time PCR法检测IGF1在鹿茸顶端不同部位组织的转录表达丰度.研究结果表明:成功获得了梅花鹿鹿茸组织IGF1基因全长编码区cDNA(GenBank登录号为HQ890468),该基因长465 bp,编码154aa长度的多肽;与马鹿、牛、羊、马、猪、人和小鼠IGF1基因进行同源性分析显示,IGF1基因与马鹿、牛和羊同源性最高,核苷酸序列分别为99.78% 、98.28

  14. Simultaneous determination of eleven sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%鹿茸保健品中11种性激素的气相色谱-串联质谱法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦春梅; 王明泰; 牟俊; 卢利军; 周晓

    2011-01-01

    建立了气相色谱-串联质谱法测定鹿茸保健品中11种性激素的分析方法.鹿茸中的性激素经固相萃取富集和净化,经七氟丁酸酐衍生处理.采用DB-5色谱柱(30 m×0.25 mm,0.25μm)、非线性梯度升温程序分离,在串联质谱多反应监测(MRM)模式下检测,外标法定量,实现了11种性激素的有效分离.11种性激素的检出限为1.0~5.0μg/kg,线性相关系数为0.991 6~0.999 9,平均回收率为67.4%~99.1%,相对标准偏差为2.6%~13%.该方法准确,可靠,可满足鹿茸保健品中性激素含量的测定和确证.%A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( GC-MS/MS) was developed. The sex hormones in antler velvet were enriched and purified by solid phase extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA). A DB-5 column (30 m xO. 25 mm, 0. 25 μm) with nonlinear gradient program was used in GC separation. The sex hormones were determined in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method realized the complete separation of 11 sex hormones. The limits of detection of this method were from 1.0 to 5. 0 (μg/kg for the 11 sex hormones. The correlation coefficients were between 0. 991 6 and 0. 999 9. The recoveries were in the range of 67. 4% -99. 1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 6% - 13%. This method is accurate and reliable for the determination of the sex hormones in antler velvet health products.

  15. Stud of Enhancement to Skin Wound Healing by Pilose Antler Polypeptides%鹿茸多肽促进皮肤创面愈合的基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛琼; 刘黎军

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨鹿茸多肽对皮肤愈合的影响。方法:设计将48只大鼠随机分成1个对照组和3个实验组,每组12只。实验组1单纯肌肉注射用药;实验组2为单纯创口外部用药;实验组3则肌注与外部混合用药。以大鼠背部以脊柱为中心设计5cm*5cm创面,每日给药1次,分别于2、4、6、8、10、12、14日观察创面的愈合情况;于第10天测量创面大小、计算愈合面积、愈合速度;单位重量组织细菌计数;肉芽组织羟脯氨酸含量测定。结果:创面愈合面积、愈合速度和肉芽组织羟脯氨酸含量测定实验组3优于其它3个实验组,而单位重量组织细菌计数低于其它3个实验组。结论:鹿茸多肽能够提高皮肤愈合速度,增加组织细胞间连接,加速上皮化生。%Objective:To discuss the influence of Pilose antler polypeptide(PAP) to skin healing. Methods:Divide 48 rabbits into 4 groups at random, one contrast group and three experimental groups. Only PAP injection in experimental group 1;only external use of PAP in experimental group 2;mixed usage of PAP in experimental group 3. Design a wound of 5 cm in diameter around spine on the back of rabbit. Use medicine once a day and observe growth of the wound on 2、4、6、8、10、12、14 days. Measure wound area, calculate healing area and velocity on 10th day, exam amount of bacteria and hydroxyproline. Results:Healing area, velocity and containing of hydroxyproline of experimental group 3 are higher than other three groups. Amount of bacteria are lower than other three groups. Conclusion:PAP can enhance skin wound healing, increase connection of cells and tissue, accelerate growth of epithelial tissue.

  16. Combination of Supercritical Fluid Extraction with Ultrasonic Extraction for Obtaining Sex Hormones and IGF-1 from Antler Velvet%超临界萃取技术结合超声强化技术提取鹿茸中性激素和IGF-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冉; 李淑芬; 张大成

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction technology and ultrasonic technology were used to extract two active sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) from antler velvet. The effects of SC-CO2 extraction condition on the extraction yield and content of sex hormones, the ultrasonic extraction condition on the content of IGF-1 and the SC-CO2 extraction condition on the activity remaining of IGF-1 were studied. The optimal conditions were obtained. The experimental results velvet residue, when the pHIO ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer solution was used as the solvent, the ratio of solvent to sample was 20/1 (volume/mass), the extraction temperature was 0-35℃, and the extraction time was 4×15 min. Under these conditions, 93.68% activity remaining of IGF-1 in the residue was obtained, while little IGF-1 activity exists in traditional residue. The experimental results indicate that the technology of SC-CO2 with co-solvent is of advantage for getting high content sexual hormones and keeping high activity of IGF-1 in the residue, which can not be achieved by traditional extraction methods.

  17. Le travail du bois de cerf à Villeparisis (Seine-et-Marne : un dépotoir au sein d’un atelier de potiers du Bas Empire Antler working at Villeparisis (Seine-et-Marne: a rubbish dump within a potters' workshop of the Late Roman Empire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Mallet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Les fouilles archéologiques menées en 2003 et en 2005 à Villeparisis (Seine-et-Marne dans le centre ancien, ont mis au jour les vestiges d’une zone artisanale du Bas Empire regroupant un atelier de potiers mais également les témoins d’activités diverses, notamment 60 bois de cerfs au sein d’un dépotoir. Ceux-ci sont incomplets et portent de nombreuses traces de travail. Leur analyse n’a pas permis de déterminer les objets façonnés.The excavations, in Villeparisis’ town centre (Seine-et-Marne led in 2003 and 2005, have revealed a large craft area occupied during the Late Romantimes. The remains of a potter’s workshop and 60 red deer antlers have been discovered. These are incomplete and show many traces of work. Their analysis dœs no enable us to determine which artefacts had been made.

  18. 苗药鹿角壮骨胶囊辅助治疗骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折46例临床观察%Study on Curative Effect Miao medicine Antler Bone Improvement Capsule Treating Patients with Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐广应; 陆永刚; 赵久敏; 张凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察苗药鹿角壮骨胶囊辅助治疗骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折(OVCF)的临床疗效。方法:选取86例 OVCF 患者为研究对象,随机分为对照组40例和治疗组46例。对照组采用 PVP 手术治疗后口服碳酸钙 D3和阿法骨化醇治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用苗药鹿角壮骨胶囊治疗,比较观察两组的疗效、骨 CT 值、骨密度值、再次骨折发生情况。结果:治疗组优良率93.47%高于对照组的80.00%,两组优良率比较,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05);疗程结束后及结束后12个月随访,治疗组 CT 值和骨密度均高于对照组(P<0.05),而再骨折发生率低于对照组(P <0.05)。结论:苗药鹿角壮骨胶囊胶囊辅助治疗骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折疗效好,且再骨折发生率较低,能明显改善患者的生活质量。%Objective the curative effect Miao medicine antler bone improvement capsule treating patients with OVCF.Method By randomized control test method to randomly divide 86 patients with OVCF control group 40 patients and treatment group 46 patients, the control group was treated by PVP operation,then given calcium carbonate D3 tablets and alfacalcidol capsules,The treatment group was based on basic medication group to plus Lujiao -zhuanggu capsule.Observe groups of patients'CT value,bone density,as well as observe the incidence of re -fracture.Results Compare the clinical effect of two groups,the treatment group with excellent and good rate of 93.47%;The control group with excellent and good rate of 80.00%;Compare the excellent and good rate of two groups,the difference has statistical significance (P <0.05).After and the end of treatment 12 months,the improvement of CT value and bone density of treatment group is significantly higher than what of control group (P <0.05),however,the incidence of re -frac-ture is significantly lower than what of control group (P <0.05).Conclusion The

  19. Suvemaja, Antler Island, Fairy Lake, Ontario / Ants Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Ants, 1917-2012

    1997-01-01

    Tuli projekteerida suvila kasvavale perele, mis algusest peale kasutamiskõlblikuna areneks koos perekonna laienemisega. Kerged paviljonid meenutavad küla. Ehitati 1966-1989. Arhitekt Elmar Tampõld. Joonised, vaated.

  20. Preparation of nano b-tricalcuim phosphate, gelatin and velvet antler polypeptide composites and its effect on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in hFOB1.19 cells%纳米磷酸三钙/明胶/鹿茸多肽复合材料的制备及对人成骨细胞增殖、分化及矿化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓峰; 张郑瑶; 田秀丽; 张瑾; 史祺云; 胡进平; 郭燕川; 邓旭明; 周秋丽

    2013-01-01

    探讨反相微乳液法制备的β-纳米磷酸三钙/明胶/鹿茸多肽复合材料(简称纳米复合材料)对人成骨细胞功能的影响.利用反相微乳液法制备纳米复合材料,扫描电镜观察其形态,EDX与SELDI-TOF-MS分析对复合材料进行表征.采用MTT比色法、茜素红染色法检测纳米复合材料对体外培养的人成骨细胞hFOB1.19的增殖、矿化结节形成的影响;采用全自动生化分析仪检测hFOB细胞碱性磷酸酶活性(ALP).结果表明该纳米复合材料可促进人成骨细胞增殖,提高ALP活性并增加矿化结节形成的数量,可促进人成骨细胞的增殖、分化成熟及矿化.%Abstract:The nano tricalcium phosphate/ gelatin/velvet antler polypeptide (VAP)composite materials (referred as nanocomposites) were prepared by water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion process.The effect of nanocomposites on human osteoblasts was studied in hFOB1.19 cell lines.Nanocomposites were prepared through emulsification-coacervation method in water-in-oil emulsions.The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope.Characterization of composite spheres was examined by EDX and SELDI-TOF-MS.MTT assay and alizarin red staining were employed to detect the effects of nanocomposites on the proliferation and formation of mineralization nodules formation in hFOB cells,respectively.The alkaline phosphatase(ALP) activity was determined by automatic clinical chemistry analyzer.The results showed that nanocomposites could stimulate human osteoblasts cells proliferation increase ALP activity,and promote the formation of mineralization nodules.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antlered sculpin Enophrys diceraus (Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Munehara, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Enophrys diceraus (Cottidae) was determined for the first time by primer walking methods. It was 16,976 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region (CR). Within the CR, the extended termination-associated sequence, the central conserved sequence block (CSB-F, CSB-E, CSB-D, CSB-C, CSB-B, CSB-A) and the conserved sequence block (CSB-1, CSB-2, CSB-3) were identified. This first mitogenome information among marine sculpins is expected to enrich the knowledge on phylogenetic studies of this taxon.

  2. 78 FR 45956 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Hamilton County Department of Parks and Recreation, Hamilton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... lot of antler tine flakers; 1 antler tine tool; 1 antler toggle; 1 lot of antler tool making debris; 1... hook fragment; 1 bone indeterminate tool fragment; 1 bone tool fragment; 1 lot of bone tool making... humpback knife; 1 lot of intermediate bone tool; 4 lots of light and heavy fraction; 1 modified...

  3. 气流粉碎机超微粉碎鹿茸的研究%Research on Ultrafine Smashing Antler by Jet Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 张争明; 李伯廷; 秦金山

    2012-01-01

      应用TC型流化床超音速气流粉碎机组对鹿茸进行超微粉碎,研究了气流粉碎机的工艺参数对超微粉碎鹿茸效果的影响;研究了分级机转速、进气压力、进料粒度对鹿茸超微粉碎的影响,同时还研究了不同加工方法干燥的鹿茸和不同部位的鹿茸等药材本身的物料性能对粉碎效果的影响。用激光粒度分析仪测定其微粉的粒度分布。在设备进气压力1畅0MPa ,分级机反转2400r/min ,进料粒度80目的操作参数下,能得到烘干鹿茸微粉的中位粒径为18畅09μm ,冻干鹿茸微粉的中位粒径为30畅6μm;烘干茸较冻干茸易粉碎,鹿茸部位不同粉碎的效果不同。运用TC型流化床超音速气流粉碎机组实现并优化了鹿茸的超微粉碎。

  4. 大小兴安岭驼鹿角型的变异%Variation of Moose Antler from Great and Little Xing'anling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白素英

    2005-01-01

    为比较大、小兴安岭驼鹿角型的差异,统计分析了二者自然脱落的干角1000余只,结果表明,除2杈和3杈角型基本一致外,4杈以上形状变化较大.主要表现在:大兴安岭所产驼鹿角的分杈数比小兴安岭所产驼鹿角分杈数多.大兴安岭所产驼鹿角分杈数可达9杈,而小兴安岭驼鹿角分杈数最多为6杈;大兴安岭驼鹿角4杈以上为掌状,属"掌型",而小兴安岭驼鹿角4杈以上绝大多数为"杈型";大小兴安岭驼鹿角各种分杈所占比例不同.大兴安岭驼鹿的4杈角最多,而小兴安岭驼鹿的3杈角最多;对于分杈数相同的驼鹿角,大兴安岭产驼鹿角的掌状面积、最大角长和重量都大于小兴安岭驼鹿角;而大兴安岭驼鹿角的角基直径却小于小兴安岭驼鹿角.

  5. Cultural Technique of Deer Antler Stem Cell in Vitro%鹿茸干细胞体外培养技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红梅; 邢秀梅; 丛波; 李春义; 杨福合

    2007-01-01

    利用消化酶消化法,用DMEM培养基对鹿茸干细胞进行了体外培养,分别从原代培养、传代、冻存、以及复苏等几个环节进行了试验.摸索鹿茸干细胞合适的体外培养条件,为鹿茸的各项相关研究打基础.结果表明,用透明质酸酶和胶原酶对组织样进行消化,然后用10%DMEM培养基进行培养细胞生长效果较好.适宜培养条件是37℃、5%CO2最大饱和湿度.

  6. SAFETY EVALUATION OF PREPARATION OF PILOSE ANTLER AND GINSENG IN TOXICOLOGY%鹿茸人参制剂的毒理学安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋海霞; 高芃; 耿桂英; 刘海波; 汪会玲; 徐海滨

    2007-01-01

    [目的]了解鹿茸人参制剂的安全性.[方法]小鼠急性经口毒性试验,Ames试验,小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验,小鼠精子畸形试验,大鼠30 d喂养试验.[结果]该制剂急性经口毒性为无毒,在三项遗传毒性试验中均为阴性结果,在30 d喂养试验中也无异常发现.[结论]鹿茸人参制剂安全无毒.

  7. 36 CFR 242.26 - Subsistence taking of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not possess or transport the hide of a bear that does not have the penis sheath or vaginal orifice... side, or antlers with 2 brow tines on both sides, by State registration permit only Sept.-Oct. 15. Unit... spike-fork or 50-inch antlers or 3 or more brow tines on one side, or antlers with 2 brow tines on...

  8. 50 CFR 100.26 - Subsistence taking of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... not have the penis sheath or vaginal orifice naturally attached to indicate conclusively the sex of... side, or antlers with 2 brow tines on both sides, by State registration permit only Sept.-Oct. 15. Unit... spike-fork or 50-inch antlers or 3 or more brow tines on one side, or antlers with 2 brow tines on...

  9. Analysis of the Antler Consumer Psychology from the Perspective of the Doctor and Patient%从医患的角度看人们对鹿茸的消费心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于得水; 石丹

    2012-01-01

    本文根据个人多年工作经验,从医生和消费者两个层面归纳分析人们对鹿茸的消费需求和消费心理,希望能对鹿产品开发和培育消费市场有益,从而让更多的人正确认识并应用鹿产品造福百姓.

  10. Separation and purification of protein promoting hippocampus nerve cell proliferation from pilose antler of Cervus nippon%梅花鹿鹿茸中促进海马神经细胞增殖蛋白的分离纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严铭铭; 曲晓波; 钟英杰; 赵大庆; 刘宁; 刘志强; 刘淑莹

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究梅花鹿鹿茸中蛋白的分离纯化和促进细胞增殖的生物活性.方法 采用硫酸铵分级沉淀法提取鹿茸蛋白,蛋白组分经过DEAE SepHarose Fast Flow、SepHacryl S-200和Affi-gel Blue Gel柱色谱分离纯化.结果 分离得到3个单一蛋白化合物CNTPⅠ、CNTPⅡ、CNTPⅢ.结合激光解析电离飞行时间质谱和SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳确定其相对分子质量分别为6.701 8×104、4.374 9×104、2.385 5×104.分析了CNTPⅢ的氨基酸组成,采用Edman测序法测定N末端氨基酸序列为GDRGTAAKHALDEEP.CNTPⅢ具有促进小鼠海马神经细胞(HT22)增殖的作用.结论 CNTPⅢ是具有促进细胞增殖的新蛋白.

  11. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  12. Deer Management Assistance Reports at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge for 2011 and 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest forms are from Hillside during the 2011-2012 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  13. Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Deer Harvest Records are from 2008 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs during the 2008 and 2014 deer seasons. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of...

  14. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Mathews Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  15. Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge Deer Harvest Records from 2011 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Morgan Brake during the 2011 deer season. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of milk, and number of deer harvested.

  16. Deer Management Assistance Reports Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge for 2012 and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These checklists are produced by the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks and measure harvest weights and antler indexes as well as recommending...

  17. Deer Management Assistance Reports Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge for 2012 and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These checklists are produced by the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks and measure harvest weights and antler indexes as well as recommending...

  18. 50 CFR 32.28 - Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... report card and place it in an entrance fee canister each day prior to exiting the refuge. 12. All youth... after the Florida State Central Management Zone General Gun (antlered deer and wild hog) season...

  19. Deer Management Assistant Reports at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge for 2012 and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These checklists are produced by the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks and measure harvest weights and antler indexes as well as recommending...

  20. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  1. Improved nutrition cues switch from efficiency to luxury phenotypes for a long-lived ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily B; Demarais, Stephen; Strickland, Bronson K; Wang, Guiming; Dacus, Chad M

    2016-10-01

    Cervid phenotype can be categorized as efficiency, which promotes survival but not extravagant growth, or luxury which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Although nutritional variation greatly influences these phenotypic forms, the potential for subspecies-linked genetic or founder effects from restocking efforts of harvested species has not been eliminated. We measured intergenerational phenotypic change of males in response to improved nutrition in three captive-reared populations of white-tailed deer. Study animals were offspring of females captured from three regions displaying variation in antler and body size as well as nutritional variation. We fed all animals a high-quality diet and measured antler and body size for two generations. We predicted that improved long-term nutrition would cue a switch from efficiency to luxury phenotype for all populations and that regional compensation of antler and body size would occur. Improved nutrition positively influenced all measures of antler and body size; however, changes varied in magnitude. Antler size was more responsive than body size. Improved nutrition also facilitated regional compensation of antler size and partial compensation of body size. Our results show that improved long-term nutrition cues a shift from efficiency to luxury phenotype in a long-lived cervid with weaponry being more responsive than body size. Compensation of antler size suggests that weaponry is greatly influenced by nutrition and is not restricted by subspecies-linked genetic or founder effects from restocking efforts related to our regional populations. Therefore, strategies to improve cervid antler and body size should include habitat management that elevates long-term diet quality.

  2. Full length cDNA cloning and sequence characteristics analysis of BSP Ⅱ gene from Sika deer antler tissue%梅花鹿茸角组织BSPⅡ基因全长cDNA的克隆及序列特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽

    2011-01-01

    从梅花鹿鹿茸尖端组织全长cDNA文库中克隆了与骨形成和骨改建有关的一种新的骨生长因子BSPⅡ基因的全长cDNA序列,并结合生物信息学方法和实时荧光定量RT-PCR技术对该基因的氨基酸序列及其在鹿茸尖端不同组织层的表达情况进行了分析。结果表明,BSPⅡ基因cDNA全长为1576bp,编码311个氨基酸。经生物信息学分析表明,该基因编码的蛋白具有N端信号肽及跨膜区,相对分子质量为34100,理论等电点为4.05,其一级结构中谷氨酸所占比例最高;二级结构元件主要以α-螺旋和无规则卷曲为主;同源序列分析表明,梅花%The full length cDNA of BSP Ⅱ gene from velvet tip tissue full-length cDNA library of Sika deer was cloned,bioinformatics method and Real-time RT-PCR technique were used to analyze the amino acid sequence and expression. The results showed the full-length cDNA of the BSP Ⅱ gene was 1 576 bp,encoded a peptide of 311 amino acid,its relative molecular weight was 34 100, isoelectric point was 4.05, contained a N-terminal signal peptid and transmembrane domain; Glu occupied the highest proportion and secondary structure with a-helix and random coilbased. The results obtained through homologous sequence analysis indicated that BSP Ⅱ of Sika deer was highly sim- ilarity to Bos Taurus(93 %) ;with multiple sequences comparison,the N-end and 68-215,265-308 Glu rich area were highly conservative; the molecular evolution trees displayed that BSP Ⅱ of Sika deer had high genetic relationship with Equus caballus. Real-time PCR results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between its expression and velvet mineralization process showed ,it is presumed that the BSP Ⅱ genes in the process of velvet tissue mineralization plays an important role in regulating.

  3. 梅花鹿鹿茸组织 Anxa-1基因cDNA 克隆及表达%Cloning andE xpression Analysis of Anxa-1 Gen e cDNA rf om Sika Deer Antler Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲昊淼; 丁玲; 赵姬臣; 夏彦玲

    2015-01-01

    for the first time, and used bioinformatics method and real-time RT-PCR to analyze the amino acid sequence and the ex-pression at different phases .The An xa-1 gene encoded a peptide of 346 amino acid residues of which the relative molecular weight was 38 830.4. By analyzing biological information , the gene had an isoelectric point of 6.17, and did not contain a signal peptide;Leucine accounted for the largest proportion in the primary structure was 10.4%.Homologous sequence a-lignment and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the Anxa-1 mature protein of sika deer was highly similarity with Pantholops hodgsonii, Ovis aries, Capra hircus and Bubalus bubalis.By real-time RT-PCR, the gene expression at different phases had specificity , and the expression of the Anxa-1 gene was higher at its earlier stage than that at its intermediate and advanced stage .%从梅花鹿(Cervus nippon)鹿茸间充质中成功克隆出包括膜联蛋白A1(Axn a-1)基因全部编码区的cDNA序列,并结合生物学信息方法及实时荧光定量技术对该基因的氨基酸序列及不同生长时期的表达情况进行了分析。结果表明:Anxa-1基因编码346个氨基酸。经生物学信息分析,该基因编码蛋白为稳定蛋白,不具备信号肽,相对分子质量为38830.4,理论等电点为6.17,一级结构中亮氨酸占最大比例(10.4%)。同源序列比对及系统进化树分析表明,梅花鹿Anxa-1氨基酸序列与藏羚羊( Pantholops hodgsonii)、绵羊( Ovis aries)、山羊( Capra hir-cus)和水牛( Bubalus bubalis)相似性较高。实时荧光定量RT-PCR分析表明,Anxa-1基因在不同生长时期鹿茸顶端间充质表达存在差异,生长前期的表达量高于中期与后期。

  4. Chronologic and environmental implications of a new genus of fossil deer from late Wisconsin deposits at Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churcher, C. S.; Peterson, R. L.

    1982-09-01

    A new cervine deer ( Torontoceros hypogaeus), described from a partial cranium with portions of the main antler beams, has been recovered from deposits of early Lake Ontario age on the exposed bench of Glacial Lake Iroquois at Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The deer was about the size of a caribou, has heavy antlers that lie chiefly in a nearly horizontal plane, and its beams are bowed anteriorly. The tines are not flattened, the brow tines are asymmetrical, and no evidence of surface roughening or palmation of the beam is found. A 14C date of 11,315 ± 325 yr B.P. obtained on the antler allows the date at which Glacial Lake Iroquois drained to be revised to before 11,400 yr B.P. Spruce ( Picea), pine ( Pinus), and sedges (Cyperaceae) are major components of the associated pollen spectrum, which implies a typically interstadial or postglacial climate in which mixed forests grew in the Toronto area.

  5. Råmaterialer, forarbejder, spild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Finds from Aggersborg: raw iron, off-cuts and a ?bar, hammer-scale, slag, rough-outs of arrow-heads and leister-prongs, lead waste, copper-alloy raw material and waste, gold and amber waste, raw material, rough-outs and waste of bone, antler and horn, soapstone, pigment?......Finds from Aggersborg: raw iron, off-cuts and a ?bar, hammer-scale, slag, rough-outs of arrow-heads and leister-prongs, lead waste, copper-alloy raw material and waste, gold and amber waste, raw material, rough-outs and waste of bone, antler and horn, soapstone, pigment?...

  6. Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane P. Mahoney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The demographic and environmental influences on large mammal morphology are central questions in ecology. We investigated the effects of population abundance and climate on body size and number of male antler points for the La Poile and Middle Ridge caribou (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758 herds, Newfoundland, Canada. Across 40 years and 20-fold changes in abundance, adult males and females exhibited diminished stature as indicated by jawbone size (diastema and total mandible length and the number of antler points at the time of harvest. Associations between jawbone size and population abundance at birth were consistently negative for both herds, both sexes, and all age classes. Large-scale climate patterns, as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation in the winter prior to birth, were also negatively associated with jawbone size. Declines in male antler size, as measured by the number of antler points, were not well predicted by either abundance or climate, suggesting other factors (e.g., current, rather than latent, foraging conditions may be involved. We conclude that these morphological changes indicate competition for food resources.

  7. 76 FR 73660 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... unassociated funerary objects: 2 adzes, 4 antler wedges, 1 awl, 2 bear teeth, 20 beaver incisors, 6 bifaces, 3... transferred from UI to WSU. The seven funerary objects are: 2 chert projectile points, 1 basalt adze blade, 1... points, 4 ground stone items, 2 shell pendants, 1 nephrite adze, 3 digging stick handles, 5 lots of...

  8. 77 FR 25742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... forms, 1 scraper, 2 pestles, 1 blade fragment, 1 piece of wood, 3 projectile points, and 1 knife. In the... are 2 arrow shaft smoothers, 1 bone harpoon, 1 bone awl, 4 knives, 6 projectile points, 1 string of..., 2 antler digging sticks, 270 glass beads, 1 shell bead, 14 sets of wooden burial marker sacks,...

  9. 水池边的牡鹿%THE · STAG· AT· THE· POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A thirsty Stag went to a Pool to drink. As he saw his own reflection(倒影) in the water, he was struck with admiration (钦慕) for his fine antlers(角), but at the same time felt disgust for the weakness and slendemess of his legs.

  10. PALEOZOOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151109Deng Tao(Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins,Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100044,China);Lu Xiaokang A New Species of Crown-Antlered Deer Stephanocemas(Cervidae,Artiodactyla)from the Middle

  11. 78 FR 33074 - Army Science Board Summer Study Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    .... Planning for Climate Change study 2013--This study considers the most likely climate change scenarios and..., 2013. 3. Time: 9:00 am-12:00 pm. 4. Location: Antlers Hilton, Four South Cascade, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80903-1685. 5. Purpose of Meeting: The purpose of the meeting is for Army Science Board members...

  12. 50 CFR 32.27 - Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; South Waterfowl Area—3; Young Waterfowlers Area—2. 6. The possession of a loaded shotgun while outside a.... D. Sport Fishing. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow... limit of only one antlered deer on the refuge. D. Sport Fishing. We allow fishing and crabbing...

  13. Deer antler:A stem cell-based organ regeneration research model%基于干细胞的器官再生研究模型-鹿茸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚文辉; 王大涛; 鲁晓萍; 李春义

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Deer antlers are the unique mammalian organs which can periodical y regenerate, and the process is known as a stem cel-based event. Exploring the underlying mechanism of deer antler regeneration and indentifying the functional role of stem cellin mammalian organ regeneration are of great importance to regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. OBJECTIVE:To review the relevant literatures of the research progress in antler regeneration, as wel as effects of stem cells and cytokines on antler regeneration. METHODS:A computer-based online search of PubMed (1994-01/2012-10) was performed for acquiring the articles in English by using the key words of“deer antler;antler regeneration;stem cell. In addition, manual search was also performed for those literatures that cannot be readily obtained from internet search. Articles concerning antler regeneration histology, morphology, antler stem cells and micro-environmental studies, and related cytokines. Repetitive studies or articles that are unrelated to the criteria set for the article were excluded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A total of 87 articles were obtained and final y 31 articles were selected. The key tissue types for antler regeneration are antlerogenic periosteum and pedicle periosteum, the cells within which are known as antler stem cells. The covering skin of antlerogenic periosteum and pedicle periosteum constitutes the functional niche for antler stem cells. Numerous cytokines are involved in the process of antler fast growing and ful regeneration, including insulin-like growth factor, sex hormones, human epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. It is vital y important to identify the interacting molecules between the antler stem cells and their niche celltypes, and to define the role of each molecule that plays in antler regeneration, which wil greatly advance our knowledge of the stem cel-based mammalian organ regeneration.%背景:鹿茸是惟一能够周期性再生

  14. Selectivity of harvesting differs between local and foreign roe deer hunters: trophy stalkers have the first shot at the right place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Panek, Marek

    2006-12-22

    Harvesting represents a major source of mortality in many deer populations. The extent to which harvesting is selective for specific traits is important in order to understand contemporary evolutionary processes. In addition, since such data are frequently used in life-history studies, it is important to know the pattern of selectivity as a source of bias. Recently, it was demonstrated that different hunting methods were selected for different weights in red deer (Cervus elaphus), but little insight was offered into why this occurs. In this study, we show that foreign trophy stalkers select for larger antlers when hunting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) than local hunters, but that close to half of the difference in selectivity was due to foreigners hunting earlier in the season and in locations with larger males. The relationship between antler size and age was nevertheless fairly similar based on whether deer was shot by foreign or local hunters.

  15. Alternative hypothesis for the origin of osteoporosis: the role of Mn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Molina-Quilez, Inmaculada; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Garcia, Andres Jose; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Antlers represent an ideal experimental model for bone biology studies, because of their easy accessibility, and their rapid growth. Findings from our previous studies revealed that Mn plays an essential role in incorporating the circulating bone Ca to the growing antlers. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that Mn, an essential mineral for Ca fixation (or incorporation) into bones, might be released from bone, during its remodeling, to be available for prioritized function, most likely, brain function; Consequently, Ca incorporation will be dramatically affected, leading to osteoporosis, particularly in elderly people. Therefore, osteoporosis would precede brain malfunctioning diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, and clinical data are available to support some of the predictions derived from this hypothesis.

  16. Talking about Dragon in the Dragon Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    In the five-thousand-year history of Chinese nation,dragon is the embodiment of Chinese culture,It represents the profound cultural deposits and expresses the cultural features of China.The characteristics of dragon are snake's body,eagle's claws,deer's antlers and tiger's teeth-the most featured and powerful pans from various animals.It indicates that Chinese culture absorbs merits of other cultures and integrates them,which is also the distinctive feature of Chinese culture.

  17. Environmental Assessment for Termination of Lease and the Transfer of Property Back to the Landowner for the Morgan City, LA, Tethered Aerostat Radar System (TARS) Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    americanus luteolus T T PLANTS Golden Canna Canna flaccida Cypress-Knee Sedge Carex decomposita Floating Antler-Fern Ceratopteris...Louisiana Common Name Scientific Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Golden Canna Canna flaccida S4 G4 Cypress-Knee Sedge Carex ...This region is characteristic of freshwater and saltwater marsh vegetation of grasses, sedges , and rushes. It is not uncommon to hardly see any trees

  18. New Information on the Cranial Anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Drew R.; Julia A. Clarke

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allosauroidea has a contentious taxonomic and systematic history. Within this group of theropod dinosaurs, considerable debate has surrounded the phylogenetic position of the large-bodied allosauroid Acrocanthosaurus atokensis from the Lower Cretaceous Antlers Formation of North America. Several prior analyses recover Acrocanthosaurus atokensis as sister taxon to the smaller-bodied Allosaurus fragilis known from North America and Europe, and others nest Acrocanthosaurus atokensis ...

  19. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew A Farke; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat...

  20. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    There is growing concern about the evolutionary consequences of human harvesting on phenotypic trait quality in wild populations. Undesirable consequences are especially likely with trophy hunting because of its strong bias for specific phenotypic trait values, such as large antlers in cervids and horns in bovids. Selective hunting can cause a decline in a trophy trait over time if it is heritable, thereby reducing the long-term sustainability of the activity itself. How can we build a sustai...

  1. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    antlered Carvus eldi Southeast Asia Deer, Philippine Axis (=Cervus) porcinus Philippines (Calamian calamianensis Islands) Deer, Ryukyu sika Cervus nippon...be infected with HIV, H-B virus , and other bloodbome pathogens. "* Vector - a carrier, usually an arthropod, that is capable of transmitting a...10- 10 • Virus - a virus of fecal origin which is infectious to humans by waterborne transmission. "• Vulnerability Assessment - an evaluation by the

  2. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max, oat (Avenasaliva, ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum and barley (Hordeum vulgare. Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.

  3. Selection decisions among reindeer herders in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of breeding animals is a tool to improve the revenues in animal production. Information about selection practices and criteria are essential in assessing the possibilities for systematic selection schemes. Attitudes of reindeer herders towards use of selection in improving production were investigated by means of interviews. We interviewed the managers of reindeer herding cooperatives concerning their selection decisions. Fortyfive out of 56 managers answered to the semi-structured questionnaire. Among herding operations, selection of breeding animals was regarded by managers as critical for calf’s autumn weight and survival. The main selection criteria were calf’s health, vigour, body size and muscularity, dam or dam line, and maternal care. Hair quality and hair length were important as well, while such often quoted traits as antler characteristics, e.g. early shedding of antler velvet and thick antler bases, were unimportant. The results show that reindeer herders i acknowledge the importance and effects of selective breeding, and ii have empirical knowledge to list the most important selection criteria.

  4. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken 乌鸡白凤丸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@*Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition) *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder. *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation. *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia

  5. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    *Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition)  *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder.  *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation.  *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge  *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia……

  6. Preparation of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt and its performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Long metal fibers were manufactured in horizontal lathe with a multi-tooth tool. Based on the coarse antler surface structure of copper fibers, a new sintering technology was put forward to manufacture a kind of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt. The sintering mechanism of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt was studied. Compared with sintered copper-wire felt, the characteristics of sintered copper-fiber felts were analyzed in details. Owing to the coarse antler surface structure of copper fibers,oriented linear copper-fiber felt was sintered under the condition of micro/nano scale range, and copper fibers easily bonded together in the sintering process. Microchannels with micro-scale coarse antler surface structure were constructed. These characters give oriented linear copper fiber felt some new merits: high filtration accuracy, high flow capability, low resistance loss, good capability to resistance pressure, stable and uniform pore, high specific surface area. The properties of oriented linear copper fiber sintered felt were analyzed.

  7. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  8. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Bischof, Richard

    2010-01-01

    1. There is growing concern about the evolutionary consequences of human harvesting on phenotypic trait quality in wild populations. Undesirable consequences are especially likely with trophy hunting because of its strong bias for specific phenotypic trait values, such as large antlers in cervids and horns in bovids. Selective hunting can cause a decline in a trophy trait over time if it is heritable, thereby reducing the long-term sustainability of the activity itself. 2. How can we build a sustainable trophy hunting tradition without the negative trait-altering effects? We used an individual-based model to explore whether selective compensatory culling of 'low quality' individuals at an early life stage can facilitate sustainability, as suggested by information from managed game populations in eastern and central Europe. Our model was rooted in empirical data on red deer, where heritability of sexual ornaments has been confirmed and phenotypic quality can be assessed by antler size in individuals as young as 1 year. 3. Simulations showed that targeted culling of low-quality yearlings could counter the selective effects of trophy hunting on the distribution of the affected trait (e.g. antler or horn size) in prime-aged individuals. Assumptions of trait heritability and young-to-adult correlation were essential for compensation, but the model proved robust to various other assumptions and changes to input parameters. The simulation approach allowed us to verify responses as evolutionary changes in trait values rather than short-term consequences of altered age structure, density and viability selection. 4. We conclude that evolutionarily enlightened management may accommodate trophy hunting. This has far reaching implications as income from trophy hunting is often channelled into local conservation efforts and rural economies. As an essential follow-up, we recommend an analysis of the effects of trophy hunting in conjunction with compensatory culling on the

  9. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  10. Elements of the Yue Culture in Jade Ornaments in the Ancient Yun- nan-Guizhou Plateau%云贵高原古代玉饰的越文化因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建芳

    2004-01-01

    In remote antiquity, members of the Yue people in the region south of the Five Ridges migrated westward by the water route of Xijiang-Yujiang-Yongjiang-Youjiang and settled in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. This led to the wide spread of the jades originally prevailing in the territory ofthe Yue people, such as "horned", crescent and square jue penannular ornaments, necked bracelets and mushroom-shaped fittings for sword butt-ends. With the development of amalgamation of ethnic groups, these types of jades (along with a few antler artifacts) became ornaments of the natives in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, including the Yelang, Dian, Qiongdu and Quting groups.

  11. Archaeological Investigations at Site 45-DO-326, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Quartz Bone/antLer ATTRIBUITE Us: TMI0WIeSS 2 DentaL iuw Och re PRakeam thickness is taken at the Indeterminate thickest point on the object, excluding the...where this material type constitutes 58.6% of the total. Bone and antler artifacts are rare, and only one dental lum shell was recovered from Zone 1...flake size by materiall by zone, 45-DO-326. Size (in) by Zone materist Totat 1 2 3 4 Jasper M1/4 904 1,070 1,296 6S4 3,914 0/4 1 3 1 7 12 ChaLcedony

  12. 黑龙江海林市细林河遗址出土的动物骨骼遗存研究%A Study of the Animal Remains from the Xilinhe Site in Hailin City, Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈全家; 张伟; 王培新

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, a batch of animal remains was unearthed from the Xilinhe site in Hailin City, Heilongjiang Province. It falls into two categories: domesticated and wild. The former includes horse's, cattle's, dog's and pig's bones; the latter, brown bear's, wolf's, horse's, deer's and roe deer's remains. In the present paper, the authors report their analysis of the traces on the surface of animal bones, the making techniques of the bone and antler objects, the proportion of animal husbandry to hunting reflected from the site, and the then natural-ecological settings. These researches resulted in the achievement of a great amount of important information on man's action and other fields.

  13. The ontogenetic osteohistology of Tenontosaurus tilletti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Werning

    Full Text Available Tenontosaurus tilletti is an ornithopod dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian Cloverly and Antlers formations of the Western United States. It is represented by a large number of specimens spanning a number of ontogenetic stages, and these specimens have been collected across a wide geographic range (from central Montana to southern Oklahoma. Here I describe the long bone histology of T. tilletti and discuss histological variation at the individual, ontogenetic and geographic levels. The ontogenetic pattern of bone histology in T. tilletti is similar to that of other dinosaurs, reflecting extremely rapid growth early in life, and sustained rapid growth through sub-adult ontogeny. But unlike other iguanodontians, this dinosaur shows an extended multi-year period of slow growth as skeletal maturity approached. Evidence of termination of growth (e.g., an external fundamental system is observed in only the largest individuals, although other histological signals in only slightly smaller specimens suggest a substantial slowing of growth later in life. Histological differences in the amount of remodeling and the number of lines of arrested growth varied among elements within individuals, but bone histology was conservative across sampled individuals of the species, despite known paleoenvironmental differences between the Antlers and Cloverly formations. The bone histology of T. tilletti indicates a much slower growth trajectory than observed for other iguanodontians (e.g., hadrosaurids, suggesting that those taxa reached much larger sizes than Tenontosaurus in a shorter time.

  14. Effect of Calcium and phosphorus supplement on White -lipped Deer%速补钙磷对白唇鹿发病率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进龙

    2012-01-01

    对65只白唇鹿在补饲过程中添加速补钙磷,结果表明补饲过程中添加速补钙磷的试验组与对照组相比,对白唇鹿异食癖,提高鹿茸产量、降低鹿软骨病骨质疏松、瘫痪等作用显著。平均每只鹿鹿茸产量增加139.5g。鹿软骨病、瘫痪下降1.48%、异食癖发病率降为零。鹿羔月体重平均增2.5kg。%The calcium and phosphorus were added to feed for 65 white - lipped deer. The result showed that the experiment group of adding calcium and phosphorus to feed has significant effect in pica, improving antler production, reducing osteomalacia,osteoprosis, paralysis than that of control group. The antler production of each deer increase by 139.5 grams on average. The rickets,paralysis decrease by 1.48%. Incidence rate of pica reduce to zero. Average body weight of deer aged 1 month increase by 2.5kg.

  15. Experimental xenoimplantation of antlerogenic cells into mandibular bone lesions in rabbits: two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Marek; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kuryszko, Jan; Izykowska, Ilona; Zatoński, Maciej; Bochnia, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Different types of cells require activation, and take part in annual, dynamic growth of deer antlers. Stem cells play the most important role in this process. This report shows the results of a two-year long observation of xenogenic implant of antlerogenic stem cells (cell line MIC-1). The cells were derived from growing antler of a deer (Cervus elaphus), seeded onto Spongostan and placed in postoperative lesions of mandibular bones of 15 experimental rabbits. The healing process observed in the implantation sites in all rabbits was normal, and no local inflammatory response was ever observed. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed after 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 months, and confirmed the participation of xenogenic cells in the regeneration processes, as well as a lack of rejection of the implants. The deficiencies in the bones were replaced by newly formed, thick fibrous bone tissue that underwent mineralization and was later remodelled into lamellar bone. The results of the experiment with rabbits allow us to believe that antlerogenic cells could be used in reconstruction of bone tissues in other species as well.

  16. Game species: extinction hidden by census numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of game species may involve a risk of alteration of their genetic properties. Local adaptations may be disrupted if artificially selected individuals from farms or those belonging to distant geographical areas are introduced to increase population density or trophy ‘quality’. In Spain, red deer (Cervus elaphus from different European subspecies have been introduced to increase the size of trophies (antlers of local populations. Legislation against these introductions is not effective for various reasons, and once the individuals are in the Iberian peninsula it is virtually impossible to prevent their spreading throughout the whole territory without a genetic tool to distinguish between autochthonous and foreign specimens. We have developed such a genetic test and propose a strategy to dissuade land-owners from importing foreign deer. Since deer are bred mainly for their antlers, our strategy is based on an agreement with the National Trophy Body in Spain which rejects trophies from foreign populations. Rejection decreases the value of the trophy so that it becomes more profitable to produce autochthonous deer. Using such a strategy at some critical step in the production or commercialisation process may be a good model to apply in protecting genetic properties of exploited species.

  17. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  18. Extreme adaptations for probable visual courtship behaviour in a Cretaceous dancing damselfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daran; Nel, André; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Chang, Su-Chin; Zhang, Haichun; Xia, Fangyuan; Liu, Haoying; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Courtship behaviours, frequent among modern insects, have left extremely rare fossil traces. None are known previously for fossil odonatans. Fossil traces of such behaviours are better known among the vertebrates, e.g. the hypertelic antlers of the Pleistocene giant deer Megaloceros giganteus. Here we describe spectacular extremely expanded, pod-like tibiae in males of a platycnemidid damselfly from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Such structures in modern damselflies, help to fend off other suitors as well as attract mating females, increasing the chances of successful mating. Modern Platycnemidinae and Chlorocyphidae convergently acquired similar but less developed structures. The new findings provide suggestive evidence of damselfly courtship behaviour as far back as the mid-Cretaceous. These data show an unexpected morphological disparity in dancing damselfly leg structure, and shed new light on mechanisms of sexual selection involving intra- and intersex reproductive competition during the Cretaceous. PMID:28317876

  19. Sobre los llamados silbatos celtibéricos. Una propuesta de interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Navarro, Zoa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose a new interpretation for those objects made of deer antler, wich traditionally have been identified as whistles or musical instruments. Starting from other similar European examples, we think that the pieces from the Iberian Peninsula correspond with the cheekpieces of horsebits, psalia, and at the present time must be surely dated to the Second lron Age.

    En el presente artículo proponemos una nueva interpretación para los objetos realizados en asta de ciervo que tradicionalmente se han identificado con silbatos o instrumentos musicales. A partir de otros elementos europeos semejantes, creemos que las piezas de la Península Ibérica se corresponden con camas de bocado de caballo, psalia, y que, hoy por hoy, deben fecharse claramente en la Segunda Edad del Hierro.

  20. 湖北沙市周梁玉桥遗址1987年的发掘%1987 Excavation on the Zhouliangyuqiao Site in Shashi, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆州市周梁玉桥遗址博物馆

    2004-01-01

    This site lies in the northeastern part of Shashi District proper in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province. It has been excavated five times. In 1987, excavation was carried out in Area C, covering 104 sq m. The finds include six ash-pits, distinctive pottery, as well as bronzes, oracle shells with strong chronological features, stone implements, bone objects and antler artifacts. The cultural contents of the site feature the pottery composition in that sandy ware constitutes the main body, reddish-brown vessels form the largest proportion and the check patterns occur most frequently. These show that the site represents a Shang cultural complex with the local cultural elements playing the leading role. The excavation provided new data for the periodization of the site.

  1. Reconstructing semi-invisible events in resonant tau pair production from Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Konar, Partha

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility of utilising the constrained mass variable, $M_{2Cons}$, in reconstructing the semi-invisible events originated from a resonant production at the LHC. While this proposal is effective for any similar antler type production mechanism, here we demonstrate with potentially interesting scenario, when the Higgs boson decays into a pair of third generation $\\tau$ leptons. Buoyed with a relatively large Yukawa coupling, the LHC has already started exploring this pair production to investigate the properties of Higgs in the leptonic sector. Dominant signatures through hadronic decay of tau, associated with invisible neutrinos compound the difficulty in the reconstruction of such events. Exploiting the already existing Higgs mass bound, this new method provides a unique event reconstruction, together with a significant enhancement in terms of efficiency over the existing methods.

  2. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  3. Genetic diversity in European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): anthropogenic influences on natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Günther B; Zachos, Frank; Nadlinger, Karl

    2003-08-01

    Allozyme, microsatellite and mtDNA (RFLP and sequence) data of European red deer populations were examined as to their capability of indicating anthropogenic influences such as the keeping of animals in enclosures, selective hunting for trophies translocation of specimens to improve trophy quality and habitat fragmentation. Deer in enclosures revealed considerable deviations of allele frequencies from isolation-by-distance expectations but no remarkable loss of genetic diversity. Particular allozyme genotypes were associated with antler morphology, and selective hunting was shown to alter allele frequencies in the expected direction. Habitat fragmentation is reflected by various kinds of genetic markers but due to the lack of information on population histories no unequivocal evidence on particular human activities could be obtained.

  4. Characterization of multi-layered fish scales (Atractosteus spatula) using nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Paul G; Rodriguez, Rogie I; Moser, Robert D; Williams, Brett A; Poda, Aimee R; Seiter, Jennifer M; Lafferty, Brandon J; Kennedy, Alan J; Chandler, Mei Q

    2014-07-10

    The hierarchical architecture of protective biological materials such as mineralized fish scales, gastropod shells, ram's horn, antlers, and turtle shells provides unique design principles with potentials for guiding the design of protective materials and systems in the future. Understanding the structure-property relationships for these material systems at the microscale and nanoscale where failure initiates is essential. Currently, experimental techniques such as nanoindentation, X-ray CT, and SEM provide researchers with a way to correlate the mechanical behavior with hierarchical microstructures of these material systems1-6. However, a well-defined standard procedure for specimen preparation of mineralized biomaterials is not currently available. In this study, the methods for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of A. spatula using nanoindentation, FTIR, SEM, with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and X-ray CT are presented.

  5. Production of Ginkgo leaf-shaped basidiocarps of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes), containing high levels of α- and β-D-glucan and ganoderic acid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Yuka; Miyazaki, Minoru; Okita, Noriyasu; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderic acid A and α- and β-D-glucan content were compared among morphologically different basidiocarps of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Ginkgo leaf-shaped basidiocarps gradually hardened from the base to the pileus and accumulated a higher amount of bioactive components than normal (kidney-shaped) and antler/deer horn-shaped basidiocarps. In the normal G. lucidum stipe, the outer context contained the highest amount of α- and β-D-glucan (approximately 55%) and the highest amount of ganoderic acid A (approximately 0.3%). Ginkgo leaf-shaped G. lucidum had a large area of outer layer and stout outer context, which contributed to their high α- and β-D-glucan and ganoderic acid A content.

  6. Two cases of incidental Podostroma cornu-damae poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Nyung; Do, Han Ho; Seo, Jun Seok; Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare, deadly fungus. However, it can be easily mistaken for antler Ganoderma lucidum. In this case report, two patients made tea with the fungus and drank it over a 2-week period. Both patients presented with bicytopenia, and one patient had desquamation of the palms and soles. Both were treated with prophylactic antibiotics and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. One patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and received a platelet transfusion. Both patients were discharged without complications. Podostroma cornu-damae infections caused by intoxication were successfully treated using our treatment strategy, which consisted of prophylactic antibiotics, platelet transfusion, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. We believe this report can guide future treatment. PMID:27752639

  7. Przewalskium albirostre (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie,, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Przewalskium albirostre (Przewalski, 1883) is a physically unique cervid commonly called the white-lipped deer. Przewalskium is monotypic. This species is a high-elevation specialist endemic to the eastern Tibetan Plateau where it inhabits relatively open hills and mountains with a mosaic of forest edges, meadows, and shrublands. Populations of P. albirostre are highly fragmented and vulnerable because of exploitation and competition with domestic livestock of pastoralists. There have been no systematic efforts to estimate the total number of extant P. albirostre, and it is considered Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is farmed for its antlers in China and is represented in zoos and private collections.

  8. Elaphodus cephalophus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie,, David M.; Lee, D.; Dolman, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Elaphodus cephalophus Milne-Edwards, 1872 (tufted deer) is usually considered polytypic with 3 or 4 recognized subspecies, depending on the source. It is a small dark chocolate-brown deer typified by a tuft of hair on its crown, sharp upper canines that protrude downward from under the upper lip, and rudimentary antlers on males; it is similar to muntjacs, to which it is closely related. E. cephalophusoccurs in humid, montane forests at elevations of 300–4,750 m in southwestern through southeastern China and perhaps northwestern Myanmar (historical records). Vulnerable to poaching in remote areas and relatively uncommon in zoos, it is considered vulnerable as a Class II species in China and listed as “Near Threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  9. A new Euprox from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, China, with interpretation of its paleoenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Yuanmou Basin of Yunnan Province is a hotspot for the research of early hominid evolution and its environmental background. During the implementation of the Program "Research of the Origin and Evolution of Early Man and Its Environmental Background" from 1998 to 2001, a huge quantity of hominoid and mammal fossils were collected. The present report systematically describes an Euprox robustus sp. nov. identified during the recent laboratory work on the collected material. Euprox is a group of earliest cervids with true antlers. The new species is the third one of the genus discovered in China. Judged by its morphologic characteristics, the new species feed on juicy and tender leaves of dicotyledon. It implies that the vegetation of its epoch in the Yuanmou Basin is a kind of southern subtropical evergreen forest and the climate is humid and temperate with evident seasonality. The latter is mostly influenced by the monsoon and secondly by the latitude.

  10. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  11. Late palaeolithic Nørre Lyngby - A northern outpost close to the west coast of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anders; Clemmensen, Lars B.; Donahue, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater deposits exposed in a coastal cliff at Nørre Lyngby, NW Denmark, have yielded some of the northernmost traces of human presence in Western Europe during the Late Glacial. A rib from a reindeer bearing a cut mark has been dated to the climatically mild Allerød period. A robust projectile...... point of flint and an axe of reindeer antler, bearing zigzag ornamentation, are potentially of the same age. Wear marks indicate their use as a projectile tip and an axe, respectively. Botanical and faunal remains from the lake sediments indicate a colder climate and a significantly less treecovered...... landscape suggest a significant human presence in the coastal zone of NW Europe at that time...

  12. Mesolithic heritage in early Neolithic burial rituals and personal adornments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lenneis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some burial rituals such as cremation or the use of colorants, especially ochre, have old roots in the preceding Mesolithic and even in the Palaeolithic. The evidence for these old rituals is more dense in central or western Europe than in south east Europe, whence most of the new Neo- lithic ideas came. Among the personal adornments a small amount of snail-shell ornaments, stag tusks, tusks of wild boar and pendants made from antler are of special interest. People wearing these very traditional, old adornments are generally equipped with precious ‘new’ things such as Spondylus, ceramics, adzes etc, and therefore show them as high status people in early Neolithic society.

  13. An Alternative Interpretation of Plasma Selenium Data from Endangered Patagonian Huemul Deer ( Hippocamelus bisulcus )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueck, Werner T. [National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET), Bariloche (Argentina); Univ. of Basel (Switzerland). Swiss Tropical and Public Health Inst.; ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M. [Univ. Atlantida Argentina, Bariloche (Argentina). Inst. of Natural Resources Analysis; Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Dept.; Winkel, Lenny H. H.E. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dubendorf (Switzerland). Eawag; ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of osteopathology in 57% in the endangered adult Patagonian huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus), malformed antler development, and general lack of recovery were previously suggested to possibly be related to mineral imbalances like selenium (Se) deficiency, and not to stem from fluorosis. From recent bone analyses of these diseased huemul, fluoride levels averaged 58 ppm (SE=10.7), thus eliminating fluorosis as a causal factor for the osteopathology reported in huemul. In contrast, when analyzing high-elevation sites commonly used by extant populations, we found soils deficient in Se. Ashes from recent volcanism also were very low in Se. As Se-responsive diseases in livestock have been documented in Chile, we reclassified recently published Se levels in huemul and determined that 73% were deficient and 18% marginal. Together with these several lines of indirect evidence, we conclude that Se deficiency plays a role in the lack of recovery of huemul populations.

  14. 1999 Excavation on the Gejiazhuang Site in Xingtai City,Hebei%河北邢台市葛家庄遗址1999年发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    河北省文物研究所; 吉林大学边疆考古研究中心; 邢台市文物管理处

    2005-01-01

    In the first half of 1999, the Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and other institutions carried out a large-scale excavation in the east of the northern area of the Gejiazhuang site in Xingtai City. The work resulted in the revelation of a great number of ash-pits, cellars, sacrificial pits and tombs, as well as quantities of pottery, stone, bone, antler, shell and bronze objects and oracle bones and shells. The remains discovered can be divided into four phases with six stages: The first phase belongs to the late Longshan culture, and the second, third and fourth, to the pre-dynastic, middle and late Shang cultures respectively. The second and fourth fall into two stages either, but the richest in content is the third phase. The excavation has important academic value to studying the origin of the Shang people, the demarcation between the Xia and the Shang, and the chronology of the Shang's history.

  15. Heaven’s Eyes Were Open Again (A Folk Tale of the She Ethnic Nationality)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN ancient times, the sky was as blue and clear as a large, round mirror. But one day a sudden gust of fierce wind blew in from the western sky and continued for days and days. On the ninth day, a cloud of smoke welled up from the west and covered the sun. The frightened people were left in terrible darkness. Yong Jian, a broad-shouldered youth who lived in Dongfeng Village at the foot of Fenghuang Mountain, made up his mind to remove the evil smoke and bring the sunshine back to the people. One day, Yong Jian met with an old man with a long beard. He told Yong Jian that there lived two nine-antler dragons in the western Shuanglong Mountain who had been preparing themselves for this moment for 9,990 years. The old man said that after the

  16. The first complete skeleton of Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 Cervidae, Mammalia, from Bilshausen (Lower Saxony, Germany: description and phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pfeiffer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first well preserved, articulated skeleton of a young male deer of Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 was excavated from early Middle Pleistocene sediments of the clay pit of Bilshausen (Unter-Eichsfeld, Lower Saxony. This find made it possible, for the first time, to establish, using cladistic techniques, the systematic position of Megaloceros verticornis among Pleistocene and Holocene plesiometacarpal and telemetacarpal cervids. By contrast to the antler and tooth characters, the postcranial characters, in particular, are suitable for phylogeny reconstruction. Megaloceros verticornis from Bilshausen shows great similarity with M. giganteus of the Upper Pleistocene of Europe in its skeletal morphology, and bootstrap values (BP = 100 show strong support for the monophyly of M. giganteus and M. verticornis. The analysis yields no evidence, however, of a close relationship between Dama and Megaloceros, which has been widely discussed in the literature because of the presence of large, palmated antlers in both genera. Aus der Tongrube von Bilshausen (Unter-Eichsfeld, Niedersachsen konnte das erste, vollständige Skelett eines jugen Hirsches von Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 aus mittelpleistozänen Sedimentablagerungen geborgen werden. Dieser Fund ermöglichte es erstmalig, die systematische Stellung von Megaloceros verticornis im System plesiometacarpaler und telemetacarpaler Hirsche des Pleistozäns und Holozäns auf breiter Basis zu untersuchen. Im Gegensatz zu den Geweih- und Zahnmerkmalen eignen sich die postcranialen Merkmale des Skelettes besonders gut für eine phylogenetische Rekonstruktion der Hirsche. Die Gemeinsamkeit Großer Schaufelgeweihe bei Dama dama und dem Riesenhirsch Megaloceros giganteus hat dazu geführt, beide in eine enge phylogenetische Beziehung zu setzen, was in der Literatur zu einer anhaltenden Kontroverse geführt hat. Die Analyse der Morphologie der postcranialen Elemente zeigt jedoch, dass es keine

  17. Age-dependent relationship between horn growth and survival in wild sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenfant, Christophe; Pelletier, Fanie; Garel, Mathieu; Bergeron, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    1. Trade-offs in resource allocation underline the evolution of life-history traits but their expression is frequently challenged by empirical findings. In large herbivores, males with large antlers or horns typically have high mating success. The fitness costs of large horns or antlers have rarely been quantified although they are controversial. 2. Here, using detailed longitudinal data on n = 172 bighorn (Ovis canadensis, Shaw) and the capture-mark-recapture methodology, we tested whether early horn growth leads to a survival cost in rams ('trade-off' hypothesis) or if males that can afford rapid horn growth survive better than males of lower phenotypic quality ('phenotypic quality' hypothesis). We also quantified how hunting increased survival costs of bearing large horns. 3. We found an age-specific relationship between horn growth and survival. In all age classes, natural survival was either weakly related to (lambs, adult rams) or positively associated (yearling rams) with early horn growth. Hunting mortality was markedly different from natural mortality of bighorn rams, leading to an artificial negative association between early horn growth and survival. Beginning at age 4, the yearly harvest rate ranged from 12% for males with the smallest horns up to more than 40% for males with the largest horns. 4. Growing large horns early in life is not related to any consistent survival costs, hence supporting the phenotypic quality hypothesis in males of a dimorphic and polygynous large herbivores. Rapid horn growth early in life is, however, strongly counter selected by trophy hunting. We suggest that horn size is a very poor index of reproductive effort and that males modulate their mating activities and energy allocation to horn growth to limit its impact on survival.

  18. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  19. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of

  20. The Role of Museums in Recovery From Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Ken‘ichi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku was founded in 1974 as an Inter-University Research Institute housing a museum and graduate school. A museum is more than a place to store intangible and tangible heritage. Along with its responsibility for conserving and passing on cultural materials, it also creates new culture. On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by an earthquake and tsunami of unprecedented proportions. From one month after the disaster, conservation experts from Minpaku participated in the rescue of tangible cultural resources for the period of eight months. At the same time, our disaster response team worked with village residents in damaged localities, assisting their efforts to replace costumes and ornaments for traditional performing arts that had been washed out to sea, or to repair damaged lion heads, to aid in reviving traditional performing arts. We had thought that, in the process of revival and recovery, the re-launch of festivals and traditional performing arts would come later than the construction of the homes and livelihoods of the local people. In one case, Minpaku, based on its research, was able to provide deer antlers for the headdresses needed to revive the deer dance, an intangible cultural heritage of a village in Iwate Prefecture. Village elders worked the antlers we donated, restored the costumes, and within a year were able to produce ten full sets of costumes. Subsequently, the deer dance was performed in village after village to calm the spirits of the dead, ward off evil spirits, and restore the confidence of people afflicted by the disaster. In this way, a traditional performing art contributed to the revival and rebuilding of the affected communities. In another village the repair and restoration of stone lions’ heads and providing aid for refugees from the disaster were further other examples of organized activity carried out in connection with the traditional performing arts. In sum, our experience

  1. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  2. Key innovations in ruminant evolution: a paleontological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMIGUEL, Daniel; Azanza, Beatriz; Morales, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    Key innovations are newly acquired structures that permit the performance of a new function and open new adaptive zones, and are, therefore, of paramount significance for understanding the history of the Ruminantia, particularly its diversification through the Miocene. Here we review and discuss what is known about these evolutionary novelties, with special emphasis on the appearance and evolution of cranial appendages and high-crowned (or hypsodont) teeth. Cranial appendages probably favored the diversification of pecorans by being structures strongly related to sexual selection, whereas the acquisition of hypsodont teeth could have expanded potential dietary breadth and allowed species to extend diets into the grazing range without eliminating browsing as a potential diet. When analyzed in conjunction with patterns of faunal diversity and in the context of climatic changes, it seems that the overall view that ruminant cranial appendages and hypsodonty may have started responding to increased patterns of seasonality and the opening-up of ecosystems is roughly valid. Instead, they occurred through several distinct pulses and varied widely among continents. This review is, to our knowledge, the first to highlight that the evolution of these innovations has been far from constant and uniform through time. Furthermore, we identify that both a first attempt to increase hypsodonty starting in the early Miocene and a first evolution of antlers and pronghorns were interrupted as a consequence of wide climatic fluctuations in the early-middle Miocene transition.

  3. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  4. Secondary Excavation of the Koguryo Mountain Castle at ,Shitaizi,Shenyang City,Liaoning%辽宁沈阳市石台子高句丽山城第二次发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈阳市文物考古工作队

    2001-01-01

    The secondary excavation of the Shitaizi mountain castle was carried out on the basis of the first digging. It covered an area of 450 sq m. The recorded remains include the excavated sites of the northwestern, eastern, southern and southwestern city-gates, the reservoir and officers-mustering terrace vestiges known through trial diggings, and the drains discovered at the northwestern and eastern city-gates. Among the unearthed objects are pottery (the urn, jar, dish, basin, fu cauldron, bowl, dou stemmed vessel, vessel cover, spindle whorl and disc), bronzes (the buckle, arrowhead and plaque), irons(the arrowhead, armor plate, nail, paring knife, awl, hook, ring, axe, door-nail, door-axle and its base,and cap-like cover), stone tools (the perforated stone, grindstone, spindle whorl and adze) and bone and antler artifacts. The present excavation indicates that this mountain castle was twice damaged by fire.The city-gate structural members found on the gate-sites, such as iron-cast door-leaves, door-axles and their bases, rivets and loops, are all discovered for the first time at Koguryo mountain castle and provide very valuable material for studying the shape and structure of mountain-castle gates in that period.

  5. An Atlas of Medieval Combs from Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Ashby

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As an aid to understanding chronology, economics, identity and culture contact, the early medieval bone/antler hair-comb is an under-exploited resource, despite the existence of an extensive literature borne out of a long-standing tradition of empirical research. Such research has been undertaken according to diverse traditions, is scattered amongst site reports and grey literature, regional, national, and international journals, and is published in a number of different languages. The present article provides a general synthesis of this data, together with the author's personal research, situated within a broad view of chronology and geography. It presents the author's classification of early medieval composite combs, and applies this in a review of comb typology in space and time. It makes use of recently excavated material from little-known and unpublished sites, as well as the classic studies of familiar towns and 'emporia'. The atlas is intended for use as a reference piece that may be accessed according to need, and read in a non-linear fashion. Thus, it may act as a first port-of-call for scholars researching the material culture of a particular spatio-temporal context, while simultaneously facilitating rapid characterisation of freshly excavated finds material. It should provide a useful complement to recent and ongoing question-oriented research on combs.

  6. Population dynamics of a natural red deer population over 200 years detected via substantial changes of genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Gunther Sebastian; Johannesen, Jes; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2016-05-01

    Most large mammals have constantly been exposed to anthropogenic influence over decades or even centuries. Because of their long generation times and lack of sampling material, inferences of past population genetic dynamics, including anthropogenic impacts, have only relied on the analysis of the structure of extant populations. Here, we investigate for the first time the change in the genetic constitution of a natural red deer population over two centuries, using up to 200-year-old antlers (30 generations) stored in trophy collections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the oldest DNA source ever used for microsatellite population genetic analyses. We demonstrate that government policy and hunting laws may have strong impacts on populations that can lead to unexpectedly rapid changes in the genetic constitution of a large mammal population. A high ancestral individual polymorphism seen in an outbreeding population (1813-1861) was strongly reduced in descendants (1923-1940) during the mid-19th and early 20th century by genetic bottlenecks. Today (2011), individual polymorphism and variance among individuals is increasing in a constant-sized (managed) population. Differentiation was high among periods (F ST > ***); consequently, assignment tests assigned individuals to their own period with >85% probability. In contrast to the high variance observed at nuclear microsatellite loci, mtDNA (D-loop) was monomorphic through time, suggesting that male immigration dominates the genetic evolution in this population.

  7. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  8. A non-linear homogeneous model for bone-like materials under compressive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, M; Voide, R; de Bien, C; Freichels, H; Jérôme, C; Léonard, A; Toye, D; Müller, R; van Lenthe, G H; Ponthot, J P

    2012-02-01

    Finite element (FE) models accurately compute the mechanical response of bone and bone-like materials when the models include their detailed microstructure. In order to simulate non-linear behavior, which currently is only feasible at the expense of extremely high computational costs, coarser models can be used if the local morphology has been linked to the apparent mechanical behavior. The aim of this paper is to implement and validate such a constitutive law. This law is able to capture the non-linear structural behavior of bone-like materials through the use of fabric tensors. It also allows for irreversible strains using an elastoplastic material model incorporating hardening. These features are expressed in a constitutive law based on the anisotropic continuum damage theory coupled with isotropic elastoplasticity in a finite strain framework. This material model was implemented into metafor (LTAS-MNNL, University of Liège, Belgium), a non-linear FE software. The implementation was validated against experimental data of cylindrical samples subjected to compression. Three materials with bone-like microstructure were tested: aluminum foams of variable density (ERG, Oakland, CA, USA), polylactic acid foam (CERM, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium), and cancellous bone tissue of a deer antler (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium).

  9. Distinguishing real from fake ivory products by elemental analyses: A Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Thitaram, Chatchote; Klinhom, Sarisa; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2017-03-01

    As laws tighten to limit commercial ivory trading and protect threatened species like whales and elephants, increased sales of fake ivory products have become widespread. This study describes a method, handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a noninvasive technique for elemental analysis, to differentiate quickly between ivory (Asian and African elephant, mammoth) from non-ivory (bones, teeth, antler, horn, wood, synthetic resin, rock) materials. An equation consisting of 20 elements and light elements from a stepwise discriminant analysis was used to classify samples, followed by Bayesian binary regression to determine the probability of a sample being 'ivory', with complementary log log analysis to identify the best fit model for this purpose. This Bayesian hybrid classification model was 93% accurate with 92% precision in discriminating ivory from non-ivory materials. The method was then validated by scanning an additional ivory and non-ivory samples, correctly identifying bone as not ivory with >95% accuracy, except elephant bone, which was 72%. It was less accurate for wood and rock (25-85%); however, a preliminary screening to determine if samples are not Ca-dominant could eliminate inorganic materials. In conclusion, elemental analyses by XRF can be used to identify several forms of fake ivory samples, which could have forensic application.

  10. The 750 GeV Diphoton Excess May Not Imply a 750 GeV Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Won Sang; Kong, Kyoungchul; Lim, Sung Hak; Matchev, Konstantin T; Park, Jong-Chul; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-01-01

    We discuss non-standard interpretations of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations which do not involve a new, relatively broad, resonance with a mass near 750 GeV. Instead, we consider the sequential cascade decay of a much heavier, possibly quite narrow, resonance into two photons along with one or more invisible particles. The resulting diphoton invariant mass signal is generically rather broad, as suggested by the data. We examine three specific event topologies - the antler, the sandwich, and the 2-step cascade decay, and show that they all can provide a good fit to the observed published data. In each case, we delineate the preferred mass parameter space selected by the best fit. In spite of the presence of invisible particles in the final state, the measured missing transverse energy is moderate, due to its anti- correlation with the diphoton invariant mass. We comment on the future prospects of discriminating with higher statistics between our scenarios, as we...

  11. Is mate choice copying or aggregation responsible for skewed distributions of females on leks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, K; Clutton-Brock, T

    1994-01-22

    In several lek-breeding populations of birds and mammals, females arriving on leks tend to join males that already have females in their territories. This might occur either because females have an evolved preference for mating with males that are attractive to other females, or because they join groups of other females to obtain greater safety from predation or dangerous harassment by males. We have previously used controlled experiments to show that oestrous fallow deer females join males with established harems because they are attracted to female groups rather than to the males themselves. Here we demonstrate that the preference for males with females over males without females is specific to oestrous females and weak or absent in anoestrous ones, and that it is not associated with a preference for mating with males that have previously been seen to mate with other females. Furthermore, oestrous females given the choice between males that do not already have females with them show no significant preference for antlered over deantlered males or for older males over younger ones. We conclude that female attraction to other females on the lek is likely to be an adaptation to avoiding harassment in mixed-sex herds. In this situation, a male's ability to maintain the cohesion of his harem may be the principal cause of variation in mating success between males.

  12. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K.; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T.; Luepold, Shannon H. Buckley; Belote, John M.; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  13. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  14. [Skull and mandible. On Joseph Beuys' "ancient sled." Medical art history observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H

    1999-05-01

    Few people are aware that Joseph Beuys (1921-1986), one of the most important artists at the end of the twentieth century, studied various aspects of the human skull. Beuys used teeth (especially molars), antlers, and horns as organically differentiated formations of solid substances of the viscerocranium, associating them in a very visual way with the "streaming circulation" principle. In addition, in his early drawings, in particular, Beuys replaced the lower jaw with a sledge. The artist has thus created interesting and strange constructions concerned with the structure of the jaw and the craniovertebral transition. Certain characteristic structural elements of sledges show a remarkable formal analogy to the ramus of mandible. The base of the body of mandible becomes a sliding surface, the iron runners of the sledge. Replacing the lower jaw with a sledge raises questions concerning movement and the effect of energy on the skull and on the earth. The artist's understanding of anatomy goes for beyond than that of normal medicine. It is formed by his thinking, his energy plan, and by his own theory of metamorphosis. With his skull and Urschlitten motif, Beuys makes us aware of the transitory layers of consciousness between life and death. "Head" and "sledge" are early forms of sculptural thinking in the work of Joseph Beuys.

  15. Seroprevalence, isolation, first genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii, and possible congenital transmission in wild moose from Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv K; Carstensen, Michelle; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Moore, Seth A; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are widespread in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but little is known of its prevalence in other cervids in the USA. Moose (Alces alces) is a popular large game animal, hunted for its meat and trophy antlers. Here, we report seroprevalence, isolation, and genetic characterization of T. gondii from moose from Minnesota. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 8 of 79 (10%) moose tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT 1:25 or higher). The myocardium of 68 moose was bioassayed individually in mice, irrespective of serological status. T. gondii was detected in three moose (2 adults, 1 3 weeks old). The parasite from 2 adults was further propagated in cell culture. PCR-RFLP genotyping of cell culture derived tachyzoites using 10 genetic markers, SAG1, SAG2 (5′ and 3′ SAG2, and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed two different ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes (#5, designated TgMooseUS1, and #7, TgMooseUS2). The mice inoculated with myocardium of the juvenile moose developed antibodies against T. gondii, and DNA extracted from infected mouse brain was only partially characterized by PCR-RFLP genotyping, which suggests a potential new genotype. Result documented prevalence of T. gondii in moose, and its possible transplacental/transmammary transmission of T. gondii in moose.

  16. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the ruminal bacteria from moose (Alces alces) in Vermont, Alaska, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Wright, André-Denis

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the rumen bacteria of moose (Alces alces) from three distinct geographic locations were investigated. Moose are large, browsing ruminants in the deer family, which subsist on fibrous, woody browse, and aquatic plants. Subspecies exist which are distinguished by differing body and antler size, and these are somewhat geographically isolated. Seventeen rumen samples were collected from moose in Vermont, Alaska, and Norway, and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with titanium chemistry. Overall, 109,643 sequences were generated from the 17 individual samples, revealing 33,622 unique sequences. Members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were dominant in samples from Alaska and Norway, but representatives of the phylum Firmicutes were dominant in samples from Vermont. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotellaceae was the dominant family in all three sample locations, most of which belonged to the genus Prevotella. Within the phylum Firmicutes, the family Lachnospiraceae was the most prevalent in all three sample locations. The data set supporting the results of this article is available in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA), available through NCBI [study accession number SRP022590]. Samples clustered by geographic location and by weight and were heterogenous based on gender, location, and weight class (p moose may have been isolated long enough to preclude a core microbiome among moose. Other potential factors discussed include differences in climate, food quality and availability, gender, and life cycle.

  17. Ptychographic X-ray nanotomography quantifies mineral distributions in human dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, I.; Enders, B.; Dierolf, M.; Thibault, P.; Gradl, R.; Diaz, A.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Menzel, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Zaslansky, P.

    2015-03-01

    Bones are bio-composites with biologically tunable mechanical properties, where a polymer matrix of nanofibrillar collagen is reinforced by apatite mineral crystals. Some bones, such as antler, form and change rapidly, while other bone tissues, such as human tooth dentine, develop slowly and maintain constant composition and architecture for entire lifetimes. When studying apatite mineral microarchitecture, mineral distributions or mineralization activity of bone-forming cells, representative samples of tissue are best studied at submicrometre resolution while minimizing sample-preparation damage. Here, we demonstrate the power of ptychographic X-ray tomography to map variations in the mineral content distribution in three dimensions and at the nanometre scale. Using this non-destructive method, we observe nanostructures surrounding hollow tracts that exist in human dentine forming dentinal tubules. We reveal unprecedented quantitative details of the ultrastructure clearly revealing the spatially varying mineralization density. Such information is essential for understanding a variety of natural and therapeutic effects for example in bone tissue healing and ageing.

  18. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  19. Neolithisation of technology: innovation and tradition in the Starčevo culture osseous industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Vitezović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The earliest Neolithic cultures in Southeast Europe brought significant changes in many aspects of everyday life, in subsistence, settlement patterns, architecture, and also ritual aspects. Technological changes are also very important – the introduction of completely new technologies, such as clay working, or new techniques in existing industries, e.g., lithic, osseous, etc. The osseous industry is especially informative for questions on innovations and traditions, since it was well developed in both the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods. In Starčevo culture, certain Mesolithic traditions may be observed, such as techniques for antler manufacture; however, numerous innovations are also visible, particularly techno-types of Near Eastern origin such as spatula-spoons, the most characteristic bone techno-type of the Early Neolithic in South-east Europe, as well as diverse decorative items. Furthermore, new raw materials (bones from domestic animals are introduced, and new techniques for manufacture and new tools. It is also interesting to observe that, although osseous materials remain the dominant raw material for personal ornaments, they are no longer used for artistic expression.

  20. 驯鹿及其生物学特性研究%Reindeer and Its Biological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常悦; 张玉; 陈巴特尔; 孙亚红

    2013-01-01

    驯鹿分布于北极圈及其周边地区,耐寒怕燥,处于野生或半驯化状态.本文通过对驯鹿的生态分布,形态特征(包括个体大小、被毛、茸角、鼻、蹄、视力),进食习性,繁殖习性,迁徙活动以及天敌等几方面对驯鹿的生物学特性做出较为全面的介绍,以便为今后的驯鹿保护工作奠定基础,从而制定出针对性更强的保护措施.%The reindeer inhabits in the Arctic Circle and its surrounding areas, which is cold resistant and afraid of dryness and in the wild or semi-domesticated state. The paper comprehensively introduced the biological characteristics of the reindeer through such aspects as its ecological distribution, morphological character (including body size, fur, antler, nose, feet and eyesight), eating habit, breeding habit, migrating activities as well as its natural enemies, so as to lay a foundation for the protection work and therefore developing more effective protective measures.

  1. Hunter perceptions and acceptance of alternative deer management regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicelli, L.; Fulton, D.C.; Grund, M.D.; Fieberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers are often confronted with a policy paradox where a majority of the public supports an outcome, but there is no agreement on specific management strategies to achieve this outcome. Previous research has also reported a link between regulatory acceptance, hunter satisfaction, and hunter participation rates. Thus, human dimensions research aimed at understanding hunter motivations and behavior is needed for effective management. In 2005, we surveyed Minnesota (USA) deer hunters (n = 6,000; 59% response) to evaluate attitudes regarding alternative deer (Odocoileus virginianus) harvest regulations. We also conducted a series of forced choice experiments in which respondents were asked to select an option from a list of representative regulations that might be adopted to achieve a particular deer management goal. Specifically, we modeled 5 deer population scenarios ranging from low populations with high buck-harvest rates to populations 50% over goal density. Our results indicate that hunters preferred different regulations depending on the population scenario, but generally preferred antler-point restrictions and disliked limiting buck licenses through a lottery. We also found consistency among scenarios, in that a small percentage of respondents indicated they would not hunt if regulations were changed. The results from this study should help wildlife managers design deer harvest regulations that are both acceptable to hunters and achieve management objectives. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Diversity and distribution of adeonid bryozoans (Cheilostomata: Adeonidae in Japanese waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Hirose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adeonid bryozoans construct antler-like erect colonies and are common in bryozoan assemblages along the Japanese Pacific coast. The taxonomy of Japanese adeonid species, however, has not been studied since their original descriptions more than 100 years ago. In the present study, adeonid specimens from historical collections and material recently collected along the Japanese coast are examined. Eight adeonid species in two genera were detected, of which Adeonella jahanai sp. nov., Adeonellopsis parvirostrum sp. nov., and Adeonellopsis toyoshioae sp. nov. are described as new species based on the branch width, size and morphology of frontal or suboral avicularia, shape and size of areolar pores, and size of the spiramen. Adeonellopsis arculifera (Canu & Bassler, 1929 is a new record for Japan. Lectotypes for Adeonellopsis japonica (Ortmann, 1890 and Adeonella sparassis (Ortmann, 1890 were selected among Ortmann’s syntypes. Most species of Adeonellopsis around Japan have a southern distribution from Sagami Bay to Okinawa, while A. japonica shows a more northern distribution from Kouchi to Otsuchi. In contrast, Adeonellopsis arculifera was collected only from southwestern Japan. A key to Japanese adeonid species is provided.

  3. Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. These materials are of the special significance because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and dear antlers and pathological (i.e. those appearing due to various diseases calcified tissues of mammals. Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates. For example, self-setting hydraulic cements made of calcium orthophosphates are helpful in bone repair, while titanium substitutes covered by a surface layer of calcium orthophosphates are used for hip joint endoprostheses and as tooth substitutes. Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. In addition, technical grade calcium orthophosphates are very popular mineral fertilizers. Thus ere calcium orthophosphates are of great significance for humankind and, in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided.

  4. Coal resources of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Henry L.; Brown, Donald M.; Brown, Andrew; Taylor, Dorothy A.

    1950-01-01

    The Antlers aquifer, which consists of as much as 900 feet of friable sandstone, silt, clay, and shale crops out in areas of 1 ,860 square miles and underlies about 4,400 square miles in southeastern Oklahoma. Precipitation ranges from 34 to 50 inches per year across the outcrop area which is well suited to allow high rates of infiltration. The aquifer contains an estimated 70 ,000,000 acre-feet of water having less than 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. The average saturated thickness is 250 feet. Aquifer tests indicate the average transmissivity is 1 ,480 feet squared per day and the average storage coefficient is 0.0005. Large capacity wells tapping the aquifer commonly yield 100 to 500 gallons per minute; the maximum measured yield is 1 ,700 gallons per minute. Water usage from the aquifer is very small owing to an abundance of surface water. Water quality throughout the central and northern part of the aquifer is generally acceptable for municipal use. However, a few wells yield water containing concentrations of iron and manganese exceeding the limit recommended by the National Academy of Science for municipal use. (USGS)

  5. 豆状囊尾蚴的超微结构观察%Ultrastructure Observation of Cysticercus pisiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘耀谦; 刘兴友; 赵振升; 陈金山; 张慧蓉; 朱广蕊; 夏银可; 银梅; 唐海蓉

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the ultrastructure of Cysticercus pisiformis under different state. The Cysticercus pisifomis were obtained in the procedure of slaughter inspection from meat-packing plant. The Cysticercus pisiformis was taken out by cutting cyst directly, or cultured with physiologic saline containing 10% bile until evagination. Then it was observed and recorded by scanning electron microscopy. Observed from top of scolex of Cysticercus pisiformis locate in cyst,the rostellum looked like a umbrella. The cutaneous muscular columns with hamula covered the front end of scolex. Viewed from the side, a row of antlers-liking hamula adhered to the scolex. Four suckers were looked like cavity and distributed around the scolex behind the rostellum. Primary neck segments were more width and body segments less fine,in which there were lots of wrinkles in their surface respectively. The Cysticercus pisiformis cultured was divided obviously into scolex, neck, body segment and zone of cyst. When cutaneous muscular column of rostellum contracted, the antler-liking hamula extended to periphery, and the sucker also had ring-like and vertical shape contraction. It was also found evidently that the ringliking contraction appeared in neck and the lengthways contraction in body segments. The Cysticercus pisiformis under different state has distinctly dissimilar ultrastructure.%本研究旨在观察豆状囊尾蚴在不同状态下的超微结构.从肉联厂屠宰检验采取豆状囊尾蚴,直接剪破囊泡从中取出豆状囊尾蚴;或用含10%胆汁生理盐水培养囊尾蚴,待其从囊泡中翻出后,用扫描电镜观察和记录.位于囊泡内的头节,从其顶端观察,顶突呈伞状,皮肌柱连接小钩覆盖于头节的前端.从侧面观察,一排有鹿角样的小钩附着于顶突.4个吸盘呈洞穴状位于顶突之后分布在头节的四周.原始颈节较宽,体节较细,表面均有许多皱褶.培养后的豆状囊尾蚴可明显区

  6. 豆状囊尾蚴的头节在相对静止与运动状态时的超微结构变化%Ultrastructural Changes of Scolex on Cysticercus pisiformis during Relative Rest and Motion States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘耀谦; 张柳平; 王帅; 李瑞珍; 刘志科; 孙玉倩; Javaid Ali Gadahi; 刘兴友

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察豆状囊尾蚴的头节在相对静止与运动时超微结构的变化。[方法]本研究用扫描电镜对位于囊泡内的头节和经人工培养后从囊泡内翻出头节的超微结构变化进行了比较观察。[结果]处于相对静止状态的头节从正面观察时,带有皮肌柱和齿钩的顶突呈伞状,覆盖于头节的前端。从侧面观察,齿钩具有鹿角样的分支,覆盖头节的齿钩仅有一排。4个吸盘呈洞穴状,位于顶突之后,均等地分布在头节的四周。当头节处于运动状态时,顶突上的皮肌柱收缩,鹿角样的齿钩向周围伸展,吸盘也发生环形和纵行收缩。[结论]豆状囊尾蚴的头节在相对静止与运动时的超微结构有明显的改变,这种变化有利于豆状囊尾蚴对宿主的侵袭。%[Objective] This study aimed to research the ultra-morphological changes of scolex of Cysticercus pisiformis during the relative rest and motion states. [Method] The ultrastructure changes of scolex located in cyst and evaginated from cyst after cultivation were comparatively observed by scanning electron microscope. [Result] When the scolex was in the relative rest state, observed from the top, the rostel um with the tegument muscular column that connected to tooth-hook looked like the umbrel a and covered on the front end of the scolex. Viewed from the side of the scolex, the tooth-hook on the rostel um looked like the antler branch and had only one row. Four suckers looked like cavities, and were located in the back of the rostel um and distributed around the scolex in the equidistance. When the scolex was in the motion states, the tegument muscular column on the rostel um contracted, the antler-like tooth-hook extended to periphery, and the sucker also made the ring-like and longitudinal-like contraction. [Conclusion] Ultrastructure of the scolex of C. pisiformis changed apparently during relative rest and motion states. Those changes help

  7. 龟鹿二仙胶及其拆方对豚鼠软骨细胞Ⅱ型胶原蛋白多糖合成的影响%Effects of Guilu Erxian Glue and its separate on collagen type Ⅱ and proteoglycan of guinea pig's chondrocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 尹玉彪; 雒焕生; 黄远鹏; 杜江; 李奕修; 赵诣; 王和鸣

    2011-01-01

    active substance of Guilu Erxian Glue are Carapax testudinis and antler. Ginseng and Lycium both can not enhance the expression of collagen type II and proteoglycan, but they can help Carapax testudinis and antler enhance the expression of collagen type II and proteoglycan.

  8. New information on the cranial anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and its implications for the phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew R Eddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allosauroidea has a contentious taxonomic and systematic history. Within this group of theropod dinosaurs, considerable debate has surrounded the phylogenetic position of the large-bodied allosauroid Acrocanthosaurus atokensis from the Lower Cretaceous Antlers Formation of North America. Several prior analyses recover Acrocanthosaurus atokensis as sister taxon to the smaller-bodied Allosaurus fragilis known from North America and Europe, and others nest Acrocanthosaurus atokensis within Carcharodontosauridae, a large-bodied group of allosauroids that attained a cosmopolitan distribution during the Early Cretaceous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Re-evaluation of a well-preserved skull of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (NCSM 14345 provides new information regarding the palatal complex and inner surfaces of the skull and mandible. Previously inaccessible internal views and articular surfaces of nearly every element of the skull are described. Twenty-four new morphological characters are identified as variable in Allosauroidea, combined with 153 previously published characters, and evaluated for eighteen terminal taxa. Systematic analysis of this dataset recovers a single most parsimonious topology placing Acrocanthosaurus atokensis as a member of Allosauroidea, in agreement with several recent analyses that nest the taxon well within Carcharodontosauridae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A revised diagnosis of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis finds that the species is distinguished by four primary characters, including: presence of a knob on the lateral surangular shelf; enlarged posterior surangular foramen; supraoccipital protruding as a double-boss posterior to the nuchal crest; and pneumatic recess within the medial surface of the quadrate. Furthermore, the recovered phylogeny more closely agrees with the stratigraphic record than hypotheses that place Acrocanthosaurus atokensis as more closely related to Allosaurus fragilis. Fitch optimization

  9. Trading of crude drugs between China and Russia as recorded in 3 Chinese versions of Russian works%3部汉译俄文文献记载的中俄药材贸易

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兆平; 王振国

    2014-01-01

    19世纪前,中俄两国贸易中涉及到中药材的进出口往来.由中国输入俄国的中药材以植物性来源为主,其中以大黄为最重要的贸易品种,其次为药食两用的辛香料如八角茴香、桂皮、胡椒、姜,还有特殊的药用品种如当归、奎宁.而由俄国输入中国的药材则以动物性来源为主,其中尤以贵重的动物性中药麝香在1854年的大量输入特别引入注目,曾一次性输入7万个麝香囊,其他品种如鹿茸、羚羊角的贸易也典型体现了俄方的地域与物产特点.%Trading of crude drugs between China and Russia appeared before the 19th century.By then,exports of Chinese crude drugs to Russia were mainly plants,with Radix et Rhizoma Rhei as the most exported one,followed by both dietary and medicinal aromatic plants,such as fennel,cinnamon bark,pepper,ginger,and Radix Angelica sinensis,and quinine.Imports of Russian drugs were mainly of animal ones,especially those valuable animals like musk sac.In 1854,the importation of a large amount of such sac,numbering as many as 70 000,was very remarkable.Other drugs includcd stag antler,tender horn of deer,demonstrating typically the regional and productive characteristics of Russia.

  10. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darimont, Chris T; Child, K Rosie

    2014-01-01

    Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas), physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing), and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair) and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%), camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access, wildlife hunters in

  11. Effect of Shengdeye on anti-fatigue and the memory in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Shengdeye is a kind of medicinal wine. It is fermented with 30 kinds of medicinal herbs such as glossy ganoderma, pilose antler, panax, medlar and sorghum. This study aimed to observe the effects of Shengdeye on anti-fatigue and memory in mice.METHODS: The mice were fed with Shengdeye 5 ml*kg-1 and 2.5 ml*kg-1 2 times per day. After 7 days, the mice were examined on anoxia-resistant and swimming test for anti-fatigue and step down test for memory.RESULTS: The anoxia-resistant of shengdege group was apparently longer than that of the control group [(29.60±1.36) min vs (24.40±3.13) min, P<0.01], and the swimming time was sharply increased [(142.6±53.8) min for 2.5 ml*kg-1 and (162.9±43.5) min for 5 ml*kg-1 vs (94.9±39.1) min, P<0.05]. The error times of shengdege group was lower than that of the control [(1.5±1.4) times and (2.3±1.3) times vs (3.7±1.1) times, P<0.01]. The delitescence of two group were sharply prolonged [(136.8±50.1) s, and (128.0±41.5) s vs (50.2±42.9) s, P<0.01].CONCLUSION: The results indicated that Shengdeye had an anti-fatigne effect and increased the faculty of memory. The experiment of acute toxicity showed that the medicinal herbs in Shyengdeye were safe.

  12. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Parfitt, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    A recurring theme of late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian human bone assemblages is the remarkable rarity of primary burials and the common occurrence of highly-fragmentary human remains mixed with occupation waste at many sites. One of the most extensive Magdalenian human bone assemblages comes from Gough's Cave, a sizeable limestone cave set in Cheddar Gorge (Somerset), UK. After its discovery in the 1880s, the site was developed as a show cave and largely emptied of sediment, at times with minimal archaeological supervision. Some of the last surviving remnants of sediment within the cave were excavated between 1986 and 1992. The excavations uncovered intensively-processed human bones intermingled with abundant butchered large mammal remains and a diverse range of flint, bone, antler, and ivory artefacts. New ultrafiltrated radiocarbon determinations demonstrate that the Upper Palaeolithic human remains were deposited over a very short period of time, possibly during a series of seasonal occupations, about 14,700 years BP (before present). The human remains have been the subject of several taphonomic studies, culminating in a detailed reanalysis of the cranial remains that showed they had been carefully modified to make skull-cups. Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism. In a wider context, the treatment of the human corpses and the manufacture and use of skull-cups at Gough Cave have parallels with other Magdalenian sites in central and western Europe. This suggests that cannibalism during the Magdalenian was part of a customary mortuary practice that combined intensive processing and consumption of the bodies with

  13. Genetic characterization of wild swamp deer populations: ex situ conservation and forensics implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ved Prakash; Shrivastwa, Anupam; Nigam, Parag; Kumar, Dhyanendra; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2016-10-26

    Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii) is an endemic, Scheduled I species under the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, India. According to variations in antler size, it has been classified into three subspecies, namely Western (R. duvaucelii duvaucelii), Central (R. duvaucelii branderi), and Eastern (R. duvaucelii ranjitsinhii). For planning effective ex situ and in situ conservation of a wide-ranging species in different bioclimatic regions and in wildlife forensic, the use of genetic characterization in defining morpho/ecotypes has been suggested because of the geographic clines and reproductive isolation. In spite of these morphotypes, very little is known about the genetic characteristics of the three subspecies, hence no strict subspecies-based breeding plan for retaining the evolutionary characteristics in captive populations for subsequent re-introduction is available except for a few studies. We describe the genetic characteristics of these three subspecies using cytochrome b of the mtDNA genome (400 bp). The DNA sequence data indicated 11 variable sites within the three subspecies. Two paraphyletic clades, namely the Central India and Western-Eastern populations were found, whereas the Western and Eastern populations are monophyletic with a bootstrap value of 69% within the clade. We suggest the need of sorting these three subspecies using different molecular mtDNA markers in zoos for captive breeding purposes so as to retain the genetic diversity of the separate geographic clines and to use a subspecies-specific fixed-state nucleotide to assess the extent of poaching to avoid any population demography stochastically in India.

  14. Doença de Dowling-Degos: apresentação clínica e histopatológica clássica Dowling-Degos disease: classic clinical and histopathological presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cotta Zimmermann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Dowling-Degos é uma genodermatose rara que consiste numa desordem pigmentar reticulada. Caracteriza-se pela presença de máculas hiperpigmentadas nas regiões flexurais com distribuição em rede; lesões tipo comedão no dorso e na região cervical; e cicatrizes cribriformes na face, particularmente periorais. Apresentamos um caso de um paciente de 51 anos, masculino, com lesões tipo macrocomedões, cicatrizes cribriformes, cistos e máculas hipercrômicas no dorso, tórax anterior, axilas, pescoço, região genital e face. Relatava ter dois filhos, três irmãos e o pai com quadro semelhante. As biópsias de pele foram características da doença de Dowling-Degos, mostrando dilatação folicular, epiderme digitiforme, com áreas de aspecto de "chifre de veado" e focos de hiperpigmentação da camada basal.Dowling-Degos disease (DDD is a rare genetic disease of the skin (reticulate pigmented anomaly, clinically characterized by flexural brown pigmented reticulate macules, comedo-like papules on the back, neck and pitted perioral or facial scars. We present the case of a 51 year-old man with macrocomedo-like lesions, pitted scars, cysts, hyperpigmented macules in his back, chest, axillae, neck, groin and face. The patient reported having two children, three brothers and a father with a similar condition. The histopathology of the skin biopsies was very characteristic of Dowling-Degos disease, showing dilated follicular, fingerlike projections called rete ridges (dermal pegs, with thinning of the suprapapillary plates, resulting in an "antler-like" pattern and increased pigmentation of the basal layer.

  15. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  16. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  17. Health status and relative exposure of mule deer and white-tailed deer to soil contaminants at the rocky mountain arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Whittaker, D.G.; Roy, R.R.; Franson, J.C.; Baker, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer [13 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and 5 white-tailed deer (O. virginianus)] from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, near Denver, Colorado, USA, a Superfund site contaminated with a variety of materials, including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve gas production by-products. Radio-collared deer were tracked for 1 to 3 years (1989-1992) to identify relative exposure to contaminants based on telemetry locations plotted on grid maps depicting known soil contaminant concentrations. At the end of the study, all animals were in fair or good body condition at the time of necropsy. Mean ages of mule deer and white-tailed deer were 7.4 (range 4-12) and 10.6 years (range 5-17), respectively. At necropsy, tissues were collected from the deer for serology, histopathology, and analysis for eight chlorinated hydrocarbons and two metals. Detectable residues of mercury were found in the kidneys of 10 deer (range 0.055-0.096 ??g/g), dieldrin was found in fat (n = 9) (range 0.02-0.72 ??g/g), liver (n = 4) (range 0.017-0.12 ??g/g), and brain (n = 1, 0.018 ??g/g), and DDE was found in the muscle of one animal (0.02 ??g/g). Relative exposure estimates derived from telemetry and soil contamination data were correlated with tissue levels of dieldrin (p < 0.001) and mercury (p = 0.05). Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. The prevalence of antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85%.

  18. Burdale: An Anglian Settlement in the Yorkshire Wolds (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D. Richards

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Burdale digital archive (Richards and Roskams 2013 comprises a broad range of primary and secondary data derived from fieldwork and post-excavation analysis. It complements the summary report published as Richards and Roskams (2012. Full stratigraphic reports are downloadable for each season of excavation and can be related to the sequence of CAD plans also available. These can, in turn, be set within the wider site map derived from aerial photography and geophysical survey. Final reports are available for the pottery, spindlewhorls, and worked bone and antler (Ashby 2013. Other finds are simply listed in the finds databases, split by excavation year, with some preliminary notes on the ironwork included in the investigative conservation reports. The non-ferrous finds assemblage was largely missing, apart from a small number of topsoil finds recovered during metal detector surveys. Given the alleged wealth of the site, and the interest in it from 'nighthawks' we have to assume that unfortunately, most of the coinage and copper alloy metalwork has been collected from the ploughsoil over many years and is in private hands or has been sold for profit. In common with other Yorkshire sites Burdale produced very little early medieval pottery but this is likely to be a real absence rather than a product of recovery bias. The animal bone assemblage (Richardson 2010 is one of the most important elements of the archive. Over 300 images are also presented, split by year of excavation. The file downloads are organised in 3 groups: those relating to the whole project and those specifically related to excavations in 2006 (BUR06 or 2007 (BUR07. Referee statement by Gabor Thomas

  19. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Darimont

    Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access

  20. Le comportement symbolique dans la Préhistoire de la Roumanie: art mobilier au Paléolithique supérieur en Moldavie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BELDIMAN

    2009-12-01

    in a cave site. The types identified are: bâtons percés worked in horse long bone and in roe-deer antler; lithic and bone pendants; disk in roe-deer antler; perforated teeth; lithic objects in quartzite and graphite as well as bone and antler pieces having linear engraved decoration or notches; decorated roe-deer antler harpoon: ivory mammoth tusk fragment; fossil mollusks of Congeria? species; perforated snails of Succinea oblonga? ou Lithoglyphus naticoides? species. Most of the artifacts are of significant importance for the phenomenon of art and of prehistoric technology in these regions; in this point of view we have to mention the pendants discovered at Mitoc, Botosani County and the fragment of bone discovered in 1998 with the engraved image of an animal’s foot from Piatra Neamt, Neamt County. Another exceptional artifact is the fragment of mammoth tusk from Lespezi, Bacau County dated at around 18 kya showing the débitage traces on the proximal part that prove the using of notching and grooving technique and probably of transverse sawing with fiber; this should be the oldest situation of use of such a technique solution in this part of Europe. Taking into account the extreme rarity of ivory artifacts in the Upper Paleolithic of Romania it is probably that the provenance of the objects can be found in the near territories of Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Ukraine, Republic of Moldavia, Russia where the manufacture and use of such artifacts was common in that epoch. The study contributes essentially to the definition in actual terms of typology and technology of oldest portable art objects from a particular region of Romania as material expression of first spiritual manifestations of huntergatherer communities and allowed to integrate the data of the phenomenon in the South-East and Central European context.

  1. The Population Status and Potential Resources' Utilization of Elaphurus davidianus%中国麋鹿种群现状与潜在资源利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树苗; 梁兵宽; 张林源; 李坤

    2009-01-01

    Elaphurus davidianus is one special species in Chinese deer family, belonging to 1st class of protected animals. Its antler, fat, flesh and blood etc possess medical values. Since human being's irregular hunting and environmental changes, Elaphurus davidianus had been become extinct since 1900. In the middle of 1980s, our country initiated Milu's reintroduction program, which made the quantity of Milu over 2000 individuals. The paper analyzes Elaphurus davidianus' values in food, medicine, leather, medical care, beauty, ecological and cultural aspects,and issues in its population development such as kin mating, few distribution spot, density restrict, as well as measures for its protection and sustainable utilization.%麋鹿是中国特有的鹿科动物,是国家Ⅰ级保护动物,其茸、角、脂、血、肉等均具有药用价值.由于人类的猎捕和环境变迁,麋鹿于1900年灭绝.20世纪80年代中期,我国启动了麋鹿重引进项目,现在我国麋鹿数量超过了2 000头.分析麋鹿在食用、药用、制革、保健与美容、观赏、生态及文化方面的价值及目前种群发展存在着的近亲交配、分布点少、密度制约等问题,提出了保护与可持续利用对策.

  2. EC-18, a synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol), attenuates the asthmatic response in an aluminum hydroxide/ovalbumin-induced model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Sohn, Ki-Young; Lee, Tae-Suk; Kim, Jae-Wha; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    EC-18 is a synthetic monoacetyldiaglyceride that is a major constituent in antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temmenick). In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of EC-18 on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, and other factors in an aluminum hydroxide/ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized on days 0 and 14 by intraperitoneal injection of OVA with aluminum hydroxide. On days 21, 22 and 23 after the initial sensitization, the mice received an airway challenge with OVA for 1h using an ultrasonic nebulizer. EC-18 was administered to mice by oral gavage at doses of 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg once daily from day 18 to 23. Methacholine responsiveness was measured 24h after the final OVA challenge, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 48h after the final OVA challenge. EC-18 significantly reduced methacholine responsiveness, T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, eotaxin-1, immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG, and the number of inflammatory cells. In addition, EC-18-treated mice exhibited the reduction in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue. In the histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin stain and periodic acid-Schiff stain, EC-18 attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airway and reduced the level of mucus production. Our results showed that EC-18 effectively suppressed the asthmatic response induced by OVA challenge. These effects were considered to be associated with iNOS suppression. In conclusion, this study suggests that EC-18 may be a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma.

  3. 鹿食毛症的发病原因与综合防治措施%On the Pathogenesis and Control Measures of Deer Eat-feather-disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋百军; 毕继宏; 刘伍权

    2012-01-01

    The lack of minerals,trace elements,sulfur-containing amino acids and other nutrients or stocking density is too large caused by deer bite hair,food hair and secondary stomach flaccid,intestinal obstruction,a major cause.General incidence of March to April,the incidence of more than 90%,resulting in the decline of the male deer antler quality and yield,fawn stunting,severe and even formed in the stomach and small intestine of the true size,ranging from hairballs,blocking the digestive tract cause death,serious harm to deer industry,resulting in huge economic losses.The main control measures have reasonable clustering management,appropriate stocking density,supplementary minerals and sulfur amino acids,the balance of feed nutrition,sick deer can only be orally laxatives to exclude the hair bulb,a serious need surgery.%矿物质、微量元素、含硫氨基酸等营养物质缺乏或饲养密度过大是引起鹿只咬毛、食毛并继发前胃弛缓、瓣胃阻塞的主要病因。鹿食毛症一般多在3~4月份发病,发病率高达90%以上,导致公鹿鹿茸品质和产量下降,仔鹿生长发育不良,严重的甚至在真胃和小肠内形成大小不等的毛团,阻塞消化道造成死亡,给养鹿业带来严重危害,造成经济上的巨大损失。主要防治措施有合理分群管理,饲养密度适当;补充矿物元素和含硫氨基酸,平衡饲料营养;患病鹿只可以灌胃泻药排除毛球,严重的需要手术治疗。

  4. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  5. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome probably induced by a lamotrigine-ginseng drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy P; Watson, Troy A; Strock, Steven B

    2015-03-01

    The likelihood of a drug reaction with lamotrigine is increased by dose escalation that is too rapid or drug interactions that increase the concentration of lamotrigine. There is a well-documented interaction between valproic acid and lamotrigine in which lamotrigine levels are increased, subsequently increasing the risk of a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, diffuse maculopapular rash, multivisceral involvement, eosinophilia, and atypical lymphocytes and has a mortality rate of 10-40%. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of DRESS syndrome that was probably induced by a drug interaction between lamotrigine and ginseng. A 44-year-old white man presented to the emergency department after experiencing a possible seizure. His medical history included two other lifetime events concerning for seizures at ages 14 and 29 years old. After referral to the neurology clinic, he was diagnosed with generalized tonic-clonic seizure disorder, and lamotrigine was started with up-titration according to the drug's package insert to a goal dosage of 150 mg twice/day. The patient had also been taking deer antler velvet and ginseng that he continued during his lamotrigine therapy. On day 43 of therapy, the patient presented to the emergency department with a pruritic rash that had started on his extremities and spread to his torso. He was thought to have experienced a drug reaction to lamotrigine, and the drug was discontinued. Thirteen days later, the patient was admitted from the acute care clinic for inpatient observation due to laboratory abnormalities in the setting of continued rash, headache, and myalgias. His admission laboratory results on that day were remarkable for leukocytosis, with a white blood cell count up to 17.6 × 10(3) /mm(3) , with a prominent eosinophilia of 3.04 × 10(3) /mm(3) ; his liver enzyme levels were also elevated, with an aspartate

  6. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  7. Map showing areas with potential for talc deposits in the Gravelly, Greenhorn, and Ruby ranges and the Henrys Lake Mountains of southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Berg, Richard B.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    1998-01-01

    For the last several years, Montana has been the leading talc producing state in the United States (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996). For example, in 1992 Montana supplied about 40 percent of the U.S. mine production of talc (Virta, 1992). All of this production has come from the large deposits of high purity talc in the southwestern part of the state. All Montana talc is currently (1997) extracted from four mines, each within the study area of this map—the open pit operations of the Treasure State, Regal, and Yellowstone mines and the underground operation of the Beaverhead mine (see map numbers 1-4 on list and map to the left). The related mineral chlorite is mined at the Antler mine, located nearby, but outside of the study area in the Highland Mountains. Montana talc has at least two market advantages: (1) some deposits are very large and near surface, allowing economic mining by open pit methods; and (2) the deposits are of high purity and lack tremolite or other amphibole mineral contaminants (such as absestos) that occur in some other talc-rich deposits. Talc from southwest Montana is used in ceramics, paint, paper, plastics, cosmetics, rubber, roofing, flooring, caulking, and agricultural applications. The talc is also used in the processes of recycling paper and plastics. Talc was first discovered in the early 1900's at the present site of the Yellowstone mine (Perry, 1948, p. 9). Modest production began in 1942 from shallow pits and adits, supplying steatite (massive, compact, high-purity) talc that was used to make ceramic insulators. The southwest Montana talc industry grew to become a significant part of the region's economy; this history is described by Perry (1948), Olson (1976), and Berg (1997). Exploration and development are likely to continue for the foreseeable future for several reasons: (1) mines are active in the area at present and an infrastructure for talc processing exists; (2) large changes in domestic and export talc markets are not

  8. Major structural controls on the distribution of pre-Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-23

    The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds. This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships. Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west. Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny. Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time. Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes. Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section. Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat. The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits. These faults most likely results from significant lateral

  9. Sedimentology of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Strathearn Formation, Northern Carlin Trend, Nevada; with a section on microfossil controls on the age of the Strathearn Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.; Theodore, Ted G.; Harris, Anita G.; Stevens, Calvin H.

    2001-01-01

    Two framework-supported, poorly bedded conglomerate units of the middle Upper Pennsylvanian and middle Lower Permian Strathearn Formation belonging to the overlap assemblage of the Antler orogen are prominent in the northern Carlin trend. These horizons stratigraphically and temporally bracket thrust emplacement of a major allochthonous thrust plate of mainly quartzarenite of the Ordovician Vinini Formation. Lithologic and shape-ratio data from approximately 4,200 pebbles and cobbles at 17 sites as well as biostratigraphic data in the Strathearn, and their geologic implications, are included in this report. Conodont biofacies throughout the Strathearn Formation are normal marine and suggest middle shelf or deeper depositional environments. The conglomerate units roughly are similar in that they contain only chert and quartzarenite pebbles, but they differ in compositional proportions of the two lithologies. The relative proportion of quartzarenite pebbles increases sixfold in the middle Lower Permian upper conglomerate unit versus its content in the middle Upper Pennsylvanian lower unit, whereas chert pebbles predominate in both units. Various roundness categories of chert pebbles in both conglomerate units of the Strathearn show that the equant pebble class (B/A) = 1 clearly is represented strongly even in the subangular category, the lowest roundness categories for the pebbles. Thus, development of equant pebbles cannot be ascribed totally to a rounding process during predeposition transport. The equant character of many pebbles might, in part, be an original feature inherited from pre-erosion rock fractures and (or) bedding that control overall form of the fragments prior to their release to the transport environment. The allochthon of the Coyote thrust has been thrust above the lower conglomerate unit of the Strathearn during a regionally extensive contractional event in the late Paleozoic. The middle Lower Permian upper conglomerate unit, highest unit

  10. Structure-Property-Processing Correlations in Freeze-Cast Hybrid Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Philipp Malte

    Porous materials are highly sought after for applications ranging from catalyst carriers to tissue scaffolds. Most applications require clearly defined structural features and a specific mechanical performance. Therefore, it is essential to establish systematic structure-property-processing correlations to be able to tailor both structure and mechanical properties for a particular application. Because the introduction of porosity is detrimental to the mechanical performance of highly porous structures, it is necessary to generate a structure that allows for the mechanical properties to be maximized. One example for such a structure are honeycombs. In addition to the porosity and pore morphology, the scaffold's performance depends on the properties inherent to the material from which it is made. Polymeric foams possess high toughness but low stiffness, whereas ceramic foams possess high stiffness but low toughness. Natural composites like bone, antler and nacre have both high stiffness and high toughness. This unusual set of mechanical properties is thought to be intricately linked to the multi-level hierarchical composite structure present in these materials. Great potential for the fabrication of stiff, strong and tough porous scaffolds is thus seen in nacre-like composite materials with a hierarchical, honeycomb-like structure. Freeze casting is a method with which such hybrid materials can be made, adding the third dimension to nacre by forming a highly porous, hierarchical bulk material, with dense, nacre-like cell walls. The nacre-like cell walls self-assemble during the directional freezing of a water-based ceramic-polymer slurry. Reported here are structure-property-processing correlations observed in these materials. They are unusual, because they are, like nacre, solely glued by a polymeric phase and not processed further by sintering. The results illustrate several pathways to control both structure and mechanical properties in freeze-cast composites and

  11. Modelling the Loktak Lake Basin to Assess Human Impact on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, K.

    2015-12-01

    Loktak Lake is an internationally important, Ramsar designated, fresh water wetland system in the state of Manipur, India. The lake was also listed under Montreux Record on account of the ecological modifications that the lake system has witnessed over time. A characteristic feature of this lake is the extensive occurrence of coalesced, naturally or otherwise, vegetative masses floating over it. A contiguous 40 km2 area of Phumdis, as these vegetative masses are locally referred to, also constitutes the only natural home of the endemic and endangered species of Manipur's brow-antlered deer popularly known as Sangai. Appropriately notified as Keibul Lamjao National Park by Government of India, this natural feature is known to be the world's largest floating park. Water quality and sediment deposition on account of soil erosion in its catchments are some of the emerging concerns along with a reported enhanced frequency and duration of flooding of the shore areas, reduced fish catch within a visibly deteriorated overall natural ecosystem. Disturbances of watershed processes, command area management practices, ineffective as indeed largely absent, waste management practices and management interventions linked to the Loktak Hydroelectric Project are often cited as the principal triggers that are seen to be responsible for the damage. An effective management protocol for the Lake requires a rigorous understanding of its hydrobiology and eco-hydrodynamics. The present study is carried out to establish such a characterization of the various rivers systems draining directly into the Lake using MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 HD and MIKE 11 ECO Lab modelling platforms. Water quality modelling was limited to dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and water temperature. Model calibration was done using the available measured water quality data. The derived results were then investigated for causal correlation with anthropogenic influences to assess human impact on water

  12. Cloning and fusion protein expression of the S100A4 gene in sika deer%梅花鹿S100A4基因的克隆及融合蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大涛; 赵海平; 褚文辉; 杨福合; 邢秀梅; 王桂武; 李春义

    2011-01-01

    为了研究梅花鹿S100A4(S100 calcium binding protein A4)基因在鹿茸生长过程中的作用.用RT-PCR法从生茸骨膜细胞总RNA中克隆了梅花鹿S100A4基因,在NCBI中对基因序列进行比对;将完整的基因序列与逆转录病毒表达载体pLEGFP-Ci重组,获得了重组质粒pLEGFP-S100;用脂质体法将pLEGFP-S100与pVSV-G(被膜载体)共转染包装细胞GP2-293,获得重组病毒上清液,感染角柄骨膜细胞后逆转录病毒携带的基因进入宿主细胞.结果显示:S100A4基因是一个相对保守的基因,与多个物种的匹配度达到90%;重组逆转录病毒载体pLEGFP-S100可以形成重组逆转录病毒粒子,将S100A4基因导入靶细胞,并表达S100A4与GFP(Green fluorescent protein)的融合蛋白.%In order to better understand the function of S100 calcium binding protein A4 in antler development of sika deer ( Cervus nippon), we cloned S100A4 genes from total RNA of cultured antlerogenic periosteum cells using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR), S100A4 gene sequences were compared with closely related animal species in NCBI. Full lengths of S100A4 genes were inserted into a vector plasmid pLEGFP-C1 ( retroviral express vector). The recombinant plasmid pLEGFP-S100 and pVSV-G (envelope vector) were co-transfected into GP2 -293 cells (packaging cell line ) using lipofectimin 2000, and the resultant viral supernatants were collected. The cultured pedicle periosteum cells were then infected with virus in the supernatants. Results showed that S100A4 gene was a relatively conserved gene, and had about 90% homology with several species. Recombinant retroviral vector pLEGFP-S100 could effectively deliver a gene into target cell line, and express a fusion GFP ( green fluorescent protein ) protein.

  13. 骨髓基质干细胞(BMSCs)细胞毒最佳实验条件的研究%On the Optimal Experiment Conditions in Cytotoxicity Tests of BMSCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳双; 曲晓波; 李枫; 谭寅凤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the optimal experiment conditions for MTT and CCK-8 method in cytotoxicity tests of bone marrow stromal cells ( BMSCs ) . Methods The P3 rat bone marrow stromal cells in lograrithm growth stages were prepared to cell suspensions in different cell concentrations, the BMSCs were planted in 96-well plates to be cultured for 24h, CCK-8 and MTT methods were applied to test A value, respectively. The appropriate cell concentration ranges were determined according to the curves of cell number vs A;A values of the BMSCs in the appropriate cell concentrations at 450 ,490 ,595 nm were measured at the different time points,namely,0. 5h,1h,2h,3h,4h and 5h,respectively,to determine the optimal test time and wavelength of CCK-8 and MTT methods. CCK-8 and MTT methods were used to detect the influence of five velvet antler type I collagen at the five concentrations on the proliferation of rat BMSCs. Results The linearity of cell number vs A values detected by CCK-8 was better than that by MTT;The best test wavelength of CCK-8 and MTT method was 450 and 490 nm,respectively,and the best test time was 1 and 4 h,respectively;the linearity of measured data by CCK-8 was better than that by MTT,and the data deviation was smaller than that by MTT,when the influence of velvet antler type I collagen on the proliferation of rat BMSCs. Conclusion The linearity of CCK-8 between A and cell viability was better than that of MTT, and CCK-8 assay was better than MTT assay in the detection sensitivity and accuracy. CCK-8 method was better than MTT method in the cytotoxicity test of BMSCs.%目的:探讨CCK-8法和MTT法在骨髓基质干细胞( Bone marrow stromal cells,BMSCs)细胞毒实验中的最佳实验条件.方法取对数生长期的P3大鼠BMSCs,制成不同浓度的细胞悬液,于96孔培养板中培养24 h,分别用CCK-8法、MTT法检测其吸光度( A)值,根据细胞浓度与A值关系曲线确定两种方法各自的最适细胞浓度

  14. Dating of Las Mesas Copper Age walled enclosure (La Fuente, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odriozola, Carlos P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The site of Las Mesas is located in the west bank of the Guadajira river (La Fuente, Badajoz, Spain. It covers a half hectare and is enclosed by a stone wall. Previous assessments based on site surveys suggested a general chronological span from Late Neolithic period (ca. 3600-2900 BC through the Copper Age (3rd millennium BC. Excavations revealed a well-constructed wall with bastions and a domestic space at the centre of the site with three occupational phases. Several functional areas and a votive pit are ascribed to the second phase. A deer antler located in a re-cut ritual pit associated to the second phase was dated by AMS-14C. Samples from a living floor assigned to the second phase (SU-9/10 and the basement of a kiln associated with the first phase (SU-18 was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL using the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR protocol on 90-160 m quartz grains. Luminescence profiling analysis of 7 samples taken throughout the archaeological stratigraphy was used to assess variations in luminescence behaviour and relative age through the sequence, using infrared-, optically –and thermally– stimulated luminescence (IRSL, OSL, TSL on poly-mineral and etched samples. Luminescence dating and profiling indicates that the upper archaeological layer (SU-1B probably dates to the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1000 BC, but that the sediments in the remainder of this section accumulated during the late Neolithic-Copper Age: the site was most probably inhabited between 3300 and 2900 BC. There were gaps in occupation between the Late Neolithic-Cooper Age phases (I & II, and between the Late Neolithic-Cooper Age phases and Late Bronze Age phase (II & III, indicating that the site was abandoned and reoccupied twice. The AMS-14C date on deer antler of 4254 ± 45 BP (3010-2675 cal BC is consisten with the OSL results for phase II, indicating that the pit was excavated at the beginning of the second occupational phase. Combined OSL

  15. The Trade City of Kulum in Qing Dynasty%清代库伦的买卖城

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖惠敏

    2015-01-01

    库伦的买卖城可能建于雍正五年(1727)年,中俄签订《恰克图条约》后。当时,库伦买卖城做为囤积货物之地,以张家口的商号为总号,在库伦或恰克图设立分号。晋商与俄罗斯的贸易,19世纪茶叶贸易活络,最高贸易额曾达1500万卢布,每年有7万只骆驼往来于库伦与张家口之间。但1860年签订《中俄北京条约》,俄商到中国贸易以及西伯利亚铁路建成后,晋商的茶叶贸易急遽下降,少数商人维持与俄贸易,他们向俄国人购买鹿茸、皮张,然后向蒙古人购买羊只,转卖给俄商。资金雄厚的商号转而经营金融业或批发百货,如公合全、协和公、双舜全、兴隆魁等。同时,有商铺如林盛元、义合忠、天泰昌等从事农垦或砍伐木材活动。本文主要讨论清中叶以后买卖城商号的转变。%The Trade City of Kulum was probably built in 1727 ,after Kyakhta treaty was signed .At that time ,the Trade City of Kulum was set mainly for a place of stocking goods .With headquarter in Zhangjiakou ,many shops set up their branch offices in Kulum or Kyakhta .T he trading that Shanxi mer‐chants and Russian had was very active during nineteen the century .The peak trading amount once reached to 15 million rubles .There were seventy thousand camels going back and forth between Kulum and Zhangjiakou .After Sino‐Russian Treaty of Beijing was signed in 1860 ,Russian merchants came to China for trading and the Riyadh Siberian Railway completed ,and tea trading of Shanxi merchants dropped sharply .Only a few merchants kept the business with Russian traders .They brought antler ,hides from Russian ,then brought goats/sheep to sell to Russian .Some shops with strong capital turned to do finan‐cial business or wholesalers ,like Gong He Quan ,Xie He Gong ,Shuang Shun Quan ,Xing Long Kui ,etc . Meanwhile some carried on land reclamation and felling timers ,like Lin Shen Yuan ,Yi Ho

  16. Food science in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    It is particularly important for us not to lose sight of the fact that people have been around for a long time and that they achieved remarkable technical skills long before Western science was developed. An anonymous writer from the Food and Agriculture Organization has observed: "It is a commonplace that the fundamental discoveries which made civilization possible-fire- making, tool-making, agriculture, building, calculating, writing, money-were all apparently made outside the area which has given us the marvels of modern science" (19). The writer might well have added that it is also commonly overlooked that food technology was not suddenly developed in the 20th century but has been very much a part of the lives of people everywhere ever since they began doing more to their food than gathering it and eating it raw. Lamb's "Essay on Roast Pig" may not be an accurate account of the first conjunction of fire and food, but cooking is a rather ancient practice. Fermentation is another complicated processing technology which is a traditional part of most cultures, particularly those in warm climates-beer, yogurt, cheese, the fish pastes and sauces of Asia, the palm wine of Africa, and soy sauce, are butsome examples. Native Americans, besides accomplishing marvels in plant genetics and crop development, also developed water extraction methods for treating acorns to render the flour palatable and edible, and the alkali method of processing maize. Furthermore, they developed a cure for scurvy-by making a water extraction of pine needles which are rich in ascorbic acid-long before it was first reported by Jacques Cartier in the 16th century. Similarly, calcium-deficient diets of pregnant and nursing women were traditionally successfully supplemented by calcium-rich powdered deer antlers in northern China. Among the Chinese and Greeks, goiter was cured by eating certain kinds of seaweed centuries before the disease was traced to a lack of iodine, and Kenyans learned to

  17. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    access. During the past two years, non-Indian public concern over big game hunting issues has at times overwhelmed other issues related to the wildlife area. In 2001, the CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee closed the wildlife area to tribal branch antlered bull elk harvest in response to harvest data that indicated harvest rates were greater than expected. In addition, illegal harvest of mature bull elk in southeastern Washington during the 2001 season exceeded the legal tribal and nontribal harvest combined which has created a potential significant regression in the bull;cow ratio in the Blue Mountain Elk herd. CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and staff and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Regional Director and staff have been coordinating regularly to develop strategies to address harvest rates and ensure protection of viable big game herds in southeastern Washington. The CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and WDFW has jointly agreed to continue close coordination on this and other issues and continue working together to ensure the long-term vigor of the elk herd on the Rainwater Wildlife Area. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources.

  18. Lithogeochemistry of Carlin-type gold mineralization in the Gold Bar district, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, O.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Gold Bar district contains five Carlin-type gold deposits and four resources for a combined gold endowment of 1.6 M oz [50 t]. The gold deposits are hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks below parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks emplaced during the Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. The district is in the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, a long-lived structural feature that localized intrusions and ore deposits of different types and ages. The whole-rock geochemistry of four different mineralized and unmineralized Devonian carbonate rock units (two favorable and two unfavorable) were determined and interpreted in the context of the regional geology. A combination of basic statistics, R-mode factor analysis, isocon plots, and alteration diagrams were utilized to (1) identify favorable geochemical attributes of the host rocks, (2) characterize alteration and associated element enrichments and depletions, and (3) identify the mechanism of gold precipitation. This approach also led to the recognition of other types of alteration and mineralization in host rocks previously thought to be solely affected by Carlin-type mineralization. Unit 2 of the Upper Member of the Denay Formation, with the highest Al2O3, Fe2O3 and SiO2 contents and the lowest CaO content, is the most favorable host rock. Based on the high regression coefficients of data arrays on X-Y plots that project toward the origin, Al2O3 and TiO2 were immobile and K2O and Fe2O3 were relatively immobile during alteration and mineralization. Specific element associations identified by factor analysis are also prominent on isocon diagrams that compare the composition of fresh and altered equivalents of the same rock units. The most prominent associations are: Au, As, Sb, SiO2, TI, -CaO and -LOI, the main gold mineralizing event and related silicification and decalcification; Cd, Zn, Ag, P, Ni and Tl, an early base metal event; and MgO, early dolomitization. Alteration diagrams

  19. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata

  20. Reconsideration of the systematics of the Early Pleistocene Cervavitus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervavitus were usually found from the Late Miocene and Pliocene deposits in East Europe, Middle Asia and North China, but they were found recently in many Early Pleistocene localities in southern China. The latter resulted in the discussion of their systematic status between Cervavitus and Cervus. Here we show the Early Pleistocene forms from southern China are morphometrically more similar to northern China Cervavitus species, and the cladistic analysis shows that the southern China forms are closer to classic Cervavitus species than Cervus and that also proves their systematic status in Cervavitus rather than in Cervus. Cervavitus originated in Moldovan forests of East Europe in the late Vallesian (MN10 from a brachyodont and holometacarpal ancestor with two/three-tined antlers and Palaeomeryx fold and evolved into C. novorossiae. It dispersed into West Europe forests in the earliest Turolian and further west to France in the Ruscinian. It dispersed into northern China forests in the early Turolian and represented by C. shanxius. The great quantity of C. shanxius specimens with brachyodont teeth and complete lateral metacarpals implies the arid Loess Plateau of today was a humid forested region in the Late Miocene. C. shanxius migrated southwards in the Plio-Pleistocene probably due to the drying environment in northern China with uplifting of Himalayas and evolved into C. ultimus and C. fenqii, which survived in southern China until the Early Pleistocene (MNQ18.La revisión sistemática de Cervivatus sugiere que deriva del principal clado de los cérvidos posteriores a los muntiacinos, e implica que Procervulinae, Dicrocerinae y la primeras formas de Munticiacinae serían holometacarpales, como también lo es Cervivatus, originario en los bosques de Moldavia (Europa del Este durante el Vallesiense final (MN 10, a partir de un antecesor braquiodonto y holometacarpal, con astas con dos o tres candiles y pliegue paleomerícido, y que da lugar a

  1. 中国北方"第四纪(或亚代)"环境变化与大哺乳动物演化%QUATERNARY ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND EVOLUTION OF LARGE MAMMALS IN NORTH CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱占祥

    2006-01-01

    "Quaternary" large mammals. As immigrants from North America, Equus and Megantereon entered Eurasia at the beginning of the period. Large numbers of typical "Quaternary" genera appeared, like Eirictis, Meles, Crocuta, Coelodonta, Eucladoceros, Elaphurus,Leptobos, etc. Climate of this period, especially its later half, was comparatively stable, rather mild in general, as shown in Ding et al. 's Chiloparts. 3 ) 1.3 ~0. 13 Ma is characterized by particular development of Sinomegaceros. Typical Middle Pleistocene species as typified by ZKD fauna appeared, like Canis variabilis , Pachycrocuta sinensis , Megantereon inexpectatus , Dicerorhinus kirchbergensis , etc. A peculiar aspect is the invasion of Oriental elements into the south part of the North China, like Ailuropoda, Stegodon orientalis, Megatapirus, Elaphodus, Capricornis, etc. , at the very beginning of this period. Climate of this period was highly variable, with at least 3 cold and one prolonged warm episodes (L15, L9, L2 and S5 in Chiloparts). Therefore, this period might be further subdivided when in-depth study is carried out in the future. 4) 0. 13 ~0. 011 Ma is characterized by a mixture of survived coldadapted forms with living species. Climate of this period was probably mild. Such a climatic condition might have caused the adaptive radiation of the survived cold-adapted forms, as exemplified by the bizarre-antlered giant deer. 5 ) 0. 011 Ma ~ Recent is equivalent to Holocene. Its mammalian fauna became modernized, with the final extinction of holdovers of the glacial period exemplified by mammoth and woolly rhinoceros.We suggest that the above 4 phases be designated from earliest to latest as NCMQ1 ~4. The NCMQ1 -2 boundary does not coincide with that of Plio-Pleistocene ( 1.8 Ma), neither with that of Early-Middle Pleistocene (0. 78 Ma). However, such a subdivision is rather close to the subdividions based on mammals currently adopted in North America and Europe. The Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary ( in