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Sample records for antlers

  1. Weathered antlers as a source of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy G. Lopez; Paul Beier

    2012-01-01

    We tested antlers of Coues white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) and mule deer (O. hemionus) in various stages of natural decomposition to determine the degree of weathering that cast antlers could endure and still yield usable DNA. Based on physical characteristics, we partitioned antlers into 7 weathering categories ranging from freshly cast (class 1) to...

  2. Unilateral antler combs from Romuliana

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    Petković Sofija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations at Romuliana nine antler three-partite combs with a single row of teeth were found in the Late Roman horizons dating from the late 4th - mid 5th century. They were found in Tower 19, in the Palace II sector and in the Thermae sector. The combs can be classified as two types: three-partite unilateral combs with semicircular handle (Petković comb type VII and three-partite unilateral combs with triangular handle decorated with horse protomes (Petković comb type VI. Two groups of these finds were distinguished after more detailed analysis; the earlier one including specimens originating from the Chernyahov-Sîntana de Mureº culture and later one including specimens made under "barbarian"influence and produced in Romuliana. These finds confirm the continuity of settlement at Romuliana in the Late Roman period, from the final quarter of the 4th until the end of the 5th century and open up the question of the character of the settlement.

  3. The antler finds at Bilzingsleben, excavations 1969-1993

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    Jürgen Vollbrecht

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available 2820 antler remains from the Lower Palaeolithic site of Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, Germany (excavations 1969-1993 were the subject of detailed investigations. The two major goals were: 1.the consideration of taphonomic aspects 2.the critical evaluation of suggestions about artificial modifications to the antler material A detailed morphological description of the antler material provided the basis for the investigation. A prerequisite was the transfer of provenance data onto an x-y coordinate grid. Taphonomic aspects considered in this work include the relative frequencies of antler elements, estimates regarding the minimum number of individual deer, their age structure and seasonality, and, insofar as the condition of the antlers allowed, the classification of surface preservation, size classes and spatial distribution of the finds. The assemblage of antler finds, the majority of which seems to have come from red deer, is dominated by small fragments, mostly of tines. About one quarter of the finds are larger than 150 mm. Lower beams are more abundant than upper beams (e.g. crowns. Detailed counting, substantiated by systematic reconstruction, shows that in general the antlers are incomplete. After reconstruction of unshed antlers, it was possible to assess the minimum number of heads at 150 animals. Preliminary counting of postcranial and cranial (non antler cervid material points to about 70 cervids. Intentional accumulation of antlers by hominids can only be accepted as the reason for these disproportionate figures if other site formation processes can be ruled out. In fact, the correlation between sediment thickness and maximum antler densities, at least for finds smaller than 120mm, suggests that fluvial accumulation has to be taken into account as a probable element of the site formation history. Further, the mixture of unifacially abraded finds together with finds that exhibit bifacial abrasion points to a succession of changing fluvial

  4. Factors affecting velvet antler weights in free-ranging reindeer in Alaska

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    Alexander K. Prichard

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Free-ranging reindeer on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska are rounded up from late May to early July and antlers are removed. We used data collected from 1987 to 1997 to determine how velvet antler weights of males and females varied with age, year, reproductive status, Julian date, and body weight. Male antler weights increased with age up to age five years, and were lower in castrates than in bulls. There was a significant positive relationship between body weight and antler weight in both sexes. Female antler weights increased with age until at least age nine. Lactating females had lower antler weights than non-lactating females, but this effect is better explained by differences in body weight. Antler weight of individual reindeer at age two years was better predicted by their antler weights as yearlings than their body weight as yearlings.

  5. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

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    Ron Moen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and lactation. We used data on dietary digestibility, protein, calcium and phosphorus content, and seasonal patterns in body mass to predict the energy, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances of a "generic" male and female caribou. Antler growth in males increased energy requirements during antler growth by 8 to 16%, depending on the efficiency with which energy was used for antler growth. Female energy requirements for antler growth were proportionately much smaller because of the smaller size of female antlers. Protein requirements for antler growth in both males and females were met by forage intake. Calcium and phosphorus must be resorbed from bone during peak antler growth in males, when > 25 g/day of calcium and > 12 g/day of phosphorus are being deposited in antlers. Females are capable of meeting calcium needs during antler growth without bone resorption, but phosphorus was resorbed from bone during the final stages of antler mineralization. After energy, phosphorus was most likely to limit growth of antlers for both males and females in our simulations. Input parameters can be easily changed to represent caribou from specific geographic regions in which dietary nutrient content or body mass patterns differ from those in our "generic" caribou. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the evolutionary basis for development of antlers in female caribou, and the relationship between body mass and antler size in the Cervidae.

  6. MicroRNA profiling of antler stem cells in potentiated and dormant states and their potential roles in antler regeneration.

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    Ba, Hengxing; Wang, Datao; Li, Chunyi

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can effectively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play a critical role in tissue growth, development and regeneration. Our previous studies showed that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process and antler stem cells reside in the periosteum of a pedicle, the permanent bony protuberance, from which antler regeneration takes place. Antlers are the only mammalian organ that can fully regenerate and hence provide a unique opportunity to identify miRNAs that are involved in organ regeneration. In the present study, we used next generation sequencing technology sequenced miRNAs of the stem cells derived from either the potentiated or the dormant pedicle periosteum. A population of both conserved and 20 deer-specific miRNAs was identified. These conserved miRNAs were derived from 453 homologous hairpin precursors across 88 animal species, and were further grouped into 167 miRNA families. Among them, the miR-296 is embryonic stem cell-specific. The potentiation process resulted in the significant regulation (>±2 Fold, q value cell potentiation process. This research has identified miRNAs that are associated either with the dormant or the potentiated antler stem cells and identified some target miRNAs for further research into their role played in mammalian organ regeneration.

  7. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

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    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  8. Variations of selected trace element contents in two layers of red deer antlers

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    Giżejewska Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hard antlers of deer are unique bioindicators of environmental metal pollutions, but sampling methods presented in the literature are inconsistent. Due to the specific growth pattern of antlers and their histological structure, sampling methods described in the literature were reviewed, the suitability of using mixed samples of both antler layers as element bioindicators was assessed, and the codified method of antler sampling used for bioindication was described. Material and Methods: Lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron in trabecular and cortical parts of hard antlers of red deer (Cervus elaphus were determined using different methods of atomic absorption spectrometry (depending on the element. Results: Mean mercury content in trabecular bone (0.010 ±0.018 mg/kg was 5 times higher than in cortical bone (0.002 ±0.003 mg/kg. Mean iron concentration was approximately 15 times higher in trabecular (239.83 ±130.15 mg/kg than in cortical bone (16.17 ±16.44 mg/kg. Concentrations of other analysed elements did not differ statistically between antler layers. Conclusion: In mixed antler samples, concentrations of mercury and iron depend on the particular antler layer contents. This therefore warrants caution when comparing results across studies and specification of the sampling methodology of antlers is highly recommended.

  9. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (

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    Jaehyun Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon. Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12 which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001, and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth.

  10. Seasonal variations in red deer (Cervus elaphus) hematology related to antler growth and biometrics measurements.

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    Gaspar-López, Enrique; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Estevez, Jose Antonio; Ceacero, Francisco; Gallego, Laureano; García, Andrés Jose

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to relate seasonal hematology changes with the rest of physiological variations suffered by red deer, such as antler and biometrics cycle, and to assess the relationship between hematology and the effort performed in antler development. Blood samples were taken from 21 male red deer every 4 weeks during 18 months. Samples were analyzed for the main hematological parameters. Simultaneously, biometrics measurements were taken, such as antler length, body weight, body condition score, testicular diameter (TD), and thoracic and neck girth. All the blood cell types (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) showed seasonal variations, increasing as antler cleaning approached, as did hematocrit and hemoglobin. The final size of antlers was negatively related to leukocyte count, nonlymphoid leukocyte count, red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean platelet volume, and TD, whereas it was positively related to body condition during antler growth. Huge seasonal variations in some hematological values have been found to be related to changes in antler and biometrics measurements. Since these variations are even greater than the caused by deer handling, they should be taken into account when evaluating hematology in deer populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout 236U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, M.B.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 236 U and 239 Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954–1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA ® . The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the 236 U and 239 Pu concentrations, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of the order of 10 −6 were observed. These measured ratios, where the 236 U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the 236 U/ 238 U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. - Highlights: • Roe deer antlers were studied as an environmental archive for the retrospective study of fallout isotopes 236 U and 239 Pu. • The rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of about 10 −6 suggest 236 U as a fingerprint tool for nuclear material releases. • The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio underpins global fallout as the main anthropogenic contributor in antlers.

  12. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Thing, Henning; Olesen, Carsten Riis

    1986-01-01

    susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation...

  13. Localization and characterization of STRO-1 cells in the deer pedicle and regenerating antler.

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    Hans J Rolf

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The annual regeneration of deer antlers is a unique developmental event in mammals, which as a rule possess only a very limited capacity to regenerate lost appendages. Studying antler regeneration can therefore provide a deeper insight into the mechanisms that prevent limb regeneration in humans and other mammals, and, with regard to medical treatments, may possibly even show ways how to overcome these limitations. Traditionally, antler regeneration has been characterized as a process involving the formation of a blastema from de-differentiated cells. More recently it has, however, been hypothesized that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process. Thus far, direct evidence for the presence of stem cells in primary or regenerating antlers was lacking. Here we demonstrate the presence of cells positive for the mesenchymal stem cell marker STRO-1 in the chondrogenic growth zone and the perivascular tissue of the cartilaginous zone in primary and regenerating antlers as well as in the pedicle of fallow deer (Dama dama. In addition, cells positive for the stem cell/progenitor cell markers STRO-1, CD133 and CD271 (LNGFR were isolated from the growth zones of regenerating fallow deer antlers as well as the pedicle periosteum and cultivated for extended periods of time. We found evidence that STRO-1(+ cells isolated from the different locations are able to differentiate in vitro along the osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Our results support the view that the annual process of antler regeneration might depend on the periodic activation of mesenchymal progenitor cells located in the pedicle periosteum. The findings of the present study indicate that not only limited tissue regeneration, but also extensive appendage regeneration in a postnatal mammal can occur as a stem cell-based process.

  14. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andr?s; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tom?s

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of c...

  15. Chondroitin sulphate extracted from antler cartilage using high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis

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    Chong-Tai Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate (CS, a major glycosaminoglycan, is an essential component of the extracellular matrix in cartilaginous tissues. Wapiti velvet antlers are a rich source of these molecules. The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective isolation procedure of CS from fresh velvet antlers using a combination of high hydrostatic pressure (100 MPa and enzymatic hydrolysis (papain. High CS extractability (95.1 ± 2.5% of total uronic acid was obtained following incubation (4 h at 50 °C with papain at pH 6.0 in 100 MPa compared to low extractability (19 ± 1.1% in ambient pressure (0.1 MPa. Antler CS fractions were isolated by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography and identified by western blot using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody. The antler CS fraction did not aggregate with hyaluronic acid in CL-2B chromatography and possessed DPPH radical scavenging activity at 78.3 ± 1.5%. The results indicated that high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis procedure may be a useful tool for the isolation of CS from antler cartilaginous tissues.

  16. Research on the relationship between the elements and pharmacological activities in velvet antler using factor analysis and cluster analysis

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    Zhou, Libing

    2017-04-01

    Velvet antler has certain effect on improving the body's immune cells and the regulation of immune system function, nervous system, anti-stress, anti-aging and osteoporosis. It has medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as tissue wound healing, anti-tumor, cardiovascular disease, et al. Therefore, the research on the relationship between pharmacological activities and elements in velvet antler is of great significance. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate 15 kinds of elements in different varieties of velvet antlers and study on the relationship between the elements and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy for the human. The factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis methods were used to analyze the data of elements in the sika velvet antler, cervus elaphus linnaeus, flower horse hybrid velvet antler, apiti (elk) velvet antler, male reindeer velvet antler and find out the relationship between 15 kinds of elements including Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Sr, Cr, Zn and Ni. Combining with MATLAB2010 and SPSS software, the chemometrics methods were made on the relationship between the elements in velvet antler and the pharmacological activities. The first commonality factor F1 had greater load on the indexes of Ca, P, Mg, Co, Sr and Ni, and the second commonality factor F2 had greater load on the indexes of K, Mn, Zn and Cr, and the third commonality factor F3 had greater load on the indexes of Na, Cu and Ba, and the fourth commonality factor F4 had greater load on the indexes of Fe and Al. 15 kinds of elements in velvet antler in the order were elk velvet antler>flower horse hybrid velvet antler>cervus elaphus linnaeus>sika velvet antler>male reindeer velvet antler. Based on the factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis, a model for evaluating traditional Chinese medicine quality was constructed. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational

  17. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

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    Jamil Cappelli

    Full Text Available Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10 that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 15. Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced, and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  18. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  19. Multiple osteochondromas of the antlers and cranium in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus.

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    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of multiple osteochondromas affecting the antlers and the left zygomatic bone of a free-ranging adult white-tailed buck (Odocoileus virginianus from Georgia, USA. Along with a few postcranial bones, the antlered cranium of the individual was found in a severely weathered condition and devoid of any soft tissue. The antlers exhibited five pedunculated exostoses that were composed of cancellous bone and, in their peripheral portions, also mineralized cartilage. The largest of the exostoses, located on the right antler, had a maximum circumference of 55 cm. The exostosis arising from the zygomatic bone was broad-based and much smaller than the exophytic outgrowths on the antlers. Diagnosis of the exostoses as osteochondromas was based on their overall morphology, the normal bone structure in their stalk regions, and the continuity of their spongiosa and cortex with the respective components of the parent bones. Antleromas, i.e., pathological outgrowths developing on antlers as a result of insufficient androgen production, were excluded in the differential diagnosis, based on (1 the apparent maturity and, except for the tumors, normal shape of the antlers and (2 the fact that exostosis formation had also affected the zygomatic bone. Previously only a single case of solitary osteochondroma of an antler has been described in the scientific literature. The case presented here is the first report of multiple osteochondromas in a deer. As antlers are regularly collected as trophies, and huge numbers of them are critically inspected each year, the fact that thus far only two cases of antler osteochondromas have been reported suggests that these tumors are very rare.

  20. Does Cu supplementation affect the mechanical and structural properties and mineral content of red deer antler bone tissue?

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    Gambín, P; Serrano, M P; Gallego, L; García, A; Cappelli, J; Ceacero, F; Landete-Castillejos, T

    2017-08-01

    The main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially Ca and P) and collagen content. However, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. One such trace mineral is Cu. Here, we studied the effects of Cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red deer fed a balanced diet. Deer (n=35) of different ages (21 yearlings and 14 adults) were studied. A total of 18 stags (11 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with Cu (0.83 mg Cu/kg BW) every 42 days, whereas the remaining 17 (10 yearlings and 7 adults) were injected with physiological saline solution (control group). The Cu content of serum was analysed at the beginning of the trial and 84 days after the first injection to assess whether the injected Cu was mobilized in blood. Also, the mechanical and structural properties of antlers and the mineral content in their cortical walls were examined at three (yearlings) or four (adults) points along the antler beam. The effect of Cu supplementation was different in yearlings and adults. In yearlings, supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 28%, but did not affect antler properties. However, in adults, Cu supplementation increased the Cu content of serum by 38% and tended to increase the cortical thickness of antlers (P=0.06). Therefore, we conclude that, even in animals receiving balanced diets, supplementation with Cu could increase antler cortical thickness in adult deer, although not in yearlings. This may improve the trophy value of antlers, as well as having potential implications for bones in elderly humans, should Cu supplementation have similar effects on bones as those observed in antlers.

  1. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

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    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  2. IGF1 regulates RUNX1 expression via IRS1/2: Implications for antler chondrocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Guo, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Although IGF1 is important for the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, its underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown. Here we addressed the physiologic function of IGF1 in antler cartilage and explored the interplay of IGF1, IRS1/2 and RUNX1 in chondrocyte differentiation. The results showed that IGF1 was highly expressed in antler chondrocytes. Exogenous rIGF1 could increase the proliferation of chondrocytes and cell proportion in the S phase, whereas IGF1R inhibitor PQ4...

  3. Determination of the frictional coefficient of the implant-antler interface: experimental approach.

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    Hasan, Istabrak; Keilig, Ludger; Staat, Manfred; Wahl, Gerhard; Bourauel, Christoph

    2012-10-01

    The similar bone structure of reindeer antler to human bone permits studying the osseointegration of dental implants in the jawbone. As the friction is one of the major factors that have a significant influence on the initial stability of immediately loaded dental implants, it is essential to define the frictional coefficient of the implant-antler interface. In this study, the kinetic frictional forces at the implant-antler interface were measured experimentally using an optomechanical setup and a stepping motor controller under different axial loads and sliding velocities. The corresponding mean values of the static and kinetic frictional coefficients were within the range of 0.5-0.7 and 0.3-0.5, respectively. An increase in the frictional forces with increasing applied axial loads was registered. The measurements showed an evidence of a decrease in the magnitude of the frictional coefficient with increasing sliding velocity. The results of this study provide a considerable assessment to clarify the suitable frictional coefficient to be used in the finite element contact analysis of antler specimens.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of annexin A2 gene in sika deer antler tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Xia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Molecular cloning and bioinformatics analysis of annexin A2 (ANXA2 gene in sika deer antler tip were conducted. The role of ANXA2 gene in the growth and development of the antler were analyzed initially. Methods The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to clone the cDNA sequence of the ANXA2 gene from antler tip of sika deer (Cervus Nippon hortulorum and the bioinformatics methods were applied to analyze the amino acid sequence of Anxa2 protein. The mRNA expression levels of the ANXA2 gene in different growth stages were examined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR. Results The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,020 bp encoding 339 amino acids long protein of calculated molecular weight 38.6 kDa and isoelectric point 6.09. Homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Anxa2 mature protein of sika deer had the closest genetic distance with Cervus elaphus and Bos mutus. Real time RT-PCR results showed that the gene had differential expression levels in different growth stages, and the expression level of the ANXA2 gene was the highest at metaphase (rapid growing period. Conclusion ANXA2 gene may promote the cell proliferation, and the finding suggested Anxa2 as an important candidate for regulating the growth and development of deer antler.

  5. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in elk antler bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Chen, Po-Yu; McKittrick, Joanna; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-11-23

    Bone is an adaptative material that is designed for different functional requirements; indeed, bones have a variety of properties depending on their role in the body. To understand the mechanical response of bone requires the elucidation of its structure-function relationships. Here, we examine the fracture toughness of compact bone of elk antler which is an extremely fast growing primary bone designed for a totally different function than human (secondary) bone. We find that antler in the transverse (breaking) orientation is one of the toughest biological materials known. Its resistance to fracture is achieved during crack growth (extrinsically) by a combination of gross crack deflection/twisting and crack bridging via uncracked 'ligaments' in the crack wake, both mechanisms activated by microcracking primarily at lamellar boundaries. We present an assessment of the toughening mechanisms acting in antler as compared to human cortical bone, and identify an enhanced role of inelastic deformation in antler which further contributes to its (intrinsic) toughness.

  6. [Preparation of acellular matrix from antler cartilage and its biological compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Aiwu; Ma, Lijuan; Chu, Wenhui; Li, Chunyi

    2017-06-01

    To study the feasibility of acellular matrix materials prepared from deer antler cartilage and its biological compatibility so as to search for a new member of the extracellular matrix family for cartilage regeneration. The deer antler mesenchymal (M) layer tissue was harvested and treated through decellular process to prepare M layer acellular matrix; histologic observation and detection of M layer acellular matrix DNA content were carried out. The antler stem cells [antlerogenic periosteum (AP) cells] at 2nd passage were labelled by fluorescent stains and by PKH26. Subsequently, the M layer acellular matrix and the AP cells at 2nd passage were co-cultured for 7 days; then the samples were transplanted into nude mice to study the tissue compatibility of M layer acellular matrix in the living animals. HE and DAPI staining confirmed that the M layer acellular matrix did not contain nucleus; the DNA content of the M layer acellular matrix was (19.367±5.254) ng/mg, which was significantly lower than that of the normal M layer tissue [(3 805.500±519.119) ng/mg]( t =12.630, P =0.000). In vitro co-culture experiments showed that AP cells could adhere to or even embedded in the M layer acellular matrix. Nude mice transplantation experiments showed that the introduced AP cells could proliferate and induce angiogenesis in the M layer acellular matrix. The deer antler cartilage acellular matrix is successfully prepared. The M layer acellular matrix is suitable for adhesion and proliferation of AP cells in vitro and in vivo , and it has the function of stimulating angiogenesis. This model for deer antler cartilage acellular matrix can be applied in cartilage tissue engineering in the future.

  7. Evaluation of velvet antler total protein effect on bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Xiang; Li, Lin; Xu, Shuqiang; Mao, Min; Pan, Ruiyan; Li, Yanjun; Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Li; Zheng, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Lu Rong, velvet antler (VA), is a traditional Chinese medicine, which is used as a food supplement and therapeutic drug in China, Japan, Russia, New Zealand and Southeast Asia. The regenerative characteristics of VA have resulted in great research interest, particularly regarding the fields of organ grafting and stem cell differentiation. Various VA proteomic studies verified that proteins act as the primary bioactive components of VA. The present study aimed to investigate if VA proteins (VA...

  8. The Regulatory Mechanism of MLT/MT1 Signaling on the Growth of Antler Mesenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT plays an important role in regulating the physiological cycle of seasonal breeding animals. Melatonin receptor I (MT1 is effectively expressed in the cambium layer of deer antler. However, the function and metabolic mechanism of MLT/MT1 signaling in the mesenchymal cells of sika deer remain to be further elucidated. In this work, we detected the effects of MLT/MT1 signaling on mesenchymal cells proliferation and the interaction between MLT/MT1 and IGF1/IGF1-R signaling. The results show that (1 deer antler mesenchymal cells actually express MT1; (2 exogenous melatonin significantly promotes mesenchymal cells proliferation, while MT1 knock-down significantly impairs the positive effects of melatonin; and (3 melatonin significantly enhanced IGF1/IGF1-R signaling, as both the expression of IGF1 and IGF-1R increased, while MT1 knock-down significantly decreased IGF1-R expression and IGF1 synthesis. In summary, these data verified that MLT/MT1 signaling plays a crucial role in antler mesenchymal proliferation, which may be mediated by IGF1/IGF1-R.

  9. Effects of Velvet Antler with Blood on Bone in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Ching-Chiung Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, both velvet antlers (VA and VA blood can tonify qi, essence, and marrow, nourish the blood, and invigorate bones and tendons. In TCM, the combination of VA and VA blood is believed to have superior pharmacological effects. Scientific evidence supporting the traditional therapeutic preference for redder antler is needed. The effectiveness of the combination therapy of VA middle sections (VAMs and VA blood (VAM-B was first examined in promoting proliferation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1. The anti-osteoporotic activity of VAM-B (ratio of VAM:VA blood = 1:0.2 was evaluated with ovariectomized (OVX rats at a dose of 0.2 g/kg. In VAM-B-treated OVX rats, the body weight decreased 10.7%, and the strength of vertebrae and the femur respectively increased 18.1% and 15.4%, compared to the control. VAM-B treatment also recovered the estrogen-related loss of the right tibial trabecular bone microarchitecture. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP significantly decreased, but estradiol did not significantly change in serum of VAM-B-treated OVX rats. We also provide an effective strategy to enhance the anti-osteoporotic activity of VAM. In conclusion, our results provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional therapeutic preference of redder antler and indicate that VAM-B is a potential therapeutic agent for managing osteoporosis.

  10. Antlers on the Arctic Refuge: capturing multi-generational patterns of calving ground use from bones on the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua H; Druckenmiller, Patrick; Bahn, Volker

    2013-05-22

    Bone accumulations faithfully record historical ecological data on animal communities, and owing to millennial-scale bone survival on high-latitude landscapes, have exceptional potential for extending records on arctic ecosystems. For the Porcupine Caribou Herd, maintaining access to calving grounds on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR, Alaska) is a central management concern. However, variability in calving ground geography over the 30+ years of monitoring suggests establishing the impacts of climate change and potential petroleum development on future calving success could benefit from extended temporal perspectives. Using accumulations of female antlers (shed within days of calving) and neonatal skeletons, we test if caribou calving grounds develop measureable and characteristic bone accumulations and if skeletal data may be helpful in establishing a fuller, historically integrated understanding of landscape and habitat needs. Bone surveys of an important ANWR calving area reveal abundant shed antlers (reaching 10(3) km(-2)) and high proportional abundance of newborn skeletal individuals (up to 60% neonate). Openly vegetated riparian terraces, which compose less than 10 per cent of ANWR calving grounds, yield significantly higher antler concentrations than more abundant habitats traditionally viewed as primary calving terrain. Differences between habitats appear robust to potential differences in bone visibility. The distribution of antler weathering stages mirrors known multi-decadal calving histories and highlights portions of the antler accumulation that probably significantly extends records of calving activity. Death assemblages offer historically integrated ecological data valuable for the management and conservation of faunas across polar latitudes.

  11. Sika Deer Antler Collagen Type I-Accelerated Osteogenesis in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the Smad Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone injury and/or in scaffolds for bone replacement strategies. Finally, isolation of SDA-Col I from deer antler represents a renewable, green, and uncomplicated way to obtain a biomedically valuable therapeutic.

  12. Comparative element analysis on femur of antler hemo-treated ovariectomized wistar rats by SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianhong; Fei Yurong; Wang Ruilin; Cao Yi; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between bone element contents and bone m/neral density (BMD), left femur of sham-operated rats (SHAM, n=5), ovariectomized rats (OVX, n=5) and antler hemo-treated ovariectomized rats (OVX + antler hemo, n=5) were analyzed by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe. The results showed that there were very good positive correlations among contents of Ca, P, Zn and Sr. In comparison to the SHAM group, decreased relative intensities of Ca, P, Zn and Sr (especially Ca and P, p<0.05) were observed in femur of the OVX group, which showed significant decrease (p<0.05) of the BMD. The results indicate that loss of Ca and P in bone will cause osteoporosis. On the other hand, increased relative intensities of Ca, P and Zn in femur, and the BMD (p<0.05), of the anlter hemo-treated OVX group were found, in comparison to the OVX group. This suggests that anlter hemo may help cure osteoporosis through maintaining bone contents of Zn, Ca and P, and increasing the BMD. (authors)

  13. Red Deer Antler Extract Accelerates Hair Growth by Stimulating Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Full-thickness Wound Healing Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiHong Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, Sprague-Dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. At specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days, the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. At post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around the healing wound of antler-treated skin. Histological studies showed that the antler extract markedly increases the depth, size, and number of hair follicles. Expression of IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of IGF-I (days 16, 32, and 40 was obviously up-regulated in antler-treated skins compared to control skins. Similar results were seen in the ELISA analysis to quantify the IGF-I expression. These results support the notion that wound healing can cause hair growth by enhancing the expression of IGF-I. Deer antler extract appears to have the potential to promote hair growth and could be used in hair growth products.

  14. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B L; Eberhardt, L E; Poston, T M

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed {sup 90}Sr concentrations. {sup 90}Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention.

  15. Urban networks and Arctic outlands: Craft specialists and reindeer antler in Viking towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashby, Steven P.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the use of a minimally destructive biomolecular technique to explore the resource networks behind one of the first specialized urban crafts in early mediaeval northern Europe: the manufacture of composite combs of deer antler. The research incorporates the largest...... the 780s ad at the latest, presenting the earliest unambiguous evidence for exchange-links between urban markets in the southern North Sea region and the Scandinavian Peninsula. The results demonstrate that the common conceptual distinction between urban hinterlands and long-distance trade conceals...... a vital continuity. Long-range networks were vital to urban activities from the first appearance of towns in this part of the world, preceding the historically documented maritime expansion of the Viking Age. We consequently suggest that urbanism is more appropriately defined and researched in terms...

  16. Unusual central Nevada geologic terranes produced by Late Devonian Antler orogeny and Alamo impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Forrest G.; Sandberg, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This Special Paper is the product of nearly 25 years of geologic investigations. It is an exposition of two small areas, both less than 25 km east of the Mississippian Roberts Mountains allochthon, but each displaying a different, unique geologic terrane, previously undocumented in Nevada and perhaps in North America. One area, the Bisoni-McKay, at the south end of the Fish Creek Range, displays an olistostrome, shed eastward during the late Late Devonian (early Famennian) from a migrating Antler orogenic forebulge. The other, the Warm Springs–Milk Spring, at the south end of the Hot Creek Range, displays a deeper marine terrane affected by the early Late Devonian (middle Frasnian) Alamo impact.

  17. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Poston, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed 90 Sr concentrations. 90 Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention

  18. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo.

  19. 3D-ANTLERS: Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; De Feo, E.

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to establish a procedural method for measuring and cataloguing antlers through the use of laser scanner and of a 3D reconstruction of complex modeling. The deer's antlers have been used as a test and subjected to capture and measurement. For this purpose multiple data sources techniques have been studied and compared, (also considering low-cost sensors) estimating the accuracy and its errors in order to demonstrate the validity of the process. A further development is the comparison of results with applications of digital photogrammetry, considering also cloud computing software. The study has began with an introduction to sensors, addressing the underlying characteristics of the technology available, the scope and the limits of these applications. We have focused particularly on the "structured light", as the acquisition will be completed through three-dimensional scanners: DAVID and the ARTEC MH. The first is a low-cost sensor, a basic webcam and a linear laser pointer, red coloured, that leads to acquisition of three-dimensional strips. The other one is a hand scanner; even in this case we will explain how to represent a 3D model, with a pipeline that provides data export from the "proprietary" to a "reverse engineering" software. Typically, these are the common steps to the two approaches that have been performed in WRAP format: point sampling, manual and global registration, repair normals, surface editing and texture projection. In fact, after a first and common data processing was done with the use of a software supplied with the equipment, the proto-models thus obtained were treated in Geomagic Studio, which was also chosen to allow the homogenization and standardization of data in order to make a more objective comparison. It is commonplace to observe that the editing of the digital mock-up obtained with the DAVID - which had not yet been upgraded to the 3.5 release at the time of this study - is substantially different

  20. Morphogenetic Mechanisms in the Cyclic Regeneration of Hair Follicles and Deer Antlers from Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi; McMahon, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We have made comparisons between hair follicles (HFs) and antler units (AUs)—two seemingly unrelated mammalian organs. HFs are tiny and concealed within skin, whereas AUs are gigantic and grown externally for visual display. However, these two organs share some striking similarities. Both consist of permanent and cyclic/temporary components and undergo stem-cell-based organogenesis and cyclic regeneration. Stem cells of both organs reside in the permanent part and the growth centres are located in the temporary part of each respective organ. Organogenesis and regeneration of both organs depend on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Establishment of these interactions requires stem cells and reactive/niche cells (dermal papilla cells for HFs and epidermal cells for AUs) to be juxtaposed, which is achieved through destruction of the cyclic part to bring the reactive cells into close proximity to the respective stem cell niche. Developments of HFs and AUs are regulated by similar endocrine (particularly testosterone) and paracrine (particularly IGF1) factors. Interestingly, these two organs come to interplay during antlerogenesis. In conclusion, we believe that investigators from the fields of both HF and AU biology could greatly benefit from a comprehensive comparison between these two organs. PMID:24383056

  1. The Protective Effects of Sika Deer Antler Protein on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihai Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study measured the effect of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck antler protein (SDAPR, glycoproteins (SDAG, and polysaccharides (SDAPO on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293 cells, and investigated the effect of SDAPR against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, cisplatin with vehicle, and cisplatin with SDAPR at three concentrations: 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, p.o., 10 d. Cisplatin was injected on 7th day (25 mg/kg, i.p.. Renal function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory factors, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured in vivo. Renal tissues were stained with TUNEL and H&E to observe renal cell apoptosis and pathological changes. Results: Pretreatment with SDAPR (125-2000 µg/mL significantly improved cell viability, with an EC50 of approximately 1000 µg/mL. SDAPR also ameliorated cisplatin-induced histopatholo- gic changes, and decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr (P < 0.05. Western blotting analysis showed SDAPR clearly decreased expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax, and increased the expression level of Bcl-2 (P < 0.01. Additionally, SDAPR markedly regulated oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05. TUNEL staining showed decreased apoptosis after SDAPR treatment (P < 0.01. Conclusions: These results indicate that SDAPR can be an effective dietary supplement, to relieve cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by improved antioxidase activity, suppressed inflammation, and inhibited apoptosis in vivo.

  2. Paleozoic stratigraphy and tectonics in northernmost Nevada: Implications for the nature of the Antler orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, K.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Ehman, K.D. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Repetski, J.E.; Stamm, R.G.; Wardlaw, B.R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Recent mapping and revised ages have clarified geologic relations in northern Nevada. In the Bull Run Mountains-Copper Mountains area, Proterozoic quartzite, phyllite, marble, and greenstone are overlain successively, depositionally, and nearly concordantly by the Cambrian Prospect Mountain Quartzite, Pioche Shale, and Eldorado Dolomite; the Cambrian to Ordovician Tennessee Mountain Formation composed of limestone, siltstone, and greenstone; the Ordovician Valmy Formation composed of a lower member of greenstone, limestone, mudstone, and chert, and an upper member of quartzite and argillite; and, disconformably by a Mississippian sequence of interbedded conglomerate, limestone, siltstone, and greenstone. The Prospect Mountain, Pioche, and Eldorado form a relatively shallow-water, shelf sequence containing trilobites and displaying cross-bedding, ooliths, oncolites, and fenestral fabric. The overlying Tennessee Mountain and Valmy are devoid of such features and contain many black, finely laminated, and graded strata, suggesting a deeper-water environment. This upper Proterozoic to Permian sequence is interpreted as indicating: (1) increased tectonic subsidence or sea-level rise in the latter part of the Cambrian; (2) elevation above sea level and erosion of Devonian, Silurian, and Upper Ordovician rocks in earliest Mississippian; (3) subsidence below sea level in later Early Mississippian; (4) elevation above sea level with sporadic, moderate deformation, and local, deep erosion in medial Pennsylvanian; (5) subsidence below sea level in medial Pennsylvanian or later; (6) intermittent eruption of basic volcanics peaking in Early Ordovician and again in Mississippian. The disconformable relation between the Valmy Formation and overlying Mississippian strata indicates that the Antler orogeny of earliest Mississippian age, here consisted primarily of uplift and deep erosion. Evidence of strong Early Mississippian folding and contractional faulting is not apparent.

  3. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  4. First insights into the identification of bone and antler tools used in the indirect percussion and pressure techniques during the early postglacial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Eva; Sørensen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    With the interest for the technological options that were taken by the prehistoric groups to subsist, there is a field of research left empty in terms of archaeological records dated to the 8th and 7th millennia cal BC. It concerns the tool kit made from bone and antler used in Europe by stone...

  5. Barium concentration in cast roe deer antlers related to air pollution caused by burning of barium-enriched coals in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, M; Kramarczyk, M; Smieja-Król, B; Janeczek, J

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of Ba, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in freshly cast antlers from male roe deer of different ages (2 to 4 years old and older than 4 years) collected in Balin near Chrzanów and in the vicinity of Żywiec, S Poland. Barium content ranged from 124 to 196 ppm (mean 165 ppm) in the Balin 12 samples and from 207 to 351 ppm (mean 287 ppm) in 3 antlers from Żywiec. The concentration of Ba was comparable to that of Zn (134-275 ppm, mean 169 ppm). Elevated concentrations of Ba in antlers most probably originated from direct uptake of airborne barite nanocrystals through the respiratory system and/or by digestion of barite-rich dust particles deposited on plants. Burning of Ba-enriched coals is regarded as the principal source of Ba in the investigated areas inhabited by roe deer. Increased concentrations of Ba in antlers from the Żywiec area compared to Balin reflect particularly high air pollution caused by coal-burning mostly for domestic purposes combined with an unfavorable topography that impedes efficient air circulation.

  6. Effects of environmental conditions, human activity, reproduction, antler cycle and grouping on fecal glucocorticoids of free-ranging Pampas deer stags (Ozotoceros bezoarticus bezoarticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Pereira, Ricardo José; Barbanti Duarte, José Maurício; Negrão, João Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was validated in detecting glucocorticoids in Pampas deer feces, in order to investigate the influence of several factors on the adrenocortical function. Fecal samples, behavioral data and information concerning male grouping and antlers status were collected at a monthly basis during a 1 year period from free-ranging stags living at Emas National Park, Brazil (18 degrees S/52 degrees W). The results revealed that concentrations of fecal glucocorticoids in winter were significantly higher than those corresponding to spring and summer. In addition, dry season data presented higher levels than during the wet season. Significant difference was found between fecal levels of breeding stags in summer and nonbreeding stags, whereas no difference was observed between breeding stags in winter and nonbreeding stags. On the other hand, males from areas with frequent human disturbance exhibited higher glucocorticoid concentrations and flight distances than individuals from areas of lower human activity. Males with antlers in velvet had elevated levels compared with animals in hard antler or antler casting. Also, we found that glucocorticoid levels were higher in groups with three or more males than in groups with only one male. The flight distances showed positive correlation with fecal glucocorticoid. These data indicate that fecal glucocorticoid provides a useful approach in the evaluation of physiological effects of environment, inter-individuals relationship and human-induced stressors on free-ranging Pampas deer stags.

  7. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  8. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  9. Study of the Different Kinds of Pilose Antler Protein Differentiation by SDS-PAGE Gel%SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳法对不同种鹿茸蛋白质差异化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云飞; 初正云; 李洪江

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the protein differences of pilose antler pieces of China pharmacopoeia (CP) and its adulterants in market by using electrophoresis method and provide research basis for immunological identification technology of pilose antler.Methods:The velvet antler protein was extracted by the protein solution method,bovine serum protein was used as a control,determination of the concentration of water soluble protein determination of pilose antler by Bradford method,analysis of flower antler,red deer,New Zealand red deer and reindeer protein differences by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis method.Results:With 7.5% separation gel system to separate flower antler,New Zealand deer,red deer and reindeer water soluble protein,and four protein bands were in difference.Conclusion:The SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis was used to examine the differences in protein between the different varieties of pilose antler and provide basis and research foundation for qualitative research of different varieties of pilose antler.%目的:利用电泳方法研究市场上药典规定品种的鹿茸饮片及其混淆品中蛋白质的差异,为鹿茸的免疫鉴定技术研究提供研究依据.方法:采用蛋白溶解液法提取各鹿茸蛋白,以牛血清蛋白为对照,利用Bradford法测定鹿茸水溶性蛋白的浓度,利用SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳法分析花鹿茸、马鹿、新西兰赤鹿及驯鹿的蛋白差异.结果:用7.5%分离胶系统分离花鹿茸、新西兰马鹿、马鹿及驯鹿的水溶性蛋白,四者蛋白条带有差异.结论:利用SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳法考察不同品种鹿茸的蛋白差异,为不同品种鹿茸的定性研究提供依据和研究基础.

  10. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongran Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elk velvet antler (EVA has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age, and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  11. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L.; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  12. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  13. Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. Y. [Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N. D. [Department of Physics, Illinois State University, 61790, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X., E-mail: xiw77@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, University of Pittsburgh, 15260, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -}→(ℓ{sup +}D{sup 0})(ℓ{sup -}D{sup -bar0}) at high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -}→P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (non-chiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  14. Spin and chirality effects in antler-topology processes at high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S.Y. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Physics, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Christensen, N.D. [Illinois State University, Department of Physics, Normal, IL (United States); Salmon, D.; Wang, X. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We perform a model-independent investigation of spin and chirality correlation effects in the antler-topology processes e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} → (l{sup +}D{sup 0})(l{sup +} anti D{sup 0}) at highenergy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders with polarized beams. Generally the production process e{sup +}e{sup -} → P{sup +}P{sup -} can occur not only through the s-channel exchange of vector bosons, V{sup 0}, including the neutral Standard Model (SM) gauge bosons, γ and Z, but also through the s- and t-channel exchanges of new neutral states, S{sup 0} and T{sup 0}, and the u-channel exchange of new doubly charged states, U{sup --}. The general set of (nonchiral) three-point couplings of the new particles and leptons allowed in a renormalizable quantum field theory is considered. The general spin and chirality analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for P{sup +}P{sup -} pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions with longitudinal- and transverse-polarized beams, the angular distributions in the production process and also the production-decay angular correlations. In the first step, we present the observables in the helicity formalism. Subsequently, we show how a set of observables can be designed for determining the spins and chiral structures of the new particles without any model assumptions. Finally, taking into account a typical set of approximately chiral invariant scenarios, we demonstrate how the spin and chirality effects can be probed experimentally at a high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. (orig.)

  15. Does nutrition affect bone porosity and mineral tissue distribution in deer antlers? The relationship between histology, mechanical properties and mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete-Castillejos, T; Currey, J D; Ceacero, F; García, A J; Gallego, L; Gomez, S

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that porosity has an inverse relationship with the mechanical properties of bones. We examined cortical and trabecular porosity of antlers, and mineral composition, thickness and mechanical properties in the cortical wall. Samples belonged to two deer populations: a captive population of an experimental farm having a high quality diet, and a free-ranging population feeding on plants of lower nutritive quality. As shown for minerals and mechanical properties in previous studies by our group, cortical and trabecular porosity increased from the base distally. Cortical porosity was always caused by the presence of incomplete primary osteons. Porosity increased along the length of the antler much more in deer with lower quality diet. Despite cortical porosity being inversely related to mechanical properties and positively with K, Zn and other minerals indicating physiological effort, it was these minerals and not porosity that statistically better explained variability in mechanical properties. Histochemistry showed that the reason for this is that Zn is located around incomplete osteons and also in complete osteons that were still mineralizing, whereas K is located in non-osteonal bone, which constitutes a greater proportion of bone where osteons are incompletely mineralized. This suggests that, K, Zn and other minerals indicate reduction in mechanical performance even with little porosity. If a similar process occurred in internal bones, K, Zn and other minerals in the bone may be an early indicator of decrease in mechanical properties and future osteoporosis. In conclusion, porosity is related to diet and physiological effort in deer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  17. Study on the Varying Patterns of Total Phospholipids, Selenium, Phosphorus, Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar, Hydrolyzed Amino Acids in the Velvet Antler of Northeast Sika Deer in Growth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shu-li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the varying patterns of total phospholipids, selenium, phosphorus, reducing sugar and total sugar, hydrolyzed amino acids in the velvet antler of Northeast sika deer in growth period were evaluated. Eighteen Northeast sika deer were allocated into 6 groups according to the antler shedding time. Results indicated that there was significant difference of the selenium content between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 1 and Group 2 or Group 5 and Group 6. About the phosphorus there was significant difference between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 4 and Group 5 or Group 2 and Group 3 or Group 1 and Group 2. Group 6 had the lowest total Phospholipids content. Both of the reducing sugar and total sugar showed an increasing pattern initially and then decrease gradually.

  18. Effect of the Velvet Antler of Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei on the Prevention of an Allergic Airway Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yun Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mouse models were used to assay the antiallergic effects of the velvet antler (VA of Formosan sambar deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei in this study. The results using the ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mouse model showed that the levels of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE were reduced after VA powder was administrated for 4 weeks. In addition, the ex vivo results indicated that the secretion of T helper cell 1 (Th1, regulatory T (Treg, and Th17 cytokines by splenocytes was significantly increased (P<0.05 when VA powder was administered to the mice. Furthermore, OVA-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated with VA powder showed a strong inhibition of Th2 cytokine and proinflammatory cytokine production in bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in the regulatory T-cell population of splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of VA was also observed. All the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including airway inflammation and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were reduced by treatment with VA. These findings support the hypothesis that oral feeding of VA may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  19. Preventive Effects of Velvet Antler (Cervus elaphus against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB Activation and Inducing AMPK/Nrf2 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Shu Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Velvet antler (Cervus elaphus is a typical traditional animal medicine. It is considered to have various pharmacological effects including stimulation of the immune system, increase in the physical strength, and enhancement of sexual function. This paper aims to investigate the aqueous extract of velvet antler (AVA in the mouse models of LPS-induced ALI. Inhibition of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 productions contributes to the attenuation of LPS-induced lung inflammation by AVA. A 5-day pretreatment of AVA prevented histological alterations and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity in lung tissues. AVA significantly reduced the material (total number of cells and proteins in the BALF. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and phosphorylation of IκB-α and MAPKs proteins are blocked in LPS-stimulated macrophages as well as LPS-induced lung injury in mice. Consistent with this concept, the phosphorylation of CaMKKβ, LKB1, AMPK, Nrf2, and HO-1 was activated after AVA treatment. The results from this study indicate AVA has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and AVA is a potential model for the development of health food. In addition, its pathways may be at least partially associated with inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB activation and upregulating AMPK/Nrf2 pathways and the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activity.

  20. Suvemaja, Antler Island, Fairy Lake, Ontario / Ants Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Ants, 1917-2012

    1997-01-01

    Tuli projekteerida suvila kasvavale perele, mis algusest peale kasutamiskõlblikuna areneks koos perekonna laienemisega. Kerged paviljonid meenutavad küla. Ehitati 1966-1989. Arhitekt Elmar Tampõld. Joonised, vaated.

  1. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Haallnaes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil

    2011-05-01

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Haallnaes, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Haallnaes with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Haallnaes is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Haallnaes, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the moose population in Haallnaes. Time series of good quality data will reveal important information about changes in moose population structure and/or fodder status in the area

  2. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil

    2011-05-01

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Forsmark, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Forsmark with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Forsmark is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Forsmark, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the moose population in Forsmark. Time series of good quality data will reveal important information about changes in moose population structure and/or fodder status in the area

  3. Cervi cornus Colla (deer antler glue) induce epidermal differentiation in the reconstruction of skin equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H-R; Nam, K-M; Kim, D-S; Huh, C-H; Na, J-I; Park, K-C

    2013-06-01

    In the reconstruction of skin equivalents (SEs), keratinocyte differentiation is important because epidermal differentiation is closely related with barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cervi cornus Colla (CCC) on the stem cell activity and epidermal differentiation in the reconstruction of skin equivalent. Four different models were constructed according to different composition of dermal substitute. Results showed similar morphologic findings when hyaluronic acid (HA) and/or CCC was added. But, immunohistochemical staining showed that p63 was significantly increased by addition of HA and/or CCC. Increased staining of integrin α6 and β1 was variably observed when HA and/or CCC was added to make dermal substitute. These finding showed that addition of HA and/or CCC may affect the stem cell activity in the reconstruction of skin. Furthermore, filaggrin expression was much increased when CCC was added. It showed that epidermal differentiation was significantly improved by addition of CCC. In conclusion, simultaneous presence of HA and CCC contributed to the stem cell activity and epidermal differentiation in the reconstruction of SE. Legislation in the EU prohibits marketing cosmetics and personal care products that contain constituents that have been examined through animal experiments. To avoid these limitations, SEs can be used for testing the safety or the efficacy of cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, our results showed that combined use of HA and CCC can be helpful for the reconstruction of SE with good stem cell activity and epidermal differentiation. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Haallnaes; Monitoring Forsmark. Aelgstammens aalderssammansaettning reproduktion och hornutveckling i Haallnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil (Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Haallnaes, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Haallnaes with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Haallnaes is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Haallnaes, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the moose population in Haallnaes. Time series of good quality data will reveal important information about changes in moose population structure and/or fodder status in the area

  5. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Forsmark; Monitoring Forsmark. Aelgstammens aalderssammansaettning reproduktion och hornutveckling i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil (Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Forsmark, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Forsmark with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Forsmark is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Forsmark, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the moose population in Forsmark. Time series of good quality data will reveal important information about changes in moose population structure and/or fodder status in the area

  6. 利用SRY基因鉴别梅花鹿茸、新西兰鹿茸和俄罗斯驯鹿鹿茸%Utilize SRY Gene to Distinguish Pilose Antler of Plum Blossom,New Zealand Pilose Antler and Russian Reindeer's Pilose Antler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白秀娟; 张敏

    2007-01-01

    采用分子生物学的鉴定方法,对梅花鹿、新西兰鹿、俄罗斯驯鹿的SRY基因进行扩增,在相同条件下用特异引物扩增,这3种鹿都可以扩增出明显的条带且条带数目存在差异,并且阴性对照没有出现任何条带,证明结果真实可靠.采用这种方法可以有效扼制同源性假冒药材的泛滥,维护消费者的权益.

  7. Biocompatibility of orthopaedic implants on bone forming cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanen, A. (Anita)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Reindeer antler was studied for its possible use as a bone implant material. A molecular biological study showed that antler contains a growth factor promoting bone formation. Ectopic bone formation assay showed that antler is not an equally effective inducer as allogenic material. Ectopic bone formation assay was optimised for biocompatibility studies of orthopaedic NiTi implants. Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel were used as reference materials. The assay...

  8. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the factors affecting the evolution of antler size. Better knowledge of ... elaphus), which is related to our Kashmir hangul (Cerous elaphus hangiu), having very ..... have led to a market in dried antler velvet as an aphrodisiac. Many countries ...

  9. From Evolutionary Allometry to Sexual Display: (A Reply to Holman and Bro-Jørgensen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Pasquale; Passaro, Federico; Carotenuto, Francesco; Meiri, Shai; Piras, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the complex shapes of deer antlers are produced under the sole influence of sexual selection. We questioned this view by demonstrating that trends for increased body size evolution passively yield more-complex ornaments, even in organisms where no effect of sexual selection is possible, with similar allometric slopes. Recent investigations suggest that sexual selection on antlers of larger deer species is stronger than that in smaller species; hence, the use of conspicuous antlers for display in large male deer is a secondary function driven by especially intense sexual selection on these large-bodied species. Since ancestral deer were small and had very simple antlers, such an intense selection on antlers shape was probably absent in early deer. Therefore, the evolution of complex ornaments is coupled with body size evolution, even in deer.

  10. Ornament Complexity Is Correlated with Sexual Selection: (A Comment on Raia et al., "Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Luke; Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Raia et al. propose that the evolution of the shape and complexity of animal ornaments (e.g., deer antlers) can be explained by interspecific variation in body size and is not influenced by sexual selection. They claim to show that ornament complexity is related to body size by an 0.25-power law and argue that this finding precludes a role for sexual selection in the evolution of ornament complexity. However, their study does not test alternative hypotheses and mismeasures antler shape allometry by omitting much of the published data. We show that an index of sexual selection (sexual size dimorphism) is positively correlated with size-corrected antler complexity and that the allometric slope of complexity is substantially greater than 0.25, contra Raia et al. We conclude that sexual selection and physical constraints both affect the evolution of antler shape.

  11. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of a latent pathogen on mulberry tree with a disease of mosaic dwarf ... and therapeutic effects of antler collagen on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats ... The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut (Juglans ...

  13. 78 FR 50443 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... midden component and dates to approximately 670 radiocarbon years ago. Material culture observed at the sites, projectile points, carved antler fragments, ochre, toggling harpoons, faunal material and basketry, is consistent with Native American Coast Salish material culture. Linguistically, Native American...

  14. Analysis and Application of Antagonism Compound Prescription Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Wang, Can; Bai, Ming; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Deer horn glue is deer family animals deer or red deer horn made of solid plastic animal medicine, according to Chinese medicine “seven emotions together” theory, the antler and other Chinese herbal medicines compatibility can be better play its Medicinal value. In this paper, the chemical composition, pharmacological effects, compatibility analysis, clinical application and classic ancient prescriptions of antler are reviewed in recent years.

  15. Major-histocompatibility-complex-associated variation in secondary sexual traits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): evidence for good-genes advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchkoff, S S; Lochmiller, R L; Masters, R E; Hoofer, S R; Van Den Bussche, R A

    2001-03-01

    Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest advertisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data collected from hunter-harvested deer to characteristics of the Mhc-DRB (Odvi), the most widely studied gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Artiodactyla. We detected associations between genetic characteristics at Odvi-DRB and antler development and body mass, suggesting that antler development and body mass may be associated with pathogen resistance in deer and thus may be an honest signal of genetic quality. We also detected associations between Odvi-DRB characteristics and serum testosterone during the breeding season, suggesting that certain MHC characteristics may help deer cope with stresses related to breeding activity. In addition, we observed a negative relationship between degree of antler development and overall abundance of abomasal helminths. Our observations provide support for the hypothesis that antler development in white-tailed deer is an honest signal of quality.

  16. Effect of Sika Deer and Reindeer Peripheral and Antler Blood Perfusion on Myocardial Contractility and Heart Rate of Heart Isolated from Bullfrog%梅花鹿和驯鹿外周血和茸血对牛蛙离体心脏心肌收缩力和心率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 邢婷婷; 黄伟; 刘忠军

    2013-01-01

    为探讨鹿血对牛蛙离体心脏收缩力和心率的影响,采用斯氏法离体蛙心,分别用不同的鹿血对离体心脏进行灌流,用BL-420E生物技能试验系统记录离体心脏给药前、后心肌收缩力和心率的变化.试验结果表明:梅花鹿外周血、梅花鹿茸血、驯鹿外周血和驯鹿茸血与任氏液对照组相比心肌收缩力增加42.27% ~126.62%,差异极显著(P<0.01),其中梅花鹿外周血和驯鹿外周血较比梅花鹿茸血和驯鹿茸血对增强离体蛙心心肌收缩力更为明显,但对各组间的心率没有影响(P>0.05).

  17. Dama roberti, a new species of deer from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, and the origins of modern fallow deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Marzia; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-06-01

    The ancestry of the modern fallow deer, Dama dama, has been tentatively traced back to Pliocene/Early Pleistocene forms referred to 'Pseudodama', characterized by unpalmated three- or four-point antlers. By the late Middle Pleistocene, Dama with palmated antlers appears, as Dama dama clactoniana. However, fallow deer from the interim period, the early Middle Pleistocene, are poorly-known. A new specimen from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK), represented by a portion of cranium with a substantial part of both antlers plus a mandible and scapula, is the most complete medium-sized deer specimen from the British early Middle Pleistocene (ca 700 ka). The position and orientation of the basal tine, together with dental characters and mandibular morphology, are typical of fallow deer. The narrow palmation is reminiscent of D. dama clactoniana, but the lack of palmation tines is unique. Moreover, the lack of second (and third) tines in an adult specimen differs from both D. dama dama and D. d. clactoniana, being a primitive character shared with the last representatives of 'Pseudodama' which, on the other hand, has a circular beam lacking any palmation. This combination of features justifies the erection of a new species provisionally placed within the genus Dama, Dama roberti n. sp. Another specimen, from Soleilhac (Auvergne, France), represented by portions of the two antlers, a mandible and a tibia, shares antler morphology with the Pakefield specimen and can be ascribed to the same new species. Isolated antler and dental remains from coeval British sites are tentatively ascribed to D. roberti n. sp. The new species has implications for the ancestry of modern fallow deer.

  18. Like a fish out of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    Terrestrial herbivores are usually considered "safe" for radiocarbon dating, as they incorporate carbon in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Radiocarbon reservoir effects are therefore not expected in these animals. One species, however, might show reservoir effects: the elk/moose (Alces alces...... of their time cooling down in lakes and rivers, munching away on the aquatic vegetation. This is the season when the antlers are formed, so the reservoir effect is expected to be greatest in the antlers. In this study, radiocarbon dating of historical known-age samples, archaeological elk bones from secure...

  19. 77 FR 19686 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Defense, Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... beads and cordage; 1 chert flake; 9 copper tubular beads with cordage and cut dentalium shell; 8 copper... feet in diameter and contained human remains and a large amount of copper funerary objects. Burial 3... associated funerary objects are: 44 copper tubular beads; 1 antler digging stick handle; 222 copper tubular...

  20. 76 FR 3653 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... subsistence management issues. The NPS SRC program is authorized under Title VIII, Section 808 of the Alaska...: 1. Call to order. 2. SRC Roll Call and Confirmation of Quorum. 3. Welcome and Introductions. 4... Board of Game Update. 12. Old Business. a. Subsistence Uses of Horns, Antlers, Bones and Plants EA...

  1. Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Beads served both as ornaments and as a medium of exchange, and the Indians manufactured them from such natural sources as bones, stones, beans, nuts, animal teeth, and polished antlers. Even after the introduction of European glass beads, the Indians continued to make their favorite beads from the natural sources. (DS)

  2. Råmaterialer, forarbejder, spild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Dobat, Andres S.; Pedersen, Unn

    2014-01-01

    Finds from Aggersborg: raw iron, off-cuts and a ?bar, hammer-scale, slag, rough-outs of arrow-heads and leister-prongs, lead waste, copper-alloy raw material and waste, gold and amber waste, raw material, rough-outs and waste of bone, antler and horn, soapstone, pigment?...

  3. Late Mesolithic hunting of a small female aurochs in the valley of the River Tjonger (the Netherlands) in the light of Mesolithic aurochs hunting in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.

    The valley of the River Tjonger, situated in the Province of Friesland (the Netherlands), is rich in prehistoric organic remains. The fill of the valley, consisting of waterlogged sediments (peat, gyttja and sands), presents favourable conditions for the preservation of bone, antler and botanical

  4. 76 FR 1458 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Plan Update. c. Subsistence Uses of Horns, Antlers, Bones and Plants EA Update. 13. New Business. 14... guarantee that we will be able to do so. Wrangell-St. Elias National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The... if all business is completed. For Further Information on the Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC...

  5. 75 FR 40850 - Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... meeting may end early if all business is completed. If the meeting date and location are changed due to... Membership 10. Old Business a. Denali Subsistence Management Plan b. Subsistence Uses of Horns, Antlers... Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) program. SUMMARY: The Denali National Park SRC plans to meet to develop...

  6. Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane P. Mahoney

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The demographic and environmental influences on large mammal morphology are central questions in ecology. We investigated the effects of population abundance and climate on body size and number of male antler points for the La Poile and Middle Ridge caribou (Rangifer tarandus, L. 1758 herds, Newfoundland, Canada. Across 40 years and 20-fold changes in abundance, adult males and females exhibited diminished stature as indicated by jawbone size (diastema and total mandible length and the number of antler points at the time of harvest. Associations between jawbone size and population abundance at birth were consistently negative for both herds, both sexes, and all age classes. Large-scale climate patterns, as measured by the North Atlantic Oscillation in the winter prior to birth, were also negatively associated with jawbone size. Declines in male antler size, as measured by the number of antler points, were not well predicted by either abundance or climate, suggesting other factors (e.g., current, rather than latent, foraging conditions may be involved. We conclude that these morphological changes indicate competition for food resources.

  7. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    And Gamow said, Let there be a Hot Universe · Somak Raychaudhury · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 44-49 General Article. George Gamow and the Genetic Code · Vidyanand Nanjundiah · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 50-63 General Article. Deer Antlers - Rapid Growing Calcified Tissue · A Rajaram · More Details Fulltext ...

  8. 78 FR 50104 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ..., 2007), paragraph seven, sentence six is corrected by substituting the following sentences: The 6,640... bone tubes; 1 bone tube/whistle; 8 bone whistles; 19 pieces modified bone of indefinite use; 4 antler tools; 7 charmstones; 2 quartz crystals; 6 pieces miscellaneous groundstone; 7 pestles; 1 mortar; 53...

  9. 78 FR 3879 - Ochoco National Forest, Paulina Ranger District; Oregon; Fox Canyon Cluster Allotment Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... approximately 35 miles east of Prineville, south of Big Summit Prairie. The four allotments are Antler, Brush... other applicable legal requirements within the project area. Paulina Ranger District data indicates that throughout the project area, stream shade and bank stability do not meet Forest Plan standards. In addition...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.1 - Preservation of natural, cultural and archeological resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or into thermal features. (4) Using or possessing wood gathered from within the area administered by the Presidio Trust: Provided, however, that the Board may designate areas where dead wood on the...) Living or dead wildlife or fish, or the parts or products thereof, such as antlers or nests. (ii) Plants...

  11. Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Freeman

    Full Text Available Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype. While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation. Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms.

  12. Conflicts between reindeer herding and an expanding caribou herd in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L. Finstad

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reindeer industry has existed in Alaska since 1892. This industry has largely been concentrated on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska because suitable habitat has been available and caribou have been absent here for over 100 years. Until recently, reindeer meat and velvet antler production consistently generated millions of dollars in revenue critical to the economies of rural Alaskan communities. From 1976 to 1996 the Western Arctic Caribou Herd (WACH increased from about 75 000 to 463 000 animals. Concurrently, seasonal range use of the WACH shifted westward onto traditional reindeer ranges of the Seward Peninsula. Reindeer herders lost 75-100% of their herds through commingling and out¬migration with wild caribou. This loss of over 12 000 reindeer represents a potential economic value of 13 million dollars. Sustainable meat and velvet antler production and the economies of western Alaskan are likely to be affected by these changes.

  13. Holographic nondestructive testing in bone biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Nygren, Kaarlo; Karna, Markku

    1992-08-01

    Holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT) is used to investigate the complex structures of bones of various shapes and sizes subjected to forces. During the course of the present study three antlered deer skulls of different species were investigated, and significant species- specific differences were observed. The HNDT method was also used to verify the advanced healing of an osteosynthetized sheep jawbone. Radioulnar bones of normal and orphaned moose calves were subjected to the bending test. Different bending dynamics were observed.

  14. Las Estrategias Metodológicas Y Su Incidencia En La Calidad Del Aprendizaje Estudiantil En El Área De Ciencias Sociales De La Escuela De Educación Básica “León De Febres Cordero”, Parroquia San Juan, Cantón Puebloviejo, Provincia Los Ríos.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Aguirre, Digna María

    2015-01-01

    The quality of education is all a number of processes that allow the student to optimally absorb knowledge and apply them in daily life. The methodological strategies are part of the process of teaching and learning, and if not properly applied in the classroom, antlers strategies would be failing in its functionality and yet not allow the development of critical thinking in students and there would be quality in learning. This research topic is themed "The methodological strategies a...

  15. Tissue engineered bone versus alloplastic commercial biomaterials in craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaciu, Ondine; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Băciuţ, G; Câmpian, R; Soriţău, Olga; Bran, S; Crişan, B; Crişan, Liana

    2010-01-01

    This research was developed in order to demonstrate the tissue engineering method as an alternative to conventional methods for bone reconstruction, in order to overcome the frequent failures of alloplastic commercial biomaterials, allografts and autografts. Tissue engineering is an in vitro method used to obtain cell based osteoinductive bone grafts. This study evaluated the feasibility of creating tissue-engineered bone using mesenchymal cells seeded on a scaffold obtained from the deciduous red deer antler. We have chosen mesenchymal stem cells because they are easy to obtain, capable to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal origin (osteoblasts) and to produce tissue such as bone. As scaffold, we have chosen the red deer antler because it has a high level of porosity. We conducted a case control study, on three groups of mice type CD1--two study groups (n=20) and a control group (n=20). For the study groups, we obtained bone grafts through tissue engineering, using mesenchymal stem cells seeded on the scaffold made of deciduous red deer antler. Bone defects were surgically induced on the left parietal bone of all subjects. In the control group, we grafted the bone defects with commercial biomaterials (OsteoSet, Wright Medical Technology, Inc., Arlington, Federal USA). Subjects were sacrificed at two and four months, the healing process was morphologically and histologically evaluated using descriptive histology and the golden standard - histological scoring. The grafts obtained in vivo through tissue engineering using adult stem cell, seeded on the scaffold obtained from the red deer antler using osteogenic medium have proven their osteogenic properties.

  16. Selection decisions among reindeer herders in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of breeding animals is a tool to improve the revenues in animal production. Information about selection practices and criteria are essential in assessing the possibilities for systematic selection schemes. Attitudes of reindeer herders towards use of selection in improving production were investigated by means of interviews. We interviewed the managers of reindeer herding cooperatives concerning their selection decisions. Fortyfive out of 56 managers answered to the semi-structured questionnaire. Among herding operations, selection of breeding animals was regarded by managers as critical for calf’s autumn weight and survival. The main selection criteria were calf’s health, vigour, body size and muscularity, dam or dam line, and maternal care. Hair quality and hair length were important as well, while such often quoted traits as antler characteristics, e.g. early shedding of antler velvet and thick antler bases, were unimportant. The results show that reindeer herders i acknowledge the importance and effects of selective breeding, and ii have empirical knowledge to list the most important selection criteria.

  17. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  18. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  19. On the dynamic behavior of mineralized tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulin, Robb Michael

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and antler, are complex hierarchical materials that have adapted over millennia to optimize strength and fracture resistance for their in vivo applications. As a structural support, skeletal bone primarily acts as a rigid framework that is resistant to fracture, and able to repair damage and adapt to sustained loads during its lifetime. Antler is typically deciduous and subjected to large bending moments and violent impacts during its annual cycle. To date, extensive characterization of the quasi-static mechanical properties of these materials has been performed. However, very little has been done to characterize their dynamic properties, despite the fact that the majority of failures in these materials occur under impact loads. Here, an in depth analysis of the dynamic mechanical behavior of these two materials is presented, using equine bone obtained post-mortem from donors ranging in age from 6 months to 28 years, and antler from the North American Elk. Specimens were tested under compressive strain rates of 10-3, 100, and 103 sec-1 in order to investigate their strain rate dependent compressive response. Fracture toughness experiments were performed using a four-point bending geometry on single and double-notch specimens in order to measure fracture toughness, as well as observe differences in crack propagation between dynamic (˜2x105 MPa˙m1/2/s) and quasi-static (˜0.25 MPa˙m1/2/s) loading rates. After testing, specimens were analyzed using a combination of optical, electron and confocal microscopy. Results indicated that the mechanical response of these materials is highly dependent on loading rate. Decreasing quasi-static fracture toughness is observed with age in bone specimens, while dynamic specimens show no age trends, yet universally decreased fracture toughness compared to those tested quasi-statically. For the first time, rising R-curve behavior in bone was also shown to exist under both quasi-static and dynamic

  20. Making silent bones speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanovaite, Livija; Jensen, Mathias Paul Bjørnevad; Philippsen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , Obšrūtai and Kamšai were subjected to the AMS dating, tandem mass spectrometry for animal species identification as well as technological and use-wear analysis. The results revealed that all four bone points could be dated to the Boreal period and imply early-to-middle Mesolithic dates. Harpoons from...... of the present research, the paper shortly describes other scientific methods which could be applied to orphaned bone and antler tools including biomolecular and stable isotope analysis. Digital recording methods can be useful for bone artefact recording. This is relevant today, as the demand for good quality...

  1. Archeological Testing at at the Fairchild Site (LA 45732) Otero County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-11

    rid the acorns of tannin and to render them palatable, they were heat-treated. The most common method was to remove the acorn hull, grind the...valve shell, or carved of wood or antler ( Heizer and Elsas- ser 1980:92-93]. Heizer and Elsasser calculated that a family of five, working 8 hours a...three years), enough for several years’ storage ( Heizer and Elsasser 1980:95-96). Mesquite beans, one of the most important dietary items for the desert

  2. A history of British atomic tests in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    The history of the Australian involvement in the British atomic tests is presented. Background to all the major trials, the trials themselves and their aftermath are considered up to the last in 1957. Operations Hurricane, Totem, Mosaic, Buffalo, and Antler are described in detail. Attention is given to the minor trials and assessment tests - Kittens, Tims, Rats and the Maralinga Experimental Programme. The radiological surveys performed and the work carried out in 1967 to reduce the radiation levels and the potential levels of contamination, particularly in the test areas at Maralinga and Emu, are described

  3. Late Palaeolithic Nørre Lyngby - a northern outpost close to the west coast of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anders; Clemmensen, Lars B; Donahue, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater deposits exposed in a coastal cliff at Nørre Lyngby, NW Denmark, have yielded some of the northernmost traces of human presence in Western Europe during the Late Glacial. A rib from a reindeer bearing a cut mark has been dated to the climatically mild Allerød period. A robust projectile...... point of flint and an axe of reindeer antler, bearing zigzag ornamentation, are potentially of the same age. Wear marks indicate their use as a projectile tip and an axe, respectively. Botanical and faunal remains from the lake sediments indicate a colder climate and a significantly less treecovered...

  4. Practical development of laboratory of biologics technology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine for the period 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Lugovska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of inventive activity of the Laboratory of Biologics Technology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NAS of Ukraine, under the leadership of Z.M.Datsenko, Cand.Sc. (Biol., during 1991-2010. The laboratory researchers have developed new technologies for production of medicines of lipid-protein nature, which are based on endogenous complexes of biologically active substances included in the composition of biomembranes of different origin. The researchers have created new technologies for drug PANTOCRINE (for injections and oral administration from antlers of deers and horns of farm animals that have significantly higher biological activity compared with the commercial drug. They have also created new biologically active drugs from antlers with a specific action: HIPPOCAMP, reducing blood pressure in various forms of hypertension, and PANTERON – biological regulator of synthesis of steroid hormones. Further the researchers have developed technologies for obtaining biologically active complexes of various specific action from marine organisms (calamari, clams mussels, shellfish: CALMOFIL and MOLUFIL, therapeutic agents for replacement therapy of surfactant system of the lungs; FILOMEK, the agent for prophylaxis and treatment of a human reproductive system disorders; MOLUSTERON, the glicolipopeptide complex, three individual physiologically active compositions being differentially obtained from the latter: lipopeptide composition – for treatment of hypertension, nucleopeptide one – for treatment of hormonal disorders, and phospholipid – for treatment of lung diseases under the surfactant shortage.

  5. Public health impact of fallout from British nuclear weapons tests in Australia, 1952-1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.; Moroney, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    During the period 1952-1957, Britain conducted 12 full-scale nuclear weapons tests in Australia in five series, viz. Hurricane(1952), Totem(1953), Mosaic(1956), Buffalo(1956) and Antler(1957). Radioactive fallout from the tests reached many parts of Australia. This report reviews the pathways by which the radionuclides in the fallout could have irradiated the population. The methodology is presented for estimating the radiation doses and values are derived from the available data. The possible effect that the radiation exposure had on public health is assessed. Estimation of the radiation doses is approached in two parts: (a) the contributions from the Mosaic, Buffalo and Antler series which were monitored, and (b) the contributions from the Hurricane and Totem series for which there are few fallout data. In part (a), the activities of the radionuclides making up the measured fallout are established by calculation. Standard models are then used to derive the radiation doses for the population centres - from external radiation, from ingestion of radionuclides in food and from inhalation of radionuclides in air. A simple treatment is adopted to estimate radiation doses from drinking contaminated water. For Part (b), the data assembled in (a) provide the basis for developing statistical models for predicting radiation doses from weapon yields and trajectories of the radioactive clouds. The models are then applied to give the radiation doses to population centres following the tests in Hurricane and Totem, using their yields and trajectories. 71 refs., 20 tabs., 8 figs

  6. Growth and reproductive performance of sambar deer in Sabal Forest Reserve of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ismail; Dawend, Jiwan

    2013-10-01

    We examined the growth, reproduction, rutting behavior, and health status of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in secondary Acacia mangium plantation. The data were collected over 11 years from a breeding herd of 21 stags and 33 hinds in Sabal Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia. Brody's growth model of the pooled data is Y t  = 148.56 (1 - 0.98e(-0.023t)), which estimates that maximum weights of adults are 184 and 115 kg for males and females respectively. Sambar deer are nonseasonal breeders with the breeding peak in February. Although the earliest age at which a female reached sexual maturity was 11 months, the mean age was 23 ± 7 months. Mean age of first fawning was 32 ± 8 months. Mean gestation period was 259 ± 12 days (n = 82). Stags shed antlers mostly between March and July. Velvet hardens at 103 ± 27 days (n = 23), and velvet harvesting is best at 7-9 weeks when antler length is 25-30 cm. Sambar deer are suitable as a farm species in forest plantations and have a vast potential to uplift rural living standards.

  7. Game species: extinction hidden by census numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of game species may involve a risk of alteration of their genetic properties. Local adaptations may be disrupted if artificially selected individuals from farms or those belonging to distant geographical areas are introduced to increase population density or trophy ‘quality’. In Spain, red deer (Cervus elaphus from different European subspecies have been introduced to increase the size of trophies (antlers of local populations. Legislation against these introductions is not effective for various reasons, and once the individuals are in the Iberian peninsula it is virtually impossible to prevent their spreading throughout the whole territory without a genetic tool to distinguish between autochthonous and foreign specimens. We have developed such a genetic test and propose a strategy to dissuade land-owners from importing foreign deer. Since deer are bred mainly for their antlers, our strategy is based on an agreement with the National Trophy Body in Spain which rejects trophies from foreign populations. Rejection decreases the value of the trophy so that it becomes more profitable to produce autochthonous deer. Using such a strategy at some critical step in the production or commercialisation process may be a good model to apply in protecting genetic properties of exploited species.

  8. The ontogenetic osteohistology of Tenontosaurus tilletti.

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    Sarah Werning

    Full Text Available Tenontosaurus tilletti is an ornithopod dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian Cloverly and Antlers formations of the Western United States. It is represented by a large number of specimens spanning a number of ontogenetic stages, and these specimens have been collected across a wide geographic range (from central Montana to southern Oklahoma. Here I describe the long bone histology of T. tilletti and discuss histological variation at the individual, ontogenetic and geographic levels. The ontogenetic pattern of bone histology in T. tilletti is similar to that of other dinosaurs, reflecting extremely rapid growth early in life, and sustained rapid growth through sub-adult ontogeny. But unlike other iguanodontians, this dinosaur shows an extended multi-year period of slow growth as skeletal maturity approached. Evidence of termination of growth (e.g., an external fundamental system is observed in only the largest individuals, although other histological signals in only slightly smaller specimens suggest a substantial slowing of growth later in life. Histological differences in the amount of remodeling and the number of lines of arrested growth varied among elements within individuals, but bone histology was conservative across sampled individuals of the species, despite known paleoenvironmental differences between the Antlers and Cloverly formations. The bone histology of T. tilletti indicates a much slower growth trajectory than observed for other iguanodontians (e.g., hadrosaurids, suggesting that those taxa reached much larger sizes than Tenontosaurus in a shorter time.

  9. White and Breitborde's French Paleolithic Collections of the Logan Museum of Anthropology. 1992. Logan Museum Bulletin (new series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thacker

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available At some point in their training, most Paleolithic archaeologists succumb to the almost spiritual pull of the French Perigord and undertake the pilgrimage. While today's prehistorians visit numerous French museums and are able to purchase a spectrum of teaching aids from artifact replicas to CD-ROM images of rockshelter exca­vations, the situation facing Alonzo Pond and George Collie in the early 1920's was quite different. During the seminal years of Beloit College's Department of Anthropology, Pond and Collie acquired over 20,000 Pale­olithic artifacts from both a network of professional and amateur archaeologists in France, and limited excava­ tion projects. This collection, consisting of stone artifacts, bone tools, worked shell, antler, and ivory, and even engraved plaquettes and Azillian pebbles, is the subject of French Paleolithic Collections of the Logan Museum of Anthropology.

  10. Geologic map of the Lower Valley quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlindacher, H. Peter; Hovland, R. David; Miller, Susan T.; Evans, James G.; Miller, Robert J.

    2018-04-05

    The Lower Valley 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in the core of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area, includes Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, Pliocene to Pleistocene basalt, and Tertiary to Holocene surficial deposits. The Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary sequence was deposited on a shallow shelf between an emergent craton to the east and the Antler orogenic belt to the west. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation hosts high-grade deposits of phosphate that were the subject of geologic studies through much of the 20th century. Open-pit mining of the phosphate has been underway within and near the Lower Valley quadrangle for several decades.

  11. Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus is a South American grazing deer which is in extreme danger of extinction. Very little is known about the biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, most information has not been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, and is only available in local publications, theses, etc. Therefore, our aim was to update and summarize the available information regarding the reproductive biology of the pampas deer. Moreover, in most sections, we have also included new, unpublished information. Detailed descriptions are provided of the anatomy of both the female and the male reproductive tract, puberty onset, the oestrous cycle and gestational length. Birthing and the early postpartum period are described, as are maternal behaviour and early fawn development, seasonal distribution of births, seasonal changes in male reproduction and antler cycle, reproductive behaviour, semen collection, and cryopreservation. Finally, an overview is given and future directions of research are proposed.

  12. Biomechanical testing of isolated bones: holographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Raimo; Nygren, Kaarlo; Karna, Markku

    1992-08-01

    Holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT) is used to investigate the complex structures of bones of various shapes and sizes subjected to forces. Three antlered deer skulls of different species were investigated and significant species-specific differences were observed. The HNDT method was also used to verify the advanced healing of an osteosynthetized sheep jawbone. Radioulnar bones of a normal and an orphaned moose calf were subjected to a bending test. The undernourished calf showed torsio displacement combined with the bending of the bone, which was not seen in the normal calf. The effects of the masticatory forces on the moose skull surface were studied by simulating masseter muscle contractions with jawbones in occlusion. The fringe patterns showed fast-moving bone surfaces on the naso- maxillo-lacrimal region.

  13. Some herding, record keeping and treatment methods used in Alaskan reindeer herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dieterich

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.

  14. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toïgo, Carole; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Loison, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. Following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. Evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. Individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus have a greater capacity to survive. We investigated trade-offs between male early horn growth and future horn growth, baseline mortality, onset of actuarial senescence, and rate of ageing in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) population. Horn growth of males in early life was positively correlated to their horn length throughout their entire life. Cohort variation and individual heterogeneity both accounted for among-individual variation in horn length, suggesting both long-lasting effects of early life conditions and individual-specific horn growth trajectories. Early horn growth did not influence annual survival until 12 years of age, indicating that males do not invest in horn growth at survival costs over most of their lifetime. However, males with fast-growing horns early in life tended to have lower survival at very old ages. Individual heterogeneity, along with the particular life-history tactic of male ibex (weak participation to the rut until an old age after which they burn out in high mating investment), are likely to explain why the expected trade-off between horn growth and survival does not show up, at least until very old ages.

  16. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  17. Accessing camera trap survey feasibility for estimating Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique F. Peres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Demographic information is the basis for evaluating and planning conservation strategies for an endangered species. However, in numerous situations there are methodological or financial limitations to obtain such information for some species. The marsh deer, an endangered Neotropical cervid, is a challenging species to obtain biological information. To help achieve such aims, the study evaluated the applicability of camera traps to obtain demographic information on the marsh deer compared to the traditional aerial census method. Fourteen camera traps were installed for three months on the Capão da Cruz floodplain, in state of São Paulo, and ten helicopter flyovers were made along a 13-kilometer trajectory to detect resident marsh deer. In addition to counting deer, the study aimed to identify the sex, age group and individual identification of the antlered males recorded. Population estimates were performed using the capture-mark-recapture method with the camera trap data and by the distance sampling method for aerial observation data. The costs and field efforts expended for both methodologies were calculated and compared. Twenty independent photographic records and 42 sightings were obtained and generated estimates of 0.98 and 1.06 ind/km², respectively. In contrast to the aerial census, camera traps allowed us to individually identify branch-antlered males, determine the sex ratio and detect fawns in the population. The cost of camera traps was 78% lower but required 20 times more field effort. Our analysis indicates that camera traps present a superior cost-benefit ratio compared to aerial surveys, since they are more informative, cheaper and offer simpler logistics. Their application extends the possibilities of studying a greater number of populations in a long-term monitoring.

  18. Chronic Wasting Disease: Transmission Mechanisms and the Possibility of Harvest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Alex; Merrill, Evelyn; Pybus, Margo; Lewis, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of CWD management by nonselective deer harvest, currently the most feasible approach available for managing CWD in wild populations. We use the model to explore the effects of 6 common harvest strategies on disease prevalence and to identify potential optimal harvest policies for reducing disease prevalence without population collapse. The model includes 4 deer categories (juveniles, adult females, younger adult males, older adult males) that may be harvested at different rates, a food-based carrying capacity, which influences juvenile survival but not adult reproduction or survival, and seasonal force of infection terms for each deer category under differing frequency-dependent transmission dynamics resulting from environmental and direct contact mechanisms. Numerical experiments show that the interval of transmission coefficients β where the disease can be controlled is generally narrow and efficiency of a harvest policy to reduce disease prevalence depends crucially on the details of the disease transmission mechanism, in particular on the intensity of disease transmission to juveniles and the potential differences in the behavior of older and younger males that influence contact rates. Optimal harvest policy to minimize disease prevalence for each of the assumed transmission mechanisms is shown to depend on harvest intensity. Across mechanisms, a harvest that focuses on antlered deer, without distinguishing between age classes reduces disease prevalence most consistently, whereas distinguishing between young and older antlered deer produces higher uncertainty in the harvest effects on disease prevalence. Our results show that, despite uncertainties, a modelling approach can determine classes of harvest strategy that are most likely to be effective in combatting CWD. PMID:26963921

  19. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of

  20. The Role of Museums in Recovery From Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

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    Sudo Ken‘ichi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku was founded in 1974 as an Inter-University Research Institute housing a museum and graduate school. A museum is more than a place to store intangible and tangible heritage. Along with its responsibility for conserving and passing on cultural materials, it also creates new culture. On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by an earthquake and tsunami of unprecedented proportions. From one month after the disaster, conservation experts from Minpaku participated in the rescue of tangible cultural resources for the period of eight months. At the same time, our disaster response team worked with village residents in damaged localities, assisting their efforts to replace costumes and ornaments for traditional performing arts that had been washed out to sea, or to repair damaged lion heads, to aid in reviving traditional performing arts. We had thought that, in the process of revival and recovery, the re-launch of festivals and traditional performing arts would come later than the construction of the homes and livelihoods of the local people. In one case, Minpaku, based on its research, was able to provide deer antlers for the headdresses needed to revive the deer dance, an intangible cultural heritage of a village in Iwate Prefecture. Village elders worked the antlers we donated, restored the costumes, and within a year were able to produce ten full sets of costumes. Subsequently, the deer dance was performed in village after village to calm the spirits of the dead, ward off evil spirits, and restore the confidence of people afflicted by the disaster. In this way, a traditional performing art contributed to the revival and rebuilding of the affected communities. In another village the repair and restoration of stone lions’ heads and providing aid for refugees from the disaster were further other examples of organized activity carried out in connection with the traditional performing arts. In sum, our experience

  1. Hematologic Profile and Semen Quality of Male Timor Deer (Rusa timorensis) at Various Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudewa, D.; Capitan, S. S.; Sevilla, C. C.; Vega, R. S. A.; Ocampo, P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to observe hematologic profile i.e. erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and semen quality, i.e. semen volume, sperm motility and sperm abnormality of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer raised under captivity. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41kg body weight) at similar antler stages were use in this study. Before and after 43 days of establishment of dominance hierarchy blood were sampled after sedation for erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (mg/dL), and hematocrit (%). Likewise, semen was collected using electroejaculator and were analyzed for semen volume (ml), sperm motility (%) and sperm abnormality (%) to compare male deer at various heirarchies. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was done. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that highest count of erythrocyte shown on α and β-male (1.60 million per µL). The highest increase in hematocrit was observed in β-male (5%) and then followed by S2-male (4%). S2-male had the highest increase in hemoglobin (0.13 g/dL). The highest increase in semen volume was observed in α -male (0.75 ml). Social stress affected negatively the sperm motility and abnormality (P<0.05). The highest decrease was observed in S2-male.

  2. Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Pasquale; Passaro, Federico; Carotenuto, Francesco; Maiorino, Leonardo; Piras, Paolo; Teresi, Luciano; Meiri, Shai; Itescu, Yuval; Novosolov, Maria; Baiano, Mattia Antonio; Martínez, Ricard; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-08-01

    Luxuriant, bushy antlers, bizarre crests, and huge, twisting horns and tusks are conventionally understood as products of sexual selection. This view stems from both direct observation and from the empirical finding that the size of these structures grows faster than body size (i.e., ornament size shows positive allometry). We contend that the familiar evolutionary increase in the complexity of ornaments over time in many animal clades is decoupled from ornament size evolution. Increased body size comes with extended growth. Since growth scales to the quarter power of body size, we predicted that ornament complexity should scale according to the quarter power law as well, irrespective of the role of sexual selection in the evolution and function of the ornament. To test this hypothesis, we selected three clades (ammonites, deer, and ceratopsian dinosaurs) whose species bore ornaments that differ in terms of the importance of sexual selection to their evolution. We found that the exponent of the regression of ornament complexity to body size is the same for the three groups and is statistically indistinguishable from 0.25. We suggest that the evolution of ornament complexity is a by-product of Cope's rule. We argue that although sexual selection may control size in most ornaments, it does not influence their shape.

  3. Cloning from stem cells: different lineages, different species, same story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Following nuclear transfer (NT), the most stringent measure of extensive donor cell reprogramming is development into viable offspring. This is referred to as cloning efficiency and quantified as the proportion of cloned embryos transferred into surrogate mothers that survive into adulthood. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions ('reprogramming ability') and the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be reprogrammed ('reprogrammability'). It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is inversely proportional to its differentiation status. In order to test this hypothesis, reprogrammability was compared between undifferentiated stem cells and their differentiated isogenic progeny. In the mouse, cells of divergent differentiation status from the neuronal, haematopoietic and skin epithelial lineage were tested. In cattle and deer, skeletal muscle and antler cells, respectively, were used as donors. No conclusive correlation between differentiation status and cloning efficiency was found, indicating that somatic donor cell type may not be the limiting factor for cloning success. This may reflect technical limitations of the NT-induced reprogramming assay. Alternatively, differentiation status and reprogrammability may be unrelated, making all cells equally difficult to reprogramme once they have left the ground state of pluripotency.

  4. Rational Design and Synthesis of Carboxylate Gemini Surfactants with an Excellent Aggregate Behavior for Nano-La2O3 Morphology-Controllable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xueming; Gao, Zhinong; Xia, Yan; Niu, Fei; Zhai, Wenzhong

    2017-04-04

    A series of carboxylate gemini surfactants (CGS, C n -Φ-C n , n = 12, 14, 16, 18) with diphenyl ketone as a spacer group were prepared using a simple and feasible synthetic method. These CGS exhibited an excellent surface activity with extremely low critical micelle concentration (CMC) value (approximately 10 -5 mol/L), good performance in reducing surface tension (nearly 30 mN/m), and the ability of molecular self-assembly into different aggregate morphologies via adjusting the concentrations, which is attributed to the introduction of diphenyl ketone and carboxylic acid ammonium salt in the molecular structure. Moreover, the surface activity and self-assembly ability of CGS were further optimized by tuning the length of the tail chain. These excellent properties imply that CGS can be a soft template to prepare nanomaterials, especially in morphology-controllable synthesis. By adjusting the concentration of one of CGS (C 12 -Φ-C 12 ), nano-La 2 O 3 particles with diverse morphologies were obtained, including spherical shape, bead-chain shape, rod shape, velvet-antler shape, cedar shape, and bowknot shape. This work offers a vital insight into the rational design of template agents for the development of morphology-controllable nanomaterials.

  5. Observations of the third instar larva and puparium of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Piangjai, S; Boonsriwong, W; Bunchu, N; Ngern-klun, R; Vogtsberger, R C; Sukontason, K

    2006-11-01

    Observations on the ultrastructure of the third instar larva and puparium of the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are presented utilizing both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of this study indicate that the shape of the intersegmental spines between the pro- and mesothorax markedly differ from other blow fly species (Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Lucilia cuprina) in being broad-based with sharp recurved tips. Other characters such as the posterior spiracles, number of papillae on the anterior spiracles, oral grooves, and posterior spiracular hairs also differ. The strong and robust mouthhooks may explain the ability of larvae to penetrate deeply into human tissues. Perforated sieve plates covered with antler-like projections were observed within the anterior spiracles of the puparium of C. bezziana. The posterior spiracular discs each bear three spiracular slits with approximately 2-microm wide openings that were viewed either open or closed by a membrane underneath. This study expands our knowledge of the fine details of the external morphology of both the third instar larva and puparium of C. bezziana, which is an obligatory myiasis-producing species in many regions. A key to differentiate the third instar of C. bezziana from other blow flies in Thailand is given.

  6. Ptychographic X-ray nanotomography quantifies mineral distributions in human dentine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, I.; Enders, B.; Dierolf, M.; Thibault, P.; Gradl, R.; Diaz, A.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Menzel, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Zaslansky, P.

    2015-03-01

    Bones are bio-composites with biologically tunable mechanical properties, where a polymer matrix of nanofibrillar collagen is reinforced by apatite mineral crystals. Some bones, such as antler, form and change rapidly, while other bone tissues, such as human tooth dentine, develop slowly and maintain constant composition and architecture for entire lifetimes. When studying apatite mineral microarchitecture, mineral distributions or mineralization activity of bone-forming cells, representative samples of tissue are best studied at submicrometre resolution while minimizing sample-preparation damage. Here, we demonstrate the power of ptychographic X-ray tomography to map variations in the mineral content distribution in three dimensions and at the nanometre scale. Using this non-destructive method, we observe nanostructures surrounding hollow tracts that exist in human dentine forming dentinal tubules. We reveal unprecedented quantitative details of the ultrastructure clearly revealing the spatially varying mineralization density. Such information is essential for understanding a variety of natural and therapeutic effects for example in bone tissue healing and ageing.

  7. Post-Pennsylvanian reactivation along the Washita Valley fault, southern Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanArsdale, R.; Ward, C.; Cox, R.

    1989-06-01

    Surface exposures of faults of the Washita Valley fault (WVF) system in Garvin, Murray, Carter, and Johnston counties of southern Oklahoma were studied to determine if there has been post-Pennsylvanian fault reactivation and to determine if there has been any Quaternary fault movement. This was undertaken through field mapping, by dating alluvium which overlies the faults, and by logging trenches excavated across the WVF. In northern Murray County and southern Garvin County (site A), the WVF displaces Late-Pennsylvanian Oscar Group showing post-Pennsylvanian movement; however, no faulting was observed in 2000 year old alluvium of Wildhorse Creek along strike of the WVF. Three sites (B, C, and D) are located within the Arbuckle Mountains. Faulting of Virgilian age Vanoss Conglomerate and Vanoss Shale reveal post-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) activity along a subsidiary fault in northern Murray County (site B). A 12000 to 15000 year old terrace at this site is unfaulted. Absence of any fault related features in paleosols which overly the WVF along the Washita River (site C) show that the fault has not been active during the last 1570 /+-/ 190 years in southern Murray County. Similarly, absence of any fault related features along Oil Creek (site D) indicates that the WVF has not been active during the last 1810 /+-/ 80 years in northern Carter and Johnston Counties. Faults in the Antlers Sandstone in southern Johnston County (site E) reveal post-Lower Cretaceous reactivation of the WVF. 49 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  8. Chronology of the Grotte du Renne (France) and implications for the context of ornaments and human remains within the Châtelperronian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Thomas; Jacobi, Roger; Julien, Michèle; David, Francine; Basell, Laura; Wood, Rachel; Davies, William; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk

    2010-11-23

    There is extensive debate concerning the cognitive and behavioral adaptation of Neanderthals, especially in the period when the earliest anatomically modern humans dispersed into Western Europe, around 35,000-40,000 B.P. The site of the Grotte du Renne (at Arcy-sur-Cure) is of great importance because it provides the most persuasive evidence for behavioral complexity among Neanderthals. A range of ornaments and tools usually associated with modern human industries, such as the Aurignacian, were excavated from three of the Châtelperronian levels at the site, along with Neanderthal fossil remains (mainly teeth). This extremely rare occurrence has been taken to suggest that Neanderthals were the creators of these items. Whether Neanderthals independently achieved this level of behavioral complexity and whether this was culturally transmitted or mimicked via incoming modern humans has been contentious. At the heart of this discussion lies an assumption regarding the integrity of the excavated remains. One means of testing this is by radiocarbon dating; however, until recently, our ability to generate both accurate and precise results for this period has been compromised. A series of 31 accelerator mass spectrometry ultrafiltered dates on bones, antlers, artifacts, and teeth from six key archaeological levels shows an unexpected degree of variation. This suggests that some mixing of material may have occurred, which implies a more complex depositional history at the site and makes it difficult to be confident about the association of artifacts with human remains in the Châtelperronian levels.

  9. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  10. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  11. Body measurements and testosteron level of male Timor deer (Rusa timorensis at various hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Samsudewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe body (neck, chest and scrotum circumferences and testosterone level of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer reared under captivity after establisment of the dominance hierarchy. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41 kg body weight and in same antler stages were used in this research. The bucks was grouped into three stall each containing four bucks. ELISA kit and tape measurements were used for plasma Testosterone assay and body measurement, respectively. Data was collected before and 43 days after establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was used. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed no significantly different for body circumferences (neck, chest, scrotum and testosterone level of male Timor deer before establishment of dominance hierarchy. Chest and scrotum circumferences of male Timor deer after establihment of dominance hierarchy showed no significantly different. Significantly difference shown on parameter neck circumference (P<0.05; χ2 = 8.74 and testosteron level (P<0.05; χ2 = 7.87 after establishment of dominance hierarchy. In conclusion, dominance hierarchy affected the testosterone level and body measurement.

  12. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  13. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  14. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Farmed Sika Deer (Cervus nippon in Northeast China Using Double-Digest Restriction Site-Associated DNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengxing Ba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sika deer are an economically valuable species owing to their use in traditional Chinese medicine, particularly their velvet antlers. Sika deer in northeast China are mostly farmed in enclosure. Therefore, genetic management of farmed sika deer would benefit from detailed knowledge of their genetic diversity. In this study, we generated over 1.45 billion high-quality paired-end reads (288 Gbp across 42 unrelated individuals using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq. A total of 96,188 (29.63% putative biallelic SNP loci were identified with an average sequencing depth of 23×. Based on the analysis, we found that the majority of the loci had a deficit of heterozygotes (FIS >0 and low values of Hobs, which could be due to inbreeding and Wahlund effects. We also developed a collection of high-quality SNP probes that will likely be useful in a variety of applications in genotyping for cervid species in the future.

  15. A linear-encoding model explains the variability of the target morphology in regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Solano, Mauricio; Bubenik, George A.; Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of today's molecular genetics paradigm is that complex morphology emerges from the combined activity of low-level processes involving proteins and nucleic acids. An inherent characteristic of such nonlinear encodings is the difficulty of creating the genetic and epigenetic information that will produce a given self-assembling complex morphology. This ‘inverse problem’ is vital not only for understanding the evolution, development and regeneration of bodyplans, but also for synthetic biology efforts that seek to engineer biological shapes. Importantly, the regenerative mechanisms in deer antlers, planarian worms and fiddler crabs can solve an inverse problem: their target morphology can be altered specifically and stably by injuries in particular locations. Here, we discuss the class of models that use pre-specified morphological goal states and propose the existence of a linear encoding of the target morphology, making the inverse problem easy for these organisms to solve. Indeed, many model organisms such as Drosophila, hydra and Xenopus also develop according to nonlinear encodings producing linear encodings of their final morphologies. We propose the development of testable models of regeneration regulation that combine emergence with a top-down specification of shape by linear encodings of target morphology, driving transformative applications in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:24402915

  16. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K.; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T.; Luepold, Shannon H. Buckley; Belote, John M.; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  17. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Farmed Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) in Northeast China Using Double-Digest Restriction Site-Associated DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Hengxing; Jia, Boyin; Wang, Guiwu; Yang, Yifeng; Kedem, Gilead; Li, Chunyi

    2017-09-07

    Sika deer are an economically valuable species owing to their use in traditional Chinese medicine, particularly their velvet antlers. Sika deer in northeast China are mostly farmed in enclosure. Therefore, genetic management of farmed sika deer would benefit from detailed knowledge of their genetic diversity. In this study, we generated over 1.45 billion high-quality paired-end reads (288 Gbp) across 42 unrelated individuals using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). A total of 96,188 (29.63%) putative biallelic SNP loci were identified with an average sequencing depth of 23×. Based on the analysis, we found that the majority of the loci had a deficit of heterozygotes (F IS >0) and low values of H obs , which could be due to inbreeding and Wahlund effects. We also developed a collection of high-quality SNP probes that will likely be useful in a variety of applications in genotyping for cervid species in the future. Copyright © 2017 Ba et al.

  18. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull.We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20.This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  19. 驯鹿及其生物学特性研究%Reindeer and Its Biological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常悦; 张玉; 陈巴特尔; 孙亚红

    2013-01-01

    驯鹿分布于北极圈及其周边地区,耐寒怕燥,处于野生或半驯化状态.本文通过对驯鹿的生态分布,形态特征(包括个体大小、被毛、茸角、鼻、蹄、视力),进食习性,繁殖习性,迁徙活动以及天敌等几方面对驯鹿的生物学特性做出较为全面的介绍,以便为今后的驯鹿保护工作奠定基础,从而制定出针对性更强的保护措施.%The reindeer inhabits in the Arctic Circle and its surrounding areas, which is cold resistant and afraid of dryness and in the wild or semi-domesticated state. The paper comprehensively introduced the biological characteristics of the reindeer through such aspects as its ecological distribution, morphological character (including body size, fur, antler, nose, feet and eyesight), eating habit, breeding habit, migrating activities as well as its natural enemies, so as to lay a foundation for the protection work and therefore developing more effective protective measures.

  20. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  1. 驯鹿干扰素β1基因的克隆及遗传进化分析%Cloning and Phylogenetic Analysis of IFNβ1 Gene of Reindeer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟健程; 王强辉; 夏彦玲; 李和平

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to clone the full-length sequence of interferon beta 1 (IFNβ1) gene from the top of reindeer antler,and analyze its molecular characteristics,to lay a foundation for its biological activity and practical application.One pair of primers was designed based on the conserved sequence of IFNβ1 gene of cattle and sheep published in GenBank.IFNβ1 gene of reindeer was amplified by PCR from genome DNA extracted from mesenchyme of reindeer antler tip,and the product was cloned and sequenced.The result showed that the full length sequence of reindeer IFNβ1 gene was 561 bp,encoded 186 amino acids and contained 3 glycosylation sites.The encoded protein contained4 alpha helixes,4 beta fold zones and 7 beta turn angles.Compared the amino acids of IFNβ1 gene with other mammal species,the homology was 45.1% to 92.0%.The results of sequence andphylogenetic tree analysis showed that IFNβ1 gene had species diversity,the relationship was proportional to homology.This result laid the foundation for further research on the expression,biological activity and application of reindeer IFNβ1 gene.%试验旨在从驯鹿鹿茸顶端组织中克隆干扰素β1 (interferon beta 1,IFNβ1)基因全长序列,分析其分子特性,为研究其生物学活性及实际应用奠定基础.根据GenBank数据库中牛、羊等近缘物种IFNβ1基因的保守序列设计1对引物,以驯鹿鹿茸顶端间充质层组织基因组DNA为模板,采用PCR技术扩增得到驯鹿IFNβ1基因并克隆、测序,利用相关生物信息学软件对该序列进行分析.结果发现,驯鹿IFNβ1基因全长561 bp,共编码186个氨基酸,含有3个糖基化位点;其编码蛋白含有4个α螺旋、4个β折叠区、7个β转角.将驯鹿IFNβ1基因推导的氨基酸序列与其他14种哺乳动物进行遗传进化分析发现,其同源性为45.1%~92.0%;驯鹿与其他动物IFNβ1基因序列分析和系统进化树分析表明,IFNβ1基因存在种属差异性,亲缘关系

  2. Sobre la identificación macroscópica de las piezas astilladas: propuesta experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Alonso, Paloma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Splintered pieces have been linked in different studies with two activities: bipolar flint knapping and the use as an intermediate tool (i.e. wedges for working hard materials (e.g. bone, wood and antler. The aim of this experimental study was to distinguish macroscopically the characteristics of pieces resulting from both processes and moreover, to discern clearly in which circumstances what are considered typologically splintered pieces are produced. The study is concluded with a detailed description of the macro-traces associated with each of the experimental procedures performed and which define the actions that led to typologically characteristic splintered pieces.

    El morfotipo lítico “pieza astillada” (pièces esquillées o splintered pieces ha sido relacionado, por los estudios de Prehistoria, con dos actividades muy distintas: la talla posada sobre yunque –también denominada “talla bipolar”– y el empleo de piezas intermedias –a modo de cuña/cincel– para el trabajo de materias primas duras (hueso, madera y asta. Se presenta una propuesta experimental que busca distinguir macroscópicamente estos dos tipos de actividades y discernir en qué casos se produce o no lo que tipológicamente se considera “pieza astillada”. Se concluye con una descripción detallada de las macrotrazas obtenidas para cada una de las variantes de la experimentación, en la que se especifica qué casos reproducen lo que tipológicamente denominamos “pieza astillada”.

  3. Human-climate interaction during the Early Upper Paleolithic: testing the hypothesis of an adaptive shift between the Proto-Aurignacian and the Early Aurignacian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William E; d'Errico, Francesco; Zilhão, João

    2013-01-01

    The Aurignacian technocomplex comprises a succession of culturally distinct phases. Between its first two subdivisions, the Proto-Aurignacian and the Early Aurignacian, we see a shift from single to separate reduction sequences for blade and bladelet production, the appearance of split-based antler points, and a number of other changes in stone tool typology and technology as well as in symbolic material culture. Bayesian modeling of available (14)C determinations, conducted within the framework of this study, indicates that these material culture changes are coincident with abrupt and marked climatic changes. The Proto-Aurignacian occurs during an interval (ca. 41.5-39.9 k cal BP) of relative climatic amelioration, Greenland Interstadials (GI) 10 and 9, punctuated by a short cold stadial. The Early Aurignacian (ca. 39.8-37.9 k cal BP) predominantly falls within the climatic phase known as Heinrich Stadial (HS) 4, and its end overlaps with the beginning of GI 8, the former being predominantly characterized by cold and dry conditions across the European continent. We use eco-cultural niche modeling to quantitatively evaluate whether these shifts in material culture are correlated with environmental variability and, if so, whether the ecological niches exploited by human populations shifted accordingly. We employ genetic algorithm (GARP) and maximum entropy (Maxent) techniques to estimate the ecological niches exploited by humans (i.e., eco-cultural niches) during these two phases of the Aurignacian. Partial receiver operating characteristic analyses are used to evaluate niche variability between the two phases. Results indicate that the changes in material culture between the Proto-Aurignacian and the Early Aurignacian are associated with an expansion of the ecological niche. These shifts in both the eco-cultural niche and material culture are interpreted to represent an adaptive response to the relative deterioration of environmental conditions at the onset of HS4

  4. Impact of environmental diversity of hunting complexes in the Lublin region on ontogenetic quality indicators in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyżowski, Piotr; Drozd, Leszek; Karpiński, Mirosław; Tajchman, Katarzyna; Goleman, Małgorzata; Wojtaś, Justyna; Zieliński, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Populations of game are not confined to single ecosystems but function within higher-order units, e.g. ecological landscape. The basis for the establishment of the hunting complexes was the assumption that the existing game hunting grounds, i.e. the basic units implementing game management, are too small and do not cover the natural areas inhabited by game populations. Roe deer are flexible species and easily adapt to various site conditions, so they inhabit many different habitats, from large forest complexes, through small in-field tree stands and shrubs, to treeless grounds and field monocultures. The aim of the study was to determine a possible impact of environmental conditions prevailing in the hunting complexes of the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP in Lublin) on the ontogenetic quality of roe deer. The study was conducted on 518 European roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) aged from 4 to 7 years (379 bucks and 139 does) harvested within hunting seasons 2010/2011-2013/2014. The results have shown that animals originating from areas with greater forest cover and denser stands are characterised by lower values of the mean ontogenetic quality parameters (carcase weight, kidney fat index, chest girth, weight of antlers) in comparison with animals from typical agricultural areas with fragmented forest complexes. These results indicate that, even in the case of such a eurytopic species as the roe deer, the ontogenetic quality differs between individual hunting complexes. The study has proved that strategies for hunting management of the roe deer should take into account the impact of the landscape structure, which provides a rationale behind creation of hunting complexes.

  5. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  6. Le comportement symbolique dans la Préhistoire de la Roumanie: art mobilier au Paléolithique supérieur en Moldavie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BELDIMAN

    2009-12-01

    in a cave site. The types identified are: bâtons percés worked in horse long bone and in roe-deer antler; lithic and bone pendants; disk in roe-deer antler; perforated teeth; lithic objects in quartzite and graphite as well as bone and antler pieces having linear engraved decoration or notches; decorated roe-deer antler harpoon: ivory mammoth tusk fragment; fossil mollusks of Congeria? species; perforated snails of Succinea oblonga? ou Lithoglyphus naticoides? species. Most of the artifacts are of significant importance for the phenomenon of art and of prehistoric technology in these regions; in this point of view we have to mention the pendants discovered at Mitoc, Botosani County and the fragment of bone discovered in 1998 with the engraved image of an animal’s foot from Piatra Neamt, Neamt County. Another exceptional artifact is the fragment of mammoth tusk from Lespezi, Bacau County dated at around 18 kya showing the débitage traces on the proximal part that prove the using of notching and grooving technique and probably of transverse sawing with fiber; this should be the oldest situation of use of such a technique solution in this part of Europe. Taking into account the extreme rarity of ivory artifacts in the Upper Paleolithic of Romania it is probably that the provenance of the objects can be found in the near territories of Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Ukraine, Republic of Moldavia, Russia where the manufacture and use of such artifacts was common in that epoch. The study contributes essentially to the definition in actual terms of typology and technology of oldest portable art objects from a particular region of Romania as material expression of first spiritual manifestations of huntergatherer communities and allowed to integrate the data of the phenomenon in the South-East and Central European context.

  7. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

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    Chris T Darimont

    Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access

  8. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  9. PLAG (1-Palmitoyl-2-Linoleoyl-3-Acetyl-rac-Glycerol Modulates Eosinophil Chemotaxis by Regulating CCL26 Expression from Epithelial Cells.

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    Jinseon Jeong

    Full Text Available Increased number of eosinophils in the circulation and sputum is associated with the severity of asthma. The respiratory epithelium produces chemokine (C-C motif ligands (CCL which recruits and activates eosinophils. A chemically synthesized monoacetyl-diglyceride, PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol is a major constituent in the antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck which has been used in oriental medicine. This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PLAG effect on the alleviation of asthma phenotypes. A549, a human alveolar basal epithelial cell, and HaCaT, a human keratinocyte, were activated by the treatment of interleukin-4 (IL-4, and the expression of chemokines, known to be effective on the induction of eosinophil migration was analyzed by RT-PCR. The expression of IL-4 induced genes was modulated by the co-treatment of PLAG. Especially, CCL26 expression from the stimulated epithelial cells was significantly blocked by PLAG, which was confirmed by ELISA. The transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6, activated by IL-4 mediated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, was down-regulated by PLAG in a concentration-dependent manner. In ovalbumin-induced mouse model, the infiltration of immune cells into the respiratory tract was decreased by PLAG administration. Cytological analysis of the isolated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cells proved the infiltration of eosinophils was significantly reduced by PLAG. In addition, PLAG inhibited the migration of murine bone marrow-derived eosinophils, and human eosinophil cell line, EoL-1, which was induced by the addition of A549 culture medium.

  10. Evidences for an orogenic-induced global cooling at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary (ca 376 Ma BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbuch, O.; Tribovillard, N.; Devleeschouwer, X.; Riquier, L.

    2003-04-01

    Late Devonian time (Famennian, 376--362 Ma BP) is a period of both intense orogenic activity and drastic climatic variations with the onset of a major glaciation event upon parts of the Gondwanian Southern America and Africa situated in high southern latitudes. This global cooling event is coeval with a significant fall in the atmospheric CO_2 content as suggested both by stomatal data and modelling. In the stratigraphic record, the Frasnian-Famennian transition is characterized by a great loss of biotic diversity and pronounced environmental changes with the demise of reefal carbonate platforms and the deposition of extensive organic-rich levels (Kellwasser levels) in Late Frasnian times followed by a rapid global scale sea-level fall and an increase in detrital input in the basal Famennian. We propose to relate the Famennian global cooling and the associated environnmental changes to the development of major mountain cordilleras extending on one hand from the Urals to South America (including the Central Asian, the European, the Northern African, the Appalachian belts) and on the other hand from the western American Antler to the Arctic Ellesmerian belt. Extensive high pressure metamorphic rocks dated between ca 380 and 360 Ma BP, pervasive deformations distributed along the belt (Eo-Variscan phase) and synorogenic molassic rocks trapped within the flexural foreland basins indicate a major collisional event in Late Frasnian-Famennian times inducing an important crustal thickening and associated high continental relief. The major drop in the atmospheric CO2 content would be driven by the conjunction of two orogenic-induced mechanisms : (1) the intensification of silicate weathering on the continental areas as attested by a major rise in the 87Sr/86Sr composition of sea water at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary ; the coeval development of vascular plants on emerged lands is also probably an important factor in enhanced chemical weathering of continental soils (2

  11. THE HUMAN OCCUPATIONS OF EL MIRÓN CAVE (RAMALES DE LA VICTORIA, CANTABRIA, SPAIN DURING THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM/SOLUTREAN PERIOD

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    Lawrence Guy Straus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Mirón Cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, Spain has evidence of brief visits (by hunting parties to the montane zone of the upper Asón valley in easternmost Cantabria during the Last Glacial Maximum with 14C dates ranging between 19.2-18.4 kya uncal BP. Landscapes were largely treeless (scattered pines, with varying degrees of humidity and some amelioration at the end of the sequence of seven levels. Armed with a variety of Solutrean foliate, concave base and shouldered stone points and antler sagaies, decorated with beads of shell, tooth, bone and stone, the visitors camped repeatedly at the rear of the cave vestibule, made informal hearths, hunted red deer and ibex and caught fish, and did some stone knapping of both local and high-quality non-local raw materials. This is one of relatively few montane Solutrean sites known in the Cantabrian region, where, in fact, all major Solutrean base camps are in the coastal zone.La cueva del Mirón (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, España conserva el testimonio de breves visitas de grupos de cazadores al alto valle del Asón, en la zona más oriental de Cantabria, durante el Último Máximo Glacial, con fechas de radiocarbono que oscilan entre los 19200 y 18400 uncal BP. Durante este tiempo, el paisaje carecía casi por completo de árboles (acaso pinos dispersos, con diversos grados de humedad y una leve mejora climática al final de la secuencia de los siete niveles solutrenses. Armados con una variedad de puntas foliáceas, puntas de base cóncava y de muesca, azagayas de asta, y adornados con cuentas de concha, diente, hueso e incluso piedra, los visitantes acamparon repetidas veces al fondo del vestíbulo de la cueva, hicieron varias hogueras ocasionales, cazaron ciervos y cabras, pescaron salmones y realizaron actividades de talla con materias primas locales y con otras no locales de alta calidad. Este yacimiento es uno de los pocos yacimientos solutrenses de la región cant

  12. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

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    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  13. Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas

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    Werner T. Flueck

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs

  14. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of EGFR Gene in Reindeer%驯鹿EGFR基因克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强辉; 翟健程; 夏彦玲; 刘伟石; 李和平

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal tissue of antler-tip of male reindeer was used as the research materials,and total RNA was extracted from it.The homologous primers were designed according to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene sequence of cattle and sheep in GenBank database.Part cDNA sequences EGFR gene in coding region,which had 910 base pairs in length,was first obtained by RT-PCR and the molecular cloning technique.The EGFR gene homology between reindeer and cattle,sheep,horse,human,whale,and wild boar respectively was 97%,96%,88%,86%,92% and 89% by the bioinformatics and Blast analysis.The homologies,all of them,were above 85%.The reindeer EGFR gene was more conserved in its evolution.In the construction of phylogenetic tree,the genetic relationship of reindeer EGFR gene with cattle was the closest,and with human was the furthest.The minimum free energy secondary structure of the EGFR gene sequence was predicted by the online analysis software.%以快速生长期雄性驯鹿(Rangifer tarandus)鹿茸顶端表皮组织为研究材料,提取其顶端表皮组织总RNA,参考GenBank数据库中牛、羊的表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)基因序列设计同源引物;采用RT-PCR技术、分子克隆技术首次成功获得雄性驯鹿茸顶端表皮组织EGFR基因编码区部分cDNA序列,片段大小为910 bp;Blast比对发现驯鹿EGFR基因与牛、羊、马、人、鲸、野猪的同源性分别是97%、96%、88%、86%、92%、89%,同源性均在85%以上,表明驯鹿EGFR基因在进化上比较保守;构建系统进化树发现驯鹿EGFR基因与牛亲缘关系最近,与人的亲缘关系最远;最后通过在线分析软件预测获得EGFR基因序列对应mRNA最小自由能二级结构.

  15. Modelling the Loktak Lake Basin to Assess Human Impact on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, K.

    2015-12-01

    Loktak Lake is an internationally important, Ramsar designated, fresh water wetland system in the state of Manipur, India. The lake was also listed under Montreux Record on account of the ecological modifications that the lake system has witnessed over time. A characteristic feature of this lake is the extensive occurrence of coalesced, naturally or otherwise, vegetative masses floating over it. A contiguous 40 km2 area of Phumdis, as these vegetative masses are locally referred to, also constitutes the only natural home of the endemic and endangered species of Manipur's brow-antlered deer popularly known as Sangai. Appropriately notified as Keibul Lamjao National Park by Government of India, this natural feature is known to be the world's largest floating park. Water quality and sediment deposition on account of soil erosion in its catchments are some of the emerging concerns along with a reported enhanced frequency and duration of flooding of the shore areas, reduced fish catch within a visibly deteriorated overall natural ecosystem. Disturbances of watershed processes, command area management practices, ineffective as indeed largely absent, waste management practices and management interventions linked to the Loktak Hydroelectric Project are often cited as the principal triggers that are seen to be responsible for the damage. An effective management protocol for the Lake requires a rigorous understanding of its hydrobiology and eco-hydrodynamics. The present study is carried out to establish such a characterization of the various rivers systems draining directly into the Lake using MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 HD and MIKE 11 ECO Lab modelling platforms. Water quality modelling was limited to dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and water temperature. Model calibration was done using the available measured water quality data. The derived results were then investigated for causal correlation with anthropogenic influences to assess human impact on water

  16. Dating of Las Mesas Copper Age walled enclosure (La Fuente, Spain

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    Odriozola, Carlos P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The site of Las Mesas is located in the west bank of the Guadajira river (La Fuente, Badajoz, Spain. It covers a half hectare and is enclosed by a stone wall. Previous assessments based on site surveys suggested a general chronological span from Late Neolithic period (ca. 3600-2900 BC through the Copper Age (3rd millennium BC. Excavations revealed a well-constructed wall with bastions and a domestic space at the centre of the site with three occupational phases. Several functional areas and a votive pit are ascribed to the second phase. A deer antler located in a re-cut ritual pit associated to the second phase was dated by AMS-14C. Samples from a living floor assigned to the second phase (SU-9/10 and the basement of a kiln associated with the first phase (SU-18 was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL using the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR protocol on 90-160 m quartz grains. Luminescence profiling analysis of 7 samples taken throughout the archaeological stratigraphy was used to assess variations in luminescence behaviour and relative age through the sequence, using infrared-, optically –and thermally– stimulated luminescence (IRSL, OSL, TSL on poly-mineral and etched samples. Luminescence dating and profiling indicates that the upper archaeological layer (SU-1B probably dates to the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1000 BC, but that the sediments in the remainder of this section accumulated during the late Neolithic-Copper Age: the site was most probably inhabited between 3300 and 2900 BC. There were gaps in occupation between the Late Neolithic-Cooper Age phases (I & II, and between the Late Neolithic-Cooper Age phases and Late Bronze Age phase (II & III, indicating that the site was abandoned and reoccupied twice. The AMS-14C date on deer antler of 4254 ± 45 BP (3010-2675 cal BC is consisten with the OSL results for phase II, indicating that the pit was excavated at the beginning of the second occupational phase. Combined OSL

  17. The man and the hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  18. Reconsideration of the systematics of the Early Pleistocene Cervavitus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia

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    Dong, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervavitus were usually found from the Late Miocene and Pliocene deposits in East Europe, Middle Asia and North China, but they were found recently in many Early Pleistocene localities in southern China. The latter resulted in the discussion of their systematic status between Cervavitus and Cervus. Here we show the Early Pleistocene forms from southern China are morphometrically more similar to northern China Cervavitus species, and the cladistic analysis shows that the southern China forms are closer to classic Cervavitus species than Cervus and that also proves their systematic status in Cervavitus rather than in Cervus. Cervavitus originated in Moldovan forests of East Europe in the late Vallesian (MN10 from a brachyodont and holometacarpal ancestor with two/three-tined antlers and Palaeomeryx fold and evolved into C. novorossiae. It dispersed into West Europe forests in the earliest Turolian and further west to France in the Ruscinian. It dispersed into northern China forests in the early Turolian and represented by C. shanxius. The great quantity of C. shanxius specimens with brachyodont teeth and complete lateral metacarpals implies the arid Loess Plateau of today was a humid forested region in the Late Miocene. C. shanxius migrated southwards in the Plio-Pleistocene probably due to the drying environment in northern China with uplifting of Himalayas and evolved into C. ultimus and C. fenqii, which survived in southern China until the Early Pleistocene (MNQ18.La revisión sistemática de Cervivatus sugiere que deriva del principal clado de los cérvidos posteriores a los muntiacinos, e implica que Procervulinae, Dicrocerinae y la primeras formas de Munticiacinae serían holometacarpales, como también lo es Cervivatus, originario en los bosques de Moldavia (Europa del Este durante el Vallesiense final (MN 10, a partir de un antecesor braquiodonto y holometacarpal, con astas con dos o tres candiles y pliegue paleomerícido, y que da lugar a

  19. Lithogeochemistry of Carlin-type gold mineralization in the Gold Bar district, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, O.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Gold Bar district contains five Carlin-type gold deposits and four resources for a combined gold endowment of 1.6 M oz [50 t]. The gold deposits are hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks below parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks emplaced during the Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. The district is in the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, a long-lived structural feature that localized intrusions and ore deposits of different types and ages. The whole-rock geochemistry of four different mineralized and unmineralized Devonian carbonate rock units (two favorable and two unfavorable) were determined and interpreted in the context of the regional geology. A combination of basic statistics, R-mode factor analysis, isocon plots, and alteration diagrams were utilized to (1) identify favorable geochemical attributes of the host rocks, (2) characterize alteration and associated element enrichments and depletions, and (3) identify the mechanism of gold precipitation. This approach also led to the recognition of other types of alteration and mineralization in host rocks previously thought to be solely affected by Carlin-type mineralization. Unit 2 of the Upper Member of the Denay Formation, with the highest Al2O3, Fe2O3 and SiO2 contents and the lowest CaO content, is the most favorable host rock. Based on the high regression coefficients of data arrays on X-Y plots that project toward the origin, Al2O3 and TiO2 were immobile and K2O and Fe2O3 were relatively immobile during alteration and mineralization. Specific element associations identified by factor analysis are also prominent on isocon diagrams that compare the composition of fresh and altered equivalents of the same rock units. The most prominent associations are: Au, As, Sb, SiO2, TI, -CaO and -LOI, the main gold mineralizing event and related silicification and decalcification; Cd, Zn, Ag, P, Ni and Tl, an early base metal event; and MgO, early dolomitization. Alteration diagrams

  20. Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela (Artiodactyla, Cervidae en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35°S Presence of Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela in the late Pleistocene-early Holocene of Central Chile (30-35°S

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    Rafael Labarca E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo discute el estatus taxonómico de la especie Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, definida a partir de astas completas procedentes de la laguna Taguatagua y la quebrada de Quereo (Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano, en Chile central (30-35°S. Se concluye, a partir de un estudio morfológico y morfométrico detallado, que Antifer niemeyeri debe ser considerado sinónimo de Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889 dados los caracteres anatómicos compartidos con esta especie. Los resultados amplían la distribución geográfica del taxón, que previamente se registraba en Argentina, Uruguay y sur de Brasil, y confirman su biocrón para el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano (edad Lu-janense, aun cuando las fechas radiocarbónicas de Chile central (ca. 9.900 años 14C AP corresponden a las más tardías para la especie. A la luz de la evidencia paleoclimática disponible, se vincula A ultra durante el Pleistoceno de Chile central a ambientes cálidos y abiertos. Considerando estos requerimientos, se discute su posible vía de ingreso al actual territorio chileno a través de corredores ubicados hacia el sur del macizo andino, y su coexistencia con Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782. De acuerdo a la información estratigráfica y paleoambiental, se postula que ambas especies habrían sido alopátridas, por lo menos en el área de estudio.This paper discusses the taxonomic status of Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, defined from complete antlers from Taguatagua lake and Quereo canyon, both located in central Chile (30-35°S. From a detailed morphological and moiphometrical study, it is concluded that Antifer niemeyeri should be considered synonymous with Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889, due to the anatomical characters shared between both forms. These results expand the geographical distribution of this taxa previously recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil, confirming their late Pleistocene-early Holocene biochron, in spite

  1. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    access. During the past two years, non-Indian public concern over big game hunting issues has at times overwhelmed other issues related to the wildlife area. In 2001, the CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee closed the wildlife area to tribal branch antlered bull elk harvest in response to harvest data that indicated harvest rates were greater than expected. In addition, illegal harvest of mature bull elk in southeastern Washington during the 2001 season exceeded the legal tribal and nontribal harvest combined which has created a potential significant regression in the bull;cow ratio in the Blue Mountain Elk herd. CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and staff and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Regional Director and staff have been coordinating regularly to develop strategies to address harvest rates and ensure protection of viable big game herds in southeastern Washington. The CTUIR Fish and Wildlife Committee and WDFW has jointly agreed to continue close coordination on this and other issues and continue working together to ensure the long-term vigor of the elk herd on the Rainwater Wildlife Area. The purpose of the project is to protect, enhance, and mitigate fish and wildlife resources impacted by Columbia River Basin hydroelectric development. The effort is one of several wildlife mitigation projects in the region developed to compensate for terrestrial habitat losses resulting from the construction of McNary and John Day Hydroelectric facilities located on the mainstem Columbia River. While this project is driven primarily by the purpose and need to mitigate for wildlife habitat losses, it is also recognized that management strategies will also benefit many other non-target fish and wildlife species and associated natural resources.

  2. Archaeological excavations at Gamzigrad - Romuliana in 2007-2008

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    Petković Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematical archaeological excavations at the site Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana continued in 2007-2008 in the south-eastern part of the fortified imperial palace, in the section of the thermae according to the plan of archaeological research for this site (2005-2009. In 2007, squares L'XXIV, M'XXIV, M'XXIH and M'XXII, which were investigated in 2005 to the horizon c, dated to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries, were completely excavated to the level of the porch of the earlier fortification of Romuliana (Plan 1. The stratigraphy of the cultural layers in these squares is as follows (Fig. 1: Below horizon c there is a layer of construction rubble mixed with brownish-yellow, clay like, sandy soil, 50-75 cm thick, comprising the finds dated in the last quarter of the 4th-5th centuries, layer D; The level of layer D is horizon d, where a structure destroyed in a conflagration, house 1/07, was discovered in squares M'XXII and M'XXIII. It could be dated, on the basis of the preserved household (pottery, metal and antler items, coins, etc., from the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century; Horizon d 1 is a mortar floor discovered beneath horizon d, which presents the earlier phase of house 1/07; Horizon d 2 is the earliest mortar floor inside the house 1/07, covered with a later mortar floor (horizon d 1 and a levelling layer of yellow sand and gravel, which comprises the finds dating also to the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th centuries; Layer E, 15-40 cm thick, is below horizon d, comprising dark brown soil with rubble and lenses of soot at the bottom, together with finds dated to the second half of the 4th century; Horizon e is covered with layer E, and spread across all the squares which were investigated to the south and to the east of Galerius' bath, where 8 large postholes, which outlined a space 7 x 3 m large and probably some kind of porch, were found along with two furnaces and two pits