WorldWideScience

Sample records for antlers

  1. Weathered antlers as a source of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy G. Lopez; Paul Beier

    2012-01-01

    We tested antlers of Coues white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) and mule deer (O. hemionus) in various stages of natural decomposition to determine the degree of weathering that cast antlers could endure and still yield usable DNA. Based on physical characteristics, we partitioned antlers into 7 weathering categories ranging from freshly cast (class 1) to...

  2. Preventive and therapeutic effects of antler collagen on osteoporosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MTPS) were observed in antler collagen-treated groups. The extracted collagen was found to play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Key words: Antler, collagen, osteoporosis, preventive, therapeutic ...

  3. Unilateral antler combs from Romuliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sofija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations at Romuliana nine antler three-partite combs with a single row of teeth were found in the Late Roman horizons dating from the late 4th - mid 5th century. They were found in Tower 19, in the Palace II sector and in the Thermae sector. The combs can be classified as two types: three-partite unilateral combs with semicircular handle (Petković comb type VII and three-partite unilateral combs with triangular handle decorated with horse protomes (Petković comb type VI. Two groups of these finds were distinguished after more detailed analysis; the earlier one including specimens originating from the Chernyahov-Sîntana de Mureº culture and later one including specimens made under "barbarian"influence and produced in Romuliana. These finds confirm the continuity of settlement at Romuliana in the Late Roman period, from the final quarter of the 4th until the end of the 5th century and open up the question of the character of the settlement.

  4. The antler finds at Bilzingsleben, excavations 1969-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Vollbrecht

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available 2820 antler remains from the Lower Palaeolithic site of Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, Germany (excavations 1969-1993 were the subject of detailed investigations. The two major goals were: 1.the consideration of taphonomic aspects 2.the critical evaluation of suggestions about artificial modifications to the antler material A detailed morphological description of the antler material provided the basis for the investigation. A prerequisite was the transfer of provenance data onto an x-y coordinate grid. Taphonomic aspects considered in this work include the relative frequencies of antler elements, estimates regarding the minimum number of individual deer, their age structure and seasonality, and, insofar as the condition of the antlers allowed, the classification of surface preservation, size classes and spatial distribution of the finds. The assemblage of antler finds, the majority of which seems to have come from red deer, is dominated by small fragments, mostly of tines. About one quarter of the finds are larger than 150 mm. Lower beams are more abundant than upper beams (e.g. crowns. Detailed counting, substantiated by systematic reconstruction, shows that in general the antlers are incomplete. After reconstruction of unshed antlers, it was possible to assess the minimum number of heads at 150 animals. Preliminary counting of postcranial and cranial (non antler cervid material points to about 70 cervids. Intentional accumulation of antlers by hominids can only be accepted as the reason for these disproportionate figures if other site formation processes can be ruled out. In fact, the correlation between sediment thickness and maximum antler densities, at least for finds smaller than 120mm, suggests that fluvial accumulation has to be taken into account as a probable element of the site formation history. Further, the mixture of unifacially abraded finds together with finds that exhibit bifacial abrasion points to a succession of changing fluvial

  5. Factors affecting velvet antler weights in free-ranging reindeer in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Prichard

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Free-ranging reindeer on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska are rounded up from late May to early July and antlers are removed. We used data collected from 1987 to 1997 to determine how velvet antler weights of males and females varied with age, year, reproductive status, Julian date, and body weight. Male antler weights increased with age up to age five years, and were lower in castrates than in bulls. There was a significant positive relationship between body weight and antler weight in both sexes. Female antler weights increased with age until at least age nine. Lactating females had lower antler weights than non-lactating females, but this effect is better explained by differences in body weight. Antler weight of individual reindeer at age two years was better predicted by their antler weights as yearlings than their body weight as yearlings.

  6. Simulating antler growth and energy, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Moen

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We added antler growth and mineral metabolism modules to a previously developed energetics model for ruminants to simulate energy and mineral balance of male and female caribou throughout an annual cycle. Body watet, fat, protein, and ash are monitored on a daily time step, and energy costs associated with reproduction and body mass changes are simulated. In order to simulate antler growth, we had to predict calcium and phosphorus metabolism as it is affected by antler growth, gestation, and lactation. We used data on dietary digestibility, protein, calcium and phosphorus content, and seasonal patterns in body mass to predict the energy, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus balances of a "generic" male and female caribou. Antler growth in males increased energy requirements during antler growth by 8 to 16%, depending on the efficiency with which energy was used for antler growth. Female energy requirements for antler growth were proportionately much smaller because of the smaller size of female antlers. Protein requirements for antler growth in both males and females were met by forage intake. Calcium and phosphorus must be resorbed from bone during peak antler growth in males, when > 25 g/day of calcium and > 12 g/day of phosphorus are being deposited in antlers. Females are capable of meeting calcium needs during antler growth without bone resorption, but phosphorus was resorbed from bone during the final stages of antler mineralization. After energy, phosphorus was most likely to limit growth of antlers for both males and females in our simulations. Input parameters can be easily changed to represent caribou from specific geographic regions in which dietary nutrient content or body mass patterns differ from those in our "generic" caribou. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the evolutionary basis for development of antlers in female caribou, and the relationship between body mass and antler size in the Cervidae.

  7. MicroRNA profiling of antler stem cells in potentiated and dormant states and their potential roles in antler regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Hengxing; Wang, Datao; Li, Chunyi

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can effectively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play a critical role in tissue growth, development and regeneration. Our previous studies showed that antler regeneration is a stem cell-based process and antler stem cells reside in the periosteum of a pedicle, the permanent bony protuberance, from which antler regeneration takes place. Antlers are the only mammalian organ that can fully regenerate and hence provide a unique opportunity to identify miRNAs that are involved in organ regeneration. In the present study, we used next generation sequencing technology sequenced miRNAs of the stem cells derived from either the potentiated or the dormant pedicle periosteum. A population of both conserved and 20 deer-specific miRNAs was identified. These conserved miRNAs were derived from 453 homologous hairpin precursors across 88 animal species, and were further grouped into 167 miRNA families. Among them, the miR-296 is embryonic stem cell-specific. The potentiation process resulted in the significant regulation (>±2 Fold, q value cell potentiation process. This research has identified miRNAs that are associated either with the dormant or the potentiated antler stem cells and identified some target miRNAs for further research into their role played in mammalian organ regeneration.

  8. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, S.; Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L.; Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana; Preoteasa, E. A.; Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M.

    2016-03-01

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. "mineral age" of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  9. Antiresorptive Activity of Bacillus-Fermented Antler Extracts: Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sik-Won Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antlers have been traditionally used for thousands of years as a natural product with medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. In developing healthy foods, Bacillus-mediated fermentation is widely used to enhance the biological activity of nutrients in foods. Recently, fermentation was shown to enhance the osteogenic activity of antlers. This study aimed to elucidate the antiresorptive activity of Bacillus-fermented antler and its mode of action. We found that Bacillus-fermented antler extract strongly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by downregulating the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1. This extract also inhibited the activation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2, a signaling molecule that could regulate NFATc1 transcriptional activity. This suggested that Bacillus-fermented antler extract could inhibit PLCγ2-NFATc1 signaling required for bone resorption and cell fusion. Consequently, Bacillus-fermented antler extract might benefit osteoclast-related disorders, including osteoporosis; furthermore, it may improve gastrointestinal activity.

  10. Antiresorptive Activity of Bacillus-Fermented Antler Extracts: Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sik-Won; Moon, Seong-Hee; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Son, Young-Jin; Yu, Ri; Kim, Young Su; Kim, So I.; Chae, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Antlers have been traditionally used for thousands of years as a natural product with medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. In developing healthy foods, Bacillus-mediated fermentation is widely used to enhance the biological activity of nutrients in foods. Recently, fermentation was shown to enhance the osteogenic activity of antlers. This study aimed to elucidate the antiresorptive activity of Bacillus-fermented antler and its mode of action. We found that Bacillus-fermented antler extract strongly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by downregulating the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). This extract also inhibited the activation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2), a signaling molecule that could regulate NFATc1 transcriptional activity. This suggested that Bacillus-fermented antler extract could inhibit PLCγ2-NFATc1 signaling required for bone resorption and cell fusion. Consequently, Bacillus-fermented antler extract might benefit osteoclast-related disorders, including osteoporosis; furthermore, it may improve gastrointestinal activity. PMID:23509596

  11. Potential of the Bucharest 3 MV Tandetron™ for IBA studies of deer antler mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S. [Departamento Anatomía Patológica, University of Cadiz (Spain); Garcia, A.; Landete-Castillejos, T.; Gallego, L. [IREC, Sección Albacete (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), University of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete (Spain); Pantelica, D.; Pantelica, Ana [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Preoteasa, E.A., E-mail: eugenpreoteasa@gmail.com [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Scafes, Adela; Straticiuc, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    Combined PIXE and PIGE analysis was applied at the new Bucharest Tandetron to investigate biomineralization in two calcified tissues, deer antlers and femur bone. By annual loss and fast re-growth, antlers are a valuable model for bone as a dynamical system. Samples characterized by optical microscopy and histology were analyzed for P, Ca, F, Na, Mg, S, Cl, K, Zn, Sr by 3 MeV proton simultaneous PIXE and PIGE, using a hydroxyapatite standard and other reference materials. Good correlation between methods was found for P, and the concentrations were related to biological data. Antlers showed lower mineralization than femur, with the lowest values in the third antler beam. A power function of mineralization vs. “mineral age” of antlers was found. Thus combined PIXE and PIGE of antlers may bring highly relevant insights in biomineralization research.

  12. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  13. Urban networks and Arctic outlands: Craft specialists and reindeer antler in Viking towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashby, Steven P.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the use of a minimally destructive biomolecular technique to explore the resource networks behind one of the first specialized urban crafts in early mediaeval northern Europe: the manufacture of composite combs of deer antler. The research incorporates the largest...... application of species identification by peptide mass fingerprinting (ZooMS) to a mediaeval artefact assemblage: specifically to collections of antler combs, comb manufacturing waste, and raw antler from Ribe, Aarhus, and Aggersborg. It documents the early use of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) antler, from...

  14. Variations of selected trace element contents in two layers of red deer antlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giżejewska Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hard antlers of deer are unique bioindicators of environmental metal pollutions, but sampling methods presented in the literature are inconsistent. Due to the specific growth pattern of antlers and their histological structure, sampling methods described in the literature were reviewed, the suitability of using mixed samples of both antler layers as element bioindicators was assessed, and the codified method of antler sampling used for bioindication was described. Material and Methods: Lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc, and iron in trabecular and cortical parts of hard antlers of red deer (Cervus elaphus were determined using different methods of atomic absorption spectrometry (depending on the element. Results: Mean mercury content in trabecular bone (0.010 ±0.018 mg/kg was 5 times higher than in cortical bone (0.002 ±0.003 mg/kg. Mean iron concentration was approximately 15 times higher in trabecular (239.83 ±130.15 mg/kg than in cortical bone (16.17 ±16.44 mg/kg. Concentrations of other analysed elements did not differ statistically between antler layers. Conclusion: In mixed antler samples, concentrations of mercury and iron depend on the particular antler layer contents. This therefore warrants caution when comparing results across studies and specification of the sampling methodology of antlers is highly recommended.

  15. Study on the Changes in Enzyme and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentrations in Blood Serum and Growth Characteristics of Velvet Antler during the Antler Growth Period in Sika Deer (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyun Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon. Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12 which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease. Alfalfa was available ad libitum and concentrates were given at 1% of body weight to all stags. The experimental diet was provided at 9 am with water available at all times. There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during antler growth, but alkaline phosphatase concentrations increased with antler growth progression, and the highest alkaline phosphatase concentration was obtained 55 days after antler casting. Serum IGF-1 concentrations measured from blood samples taken from the jugular vein during antler growth, determined that levels of IGF-1 was associated with body weight and antler growth patterns. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were higher at the antler cutting date than other sampling dates. Antler length increased significantly during antler growth (p<0.001, and there was a similar trend to between right and left beams. Body weight increased with antler growth but was not significant. Consequently it appeared that serum alkaline phosphatase concentration was related to antler growth and both antler growth and body weight were associated positively with IGF-1 concentrations during antler growth.

  16. 90Sr in antlers and bone of a Danish roe deer population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, M.; Strandgaard, H.

    1995-01-01

    Two sample series of roe deer antlers were included in the analyses: one from the turn of the century (three antlers), another covering the period from 1960 to 1992 (54 sets of antlers). All samples from the second sample series were taken from one-year-old animals belonging to a population of 200 animals living in a small deciduous forest, Kaloe in Djursland, near Arhus in Jutland. No increased 90 Sr signal was observed in the antlers after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, neither in the year of the accident nor in 1987, where possible contamination might have been expected. A possible explanation is that the concentration in the antlers is mainly affected by strontium, directly deposited on fodder plants, during the period of formation of the antlers. The loss due to biogeochemical processes in the ecosystem, which is termed the ecological half-life (T1/2eco) of radiostrontium in antlers of roe deer was determined to be 5.86 years, this value was calculated from the observed half-life, the physical half-life and the half-life of the deposition. (author)

  17. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout 236U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, M.B.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 236 U and 239 Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954–1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA ® . The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the 236 U and 239 Pu concentrations, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of the order of 10 −6 were observed. These measured ratios, where the 236 U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the 236 U/ 238 U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. - Highlights: • Roe deer antlers were studied as an environmental archive for the retrospective study of fallout isotopes 236 U and 239 Pu. • The rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of about 10 −6 suggest 236 U as a fingerprint tool for nuclear material releases. • The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio underpins global fallout as the main anthropogenic contributor in antlers.

  18. Identification of velvet antler by random amplified polymorphism DNA combined with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangxin; Sun, Jiyan; Li, Hongyu; Fu, Guilian; Xu, Guangyu; Li, Mingcheng; Zhang, Lihua; Fan, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of velvet antler was amplified with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and the PCR products were detected with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis to establish a RAPD-HPCE method used for identifying the authenticity of velvet antler or it counterfeits. Factors that could affect the PCR amplification and capillary electrophoresis were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, namely, 20 mmol L(-1) NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4-2 mmol L(-1) EDTA buffer solution [0.8% (W/V) HPMC, 15 mmol L(-1) TBAP and pH 7.3], -10 kV injection voltage and -8 kV separation voltage, Cervus nippon Temminck antler, Cervus elaphus Linnaeus antler, Rangifer tarandus antler, Cervus canadensis antler and Elaphurus davidianus antler were analyzed. The analysis on the similarity of obtained elctrophoretograms showed that there were significant differences in similarities of different velvet antlers, which could be used for the quick identification of the authenticity of velvet antler samples. It can be found that the technique of RAPD combined with HPCE is advantageous in rich polymorphism, high detection rate, simple and convenient performance, high efficiency, rapidness and sensitivity, indicating that it should be suitable for the quick identification of the authenticity of velvet antler samples.

  19. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Thing, Henning; Olesen, Carsten Riis

    1986-01-01

    susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation...

  20. Antler growth in male roe deer in field hunting grounds in Vojvodina: Effect of age on trophy value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gačić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antler growth in male roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L was studied on the representative sample consisting of 546 trophies (227 from Bačka and 319 from Banat hunted in the period 19982005. No significant differences in antler characters and trophy values were noted between Bačka and Banat (except weight of antlers for 5 year old males, and the data for both regions were pooled. Antler growth is a curvilinear function of age. Mean values of length, weight and volume of antlers, and total trophy score varied significantly between the males in different age groups. The study results prove that in Vojvodina field hunting grounds, healthy males attain the culmination in antler growth and trophy value at the age of six years but already after the age of seven years, they show the first sign of old age and decline.

  1. Spin effects in the antler event topology at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Edelhauser, Lisa; Park, Myeonghun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spin correlation effects in the "antler" event topology pp-> A-> B1, B2 -> l^{-}, C1, l^{+}, C2 at the LHC. We study the shapes of several kinematic variables, including the relative pseudorapidity, relative azimuthal angle and the energies of the two leptons, as well as several mass variables M_{ll}, Meff, \\sqrt{s}_{min}, MT2, MCT and MCTx. We focus on the two kinematic extremes of \\sqrt{s} - threshold and infinity - and derive analytical expressions for the differential distributions of several variables, most notably the cos{\\theta_{ll}}^* variable proposed by Barr in hep-ph/0511115. For all possible spin assignments of particles A, B and C, we derive the cos{\\theta_{ll}}^* differential distribution at threshold, including the effects of spin correlations. Our analytical results help identify the problematic cases for spin discrimination.

  2. Manganese supplementation in deer under balanced diet increases impact energy and contents in minerals of antler bone tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelli, Jamil; García, Andrés J.; Ceacero, Francisco; Gómez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of c...

  3. Does fluctuating asymmetry of antlers in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) follow patterns predicted for sexually selected traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchkoff, S.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.; Starry, W.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters have been hypothesized to signal male quality and should demonstrate a negative relationship between the size of the trait and degree of fluctuating asymmetry because they are costly to produce. We collected morphometric and antler data from 439 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Oklahoma, USA, in order to determine whether measures of antler asymmetry follow the patterns predicted for sexually selected characters. Relative fluctuating asymmetry was negatively related to antler size for all deer and within age groups up to five and a half years of age. We did not detect an association between asymmetry and antler size among deer that were six and a half years or older. When categorizing deer by antler size, we found that deer with small antlers (???33rd percentile) had greater levels of relative asymmetry than deer with large antlers (???67th percentile). The relative asymmetry of antlers was negatively related to age and was greatest in deer that were one and a half years old. Relative asymmetry was also negatively related to carcass mass, inside spread, skull length and body length. These data suggest that asymmetry in the antlers of white-tailed deer may be a reliable signal of quality and, as such, may be important in maintaining honesty in intrasexual advertisements during the breeding season.

  4. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antlers of Cervus elaphus as biomonitors of {sup 90}Sr in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Vallejo, I. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.e [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Salas, A.; Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda, 10003 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Adequate radioprotection of the environment requires the identification of biomonitors sensitive to the variation of its radionuclide content. Due to the chemical similarities between calcium and strontium, calcified tissues of mammals are considered to be good {sup 90}Sr biomonitors. This work considered Cervus elaphus antlers which, being shed annually, can give information about the importance of radiostrontium contamination in an ecosystem in the time period required for the growth of the antler. The samples were collected at various points of W and SW Spain. The mean value of their {sup 90}Sr content was (70 {+-} 43 (S.D.)) Bq/kg d.w., range (16-218) Bq/kg d.w., and the radionuclide was evenly distributed in the different parts of the antler. There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. The antlers' content of {sup 226}Ra (from the natural uranium series) and the contents of some stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, and K) were also determined. The values for these stable elements were practically constant in the analyzed samples, and the concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr > {sup 90}Sr > {sup 226}Ra - Research highlights: {yields} There was a good correlation between the antlers' {sup 90}Sr content and the {sup 90}Sr deposited in the soil. {yields} The content of stable elements (Ca, Mg, Sr, K) in the analyzed antlers were practically constant. {yields} The concentrations measured decreased in the following order: Ca > Mg > K > Sr >{sup 90}Sr >{sup 226}Ra.

  6. Chondroitin sulphate extracted from antler cartilage using high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Tai Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate (CS, a major glycosaminoglycan, is an essential component of the extracellular matrix in cartilaginous tissues. Wapiti velvet antlers are a rich source of these molecules. The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective isolation procedure of CS from fresh velvet antlers using a combination of high hydrostatic pressure (100 MPa and enzymatic hydrolysis (papain. High CS extractability (95.1 ± 2.5% of total uronic acid was obtained following incubation (4 h at 50 °C with papain at pH 6.0 in 100 MPa compared to low extractability (19 ± 1.1% in ambient pressure (0.1 MPa. Antler CS fractions were isolated by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography and identified by western blot using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody. The antler CS fraction did not aggregate with hyaluronic acid in CL-2B chromatography and possessed DPPH radical scavenging activity at 78.3 ± 1.5%. The results indicated that high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis procedure may be a useful tool for the isolation of CS from antler cartilaginous tissues.

  7. Research on the relationship between the elements and pharmacological activities in velvet antler using factor analysis and cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libing

    2017-04-01

    Velvet antler has certain effect on improving the body's immune cells and the regulation of immune system function, nervous system, anti-stress, anti-aging and osteoporosis. It has medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as tissue wound healing, anti-tumor, cardiovascular disease, et al. Therefore, the research on the relationship between pharmacological activities and elements in velvet antler is of great significance. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate 15 kinds of elements in different varieties of velvet antlers and study on the relationship between the elements and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy for the human. The factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis methods were used to analyze the data of elements in the sika velvet antler, cervus elaphus linnaeus, flower horse hybrid velvet antler, apiti (elk) velvet antler, male reindeer velvet antler and find out the relationship between 15 kinds of elements including Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Sr, Cr, Zn and Ni. Combining with MATLAB2010 and SPSS software, the chemometrics methods were made on the relationship between the elements in velvet antler and the pharmacological activities. The first commonality factor F1 had greater load on the indexes of Ca, P, Mg, Co, Sr and Ni, and the second commonality factor F2 had greater load on the indexes of K, Mn, Zn and Cr, and the third commonality factor F3 had greater load on the indexes of Na, Cu and Ba, and the fourth commonality factor F4 had greater load on the indexes of Fe and Al. 15 kinds of elements in velvet antler in the order were elk velvet antler>flower horse hybrid velvet antler>cervus elaphus linnaeus>sika velvet antler>male reindeer velvet antler. Based on the factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis, a model for evaluating traditional Chinese medicine quality was constructed. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational

  8. Pilose antler peptide attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Liu, Li; Shan, Xin; Tang, Juanjuan; Xia, Baomei; Cheng, Xiaolan; Chen, Yanyan; Tao, Weiwei

    2018-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the effects of pilose antler peptide (PAP) on primary culture of nucleus pulposus cells in intervertebral disc. We demonstrated that PAP significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced over-production of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in nucleus pulposus cells. PAP also attenuated increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by LPS challenge in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the expression of the protein levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) were increased accompanying with the LPS challenge, which were significantly reversed after PAP treatment. Our results demonstrated the ability of PAP to antagonize LPS-mediated inflammation in primary culture of nucleus pulposus in intervertebral disc, suggesting a beneficial potential for its clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple osteochondromas of the antlers and cranium in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Kierdorf

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of multiple osteochondromas affecting the antlers and the left zygomatic bone of a free-ranging adult white-tailed buck (Odocoileus virginianus from Georgia, USA. Along with a few postcranial bones, the antlered cranium of the individual was found in a severely weathered condition and devoid of any soft tissue. The antlers exhibited five pedunculated exostoses that were composed of cancellous bone and, in their peripheral portions, also mineralized cartilage. The largest of the exostoses, located on the right antler, had a maximum circumference of 55 cm. The exostosis arising from the zygomatic bone was broad-based and much smaller than the exophytic outgrowths on the antlers. Diagnosis of the exostoses as osteochondromas was based on their overall morphology, the normal bone structure in their stalk regions, and the continuity of their spongiosa and cortex with the respective components of the parent bones. Antleromas, i.e., pathological outgrowths developing on antlers as a result of insufficient androgen production, were excluded in the differential diagnosis, based on (1 the apparent maturity and, except for the tumors, normal shape of the antlers and (2 the fact that exostosis formation had also affected the zygomatic bone. Previously only a single case of solitary osteochondroma of an antler has been described in the scientific literature. The case presented here is the first report of multiple osteochondromas in a deer. As antlers are regularly collected as trophies, and huge numbers of them are critically inspected each year, the fact that thus far only two cases of antler osteochondromas have been reported suggests that these tumors are very rare.

  10. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  11. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Cappelli

    Full Text Available Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10 that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 15. Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced, and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  12. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  13. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in elk antler bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Chen, Po-Yu; McKittrick, Joanna; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-11-23

    Bone is an adaptative material that is designed for different functional requirements; indeed, bones have a variety of properties depending on their role in the body. To understand the mechanical response of bone requires the elucidation of its structure-function relationships. Here, we examine the fracture toughness of compact bone of elk antler which is an extremely fast growing primary bone designed for a totally different function than human (secondary) bone. We find that antler in the transverse (breaking) orientation is one of the toughest biological materials known. Its resistance to fracture is achieved during crack growth (extrinsically) by a combination of gross crack deflection/twisting and crack bridging via uncracked 'ligaments' in the crack wake, both mechanisms activated by microcracking primarily at lamellar boundaries. We present an assessment of the toughening mechanisms acting in antler as compared to human cortical bone, and identify an enhanced role of inelastic deformation in antler which further contributes to its (intrinsic) toughness.

  14. An alternative hypothesis for the mid-Paleozoic Antler orogeny in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketner, Keith B.

    2012-01-01

    A great volume of Mississippian orogenic deposits supports the concept of a mid-Paleozoic orogeny in Nevada, and the existence and timing of that event are not questioned here. The nature of the orogeny is problematic, however, and new ideas are called for. The cause of the Antler orogeny, long ascribed to plate convergence, is here attributed to left-lateral north-south strike-slip faulting in northwestern Nevada. The stratigraphic evidence originally provided in support of an associated regional thrust fault, the Roberts Mountains thrust, is now known to be invalid, and abundant, detailed map evidence testifies to post-Antler ages of virtually all large folds and thrust faults in the region. The Antler orogeny was not characterized by obduction of the Roberts Mountains allochthon; rocks composing the "allochthon" essentially were deposited in situ. Instead, the orogeny was characterized by appearance of an elongate north-northeast-trending uplift through central Nevada and by two parallel flanking depressions. The eastern depression was the Antler foreland trough, into which sediments flowed from both east and west in the Mississippian. The western depression was the Antler hinterland trough into which sediments also flowed from both east and west during the Mississippian. West of the hinterland trough, across a left-lateral strike-slip fault, an exotic landmass originally attached to the northwestern part of the North American continent was moved southward 1700 km along a strike-slip fault. An array of isolated blocks of shelf carbonate rocks, long thought to be autochthonous exposures in windows of the Roberts Mountains allochthon, is proposed here as an array of gravity-driven slide blocks dislodged from the shelf, probably initiated by the Late Devonian Alamo impact event.

  15. Deer antler base as a traditional Chinese medicine: a review of its traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feifei; Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Yongsheng; You, Jiansong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2013-01-30

    Deer antler base (Cervus, Lu Jiao Pan) has been recorded in the Chinese medical classics Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing 2000 years ago and is believed to nourish the Yin, tonify the kidney, invigorate the spleen, strengthen bones and muscles, and promote blood flow. In China, deer antler base has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a variety of diseases including mammary hyperplasia, mastitis, uterine fibroids, malignant sores and children's mumps. We provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the traditional uses, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials of deer antler base in order to explore its therapeutic potentials and future research needs. The pharmacological value of deer antler base was ignored for many years while researchers concentrated on the pharmacological value of velvet antler. However, more recently, scientists have carried out a great number of chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies on deer antler base. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2012. All relevant information on deer antler base was collected from ancient Chinese herbal classics, pharmacopoeias, formularies, scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search by using PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and CNKI (in Chinese). Both in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies have demonstrated that deer antler base possess immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-fatigue, anti-osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hematopoietic modulatory activities and the therapeutic effect on mammary hyperplasia. Although the mechanism of actions is still not clear, the pharmacological activities could be mainly attributed to the major bioactive compounds amino acids, polypeptides and proteins. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, deer antler base causes no severe side effects. Deer antler

  16. Lateralization during lateral display and its relationship with antler size and symmetry in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Dómhnall J; Gammell, Martin P

    2018-01-01

    Individuals often display a preference for one side of their body during aggressive encounters. This may be a lateralized preference for using one structure of a bilateral trait during display or physical attack, or for keeping the opponent in one visual field. Alternatively, it may be the case that behavioural lateralization and the degree of symmetry expressed by bilateral structures are correlated forms of developmental instability. We examined whether there was an association between lateralization during a lateral display and different measurements of antler size and symmetry (beam length, beam circumference, brow tine length and coronet circumference). Three models addressed different structural measures: the right antler, the larger antler and antler symmetry. Results showed that beam length was negatively associated with behavioural lateralization irrespective of structural measure. A second analysis using a composite score of the four antler measurements, one for each structural measure, showed that only antler symmetry was negatively associated with lateralization during lateral display. Therefore, our second prediction was supported. We discuss these findings in relation to predator detection capability and stress reduction in prey species such as the fallow deer.

  17. Antler and Body Size in Black-Tailed Deer: An Analysis of Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Thalmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For long-lived species, environmental factors experienced early in life can have lasting effects persisting into adulthood. Large herbivores can be susceptible to cohort-wide declines in fitness as a result of decreases in forage availability, because of extrinsic factors, including extreme climate or high population densities. To examine effects of cohort-specific extrinsic factors on size of adults, we performed a retrospective analysis on harvest data of 450 male black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus over 19 years in central California, USA. We determined that population density of females had a more dominant effect than did precipitation on body size of males. Harvest of female deer resulted in increases in the overall size of males, even though a 6-year drought occurred during that treatment period. Body size was most influenced by female population density early in life, while antler size was highly affected by both weather early in life and the year directly before harvest. This study provides insights that improve our understanding of the role of cohort effects in body and antler size by cervids; and, in particular, that reduction in female population density can have a profound effect on the body and antler size of male deer.

  18. Body mass and antler development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Carlson, E.; Schmitt, S.M.; Haufler, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    We documented mean and maximum body mass, mass accretion patterns and ander development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan. Mean body mass of bulls averaged 9-11% heavier, and maximum body mass 23-27% heavier, in Michigan than in other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Mean live body mass of cows averaged 11% heavier in Michigan, but mean eviscerated body mass did not differ. Maximum body mass of cows was 10-24% heavier in Michigan. Body mass peaked at age 7.5 for bulls and 8.5 for cows, similar to other Rocky Mountain elk populations despite the greater body mass achieved in Michigan. Sexual dimorphism in bull and cow body mass increased until peak body mass was attained, whereupon bulls were ???38% heavier than cows. Antler development of bull elk peaked at age 10.5, comparable to other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Relations between antler development and body mass within age classes were highly variable, but generally weak. Greater body mass seen in Michigan, and the peaking of antler development well after body mass in bulls, suggested a phenotypic response to nutritional conditions that allow Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan to maximize the species growth potential.

  19. Effects of Velvet Antler with Blood on Bone in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chiung Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, both velvet antlers (VA and VA blood can tonify qi, essence, and marrow, nourish the blood, and invigorate bones and tendons. In TCM, the combination of VA and VA blood is believed to have superior pharmacological effects. Scientific evidence supporting the traditional therapeutic preference for redder antler is needed. The effectiveness of the combination therapy of VA middle sections (VAMs and VA blood (VAM-B was first examined in promoting proliferation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1. The anti-osteoporotic activity of VAM-B (ratio of VAM:VA blood = 1:0.2 was evaluated with ovariectomized (OVX rats at a dose of 0.2 g/kg. In VAM-B-treated OVX rats, the body weight decreased 10.7%, and the strength of vertebrae and the femur respectively increased 18.1% and 15.4%, compared to the control. VAM-B treatment also recovered the estrogen-related loss of the right tibial trabecular bone microarchitecture. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP significantly decreased, but estradiol did not significantly change in serum of VAM-B-treated OVX rats. We also provide an effective strategy to enhance the anti-osteoporotic activity of VAM. In conclusion, our results provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional therapeutic preference of redder antler and indicate that VAM-B is a potential therapeutic agent for managing osteoporosis.

  20. Aqueous extract of red deer antler promotes hair growth by regulating the hair cycle and cell proliferation in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-jie; Li, Zheng; Gu, Li-juan; Wang, Yun-bo; Lee, Mi-ra; Sung, Chang-keun

    2014-01-01

    Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4 °C or 100 °C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1 mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4 °C and the 100 °C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region.

  1. Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n=9 at 1 mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4°C and the 100°C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region.

  2. Element concentrations and element ratios in antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags-a quantitative X-ray fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Stoffels, Dieter; Kierdorf, Horst

    2014-12-01

    The present study compared the concentrations of different elements (Ca, P, Mg, Sr, Ba, K, S, Zn, Mn) as well as Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios in hard antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer stags (n = 11). Pedicles showed higher concentrations of calcium and phosphorus and a higher Ca/Mg ratio than antlers, while antlers exhibited higher concentrations of potassium, sulfur, and manganese as well as higher Ca/P, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios. The findings indicate that antlers are less mineralized and show less maturation of their bone mineral than pedicles. Antlers also showed a higher intrasample variation of mineralization than pedicles, which can be related to the shorter life span of the (deciduous) antlers compared to the (permanent) pedicles. It is suggested that antler bone formation is stopped before the theoretically possible degree of mineralization and mineral maturation is reached, resulting in antler biomechanical properties (high bending strength and work to fracture) that are well suited for their role in intraspecific fighting. It is further suggested that the differences in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of antlers and pedicles are related to the dietary shift from milk to vegetation in combination with an increasing intestinal discrimination against Sr and Ba with age, resulting in a less marked difference in these ratios than would be expected based on the dietary shift alone. The findings of our study underscore the suitability of antlers and pedicles as models of bone mineralization and the influence of different animal-related and/or external factors on this process.

  3. Sika Deer Antler Collagen Type I-Accelerated Osteogenesis in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the Smad Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone injury and/or in scaffolds for bone replacement strategies. Finally, isolation of SDA-Col I from deer antler represents a renewable, green, and uncomplicated way to obtain a biomedically valuable therapeutic.

  4. Morphology and ultrastructure of antler velvet hair and body hair from red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Harland, D P; Vernon, J A; Krsinic, G L; Walls, R J

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the ultrastructure of deer hair fibers. Guard hairs and underhairs from the winter coat of red deer (Cervus elaphus), and antler velvet hairs from the same species were examined. All fibers displayed the typical keratin fiber morphology of overlapping cuticle cells surrounding a core of cortex cells, and often a centrally-located medulla, but there were considerable differences in the diameter, cuticle thickness, and scale pattern, and in the relative amounts of cortex and medulla along individual fibers, and between the different types of fiber. In addition, closer examination of cortex cells using transmission electron microscopy revealed considerable differences in the arrangement of intermediate filaments in the different fiber types. Fine underhairs appeared similar to fine wool fibers from sheep because intermediate filament arrangements were very similar to those found in wool orthocortex cells and paracortex cells. In addition, a similar bilateral distribution of these cell types was evident. However, in the antler velvet hairs and the guard hairs, intermediate filament arrangements were more variable and complex, and showed similarities to those in heterotype cortex cells described for human hair. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Red Deer Antler Extract Accelerates Hair Growth by Stimulating Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Full-thickness Wound Healing Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ZhiHong; Gu, LiJuan; Zhang, DongLiang; Li, Zheng; Li, JingJie; Lee, MiRa; Wang, ChunYan; Wang, Zhen; Cho, JeongHee; Sung, Changkeun

    2012-05-01

    In order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, Sprague-Dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. At specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days), the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. At post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around the healing wound of antler-treated skin. Histological studies showed that the antler extract markedly increases the depth, size, and number of hair follicles. Expression of IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of IGF-I (days 16, 32, and 40) was obviously up-regulated in antler-treated skins compared to control skins. Similar results were seen in the ELISA analysis to quantify the IGF-I expression. These results support the notion that wound healing can cause hair growth by enhancing the expression of IGF-I. Deer antler extract appears to have the potential to promote hair growth and could be used in hair growth products.

  6. Assessing regional variation of environmental fluoride concentrations in Western Germany by analysis of antler fluoride content in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierdorf, U.; Kierdorf, H. [University of Giessen, Giessen (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    To assess regional variation in ambient fluoride levels, the fluoride content of 188 antlers of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) killed between 1990 and 1999 in 14 areas of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany were analyzed. Individual antler fluoride concentrations ranged between 113 and 11,995 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, and sample means differed significantly (p {lt} 0.0001) among the study areas. Low average concentrations (geometric means of 262 and 277 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, respectively) were found in antler samples from two control areas, located quite remote to major fluoride emission sources. The highest geometric mean fluoride content (1,677 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash) was recorded for an antler sample from a study area exposed to fluoride emissions from an aluminium smelter and two mineral coal-fired power stations. In eight antlers obtained from roe deer living in the direct vicinity of the aluminium smelter, fluoride values ranged between 2,067 and 11,995 mg F{sup -}/kg bone ash, thereby demonstrating the strong impact of this emission source on its surroundings. The study showed that by analyzing antler fluoride concentrations, large-scale surveys of environmental contamination by fluoride can be performed in a standardized and cost-effective way in areas inhabited by deer. Due to its rather narrow home range, abundance, and high adaptability, the roe deer is particularly suited for such studies.

  7. Red Deer Antler Extract Accelerates Hair Growth by Stimulating Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Full-thickness Wound Healing Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiHong Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, Sprague-Dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. At specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days, the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. At post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around the healing wound of antler-treated skin. Histological studies showed that the antler extract markedly increases the depth, size, and number of hair follicles. Expression of IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of IGF-I (days 16, 32, and 40 was obviously up-regulated in antler-treated skins compared to control skins. Similar results were seen in the ELISA analysis to quantify the IGF-I expression. These results support the notion that wound healing can cause hair growth by enhancing the expression of IGF-I. Deer antler extract appears to have the potential to promote hair growth and could be used in hair growth products.

  8. ABOUT PRISMATIC ANTLER PENDANTS FROM SÂNTANA DE MUREŞ-CERNJACHOV CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciucălău Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Sântana de Mureș-Cernjachov culture we distinguish numerous influences that have targeted not only the material aspects of daily life but also the spiritual life of its different ethnic components. Since the IVth century are signaled in the graves of women and children  a series of prismatic pendants made of antlers decorated with circles, which were seen by some scholars, such as J. Werner and I. Ionita as replicas of type Herkuleskeule amulets.  They were adopted in the Germanic world as symbols of the god Thor / Donau.  In this article we make a presentation of this type of amulets discovered in some of the cemeteries datated in the IVth century researched in Romania and Republic of Moldova.

  9. Unusual central Nevada geologic terranes produced by Late Devonian Antler orogeny and Alamo impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Forrest G.; Sandberg, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This Special Paper is the product of nearly 25 years of geologic investigations. It is an exposition of two small areas, both less than 25 km east of the Mississippian Roberts Mountains allochthon, but each displaying a different, unique geologic terrane, previously undocumented in Nevada and perhaps in North America. One area, the Bisoni-McKay, at the south end of the Fish Creek Range, displays an olistostrome, shed eastward during the late Late Devonian (early Famennian) from a migrating Antler orogenic forebulge. The other, the Warm Springs–Milk Spring, at the south end of the Hot Creek Range, displays a deeper marine terrane affected by the early Late Devonian (middle Frasnian) Alamo impact.

  10. Birth of the first ESS: George Price, John Maynard Smith, and the discovery of the lost "Antlers" paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Oren

    2011-01-15

    The application of game theory to evolutionary problems is so commonplace today, that few stop to consider how it all began. John Maynard Smith and George R. Price's 1973 Nature article, "The Logic of Animal Conflict," is often referred to as the first description in the literature of the concept of an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS), but what was the "behind the scenes" of the writing of that seminal paper? This article tracks the little known story of the curious American polymath, George Price. As will be shown, it was an earlier paper, the lost "Antlers, Intraspecific Combat, and Altruism," sent by Price to Nature in August 1968 (Unpublished), and refereed by Maynard Smith, which instigated the birth of the first ESS. Recently, the "Antlers" paper has been re-discovered by the author, shedding new light, together with letters and journals from the personal papers of George Price and John Maynard Smith, on their historical paper. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. The Protective Effects of Sika Deer Antler Protein on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huihai; Li, Wei; Wang, Lulu; Li, Wenqing; Sun, Hang; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the effect of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) antler protein (SDAPR), glycoproteins (SDAG), and polysaccharides (SDAPO) on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293 cells, and investigated the effect of SDAPR against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, cisplatin with vehicle, and cisplatin with SDAPR at three concentrations: 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, p.o., 10 d. Cisplatin was injected on 7th day (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Renal function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory factors, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured in vivo. Renal tissues were stained with TUNEL and H&E to observe renal cell apoptosis and pathological changes. Pretreatment with SDAPR (125-2000 µg/mL) significantly improved cell viability, with an EC50 of approximately 1000 µg/mL. SDAPR also ameliorated cisplatin-induced histopatholo- gic changes, and decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) (P stress markers and inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05). TUNEL staining showed decreased apoptosis after SDAPR treatment (P < 0.01). These results indicate that SDAPR can be an effective dietary supplement, to relieve cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by improved antioxidase activity, suppressed inflammation, and inhibited apoptosis in vivo. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effects of different forages on the chemical compositions and antiosteoporotic activities of velvet antlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wang, Kun-Teng; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-08-01

    For this study, we aimed to assess the dose-response antiosteoporotic effects of the middle section of velvet antlers (VAs) from sika deers (Cervus nippon) fed with different types of fodders. VAs prepared from farmed sika deers fed with feed mixtures containing sorghum distillery residue (VA-SDR) or without SDR (SDR replaced with hay, VA-Hay) were divided into upper (VAU), middle (VAM) and basal (VAB) sections. The chemical constituents of the middle sections obtained from each VA type were compared, and their antiosteoporotic activities were evaluated using rats with ovaries removed surgically (ovariectomy, OVX). The VA-Hay exhibited markedly increased iron and cysteine levels, whereas the VA-SDR exhibited markedly increased level of alcoholic extract and testosterone. Both VA-Hay- and VA-SDR-treated rats exhibited increased femur strength compared with the control group. However, VA-SDR exhibited greater bone-strengthening effects than did VA-Hay. The serum osteocalcin and estradiol levels were significantly moderated in the VA-Hay group alone. These results suggest that VA-SDR and VA-Hay prevent the loss of bone strength, and preserve trabecular architecture connectivity in an estrogen-deficient state. However, differences in the chemical compositions of different forages may be responsible for the varying antiosteoporotic mechanisms observed. Thus, the addition of SDR in deer forage may enhance antiosteoporosis activity in VAs, and confer considerable economic and ecological benefits. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Influence of Electrophoresis of Antler Mass on Restorative Processes in Young Athletes during the Preparatory Period of a One-Year Training Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S. Gavrileva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of electrophoresis of antler mass (according to Vermel’s method on the peripheral blood and indicators of cardiac function in elite athletes during intensive exercise during the preparatory period. This study included 27 male athletes, aged 16-17 years old. Application of electrophoresis of antler mass led to improvement of hemoglobin level and hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, normalization of hormonal status and myocardial metabolism, and promoted increased fitness and adaptability to physical stress.

  14. Clinical evaluation of a powder of quality elk velvet antler for the treatment of osteoarthrosis in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Maxim; Dupuis, Jacques; Bonneau, Norbert H; Lécuyer, Manon

    2004-01-01

    A powder of quality elk velvet antler (QEVA) was evaluated on client-owned dogs with osteoarthrosis (OA) in a clinical, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. Thirteen dogs received a placebo for 30 days and then QEVA for 60 days. Twenty-five other dogs received QEVA for 60 days. Gait analysis measured with a force plate, clinical signs assessed by an orthopedic surgeon, performances in daily life activities and vitality assessed by the owners, and complete blood analyses were obtained a...

  15. Paleozoic stratigraphy and tectonics in northernmost Nevada: Implications for the nature of the Antler orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, K.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Ehman, K.D. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Repetski, J.E.; Stamm, R.G.; Wardlaw, B.R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Recent mapping and revised ages have clarified geologic relations in northern Nevada. In the Bull Run Mountains-Copper Mountains area, Proterozoic quartzite, phyllite, marble, and greenstone are overlain successively, depositionally, and nearly concordantly by the Cambrian Prospect Mountain Quartzite, Pioche Shale, and Eldorado Dolomite; the Cambrian to Ordovician Tennessee Mountain Formation composed of limestone, siltstone, and greenstone; the Ordovician Valmy Formation composed of a lower member of greenstone, limestone, mudstone, and chert, and an upper member of quartzite and argillite; and, disconformably by a Mississippian sequence of interbedded conglomerate, limestone, siltstone, and greenstone. The Prospect Mountain, Pioche, and Eldorado form a relatively shallow-water, shelf sequence containing trilobites and displaying cross-bedding, ooliths, oncolites, and fenestral fabric. The overlying Tennessee Mountain and Valmy are devoid of such features and contain many black, finely laminated, and graded strata, suggesting a deeper-water environment. This upper Proterozoic to Permian sequence is interpreted as indicating: (1) increased tectonic subsidence or sea-level rise in the latter part of the Cambrian; (2) elevation above sea level and erosion of Devonian, Silurian, and Upper Ordovician rocks in earliest Mississippian; (3) subsidence below sea level in later Early Mississippian; (4) elevation above sea level with sporadic, moderate deformation, and local, deep erosion in medial Pennsylvanian; (5) subsidence below sea level in medial Pennsylvanian or later; (6) intermittent eruption of basic volcanics peaking in Early Ordovician and again in Mississippian. The disconformable relation between the Valmy Formation and overlying Mississippian strata indicates that the Antler orogeny of earliest Mississippian age, here consisted primarily of uplift and deep erosion. Evidence of strong Early Mississippian folding and contractional faulting is not apparent.

  16. The Protective Effects of Sika Deer Antler Protein on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihai Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study measured the effect of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck antler protein (SDAPR, glycoproteins (SDAG, and polysaccharides (SDAPO on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293 cells, and investigated the effect of SDAPR against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, cisplatin with vehicle, and cisplatin with SDAPR at three concentrations: 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg, p.o., 10 d. Cisplatin was injected on 7th day (25 mg/kg, i.p.. Renal function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory factors, and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured in vivo. Renal tissues were stained with TUNEL and H&E to observe renal cell apoptosis and pathological changes. Results: Pretreatment with SDAPR (125-2000 µg/mL significantly improved cell viability, with an EC50 of approximately 1000 µg/mL. SDAPR also ameliorated cisplatin-induced histopatholo- gic changes, and decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr (P < 0.05. Western blotting analysis showed SDAPR clearly decreased expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax, and increased the expression level of Bcl-2 (P < 0.01. Additionally, SDAPR markedly regulated oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05. TUNEL staining showed decreased apoptosis after SDAPR treatment (P < 0.01. Conclusions: These results indicate that SDAPR can be an effective dietary supplement, to relieve cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by improved antioxidase activity, suppressed inflammation, and inhibited apoptosis in vivo.

  17. First Evidence that Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Velvet Antler Extract Suppresses Migration of Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, YuJiao; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Wang, Yanmei; Choi, Eun-Ju; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Park, Pyo-Jam; Moon, Sang Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Deer velvet antler (DVA) is one of the most popular medicines in China. Numerous studies have demonstrated that velvet antler possess biological effects. However, data regarding its anti-migration activity on prostate cancer is scarce. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of top DVA (T-DVA) on the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and migration-related genes in the human prostate cancer cell, LNCaP. The T-DVA down-regulated the expression of PSA. In addition, the Radius(TM) assay revealed that T-DVA inhibited the migration behavior of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also decreased with T-DVA. On the contrary, T-DVA increased the tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and (TIMP)-2. Taken together, our findings indicate that the T-DVA possesses anti-migration activity on prostate cancer cells. This is the first study of DVA to report the anti-migration activity on prostate cancer.

  18. Purification and identification of anti-inflammatory peptides derived from simulated gastrointestinal digests of velvet antler protein (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify anti-inflammatory peptides from simulated gastrointestinal digest (pepsin–pancreatin hydrolysate of velvet antler protein. The hydrolysate was purified using ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of the purified fraction was evaluated by the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Four anti-inflammatory peptides, VH (Val–His, LAN (Leu–Ala–Asn, AL (Ala–Leu, and IA (Ile–Ala, were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Each of these peptides demonstrated a U-shaped dose–effect relationship. VH, LAN, AL and IA showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activities at 200 μg/mL, that is, 15.5%, 13.0%, 16.0% and 11.2% inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production, respectively. Additionally, the enhanced NO inhibitory activity was observed for the peptides mixture, indicating the possible synergistic effects. These results suggested that the peptides derived from velvet antler protein could potentially be used as a promising ingredient in functional foods or nutraceuticals against inflammatory diseases.

  19. Barium concentration in cast roe deer antlers related to air pollution caused by burning of barium-enriched coals in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, M; Kramarczyk, M; Smieja-Król, B; Janeczek, J

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of Ba, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in freshly cast antlers from male roe deer of different ages (2 to 4 years old and older than 4 years) collected in Balin near Chrzanów and in the vicinity of Żywiec, S Poland. Barium content ranged from 124 to 196 ppm (mean 165 ppm) in the Balin 12 samples and from 207 to 351 ppm (mean 287 ppm) in 3 antlers from Żywiec. The concentration of Ba was comparable to that of Zn (134-275 ppm, mean 169 ppm). Elevated concentrations of Ba in antlers most probably originated from direct uptake of airborne barite nanocrystals through the respiratory system and/or by digestion of barite-rich dust particles deposited on plants. Burning of Ba-enriched coals is regarded as the principal source of Ba in the investigated areas inhabited by roe deer. Increased concentrations of Ba in antlers from the Żywiec area compared to Balin reflect particularly high air pollution caused by coal-burning mostly for domestic purposes combined with an unfavorable topography that impedes efficient air circulation.

  20. First insights into the identification of bone and antler tools used in the indirect percussion and pressure techniques during the early postglacial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Eva; Sørensen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    With the interest for the technological options that were taken by the prehistoric groups to subsist, there is a field of research left empty in terms of archaeological records dated to the 8th and 7th millennia cal BC. It concerns the tool kit made from bone and antler used in Europe by stone kn...

  1. First insights into the identification of bone and antler tools used in the indirect percussion and pressure techniques during the early postglacial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Eva; Sørensen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    With the interest for the technological options that were taken by the prehistoric groups to subsist, there is a field of research left empty in terms of archaeological records dated to the 8th and 7th millennia cal BC. It concerns the tool kit made from bone and antler used in Europe by stone...

  2. Historical biomonitoring of fluoride pollution by determining fluoride contents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) antlers and mandibles in the vicinity of the largest Slovene thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenko, Ida; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2010-12-15

    Roe deer antlers/mandibles are a useful tool for determination of ambient fluoride pollution. Antlers have a well-defined annual cycle of growth, therefore they represent a natural standardisation of samples during winter months. On the contrary, mandibles accumulate fluorides during the whole life of an organism, thus they reflect aggregated effect of fluoride pollution trough the life-span of an organism. Both tissues are easily available; mandibles are often systematically collected with the purpose of cognitive management and control, and antlers could be gathered from private well-dated hunters' collections. Considering these benefits, fluoride contents were measured in 141 antlers (period 1960-2007) and 220 mandibles (period 1997-2009) of roe deer, shot in the vicinity of the largest Slovene Thermal Power Plant of Šoštanj (ŠTPP) as one of the major sources of fluorides in Slovenia. Fluoride contents in antlers significantly differed among age categories, and ranged from 110 to 1210 mg/kg in yearlings, 130 to 2340 mg/kg in young adults, and 250 to 2590 mg/kg in older adults, respectively. Fluoride levels in mandibles were also significantly different among age categories, and ranged from 30.0 to 227 mg/kg in fawns, 33.8 to 383 mg/kg in yearlings, and 61.5 to 1020 mg/kg in adults, respectively. Comparison of these results with previously reported fluoride contents in antlers and mandibles of roe deer from different areas of Europe revealed that the study area has never been extensively contaminated with fluorides. Moreover, trends of fluoride contents in both tissues confirmed a significant decrease of fluoride pollution in the area after the years 1995 and 2000, when flue-gas cleaning devices were constructed on the ŠTPP. Indeed, highly positive correlations between annual emissions from the ŠTPP and mean annual fluoride contents in antlers/mandibles confirmed that both tissues may be a useful tool for assessing temporal trends in ambient fluoride

  3. Assessment of the production of analgesia induced by application of a rubber ring or local anaesthetic to the antler pedicle of yearling stags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A M; Barrell, G K; Gibbs, S J; Frizzell, A N; McPhee, J F

    2009-06-01

    To compare two methods of applying rubber rings to the pedicles of yearling stags to induce analgesia in the antler prior to removal. To compare the application of a rubber ring with that of a lignocaine ring block of the antler pedicle on the efficacy and time course of the analgesia produced in yearling stags. Rubber rings were applied to the pedicles of 36 yearling stags that required velvet antler removal. The standard method, a doubled-over ring expanded and lowered down from the distal end of the antler and released midway down the pedicle, was compared with a cable-tie method on the other pedicle, where a ring was pulled around the pedicle by an electrical cable tie threaded through the ring. Brief electrical stimulation (train-of-four mode) was applied proximal and distal to the ring before, and at regular intervals for 1 hour after, application of the ring to a level that produced an auriculopalpebral reflex response. In a second experiment, each pair of antlers per yearling stag (n=36) was allocated to one of three pairs of treatments, viz no treatment (control) and the cable-tie method as described above, control and local anaesthesia (a ring block of 2 ml 2% lignocaine per cm pedicle circumference), or the cable-tie method and local anaesthesia. Electrical stimulation (tetanic mode) was applied to each antler approximately 25 mm distal to the pedicle/antler junction before, and at intervals up to 1 hour after, application of treatments at a level required to produce a head/neck avoidance behavioural response. In a third experiment, the two electrical stimulation protocols used above were directly compared by measuring the response of stags (n=8) to one protocol on each pedicle/antler prior to, and at intervals for 1 hour after, application of a rubber ring. At the end of each treatment in all three experiments, analgesia of the antler was established as a nil behavioural response of the stag to a saw cut to the antler (the 'nick test'). For both methods

  4. The Proteins from Sika deer antler as potential modulators on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huihai; Li, Wei; Wang, Lulu; He, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hang; Zhang, Jing

    2017-07-31

    Our study aimed to investigate the protective role of SDAPR on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and its' possible mechanism in HEK293 cells. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Oxidative stress (SOD, GSH, LDH and MDA), inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-6) and apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2) expression were measured. The apoptotic cells were observed by TUNEL staining. Our study results indicated that non-cytotoxic levels of SDAPR significantly increased viability rate (LD 50 value of cisplatin is 20 μM), which improved antioxidant defence, attenuated apoptosis by decreasing expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3 and Bax, increasing Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting apoptotic positive cells in HEK 293 cells. In addition, SDAPR treatment markedly inhibited the levels of TNF-α and IL-6. In conclusion, Sika deer antler protein, a potential modulator, could alleviate cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in HEK 293 cells.

  5. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of peptides from red deer antlers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Shuangjian; Zhu, Jing; Shang, Jing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. To develop novel anti-diabetic drugs from nature sources has always been the focus of research. Red deer (Cervus elaphu Linnaeus) antler is one of the most famous Chinese traditional medicines. We found that the peptides of 5-10 kDa from red deer antlers (PRDA) promoted the growth of cultured rat islet cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic actions of PRDA in vivo and purify a pure active peptide. We therefore investigated the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of PRDA in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and isolated a pure anti-diabetic peptide. PRDA, given intraperitoneally (75, 150, or 300 μg/kg), significantly decreased the blood glucose levels, significantly increased the insulin concentrations, and remarkably improved the lipid metabolism in the diabetic mice. PRDA significantly increased the superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and the total antioxidant capacity in the serum and liver, and simultaneously decreased the malondialdehyde levels. The activities of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, two important enzymes involved in glucose utilization, were also significantly increased in the liver of the PRDA-treated diabetic mice. Moreover, a novel anti-diabetic peptide isolated from PRDA significantly promoted the viability of cultured rat insulinoma cells. The molecular mass of the purified peptide was 7064.8 Da under mass spectrometry, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as LSPFTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSA. Thus, PRDA may be useful in managing the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress in diabetes, and the anti-diabetic peptide is a promising drug for the treatment of diabetes.

  6. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  7. Protocol for Assessing the Relative Effects of Environment and Genetics on Antler and Body Growth for a Long-lived Cervid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily B; Demarais, Stephen; Strickland, Bronson K; Wang, Guiming; Dacus, Chad M

    2017-08-08

    Cervid phenotype can be placed into one of two categories: efficiency, which promotes survival over extravagant morphometric growth, and luxury, which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Populations of the same species display each phenotype depending on environmental conditions. Although antler and body size of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) varies by physiographic region in Mississippi, USA and is strongly correlated with regional variation in nutritional quality, the effects of population-level genetics from native stocks and previous re-stocking efforts cannot be disregarded. This protocol describes how we designed a controlled study, where other factors that influence phenotype, such as age and nutrition, are controlled. We brought wild-caught pregnant females and six-month-old fawns from three distinct physiographic regions in Mississippi, USA to the Mississippi State University Rusty Dawkins Memorial Deer Unit. Deer from the same region were bred to produce a second generation of offspring, allowing us to assess generational responses and maternal effects. All deer ate the same high-quality (20% crude protein deer pellet) diet ad libitum. We uniquely marked each neonate and recorded body mass, hind foot, and total body length. Each subsequent fall, we sedated individuals via remote injection and sampled the same morphometrics plus antlers of adults. We found that all morphometrics increased in size from first to second generation, with full compensation of antler size (regional variation no longer present) and partial compensation of body mass (some evidence of regional variation) evident in the second generation. Second generation males that originated from our poorest quality soil region displayed about a 40% increase in antler size and about a 25% increase in body mass when compared to their wild harvested counterparts. Our results suggest phenotypic variation of wild male white-tailed deer in Mississippi are more related to

  8. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  9. Pilose antler peptide potentiates osteoblast differentiation and inhibits osteoclastogenesis via manipulating the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwang; Ma, Chao; Wang, Peian; Zhang, Peiying; Qu, Xinhua; Liu, Shen; Zhai, Zanjing; Yu, Degang; Gao, Juan; Liang, Jun; Dai, Weixiang; Zhou, Lindong; Xia, Mengjiao; Yang, Huilin

    2017-09-16

    Bones are inflexible yet ever-changing metabolic organs, and bone homeostasis is maintained through two delicately regulated processes: bone construction and bone reabsorption. An imbalance in bone metabolism is linked to most orthopedic diseases, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Importantly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocks osteoblast differentiation and stimulates osteoclast formation, resulting in delayed deposition of new bone and accelerated bone resorption, especially in rheumatoid arthritis patients with inflammatory conditions. Pilose antler peptide (PAP) isolated and purified from deer antlers has been shown to have beneficial effects on chronic inflammation. In the present study, we studied the impact of PAP on osteoblast differentiation and evaluated the regulatory mechanism, with particular emphasis on the effect of PAP on TNF-α-mediated NF-κB signaling. Mouse primary osteoblast cells were activated with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) for osteoblast differentiation. A significant stimulatory effect of PAP in osteoblastogenesis was observed using ALP activity and Alizarin Red S staining assays. Meanwhile, PAP significantly rescued TNF-α-induced impairment of osteoblast formation as well as mineralization. Furthermore, we found a similar trend upon analyzing osteoblast-specific gene expression. PAP significantly rescued TNF-α-mediated decrease in expression of osteoblast-specific genes. A molecular mechanism assay indicated that PAP significantly inhibited TNF-α-mediated stimulation of NF-κB signaling activity, as well as nuclear translocation of its subunit p65. Moreover, over-expression of p65 reversed the stimulatory effects of PAP on osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, we also identified that PAP dose dependently inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and this effect might be achieved via suppressing NF-κB activity. In summary, this study shows that PAP promotes osteoblast differentiation and blocks TNF

  10. The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongran Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elk velvet antler (EVA has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age, and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Mean body weights were higher in the EVA group at 4–8 weeks in males and at 5 weeks of age in females. The kidney indices were greater in EVA dietary supplemented male rats at 5 and 16 weeks of age, in females at 16 weeks of age, and testis/ovary indices at 5 weeks of age. The femoral length was increased in both males and females at 5 weeks, and several pQCT-measured parameters had increased in EVA males and females. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP increased in EVA group while the content of calcium and phosphorus did not differ among groups. Our results seem to support a role for dietary supplementation of EVA on growth and bone development in this model.

  11. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  12. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L.; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  13. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  14. Assessing enclosure design and husbandry practices for successful keeping and breeding of the Burmese brow antlered deer (Eld's deer, Rucervus eldii thamin) in European zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ellis L; Hartley, Matt

    2017-05-01

    The endangered Burmese brow antlered deer (Rucervus eldii thamin) is a medium sized tropical cervid kept in a number of European zoos. Studbook data and anecdotal reports have suggested that this species suffers from poor reproductive success and relatively high neonatal mortality in captivity. Questionnaires were sent to 10 European zoos, holding 91 (20.71.0) deer, in order to record information on husbandry practices and enclosure design. Studbook analysis was performed to determine reproductive success and mortality values at each of the zoos participating in the study. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify any links between husbandry or enclosure design and the population parameters calculated from the studbook. From the nine zoos that were analyzed in this study, no significant differences were found for population parameters between male and female deer. Neonatal mortality was negatively correlated to enclosure size (in males) and enclosure cover (in females). Positive correlations were found between enclosure cover, average temperature and group size with life expectancy, and negative correlations between enclosure visibility and visitor distance with female life expectancy. These results may be useful for informing husbandry guidelines, although further research into stress responses in captivity is recommended for this species to improve their welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of orally administered melatonin on the seasonality of deer pelage exchange, antler development, LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone, T3, T4, cortisol and alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenik, G A; Smith, P S; Schams, D

    1986-01-01

    Five milligrams of melatonin (M) per day was administered orally to four male white-tailed deer on a schedule that mimicked first decreasing and then increasing lengths of natural photoperiod. The following seasonal phenotypic and hormonal responses were observed: Pelage exchange, antler mineralization, velvet shedding, and rutting behavior of experimental animals were advanced by 50-55 days. Prolactin (PRL) levels exhibited a bimodal curve with peaks in May and August, as compared to a monomodal curve of controls (peak in June). Peak FSH levels of M-fed deer were advanced 2 months as compared to controls (June vs August). LH concentrations of both groups reached maxima in July; however, in the experimental group, LH levels declined much faster than in controls and then rose again in October-November. Testosterone (T) concentrations of M-fed bucks were elevated 2 months ahead of controls. Melatonin treatment had no significant effect on seasonal variation of T3, or T4. No seasonal rhythm of cortisol was seen in either group and no detectable effect of M was evident. No statistical differences in levels of alkaline phosphatase were seen between groups, although concentrations in experimental bucks sharply dropped to basal levels two months ahead of controls.

  16. Preventive Effects of Velvet Antler (Cervus elaphus against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB Activation and Inducing AMPK/Nrf2 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Shu Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Velvet antler (Cervus elaphus is a typical traditional animal medicine. It is considered to have various pharmacological effects including stimulation of the immune system, increase in the physical strength, and enhancement of sexual function. This paper aims to investigate the aqueous extract of velvet antler (AVA in the mouse models of LPS-induced ALI. Inhibition of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 productions contributes to the attenuation of LPS-induced lung inflammation by AVA. A 5-day pretreatment of AVA prevented histological alterations and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity in lung tissues. AVA significantly reduced the material (total number of cells and proteins in the BALF. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and phosphorylation of IκB-α and MAPKs proteins are blocked in LPS-stimulated macrophages as well as LPS-induced lung injury in mice. Consistent with this concept, the phosphorylation of CaMKKβ, LKB1, AMPK, Nrf2, and HO-1 was activated after AVA treatment. The results from this study indicate AVA has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and AVA is a potential model for the development of health food. In addition, its pathways may be at least partially associated with inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB activation and upregulating AMPK/Nrf2 pathways and the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activity.

  17. Le travail du bois de cerf à Villeparisis (Seine-et-Marne : un dépotoir au sein d’un atelier de potiers du Bas Empire Antler working at Villeparisis (Seine-et-Marne: a rubbish dump within a potters' workshop of the Late Roman Empire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Mallet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Les fouilles archéologiques menées en 2003 et en 2005 à Villeparisis (Seine-et-Marne dans le centre ancien, ont mis au jour les vestiges d’une zone artisanale du Bas Empire regroupant un atelier de potiers mais également les témoins d’activités diverses, notamment 60 bois de cerfs au sein d’un dépotoir. Ceux-ci sont incomplets et portent de nombreuses traces de travail. Leur analyse n’a pas permis de déterminer les objets façonnés.The excavations, in Villeparisis’ town centre (Seine-et-Marne led in 2003 and 2005, have revealed a large craft area occupied during the Late Romantimes. The remains of a potter’s workshop and 60 red deer antlers have been discovered. These are incomplete and show many traces of work. Their analysis dœs no enable us to determine which artefacts had been made.

  18. Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion disease of captive and free ranging white tailed deer, mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose in the some parts of the United States and Canada. The presence of the disease has sharply curtailed movement of captive...

  19. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Forsmark; Monitoring Forsmark. Aelgstammens aalderssammansaettning reproduktion och hornutveckling i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil (Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Forsmark, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Forsmark with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Forsmark is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Forsmark, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the moose population in Forsmark. Time series of good quality data will reveal important information about changes in moose population structure and/or fodder status in the area

  20. Biocompatibility of orthopaedic implants on bone forming cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanen, A. (Anita)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Reindeer antler was studied for its possible use as a bone implant material. A molecular biological study showed that antler contains a growth factor promoting bone formation. Ectopic bone formation assay showed that antler is not an equally effective inducer as allogenic material. Ectopic bone formation assay was optimised for biocompatibility studies of orthopaedic NiTi implants. Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel were used as reference materials. The assay...

  1. Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alcohol (10) 41 (GA). Algae (5) 33 (GA). Algebraic Topology (10) 86 (BR). Alternative food (5) 33 (GA). Amino acids (1) 82 (CR). Amitsur-Levitzki identity (2) 64 (GA). Angiography (5) 19 (GA). Angular distributions (4) 8 (GA). Animal behaviour (9) 62 (FA). Annona squamosa L. (11) (FT). Antler biology (7) 50 (GA). Antlers (7) ...

  2. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  3. 10 CFR 210.1 - Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Antler Petroleum Arco Pipeline Company Armada Petroleum Corp. Armour Oil Company Arnold Brooks Const. Inc.... Arkla Chemical Corporation Shreveport, LA. Armour Oil Company San Diego, CA. Associated Programs Inc...

  4. Improved nutrition cues switch from efficiency to luxury phenotypes for a long-lived ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily B; Demarais, Stephen; Strickland, Bronson K; Wang, Guiming; Dacus, Chad M

    2016-10-01

    Cervid phenotype can be categorized as efficiency, which promotes survival but not extravagant growth, or luxury which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Although nutritional variation greatly influences these phenotypic forms, the potential for subspecies-linked genetic or founder effects from restocking efforts of harvested species has not been eliminated. We measured intergenerational phenotypic change of males in response to improved nutrition in three captive-reared populations of white-tailed deer. Study animals were offspring of females captured from three regions displaying variation in antler and body size as well as nutritional variation. We fed all animals a high-quality diet and measured antler and body size for two generations. We predicted that improved long-term nutrition would cue a switch from efficiency to luxury phenotype for all populations and that regional compensation of antler and body size would occur. Improved nutrition positively influenced all measures of antler and body size; however, changes varied in magnitude. Antler size was more responsive than body size. Improved nutrition also facilitated regional compensation of antler size and partial compensation of body size. Our results show that improved long-term nutrition cues a shift from efficiency to luxury phenotype in a long-lived cervid with weaponry being more responsive than body size. Compensation of antler size suggests that weaponry is greatly influenced by nutrition and is not restricted by subspecies-linked genetic or founder effects from restocking efforts related to our regional populations. Therefore, strategies to improve cervid antler and body size should include habitat management that elevates long-term diet quality.

  5. Analysis and Application of Antagonism Compound Prescription Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Wang, Can; Bai, Ming; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Deer horn glue is deer family animals deer or red deer horn made of solid plastic animal medicine, according to Chinese medicine “seven emotions together” theory, the antler and other Chinese herbal medicines compatibility can be better play its Medicinal value. In this paper, the chemical composition, pharmacological effects, compatibility analysis, clinical application and classic ancient prescriptions of antler are reviewed in recent years.

  6. Cranial suture complexity in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Christopher W; Vaders, Mark J

    2006-07-01

    Neurocranial expansion and mastication are commonly implicated as the two major biomechanical factors affecting suture morphology. In deer the antlers provide an additional source of biomechanical stress acting on the skull. Equivalent stresses are not found in females, who lack antlers. We analyzed the complexity and interdigitation of the interfrontal and coronal sutures that surround the antler-bearing frontal bones of (n = 67) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to 1) evaluate changes in suture morphology throughout ontogeny, and 2) test the hypothesis that male deer have more complex sutures than females. Two methods were used to quantify suture morphology: fractal analysis and length-ratios (actual suture length divided by direct straightline length). Both techniques produced similar results, although the two methods cannot be considered equivalent. Suture complexity increases markedly throughout ontogeny, but appears to level off after animals have reached adulthood. Cranial size in males, but not females, continues to increase in adults. No significant increase in suture complexity with age in the adult cohort was detected. While deer are highly dimorphic in size and the presence of antlers, no significant differences existed between males and females for any measure of suture complexity. No consistent patterns emerged between suture complexity and skull size or antler characteristics. The presence of antlers appears to have a minimal effect on suture complexity in white-tailed deer. Factors that may contribute to the lack of dimorphism in suture complexity are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The allometry between secondary sexual traits and body size is nonlinear among cervids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, J F; Vanpé, C; Plard, F; Gaillard, J M

    2014-03-01

    Allometric relationships between sexually selected traits and body size have been extensively studied in recent decades. While sexually selected traits generally display positive allometry, a few recent reports have suggested that allometric relationships are not always linear. In male cervids, having both long antlers and large size provides benefits in terms of increased mating success. However, such attributes are costly to grow and maintain, and these costs might constrain antler length from increasing at the same rate as body mass in larger species if the quantity of energy that males can extract from their environment is limiting. We tested for possible nonlinearity in the relationship between antler size and body mass (on a log-log scale) among 31 cervids and found clear deviation from linearity in the allometry of antler length. Antler length increased linearly until a male body mass threshold at approximately 110 kg. Beyond this threshold, antler length did not change with increasing mass. We discuss this evidence of nonlinear allometry in the light of life-history theory and stress the importance of testing for nonlinearity when studying allometric relationships.

  8. Dama roberti, a new species of deer from the early Middle Pleistocene of Europe, and the origins of modern fallow deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Marzia; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-06-01

    The ancestry of the modern fallow deer, Dama dama, has been tentatively traced back to Pliocene/Early Pleistocene forms referred to 'Pseudodama', characterized by unpalmated three- or four-point antlers. By the late Middle Pleistocene, Dama with palmated antlers appears, as Dama dama clactoniana. However, fallow deer from the interim period, the early Middle Pleistocene, are poorly-known. A new specimen from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK), represented by a portion of cranium with a substantial part of both antlers plus a mandible and scapula, is the most complete medium-sized deer specimen from the British early Middle Pleistocene (ca 700 ka). The position and orientation of the basal tine, together with dental characters and mandibular morphology, are typical of fallow deer. The narrow palmation is reminiscent of D. dama clactoniana, but the lack of palmation tines is unique. Moreover, the lack of second (and third) tines in an adult specimen differs from both D. dama dama and D. d. clactoniana, being a primitive character shared with the last representatives of 'Pseudodama' which, on the other hand, has a circular beam lacking any palmation. This combination of features justifies the erection of a new species provisionally placed within the genus Dama, Dama roberti n. sp. Another specimen, from Soleilhac (Auvergne, France), represented by portions of the two antlers, a mandible and a tibia, shares antler morphology with the Pakefield specimen and can be ascribed to the same new species. Isolated antler and dental remains from coeval British sites are tentatively ascribed to D. roberti n. sp. The new species has implications for the ancestry of modern fallow deer.

  9. Like a fish out of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    Terrestrial herbivores are usually considered "safe" for radiocarbon dating, as they incorporate carbon in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Radiocarbon reservoir effects are therefore not expected in these animals. One species, however, might show reservoir effects: the elk/moose (Alces alces...... of their time cooling down in lakes and rivers, munching away on the aquatic vegetation. This is the season when the antlers are formed, so the reservoir effect is expected to be greatest in the antlers. In this study, radiocarbon dating of historical known-age samples, archaeological elk bones from secure...

  10. Radiocarbon dating of elk (Alces alces), an economic and symbolic resource in prehistory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    freshwater reservoir effects, and when elks consume many aquatic plants, their bone and antler will reflect that reservoir effect. A high freshwater reservoir effect in elk bones will thus confirm that the elk spent a lot of time in water, so it might have been regarded as a semi-aquatic animal...

  11. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reindeer is the only deer species in which the females also sport antlers but these are much .... bone with density optimized in the direction of mechanical stress (not shown). Ultimately in mature bone ... by a thin spongy bone layer and the mechanical stress is borne by the compact bone that has the structure shown in F ...

  12. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    culture as well as ethnographic samples. Finally, the lack of wood suitable for building efficient bows during the earlier part of the Late Glacial (GI-1e/Bølling chronozone) is considered. It is suggested that composite bows consisting of reindeer antler and/or compression wood of pine were used....

  13. Late Mesolithic hunting of a small female aurochs in the valley of the River Tjonger (the Netherlands) in the light of Mesolithic aurochs hunting in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.

    The valley of the River Tjonger, situated in the Province of Friesland (the Netherlands), is rich in prehistoric organic remains. The fill of the valley, consisting of waterlogged sediments (peat, gyttja and sands), presents favourable conditions for the preservation of bone, antler and botanical

  14. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristics, typically occurring only in males, and are func- tional only during the rutting (mating) season. The reindeer is the only deer species in which the females also sport antlers but these are much less impressive than those of the males. The horns of the giraffe are protuberaw;es of the skull covered by matted hair.

  15. Validity of the saliva ferning test for the diagnosis of dry mouth in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Miedany, Y M; el-Hady, S M; el-Baddin, M A

    1999-02-01

    To study the validity of saliva ferning patterns as a diagnostic test for dry mouth in primary or secondary Sjogren's Syndrome (SS). Salivary smears were collected from 25 patients with Sjögren's syndrome in the fasting and nonfasting state. All 25 patients had symptomatic xerostomia and xerophthalmia and a positive Shirmer's test. Smears were taken from four sites, the cheek, lower lip, tongue, and saliva. Tests were done for rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, and anti-Ro(SS-A) antibodies. The salivary smears were air-dried and examined under a light and a polarizing microscope. Smears from 25 healthy subjects were also examined as controls. Three patterns of salivary secretion were identified, namely normal geometric ferning, reindeer antler ferning, and thick branching ferning. All Sjögren's syndrome patients had abnormal salivary smears, usually with a combination of reindeer antler ferning, thick branching ferning, and mucosal squames. This combination was seen in six of the 25 fasting specimens (24%); most of the remaining fasting samples showed the reindeer antler ferning. Reindeer antler ferning alone was found in five fasting and four nonfasting samples: this pattern was absent from five fasting and five nonfasting samples in which mucosal squames were the only abnormal finding. All nonfasting control samples exhibited normal geometric ferning. Smears from the cheek and saliva provided the most illustrative findings. The saliva ferning test is a simple, reproducible, and useful diagnostic aid in autoimmune xerostomia, approximately equivalent to Shirmer's test in xerophthalmia.

  16. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Deer Antlers - Rapid Growing Calcified Tissue. A Rajaram. General Article Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 50-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/07/0050-0063. Keywords.

  17. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., trapping, and gathering shed antlers and wild edible plants are recreational opportunities that would occur... interpretation, hunting, fishing, trapping, and gathering wild edible plants are recreational opportunities that..., plant, and habitat conservation, while providing for wildlife-dependent recreation opportunities that...

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Caged Compounds. Srivathsa Vaidya. 32 And Gamow said, Let there be a Hot Universe. 50. Somak Raychaudhury. 44 George Gamow and the Genetic Code. Vidyanand Nanjundiah. 50 Deer Antlers. Rapid Growing Calcified Tissue. A Rajaram. FEATURE ARTICLES. 64 Propulsion of the Putt-Putt Boat - II. V Sharadha. 86.

  19. 76 FR 794 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... petrified wood, 2 bone artifacts, 1 worked antler, 2 discoidals, 3 cupreous metal fragments and 2 soil/shell... 1540, the De Soto expedition likely encountered the Taensa people in the vicinity of the Mangum site. In 1682, the de La Salle expedition documented the Taensa and Tunica in the same area. In 1706, the...

  20. Tissue engineered bone versus alloplastic commercial biomaterials in craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaciu, Ondine; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Băciuţ, G; Câmpian, R; Soriţău, Olga; Bran, S; Crişan, B; Crişan, Liana

    2010-01-01

    This research was developed in order to demonstrate the tissue engineering method as an alternative to conventional methods for bone reconstruction, in order to overcome the frequent failures of alloplastic commercial biomaterials, allografts and autografts. Tissue engineering is an in vitro method used to obtain cell based osteoinductive bone grafts. This study evaluated the feasibility of creating tissue-engineered bone using mesenchymal cells seeded on a scaffold obtained from the deciduous red deer antler. We have chosen mesenchymal stem cells because they are easy to obtain, capable to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal origin (osteoblasts) and to produce tissue such as bone. As scaffold, we have chosen the red deer antler because it has a high level of porosity. We conducted a case control study, on three groups of mice type CD1--two study groups (n=20) and a control group (n=20). For the study groups, we obtained bone grafts through tissue engineering, using mesenchymal stem cells seeded on the scaffold made of deciduous red deer antler. Bone defects were surgically induced on the left parietal bone of all subjects. In the control group, we grafted the bone defects with commercial biomaterials (OsteoSet, Wright Medical Technology, Inc., Arlington, Federal USA). Subjects were sacrificed at two and four months, the healing process was morphologically and histologically evaluated using descriptive histology and the golden standard - histological scoring. The grafts obtained in vivo through tissue engineering using adult stem cell, seeded on the scaffold obtained from the red deer antler using osteogenic medium have proven their osteogenic properties.

  1. Selection decisions among reindeer herders in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of breeding animals is a tool to improve the revenues in animal production. Information about selection practices and criteria are essential in assessing the possibilities for systematic selection schemes. Attitudes of reindeer herders towards use of selection in improving production were investigated by means of interviews. We interviewed the managers of reindeer herding cooperatives concerning their selection decisions. Fortyfive out of 56 managers answered to the semi-structured questionnaire. Among herding operations, selection of breeding animals was regarded by managers as critical for calf’s autumn weight and survival. The main selection criteria were calf’s health, vigour, body size and muscularity, dam or dam line, and maternal care. Hair quality and hair length were important as well, while such often quoted traits as antler characteristics, e.g. early shedding of antler velvet and thick antler bases, were unimportant. The results show that reindeer herders i acknowledge the importance and effects of selective breeding, and ii have empirical knowledge to list the most important selection criteria.

  2. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  3. Estudo de uma população relictual de veado-campeiro, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae no municipio da Lapa, Paraná, Brasil A relictual population study of pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Cervidae at Lapa, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Góss Braga Mauro de Moura-Britto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was studied between August 1996 and September 1997 at Fazenda Santa Maria (25º34' and 25º36'S, 49º46'and 49º49'W at Lapa, Paraná State. During that period we have collected information on feeding habits, group composition, time of the year for birth of youngsters and time for antlers change. The presence of the animal in the area was confirmed by the finding of vestiges and visual occurrences. Animais were observed feeding on young leaves of soya been (Glicine max, oat (Avenasaliva, ryegrass (Lolium mulliflorum and barley (Hordeum vulgare. Only one female was observed feeding on dry leaves. A stag was observed feeding on a barley ear. Group's average size was 1.5 individual. Stags/female proportion was 1: 0.96. Animais displaying velvet coated antlers were observed in June and July which is in accordance with literature about antlers change in a definite period restricted to winter. Only one youngster was observed in September 1996. It is believed that the species survive in the region despite human activities through adaptation of feeding habits with the introduction of agricultura! species. This population could disappear in a few years because of the small number of individuais and their isolation.

  4. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  5. On the dynamic behavior of mineralized tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulin, Robb Michael

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and antler, are complex hierarchical materials that have adapted over millennia to optimize strength and fracture resistance for their in vivo applications. As a structural support, skeletal bone primarily acts as a rigid framework that is resistant to fracture, and able to repair damage and adapt to sustained loads during its lifetime. Antler is typically deciduous and subjected to large bending moments and violent impacts during its annual cycle. To date, extensive characterization of the quasi-static mechanical properties of these materials has been performed. However, very little has been done to characterize their dynamic properties, despite the fact that the majority of failures in these materials occur under impact loads. Here, an in depth analysis of the dynamic mechanical behavior of these two materials is presented, using equine bone obtained post-mortem from donors ranging in age from 6 months to 28 years, and antler from the North American Elk. Specimens were tested under compressive strain rates of 10-3, 100, and 103 sec-1 in order to investigate their strain rate dependent compressive response. Fracture toughness experiments were performed using a four-point bending geometry on single and double-notch specimens in order to measure fracture toughness, as well as observe differences in crack propagation between dynamic (˜2x105 MPa˙m1/2/s) and quasi-static (˜0.25 MPa˙m1/2/s) loading rates. After testing, specimens were analyzed using a combination of optical, electron and confocal microscopy. Results indicated that the mechanical response of these materials is highly dependent on loading rate. Decreasing quasi-static fracture toughness is observed with age in bone specimens, while dynamic specimens show no age trends, yet universally decreased fracture toughness compared to those tested quasi-statically. For the first time, rising R-curve behavior in bone was also shown to exist under both quasi-static and dynamic

  6. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  7. Environmental Impact Statement for the Modernization and Enhancement of Ranges, Airspace, and Training Areas in the Joint Pacific Alaska Range Complex in Alaska. Volume 2 - Appendices A through L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    marine mammals, including sea otter , walrus, polar bear, dugong, and manatee. The MMPA generally assigns identical responsibilities to the...cetaceans (whales and dolphins), pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), and sea otters . Occasional sightings of sea turtles also occur there. Some of the...I - OR L One antlered bull by permit m•ailoble online 111 hlfn:/1/nm/.nlo.vka.gov and in R 9E pet ~~on in King Salmtm beginning No11 1ft RM271 Dec 1

  8. In situ tensile testing of nanofibers by combining atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Fei; Lu, Dun; Bailey, Russell J.; Jimenez-Palomar, Ines; Stachewicz, Urszula; Cortes-Ballesteros, Beatriz; Davies, Martin; Zech, Martin; Bödefeld, Christoph; Barber, Asa H.

    2011-09-01

    A nanomechanical testing set-up is developed by integrating an atomic force microscope (AFM) for force measurements with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provide imaging capabilities. Electrospun nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), nylon-6 and biological mineralized collagen fibrils (MCFs) from antler bone were manipulated and tensile-tested using the AFM-SEM set-up. The complete stress-strain behavior to failure of individual nanofibers was recorded and a diversity of mechanical properties observed, highlighting how this technique is able to elucidate mechanical behavior due to structural composition at nanometer length scales.

  9. Late Palaeolithic Nørre Lyngby - a northern outpost close to the west coast of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anders; Clemmensen, Lars B; Donahue, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater deposits exposed in a coastal cliff at Nørre Lyngby, NW Denmark, have yielded some of the northernmost traces of human presence in Western Europe during the Late Glacial. A rib from a reindeer bearing a cut mark has been dated to the climatically mild Allerød period. A robust projectile...... point of flint and an axe of reindeer antler, bearing zigzag ornamentation, are potentially of the same age. Wear marks indicate their use as a projectile tip and an axe, respectively. Botanical and faunal remains from the lake sediments indicate a colder climate and a significantly less treecovered...

  10. Archaeological Investigations at Site 45-DO-326, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Quartz Bone/antLer ATTRIBUITE Us: TMI0WIeSS 2 DentaL iuw Och re PRakeam thickness is taken at the Indeterminate thickest point on the object, excluding the...where this material type constitutes 58.6% of the total. Bone and antler artifacts are rare, and only one dental lum shell was recovered from Zone 1...flake size by materiall by zone, 45-DO-326. Size (in) by Zone materist Totat 1 2 3 4 Jasper M1/4 904 1,070 1,296 6S4 3,914 0/4 1 3 1 7 12 ChaLcedony

  11. [Trading of crude drugs between China and Russia as recorded in 3 Chinese versions of Russian works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaoping; Wang, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Trading of crude drugs between China and Russia appeared before the 19(th) century. By then, exports of Chinese crude drugs to Russia were mainly plants, with Radix et Rhizoma Rhei as the most exported one, followed by both dietary and medicinal aromatic plants, such as fennel, cinnamon bark, pepper, ginger, and Radix Angelica sinensis, and quinine. Imports of Russian drugs were mainly of animal ones, especially those valuable animals like musk sac. In 1854, the importation of a large amount of such sac, numbering as many as 70 000, was very remarkable. Other drugs included stag antler, tender horn of deer, demonstrating typically the regional and productive characteristics of Russia.

  12. Practical development of laboratory of biologics technology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine for the period 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Lugovska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of inventive activity of the Laboratory of Biologics Technology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NAS of Ukraine, under the leadership of Z.M.Datsenko, Cand.Sc. (Biol., during 1991-2010. The laboratory researchers have developed new technologies for production of medicines of lipid-protein nature, which are based on endogenous complexes of biologically active substances included in the composition of biomembranes of different origin. The researchers have created new technologies for drug PANTOCRINE (for injections and oral administration from antlers of deers and horns of farm animals that have significantly higher biological activity compared with the commercial drug. They have also created new biologically active drugs from antlers with a specific action: HIPPOCAMP, reducing blood pressure in various forms of hypertension, and PANTERON – biological regulator of synthesis of steroid hormones. Further the researchers have developed technologies for obtaining biologically active complexes of various specific action from marine organisms (calamari, clams mussels, shellfish: CALMOFIL and MOLUFIL, therapeutic agents for replacement therapy of surfactant system of the lungs; FILOMEK, the agent for prophylaxis and treatment of a human reproductive system disorders; MOLUSTERON, the glicolipopeptide complex, three individual physiologically active compositions being differentially obtained from the latter: lipopeptide composition – for treatment of hypertension, nucleopeptide one – for treatment of hormonal disorders, and phospholipid – for treatment of lung diseases under the surfactant shortage.

  13. {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichen and reindeer in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, NO-1332 Osteras (Norway)]. E-mail: lavrans.skuterud@nrpa.no; Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, NO-1332 Osteras (Norway); Gaare, Eldar [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, NO-7485 Trondheim (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Hove, Knut [Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NO-1432 As (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichen and reindeer were studied in central (Ostre Namdal) and southern Norway (Vaga) during 2000-2003. The study focussed on potential differences in concentrations of these nuclides in reindeer of different ages. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in bones of {approx}10 year old adult females were about 40% higher than those in calves' antlers ({sup 90}Sr concentrations in antlers and bones of calves are similar), while the available data from Vaga suggest that {sup 90}Sr concentrations in reindeer calves decreased with an effective ecological half-time of 9.03 {+-} 0.06 years during 1988-2002. Furthermore, {sup 90}Sr concentrations were 50-80% higher in bone of reindeer of a similar age from Vaga compared to those from Ostre Namdal. Concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in muscle and liver tissues were comparable to those reported for reindeer in other Nordic areas, with no significant difference in {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb concentrations between adults and calves or between reindeer from the two different study areas.

  14. Game species: extinction hidden by census numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Management of game species may involve a risk of alteration of their genetic properties. Local adaptations may be disrupted if artificially selected individuals from farms or those belonging to distant geographical areas are introduced to increase population density or trophy ‘quality’. In Spain, red deer (Cervus elaphus from different European subspecies have been introduced to increase the size of trophies (antlers of local populations. Legislation against these introductions is not effective for various reasons, and once the individuals are in the Iberian peninsula it is virtually impossible to prevent their spreading throughout the whole territory without a genetic tool to distinguish between autochthonous and foreign specimens. We have developed such a genetic test and propose a strategy to dissuade land-owners from importing foreign deer. Since deer are bred mainly for their antlers, our strategy is based on an agreement with the National Trophy Body in Spain which rejects trophies from foreign populations. Rejection decreases the value of the trophy so that it becomes more profitable to produce autochthonous deer. Using such a strategy at some critical step in the production or commercialisation process may be a good model to apply in protecting genetic properties of exploited species.

  15. The ontogenetic osteohistology of Tenontosaurus tilletti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Werning

    Full Text Available Tenontosaurus tilletti is an ornithopod dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian Cloverly and Antlers formations of the Western United States. It is represented by a large number of specimens spanning a number of ontogenetic stages, and these specimens have been collected across a wide geographic range (from central Montana to southern Oklahoma. Here I describe the long bone histology of T. tilletti and discuss histological variation at the individual, ontogenetic and geographic levels. The ontogenetic pattern of bone histology in T. tilletti is similar to that of other dinosaurs, reflecting extremely rapid growth early in life, and sustained rapid growth through sub-adult ontogeny. But unlike other iguanodontians, this dinosaur shows an extended multi-year period of slow growth as skeletal maturity approached. Evidence of termination of growth (e.g., an external fundamental system is observed in only the largest individuals, although other histological signals in only slightly smaller specimens suggest a substantial slowing of growth later in life. Histological differences in the amount of remodeling and the number of lines of arrested growth varied among elements within individuals, but bone histology was conservative across sampled individuals of the species, despite known paleoenvironmental differences between the Antlers and Cloverly formations. The bone histology of T. tilletti indicates a much slower growth trajectory than observed for other iguanodontians (e.g., hadrosaurids, suggesting that those taxa reached much larger sizes than Tenontosaurus in a shorter time.

  16. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin".

  17. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  18. Constrained √(S-circumflex{sub min}) and reconstructing with semi-invisible production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Abhaya Kumar; Konar, Partha [Theoretical Physics Group, Physical Research Laboratory (PRL),Ahmedabad, Gujarat - 380 009 (India)

    2015-03-26

    Mass variable √(S-circumflex{sub min}) and its variants (http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2009/03/085, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2011)041) were constructed by minimising the parton level center of mass energy that is consistent with all inclusive measurements. They were proposed to have the ability to measure mass scale of new physics in a fully model independent way. In this work we relax the criteria by assuming the availability of partial informations of new physics events and thus constraining this mass variable even further. Starting with two different classes of production topology, i.e. antler and non-antler, we demonstrate the usefulness of these variables to constrain the unknown masses. This discussion is illustrated with different examples, from the standard model Higgs production and beyond standard model resonance productions leading to semi-invisible production. We also utilise these constrains to reconstruct the semi-invisible events with the momenta of invisible particles and thus improving the measurements to reveal the properties of new physics.

  19. Public health impact of fallout from British nuclear weapons tests in Australia, 1952-1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.; Moroney, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    During the period 1952-1957, Britain conducted 12 full-scale nuclear weapons tests in Australia in five series, viz. Hurricane(1952), Totem(1953), Mosaic(1956), Buffalo(1956) and Antler(1957). Radioactive fallout from the tests reached many parts of Australia. This report reviews the pathways by which the radionuclides in the fallout could have irradiated the population. The methodology is presented for estimating the radiation doses and values are derived from the available data. The possible effect that the radiation exposure had on public health is assessed. Estimation of the radiation doses is approached in two parts: (a) the contributions from the Mosaic, Buffalo and Antler series which were monitored, and (b) the contributions from the Hurricane and Totem series for which there are few fallout data. In part (a), the activities of the radionuclides making up the measured fallout are established by calculation. Standard models are then used to derive the radiation doses for the population centres - from external radiation, from ingestion of radionuclides in food and from inhalation of radionuclides in air. A simple treatment is adopted to estimate radiation doses from drinking contaminated water. For Part (b), the data assembled in (a) provide the basis for developing statistical models for predicting radiation doses from weapon yields and trajectories of the radioactive clouds. The models are then applied to give the radiation doses to population centres following the tests in Hurricane and Totem, using their yields and trajectories. 71 refs., 20 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Geologic map of the Lower Valley quadrangle, Caribou County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlindacher, H. Peter; Hovland, R. David; Miller, Susan T.; Evans, James G.; Miller, Robert J.

    2018-04-05

    The Lower Valley 7.5-minute quadrangle, located in the core of the Southeast Idaho Phosphate Resource Area, includes Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary rocks, Pliocene to Pleistocene basalt, and Tertiary to Holocene surficial deposits. The Mississippian to Triassic marine sedimentary sequence was deposited on a shallow shelf between an emergent craton to the east and the Antler orogenic belt to the west. The Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Permian Phosphoria Formation hosts high-grade deposits of phosphate that were the subject of geologic studies through much of the 20th century. Open-pit mining of the phosphate has been underway within and near the Lower Valley quadrangle for several decades.

  1. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  2. Interpretation of the Last Chance thrust, Death Valley region, California, as an Early Permian décollement in a previously undeformed shale basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The Last Chance thrust, discontinuously exposed over an area of at least 2500 km2 near the south end of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt in the Death Valley region of east-central California, is controversial because of its poorly constrained age and its uncertain original geometry and extent. We interpret this thrust to be Early Permian in age, to extend throughout a sedimentary basin in which deep-water Mississippian shale overlain by Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian limestone turbidites accumulated, to represent about 30 km of eastward displacement, and to be related to convergence on a northeast-trending segment of the Early Permian continental margin. Last Chance deformation occurred between the times of the Antler and Sonoma orogenies of Late Devonian–Early Mississippian and Late Permian ages, respectively, and followed Early to Middle Pennsylvanian truncation of the continental margin by transform faulting.

  3. Production of Ginkgo leaf-shaped basidiocarps of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes), containing high levels of α- and β-D-glucan and ganoderic acid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Yuka; Miyazaki, Minoru; Okita, Noriyasu; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderic acid A and α- and β-D-glucan content were compared among morphologically different basidiocarps of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Ginkgo leaf-shaped basidiocarps gradually hardened from the base to the pileus and accumulated a higher amount of bioactive components than normal (kidney-shaped) and antler/deer horn-shaped basidiocarps. In the normal G. lucidum stipe, the outer context contained the highest amount of α- and β-D-glucan (approximately 55%) and the highest amount of ganoderic acid A (approximately 0.3%). Ginkgo leaf-shaped G. lucidum had a large area of outer layer and stout outer context, which contributed to their high α- and β-D-glucan and ganoderic acid A content.

  4. Sexually selected traits evolve positive allometry when some matings occur irrespective of the trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-05-01

    Positive allometry of secondary sexual traits (whereby larger individuals have disproportionally larger traits than smaller individuals) has been called one of the most pervasive and poorly understood regularities in the study of animal form and function. Its widespread occurrence is in contrast with theoretical predictions that it should evolve only under rather special circumstances. Using a combination of mathematical modeling and simulations, here we show that positive allometry is predicted to evolve under much broader conditions than previously recognized. This result hinges on the assumption that mating success is not necessarily zero for males with the lowest trait values: for example, a male who lacks horns or antlers might still be able to copulate if encountering an unguarded female. We predict the strongest positive allometry when males typically (but not always) compete in large groups, and when trait differences decisively determine the outcome of competitive interactions. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. White and Breitborde's French Paleolithic Collections of the Logan Museum of Anthropology. 1992. Logan Museum Bulletin (new series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thacker

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available At some point in their training, most Paleolithic archaeologists succumb to the almost spiritual pull of the French Perigord and undertake the pilgrimage. While today's prehistorians visit numerous French museums and are able to purchase a spectrum of teaching aids from artifact replicas to CD-ROM images of rockshelter exca­vations, the situation facing Alonzo Pond and George Collie in the early 1920's was quite different. During the seminal years of Beloit College's Department of Anthropology, Pond and Collie acquired over 20,000 Pale­olithic artifacts from both a network of professional and amateur archaeologists in France, and limited excava­ tion projects. This collection, consisting of stone artifacts, bone tools, worked shell, antler, and ivory, and even engraved plaquettes and Azillian pebbles, is the subject of French Paleolithic Collections of the Logan Museum of Anthropology.

  6. Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toïgo, Carole; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Loison, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. Following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. Evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. Individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus have a greater capacity to survive. We investigated trade-offs between male early horn growth and future horn growth, baseline mortality, onset of actuarial senescence, and rate of ageing in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) population. Horn growth of males in early life was positively correlated to their horn length throughout their entire life. Cohort variation and individual heterogeneity both accounted for among-individual variation in horn length, suggesting both long-lasting effects of early life conditions and individual-specific horn growth trajectories. Early horn growth did not influence annual survival until 12 years of age, indicating that males do not invest in horn growth at survival costs over most of their lifetime. However, males with fast-growing horns early in life tended to have lower survival at very old ages. Individual heterogeneity, along with the particular life-history tactic of male ibex (weak participation to the rut until an old age after which they burn out in high mating investment), are likely to explain why the expected trade-off between horn growth and survival does not show up, at least until very old ages.

  7. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  8. Neuroprotective action of deer bone extract against glutamate or Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho Rong; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Shin, Suk Kyung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-02-01

    Water extracts of deer bone, called nokgol in Korean, and deer antlers have been traditionally used as anti-aging medicines. Deer antler extract is known to possess various activities, including anti-aging or anti-amnesic activity. However, there are no reports about the neuroprotective effect of deer bone extract (DBE). The objective of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of DBE on glutamate-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells (HT-22 cells) and to elucidate the mode of neuroprotective action of DBE. In this study, HT-22 cells was pretreated with DBE before stimulation with glutamate, and then, the effects of DBE on cell viability, oxidative stress markers, and MAP kinases were determined. Separately, the effect of DBE on H₂O₂ or amyloid beta peptide (1-42) (Aβ₁₋₄₂)-induced cytotoxicity of HT-22 cells was evaluated. DBE protected HT-22 cells from glutamate-induced cell death and prevented the increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage in HT-22 cells. DBE also prevented glutamate-induced oxidative stress, as indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation as well as by decreases in glutathione (GSH) levels and GSH peroxidase activity. In addition, DBE inhibited glutamate-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, indicators of oxidative stress-induced cell death. Furthermore, DBE also protected against H₂O₂ and Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that DBE may be a useful functional agent for the prevention against neurodegenerative disorders involving oxidative stress.

  9. Middle Devonian-Mississippian stratigraphy on and near the Nevada Test Site: Implications for hydrocarbon potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, J.H.; Cole, J.C.; Cashman, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Paleozoic strata on the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area are affected by the intersection of several important geologic trends, including the early Paleozoic rift margin and the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Antler orogenic foredeep. Upper Paleozoic strata are lithologically diverse and include siliciclastic sediments (carbonaceous shale, clean quartzose sands, bedded chert, and chert-lithic conglomerate and sand) and various carbonates. These are interpreted to have been deposited in a range of environments and water depths. The resulting complex stratigraphy with its dramatic vertical and lateral changes is difficult to correlate, even between nearby surface and subsurface sections. Our detailed stratigraphic studies on and near the Nevada Test Site show that at least three distinct, and largely coeval, Mississippian facies assemblages can be recognized. When dated, correlated, and restored to their original relative geographic positions, these sections allow a new reconstruction of the Devonian and Mississippian geologic history that includes (1) delineation of the Antler foredeep basin and its clastic fill, (2) description of the muddy marginal shelf that lay inboard of the foredeep, and (3) correlation from that shelf to the outer fringes of the carbonate platform that characterizes the edge of the Mississippian epicontinental sea. The position and delineation of the muddominated marginal shelf environment is particularly important because shales deposited under such conditions elsewhere in the Great Basin are the hydrocarbon source rocks for the Pine Valley and Railroad Valley oil fields. On the Nevada Test Site, Mississippian shale probably generated hydrocarbons in the past, and still has an organic content and a thermal history appropriate for generating hydrocarbons.

  10. Accessing camera trap survey feasibility for estimating Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique F. Peres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Demographic information is the basis for evaluating and planning conservation strategies for an endangered species. However, in numerous situations there are methodological or financial limitations to obtain such information for some species. The marsh deer, an endangered Neotropical cervid, is a challenging species to obtain biological information. To help achieve such aims, the study evaluated the applicability of camera traps to obtain demographic information on the marsh deer compared to the traditional aerial census method. Fourteen camera traps were installed for three months on the Capão da Cruz floodplain, in state of São Paulo, and ten helicopter flyovers were made along a 13-kilometer trajectory to detect resident marsh deer. In addition to counting deer, the study aimed to identify the sex, age group and individual identification of the antlered males recorded. Population estimates were performed using the capture-mark-recapture method with the camera trap data and by the distance sampling method for aerial observation data. The costs and field efforts expended for both methodologies were calculated and compared. Twenty independent photographic records and 42 sightings were obtained and generated estimates of 0.98 and 1.06 ind/km², respectively. In contrast to the aerial census, camera traps allowed us to individually identify branch-antlered males, determine the sex ratio and detect fawns in the population. The cost of camera traps was 78% lower but required 20 times more field effort. Our analysis indicates that camera traps present a superior cost-benefit ratio compared to aerial surveys, since they are more informative, cheaper and offer simpler logistics. Their application extends the possibilities of studying a greater number of populations in a long-term monitoring.

  11. The first complete skeleton of Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 Cervidae, Mammalia, from Bilshausen (Lower Saxony, Germany: description and phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pfeiffer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first well preserved, articulated skeleton of a young male deer of Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 was excavated from early Middle Pleistocene sediments of the clay pit of Bilshausen (Unter-Eichsfeld, Lower Saxony. This find made it possible, for the first time, to establish, using cladistic techniques, the systematic position of Megaloceros verticornis among Pleistocene and Holocene plesiometacarpal and telemetacarpal cervids. By contrast to the antler and tooth characters, the postcranial characters, in particular, are suitable for phylogeny reconstruction. Megaloceros verticornis from Bilshausen shows great similarity with M. giganteus of the Upper Pleistocene of Europe in its skeletal morphology, and bootstrap values (BP = 100 show strong support for the monophyly of M. giganteus and M. verticornis. The analysis yields no evidence, however, of a close relationship between Dama and Megaloceros, which has been widely discussed in the literature because of the presence of large, palmated antlers in both genera. Aus der Tongrube von Bilshausen (Unter-Eichsfeld, Niedersachsen konnte das erste, vollständige Skelett eines jugen Hirsches von Megaloceros verticornis (Dawkins, 1868 aus mittelpleistozänen Sedimentablagerungen geborgen werden. Dieser Fund ermöglichte es erstmalig, die systematische Stellung von Megaloceros verticornis im System plesiometacarpaler und telemetacarpaler Hirsche des Pleistozäns und Holozäns auf breiter Basis zu untersuchen. Im Gegensatz zu den Geweih- und Zahnmerkmalen eignen sich die postcranialen Merkmale des Skelettes besonders gut für eine phylogenetische Rekonstruktion der Hirsche. Die Gemeinsamkeit Großer Schaufelgeweihe bei Dama dama und dem Riesenhirsch Megaloceros giganteus hat dazu geführt, beide in eine enge phylogenetische Beziehung zu setzen, was in der Literatur zu einer anhaltenden Kontroverse geführt hat. Die Analyse der Morphologie der postcranialen Elemente zeigt jedoch, dass es keine

  12. Initial Magdalenian artifact assemblages in El Mirón cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, Spain: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence GUY STRAUS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El Mirón Cave, in the Cantabrian Cordillera near the border between Cantabria and Vizcaya, contains a long sequence of radiocarbon-dated Magdalenian and Azilian levels. Lying between a series of Solutrean levels and a major, multi-level horizon pertaining to the classic Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian –CLM–, are several layers dating between c. 17-16 uncal. kya –c. 20.5-19 cal. kya– and lacking traditional hallmarks of the CLM –e.g., scapulae with striation engraved images of hinds and other ungulates, square section antler points with complex geometric (‘tectiform’ engravings–. In these Initial Magdalenian –IM– levels, both microliths –mainly backed bladelets– and macroliths –sidescrapers, denticulates, notches– are well represented; the former are made on non-local, high-quality flint and the latter on local, non-flint materials –quartzite, mudstone, limestone–. Large, often round-section antler points –mostly undecorated– are present, together with bone needles and awls. In several respects, however, there is evidence of industrial continuity among the Solutrean, Initial –‘Archaic’– Magdalenian and Lower Magdalenian assemblages, with no hint of a Badegoulian component in the original French sense of the term –i.e., essentially there are no raclettes or transversal burins–. The presence of many “archaic” –‘substrate’, ‘Mousteroid’– tools is a constant in many Cantabrian Upper Paleolithic sites and El Mirón is no exception. This can be explained by site-functional and lithological factors, without recourse to the deus ex machina of extra-Iberian ‘cultures’.

  13. Habitat, wildlife, and one health: Arcanobacterium pyogenes in Maryland and Upper Eastern Shore white-tailed deer populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Turner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the distribution of disease in wildlife is key to predicting the impact of emerging zoonotic one health concerns, especially for wildlife species with extensive human and livestock interfaces. The widespread distribution and complex interactions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with humans suggest deer population health and management may have implications beyond stewardship of the animals. The intracranial abscessation suppurative meningitis (IASM disease complex in deer has been linked to Arcanobacterium pyogenes, an under-diagnosed and often misdiagnosed organism considered commensal in domestic livestock but associated with serious disease in numerous species, including humans. Methods: Our study used standard bacterial culture techniques to assess A. pyogenes prevalence among male deer sampled across six physiogeographic regions in Maryland and male and female deer in the Upper Eastern Shore under Traditional Deer Management (TDM and Quality Deer Management (QDM, a management protocol that alters population demographics in favor of older male deer. Samples were collected from antler pedicles for males, the top of the head where pedicles would be if present for females, or the whole dorsal frontal area of the head for neonates. We collected nasal samples from all animals by swabbing the nasopharyngeal membranes. A gram stain and catalase test were conducted, and aerobic bacteria were identified to genus and species when possible. We evaluated the effect of region on whether deer carried A. pyogenes using Pearson's chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction. For the white-tailed deer management study, we tested whether site, age class and sex predisposed animals to carrying A. pyogenes using binary logistic regression. Results: A. pyogenes was detected on deer in three of the 6 regions studied, and was common in only one region, the Upper Eastern Shore. In the Upper Eastern Shore, 45% and 66% of

  14. The Role of Museums in Recovery From Disaster: The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudo Ken‘ichi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku was founded in 1974 as an Inter-University Research Institute housing a museum and graduate school. A museum is more than a place to store intangible and tangible heritage. Along with its responsibility for conserving and passing on cultural materials, it also creates new culture. On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by an earthquake and tsunami of unprecedented proportions. From one month after the disaster, conservation experts from Minpaku participated in the rescue of tangible cultural resources for the period of eight months. At the same time, our disaster response team worked with village residents in damaged localities, assisting their efforts to replace costumes and ornaments for traditional performing arts that had been washed out to sea, or to repair damaged lion heads, to aid in reviving traditional performing arts. We had thought that, in the process of revival and recovery, the re-launch of festivals and traditional performing arts would come later than the construction of the homes and livelihoods of the local people. In one case, Minpaku, based on its research, was able to provide deer antlers for the headdresses needed to revive the deer dance, an intangible cultural heritage of a village in Iwate Prefecture. Village elders worked the antlers we donated, restored the costumes, and within a year were able to produce ten full sets of costumes. Subsequently, the deer dance was performed in village after village to calm the spirits of the dead, ward off evil spirits, and restore the confidence of people afflicted by the disaster. In this way, a traditional performing art contributed to the revival and rebuilding of the affected communities. In another village the repair and restoration of stone lions’ heads and providing aid for refugees from the disaster were further other examples of organized activity carried out in connection with the traditional performing arts. In sum, our experience

  15. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  16. An Atlas of Medieval Combs from Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Ashby

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As an aid to understanding chronology, economics, identity and culture contact, the early medieval bone/antler hair-comb is an under-exploited resource, despite the existence of an extensive literature borne out of a long-standing tradition of empirical research. Such research has been undertaken according to diverse traditions, is scattered amongst site reports and grey literature, regional, national, and international journals, and is published in a number of different languages. The present article provides a general synthesis of this data, together with the author's personal research, situated within a broad view of chronology and geography. It presents the author's classification of early medieval composite combs, and applies this in a review of comb typology in space and time. It makes use of recently excavated material from little-known and unpublished sites, as well as the classic studies of familiar towns and 'emporia'. The atlas is intended for use as a reference piece that may be accessed according to need, and read in a non-linear fashion. Thus, it may act as a first port-of-call for scholars researching the material culture of a particular spatio-temporal context, while simultaneously facilitating rapid characterisation of freshly excavated finds material. It should provide a useful complement to recent and ongoing question-oriented research on combs.

  17. The ameliorating effect of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol on scopolamine-induced memory impairment via acetylcholinesterase inhibition and LTP activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Boseong; Park, Hye Jin; Zhang, Jiabao; Kwon, Yubeen; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol (PLAG), a component of antlers of Cervus nippon Temminck, would have memory-ameliorating properties against cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. In the passive avoidance task to investigate the effects of PLAG on long-term memory, PLAG (10mg/kg, p.o.) administration ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. PLAG also reversed the impairments of working memory in the Y-maze task and spatial memory as shown in the Morris water maze. To identify the mechanism of the memory-ameliorating effect of PLAG, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay and the Western blot analysis were conducted. In the AChE inhibition assay, PLAG inhibited the AChE activity in mice and PLAG increased the expression levels of phosphorylated CaMKII, ERK, and CREB in the hippocampus. Additionally, long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength occurred by PLAG treatment in the hippocampal cultures. Overall, the present study suggests that PLAG reversed memory deficits in an animal model and that it affects biochemical pathways related to learning and memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  19. Neolithisation of technology: innovation and tradition in the Starčevo culture osseous industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Vitezović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The earliest Neolithic cultures in Southeast Europe brought significant changes in many aspects of everyday life, in subsistence, settlement patterns, architecture, and also ritual aspects. Technological changes are also very important – the introduction of completely new technologies, such as clay working, or new techniques in existing industries, e.g., lithic, osseous, etc. The osseous industry is especially informative for questions on innovations and traditions, since it was well developed in both the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods. In Starčevo culture, certain Mesolithic traditions may be observed, such as techniques for antler manufacture; however, numerous innovations are also visible, particularly techno-types of Near Eastern origin such as spatula-spoons, the most characteristic bone techno-type of the Early Neolithic in South-east Europe, as well as diverse decorative items. Furthermore, new raw materials (bones from domestic animals are introduced, and new techniques for manufacture and new tools. It is also interesting to observe that, although osseous materials remain the dominant raw material for personal ornaments, they are no longer used for artistic expression.

  20. Regional analysis of spiculite faunas in the permian phosphoria basin: Implications for paleoceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchey, Benita L.

    2004-01-01

    The sponge spiculites of the Permian Phosphoria basin, Antler high, and eastern Havallah basin were the southernmost expression of one of the largest spiculite belts in the Earth's history. This spiculite belt extended from Nevada to the Barents Sea. In Idaho and Nevada, the spicule populations of this belt are dominated by demosponge spicules and are distinctive for their abundant rhax microscleres, large monaxons, and lithistid desmas. They form an Eastern Belt of spiculites that interfingers with spicule assemblages derived from choristid demosponges and hexactinellids that lived along the eastern margin of the deeper Havallah basin. The Havallah basin assemblages are similar to those in Permian arc terranes to the west, and together the sponge populations in this domain constitute a dis- tinct Central Belt. Radiolarians are virtually absent in the siliceous microfossil populations of the Eastern Belt, abundant in the populations of the Central Belt, and dominant in the populations of a Western Belt confined to Mesozoic accretionary complexes in the Pacific Coast States. The scattered sponge spicules in the Western Belt radiolarites were derived from hexactinellids.

  1. Selective harvest focused on sexual signal traits can lead to extinction under directional environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Robert J; Martínez-Ruiz, Carlos

    2017-12-13

    Humans commonly harvest animals based on their expression of secondary sexual traits such as horns or antlers. This selective harvest is thought to have little effect on harvested populations because offtake rates are low and usually only the males are targeted. These arguments do not, however, take the relationship between secondary sexual trait expression and animal condition into account: there is increasing evidence that in many cases the degree of expression of such traits is correlated with an animal's overall well-being, which is partly determined by their genetic match to the environment. Using an individual-based model, we find that when there is directional environmental change, selective harvest of males with the largest secondary sexual traits can lead to extinction in otherwise resilient populations. When harvest is not selective, the males best suited to a new environment gain the majority of matings and beneficial alleles spread rapidly. When these best-adapted males are removed, however, their beneficial alleles are lost, leading to extinction. Given the current changes happening globally, these results suggest that trophy hunting and other cases of selective harvest (such as certain types of insect collection) should be managed with extreme care whenever populations are faced with changing conditions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Cloning from stem cells: different lineages, different species, same story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Following nuclear transfer (NT), the most stringent measure of extensive donor cell reprogramming is development into viable offspring. This is referred to as cloning efficiency and quantified as the proportion of cloned embryos transferred into surrogate mothers that survive into adulthood. Cloning efficiency depends on the ability of the enucleated recipient cell to carry out the reprogramming reactions ('reprogramming ability') and the ability of the nuclear donor cell to be reprogrammed ('reprogrammability'). It has been postulated that reprogrammability of the somatic donor cell epigenome is inversely proportional to its differentiation status. In order to test this hypothesis, reprogrammability was compared between undifferentiated stem cells and their differentiated isogenic progeny. In the mouse, cells of divergent differentiation status from the neuronal, haematopoietic and skin epithelial lineage were tested. In cattle and deer, skeletal muscle and antler cells, respectively, were used as donors. No conclusive correlation between differentiation status and cloning efficiency was found, indicating that somatic donor cell type may not be the limiting factor for cloning success. This may reflect technical limitations of the NT-induced reprogramming assay. Alternatively, differentiation status and reprogrammability may be unrelated, making all cells equally difficult to reprogramme once they have left the ground state of pluripotency.

  3. Observations of the third instar larva and puparium of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Piangjai, S; Boonsriwong, W; Bunchu, N; Ngern-klun, R; Vogtsberger, R C; Sukontason, K

    2006-11-01

    Observations on the ultrastructure of the third instar larva and puparium of the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are presented utilizing both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of this study indicate that the shape of the intersegmental spines between the pro- and mesothorax markedly differ from other blow fly species (Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Lucilia cuprina) in being broad-based with sharp recurved tips. Other characters such as the posterior spiracles, number of papillae on the anterior spiracles, oral grooves, and posterior spiracular hairs also differ. The strong and robust mouthhooks may explain the ability of larvae to penetrate deeply into human tissues. Perforated sieve plates covered with antler-like projections were observed within the anterior spiracles of the puparium of C. bezziana. The posterior spiracular discs each bear three spiracular slits with approximately 2-microm wide openings that were viewed either open or closed by a membrane underneath. This study expands our knowledge of the fine details of the external morphology of both the third instar larva and puparium of C. bezziana, which is an obligatory myiasis-producing species in many regions. A key to differentiate the third instar of C. bezziana from other blow flies in Thailand is given.

  4. Evolutionary trade-off between vocal tract and testes dimensions in howler monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jacob C; Halenar, Lauren B; Davies, Thomas G; Cristobal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Reby, David; Sykes, Dan; Dengg, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-11-02

    Males often face a trade-off between investments in precopulatory and postcopulatory traits [1], particularly when male-male contest competition determines access to mates [2]. To date, studies of precopulatory strategies have largely focused on visual ornaments (e.g., coloration) or weapon morphology (e.g., antlers, horns, and canines). However, vocalizations can also play an important role in both male competition and female choice [3-5]. We investigated variation in vocal tract dimensions among male howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), which produce loud roars using a highly specialized and greatly enlarged hyoid bone and larynx [6]. We examined the relative male investment in hyoids and testes among howler monkey species in relation to the level of male-male competition and analyzed the acoustic consequences of variation in hyoid morphology. Species characterized by single-male groups have large hyoids and small testes, suggesting high levels of vocally mediated competition. Larger hyoids lower formant frequencies, probably increasing the acoustic impression of male body size and playing a role analogous to investment in large body size or weaponry. Across species, as the number of males per group increases, testes volume also increases, indicating higher levels of postcopulatory sperm competition, while hyoid volume decreases. These results provide the first evidence of an evolutionary trade-off between investment in precopulatory vocal characteristics and postcopulatory sperm production. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K.; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T.; Luepold, Shannon H. Buckley; Belote, John M.; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  6. Age-Related Patterns in Trace Element Content Vary Between Bone and Teeth of the European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesko, Jan; Markowski, Janusz; Słaba, Mirosława; Hejduk, Janusz; Minias, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    Game animals, such as the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), have long been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. Most ecotoxicological research on ungulates has focused on trace element content in soft tissues and antlers. Also, only fragmentary information exists about whether and how trace element concentrations vary with the age of wild-living animals and whether these age-related patterns are similar for different types of tissues. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of seven trace metals (barium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, strontium, zinc) and fluoride in bone and teeth of roe deer and to determine whether significant variation is evident with individual age. For this purpose, we collected permanent molars and fragments of mandible bone from more than 130 female roe deer in Central Poland. We found that concentrations of four trace elements (barium, manganese, zinc, and fluoride) in teeth of deer showed positive linear relationships with individual age. No such trends were recorded for trace element content in bone. We suggest that these striking differences in age-related patterns of trace element bioaccumulation between bone and permanent teeth of roe deer might be explained by higher turnover rate and constant remodelling of bone tissue. The results suggest that analysis of permanent teeth may be useful for assessing throughout-life intoxication by environmental pollution in the roe deer and possibly in other mammal species. Our study reinforces the need to carefully account for age-related variation in ecotoxicological research on wild-living animals.

  7. Surface ultrastrucure of larva and puparia of blow fly Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Samerjai, Chutharat; Sontigun, Narin; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-12-01

    Flies of the genus Hypopygiopsis are forensically important, as their larvae are found to associate with human corpses. In this study, the ultrastructure of larvae and puparia of Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi is presented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The larvae are vermiform-shaped, creamy white, and have a smooth integument. The pseudocephalon of larvae bears sensory structures, i.e., antenna, maxillary palpus, and ventral organ. Two tufts of fresh outgrowths (or cerri) were observed along the dorsal margin of the mouth opening of the first instar; whereas a strong mouth hook was apparent in the second and third instars. Keilin's organ, the sensory structure, was noticeable on the ventral surface of the thoracic segments in all instars. In the second and third instars, six conspicuous tubercles were present along the peripheral rims of the last abdominal segment. The puparia were relatively large, measuring 7.77-9.51 mm in length and 3.10-3.97 mm in width. At the latero-dorsal edge of the first abdominal segment, a cluster of ~125 bubble membranes was seen in young puparia; whereas a minute pupal respiratory horn was observed in old one. An SEM image revealed antler-like projections lined within a chamber of a broken pupal respiratory horn. Comparison on number of the bubble membranes of the other blow fly species was shown and the role of pupal respiratory horn compared with other dipterans was discussed.

  8. Chronology of the Grotte du Renne (France) and implications for the context of ornaments and human remains within the Châtelperronian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Thomas; Jacobi, Roger; Julien, Michèle; David, Francine; Basell, Laura; Wood, Rachel; Davies, William; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk

    2010-11-23

    There is extensive debate concerning the cognitive and behavioral adaptation of Neanderthals, especially in the period when the earliest anatomically modern humans dispersed into Western Europe, around 35,000-40,000 B.P. The site of the Grotte du Renne (at Arcy-sur-Cure) is of great importance because it provides the most persuasive evidence for behavioral complexity among Neanderthals. A range of ornaments and tools usually associated with modern human industries, such as the Aurignacian, were excavated from three of the Châtelperronian levels at the site, along with Neanderthal fossil remains (mainly teeth). This extremely rare occurrence has been taken to suggest that Neanderthals were the creators of these items. Whether Neanderthals independently achieved this level of behavioral complexity and whether this was culturally transmitted or mimicked via incoming modern humans has been contentious. At the heart of this discussion lies an assumption regarding the integrity of the excavated remains. One means of testing this is by radiocarbon dating; however, until recently, our ability to generate both accurate and precise results for this period has been compromised. A series of 31 accelerator mass spectrometry ultrafiltered dates on bones, antlers, artifacts, and teeth from six key archaeological levels shows an unexpected degree of variation. This suggests that some mixing of material may have occurred, which implies a more complex depositional history at the site and makes it difficult to be confident about the association of artifacts with human remains in the Châtelperronian levels.

  9. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  10. Cervicornus wenshanensis, gen. et sp. nov, a Pragian (Early Devonian) plant with forked leaves from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Hueber

    2000-04-01

    Cervicornus wenshanensis gen. et sp. nov. is described from compressions of leaf-bearing, vegetative stems of Pragian age (Early Devonian). Stelar anatomy is not preserved. The plant is described as herbaceous with leaves arranged in openly spaced helices. The distal portion of each of the leaves is divided three times, resulting in eight segments resembling the antler of a deer. The arrangement and morphology of the leaves suggest a possible relationship with the lycopsid family Protolepidodendraceae in which, among the genera, the leaves are helically arranged and variously divided. Additionally, the members of the family are united on the basis of stelar anatomy and the presence of sporangia. Neither of the latter characteristics, which are essential to the unequivocal assignment to the family, are preserved in Cervicornus. The genus is a noteworthy morphological variant among Devonian plants, but the arrangement of the leaves and their morphology cannot be used alone to infer an affinity with a taxon of higher rank. As with many other fragmentary paleobotanical entities, lacking sufficient definitive characteristics and awaiting discovery and description of additional specimens, we have proposed a classification of this new genus and species as incertae sedis.

  11. Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. These materials are of the special significance because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and dear antlers and pathological (i.e. those appearing due to various diseases calcified tissues of mammals. Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates. For example, self-setting hydraulic cements made of calcium orthophosphates are helpful in bone repair, while titanium substitutes covered by a surface layer of calcium orthophosphates are used for hip joint endoprostheses and as tooth substitutes. Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. In addition, technical grade calcium orthophosphates are very popular mineral fertilizers. Thus ere calcium orthophosphates are of great significance for humankind and, in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided.

  12. Evidence of combat in triceratops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull.We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns, for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002, but not in other cranial bones (P > 0.20.This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head.

  13. Body measurements and testosteron level of male Timor deer (Rusa timorensis at various hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Samsudewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe body (neck, chest and scrotum circumferences and testosterone level of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer reared under captivity after establisment of the dominance hierarchy. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41 kg body weight and in same antler stages were used in this research. The bucks was grouped into three stall each containing four bucks. ELISA kit and tape measurements were used for plasma Testosterone assay and body measurement, respectively. Data was collected before and 43 days after establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was used. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed no significantly different for body circumferences (neck, chest, scrotum and testosterone level of male Timor deer before establishment of dominance hierarchy. Chest and scrotum circumferences of male Timor deer after establihment of dominance hierarchy showed no significantly different. Significantly difference shown on parameter neck circumference (P<0.05; χ2 = 8.74 and testosteron level (P<0.05; χ2 = 7.87 after establishment of dominance hierarchy. In conclusion, dominance hierarchy affected the testosterone level and body measurement.

  14. A linear-encoding model explains the variability of the target morphology in regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Solano, Mauricio; Bubenik, George A.; Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of today's molecular genetics paradigm is that complex morphology emerges from the combined activity of low-level processes involving proteins and nucleic acids. An inherent characteristic of such nonlinear encodings is the difficulty of creating the genetic and epigenetic information that will produce a given self-assembling complex morphology. This ‘inverse problem’ is vital not only for understanding the evolution, development and regeneration of bodyplans, but also for synthetic biology efforts that seek to engineer biological shapes. Importantly, the regenerative mechanisms in deer antlers, planarian worms and fiddler crabs can solve an inverse problem: their target morphology can be altered specifically and stably by injuries in particular locations. Here, we discuss the class of models that use pre-specified morphological goal states and propose the existence of a linear encoding of the target morphology, making the inverse problem easy for these organisms to solve. Indeed, many model organisms such as Drosophila, hydra and Xenopus also develop according to nonlinear encodings producing linear encodings of their final morphologies. We propose the development of testable models of regeneration regulation that combine emergence with a top-down specification of shape by linear encodings of target morphology, driving transformative applications in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:24402915

  15. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  16. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Farmed Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) in Northeast China Using Double-Digest Restriction Site-Associated DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Hengxing; Jia, Boyin; Wang, Guiwu; Yang, Yifeng; Kedem, Gilead; Li, Chunyi

    2017-09-07

    Sika deer are an economically valuable species owing to their use in traditional Chinese medicine, particularly their velvet antlers. Sika deer in northeast China are mostly farmed in enclosure. Therefore, genetic management of farmed sika deer would benefit from detailed knowledge of their genetic diversity. In this study, we generated over 1.45 billion high-quality paired-end reads (288 Gbp) across 42 unrelated individuals using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). A total of 96,188 (29.63%) putative biallelic SNP loci were identified with an average sequencing depth of 23×. Based on the analysis, we found that the majority of the loci had a deficit of heterozygotes (F IS >0) and low values of H obs , which could be due to inbreeding and Wahlund effects. We also developed a collection of high-quality SNP probes that will likely be useful in a variety of applications in genotyping for cervid species in the future. Copyright © 2017 Ba et al.

  17. Distinguishing real from fake ivory products by elemental analyses: A Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Brown, Janine L; Thitaram, Chatchote; Klinhom, Sarisa; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2017-03-01

    As laws tighten to limit commercial ivory trading and protect threatened species like whales and elephants, increased sales of fake ivory products have become widespread. This study describes a method, handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a noninvasive technique for elemental analysis, to differentiate quickly between ivory (Asian and African elephant, mammoth) from non-ivory (bones, teeth, antler, horn, wood, synthetic resin, rock) materials. An equation consisting of 20 elements and light elements from a stepwise discriminant analysis was used to classify samples, followed by Bayesian binary regression to determine the probability of a sample being 'ivory', with complementary log log analysis to identify the best fit model for this purpose. This Bayesian hybrid classification model was 93% accurate with 92% precision in discriminating ivory from non-ivory materials. The method was then validated by scanning an additional ivory and non-ivory samples, correctly identifying bone as not ivory with >95% accuracy, except elephant bone, which was 72%. It was less accurate for wood and rock (25-85%); however, a preliminary screening to determine if samples are not Ca-dominant could eliminate inorganic materials. In conclusion, elemental analyses by XRF can be used to identify several forms of fake ivory samples, which could have forensic application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hematologic Profile and Semen Quality of Male Timor Deer (Rusa timorensis) at Various Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudewa, D.; Capitan, S. S.; Sevilla, C. C.; Vega, R. S. A.; Ocampo, P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to observe hematologic profile i.e. erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and semen quality, i.e. semen volume, sperm motility and sperm abnormality of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer raised under captivity. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41kg body weight) at similar antler stages were use in this study. Before and after 43 days of establishment of dominance hierarchy blood were sampled after sedation for erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (mg/dL), and hematocrit (%). Likewise, semen was collected using electroejaculator and were analyzed for semen volume (ml), sperm motility (%) and sperm abnormality (%) to compare male deer at various heirarchies. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was done. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that highest count of erythrocyte shown on α and β-male (1.60 million per µL). The highest increase in hematocrit was observed in β-male (5%) and then followed by S2-male (4%). S2-male had the highest increase in hemoglobin (0.13 g/dL). The highest increase in semen volume was observed in α -male (0.75 ml). Social stress affected negatively the sperm motility and abnormality (P<0.05). The highest decrease was observed in S2-male.

  19. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  20. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene alluvial-aeolian sediments caused by GIA induced seismicity along the Osning Thrust (northern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    Historic sources report that northern Germany was affected by significant earthquakes during the last 500 years (Leydecker 2009), but the only modern study so far on earthquake related soft-sediment deformation structures was carried out by Hoffmann and Reicherter (2012) for the Baltic Sea coast area of northeastern Germany. We present new data on seismically triggered soft-sediment deformation structures in Pleniglacial to Late Glacial alluvial fan and aeolian sand-sheet deposits of the upper Senne (Münsterland Embayment) and link this soft-sediment deformation directly to Late Glacial earthquakes generated along the Osning Thrust, which is one of the major fault systems in Central Europe. The reactivation of the Mesozoic Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment during the Pleniglacial to Late Glacial (Brandes et al., 2012). Young tectonic activity in this area is indicated by the 1612 Bielefeld earthquake (Vogt & Grünthal 1994). The analysed soft-sediment deformation structures are exposed in two sand pits in the vicinity of the Osning Thrust and include a complex fault and fold pattern, clastic dykes, sand volcanoes, sills, irregular intrusive sedimentary bodies, flower- to antler-like dewatering structures, flame structures, and ball-and-pillow structures. There is a distinct variation of the soft-sediment deformation style parallel to the trend of the Osning Thrust. In the northwestern part of the study area, close to Oerlinghausen there is a wide range of structures developed that is mainly related to fluidization processes. In contrast, in the southeast only flower- to antler-like dewatering structures and normal fault-arrays occur. This might indicate that the epicentre of the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial seismic event was close to Oerlinghausen. It is the first time in northern Germany, that fluidization and liquefaction features can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleniglacial to Late

  1. What Enables Size-Selective Trophy Hunting of Wildlife?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas), physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing), and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair) and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%), camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access, wildlife hunters in the

  2. Le comportement symbolique dans la Préhistoire de la Roumanie: art mobilier au Paléolithique supérieur en Moldavie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BELDIMAN

    2009-12-01

    in a cave site. The types identified are: bâtons percés worked in horse long bone and in roe-deer antler; lithic and bone pendants; disk in roe-deer antler; perforated teeth; lithic objects in quartzite and graphite as well as bone and antler pieces having linear engraved decoration or notches; decorated roe-deer antler harpoon: ivory mammoth tusk fragment; fossil mollusks of Congeria? species; perforated snails of Succinea oblonga? ou Lithoglyphus naticoides? species. Most of the artifacts are of significant importance for the phenomenon of art and of prehistoric technology in these regions; in this point of view we have to mention the pendants discovered at Mitoc, Botosani County and the fragment of bone discovered in 1998 with the engraved image of an animal’s foot from Piatra Neamt, Neamt County. Another exceptional artifact is the fragment of mammoth tusk from Lespezi, Bacau County dated at around 18 kya showing the débitage traces on the proximal part that prove the using of notching and grooving technique and probably of transverse sawing with fiber; this should be the oldest situation of use of such a technique solution in this part of Europe. Taking into account the extreme rarity of ivory artifacts in the Upper Paleolithic of Romania it is probably that the provenance of the objects can be found in the near territories of Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Ukraine, Republic of Moldavia, Russia where the manufacture and use of such artifacts was common in that epoch. The study contributes essentially to the definition in actual terms of typology and technology of oldest portable art objects from a particular region of Romania as material expression of first spiritual manifestations of huntergatherer communities and allowed to integrate the data of the phenomenon in the South-East and Central European context.

  3. Impact of environmental diversity of hunting complexes in the Lublin region on ontogenetic quality indicators in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyżowski, Piotr; Drozd, Leszek; Karpiński, Mirosław; Tajchman, Katarzyna; Goleman, Małgorzata; Wojtaś, Justyna; Zieliński, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Populations of game are not confined to single ecosystems but function within higher-order units, e.g. ecological landscape. The basis for the establishment of the hunting complexes was the assumption that the existing game hunting grounds, i.e. the basic units implementing game management, are too small and do not cover the natural areas inhabited by game populations. Roe deer are flexible species and easily adapt to various site conditions, so they inhabit many different habitats, from large forest complexes, through small in-field tree stands and shrubs, to treeless grounds and field monocultures. The aim of the study was to determine a possible impact of environmental conditions prevailing in the hunting complexes of the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP in Lublin) on the ontogenetic quality of roe deer. The study was conducted on 518 European roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) aged from 4 to 7 years (379 bucks and 139 does) harvested within hunting seasons 2010/2011-2013/2014. The results have shown that animals originating from areas with greater forest cover and denser stands are characterised by lower values of the mean ontogenetic quality parameters (carcase weight, kidney fat index, chest girth, weight of antlers) in comparison with animals from typical agricultural areas with fragmented forest complexes. These results indicate that, even in the case of such a eurytopic species as the roe deer, the ontogenetic quality differs between individual hunting complexes. The study has proved that strategies for hunting management of the roe deer should take into account the impact of the landscape structure, which provides a rationale behind creation of hunting complexes.

  4. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  5. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Parfitt, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    A recurring theme of late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian human bone assemblages is the remarkable rarity of primary burials and the common occurrence of highly-fragmentary human remains mixed with occupation waste at many sites. One of the most extensive Magdalenian human bone assemblages comes from Gough's Cave, a sizeable limestone cave set in Cheddar Gorge (Somerset), UK. After its discovery in the 1880s, the site was developed as a show cave and largely emptied of sediment, at times with minimal archaeological supervision. Some of the last surviving remnants of sediment within the cave were excavated between 1986 and 1992. The excavations uncovered intensively-processed human bones intermingled with abundant butchered large mammal remains and a diverse range of flint, bone, antler, and ivory artefacts. New ultrafiltrated radiocarbon determinations demonstrate that the Upper Palaeolithic human remains were deposited over a very short period of time, possibly during a series of seasonal occupations, about 14,700 years BP (before present). The human remains have been the subject of several taphonomic studies, culminating in a detailed reanalysis of the cranial remains that showed they had been carefully modified to make skull-cups. Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism. In a wider context, the treatment of the human corpses and the manufacture and use of skull-cups at Gough Cave have parallels with other Magdalenian sites in central and western Europe. This suggests that cannibalism during the Magdalenian was part of a customary mortuary practice that combined intensive processing and consumption of the bodies with

  6. Depositional belts in Nevada during the Famennian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, K.S. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Deformed upper Famennian strata near the base of the Roberts Mountains allochthon in Nevada add detail to the paleogeography of the region at the time it was undergoing the transition from the shelf-slope setting of the early Paleozoic to the foreland basin and highland of the Antler orogeny. The uppermost Devonian part of the Pinecone sequence and correlative rocks in central and northeastern Nevada consists of black chert and argillite, commonly with nodular phosphate. Deposition took place in a detritus-starved, oxygen-poor slope or foredeep setting east of the advancing, but still submerged, Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Pinecone is less far-traveled than much of the allochthon as the time interval from deposition to the end of thrust movement and deformation was shorter. The late Famennian saw at least three contrasting belts of deposition in the vicinity of Nevada. First, black shale and micrite of the Leatham member of the Pilot Shale in eastern Nevada and western Utah formed in the deep subtidal/dysaerobic belt described by Sandberg and coworkers. Second, a bathyal belt, in central Nevada to the west of the Pilot, contained black chert and phosphate in a zone of high surface productivity. Also present, but rare, were beds of carbonate detritus with a probable provenance to the east, and olistoliths( ) of quartz sandstone like that known in the approaching Roberts Mountains allochthon to the west. Third, greenstones and chert of the Schoonover sequence, described by E. Miller and co-workers, were being deposited somewhere beyond the allochthon in an oxygenated, oceanic setting.

  7. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Darimont

    Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access

  8. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clément; Ropiquet, Anne; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2006-07-01

    The family Cervidae includes 40 species of deer distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, as well as in South America and Southeast Asia. Here, we examine the phylogeny of this family by analyzing two mitochondrial protein-coding genes and two nuclear introns for 25 species of deer representing most of the taxonomic diversity of the family. Our results provide strong support for intergeneric relationships. To reconcile taxonomy and phylogeny, we propose a new classification where the family Cervidae is divided in two subfamilies and five tribes. The subfamily Cervinae is composed of two tribes: the tribe Cervini groups the genera Cervus, Axis, Dama, and Rucervus, with the Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) included in the genus Cervus, and the swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli) placed in the genus Rucervus; the tribe Muntiacini contains Muntiacus and Elaphodus. The subfamily Capreolinae consists of the tribes Capreolini (Capreolus and Hydropotes), Alceini (Alces), and Odocoileini (Rangifer + American genera). Deer endemic to the New World fall in two biogeographic lineages: the first one groups Odocoileus and Mazama americana and is distributed in North, Central, and South America, whereas the second one is composed of South American species only and includes Mazama gouazoubira. This implies that the genus Mazama is not a valid taxon. Molecular dating suggests that the family originated and radiated in central Asia during the Late Miocene, and that Odocoileini dispersed to North America during the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, and underwent an adaptive radiation in South America after their Pliocene dispersal across the Isthmus of Panama. Our phylogenetic inferences show that the evolution of secondary sexual characters (antlers, tusk-like upper canines, and body size) has been strongly influenced by changes in habitat and behaviour.

  9. Doença de Dowling-Degos: apresentação clínica e histopatológica clássica Dowling-Degos disease: classic clinical and histopathological presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cotta Zimmermann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Dowling-Degos é uma genodermatose rara que consiste numa desordem pigmentar reticulada. Caracteriza-se pela presença de máculas hiperpigmentadas nas regiões flexurais com distribuição em rede; lesões tipo comedão no dorso e na região cervical; e cicatrizes cribriformes na face, particularmente periorais. Apresentamos um caso de um paciente de 51 anos, masculino, com lesões tipo macrocomedões, cicatrizes cribriformes, cistos e máculas hipercrômicas no dorso, tórax anterior, axilas, pescoço, região genital e face. Relatava ter dois filhos, três irmãos e o pai com quadro semelhante. As biópsias de pele foram características da doença de Dowling-Degos, mostrando dilatação folicular, epiderme digitiforme, com áreas de aspecto de "chifre de veado" e focos de hiperpigmentação da camada basal.Dowling-Degos disease (DDD is a rare genetic disease of the skin (reticulate pigmented anomaly, clinically characterized by flexural brown pigmented reticulate macules, comedo-like papules on the back, neck and pitted perioral or facial scars. We present the case of a 51 year-old man with macrocomedo-like lesions, pitted scars, cysts, hyperpigmented macules in his back, chest, axillae, neck, groin and face. The patient reported having two children, three brothers and a father with a similar condition. The histopathology of the skin biopsies was very characteristic of Dowling-Degos disease, showing dilated follicular, fingerlike projections called rete ridges (dermal pegs, with thinning of the suprapapillary plates, resulting in an "antler-like" pattern and increased pigmentation of the basal layer.

  10. Burdale: An Anglian Settlement in the Yorkshire Wolds (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D. Richards

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Burdale digital archive (Richards and Roskams 2013 comprises a broad range of primary and secondary data derived from fieldwork and post-excavation analysis. It complements the summary report published as Richards and Roskams (2012. Full stratigraphic reports are downloadable for each season of excavation and can be related to the sequence of CAD plans also available. These can, in turn, be set within the wider site map derived from aerial photography and geophysical survey. Final reports are available for the pottery, spindlewhorls, and worked bone and antler (Ashby 2013. Other finds are simply listed in the finds databases, split by excavation year, with some preliminary notes on the ironwork included in the investigative conservation reports. The non-ferrous finds assemblage was largely missing, apart from a small number of topsoil finds recovered during metal detector surveys. Given the alleged wealth of the site, and the interest in it from 'nighthawks' we have to assume that unfortunately, most of the coinage and copper alloy metalwork has been collected from the ploughsoil over many years and is in private hands or has been sold for profit. In common with other Yorkshire sites Burdale produced very little early medieval pottery but this is likely to be a real absence rather than a product of recovery bias. The animal bone assemblage (Richardson 2010 is one of the most important elements of the archive. Over 300 images are also presented, split by year of excavation. The file downloads are organised in 3 groups: those relating to the whole project and those specifically related to excavations in 2006 (BUR06 or 2007 (BUR07. Referee statement by Gabor Thomas

  11. [Effect of yanghe huayan decoction on precancerosis of breast cancer, protein and mRNA expression of ki67: an experimental research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Hong-Zhi; Chen, Han-Han; Shi, Guang-Xi; Wang, Shi-Jun

    2014-08-01

    To explore the effect of Yanghe Huayan Decoction (YHD, a representative recipe for warming yang mass dissipating) in inhibiting precancerosis of breast cancer (PBC) and on the protein and mRNA expression of ki67. The PBC rat model was established by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), and 9 weeks later rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, the model group, the YHD group, the Sanjie Huatan Decoction group (SHD), the Pingxiao Tablet group (PT), and the tamoxifen group. Rats in the model group were administered with water by gastrogavage. Rats in the YHD group received YHD (deglued antler powder 12 g, prepared rhizome of rehmannia 9 g, cassia bark 6 g, white mustard seed 3 g, zedoary root 12 g, appendiculate cremastra pseudobulb 15 g, chekiang fritillary bulb 9 g, licorice root 6 g) at the daily dose of 7.2 g/kg by gastrogavage. Rats in the SHD group received SHD (oldenlandia diffusa 15 g, Scutellaria Barbata 15 g, Trichosanthes Kirilowii 15 g, pinellia 9 g) at the daily dose of 5.4 g/kg by gastrogavage. Rats in the PT group received PT at the daily dose of 144 mg/kg by gastrogavage. Those in the tamoxifen group received tamoxifen at the daily dose of 4 mg/kg by gastrogavage. Pathomorphological changes of the breast tissue were observed by HE staining. The positive rate and the gray value of ki67 expression were detected by immunohistochemical assay. And the expression of ki67 mRNA was detected by q-PCR. Compared with the model group, the general hyperplasia and the occurrence rate of precancerous lesion were higher and the occurrence rate of invasive carcinoma was lower in each treatment group (P ki67 grey value increased in each treatment group (P ki67 and mRNA expression of ki67 increased in the rest treatment groups (P 0.05). The positive rate of ki67 expression and mRNA expression of ki67 increased in the PT group, showing statistical difference (P canceration of breast cancer. It also could inhibit ki67 protein and mRNA expression. Its effect was

  12. Evidences for an orogenic-induced global cooling at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary (ca 376 Ma BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbuch, O.; Tribovillard, N.; Devleeschouwer, X.; Riquier, L.

    2003-04-01

    Late Devonian time (Famennian, 376--362 Ma BP) is a period of both intense orogenic activity and drastic climatic variations with the onset of a major glaciation event upon parts of the Gondwanian Southern America and Africa situated in high southern latitudes. This global cooling event is coeval with a significant fall in the atmospheric CO_2 content as suggested both by stomatal data and modelling. In the stratigraphic record, the Frasnian-Famennian transition is characterized by a great loss of biotic diversity and pronounced environmental changes with the demise of reefal carbonate platforms and the deposition of extensive organic-rich levels (Kellwasser levels) in Late Frasnian times followed by a rapid global scale sea-level fall and an increase in detrital input in the basal Famennian. We propose to relate the Famennian global cooling and the associated environnmental changes to the development of major mountain cordilleras extending on one hand from the Urals to South America (including the Central Asian, the European, the Northern African, the Appalachian belts) and on the other hand from the western American Antler to the Arctic Ellesmerian belt. Extensive high pressure metamorphic rocks dated between ca 380 and 360 Ma BP, pervasive deformations distributed along the belt (Eo-Variscan phase) and synorogenic molassic rocks trapped within the flexural foreland basins indicate a major collisional event in Late Frasnian-Famennian times inducing an important crustal thickening and associated high continental relief. The major drop in the atmospheric CO2 content would be driven by the conjunction of two orogenic-induced mechanisms : (1) the intensification of silicate weathering on the continental areas as attested by a major rise in the 87Sr/86Sr composition of sea water at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary ; the coeval development of vascular plants on emerged lands is also probably an important factor in enhanced chemical weathering of continental soils (2

  13. Map showing areas with potential for talc deposits in the Gravelly, Greenhorn, and Ruby ranges and the Henrys Lake Mountains of southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Berg, Richard B.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    1998-01-01

    For the last several years, Montana has been the leading talc producing state in the United States (U.S. Geological Survey, 1996). For example, in 1992 Montana supplied about 40 percent of the U.S. mine production of talc (Virta, 1992). All of this production has come from the large deposits of high purity talc in the southwestern part of the state. All Montana talc is currently (1997) extracted from four mines, each within the study area of this map—the open pit operations of the Treasure State, Regal, and Yellowstone mines and the underground operation of the Beaverhead mine (see map numbers 1-4 on list and map to the left). The related mineral chlorite is mined at the Antler mine, located nearby, but outside of the study area in the Highland Mountains. Montana talc has at least two market advantages: (1) some deposits are very large and near surface, allowing economic mining by open pit methods; and (2) the deposits are of high purity and lack tremolite or other amphibole mineral contaminants (such as absestos) that occur in some other talc-rich deposits. Talc from southwest Montana is used in ceramics, paint, paper, plastics, cosmetics, rubber, roofing, flooring, caulking, and agricultural applications. The talc is also used in the processes of recycling paper and plastics. Talc was first discovered in the early 1900's at the present site of the Yellowstone mine (Perry, 1948, p. 9). Modest production began in 1942 from shallow pits and adits, supplying steatite (massive, compact, high-purity) talc that was used to make ceramic insulators. The southwest Montana talc industry grew to become a significant part of the region's economy; this history is described by Perry (1948), Olson (1976), and Berg (1997). Exploration and development are likely to continue for the foreseeable future for several reasons: (1) mines are active in the area at present and an infrastructure for talc processing exists; (2) large changes in domestic and export talc markets are not

  14. THE HUMAN OCCUPATIONS OF EL MIRÓN CAVE (RAMALES DE LA VICTORIA, CANTABRIA, SPAIN DURING THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM/SOLUTREAN PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Guy Straus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El Mirón Cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, Spain has evidence of brief visits (by hunting parties to the montane zone of the upper Asón valley in easternmost Cantabria during the Last Glacial Maximum with 14C dates ranging between 19.2-18.4 kya uncal BP. Landscapes were largely treeless (scattered pines, with varying degrees of humidity and some amelioration at the end of the sequence of seven levels. Armed with a variety of Solutrean foliate, concave base and shouldered stone points and antler sagaies, decorated with beads of shell, tooth, bone and stone, the visitors camped repeatedly at the rear of the cave vestibule, made informal hearths, hunted red deer and ibex and caught fish, and did some stone knapping of both local and high-quality non-local raw materials. This is one of relatively few montane Solutrean sites known in the Cantabrian region, where, in fact, all major Solutrean base camps are in the coastal zone.La cueva del Mirón (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, España conserva el testimonio de breves visitas de grupos de cazadores al alto valle del Asón, en la zona más oriental de Cantabria, durante el Último Máximo Glacial, con fechas de radiocarbono que oscilan entre los 19200 y 18400 uncal BP. Durante este tiempo, el paisaje carecía casi por completo de árboles (acaso pinos dispersos, con diversos grados de humedad y una leve mejora climática al final de la secuencia de los siete niveles solutrenses. Armados con una variedad de puntas foliáceas, puntas de base cóncava y de muesca, azagayas de asta, y adornados con cuentas de concha, diente, hueso e incluso piedra, los visitantes acamparon repetidas veces al fondo del vestíbulo de la cueva, hicieron varias hogueras ocasionales, cazaron ciervos y cabras, pescaron salmones y realizaron actividades de talla con materias primas locales y con otras no locales de alta calidad. Este yacimiento es uno de los pocos yacimientos solutrenses de la región cant

  15. A preliminary description of Solutrean occupations in El Mirón cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus, Lawrence Guy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2m2 sondage excavated by us opportunistically from the base of a treasure-hunters' crater at the rear of the vestibule in El Mirón Cave, has revealed a sequence of Solutrean (as well as Early Upper Paleolithic and late Middle Paleolithic levels that underlie the long, complete sequence og Magdalenian and Azilian layers in this major site, located in the upper Asón valley of the Cantabrian Cordillera. Far poorer in artifacts and fauna, and lacking obvious features, in stark contrast to the dark brown, culturally and organically rich Initial, Lower and Middle Magdalenian levels, the eight thin, relatively poor, and lighter-sediment Solutrean-age levels or lenses are suggestive of very different kinds and intensities of human uses of this large, strategic and versatile cave during Last Glacial Maximum times than those of the Late Glacial. Dated by 14C to between 18 and 19 (and by extrapolation downward, possibly, 20 kya, these levels were formed quickly, banked up as they are against an ancient, steep, erosional, colluvial-alluvial slope. They seem to attest to short, repeated, specialized human visits to the cave at a time of severe environmental conditions-especially in this upland interior setting. These visits may have been made by small, specialized human groups (e.g., hunting parties exploiting specific resources (e.g., ibex, red deer, salmon and other fish, perharps seasonally (summer?, from residencial base camps along the Cantabrian coast. This is suggested by the fact that the relatively small lithic artifact assemblages contain disproportionatety large numbers of Solutrean points. Almost all of these (and the few antler points are broken (indicating that they had been used violently and the points as a group include a wide variety of forms and flint types (and colors, suggesting that the people who were using El Mirón came from and/or traded with a number of different parts of the Vasco-Cantabrian region. Curiously, for a putative

  16. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  17. Major structural controls on the distribution of pre-Tertiary rocks, Nevada Test Site vicinity, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.C.

    1998-10-23

    The lateral and vertical distributions of Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Nevada are the combined products of original stratigraphic relationships and post-depositional faults and folds. This map compilation shows the distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks in the region including and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. It is based on considerable new evidence from detailed geologic mapping, biostratigraphic control, sedimentological analysis, and a review of regional map relationships. Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks of the region record paleogeographic transitions between continental shelf depositional environments on the east and deeper-water slope-facies depositional environments on the west. Middle Devonian and Mississippian sequences, in particular, show strong lateral facies variations caused by contemporaneous changes in the western margin of North America during the Antler orogeny. Sections of rock that were originally deposited in widely separated facies localities presently lie in close proximity. These spatial relationships chiefly result from major east- and southeast-directed thrusts that deformed the region in Permian or later time. Somewhat younger contractional structures are identified within two irregular zones that traverse the region. These folds and thrusts typically verge toward the west and northwest and overprint the relatively simple pattern of the older contractional terranes. Local structural complications are significant near these younger structures due to the opposing vergence and due to irregularities in the previously folded and faulted crustal section. Structural and stratigraphic discontinuities are identified on opposing sides of two north-trending fault zones in the central part of the compilation region north of Yucca Flat. The origin and significance of these zones are enigmatic because they are largely covered b Tertiary and younger deposits. These faults most likely results from significant lateral

  18. Biotic Translocation of Phosphorus: The Role of Deer in Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner T. Flueck

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogeochemical cycles are cornerstones of biological evolution. Mature terrestrial ecosystems efficiently trap nutrients and certain ones are largely recycled internally. Preserving natural fluxes of nutrients is an important mission of protected areas, but artificially leaky systems remain common. Native red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Swiss National Park (SNP are known to reduce phosphorus (P in preferred feeding sites by removing more P than is returned with feces. At larger scales it becomes apparent that losses are occurring due to seasonal deer movements out of the SNP where most deer end up perishing. Thus, the SNP contributes to producing deer which translocate P to sink areas outside the SNP due to several artificial factors. An adult female dying outside of SNP exports about 1.8 kg of P, whereas a male dying outside of SNP at 8 years of age exports 7.2 kg of P due also to annual shedding of antlers. Averaged over the vegetated part of the SNP, the about 2,000 deer export 0.32 kg/ha/yr of P. Other ungulate species using the SNP and dying principally outside of its borders would result in additional exports of P. Leakiness in this case is induced by: a absence of the predator community and thus a lack of summer mortalities and absence of several relevant non-lethal predator effects, b hunting-accelerated population turnover rate, and c deaths outside of SNP principally from hunting. The estimated export rate for P compares to rates measured in extensive production systems which receive 10-50 kg/ha/yr of P as fertilizer to compensate the losses from biomass exports. Assumptions were made regarding red deer body weight or population turnover rate, yet substituting my estimates with actual values from the SNP would only affect somewhat the magnitude of the effect, but not its direction. The rate of P loss is a proxy for losses of other elements, the most critical ones being those not essential to autotrophs, but essential to heterotrophs

  19. Biostratigraphy and structure of paleozoic host rocks and their relationship to Carlin-type gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.G.; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Oscarson, R.L.; Noble, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Jerritt Canyon mining district in the northern Independence Range, northern Nevada, contains multiple, nearly horizontal, thrust masses of platform carbonate rocks that are exposed in a series of north- to northeast-elongated, tectonic windows through rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Roberts Mountains allochthon was emplaced during the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. These thrust masses contain structurally and stratigraphically controlled Carlin-type gold deposits. The gold deposits are hosted in tectonically truncated units of the Silurian to Devonian Hanson Creek and Roberts Mountains Formations that lie within structural slices of an Eastern assemblage of Cambrian to Devonian carbonate rocks. In addition, these multiply thrust-faulted and folded host rocks are structurally interleaved with Mississippian siliciclastic rocks and are overlain structurally by Cambrian to Devonian siliciclastic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. All sedimentary rocks were involved in thrusting, high-angle faulting, and folding, and some of these events indicate substantial late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic regional shortening. Early Pennsylvanian and late Eocene dikes also intrude the sedimentary rocks. These rocks all were uplifted into a northeast-trending range by subsequent late Cenozoic Basin and Range faulting. Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks flank part of the range. Pathways of hydrothermal fluid flow and locations of Carlin-type gold orebodies in the Jerritt Canyon mining district were controlled by structural and host-rock geometries within specific lithologies of the stacked thrust masses of Eastern assemblage rocks. The gold deposits are most common proximal to intersections of northeast-striking faults, northwest-striking dikes, and thrust planes that lie adjacent to permeable stratigraphic horizons. The host stratigraphic units include carbonate sequences that contained primary intercrystalline permeability, which

  20. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  1. Modelling the Loktak Lake Basin to Assess Human Impact on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, K.

    2015-12-01

    Loktak Lake is an internationally important, Ramsar designated, fresh water wetland system in the state of Manipur, India. The lake was also listed under Montreux Record on account of the ecological modifications that the lake system has witnessed over time. A characteristic feature of this lake is the extensive occurrence of coalesced, naturally or otherwise, vegetative masses floating over it. A contiguous 40 km2 area of Phumdis, as these vegetative masses are locally referred to, also constitutes the only natural home of the endemic and endangered species of Manipur's brow-antlered deer popularly known as Sangai. Appropriately notified as Keibul Lamjao National Park by Government of India, this natural feature is known to be the world's largest floating park. Water quality and sediment deposition on account of soil erosion in its catchments are some of the emerging concerns along with a reported enhanced frequency and duration of flooding of the shore areas, reduced fish catch within a visibly deteriorated overall natural ecosystem. Disturbances of watershed processes, command area management practices, ineffective as indeed largely absent, waste management practices and management interventions linked to the Loktak Hydroelectric Project are often cited as the principal triggers that are seen to be responsible for the damage. An effective management protocol for the Lake requires a rigorous understanding of its hydrobiology and eco-hydrodynamics. The present study is carried out to establish such a characterization of the various rivers systems draining directly into the Lake using MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 HD and MIKE 11 ECO Lab modelling platforms. Water quality modelling was limited to dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and water temperature. Model calibration was done using the available measured water quality data. The derived results were then investigated for causal correlation with anthropogenic influences to assess human impact on water

  2. The two faces of growth: benefits and risks to bone integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, A M

    1994-11-01

    Bones grow by two processes: cortical bone is made by periosteal apposition (growth in width), and cancellous bone is made by endochondral ossification (growth in length). In both the axial and appendicular skeleton, about half of peak adult bone mass is accumulated during the adolescent growth spurt, which occurs two years earlier in girls than in boys, and is under pituitary control via interactions between growth hormone and sex hormones. Throughout growth, but particularly during adolescence, the ability of bone to adapt to mechanical loading is much greater than after maturity. This is the main reason why the effects of physical activity on bone are greater in cross-sectional studies in young athletes than in longitudinal studies in previously sedentary adults. In wild animals, by the time growth has ceased, the bones must be as strong as they will ever need to be, and attainment of further strength after cessation of growth would serve no biologic purpose. Adaptation of growing bone to mechanical loading is the purpose of the mechanostat, which enables physiologic adaptation in individuals to establish and maintain a species-specific property of the bones that is determined by evolutionary adaptation in populations. But growth confers risks as well as benefits to the skeleton. The large increase in incidence of upper extremity (particularly lower forearm) fractures, coincident with the adolescent growth spurt in both sexes, is due to an increase in cortical porosity as a consequence of an increase in intracortical bone turnover, which supplies some of the calcium needed by the growing ends of the long bones. This enables an increased demand for calcium to be spread over a longer time, analogous to the cyclic physiologic osteoporosis which occurs during the antler growth cycle in deer. The subsequent decline in cortical porosity is responsible for the continued increase in radial bone density after cessation of growth, referred to as consolidation. In the

  3. Dating of Las Mesas Copper Age walled enclosure (La Fuente, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odriozola, Carlos P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The site of Las Mesas is located in the west bank of the Guadajira river (La Fuente, Badajoz, Spain. It covers a half hectare and is enclosed by a stone wall. Previous assessments based on site surveys suggested a general chronological span from Late Neolithic period (ca. 3600-2900 BC through the Copper Age (3rd millennium BC. Excavations revealed a well-constructed wall with bastions and a domestic space at the centre of the site with three occupational phases. Several functional areas and a votive pit are ascribed to the second phase. A deer antler located in a re-cut ritual pit associated to the second phase was dated by AMS-14C. Samples from a living floor assigned to the second phase (SU-9/10 and the basement of a kiln associated with the first phase (SU-18 was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL using the single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR protocol on 90-160 m quartz grains. Luminescence profiling analysis of 7 samples taken throughout the archaeological stratigraphy was used to assess variations in luminescence behaviour and relative age through the sequence, using infrared-, optically –and thermally– stimulated luminescence (IRSL, OSL, TSL on poly-mineral and etched samples. Luminescence dating and profiling indicates that the upper archaeological layer (SU-1B probably dates to the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1000 BC, but that the sediments in the remainder of this section accumulated during the late Neolithic-Copper Age: the site was most probably inhabited between 3300 and 2900 BC. There were gaps in occupation between the Late Neolithic-Cooper Age phases (I & II, and between the Late Neolithic-Cooper Age phases and Late Bronze Age phase (II & III, indicating that the site was abandoned and reoccupied twice. The AMS-14C date on deer antler of 4254 ± 45 BP (3010-2675 cal BC is consisten with the OSL results for phase II, indicating that the pit was excavated at the beginning of the second occupational phase. Combined OSL

  4. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome probably induced by a lamotrigine-ginseng drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Amy P; Watson, Troy A; Strock, Steven B

    2015-03-01

    The likelihood of a drug reaction with lamotrigine is increased by dose escalation that is too rapid or drug interactions that increase the concentration of lamotrigine. There is a well-documented interaction between valproic acid and lamotrigine in which lamotrigine levels are increased, subsequently increasing the risk of a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, diffuse maculopapular rash, multivisceral involvement, eosinophilia, and atypical lymphocytes and has a mortality rate of 10-40%. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of DRESS syndrome that was probably induced by a drug interaction between lamotrigine and ginseng. A 44-year-old white man presented to the emergency department after experiencing a possible seizure. His medical history included two other lifetime events concerning for seizures at ages 14 and 29 years old. After referral to the neurology clinic, he was diagnosed with generalized tonic-clonic seizure disorder, and lamotrigine was started with up-titration according to the drug's package insert to a goal dosage of 150 mg twice/day. The patient had also been taking deer antler velvet and ginseng that he continued during his lamotrigine therapy. On day 43 of therapy, the patient presented to the emergency department with a pruritic rash that had started on his extremities and spread to his torso. He was thought to have experienced a drug reaction to lamotrigine, and the drug was discontinued. Thirteen days later, the patient was admitted from the acute care clinic for inpatient observation due to laboratory abnormalities in the setting of continued rash, headache, and myalgias. His admission laboratory results on that day were remarkable for leukocytosis, with a white blood cell count up to 17.6 × 10(3) /mm(3) , with a prominent eosinophilia of 3.04 × 10(3) /mm(3) ; his liver enzyme levels were also elevated, with an aspartate

  5. Food science in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-09

    It is particularly important for us not to lose sight of the fact that people have been around for a long time and that they achieved remarkable technical skills long before Western science was developed. An anonymous writer from the Food and Agriculture Organization has observed: "It is a commonplace that the fundamental discoveries which made civilization possible-fire- making, tool-making, agriculture, building, calculating, writing, money-were all apparently made outside the area which has given us the marvels of modern science" (19). The writer might well have added that it is also commonly overlooked that food technology was not suddenly developed in the 20th century but has been very much a part of the lives of people everywhere ever since they began doing more to their food than gathering it and eating it raw. Lamb's "Essay on Roast Pig" may not be an accurate account of the first conjunction of fire and food, but cooking is a rather ancient practice. Fermentation is another complicated processing technology which is a traditional part of most cultures, particularly those in warm climates-beer, yogurt, cheese, the fish pastes and sauces of Asia, the palm wine of Africa, and soy sauce, are butsome examples. Native Americans, besides accomplishing marvels in plant genetics and crop development, also developed water extraction methods for treating acorns to render the flour palatable and edible, and the alkali method of processing maize. Furthermore, they developed a cure for scurvy-by making a water extraction of pine needles which are rich in ascorbic acid-long before it was first reported by Jacques Cartier in the 16th century. Similarly, calcium-deficient diets of pregnant and nursing women were traditionally successfully supplemented by calcium-rich powdered deer antlers in northern China. Among the Chinese and Greeks, goiter was cured by eating certain kinds of seaweed centuries before the disease was traced to a lack of iodine, and Kenyans learned to

  6. Plutonism in the central part of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    remnants of country rocks within the eastern part of the batholith, although strongly deformed, are autochthonous or have been displaced only short distances, whereas some Mesozoic strata in the western metamorphic belt may be allochthonous. Probably the strata in the western metamorphic belt were deposited in marginal basins and island arcs, but the possibility that they were transported from distant places has not been disproved. All the country rocks have been strongly deformed, most of them more than once. Tectonic disturbances occurred during the Devonian and Mississippian (Antler? orogeny), the Permian and (or) Early Triassic (Sonoman? orogeny), the Late Jurassic (Nevadan orogeny), and at various other times during emplacement of the batholith and uplift that accompanied and followed its emplacement. The strata in the western metamorphic belt probably were deformed in an early Mesozoic subduction complex. The plutonic rocks range in composition from gabbro to leucogranite, but tonalite, granodiorite, and granite are the most common rock types. Most are medium to coarse grained, but some small rock masses are fine grained. Most have hypidiomorphic-granular textures and are equigranular, but some having compositions close to the boundary between granite and granodiorite contain large crystals of alkali feldspar. Serpentinized ultramafic rocks are present locally in the western metamorphic belt within and adjacent to the Melones fault zone. Except for serpentinized ultramafic rocks, trondhjemite, and most granites, all the plutonic rocks contain significant amounts of hornblende. Most of the granitoids are metaluminous or weakly peraluminous; strongly peraluminous granites are present only in the White Mountains. Most of the granitoids are assigned to units of lithodemic rank, and most of these units are assigned to intrusive suites. Plutons assigned to the same lithodeme are composed of rock of similar composition, fabric, and age and are presumed to h

  7. Lithogeochemistry of Carlin-type gold mineralization in the Gold Bar district, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, O.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Gold Bar district contains five Carlin-type gold deposits and four resources for a combined gold endowment of 1.6 M oz [50 t]. The gold deposits are hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks below parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks emplaced during the Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. The district is in the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, a long-lived structural feature that localized intrusions and ore deposits of different types and ages. The whole-rock geochemistry of four different mineralized and unmineralized Devonian carbonate rock units (two favorable and two unfavorable) were determined and interpreted in the context of the regional geology. A combination of basic statistics, R-mode factor analysis, isocon plots, and alteration diagrams were utilized to (1) identify favorable geochemical attributes of the host rocks, (2) characterize alteration and associated element enrichments and depletions, and (3) identify the mechanism of gold precipitation. This approach also led to the recognition of other types of alteration and mineralization in host rocks previously thought to be solely affected by Carlin-type mineralization. Unit 2 of the Upper Member of the Denay Formation, with the highest Al2O3, Fe2O3 and SiO2 contents and the lowest CaO content, is the most favorable host rock. Based on the high regression coefficients of data arrays on X-Y plots that project toward the origin, Al2O3 and TiO2 were immobile and K2O and Fe2O3 were relatively immobile during alteration and mineralization. Specific element associations identified by factor analysis are also prominent on isocon diagrams that compare the composition of fresh and altered equivalents of the same rock units. The most prominent associations are: Au, As, Sb, SiO2, TI, -CaO and -LOI, the main gold mineralizing event and related silicification and decalcification; Cd, Zn, Ag, P, Ni and Tl, an early base metal event; and MgO, early dolomitization. Alteration diagrams

  8. Paleozoic and mesozoic evolution of East-Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.; Dunne, G.C.; Greene, D.C.; Walker, J.D.; Swanson, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    East-central California, which encompasses an area located on the westernmost part of sialic North America, contains a well-preserved record of Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic events that reflect the evolving nature of the Cordilleran plate margin to the west. After the plate margin was formed by continental rifting in the Neoproterozoic, sediments comprising the Cordilleran miogeocline began to accumulate on the subsiding passive margin. In east-central California, sedimentation did not keep pace with subsidence, resulting in backstepping of a series of successive carbonate platforms throughout the early and middle Paleozoic. This phase of miogeoclinal development was brought to a close by the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Antler orogeny, during the final phase of which oceanic rocks were emplaced onto the continental margin. Subsequent Late Mississippian-Pennsylvanian faulting and apparent reorientation of the carbonate platform margin are interpreted to have been associated with truncation of the continental plate on a sinistral transform fault zone. In the Early Permian, contractional deformation in east-central California led to the development of a narrow, uplifted thrust belt flanked by marine basins in which thick sequences of deep-water strata accumulated. A second episode of contractional deformation in late Early Permian to earliest Triassic time widened and further uplifted the thrust belt and produced the recently identified Inyo Crest thrust, which here is correlated with the regionally significant Last Chance thrust. In the Late Permian, about the time of the second contractional episode, extensional faulting created shallow sedimentary basins in the southern Inyo Mountains. In the El Paso Mountains to the south, deformation and plutonism record the onset of subduction and arc magmatism in late Early Permian to earliest Triassic time along this part of the margin. Tectonism had ceased in most of east-central California by middle to late Early

  9. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata

  10. Reconsideration of the systematics of the Early Pleistocene Cervavitus (Cervidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervavitus were usually found from the Late Miocene and Pliocene deposits in East Europe, Middle Asia and North China, but they were found recently in many Early Pleistocene localities in southern China. The latter resulted in the discussion of their systematic status between Cervavitus and Cervus. Here we show the Early Pleistocene forms from southern China are morphometrically more similar to northern China Cervavitus species, and the cladistic analysis shows that the southern China forms are closer to classic Cervavitus species than Cervus and that also proves their systematic status in Cervavitus rather than in Cervus. Cervavitus originated in Moldovan forests of East Europe in the late Vallesian (MN10 from a brachyodont and holometacarpal ancestor with two/three-tined antlers and Palaeomeryx fold and evolved into C. novorossiae. It dispersed into West Europe forests in the earliest Turolian and further west to France in the Ruscinian. It dispersed into northern China forests in the early Turolian and represented by C. shanxius. The great quantity of C. shanxius specimens with brachyodont teeth and complete lateral metacarpals implies the arid Loess Plateau of today was a humid forested region in the Late Miocene. C. shanxius migrated southwards in the Plio-Pleistocene probably due to the drying environment in northern China with uplifting of Himalayas and evolved into C. ultimus and C. fenqii, which survived in southern China until the Early Pleistocene (MNQ18.La revisión sistemática de Cervivatus sugiere que deriva del principal clado de los cérvidos posteriores a los muntiacinos, e implica que Procervulinae, Dicrocerinae y la primeras formas de Munticiacinae serían holometacarpales, como también lo es Cervivatus, originario en los bosques de Moldavia (Europa del Este durante el Vallesiense final (MN 10, a partir de un antecesor braquiodonto y holometacarpal, con astas con dos o tres candiles y pliegue paleomerícido, y que da lugar a

  11. Chapter H: Stratiform Barite Deposits in the Roberts Mountains Allochthon, Nevada: A Review of Potential Analogs in Modern Sea-Floor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Hein, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The United States is a net importer of barite, a critical mineral for the oil and gas industry; more than 80 percent of current domestic consumption of barite is imported from China. Nearly all of the domestic production of barite comes from stratiform deposits in Nevada. The 'modern analogs' approach adopted in this review can contribute to improving deposit models and the long-term resource picture in the United States. Massive barite deposits in Nevada are interlayered with deep-water siliceous sedimentary strata of Paleozoic age within the Roberts Mountains Allochthon. Although the barite deposits formed along the long-lived, tectonically active margin of western North America before the Antler orogeny, uncertainty still exists regarding key aspects of their genesis, especially with respect to tectonic setting and depositional processes. Proposed tectonic settings include a continental slope adjacent to an ocean basin, and a rifted basin formed on continental crust. A margin dominated by other stress configurations and strike-slip faulting may also have been present during the Paleozoic. Hypotheses for the genesis of sediment-hosted, stratiform barite deposits in Nevada can be grouped into two categories: (1) a synsedimentary hydrothermal model and (2) an ocean-circulation/productivity-zone model. Both models include a stage involving bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. Disseminated, diagenetic, and hydrothermal barite deposits are widespread features of the modern ocean. In the Pacific Ocean, disseminated barite deposits (max 9 weight percent BaSO4) are forming below high-productivity zones (for example, in equatorial belts) and on the flanks of ocean ridges (as fallout of 'black smoker' particles). Massive barite deposits of diagenetic (in the subsea floor and at cold seeps) and hydrothermal origins are present in several sediment-covered tectonic settings, including ocean ridges (Escanaba Trough and Guaymas Basin), oceanic transform faults (Blanco

  12. The man and the hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  13. Taxonomy and origin of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen using traits as body size, skin colour or antler formations - characteristics known to be highly variable and subjected to environmental and nutritional level. During the mid 1900s the taxonomy was more based on variation of morphological traits among populations by analysing a large series of specimens representative of the various geographic populations and a consensus of classification of several subspecies, all belonging to the same species, evolved. During late 1900 the development of modern molecular techniques procured tools for revealing genetic structure of populations reflecting different origin and isolation rather than environmental influences. The genetic structure revealed a major genetic dichotomy between American woodland caribou on the one hand and all other types of reindeer and caribou on the other which gave evidence that the ancestors of present woodland caribou had survived and evolved in ice free refugium south to the glacier in North America and the ancestors of all other types of reindeer and caribou had evolved separated from these in refugium in Eurasia and Beringia. The ancestors of present reindeer in Scandinavia appear furthermore to have evolved from different populations separated during the last glaciation period and the colonization and origin of present wild and domestic reindeer will be discussed in this perspective.Taksonomi og opprinnelse til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Rein og caribou har hatt stor betydning

  14. Archaeological excavations at Gamzigrad - Romuliana in 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematical archaeological excavations at the site Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana continued in 2007-2008 in the south-eastern part of the fortified imperial palace, in the section of the thermae according to the plan of archaeological research for this site (2005-2009. In 2007, squares L'XXIV, M'XXIV, M'XXIH and M'XXII, which were investigated in 2005 to the horizon c, dated to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries, were completely excavated to the level of the porch of the earlier fortification of Romuliana (Plan 1. The stratigraphy of the cultural layers in these squares is as follows (Fig. 1: Below horizon c there is a layer of construction rubble mixed with brownish-yellow, clay like, sandy soil, 50-75 cm thick, comprising the finds dated in the last quarter of the 4th-5th centuries, layer D; The level of layer D is horizon d, where a structure destroyed in a conflagration, house 1/07, was discovered in squares M'XXII and M'XXIII. It could be dated, on the basis of the preserved household (pottery, metal and antler items, coins, etc., from the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century; Horizon d 1 is a mortar floor discovered beneath horizon d, which presents the earlier phase of house 1/07; Horizon d 2 is the earliest mortar floor inside the house 1/07, covered with a later mortar floor (horizon d 1 and a levelling layer of yellow sand and gravel, which comprises the finds dating also to the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th centuries; Layer E, 15-40 cm thick, is below horizon d, comprising dark brown soil with rubble and lenses of soot at the bottom, together with finds dated to the second half of the 4th century; Horizon e is covered with layer E, and spread across all the squares which were investigated to the south and to the east of Galerius' bath, where 8 large postholes, which outlined a space 7 x 3 m large and probably some kind of porch, were found along with two furnaces and two pits