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Sample records for antivenins

  1. Anaphylaxis to scorpion antivenin and its management following envenomation by Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus

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    Rahul Ramesh Bhoite; Girija Ramesh Bhoite; Dayanand N Bagdure; Himmatrao S Bawaskar

    2015-01-01

    Mesobuthus tamulus is an Indian red scorpion that is responsible for numerous cases of scorpion stings in the Indian subcontinent. Antivenin, vasodilators, and benzodiazepines are medications of choice in the treatment of scorpion bites. Adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis to antivenin have been infrequently described in the literature. We, herein, present a case of a 42-year-old man stung by Indian red scorpion while gardening at home in India, who presented with extreme pain at the sting ...

  2. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

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    Kisangau Daniel P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

  3. Ophiophagus hannah Venom: Proteome, Components Bound by Naja kaouthia Antivenin and Neutralization by N. kaouthia Neurotoxin-Specific Human ScFv

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    Witchuda Danpaiboon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5’-nucleotidase. N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins.

  4. Comparación entre dos métodos de producción para la elaboración de antivenenos ofídicos Snake Antivenin: Comparison Between Two Production Methods

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    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2010-06-01

    . Nevertheless, the treatment of venomous snakebites in domestic animals can turn diffcult due several problems among which, the conspicuous, is the low availability or lack of antivenoms for veterinary use. As commercial pressures on the pharmaceutical industry have led to a reduction in the production of antivenins in several parts of the world, their availability is sometimes rather limited and sometimes these products are impossible to obtain. In this work, we immunized horses with venom of South American vipers to obtain hyperimmune plasma. The plasma was processed to separate whole IgG of F(ab´2 fragments using two conventional methods (caprylic acid fractionation or double saline precipitation and pepsin digestion. The obtained antivenins were tested for their biochemical and immunochemical characteristics and neutralizing potency. The SDS-PAGE of the antivenins showed, in the processed antivenin, bands in the order of 150 and 100 kDa in the whole IgG or F(ab´2 fragments, respectively. The presence of albumin or contaminants of high or low molecular weight was not detected in any of the preparations. No important differences were observed in the neutralizing potency of the antivenins, although production cost was very low with the method used to obtain pure IgG. The low production cost makes the production of antivenins for veterinary use proftable when the production of F(ab´2 fragments is not possible.

  5. [Drug or plant substances which antagonize venoms or potentiate antivenins].

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    Chippaux, J P; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Dzikouk, G

    1997-01-01

    Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Echis oceliatus (Viperidae) are responsible for most of severe evenomation in Cameroon. Toxicity of venoms of these two species has been measured using mice according to the method of Spearman & Kàrber. The effect on experimental envenomation of various drugs (atropine, promethazine, neostigmine, hydrocortisone, pentosane sulfuric polyester, heparin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) and plant extracts (Schumanniophyton magnificum, Bidens pilosa, Securidaca longepedunculata and Garcinia lucida) has been observed associated or not with the antivenom lpser Afrique (SAV). The venom of D. jamesoni contains neurotoxins agonizing and antagonising acetylcholine. The toxicity of the venom did not depend on the route of injection. Atropine, promethazine, neostigmine and hydrocortisone protected animals against a venom dose up to 2 LD50. Moreover, atropine and promethazine potentiated the SAV. Similar results have been obtained with extracts from S. magnificum and B. pilosa. The venom of E. ocellatus induces haemorrhage and necrosis. The toxicity increased by 3-fold when the venom was injected through intravenous or intraperitoneal route, compared to intramuscular route. Pentosane sulfuric polyester and tranexamic acid protected mice against doses up to 3 LD50. Pentosane sulfuric polyester, hydrocortisone, heparin and aminocaproic acid increased the SAV protective titre by 50%. However, tried plant extracts weakly antagonised the venom and did not potentiate the SAV. PMID:9479470

  6. [Neutralization of toxic and enzyme activities of 4 venoms from snakes of Guatemala and Honduras by the polyvalent antivenin produced in Costa Rica].

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    Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M; Gené, J A; Gómez, M; Cerdas, L

    1987-06-01

    We studied the ability of the polyvalent antivenom produced in Costa Rica to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, proteolytic, hemolytic, hyaluronidase and fibrinolytic activities of the venoms of Bothrops asper and B. nummifer from Honduras, and of Agkistrodon bilineatus and Crotalus durissus durissus from Guatemala. Neutralizing ability of antivenom was expressed as ED50 (effective dose 50%), defined as the antivenom/venom ratio at which the activity of the venom is reduced 50%. Antivenom is highly effective in the neutralization of lethal, hemorrhagic, hemolytic, hyaluronidase, and caseinolytic activities of B. asper, B. nummifer, and C. d. durissus venoms. In the case of B. nummifer venom, neutralization of fibrinolytic effect was only partial, whereas this activity was adequately neutralized when studying the venoms of B. asper and C. d. durissus. The venom of A. bilineatus was adequately neutralized by the antivenom, with the only exception of hemolytic effect that was reduced only partially. However, in quantitative terms, a relatively large volume of antivenom was required to neutralize some effects induced by A. bilineatus venom. Regarding edema-forming activity, antivenom neutralized efficiently the venoms of B. asper and A. bilineatus, whereas that of B. nummifer was neutralized only partially; on the other hand, edema induced by the venom of C. d. durissus was not neutralized at all. Immunochemical results indicate a close immunological relationship between venoms of B. asper, B. nummifer and C. d. durissus collected in Honduras and Guatemala with those of the same species collected in Costa Rica. Interspecies comparison, however, showed variation between venoms obtained from different species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3444924

  7. Funnel-web spider bite

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    ... monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The wound will be treated as appropriate. The person may receive: Antivenin, a medicine to ... available Breathing support, including oxygen, tube through the mouth into ...

  8. Progress and improvement of the manufacturing process of snake antivenom

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    Zolfagharian H.; N Mohammadpour Dounighi

    2013-01-01

    Antivenoms have been used successfully for more than a century and up to now constitute the only effectivetreatment for snakebites .The production of antivenin started long time ago when the calmette was preparedthe antivenom in 1894.The method currently used to prepare antivenom by most of the manufacturers areoriginated from the method of Pope which was develop in 1938. Several new approaches in the production ofantivenom have been proposed to produce IgG, F(ab)2, F(ab) antivenin to improve...

  9. Scorpion Anti-Venom Activity of Botanicals: A Pharmacological Approach

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    Jitendra Nath De

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bite is considered as one of the common and dangerous phenomenon throughout the world. The clinical manifestations include pulmonary edema, myocardial damage, intracerebral haemorrhage, brachial plexopathy, renal failure etc. which sometimes leads to mortality. The common antivenin therapy includes anti-scorpion venom serum or prazosin. In the vast rural areas of the third world countries phytotherapy is considered as an alternative system of medicine and scorpion sting is treated with the help of medicinal botanicals. As the safety and efficacy are considered as important aspects of anti venin therapy, conventional treatment can be supported by the herbal remedy. The present review compiles a number of medicinal plants pharmacologically evaluated in vitro and/or in vivo for scorpion antivenin properties. Considering the aspects like cost effectiveness, availability, lesser side effects and development of drug resistance, plant based anti venin therapy may be considered as a possible remedy against scorpion envenomation.

  10. Presentation and treatment of venomous snakebites at a northern academic medical center.

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    Cowles, Robert A; Colletti, Lisa M

    2003-05-01

    Poisonous snakebites are relatively rare in the United States. The incidence of venomous snakebites is comparatively high in the southern states compared with the northern states and reports of these accidents from northern states is particularly uncommon. We report the experience with treatment of venomous snakebites at the University of Michigan over a 25-year period from 1976 to 2001. Six cases were identified and are described in detail. All patients were male and all were bitten in the upper extremity by pit vipers. One patient suffered a moderate envenomation and was treated with antivenin. Four other cases of mild envenomation occurred and two of these cases required antivenin therapy. One case was considered to represent a "dry" bite and required only 24-hour observation. There were no severe envenomations and no mortalities. On short-term follow-up all patients recovered without sequelae. This report demonstrates that venomous snakebites can be treated effectively at low-volume centers. PMID:12769221

  11. The Related Risk Factors Analysis of Snake-Bite Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

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    Li, Wei; Chen, Fang; Wu, Shukun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The pathogenic mechanism of snake-bite induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. Analyzing the risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI may provide the guidance needed for AKI prevention and early treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included 119 snake-bite patients who were hospitalized at the emergency department of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2011 to September 2013. The patients were divided into AKI and non-AKI groups according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline. Gender, age, and clinical examination data of the patients were recorded. The Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test were performed to analyze the collected data; preliminary analysis of independent risk factors was performed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS Among the snake-bite patients, 98.3% were farmers. The mean age of patients was 46±12 years. Of the 119 patients (13.4%), 16 suffered from AKI. There were statistically significant differences between the AKI and non-AKI groups with respect to age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin. Preliminary analysis with multivariate logistic regression showed that advanced age and increased time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. CONCLUSIONS Age, time interval from snake bite to antivenin therapy, creatine kinase, blood myoglobin, advanced age, regional lymphadenopathy, incision drainage, and hemoglobin were risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. Advanced age and delayed antivenin therapy might be independent risk factors for snake-bite induced AKI. PMID:27377078

  12. Scorpion envenomation study in Behbahan County, Southwest Iran

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    Hamid Kassiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the incidence and epidemiology of scorpion sting cases that were referred to the health services centers of Behbahan County, Khuzistan Province, southwestern Iran, during the two yeare (2007-2008. Methods: In this descriptive retrospective research, the data has come from files of scorpionstung patients referring to the health services centers of Behbahan during study period. A special scorpion sting sheet was prepared and completed for every case of scorpion sting. Analysis of 3441 case sheets received during this period was carried out. The frequencies of medical and entomoepidemiologic parameters were turned to the percentage position. Results: A total of 3 441 cases of scorpion stings were reported during the two-year period from 2007 to 2008. The average incidence of scorpion stings was 8.8‰ in the two years. The frequency of cases was higher during August, September, June and July that 2 056 cases of scorpion stings were reported. Most stings were occurred during summer. Nearly 51.3% of the cases were men. All cases had received antivenin. Majority of scorpion sting cases (56.5% lived in the rural areas. The most common sting site was the hand. About 74.4% have received the antivenin 0-6 h after the sting. The early injection of the antivenin is very important. The most of the cases of scorpion stings (59% were occurred by yellow scorpions. Conclusions: Surveillance for cases of scorpion stings must begin at all regions of Behbahan County. Treatment of cases of scorpion stings is conducted according to a protocol set by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. This protocol included directions for lines of treatment and the dose of antivenin recommended. Thereafter all cases are referred to hospital for further observation and management.

  13. Phytopharmacology of Antiophidian Botanicals: A Review

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    Jitendra Nath De; Abhijit Dey

    2012-01-01

    Venomous snakebite has been a major cause of mortality and morbidity across the Asian, African and Latin American countries. Lack of medical infrastructure, ineffectiveness of conventional antivenin and malpractice by the local quacks worsen the scenario. The present review deals with the pharmacological investigations performed in different botanicals for antiophidian principles. It also includes a list of certain traditionally used medicinal plants with potential anti snake venom efficacy. ...

  14. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

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    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  15. Modulation of the Pharmacological and Biochemical Actions of Leiurusquinquestriatus (L.q) Scorpion Venom by Exposure to Gamma Radiation

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    Heba A. Mohamed*, Esmat A. Shaaban* , Aber M Amin** and Sanaa A. Kenawy

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation (1.5 KGy & 3 KGy) on L.q scorpion venom. This was carried out by studying the toxicological, biochemical & immunological properties of the venom before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Material and methods Animals, venom, antivenin, gamma radiation, 125I. Results Data revealed that the toxicity of irradiated venom (1.5 KGy & 3 KGy) decreased as compared to that of the native one. LD50 of irradiated venom were 3.5 mg/kg ...

  16. Indian common krait envenomation presenting as coma and hypertension: A case report and literature review

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    Arjun Datt Law

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroparalytic snake bite is a common emergency situation encountered in India. Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus and cobra (Naja naja are important snakes causing neuroparalysis in North India. Despite severe neuroparalysis, patients who receive antivenin and ventilator support in time recover completely. Autonomic disturbances resulting in resting tachycardia, labile hypertension and sweating have been described in common krait envenomation. We present a case of common krait (B. caeruleus envenomation presenting in the locked-in state and severe hypertension that remained in such a state for over 96 h before a gradual and sustained recovery.

  17. Progress and improvement of the manufacturing process of snake antivenom

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    Zolfagharian H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Antivenoms have been used successfully for more than a century and up to now constitute the only effectivetreatment for snakebites .The production of antivenin started long time ago when the calmette was preparedthe antivenom in 1894.The method currently used to prepare antivenom by most of the manufacturers areoriginated from the method of Pope which was develop in 1938. Several new approaches in the production ofantivenom have been proposed to produce IgG, F(ab2, F(ab antivenin to improve their quality .Theseimprovement include complete or partial modification in the antivenom production regarding animal,immunization protocols , new adjuvants in hyperimmunization of animals , purification processes ( caprylicacid ,chromatography , diafiltration and ulterafiltration ,enzymatic digestion of IgG (pepsin, papain andfractionation of venom .When the IgG is digested enzymatically, different fragments are obtained depending on the enzyme used, that is, if papain is used, three fragments are obtained, the crystallizing fragment (Fc and two antigen-binding fragments F(ab and, if pepsin is used, one F(ab'2 fragment is obtained, while thecrystallizing fragment is digested. Fab and F(ab2 fragments conserve their capacity to specifically bind to the antigen that gave rise to them.

  18. [Risks posed by venomous animals -- accidents due to snakebite envenomation].

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    Erkens, K; Boecken, G

    2004-10-01

    In regions where poisonous animals are widely distributed, the management of injuries due to these animals is part of the routine medical care. Personnel e. g. deployed for humanitarian aid missions in these areas have to be prepared to face these challenges as well. Beside this group zoo personnel and snake charmers here in Europe are also endangered. The most common form of animal poisoning is due to snake bites. There are approximately 600 different species of poisonous snakes, commonly found in the warm climatic regions. But poisoning from spiders, scorpions and some marine animals can also be life threatening. There are different kinds of snake venoms, which result into different clinical presentations depending on the components of the venom. The venom may be cytotoxic, hematotoxic, neurotoxic, rhabdomyolytic, cardiotoxic, renotoxic or may cause an autoimmune reaction by complement activation. In the management of injuries following animal poisoning, besides the first aid measures taken, the injured is supposed to be managed according to the poison component in the venom with specific antivenin treatment and supportive therapeutic care. There are mono- and polyvalent antivenins available. Noneffective first-aid measures or measures which can cause further trauma must always be avoided. In general adapted behaviour in the field can prevent envenomation. Education on preventive measures with the aim of behaviour change are central components for pre-deployment preparations. PMID:15486801

  19. A review of chemistry and biological activities of the genus Aerva--a desert plant.

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    Chawla, Payal; Chawla, Amit; Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    There are approximately 28 species of Aerva genus, but only a few species are medicinal of which A. persica, A. lanata and A. javanica are of great value. A number of flavonol glycosides (e.g., aervanone, kaempferol-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside) have been reported from Aerva persica as major phytoconstituents and the minor constituents are β-cyanins (glycine betaine and trigonelline), sterols and carbohydrates. This plant is used as medicinal herb in several traditional systems of medicine all over the world, like diuretic, demulcent, purgative, emetic and tinder. Aerva plants are used to cure ulcer, lithiasis, dropsical affections, eye affection, toothache, headache, in disorders of abdomen and inflammation of internal organs. Roots and flowers are reported to possess hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anthelmintic, analgesic, antimalarial, antivenin activities and medicinal properties against rheumatism and kidney troubles. PMID:22568031

  20. The absence of antagonism between extracts of Clinacanthus nutans Burm. and Naja naja siamensis venom.

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    Cherdchu, C; Poopyruchpong, N; Adchariyasucha, R; Ratanabanangkoon, K

    1977-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Burm, a herb reputed in Thailand and Malaysia to be "snakebite antidote" has been tested in vitro and in vivo for antivenin activity. The aqueous extract of C. nutans leaves has been found to have no effect on the inhibition of neuromuscular transmission produced by purified Naja naja siamensis neurotoxin in isolated rat phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations. The extract of C. nutans, when given orally or intraperitoneally, are ineffective in prolonging the survival time of experimental mice receiving lethal doses of N.n. siamensis crude venom. Oral administrations of the herb extracts pretreated with alpha-amylase or beta-amylase also fail to protect the animal. It is concluded that the extract of C. nutans can not antagonize the action of cobra venom. PMID:199949

  1. Accidente ofídico causado por Bothrops Asper

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    Galofre-Ruiz Mario David

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The snake bite of the genus Bothrops is an important cause of ophidic accident in Colombia, with high morbidity and mortality. Clinical case: A case of bite by the snake Bothrops Asper, which was classified as mild grade of poisoning at the entrance of the hospital center is presented. It was managed with antiophidic serum in doses lower than the recommended one, with progression of the symptoms of poisoning. Adjustments in the doses were done and total recovery was reached in five days. Conclusions: Antiophidic serums, named also antivenins, are the cornerstone of the treatment to minimize the local tissue damage and the systemic complications. Rev. cienc.biomed. 2013;4(2:353-357

  2. [Retrospective study on Latrodectus stings in Bahia, Brazil].

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    Lira-da-Silva, R M; Matos, G B; Sampaio, R O; Nunes, T B

    1995-01-01

    This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB). Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57%) affecting men (70%) more than women, with 10 to 29 year-old age group (58%). Local pain (56%), erythematous papula (29%) and light oedema (17%) were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%), tremor and rigidities (29%), sweating (28%), limbs and arms paresthesia (21%) and abdominal pain (17%) were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67%) and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours. PMID:7480914

  3. [Pulmonary embolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation after being bitten by a Bothrops lanceolatus snake. Apropos of a case].

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    Estrade, G; Garnier, D; Bernasconi, F; Donatien, Y

    1989-11-01

    The authors report the case of a Bothrops lanceolatus snake bite complicated by severe pulmonary embolism a few hours after admission. This thromboembolic complication developed despite heparin therapy and was followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Vascular thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are rare after Bothrops lanceolatus snake bite as patients are usually hypocoagulable due to DIC. In this case, the thromboembolism was probably caused by the procoagulant effect of the thrombin-like enzymes of the snake venom which may have been injected directly into the vein of a young woman taking a contraceptive pill. A specific antivenin which has recently become available fort treatment may decrease the complications of Bothrops lanceolatus snake bite. PMID:2514645

  4. [Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals in Central Europe].

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    Bodio, Mauro; Junghanss, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Central Europe is largely safe from accidents with venomous and poisonous animals. The regions where European vipers are regularly found are shrinking. Today accidents with jellyfish and stings of venomous fish afflicted during leisure activities at the sea side play the dominant role. Life threatening accidents in Europe are mainly due to exotic snakes held in captivity. A system useful in daily medical practice is explained to classify and stage accidents due to poisonous and venomous animals. The important poisonous and venomous animals of Central Europe and the specific therapeutics, the antivenoms, are covered. The antivenom depot "Antivenin-CH" of the Swiss Toxicology Information Centre in Zurich and the MRITox in Munich with the antivenom registry Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN) are presented. PMID:19401985

  5. Modulation of the Pharmacological and Biochemical Actions of Leiurusquinquestriatus (L.q Scorpion Venom by Exposure to Gamma Radiation

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    Heba A. Mohamed*, Esmat A. Shaaban* , Aber M Amin** and Sanaa A. Kenawy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation (1.5 KGy & 3 KGy on L.q scorpion venom. This was carried out by studying the toxicological, biochemical & immunological properties of the venom before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Material and methods Animals, venom, antivenin, gamma radiation, 125I. Results Data revealed that the toxicity of irradiated venom (1.5 KGy & 3 KGy decreased as compared to that of the native one. LD50 of irradiated venom were 3.5 mg/kg & 7.5 mg/kg respectively while, that of the native venom was (0.39 mg/kg. Moreover, the distribution of 125I-labeled L.q venom was studied in male Swiss mice tissue using chloramine-T method by being injected intravenously. At various time intervals, urine and blood were collected and the animals were sacrificed. Brain, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, intestine, bone and muscle were isolated in order to determine the radioactivity content. The highest contents of 125I-labeled L.q venom were found in the liver and kidney that were quickly excreted into the urinary tract. Trial to label irradiated (1.5 & 3 KGy L.q venom was unsuccessful due to its decomposition. For that reason the utilization of the labeled irradiated L.q venom is of no meaning. In immunodiffusion technique, both irradiated and native venoms exhibited prominent precipitin bands indicating high concentration of specific antibodies against polyvalent antivenin with venom. Furthermore, the effect of half the LD50 of native or irradiated (1.5 KGy L.q venom was studied on the activities of certain enzymes: ASAT, ALAT, LDH, CPK, CPK-MB, and the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and the oxidative stress biomarkers (plasma MDA & blood GSH. Biochemical measurements showed that scorpion venom envenomation caused significant (p < 0.05 elevation in serum ASAT, ALAT, LDH, CPK as well as CPK-MB activities, blood GSH level while, caused significant (p < 0

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snake accidentes in the municipalities of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Célio Campos Borges

    1999-12-01

    municipality (70.2%. The local signs and symptoms most frequently observed in those who received medical care more than 6 hours after the accident (57.3% were edema (76.9%, pain (68.7%, erithema (10.2% and hemorrhage (9.3%. The systemic manifestation most frequently observed was hemorrhage (18.8%. Serotherapy was administered in only 65.9% of patients, the intravenous route being the route most commonly used to administer the antivenin (52.3%, while other non- recommended routes were widely used. In the majority of patients the antivenin given was antibotropic. The most frequent complications were: abscess 13.7%, necrosis 12.3%, secondary infection 8.3%, renal insufficiency 2.5% and gangrene 2.5%. The medical procedures most used in the treatment of these complications were drainage 52.6%, debridement 28.9%, amputation 10.5%, surgical cleaning 5.3% and peritoneal dialysis 2.6%. The fatality rate was 1%.

  7. Estudo retrospectivo de latrodectismo na Bahia, Brasil

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    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta um estudo retrospectivo de setenta e sete casos de latrodectismo no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, de agosto de 1980 a julho de 1990. Os dados foram levantados nos livros de registro e arquivo de fichas do CIAVE. O agente etiológico em 28% dos acidentes aracnídeos foi a espécie L. curacaviensis e a maior incidência foi registrada no meio urbano (57%, em indivíduos do sexo masculino (70% e faixa etária de 10 a 29 anos (58%. Os principais sinais locais foram dor (56%, pápula eritematosa (21% e edema discreto (17%, e os sistêmicos foram dor em membros inferiores (29%, tremores e contraturas (29%, sudorese (28% parestesia em membros (21% e dor abdominal (17%. O tratamento foi sintomático em 67% dos casos e específico em 21%. O tempo de permanência hospitalar após o uso do soro antilatrodectus foi menor que 24 horas em 64% dos casos.This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB. Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57% affecting men (70% more than women, with 10 to 29year-old age group (58%. Local pain (56%, erythematous papula (29% and light oedema (17% were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%, tremor and rigidities (29%, sweating (28%, limbs and arms paresthesia (21% and abdominal pain (17% were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67% and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours.