WorldWideScience

Sample records for antitoxins

  1. Toxin-Antitoxin Battle in Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria

    This PhD thesis consists of three research projects revolving around the common thread of investigation of the properties and biological functions of Toxin-Antitoxin loci. Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) loci are transcriptionally regulated via an auto-inhibition mechanism called conditional cooperativity, ...

  2. Radioimmunodiffusion technique for determining diphtheria antitoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniar, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunodiffusion technique for detecting low levels of diphtheria antitoxin was developed. Diphtheria toxoid was labelled with 125 I to facilitate detection of lines of precipitation by the use of X-ray film, the lower limit of detection being 0.001 unit per millilitre of diphtheria antitoxin. (author)

  3. 9 CFR 113.451 - Tetanus Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tetanus Antitoxin. 113.451 Section 113.451 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... which conforms to the National Institute of Standards and Technology requirements shall be used. The...

  4. Keeping the wolves at bay: antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting eChan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I – VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA

  5. Factors influencing Haemagglutination Tests with Tetanus Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, A. J.

    1959-01-01

    The agglutinin titres of tetanus antitoxins tested with preserved sheep cells sensitized with tetanus toxoid have been found to be inversely proportional to the cell concentration used. The agglutinin titres per international unit of antitoxin were widely different among various electrophoretically separated globulin fractions of tetanus antitoxin. There were smaller differences between the agglutinating capacity of γ-globulin fractions of sera from different horses. With haemagglutination inhibition tests there was always a relative increase in test dose between the LA and LA/100 level of test. This relative increase was greatest where the sensitivity of the cell suspensions was high. Increased suspension sensitivity may be the result of treatment of cells with greater quantities of sensitizing antigen or of reduction in the concentration of sensitized cells in the suspension. A greater volume of serum was required to give a standard end point, when mixed with a test dose (LA) of toxin, if the mixtures were allowed to stand for increasing periods of time. These observations have been discussed. PMID:13653730

  6. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Van Melderen; Manuel Saavedra De Bast

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial toxin?antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence,...

  7. Production and Characterization of an Avian Ricin Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-15

    naturally -occurring plant and/or bacterial toxins as biological threat agents, effective antitoxins are needed for either piophylactic or causal...system, an avian antitoxin against the potent phytotoxin , ricin. will be developed and evaluated. The production of therapeutic antibodies in avian...Dynatech). PolyacrylmIde gel electrophoresis (PAGE): Acrylamide gels were prepared according to methods described by Laemmli ( Nature . 227. 1970) and

  8. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system suppresses virulence in Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a number agriculturally important plant diseases, encodes multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. TA modules consist of a toxin protein co-expressed with a specific antitoxin, and are often acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Antitoxin molecules (RNA or ...

  9. Relationship Between Tetanus Antitoxin Titration Level and Vaccination History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to determine tetanus antitoxin levels and to evaluate their relationship with history of vaccination among patients applying to the outpatient clinics of a University hospital. Methods: A questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and tetanus vaccination status was applied and blood samples taken from 218 subjects between 1 and 30 June 2015. Participants were classified into five groups according to their vaccination timing. Results: The mean age of participants was 46.7±15.4 years and 134 (61.5% were women. Tetanus antitoxin levels were found weak positive in 54 (24.8% patients, positive in 44 (20.2% and strong positive in 120 (55.0%. Tetanus antitoxin level positivity was significantly associated with vaccination timing according to history. Among 105 participants who did not remember being vaccinated or who knew they were vaccinated but did not remember the date, 16 (15.2% remembered the vaccination time when their injury, military service and pregnancy were questioned specifically. Antitoxin levels decreased with increasing age independent of gender (0.9-fold increase/year. Conclusion: We found that the booster dose recommended every 10 years was not applied sufficiently. Tetanus vaccination history must be questioned in more detail among people who do not remember/know their vaccination history, with specific questions regarding pregnancy, military service and injury histories.

  10. Postbooster Antibodies from Humans as Source of Diphtheria Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Martin, Jesús F; Avila-Alonso, Ana; González-Rivera, Milagros; Tamayo, Eduardo; Eiros, Jose María; Almansa, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use is in limited supply. A potential source might be affinity-purified antibodies originally derived from plasma of adults who received a booster dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid. These antibodies might be useful for treating even severe cases of diphtheria.

  11. 9 CFR 113.455 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type D. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Epsilon... 0.25 gram of sodium chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving...

  12. 9 CFR 113.454 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clostridium perfringens Type C. Each serial shall be tested as provided in this section. Any serial found... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Beta... chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 250 °F. for 25 minutes...

  13. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melderen, Laurence; Saavedra De Bast, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes.

  14. Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd through fold complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Wyns, Lode

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in major physiological events set in motion under stress conditions. The toxin Doc (death on curing) from the phd/doc module on phage P1 hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation....... This Phd domain is intrinsically disordered in solution and folds into an alpha-helix upon binding to Doc. The details of the interactions reveal the molecular basis for the inhibitory action of the antitoxin. The complex resembles the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) proteins and suggests a possible......-antitoxin locus for its action in vivo....

  15. Relationship Between Tetanus Antitoxin Titration Level and Vaccination History

    OpenAIRE

    Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Meltem; Durusoy, Raika; Tosun, Selma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine tetanus antitoxin levels and to evaluate their relationship with history of vaccination among patients applying to the outpatient clinics of a University hospital. Methods: A questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and tetanus vaccination status was applied and blood samples taken from 218 subjects between 1 and 30 June 2015. Participants were classified into five groups according to their vaccination timing. Results: The mean age of...

  16. Endoribonuclease type II toxin-antitoxin systems: functional or selfish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar Chandra Mohan; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini

    2017-07-01

    Most bacterial genomes have multiple type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) that encode two proteins which are referred to as a toxin and an antitoxin. Toxins inhibit a cellular process, while the interaction of the antitoxin with the toxin attenuates the toxin's activity. Endoribonuclease-encoding TAs cleave RNA in a sequence-dependent fashion, resulting in translational inhibition. To account for their prevalence and retention by bacterial genomes, TAs are credited with clinically significant phenomena, such as bacterial programmed cell death, persistence, biofilms and anti-addiction to plasmids. However, the programmed cell death and persistence hypotheses have been challenged because of conceptual, methodological and/or strain issues. In an alternative view, chromosomal TAs seem to be retained by virtue of addiction at two levels: via a poison-antidote combination (TA proteins) and via transcriptional reprogramming of the downstream core gene (due to integration). Any perturbation in the chromosomal TA operons could cause fitness loss due to polar effects on the downstream genes and hence be detrimental under natural conditions. The endoribonucleases encoding chromosomal TAs are most likely selfish DNA as they are retained by bacterial genomes, even though TAs do not confer a direct advantage via the TA proteins. TAs are likely used by various replicons as 'genetic arms' that allow the maintenance of themselves and associated genetic elements. TAs seem to be the 'selfish arms' that make the best use of the 'arms race' between bacterial genomes and plasmids.

  17. Radiosensitivity of antibody responses and radioresistant secondary tetanus antitoxin responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, R.; Terres, G.; Cottier, H.; Hess, M.

    1976-01-01

    Primary tetanus antitoxin responses were increasingly repressed in mice when gamma radiation doses of 100 to 400 rads were delivered by whole-body exposure prior to immunization with fluid tetanus toxoid (FTT). Nearly normal secondary antitoxin responses were obtained in mice exposed to 600 rads of gamma radiation 4 days after secondary antigenic stimulation with FTT. A rapid transition from radiosensitivity of the antibody-forming system on days 1 to 3 was followed by relative radioresistance on day 4 after the booster injection of toxoid. Studies on lymphoid cellular kinetics in popliteal lymph nodes after injection of 3 H--thymidine ( 3 H--TdR) and incorporation of 3 H--L-histidine into circulating antitoxin were carried out. Analysis of tritium radioactivity in antigen--antibody precipitates of serums 2 hr after injection of the labeled amino acid revealed maximum incorporation into antibody around day 7 after the booster in nonirradiated controls and about day 12, i.e., 8 days after irradiation, in experimental mice. The shift from radiosensitivity to relative radioresistance was attributed to a marked peak of plasma-cell proliferation in the medulla of lymph nodes on day 3. Many medullary plasma cells survived and continued to proliferate after exposure to radiation. Germinal centers were destroyed by radiation within 1 day. Since antibody formation continued after exposure to radiation and after the loss of germinal centers, this supports the view that germinal-center cells were involved more in the generation of memory cells than in antibody synthesis

  18. A STUDY OF THE COMPETITION OF LECITHIN AND ANTITOXIN FOR CL. WELCHII LECITHINASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamecnik, Paul C.; Lipmann, Fritz

    1947-01-01

    Lecithin has been found to interfere with the combining reaction of Cl. welchii alpha toxin (lecithinase) and its antitoxin. If the lecithinase is first brought into contact with lecithin, and the antitoxin is then added, the antitoxin fails to stop the enzymatic reaction, but gradually decelerates it. If the lecithinase is brought into contact with both lecithin and antitoxin at the same instant, it appears to combine in part with each, and the enzymatic process takes place at a reduced rate, which gradually declines further. If the lecithinase is first brought into contact with antitoxin, before the lecithin is added, the enzymatic reaction is completely inhibited. This ability of lecithin to inhibit the antitoxin-toxin combination cannot be explained adequately as a non-specific coating of the toxin-enzyme by the lecithin. It is rather suggested that lecithin and antitoxin compete specifically for combination with the same regions on the enzyme molecule. Lecithin has similarly been found to interfere with the combination of Crotalus terrificus venom and its antiserum. The above findings provide a partial explanation for the lack of effectiveness of antitoxin when given late in the course of Cl. welchii infection. PMID:19871624

  19. Crystallization of the HigBA2 toxin-antitoxin complex from Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadǽi, San; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The genome of Vibrio cholerae encodes two higBA toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules that are activated by amino-acid starvation. Here, the TA complex of the second module, higBA2, as well as the C-terminal domain of the corresponding HigA2 antitoxin, have been purified and crystallized. The HigBA2 compl...

  20. Higher-Order Structure in Bacterial VapBC Toxin-Antitoxin Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kirstine L; Brodersen, Ditlev E

    2017-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin systems are widespread in the bacterial kingdom, including in pathogenic species, where they allow rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions through selective inhibition of key cellular processes, such as DNA replication or protein translation. Under normal growth...... that allow auto-regulation of transcription by direct binding to promoter DNA. In this chapter, we review our current understanding of the structural characteristics of type II toxin-antitoxin complexes in bacterial cells, with a special emphasis on the staggering variety of higher-order architecture...... conditions, type II toxins are inhibited through tight protein-protein interaction with a cognate antitoxin protein. This toxin-antitoxin complex associates into a higher-order macromolecular structure, typically heterotetrameric or heterooctameric, exposing two DNA binding domains on the antitoxin...

  1. Bacterial Toxin–Antitoxin Systems: More Than Selfish Entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Melderen, Laurence; Saavedra De Bast, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes. PMID:19325885

  2. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Van Melderen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxin's deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxin's destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes.

  3. Toxin-antitoxin systems and regulatory mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayden, Richard A; Dawson, Clinton C; Cummings, Jason E

    2018-06-01

    There has been a significant reduction in annual tuberculosis incidence since the World Health Organization declared tuberculosis a global health threat. However, treatment of M. tuberculosis infections requires lengthy multidrug therapeutic regimens to achieve a durable cure. The development of new drugs that are active against resistant strains and phenotypically diverse organisms continues to present the greatest challenge in the future. Numerous phylogenomic analyses have revealed that the Mtb genome encodes a significantly expanded repertoire of toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci that makes up the Mtb TA system. A TA loci is a two-gene operon encoding a 'toxin' protein that inhibits bacterial growth and an interacting 'antitoxin' partner that neutralizes the inhibitory activity of the toxin. The presence of multiple chromosomally encoded TA loci in Mtb raises important questions in regard to expansion, regulation and function. Thus, the functional roles of TA loci in Mtb pathogenesis have received considerable attention over the last decade. The cumulative results indicate that they are involved in regulating adaptive responses to stresses associated with the host environment and drug treatment. Here we review the TA families encoded in Mtb, discuss the duplication of TA loci in Mtb, regulatory mechanism of TA loci, and phenotypic heterogeneity and pathogenesis.

  4. Discovery of Functional Toxin/Antitoxin Systems in Bacteria by Shotgun Cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sberro, Hila; Leavitt, Azita; Kiro, Ruth; Koh, Eugene; Peleg, Yoav; Qimron, Udi; Sorek, Rotem

    2013-04-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, composed of a toxic protein and a counteracting antitoxin, play important roles in bacterial physiology. We examined the experimental insertion of 1.5 million genes from 388 microbial genomes into an Escherichia coli host using over 8.5 million random clones. This revealed hundreds of genes (toxins) that could only be cloned when the neighboring gene (antitoxin) was present on the same clone. Clustering of these genes revealed TA families widespread in bacterial genomes, some of which deviate from the classical characteristics previously described for such modules. Introduction of these genes into E. coli validated that the toxin toxicity is mitigated by the antitoxin. Infection experiments with T7 phage showed that two of the new modules can provide resistance against phage. Moreover, our experiments revealed an 'anti-defense' protein in phage T7 that neutralizes phage resistance. Our results expose active fronts in the arms race between bacteria and phage.

  5. Effect of biotherapeutics on antitoxin IgG in experimentally induced Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recurrent diarrhoea after successful treatment of primary Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD occurs due to bowel flora alterations and failure to mount an effective antibody response. Apart from antibiotics, risk factors include immunosuppressive and acid-suppressive drug administration. Biotherapeutics such as probiotic and epidermal growth factor (EGF may offer potential effective therapy for CDAD. Materials and Methods: The effect of biotherapeutics in mounting an antibody response against C. difficile toxins was studied in BALB/c mice challenged with C. difficile after pre-treatment with ampicillin, lansoprazole or cyclosporin. Sera from sacrificed animals were estimated for antitoxin IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Antitoxin IgG was significantly higher (P0.05 in animals in which C. difficile was given after pre-treatment with cyclosporin compared to those without any pre-treatment, or pre-treatment with antibiotic or lansoprazole. In inter-subgroup comparisons also significant anomaly in production of antitoxin IgG was found. The antitoxin IgG levels were raised in animals administered C. difficile after pre-treatment with ampicillin, but lower in animals administered cyclosporin. High levels of antitoxin IgG were also found in the serum samples of animals receiving lansoprazole and C. difficile. Conclusions: Probiotics showed their beneficial effect by boosting the immune response as seen by production of antitoxin IgG. Oral administration of EGF did not affect the immune response to C. difficile toxins as significant increase was not observed in the serum antitoxin IgG levels in any of the groups investigated.

  6. Plasma as alternatively sample to quantify tetanus antitoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez-Barrios

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus antitoxin is quantified in Cuba at blood banks, from the serum of immunized donors, to produce aspecific human gamma globulin. A heterogeneous indirect immunoenzymatic assay is used, using the serum as analytical sample. The possible use of plasma obtained from plasmapheresis as alternative sample was evaluated in this research, to minimize the volume of total blood extracted to the donors. One hundred plasma donors who came to donate between October and November 2013 were selected by simple random sampling. Serum sample was obtained for extraction of 5 mL of blood, deposited in dry glass tube. While the other sample took 1.5 mL of plasma in a plastic tube with cover, at the end of the donation directly of the unit of plasma collected. Comparison of the difference between the means of both groups was done using SPSS for Windows. It was found that the values obtained in serum were bigger than those obtained in plasma. Difference between the means of both groups was statistically significant (p 0.00. It is not advisable to use the obtained plasma of the plasmapheresis as analytic sample in this assay.

  7. Access to diphtheria antitoxin for therapy and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, L; White, J; Mandal, S; Efstratiou, A

    2014-06-19

    The most effective treatment for diphtheria is swift administration of diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) with conjunct antibiotic therapy. DAT is an equine immunoglobulin preparation and listed among the World Health Organization Essential Medicines. Essential Medicines should be available in functioning health systems at all times in adequate amounts, in appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality, and at prices individuals and the community can afford. However, DAT is in scarce supply and frequently unavailable to patients because of discontinued production in several countries, low economic viability, and high regulatory requirements for the safe manufacture of blood-derived products. DAT is also a cornerstone of diphtheria diagnostics but several diagnostic reference laboratories across the European Union (EU) and elsewhere routinely face problems in sourcing DAT for toxigenicity testing. Overall, global access to DAT for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications seems inadequate. Therefore--besides efforts to improve the current supply of DAT--accelerated research and development of alternatives including monoclonal antibodies for therapy and molecular-based methods for diagnostics are required. Given the rarity of the disease, it would be useful to organise a small stockpile centrally for all EU countries and to maintain an inventory of DAT availability within and between countries.

  8. Interactions of Kid-Kis toxin-antitoxin complexes with the parD operator-promotor region of plasmid R1 are piloted by the Kis antitoxin and tuned by the stoichiometry of Kid-Kis oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, M.C.; Hernandez-Arriaga, A.M.; Kamphuis, M.B.; Lopez-Villarejo, J.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1 encodes a toxin–antitoxin system, which is involved in plasmid stabilization. The toxin Kid inhibits cell growth by RNA degradation and its action is neutralized by the formation of a tight complex with the antitoxin Kis. A fascinating but poorly

  9. Regulating Toxin-Antitoxin Expression: Controlled Detonation of Intracellular Molecular Timebombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finbarr Hayes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes for toxin-antitoxin (TA complexes are widely disseminated in bacteria, including in pathogenic and antibiotic resistant species. The toxins are liberated from association with the cognate antitoxins by certain physiological triggers to impair vital cellular functions. TAs also are implicated in antibiotic persistence, biofilm formation, and bacteriophage resistance. Among the ever increasing number of TA modules that have been identified, the most numerous are complexes in which both toxin and antitoxin are proteins. Transcriptional autoregulation of the operons encoding these complexes is key to ensuring balanced TA production and to prevent inadvertent toxin release. Control typically is exerted by binding of the antitoxin to regulatory sequences upstream of the operons. The toxin protein commonly works as a transcriptional corepressor that remodels and stabilizes the antitoxin. However, there are notable exceptions to this paradigm. Moreover, it is becoming clear that TA complexes often form one strand in an interconnected web of stress responses suggesting that their transcriptional regulation may prove to be more intricate than currently understood. Furthermore, interference with TA gene transcriptional autoregulation holds considerable promise as a novel antibacterial strategy: artificial release of the toxin factor using designer drugs is a potential approach to induce bacterial suicide from within.

  10. Purification and crystallization of Phd, the antitoxin of the phd/doc operon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Sterckx, Yann; Vandenbussche, Guy; Loris, Remy

    2010-01-01

    The antitoxin Phd from the phd/doc operon of bacteriophage P1 was crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. The antitoxin Phd from the phd/doc module of bacteriophage P1 was crystallized in two distinct crystal forms. Crystals of His-tagged Phd contain a C-terminally truncated version of the protein and diffract to 2.20 Å resolution. Crystals of untagged Phd purified from the Phd–Doc complex diffract to 2.25 Å resolution. These crystals are partially merohedrally twinned and contain the full-length version of the protein

  11. Conditional Cooperativity in Toxin-Antitoxin Regulation Prevents Random Toxin Activation and Promotes Fast Translational Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria; Trusina, Ala; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    system, relBE of Escherichia coli. We show that the model with the in vivo and in vitro established parameters reproduces experimentally observed response to nutritional stress. We further demonstrate that conditional cooperativity stabilizes the level of antitoxin in rapidly growing cells...

  12. The interaction of the antitoxin DM43 with a snake venom metalloproteinase analyzed by mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Guilherme D; Salbo, Rune; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-01-01

    DM43 is a circulating dimeric antitoxin isolated from Didelphis aurita, a South American marsupial naturally immune to snake envenomation. This endogenous inhibitor binds non-covalently to jararhagin, the main hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and efficiently...

  13. [A case of freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin for the treatment of Clostridium perfringens sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Juichiro; Nakamura, Hideki; Yamada, Shinya; Sekoguchi, Satoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomatsuri, Naoya; Sato, Hideki; Okuyama, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2015-02-01

    A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with high fever. We diagnosed a gas-containing liver abscess and performed percutaneous abscess drainage. However, 15 hours after admission, he developed massive intravascular hemolysis and acidosis. Sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens was suspected and we treated the patient intensively with multidisciplinary approaches, including antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, we administered freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin. Despite intensive care, the patient died 43 hours after admission.

  14. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system as containment control in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, P.; Jensen, G. B.; Gerdes, K.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of a bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system for use in containment control in eukaryotes was explored. The Escherichia coli relE and relB genes were expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Expression of the relE gene was highly toxic to yeast cells. However, expression...... fermentation processes in which the escape of genetically modified cells would be considered highly risky....

  15. Artificial activation of toxin-antitoxin systems as an antibacterial strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Julia J.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are unique modules that effect plasmid stabilization via post-segregational killing of the bacterial host. The genes encoding TA systems also exist on bacterial chromosomes, where they are speculated to be involved in a variety of cellular processes. Interest in TA systems has increased dramatically over the past five years as the ubiquitous nature of TA genes on bacterial genomes has been revealed. The exploitation of TA systems as an antibacterial strategy via a...

  16. BtoxDB: a comprehensive database of protein structural data on toxin-antitoxin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luiz Carlos Bertucci; Garrido, Saulo Santesso; Marchetto, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and abundant genetic modules in prokaryotic cells that are typically formed by two genes encoding a stable toxin and a labile antitoxin. Because TA systems are able to repress growth or kill cells and are considered to be important actors in cell persistence (multidrug resistance without genetic change), these modules are considered potential targets for alternative drug design. In this scenario, structural information for the proteins in these systems is highly valuable. In this report, we describe the development of a web-based system, named BtoxDB, that stores all protein structural data on TA systems. The BtoxDB database was implemented as a MySQL relational database using PHP scripting language. Web interfaces were developed using HTML, CSS and JavaScript. The data were collected from the PDB, UniProt and Entrez databases. These data were appropriately filtered using specialized literature and our previous knowledge about toxin-antitoxin systems. The database provides three modules ("Search", "Browse" and "Statistics") that enable searches, acquisition of contents and access to statistical data. Direct links to matching external databases are also available. The compilation of all protein structural data on TA systems in one platform is highly useful for researchers interested in this content. BtoxDB is publicly available at http://www.gurupi.uft.edu.br/btoxdb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Chieng Yeo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies.

  18. Heterologous Expression of Toxins from Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Eukaryotic Cells: Strategies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chew Chieng; Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Chan, Wai Ting; Espinosa, Manuel; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are found in nearly all prokaryotic genomes and usually consist of a pair of co-transcribed genes, one of which encodes a stable toxin and the other, its cognate labile antitoxin. Certain environmental and physiological cues trigger the degradation of the antitoxin, causing activation of the toxin, leading either to the death or stasis of the host cell. TA systems have a variety of functions in the bacterial cell, including acting as mediators of programmed cell death, the induction of a dormant state known as persistence and the stable maintenance of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Some bacterial TA systems are functional when expressed in eukaryotic cells and this has led to several innovative applications, which are the subject of this review. Here, we look at how bacterial TA systems have been utilized for the genetic manipulation of yeasts and other eukaryotes, for the containment of genetically modified organisms, and for the engineering of high expression eukaryotic cell lines. We also examine how TA systems have been adopted as an important tool in developmental biology research for the ablation of specific cells and the potential for utility of TA systems in antiviral and anticancer gene therapies. PMID:26907343

  19. The Intrinsically Disordered Domain of the Antitoxin Phd Chaperones the Toxin Doc against Irreversible Inactivation and Misfolding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-01-01

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. PMID:25326388

  20. Structure, Biology, and Therapeutic Application of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2016-10-22

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have received increasing attention for their diverse identities, structures, and functional implications in cell cycle arrest and survival against environmental stresses such as nutrient deficiency, antibiotic treatments, and immune system attacks. In this review, we describe the biological functions and the auto-regulatory mechanisms of six different types of TA systems, among which the type II TA system has been most extensively studied. The functions of type II toxins include mRNA/tRNA cleavage, gyrase/ribosome poison, and protein phosphorylation, which can be neutralized by their cognate antitoxins. We mainly explore the similar but divergent structures of type II TA proteins from 12 important pathogenic bacteria, including various aspects of protein-protein interactions. Accumulating knowledge about the structure-function correlation of TA systems from pathogenic bacteria has facilitated a novel strategy to develop antibiotic drugs that target specific pathogens. These molecules could increase the intrinsic activity of the toxin by artificially interfering with the intermolecular network of the TA systems.

  1. A Viral Nanoparticle with Dual Function as an Anthrax Antitoxin and Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayani, Darly J; Thomas, Diane; Dryden, Kelly A; Reddy, Vijay; Siladi, Marc E; Marlett, John M; Rainey, G. Jonah A; Pique, Michael E; Scobie, Heather M; Yeager, Mark; Young, John A. T; Manchester, Marianne; Schneemann, Anette

    2007-01-01

    The recent use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon has stimulated the search for novel antitoxins and vaccines that act rapidly and with minimal adverse effects. B. anthracis produces an AB-type toxin composed of the receptor-binding moiety protective antigen (PA) and the enzymatic moieties edema factor and lethal factor. PA is a key target for both antitoxin and vaccine development. We used the icosahedral insect virus Flock House virus as a platform to display 180 copies of the high affinity, PA-binding von Willebrand A domain of the ANTXR2 cellular receptor. The chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) correctly displayed the receptor von Willebrand A domain on their surface and inhibited lethal toxin action in in vitro and in vivo models of anthrax intoxication. Moreover, VLPs complexed with PA elicited a potent toxin-neutralizing antibody response that protected rats from anthrax lethal toxin challenge after a single immunization without adjuvant. This recombinant VLP platform represents a novel and highly effective, dually-acting reagent for treatment and protection against anthrax. PMID:17922572

  2. The DinJ/RelE Toxin-Antitoxin System Suppresses Bacterial Proliferation and Virulence of Xylella fastidiosa in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapes, is a slow-growing, xylem-limited, bacterial pathogen. Disease progression is characterized by systemic spread of the bacterium through xylem vessel networks, causing leaf-scorching symptoms, senescence, and vine decline. It appears to be advantageous to this pathogen to avoid excessive blockage of xylem vessels, because living bacterial cells are generally found in plant tissue with low bacterial cell density and minimal scorching symptoms. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin system is characterized here for a role in controlling bacterial proliferation and population size during plant colonization. The DinJ/RelE locus is transcribed from two separate promoters, allowing for coexpression of antitoxin DinJ with endoribonuclease toxin RelE, in addition to independent expression of RelE. The ratio of antitoxin/toxin expressed is dependent on bacterial growth conditions, with lower amounts of antitoxin present under conditions designed to mimic grapevine xylem sap. A knockout mutant of DinJ/RelE exhibits a hypervirulent phenotype, with higher bacterial populations and increased symptom development and plant decline. It is likely that DinJ/RelE acts to prevent excessive population growth, contributing to the ability of the pathogen to spread systemically without completely blocking the xylem vessels and increasing probability of acquisition by the insect vector.

  3. Interactions between the toxin kid of the bacterial parD system and the antitoxins Kis and MazE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.B.; Monti, M.C.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.; Santos-Sierra, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Lemonnier, M.; Diaz-Orejas, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Boelens, R.

    2007-01-01

    The proteins Kid and Kis are the toxin and antitoxin, respectively, encoded by the parD operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R1. Kis prevents the inhibition of E. coli cell growth caused by the RNA cleavage activity of Kid. Overproduction of MazE, the chromosome-encoded homologue of Kis, has been

  4. What is the link between stringent response, endoribonuclease encoding type II toxin-antitoxin systems and persistence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramisetty, B. C. M.; Ghosh, Debabrata; Chowdhury, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Persistence is a transient and non-inheritable tolerance to antibiotics by a small fraction of a bacterial population. One of the proposed determinants of bacterial persistence is toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) which are also implicated in a wide range of stress-related phenomena. Maisonneuve E, ...

  5. Structural studies of the toxin-antitoxin proteins RelE and RelB from E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Overgaard, Martin; Gerdes, Kenn

    the special tRNA-mRNA mimic, tmRNA [1]. Questions to be addressed Many questions remain to be answered in the bacterial toxin-antitoxin system. The crystal structure of RelBE from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 was previously solved at 2.3Å [2]. This structure shows the molecule in an inactive state, but OT3......The bacterial toxin-antitoxin system The relBE operon in E. coli encodes two small proteins: A toxin, RelE (12 kDa) and an antitoxin, RelB (9 kDa). RelE is activated under nutritional stress and is able to inhibit protein synthesis by cleaving the mRNA in the ribosomal A-site. This stress response...... serves to down-regulate metabolism in the cell when growth conditions are limited. RelB is expressed in excess over RelE during balanced growth, and inhibits the toxicity of RelE by forming an extremely stable toxin-antitoxin complex. The activation of RelE is induced when the labile RelB protein...

  6. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarova Kira S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS, also referred to as TA loci are widespread, mobile two-gene modules that can be viewed as selfish genetic elements because they evolved mechanisms to become addictive for replicons and cells in which they reside, but also possess "normal" cellular functions in various forms of stress response and management of prokaryotic population. Several distinct TAS of type 1, where the toxin is a protein and the antitoxin is an antisense RNA, and numerous, unrelated TAS of type 2, in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are proteins, have been experimentally characterized, and it is suspected that many more remain to be identified. Results We report a comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems in prokaryotes. Using sensitive methods for distant sequence similarity search, genome context analysis and a new approach for the identification of mobile two-component systems, we identified numerous, previously unnoticed protein families that are homologous to toxins and antitoxins of known type 2 TAS. In addition, we predict 12 new families of toxins and 13 families of antitoxins, and also, predict a TAS or TAS-like activity for several gene modules that were not previously suspected to function in that capacity. In particular, we present indications that the two-gene module that encodes a minimal nucleotidyl transferase and the accompanying HEPN protein, and is extremely abundant in many archaea and bacteria, especially, thermophiles might comprise a novel TAS. We present a survey of previously known and newly predicted TAS in 750 complete genomes of archaea and bacteria, quantitatively demonstrate the exceptional mobility of the TAS, and explore the network of toxin-antitoxin pairings that combines plasticity with selectivity. Conclusion The defining properties of the TAS, namely, the typically small size of the toxin and antitoxin genes, fast evolution, and

  7. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-06-03

    The prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS, also referred to as TA loci) are widespread, mobile two-gene modules that can be viewed as selfish genetic elements because they evolved mechanisms to become addictive for replicons and cells in which they reside, but also possess "normal" cellular functions in various forms of stress response and management of prokaryotic population. Several distinct TAS of type 1, where the toxin is a protein and the antitoxin is an antisense RNA, and numerous, unrelated TAS of type 2, in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are proteins, have been experimentally characterized, and it is suspected that many more remain to be identified. We report a comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems in prokaryotes. Using sensitive methods for distant sequence similarity search, genome context analysis and a new approach for the identification of mobile two-component systems, we identified numerous, previously unnoticed protein families that are homologous to toxins and antitoxins of known type 2 TAS. In addition, we predict 12 new families of toxins and 13 families of antitoxins, and also, predict a TAS or TAS-like activity for several gene modules that were not previously suspected to function in that capacity. In particular, we present indications that the two-gene module that encodes a minimal nucleotidyl transferase and the accompanying HEPN protein, and is extremely abundant in many archaea and bacteria, especially, thermophiles might comprise a novel TAS. We present a survey of previously known and newly predicted TAS in 750 complete genomes of archaea and bacteria, quantitatively demonstrate the exceptional mobility of the TAS, and explore the network of toxin-antitoxin pairings that combines plasticity with selectivity. The defining properties of the TAS, namely, the typically small size of the toxin and antitoxin genes, fast evolution, and extensive horizontal mobility, make the task of

  8. Discovery of Peptide-Based Antitoxins against Neurotoxins from Green and Black Mamba (Dendroaspis Family)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jappe, Emma Christine; Munk, Andreas; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    treatment. Since the introduction of antivenoms in the 1890’s, only modest advances in antivenom technology and production have been made. Current antivenoms are, therefore, still being produced by immunisation of large ruminants, typically horses, with snake venoms and subsequently bleeding them to collect...... blood comprising venom-specific antibodies [4]. The incompatibility of these antivenoms with the human immune system canlead to serious adverse effects. A novel approach is needed in order to introduce safer, cheaper and more efficacious antivenoms that are compatible with the human immune system...... dendrotoxins α-dendrotoxin (α-Dtx, UniProtKBP00980), isolated from Dendroaspisangusticeps (Green mamba), and dendrotoxin I (Dtx I, UniProtKBP00979) from Dendroaspis polylepis (Black mamba) by phage display [5,6].Cross-reactive antitoxins with theability to neutralise several toxins are of interest to antivenom...

  9. Kinetics of epsilon antitoxin antibodies in different strategies for active immunization of lambs against enterotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni F. Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia, a common disease that affects domestic small ruminants, is mainly caused by the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. The present study tested four distinct immunization protocols to evaluate humoral response in lambs, a progeny of non-vaccinated sheep during gestation. Twenty-four lambs were randomly allocated into four groups according to age (7, 15, 30 and 45 days, receiving the first dose of epsilon toxoid commercial vaccine against clostridiosis with booster after 30 days post vaccination. Indirect ELISA was performed after the first vaccine dose and booster to evaluate the immune response of the lambs. Results showed that for the four protocols tested all lambs presented serum title considered protective (≥0.2UI/ml epsilon antitoxin antibodies and also showed that the anticipation of primovaccination of lambs against enterotoxaemia conferred serum title considered protective allowing the optimization of mass vaccination of lambs.

  10. Artificial activation of toxin-antitoxin systems as an antibacterial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia J; Hergenrother, Paul J

    2012-06-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are unique modules that effect plasmid stabilization via post-segregational killing of the bacterial host. The genes encoding TA systems also exist on bacterial chromosomes, and it has been speculated that these are involved in a variety of cellular processes. Interest in TA systems has increased dramatically over the past 5 years as the ubiquitous nature of TA genes on bacterial genomes has been revealed. The exploitation of TA systems as an antibacterial strategy via artificial activation of the toxin has been proposed and has considerable potential; however, efforts in this area remain in the early stages and several major questions remain. This review investigates the tractability of targeting TA systems to kill bacteria, including fundamental requirements for success, recent advances, and challenges associated with artificial toxin activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteomic profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies nutrient-starvation-responsive toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Agner, Jeppe; Piersma, Sander R

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully enter the latent stage, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must adapt to conditions such as nutrient limitation and hypoxia. In vitro models that mimic latent infection are valuable tools for describing the changes in metabolism that occur when the bacterium exists in a non......-growing form. We used two complementary proteomic approaches, label-free LC-MS/MS analysis and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, to determine the proteome profile of extracellular proteins from M. tuberculosis cultured under nutrient starvation. Through the label-free LC-MS/MS analysis......, significant differences in the overall metabolism during nutrient starvation were detected. Notably, members of the toxin-antitoxin systems were present in larger quantities in nutrient-starved cultures, supporting a role for these global modules as M. tuberculosis switches its metabolism into dormancy...

  12. The intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin Phd chaperones the toxin Doc against irreversible inactivation and misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Konijnenberg, Albert; Talavera, Ariel; Butterer, Annika; Haesaerts, Sarah; De Greve, Henri; Sobott, Frank; Loris, Remy; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-12-05

    The toxin Doc from the phd/doc toxin-antitoxin module targets the cellular translation machinery and is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd. Here we show that Phd also functions as a chaperone, keeping Doc in an active, correctly folded conformation. In the absence of Phd, Doc exists in a relatively expanded state that is prone to dimerization through domain swapping with its active site loop acting as hinge region. The domain-swapped dimer is not capable of arresting protein synthesis in vitro, whereas the Doc monomer is. Upon binding to Phd, Doc becomes more compact and is secured in its monomeric state with a neutralized active site. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Diversity, Prevalence, and Longitudinal Occurrence of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Ghoul, Melanie; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2017-01-01

    Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress...... responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms—all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2) limited mutations in core genome TA loci, suggesting they are not under negative selection; (3) no evidence for horizontal transmission of elements with TA systems between clone types within patients, despite their ability...

  14. The MazEF Toxin-Antitoxin System Alters the β-Lactam Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Schuster

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are genetic elements of prokaryotes which encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin that can counteract toxicity. TA systems residing on plasmids are often involved in episomal maintenance whereas those on chromosomes can have multiple functions. The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus possesses at least four different families of TA systems but their physiological roles are elusive. The chromosomal mazEF system encodes the RNase toxin MazF and the antitoxin MazE. In the light of ambiguity regarding the cleavage activity, we here verify that MazF specifically targets UACAU sequences in S. aureus in vivo. In a native strain background and under non-stress conditions, cleavage was observed in the absence or presence of mazE. Transcripts of spa (staphylococcal protein A and rsbW (anti-σB factor were cut, but translational reporter fusions indicated that protein levels of the encoded products were unaffected. Despite a comparable growth rate as the wild-type, an S. aureus mazEF deletion mutant was more susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics, which suggests that further genes, putatively involved in the antibiotic stress response or cell wall synthesis or turnover, are controlled by this TA system.

  15. Studies of the distribution of intrathecally injected 125I-tetanus antitoxin-F(ab')2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanauske, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Overall F(ab') 2 and antitetanus-f(ab') 2 - fragments were labelled with 125 I and injected i.th. into normal juvenile cats and adult rats. One group of rats was normal; in the other, unilateral local tetanus had been induced by injection of tetanus toxin into a M. gastrocnemius. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after the i.th. injection, and tissue samples were taken for histoautoradiography. 125 I-antitetanus-F(ab') 2 permeated into the extracellular space of the spinal cord, roots, and ganglia but not into the neuronal intracellular space. 125 I-overall-F(ab') showed identical permeation behaviour. 125 I-antitetanus-F(ab') 2 reacted with tetanus toxin issuing from the motoneurons after i.th. injection, forming an immunocomplex around the motorneurons. The immunocomplex was not formed around pseudo-unipolar ganglian cells in the spinal ganglia even though some of the ganglian cells contained tetanus toxin, and 125 I-antitetanus-F(ab') 2 was present in the extracellular space. As an explanation, it was suggested that tetanus toxin does not permeate into the extracellular space through the membrane of the pseudo-unipolar ganglian cells so that immune reactions will not occur. These findings help to explain the widely divergent results of tetanus therapy by means of i.th. injection of tetanus antitoxin. Recommendations for future therapy measures are derived from the findings. (orig./MG) [de

  16. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as a novel antibacterial target in Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhan Ghafourian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although analysis of toxin-antitoxin (TA systems can be instructive, to date, there is no information on the prevalence and identity of TA systems based on a large panel of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. The aim of the current study was to screen for functional TA systems among clinical isolates of A. baumannii and to identify the systems’ locations. For this purpose, we screened 85 A. baumannii isolates collected from different clinical sources for the presence of the mazEF, relBE and higBA TA genes. The results revealed that the genes coding for the mazEF TA system were commonly present in all clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that transcripts were produced in the clinical isolates. Our findings showed that TA genes are prevalent, harboured by chromosomes and transcribed within A. baumannii. Hence, activation of the toxin proteins in the mazEF TA system should be investigated further as an effective antibacterial strategy against this bacterium.

  17. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as a novel antibacterial target in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, Sobhan; Good, Liam; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Soheili, Sara; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2014-07-01

    Although analysis of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems can be instructive, to date, there is no information on the prevalence and identity of TA systems based on a large panel of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. The aim of the current study was to screen for functional TA systems among clinical isolates of A. baumannii and to identify the systems' locations. For this purpose, we screened 85 A. baumannii isolates collected from different clinical sources for the presence of the mazEF, relBE and higBA TA genes. The results revealed that the genes coding for the mazEF TA system were commonly present in all clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that transcripts were produced in the clinical isolates. Our findings showed that TA genes are prevalent, harboured by chromosomes and transcribed within A. baumannii. Hence, activation of the toxin proteins in the mazEF TA system should be investigated further as an effective antibacterial strategy against this bacterium.

  18. Crystallization of Doc and the Phd-Doc toxin-antitoxin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa; Gazit, Ehud; Magnuson, Roy David; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2008-11-01

    The phd/doc addiction system is responsible for the stable inheritance of lysogenic bacteriophage P1 in its plasmidic form in Escherichia coli and is the archetype of a family of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules. The His66Tyr mutant of Doc (Doc(H66Y)) was crystallized in space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.1, b = 198.0, c = 54.1 A, beta = 93.0 degrees . These crystals diffracted to 2.5 A resolution and probably contained four dimers of Doc in the asymmetric unit. Doc(H66Y) in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd (Phd(52-73Se)) was crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.1, b = 38.6, c = 63.3 A, beta = 99.3 degrees , and diffracted to 1.9 A resolution. Crystals of the complete wild-type Phd-Doc complex belonged to space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, had an elongated unit cell with dimensions a = b = 48.9, c = 354.9 A and diffracted to 2.4 A resolution using synchrotron radiation.

  19. Crystallization of Doc and the Phd–Doc toxin–antitoxin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa; Gazit, Ehud; Magnuson, Roy David; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of bacteriophage P1 Doc were grown in the free state, in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd and in complex with full-length Phd. The phd/doc addiction system is responsible for the stable inheritance of lysogenic bacteriophage P1 in its plasmidic form in Escherichia coli and is the archetype of a family of bacterial toxin–antitoxin modules. The His66Tyr mutant of Doc (Doc H66Y ) was crystallized in space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 53.1, b = 198.0, c = 54.1 Å, β = 93.0°. These crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and probably contained four dimers of Doc in the asymmetric unit. Doc H66Y in complex with a 22-amino-acid C-terminal peptide of Phd (Phd 52-73Se ) was crystallized in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.1, b = 38.6, c = 63.3 Å, β = 99.3°, and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. Crystals of the complete wild-type Phd–Doc complex belonged to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21, had an elongated unit cell with dimensions a = b = 48.9, c = 354.9 Å and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation

  20. Neutralization of Bacterial YoeBSpn Toxicity and Enhanced Plant Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana via Co-Expression of the Toxin-Antitoxin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Fauziah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have various cellular functions, including as part of the general stress response. The genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors several putative TA systems, including yefM-yoeBSpn, which is one of four systems that had been demonstrated to be biologically functional. Overexpression of the yoeBSpn toxin gene resulted in cell stasis and eventually cell death in its native host, as well as in Escherichia coli. Our previous work showed that induced expression of a yoeBSpn toxin-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) fusion gene apparently triggered apoptosis and was lethal in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-expression of the yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic A. thaliana. When co-expressed in Arabidopsis, the YefMSpn antitoxin was found to neutralize the toxicity of YoeBSpn-GFP. Interestingly, the inducible expression of both yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic hybrid Arabidopsis resulted in larger rosette leaves and taller plants with a higher number of inflorescence stems and increased silique production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a prokaryotic antitoxin neutralizing its cognate toxin in plant cells. PMID:27104531

  1. Neutralization of Bacterial YoeBSpn Toxicity and Enhanced Plant Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana via Co-Expression of the Toxin-Antitoxin Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Abu Bakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA systems have various cellular functions, including as part of the general stress response. The genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors several putative TA systems, including yefM-yoeBSpn, which is one of four systems that had been demonstrated to be biologically functional. Overexpression of the yoeBSpn toxin gene resulted in cell stasis and eventually cell death in its native host, as well as in Escherichia coli. Our previous work showed that induced expression of a yoeBSpn toxin-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP fusion gene apparently triggered apoptosis and was lethal in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-expression of the yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic A. thaliana. When co-expressed in Arabidopsis, the YefMSpn antitoxin was found to neutralize the toxicity of YoeBSpn-GFP. Interestingly, the inducible expression of both yefMSpn antitoxin and yoeBSpn toxin-GFP fusion in transgenic hybrid Arabidopsis resulted in larger rosette leaves and taller plants with a higher number of inflorescence stems and increased silique production. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a prokaryotic antitoxin neutralizing its cognate toxin in plant cells.

  2. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sonobe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test. In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001. Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r² = 0.95, P < 0.0001 and for diphtheria (r² = 0.93, P < 0.0001 between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.

  3. Identification of a human monoclonal antibody to replace equine diphtheria antitoxin for treatment of diphtheria intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Leila M; Booth, Brian J; Rowley, Kirk J; Leav, Brett A; Cheslock, Peter S; Garrity, Kerry A; Sloan, Susan E; Thomas, William; Babcock, Gregory J; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) has been the cornerstone of the treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection for more than 100 years. Although the global incidence of diphtheria has declined steadily over the last quarter of the 20th century, the disease remains endemic in many parts of the world, and significant outbreaks still occur. DAT is an equine polyclonal antibody that is not commercially available in the United States and is in short supply globally. A safer, more readily available alternative to DAT would be desirable. In the current study, we obtained human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) directly from antibody-secreting cells in the circulation of immunized human volunteers. We isolated a panel of diverse hMAbs that recognized diphtheria toxoid, as well as a variety of recombinant protein fragments of diphtheria toxin. Forty-five unique hMAbs were tested for neutralization of diphtheria toxin in in vitro cytotoxicity assays with a 50% effective concentration of 0.65 ng/ml for the lead candidate hMAb, 315C4. In addition, 25 μg of 315C4 completely protected guinea pigs from intoxication in an in vivo lethality model, yielding an estimated relative potency of 64 IU/mg. In comparison, 1.6 IU of DAT was necessary for full protection from morbidity and mortality in this model. We further established that our lead candidate hMAb binds to the receptor-binding domain of diphtheria toxin and physically blocks the toxin from binding to the putative receptor, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor. The discovery of a specific and potent human neutralizing antibody against diphtheria toxin holds promise as a potential therapeutic.

  4. A toxin antitoxin system promotes the maintenance of the IncA/C-mobilizable Salmonella Genomic Island 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Kevin T; Gonnet, Mathieu; Doublet, Benoît; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2016-08-31

    The multidrug resistance Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative mobilizable element identified in several enterobacterial pathogens. This chromosomal island requires a conjugative IncA/C plasmid to be excised as a circular extrachromosomal form and conjugally mobilized in trans. Preliminary observations suggest stable maintenance of SGI1 in the host chromosome but paradoxically also incompatibility between SGI1 and IncA/C plasmids. Here, using a Salmonella enterica serovar Agona clonal bacterial population as model, we demonstrate that a Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) system encoded by SGI1 plays a critical role in its stable host maintenance when an IncA/C plasmid is concomitantly present. This system, designated sgiAT for Salmonella genomic island 1 Antitoxin and Toxin respectively, thus seems to play a stabilizing role in a situation where SGI1 is susceptible to be lost through plasmid IncA/C-mediated excision. Moreover and for the first time, the incompatibility between SGI1 and IncA/C plasmids was experimentally confirmed.

  5. Diversity, Prevalence, and Longitudinal Occurrence of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Andersen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms—all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, across longitudinally sampled isolates from cystic fibrosis lungs. We identify their location in the genome, mutations, and gain/loss during infection to elucidate their function(s in stabilizing selfish elements and pathogenesis. We found (1 26 distinct TA systems, where all isolates harbor four in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2 limited mutations in core genome TA loci, suggesting they are not under negative selection; (3 no evidence for horizontal transmission of elements with TA systems between clone types within patients, despite their ability to mobilize; (4 no gain and limited loss of TA-bearing genomic islands, and of those elements partially lost, the remnant regions carry the TA systems supporting their role in genomic stabilization; (5 no significant correlation between frequency of TA systems and strain ability to establish as chronic infection, but those with a particular TA, are more successful in establishing a chronic infection.

  6. A Toxin-Antitoxin System VapBC15 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Shows Distinct Regulatory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Fei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II toxin–antitoxin (TA systems play important roles in bacterial stress survival by regulating cell growth or death. They are highly abundant in cyanobacteria yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification and regulation of a putative type II TA system from Synechocystis PCC6803, VapBC15. The VapBC15 system is encoded by the chromosomal operon vapBC15. Exogenous expression of VapC15 dramatically arrested cell growth of Escherichia coli and reduced the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU. The VapC15 toxicity could be which was counteracted neutralized by simultaneous or delayed production of VapB15. Biochemical analysis demonstrated the formation of VapB15-VapC15 complexes by the physical interaction between VapB15 and VapC15. Notably, the VapB15 antitoxin up-regulated the transcription of the vapBC15 operon by directly binding to the promoter region, and the VapC15 toxin abolished the up-regulatory effect by destabilizing the binding. Moreover, VapB15 can be degraded by the proteases Lons and ClpXP2s from Synechocystis PCC6803, thus activating the latent toxicity of VapBC15. These findings suggest that VapBC15 represents a genuine TA system that utilizes a distinct mechanism to regulate toxin activity.

  7. The HigB/HigA Toxin/Antitoxin System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Influences the Virulence Factors Pyochelin, Pyocyanin, and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    translation- dependent mRNA cleavage at A- rich sites. J. Biol. Chem. 284:18605–18613. Islam, S., M. J. Benedik, and T. K. Wood. 2015. Orphan toxin OrtT...Bacteriol. 192:6191–6199. Norton, J. P., and M. A. Mulvey. 2012. Toxin- antitoxin systems are important for niche - specific colonization and stress

  8. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Alexander; Liesch, Marius; Körner, Jonas; Québatte, Maxime; Engel, Philipp; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS) evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP) domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal-the BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain-similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping stone in the

  9. A bacterial toxin-antitoxin module is the origin of inter-bacterial and inter-kingdom effectors of Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Harms

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Host-targeting type IV secretion systems (T4SS evolved from conjugative T4SS machineries that mediate interbacterial plasmid transfer. However, the origins of effectors secreted by these virulence devices have remained largely elusive. Previous work showed that some effectors exhibit homology to toxins of bacterial toxin-antitoxin modules, but the evolutionary trajectories underlying these ties had not been resolved. We previously reported that FicT toxins of FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules disrupt cellular DNA topology via their enzymatic FIC (filamentation induced by cAMP domain. Intriguingly, the FIC domain of the FicT toxin VbhT of Bartonella schoenbuchensis is fused to a type IV secretion signal-the BID (Bep intracellular delivery domain-similar to the Bartonella effector proteins (Beps that are secreted into eukaryotic host cells via the host-targeting VirB T4SS. In this study, we show that the VbhT toxin is an interbacterial effector protein secreted via the conjugative Vbh T4SS that is closely related to the VirB T4SS and encoded by plasmid pVbh of B. schoenbuchensis. We therefore propose that the Vbh T4SS together with its effector VbhT represent an evolutionary missing link on a path that leads from a regular conjugation system and FicTA toxin-antitoxin modules to the VirB T4SS and the Beps. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the fusion of FIC and BID domains has probably occurred independently in VbhT and the common ancestor of the Beps, suggesting parallel evolutionary paths. Moreover, several other examples of TA module toxins that are bona fide substrates of conjugative T4SS indicate that their recruitment as interbacterial effectors is prevalent and serves yet unknown biological functions in the context of bacterial conjugation. We propose that the adaptation for interbacterial transfer favors the exaptation of FicT and other TA module toxins as inter-kingdom effectors and may thus constitute an important stepping

  10. Is the mazEF toxin-antitoxin system responsible for vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Soheili, Sara; Sekawi, Zamberi; Ghafourian, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and the presence of mazEF toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, which may be useful as target for novel antimicrobial therapy concepts. The susceptibility of E. faecalis was determined by MIC, and the presence of the mazEF TA system was evaluated by PCR. Among 200 E. faecalis isolates 39.5% showed resistance to vancomycin (VRE), while 60.5% were susceptible strains (VSE). The mazEF TA system was positive in all VRE isolates (100%), but less prevalent (38/121, 31.4%) among the 121 VSE strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a positive relationship between the presence of vancomycin resistance and mazEF TA system. This observation may introduce therapeutic options against a novel antimicrobial target in enterococci.

  11. Is the mazEF toxin-antitoxin system responsible for vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between vancomycin-resistant (VRE and the presence of toxin-antitoxin (TA system, which may be useful as target for novel antimicrobial therapy concepts. The susceptibility of was determined by MIC, and the presence of the TA system was evaluated by PCR. Among 200 isolates 39.5% showed resistance to vancomycin (VRE, while 60.5% were susceptible strains (VSE. The TA system was positive in all VRE isolates (100%, but less prevalent (38/121, 31.4% among the 121 VSE strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a positive relationship between the presence of vancomycin resistance and TA system. This observation may introduce therapeutic options against a novel antimicrobial target in enterococci.

  12. The Influence of the Toxin/Antitoxin mazEF on Growth and Survival of Listeria monocytogenes under Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Thomas; Takeuchi, Ippei; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    A major factor in the resilience of Listeria monocytogenes is the alternative sigma factor B (σB). Type II Toxin/Antitoxin (TA) systems are also known to have a role in the bacterial stress response upon activation via the ClpP or Lon proteases. Directly upstream of the σB operon in L....... monocytogenes is the TA system mazEF, which can cleave mRNA at UACMU sites. In this study, we showed that the mazEF TA locus does not affect the level of persister formation during treatment with antibiotics in lethal doses, but exerts different effects according to the sub-inhibitory stress added. Growth...... it is not analogous to the system of S. aureus, suggesting a novel mode of action for MazEF in L. monocytogenes....

  13. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum: Group A -Toxoid form of CV ARS toxins ( SRD-1); Group B-Toxoid form of CR ARS (SRD-2)toxins ; Group C -Toxoid form of GI ARS (SRD-3); Group D -Toxoid form of HP ARS (SRD-4). After the hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated, the IgG fraction was separated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyper-immune serum had revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radi-ation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before and after receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate within 30 days. Also, these animals inoculated with the Antiradiation Antitoxin had exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of the ARS, even those ones that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments have demonstrated that the rabbit hyperimmune IgG preparations directed against SRD toxins provide a significant protection against high doses of radiation. In comparison, the mortality rate of irradiated control animals was 100% in the same time period. The mortality rates of animals treated by the hyperimmune IgG antidote have varied in the different groups of ani-mals and different forms of the ARS. However, significant radioprotection was observed in each group treated with the IgGs. The specific antiradiation antidote IGg isolated from hyperim-mune serum of immunized horses is under study. The specific antiradiation antidote contains antibodies to neurotoxins -SAAN IgG includes 50% IgG to Cv ARS, 25% IgG to Cr ARS and 25 % IgG to Gi ARS. The other type of the Specific antiradiation antidote containes antibodies to hematotoxins -SAAH IgG -100%. A combined variant is under

  14. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users: Time to Antitoxin Correlates with Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay

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    Offerman, Steven R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to identify factors associated with need for mechanical ventilation (MV, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and poor outcome in injection drug users (IDUs with wound botulism (WB.Methods: This is a retrospective review of WB patients admitted between 1991-2005. IDUs were included if they had symptoms of WB and diagnostic confirmation. Primary outcome variables were the need for MV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, hospital-related complications, and death.Results: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two (76% admitted to heroin use only and seven (24% admitted to heroin and methamphetamine use. Chief complaints on initial presentation included visual changes, 13 (45%; weakness, nine (31%; and difficulty swallowing, seven (24%. Skin wounds were documented in 22 (76%. Twenty-one (72% patients underwent mechanical ventilation (MV. Antitoxin (AT was administered to 26 (90% patients but only two received antitoxin in the emergency department (ED. The time from ED presentation to AT administration was associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 2.5; 95% CI 0.45, 4.5. The time from ED presentation to wound drainage was also associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 13.7; 95% CI = 2.3, 25.2. There was no relationship between time to antibiotic administration and length of ICU stay.Conclusion: MV and prolonged ICU stays are common in patients identified with WB. Early AT administration and wound drainage are recommended as these measures may decrease ICU length of stay.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:251-256.

  15. Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress responses, and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly R Ramage

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems, stress-responsive genetic elements ubiquitous in microbial genomes, are unusually abundant in the major human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Why M. tuberculosis has so many TA systems and what role they play in the unique biology of the pathogen is unknown. To address these questions, we have taken a comprehensive approach to identify and functionally characterize all the TA systems encoded in the M. tuberculosis genome. Here we show that 88 putative TA system candidates are present in M. tuberculosis, considerably more than previously thought. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the vast majority of these systems are conserved in the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC, but largely absent from other mycobacteria, including close relatives of M. tuberculosis. We found that many of the M. tuberculosis TA systems are located within discernable genomic islands and were thus likely acquired recently via horizontal gene transfer. We discovered a novel TA system located in the core genome that is conserved across the genus, suggesting that it may fulfill a role common to all mycobacteria. By expressing each of the putative TA systems in M. smegmatis, we demonstrate that 30 encode a functional toxin and its cognate antitoxin. We show that the toxins of the largest family of TA systems, VapBC, act by inhibiting translation via mRNA cleavage. Expression profiling demonstrated that four systems are specifically activated during stresses likely encountered in vivo, including hypoxia and phagocytosis by macrophages. The expansion and maintenance of TA genes in the MTBC, coupled with the finding that a subset is transcriptionally activated by stress, suggests that TA systems are important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis.

  16. Toxin-antitoxin systems are important for niche-specific colonization and stress resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Paul Norton

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are prevalent in many bacterial genomes and have been implicated in biofilm and persister cell formation, but the contribution of individual chromosomally encoded TA systems during bacterial pathogenesis is not well understood. Of the known TA systems encoded by Escherichia coli, only a subset is associated with strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. These pathogens colonize diverse niches and are a major cause of sepsis, meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Using a murine infection model, we show that two TA systems (YefM-YoeB and YbaJ-Hha independently promote colonization of the bladder by the reference uropathogenic ExPEC isolate CFT073, while a third TA system comprised of the toxin PasT and the antitoxin PasI is critical to ExPEC survival within the kidneys. The PasTI TA system also enhances ExPEC persister cell formation in the presence of antibiotics and markedly increases pathogen resistance to nutrient limitation as well as oxidative and nitrosative stresses. On its own, low-level expression of PasT protects ExPEC from these stresses, whereas overexpression of PasT is toxic and causes bacterial stasis. PasT-induced stasis can be rescued by overexpression of PasI, indicating that PasTI is a bona fide TA system. By mutagenesis, we find that the stress resistance and toxic effects of PasT can be uncoupled and mapped to distinct domains. Toxicity was specifically linked to sequences within the N-terminus of PasT, a region that also promotes the development of persister cells. These results indicate discrete, multipurpose functions for a TA-associated toxin and demonstrate that individual TA systems can provide bacteria with pronounced fitness advantages dependent on toxin expression levels and the specific environmental niche occupied.

  17. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxue Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein–protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  18. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunxue; Yao, Jianyun; Sun, Chenglong; Wen, Zhongling; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-07-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein) protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal) superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein-protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  19. Divergently overlapping cis-encoded antisense RNA regulating toxin-antitoxin systems from E. coli: hok/sok, ldr/rdl, symE/symR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuoki

    2012-12-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are categorized into three classes based on the type of antitoxin. In type I TA systems, the antitoxin is a small antisense RNA that inhibits translation of small toxic proteins by binding to the corresponding mRNAs. Those type I TA systems were originally identified as plasmid stabilization modules rendering a post-segregational killing (PSK) effect on the host cells. The type I TA loci also exist on the Escherichia coli chromosome but their biological functions are less clear. Genetic organization and regulatory elements of hok/sok and ldr/rdl families are very similar and the toxins are predicted to contain a transmembrane domain, but otherwise share no detectable sequence similarity. This review will give an overview of the type I TA modules of E. coli K-12, especially hok/sok, ldr/rdl and SOS-inducible symE/symR systems, which are regulated by divergently overlapping cis-encoded antisense RNAs.

  20. Identification of novel mazEF/pemIK family toxin-antitoxin loci and their distribution in the Staphylococcus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Michal; Hyz, Karolina; Janczak, Monika; Hydzik, Marcin; Dubin, Grzegorz; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2017-10-18

    The versatile roles of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been investigated for more than three decades. Diverse TA loci in Bacteria and Archaea have been identified in genome-wide studies. The advent of massive parallel sequencing has substantially expanded the number of known bacterial genomic sequences over the last 5 years. In staphylococci, this has translated into an impressive increase from a few tens to a several thousands of available genomes, which has allowed us for the re-evalution of prior conclusions. In this study, we analysed the distribution of mazEF/pemIK family TA system operons in available staphylococcal genomes and their prevalence in mobile genetic elements. 10 novel m azEF/pemIK homologues were identified, each with a corresponding toxin that plays a potentially different and undetermined physiological role. A detailed characterisation of these TA systems would be exceptionally useful. Of particular interest are those associated with an SCCmec mobile genetic element (responsible for multidrug resistance transmission) or representing the joint horizontal transfer of TA systems and determinants of vancomycin resistance from enterococci. The involvement of TA systems in maintaining mobile genetic elements and the associations between novel mazEF/pemIK loci and those which carry drug resistance genes highlight their potential medical importance.

  1. Plasmid Vectors for Xylella fastidiosa Utilizing a Toxin-Antitoxin System for Stability in the Absence of Antibiotic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-08-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacterial genetics but there are only a limited number of plasmid vectors available that replicate in X. fastidiosa, and even fewer that are retained without antibiotic selection. Two plasmids are described here that show stable replication in X. fastidiosa and are effective for gene complementation both in vitro and in planta. Plasmid maintenance is facilitated by incorporation of the PemI/PemK plasmid addiction system, consisting of PemK, an endoribonuclease toxin, and its cognate antitoxin, PemI. Vector pXf20pemIK utilizes a native X. fastidiosa replication origin as well as a high-copy-number pUC origin for propagation in Escherichia coli cloning strains. Broad-host-range vector pBBR5pemIK is a medium- to low-copy-number plasmid based on the pBBR1 backbone. Both plasmids are maintained for extended periods of time in the absence of antibiotic selection, as well as up to 14 weeks in grapevine, without affecting bacterial fitness. These plasmids present an alternative to traditional complementation and expression vectors which rely on antibiotic selection for plasmid retention.

  2. Expression of the toxin-antitoxin genes yefM(Lrh), yoeB(Lrh) in human Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügel, Hans; Klimina, Ksenia M; Mrotzek, Grit; Tretyakov, Alexander; Schöfl, Gerhard; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Brantl, Sabine; Poluektova, Elena U; Danilenko, Valery N

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are important microorganisms in various activities, for example, diary products, meat ripening, bread and pickles, but, moreover, are associated directly with human skin and cavities (e.g., mouth, gut, or vagina). Some of them are used as probiotics. Therefore, the molecular biological investigation of these bacteria is important. Earlier we described several toxin antitoxin systems (type II) in lactobacilli. Here, we describe the structure and transcriptional regulation of genes, encoding TA system YefM-YoeB(Lrh) in three strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus comparing stationary and exponential growth phases, the influence of stress factors and mRNA stability. The same TA system is responding to physiological and stress conditions differently in related strains. Using primer extension and RLM-RACE methods we determined three transcription start sites of RNAs in the operon. The promoter region of the operon is preceded by a conserved BOX element occurring at multiple positions in the genomes of L. rhamnosus strains. Downstream of and partially overlapping with the 3' end of the yoeB(Lrh) toxin gene, a divergently transcribed unexpected RNA was detected. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Influence of the Toxin/Antitoxin mazEF on Growth and Survival of Listeria monocytogenes under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Thomas D; Takeuchi, Ippei; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-01-13

    A major factor in the resilience of Listeria monocytogenes is the alternative sigma factor B (σ B ). Type II Toxin/Antitoxin (TA) systems are also known to have a role in the bacterial stress response upon activation via the ClpP or Lon proteases. Directly upstream of the σ B operon in L. monocytogenes is the TA system mazEF , which can cleave mRNA at UACMU sites. In this study, we showed that the mazEF TA locus does not affect the level of persister formation during treatment with antibiotics in lethal doses, but exerts different effects according to the sub-inhibitory stress added. Growth of a Δ mazEF mutant was enhanced relative to the wildtype in the presence of sub-inhibitory norfloxacin and at 42 °C, but was decreased when challenged with ampicillin and gentamicin. In contrast to studies in Staphylococcus aureus , we found that the mazEF locus did not affect transcription of genes within the σ B operon, but MazEF effected the expression of the σ B -dependent genes opuCA and lmo0880 , with a 0.22 and 0.05 fold change, respectively, compared to the wildtype under sub-inhibitory norfloxacin conditions. How exactly this system operates remains an open question, however, our data indicates it is not analogous to the system of S. aureus , suggesting a novel mode of action for MazEF in L. monocytogenes.

  4. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alene; Voges, Raphael; Schroth, Michael; Schaffrath, Raffael; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-05-01

    Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs) from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl), Pichia acaciae (Pa) and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr) are extremely A/T-rich (>75%) and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases) along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5) results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE) as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A) site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  5. Autoselection of cytoplasmic yeast virus like elements encoding toxin/antitoxin systems involves a nuclear barrier for immunity gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alene Kast

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic virus like elements (VLEs from Kluyveromyces lactis (Kl, Pichia acaciae (Pa and Debaryomyces robertsiae (Dr are extremely A/T-rich (>75% and encode toxic anticodon nucleases (ACNases along with specific immunity proteins. Here we show that nuclear, not cytoplasmic expression of either immunity gene (PaORF4, KlORF3 or DrORF5 results in transcript fragmentation and is insufficient to establish immunity to the cognate ACNase. Since rapid amplification of 3' ends (RACE as well as linker ligation of immunity transcripts expressed in the nucleus revealed polyadenylation to occur along with fragmentation, ORF-internal poly(A site cleavage due to the high A/T content is likely to prevent functional expression of the immunity genes. Consistently, lowering the A/T content of PaORF4 to 55% and KlORF3 to 46% by gene synthesis entirely prevented transcript cleavage and permitted functional nuclear expression leading to full immunity against the respective ACNase toxin. Consistent with a specific adaptation of the immunity proteins to the cognate ACNases, cross-immunity to non-cognate ACNases is neither conferred by PaOrf4 nor KlOrf3. Thus, the high A/T content of cytoplasmic VLEs minimizes the potential of functional nuclear recruitment of VLE encoded genes, in particular those involved in autoselection of the VLEs via a toxin/antitoxin principle.

  6. VapC from the leptospiral VapBC toxin-antitoxin module displays ribonuclease activity on the initiator tRNA.

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    Alexandre P Y Lopes

    Full Text Available The prokaryotic ubiquitous Toxin-Antitoxin (TA operons encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin. The most accepted hypothesis of the physiological function of the TA system is the reversible cessation of cellular growth under stress conditions. The major TA family, VapBC is present in the spirochaete Leptospira interrogans. VapBC modules are classified based on the presence of a predicted ribonucleasic PIN domain in the VapC toxin. The expression of the leptospiral VapC in E. coli promotes a strong bacterial growth arrestment, making it difficult to express the recombinant protein. Nevertheless, we showed that long term induction of expression in E. coli enabled the recovery of VapC in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein was successfully refolded by high hydrostatic pressure, providing a new method to obtain the toxin in a soluble and active form. The structural integrity of the recombinant VapB and VapC proteins was assessed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Physical interaction between the VapC toxin and the VapB antitoxin was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro by pull down and ligand affinity blotting assays, respectively, thereby indicating the ultimate mechanism by which the activity of the toxin is regulated in bacteria. The predicted model of the leptospiral VapC structure closely matches the Shigella's VapC X-ray structure. In agreement, the ribonuclease activity of the leptospiral VapC was similar to the activity described for Shigella's VapC, as demonstrated by the cleavage of tRNAfMet and by the absence of unspecific activity towards E. coli rRNA. This finding suggests that the cleavage of the initiator transfer RNA may represent a common mechanism to a larger group of bacteria and potentially configures a mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation leading to the inhibition of global translation.

  7. Potency of a human monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin relative to equine diphtheria anti-toxin in a guinea pig intoxication model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi L; Cheslock, Peter; Leney, Mark; Barton, Bruce; Molrine, Deborah C

    2016-08-17

    Prompt administration of anti-toxin reduces mortality following Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. Current treatment relies upon equine diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT), with a 10% risk of serum sickness and rarely anaphylaxis. The global DAT supply is extremely limited; most manufacturers have ceased production. S315 is a neutralizing human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin that may provide a safe and effective alternative to equine DAT and address critical supply issues. To guide dose selection for IND-enabling pharmacology and toxicology studies, we dose-ranged S315 and DAT in a guinea pig model of diphtheria intoxication based on the NIH Minimum Requirements potency assay. Animals received a single injection of antibody premixed with toxin, were monitored for 30 days, and assigned a numeric score for clinical signs of disease. Animals receiving ≥ 27.5 µg of S315 or ≥ 1.75 IU of DAT survived whereas animals receiving ≤ 22.5 µg of S315 or ≤ 1.25 IU of DAT died, yielding a potency estimate of 17 µg S315/IU DAT (95% CI 16-21) for an endpoint of survival. Because some surviving animals exhibited transient limb weakness, likely a systemic sign of toxicity, DAT and S315 doses required to prevent hind limb paralysis were also determined, yielding a relative potency of 48 µg/IU (95% CI 38-59) for this alternate endpoint. To support advancement of S315 into clinical trials, potency estimates will be used to evaluate the efficacy of S315 versus DAT in an animal model with antibody administration after toxin exposure, more closely modeling anti-toxin therapy in humans.

  8. Functional validation of putative toxin-antitoxin genes from the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: phd-doc is the fourth bona-fide operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Ting; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Sadowy, Ewa; Espinosa, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TAs) loci usually consist of two genes organized as an operon, where their products are bound together and inert under normal conditions. However, under stressful circumstances the antitoxin, which is more labile, will be degraded more rapidly, thereby unleashing its cognate toxin to act on the cell. This, in turn, causes cell stasis or cell death, depending on the type of TAs and/or time of toxin exposure. Previously based on in silico analyses, we proposed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, may harbor between 4 and 10 putative TA loci depending on the strains. Here we have chosen the pneumococcal strain Hungary(19A)-6 which contains all possible 10 TA loci. In addition to the three well-characterized operons, namely relBE2, yefM-yoeB, and pezAT, we show here the functionality of a fourth operon that encodes the pneumococcal equivalent of the phd-doc TA. Transcriptional fusions with gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein showed that the promoter was slightly repressed by the Phd antitoxin, and exhibited almost background values when both Phd-Doc were expressed together. These findings demonstrate that phd-doc shows the negative self-regulatory features typical for an authentic TA. Further, we also show that the previously proposed TAs XreA-Ant and Bro-XreB, although they exhibit a genetic organization resembling those of typical TAs, did not appear to confer a functional behavior corresponding to bona fide TAs. In addition, we have also discovered new interesting bioinformatics results for the known pneumococcal TAs RelBE2 and PezAT. A global analysis of the four identified toxins-antitoxins in the pneumococcal genomes (PezAT, RelBE2, YefM-YoeB, and Phd-Doc) showed that RelBE2 and Phd-Doc are the most conserved ones. Further, there was good correlation among TA types, clonal complexes and sequence types in the 48 pneumococcal strains analyzed.

  9. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of the Escherichia coli RelBE toxin-antitoxin system: indication for a functional role of differential stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherny, Izhack; Overgaard, Martin; Borch, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    on the folding and stability of the protein pair in solution. Here we structurally and thermodynamically characterize the RelBE system components from E. coli in solution, both separately and in their complexed state. The RelB antitoxin, an alpha-helical protein according to circular dichroism and infrared.......5 degrees C, and exhibits exceptional sensitivity to heat. Complex formation, accompanied by a structural transition, leads to a 12 degrees C increase in the TM and substantial heat resistance. Moreover, in vivo interaction and protein footprint experiments indicate that the C-terminal part of Rel...

  10. The toxin-antitoxin εζ system: Role of ζ toxin in regulating ATP, GTP, (p)ppGpp and uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine pool to cope with stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular. Fecha de lectura: 27-10-2015 The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are compact modules, usually comprising a pair of genes coding for a toxin and its cognate antitoxin. These systems are present in the chromosomes of Bacteria, Archaea, in phages and in the large majority of low copy number plasmids. Basically, toxins are proteins whose activity usually leads to t...

  11. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfa, Marcus V.; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A.; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis—CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  12. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0 g L(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The mazEF toxin-antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains.

  14. The mazEF toxin–antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Sara; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sekawi, Zamberi; Neela, Vasantha Kumari; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat; Khosravi, Afra; Ramli, Ramliza; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2015-01-01

    The toxin–antitoxin (TA) system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems are potent and sensitive targets in all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains. PMID:26005332

  15. The monoclonal antitoxin antibodies (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab treatment facilitates normalization of the gut microbiota of mice with Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    2016-10-01

    detected by the end of the experiments. In conclusion, MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab treatment facilitates normalization of the gut microbiota in CDI mice. It remains to be examined whether or not the prevention of recurrent CDI by the antitoxin antibodies observed in clinical trials occurs through modulation of microbiota.

  16. The SXT conjugative element and linear prophage N15 encode toxin-antitoxin-stabilizing systems homologous to the tad-ata module of the Paracoccus aminophilus plasmid pAMI2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Jazurek, Magdalena; Drewniak, Lukasz; Baj, Jadwiga; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2007-03-01

    A group of proteic toxin-antitoxin (TA) cassettes whose representatives are widely distributed among bacterial genomes has been identified. These cassettes occur in chromosomes, plasmids, bacteriophages, and noncomposite transposons, as well as in the SXT conjugative element of Vibrio cholerae. The following four homologous loci were subjected to detailed comparative studies: (i) tad-ata from plasmid pAMI2 of Paracoccus aminophilus (the prototype of this group), (ii) gp49-gp48 from the linear bacteriophage N15 of Escherichia coli, (iii) s045-s044 from SXT, and (iv) Z3230-Z3231 from the genomic island of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. Functional analysis revealed that all but one of these loci (Z3230-Z3231) are able to stabilize heterologous replicons, although the host ranges varied. The TA cassettes analyzed have the following common features: (i) the toxins are encoded by the first gene of each operon; (ii) the antitoxins contain a predicted helix-turn-helix motif of the XRE family; and (iii) the cassettes have two promoters that are different strengths, one which is located upstream of the toxin gene and one which is located upstream of the antitoxin gene. All four toxins tested are functional in E. coli; overexpression of the toxins (in the absence of antitoxin) results in a bacteriostatic effect manifested by elongation of bacterial cells and growth arrest. The toxins have various effects on cell viability, which suggests that they may recognize different intracellular targets. Preliminary data suggest that different cellular proteases are involved in degradation of antitoxins encoded by the loci analyzed.

  17. The mazEF toxin–antitoxin system as an attractive target in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheili S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sara Soheili,1 Sobhan Ghafourian,2 Zamberi Sekawi,1 Vasantha Kumari Neela,1 Nourkhoda Sadeghifard,2 Morovat Taherikalani,2 Afra Khosravi,2 Ramliza Ramli,3 Rukman Awang Hamat11Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 2Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaakob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: The toxin–antitoxin (TA system is a regulatory system where two sets of genes encode the toxin and its corresponding antitoxin. In this study, the prevalence of TA systems in independently isolated clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis was determined, the dominant TA system was identified, different virulence genes in E. faecium and E. faecalis were surveyed, the level of expression of the virulence and TA genes in normal and stress conditions was determined, and finally their associations with the TA genes were defined. Remarkably, the analysis demonstrated higBA and mazEF in all clinical isolates, and their locations were on chromosomes and plasmids, respectively. On the other hand, a quantitative analysis of TA and virulence genes revealed that the expression level in both genes is different under normal and stress conditions. The results obtained by anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids demonstrated that the expression level of virulence genes had decreased. These findings demonstrate an association between TA systems and virulence factors. The mazEF on the plasmids and the higBA TA genes on the chromosomes of all E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were dominant. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of virulence genes in the presence of anti-mazF peptide nucleic acids. Therefore, it is suggested that mazEF TA systems

  18. Toxin-antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.K.; Pedersen, K.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes encode toxin-antitoxin loci, often in multiple copies. In most cases, the function of these genes is not known. The chpA (mazEF) locus of Escherichia coli has been described as a cell killing module that induces bacterial apoptosis during nutritional stress. However, we...... found recently that ChpAK (MazF) does not confer cell killing but rather, induces a bacteriostatic condition from which the cells could be resuscitated. Results presented here yield a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental effect on cell growth exerted by ChpAK and the homologous ChpBK protein of E......AK cleaved tmRNA in its coding region. Thus, ChpAK and ChpBK inhibit translation by a mechanism very similar to that of E. coli RelE. On the basis of these results, we propose a model that integrates TA loci into general prokaryotic stress physiology....

  19. Genomes of the most dangerous epidemic bacteria have a virulence repertoire characterized by fewer genes but more toxin-antitoxin modules.

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    Kalliopi Georgiades

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a comparative genomic study based on a neutral approach to identify genome specificities associated with the virulence capacity of pathogenic bacteria. We also determined whether virulence is dictated by rules, or if it is the result of individual evolutionary histories. We systematically compared the genomes of the 12 most dangerous pandemic bacteria for humans ("bad bugs" to their closest non-epidemic related species ("controls".We found several significantly different features in the "bad bugs", one of which was a smaller genome that likely resulted from a degraded recombination and repair system. The 10 Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG functional categories revealed a significantly smaller number of genes in the "bad bugs", which lacked mostly transcription, signal transduction mechanisms, cell motility, energy production and conversion, and metabolic and regulatory functions. A few genes were identified as virulence factors, including secretion system proteins. Five "bad bugs" showed a greater number of poly (A tails compared to the controls, whereas an elevated number of poly (A tails was found to be strongly correlated to a low GC% content. The "bad bugs" had fewer tandem repeat sequences compared to controls. Moreover, the results obtained from a principal component analysis (PCA showed that the "bad bugs" had surprisingly more toxin-antitoxin modules than did the controls.We conclude that pathogenic capacity is not the result of "virulence factors" but is the outcome of a virulent gene repertoire resulting from reduced genome repertoires. Toxin-antitoxin systems could participate in the virulence repertoire, but they may have developed independently of selfish evolution.

  20. Environmental T4-Family Bacteriophages Evolve to Escape Abortive Infection via Multiple Routes in a Bacterial Host Employing "Altruistic Suicide" through Type III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihe; Akusobi, Chidiebere; Fang, Xinzhe; Salmond, George P C

    2017-01-01

    Abortive infection is an anti-phage mechanism employed by a bacterium to initiate its own death upon phage infection. This reduces, or eliminates, production of viral progeny and protects clonal siblings in the bacterial population by an act akin to an "altruistic suicide." Abortive infection can be mediated by a Type III toxin-antitoxin system called ToxIN Pa consisting of an endoribonuclease toxin and RNA antitoxin. ToxIN Pa is a heterohexameric quaternary complex in which pseudoknotted RNA inhibits the toxicity of the toxin until infection by certain phages causes destabilization of ToxIN Pa , leading to bacteriostasis and, eventually, lethality. However, it is still unknown why only certain phages are able to activate ToxIN Pa . To try to address this issue we first introduced ToxIN Pa into the Gram-negative enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 ( S 39006) and then isolated new environmental S 39006 phages that were scored for activation of ToxIN Pa and abortive infection capacity. We isolated three T4-like phages from a sewage treatment outflow point into the River Cam, each phage being isolated at least a year apart. These phages were susceptible to ToxIN Pa -mediated abortive infection but produced spontaneous "escape" mutants that were insensitive to ToxIN Pa . Analysis of these resistant mutants revealed three different routes of escaping ToxIN Pa , namely by mutating asiA (the product of which is a phage transcriptional co-activator); by mutating a conserved, yet functionally unknown, orf84 ; or by deleting a 6.5-10 kb region of the phage genome. Analysis of these evolved escape mutants may help uncover the nature of the corresponding phage product(s) involved in activation of ToxIN Pa .

  1. Structure-function analyses reveal the molecular architecture and neutralization mechanism of a bacterial HEPN-MNT toxin-antitoxin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuanyan; Yao, Jianyun; Gao, Zengqiang; Liu, Guangfeng; Dong, Yu-Hui; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Heng

    2018-05-04

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci in bacteria are small genetic modules that regulate various cellular activities, including cell growth and death. The two-gene module encoding a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) domain and a cognate MNT (minimal nucleotidyltransferase) domain have been predicted to represent a novel type II TA system prevalent in archaea and bacteria. However, the neutralization mechanism and cellular targets of the TA family remain unclear. The toxin SO_3166 having a HEPN domain and its cognate antitoxin SO_3165 with an MNT domain constitute a typical type II TA system that regulates cell motility and confers plasmid stability in the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis Here, we report the crystal structure and solution conformation of the SO_3166-SO_3165 pair, representing the first complex structures in this TA family. The structures revealed that SO_3165 and SO_3166 form a tight heterooctamer (at a 2:6 ratio), an organization that is very rare in other TA systems. We also observed that SO_3166 dimerization enables the formation of a deep cleft at the HEPN-domain interface harboring a composite R X 4-6H active site that functions as an RNA-cleaving RNase. SO_3165 bound SO_3166 mainly through its two α-helices (α2 and α4), functioning as molecular recognition elements. Moreover, their insertion into the SO_3166 cleft sterically blocked the R X 4-6H site or narrowed the cleft to inhibit RNA substrate binding. Structure-based mutagenesis confirmed the important roles of these α-helices in SO_3166 binding and inhibition. Our structure-function analysis provides first insights into the neutralization mechanism of the HEPN-MNT TA family. © 2018 Jia et al.

  2. Workgroup Report by the Joint Task Force Involving American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); Food Allergy, Anaphylaxis, Dermatology and Drug Allergy (FADDA) (Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee and Adverse Reactions to Drugs, Biologicals, and Latex Committee); and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Botulism Clinical Treatment Guidelines Workgroup-Allergic Reactions to Botulinum Antitoxin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Edith; Sobel, Jeremy; Hsu, Joy; Yu, Patricia; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Grammer, Leslie C; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2017-12-27

    Naturally occurring botulism is rare, but a large number of cases could result from unintentional or intentional contamination of a commercial food. Despeciated, equine-derived, heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) is licensed in the United States. Timely treatment reduces morbidity and mortality, but concerns that botulinum antitoxin can induce anaphylaxis exist. We sought to quantify the allergy risk of botulinum antitoxin treatment and the usefulness of skin testing to assess this risk. We conducted a systematic review of (1) allergic reactions to botulinum antitoxin and (2) the predictive value of skin testing (ST) before botulinum antitoxin administration. We searched 5 scientific literature databases, reviewed articles' references, and obtained data from the HBAT manufacturer and from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Anaphylaxis incidence was determined for HBAT and previously employed botulinum antitoxins. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of ST for anaphylaxis related to HBAT and other botulinum antitoxins. Seven articles were included. Anaphylaxis incidence was 1.64% (5/305 patients) for HBAT and 1.16% (8/687 patients) for all other botulinum antitoxins (relative risk, 1.41 [95% confidence interval, .47-4.27]; P = .5). Observed values for both PPV and NPV for HBAT-ST (33 patients) were 100%. Observed PPVs and NPVs of ST for other botulinum antitoxins (302 patients) were 0-56% and 50%-100%, respectively. There were no reports of fatal anaphylaxis. Considering the <2 % rate of anaphylaxis, fatal outcomes, modest predictive value of ST, resource requirements for ST, and the benefits of early treatment, data do not support delaying HBAT administration to perform ST in a mass botulinum toxin exposure. Anaphylactic reactions may occur among 1%-2% of botulinum antitoxin recipients and will require epinephrine and antihistamine treatment and, possibly, intensive care. Published by Oxford

  3. VapC toxins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ribonucleases that differentially inhibit growth and are neutralized by cognate VapB antitoxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintou Ahmadou Ahidjo

    Full Text Available The chromosome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb encodes forty seven toxin-antitoxin modules belonging to the VapBC family. The role of these modules in the physiology of Mtb and the function(s served by their expansion are unknown. We investigated ten vapBC modules from Mtb and the single vapBC from M. smegmatis. Of the Mtb vapCs assessed, only Rv0549c, Rv0595c, Rv2549c and Rv2829c were toxic when expressed from a tetracycline-regulated promoter in M. smegmatis. The same genes displayed toxicity when conditionally expressed in Mtb. Toxicity of Rv2549c in M. smegmatis correlated with the level of protein expressed, suggesting that the VapC level must exceed a threshold for toxicity to be observed. In addition, the level of Rv2456 protein induced in M. smegmatis was markedly lower than Rv2549c, which may account for the lack of toxicity of this and other VapCs scored as 'non-toxic'. The growth inhibitory effects of toxic VapCs were neutralized by expression of the cognate VapB as part of a vapBC operon or from a different chromosomal locus, while that of non-cognate antitoxins did not. These results demonstrated a specificity of interaction between VapCs and their cognate VapBs, a finding corroborated by yeast two-hybrid analyses. Deletion of selected vapC or vapBC genes did not affect mycobacterial growth in vitro, but rendered the organisms more susceptible to growth inhibition following toxic VapC expression. However, toxicity of 'non-toxic' VapCs was not unveiled in deletion mutant strains, even when the mutation eliminated the corresponding cognate VapB, presumably due to insufficient levels of VapC protein. Together with the ribonuclease (RNase activity demonstrated for Rv0065 and Rv0617--VapC proteins with similarity to Rv0549c and Rv3320c, respectively--these results suggest that the VapBC family potentially provides an abundant source of RNase activity in Mtb, which may profoundly impact the physiology of the organism.

  4. Immuno-detection of cleaved SNAP-25 from differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells provides a sensitive assay for determination of botulinum A toxin and antitoxin potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadirgi, G; Stickings, P; Rajagopal, S; Liu, Y; Sesardic, D

    2017-12-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a causative agent of human botulism. Due to high toxicity and ease of production it is classified by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention as a category A bioterrorism agent. The same serotype, BoNT/A, is also the most widely used in pharmaceutical preparations for treatment of a diverse range of neuromuscular disorders. Traditionally, animals are used to confirm the presence and activity of toxin and to establish neutralizing capabilities of countermeasures in toxin neutralization tests. Cell based assays for BoNT/A have been reported as the most viable alternative to animal models, since they are capable of reflecting all key steps (binding, translocation, internalization and cleavage of intracellular substrate) involved in toxin activity. In this paper we report preliminary development of a simple immunochemical method for specifically detecting BoNT/A cleaved intracellular substrate, SNAP-25, in cell lysates of neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. The assay offers sensitivity of better than 0.1LD50/ml (3fM) which is not matched by other functional assays, including the mouse bioassay, and provides serotype specificity for quantitative detection of BoNT/A and anti-BoNT/A antitoxin. Subject to formal validation, the method described here could potentially be used as a substitute for the mouse bioassay to measure potency and consistency of therapeutic products. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The relBE2Spn toxin-antitoxin system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: role in antibiotic tolerance and functional conservation in clinical isolates.

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    Concha Nieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II (proteic chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS are widespread in Bacteria and Archaea but their precise function is known only for a limited number of them. Out of the many TAS described, the relBE family is one of the most abundant, being present in the three first sequenced strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (D39, TIGR4 and R6. To address the function of the pneumococcal relBE2Spn TAS in the bacterial physiology, we have compared the response of the R6-relBE2Spn wild type strain with that of an isogenic derivative, Delta relB2Spn under different stress conditions such as carbon and amino acid starvation and antibiotic exposure. Differences on viability between the wild type and mutant strains were found only when treatment directly impaired protein synthesis. As a criterion for the permanence of this locus in a variety of clinical strains, we checked whether the relBE2Spn locus was conserved in around 100 pneumococcal strains, including clinical isolates and strains with known genomes. All strains, although having various types of polymorphisms at the vicinity of the TA region, contained a functional relBE2Spn locus and the type of its structure correlated with the multilocus sequence type. Functionality of this TAS was maintained even in cases where severe rearrangements around the relBE2Spn region were found. We conclude that even though the relBE2Spn TAS is not essential for pneumococcus, it may provide additional advantages to the bacteria for colonization and/or infection.

  6. ChpK and MazF of the toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in the virulence of Leptospira interrogans during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Komi Koukoura; Ge, Yu-Mei; Xin, Xiao-Yang; Ojcius, David M; Sun, Dexter; Hu, Wei-Lin; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xu'ai; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a global zoonotic infectious disease. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules have been confirmed as stress-response elements that induce prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-growth arrest or death, but their role in the virulence of Leptospira has not been reported. Here, we confirmed that all the tested leptospiral strains had the chpIK and mazEF TA modules with highly-conserved sequences. The transcription and expression of the chpI, chpK, mazE, and mazF genes of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai were significantly increased during infection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced human THP-1 macrophages. The toxic ChpK and MazF but not the antitoxic ChpI and MazE proteins were detectable in the cytoplasmic fraction of leptospire-infected THP-1 cells, indicating the external secretion of ChpK and MazF during infection. Transfection of the chpK or mazF gene caused decreased viability and necrosis in THP-1 cells, whereas the chpI or mazE gene transfection did not affect the viability of THP-1 cells but blocked the ChpK or MazF-induced toxicity. Deletion of the chpK or mazF gene also decreased the late-apoptotic and/or necrotic ratios of THP-1 cells at the late stages of infection. The recombinant protein MazF (rMazF) cleaved the RNAs but not the DNAs from Leptospira and THP-1 cells, and this RNA cleavage was blocked by rMazE. However, the rChpK had no RNA or DNA-degrading activity. All these findings indicate that the ChpK and MazF proteins in TA modules are involved in the virulence of L. interrogans during infection. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Clostridium difficile Anti-Toxin (TcdA and TcdB Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies Demonstrate In Vitro Neutralization across a Broad Spectrum of Clinical Strains and In Vivo Potency in a Hamster Spore Challenge Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Qiu

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infection (CDI is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated colitis and increased incidence of community-associated diarrhea in industrialized countries. At present, the primary treatment of CDI is antibiotic administration, which is effective but often associated with recurrence, especially in the elderly. Pathogenic strains produce enterotoxin, toxin A (TcdA, and cytotoxin, toxin B (TcdB, which are necessary for C. difficile induced diarrhea and gut pathological changes. Administration of anti-toxin antibodies provides an alternative approach to treat CDI, and has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In the current study, several humanized anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB monoclonal antibodies were generated and their protective potency was characterized in a hamster infection model. The humanized anti-TcdA (CANmAbA4 and anti-TcdB (CANmAbB4 and CANmAbB1 antibodies showed broad spectrum in vitro neutralization of toxins from clinical strains and neutralization in a mouse toxin challenge model. Moreover, co-administration of humanized antibodies (CANmAbA4 and CANmAbB4 cocktail provided a high level of protection in a dose dependent manner (85% versus 57% survival at day 22 for 50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively in a hamster gastrointestinal infection (GI model. This study describes the protective effects conferred by novel neutralizing anti-toxin monoclonal antibodies against C. difficile toxins and their potential as therapeutic agents in treating CDI.

  8. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa) and heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent

  9. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa and heat-labile toxin (LT of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosai Ruan

    Full Text Available Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2:243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3, CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5:1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in

  10. Proteção do recém-nascido contra o tétano pela imunização ativa da gestante com antitoxina tetânica: estudo original de 1953 Protection of newborn infants against tetanus by active immunization of the pregnant women with tetanus antitoxin: the 1953 original study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Gomes Mattos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar, em cobaias prenhes e em gestantes, a produção de antitoxina tetânica induzida pela aplicação da anatoxina tetânica e estudar a sua passagem para o recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: Na primeira fase, em estudo experimental, cobaias prenhes foram vacinadas com duas doses de toxóide tetânico em um intervalo de 15 dias, seguida da dosagem de anticorpos na cobaia imunizada, na prole ao nascer e 15 dias após o nascimento. Outro grupo de animais previamente vacinado recebeu uma dose de reforço 30 dias antes do parto, medindo-se o nível de anticorpos na cobaia e na prole. Na segunda fase, em ensaio clínico, as gestantes humanas foram vacinadas com três injeções de anatoxina tetânica, com um intervalo de 30 dias, em qualquer período da gravidez, medindo-se, a seguir, a antitoxina tetânica. Nos recém-nascidos, os anticorpos foram medidos ao nascer e aos 15 dias de vida. RESULTADOS: O título de antitoxina no sangue da prole de cobaias vacinadas com anatoxina tetânica foi elevado ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de vida. A dose de reforço provocou elevação do título basal. Nas gestantes, a aplicação de três doses de toxóide antitetânico conferiu imunidade a 95% dos recém-nascidos estudados. Os recém-nascidos de mães vacinadas apresentaram títulos elevados de antitoxina que persistiram por mais de 15 dias de vida. CONCLUSÕES: A vacinação durante a gestação foi acompanhada de títulos protetores de antitoxina contra o tétano tanto nos filhotes de cobaias quanto nos recém-nascidos humanos.OBJECTIVE: To measure, in pregnant guinea pigs and women, the production of tetanus antitoxin, induced by vaccination with tetanus toxin, and to study the transmission of these antibodies to the offspring. METHODS: In an experimental design, pregnant guinea pigs were vaccinated with two doses of tetanus toxoid with a 15-day interval followed by determination of antibodies in the immunized guinea pig, in the offspring at birth

  11. Antitoxin activity of aqueous extract of Cyclea peltata root against Naja naja venom

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaraman, Thulasi; Sreedevi, N. S.; Meenatchisundaram, S.; Vadivelan, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutrali...

  12. Antitoxin activity of aqueous extract of Cyclea peltata root against Naja naja venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Thulasi; Sreedevi, N S; Meenatchisundaram, S; Vadivelan, R

    2017-01-01

    Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out. The root extracts from C. peltata were used to evaluate the Ex vivo neutralization tests such as acetylcholinesterase, protease, direct hemolysis assay, phospholipase activity, and procoagulant activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis from root extracts of C. peltata was done to investigate the bioactive compounds. The in vivo calculation of venom toxicity (LD 50 ) of N. naja venom remained to be 0.301 μg. C. peltata root extracts were efficiently deactivated the venom lethality, and effective dose (ED 50 ) remained to be 7.24 mg/3LD 50 of N. naja venom. C. peltata root extract was found effective in counteracting all the lethal effects of venom. GC-MS analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of antivenom compounds such as tetradecanoic and octadecadienoic acid which have neutralizing properties on N. naja venom. The result from the ex vivo and in vivo analysis indicates that C. peltata plant root extract possesses significant compounds such as tetradecanoic acid hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid which can counteract the toxins present in N. naja .

  13. Bezlotoxumab: anti-toxin B monoclonal antibody to prevent recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte Gálvez, Javier A; Kelly, Ciarán P

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the U.S. 25% of CDI patients go on to develop recurrent CDI (rCDI) following current standard of care (SOC) therapy, leading to morbidity, mortality and economic loss. The first passive immunotherapy drug targeting C.difficile toxin B (bezlotoxumab) has been approved recently by the FDA and EMA for prevention of rCDI. Areas covered: A body of key studies was selected and reviewed by the authors. The unmet needs in CDI care were ascertained with emphasis in rCDI, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology and current management. The current knowledge about the immune response to C. difficile toxins and how this knowledge led to the development and the clinical use of bezlotoxumab is described. Current and potential future competitors to the drug were examined. Expert commentary: A single 10 mg/kg intravenous infusion of bezlotoxumab has been shown to decrease rCDI by ~40% (absolute reduction ~10%) in patients being treated for primary CDI or rCDI with SOC antibiotics. Targeting C.difficile toxins by passive immunotherapy is a novel mechanism for prevention of C.difficile infection. Bezlotoxumab will be a valuable adjunctive therapy to reduce the burden of CDI.

  14. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Meenatchisundaram

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  15. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Meenatchisundaram, Selvin Priyagrace, Ramasamy Vijayaraghavan, Ambikapathi Velmurugan, Govindarajan Parameswari, Antonysamy Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  16. Isolation of anti-toxin single domain antibodies from a semi-synthetic spiny dogfish shark display library

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    Goldman Ellen R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shark heavy chain antibody, also called new antigen receptor (NAR, consists of one single Variable domain (VH, containing only two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs. The antigen binding affinity and specificity are mainly determined by these two CDRs. The good solubility, excellent thermal stability and complex sequence variation of small single domain antibodies (sdAbs make them attractive alternatives to conventional antibodies. In this report, we construct and characterize a diversity enhanced semi-synthetic NAR V display library based on naturally occurring NAR V sequences. Results A semi-synthetic shark sdAb display library with a complexity close to 1e9 was constructed. This was achieved by introducing size and sequence variations in CDR3 using randomized CDR3 primers of three different lengths. Binders against three toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, ricin, and botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A complex toxoid, were isolated from panning the display library. Soluble sdAbs from selected binders were purified and evaluated using direct binding and thermal stability assays on the Luminex 100. In addition, sandwich assays using sdAb as the reporter element were developed to demonstrate their utility for future sensor applications. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of a newly created hyper diversified shark NAR displayed library to serve as a source of thermal stable sdAbs against a variety of toxins.

  17. Plasmid vectors for Xylella fastidiosa utilizing a toxin-antitoxin system for plasmid stability in the absence of antibiotic selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in a variety of important crop and landscape plants. Functional genetic studies have led to a broader understanding of virulence mechanisms used by this pathogen in the grapevine host. Plasmid shuttle vectors are important tools in studies of bacte...

  18. Molecular bases of protective immune responses against botulinum neurotoxin A--how antitoxin antibodies block its action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, M Zouhair; Dolimbek, Behzod Z; Steward, Lance E; Aoki, K Roger

    2007-01-01

    In studies from this laboratory, we localized the regions on the H chain of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) that are recognized by anti-BoNT/A antibodies (Abs) and block the activity of the toxin in vivo. These Abs were obtained from cervical dystonia patients who had been treated with BoNT/A and had become unresponsive to the treatment, as well as blocking Abs raised in mouse, horse, and chicken. We also localized the regions involved in BoNT/A binding to mouse brain synaptosomes (snp). Comparison of spatial proximities in the three-dimensional structure of the Ab-binding regions and the snp binding showed that except for one, the Ab-binding regions either coincide or overlap with the snp regions. It should be folly expected that protective Abs when bound to the toxin at sites that coincide or overlap with snp binding would prevent the toxin from binding to nerve synapse and therefore block toxin entry into the neuron. Thus, analysis of the locations of the Ab-binding and the snp-binding regions provides a molecular rationale for the ability of protecting Abs to block BoNT/A action in vivo.

  19. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum strains from human biotopes characterized with MLST and toxin-antitoxin gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluektova, E U; Yunes, R A; Epiphanova, M V; Orlova, V S; Danilenko, V N

    2017-07-01

    The diversity of Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. fermentum strains isolated from feces, saliva, and the vaginal cavity of 18-22-year-old healthy women residing in central regions of the Russian Federation has been characterized. The results obtained using multilocus sequence typing were identical to those obtained with the analysis of genetic and genomic polymorphism in TA systems. Different as well as identical Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. fermentum sequence types (ST) were isolated from various parts of the body of the same person. Identical ST were also isolated from different women, suggesting that such strains belong to a common pool of strains circulating among the population members. Our results demonstrate that TAs are suitable for characterizing intra-specific diversity of Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. fermentum strains. The advantage of using polymorphisms in TA systems for genotyping is based on the weak number of genes used, and consequently, less time is required for the analysis.

  20. Fatal diphtheria myocarditis in a 3-year-old girl-related to late availability and administration of antitoxin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Damme, Karlijn; Peeters, Natasja; Jorens, Philippe G; Boiy, Tine; Deplancke, Marjan; Audiens, Hilde; Wojciechowski, Marek; De Dooy, Jozef; Te Wierik, Margreet; Vlieghe, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic cases of diphtheria are very rare throughout Europe. A 3-year-old incompletely vaccinated girl was admitted with pharyngotonsillitis caused by diphtheria. On day 9 of her illness, renal and cardiac failure with a third-degree AV-block occurred. Unfortunately, she died within 36 h of

  1. Drug: D05187 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05187 Drug Gas gangrene antitoxin, equine (JP17); Gas gangrene antitoxin, pentava...lent; Freeze-dried gas gangrene antitoxin, equine (TN) ... Therapeutic category: 6331 ... PubChem: 17398252 ...

  2. Validierung der Wirksamkeitsprüfung für Clostridium tetani Impfstoffe ad usum veterinarium durch den direkten Nachweis von Tetanus-Antitoxin im Zieltier mittels ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Roßkopf, Ute

    2007-01-01

    Die dargelegten Ergebnisse zur Validierung einer neuen Wirksamkeitsprüfung von Tetanus-Impfstoffen resultieren aus umfangreichen Feldstudien, durchgeführt mit neun unterschiedlichen Impfstoffen für das Pferd sowie acht Impfstoffen für das Schaf. Insgesamt wurden 102 Pferde und 82 Schafe entsprechend den Angaben in der Gebrauchsinformation immunisiert. Blutentnahmen fanden nach einem vorgegebenen Schema von bis zu zwei Jahren nach der ersten Impfung statt. Die Impfstoffe waren entweder monoval...

  3. Crystal Structure of the VapBC Toxin–Antitoxin Complex from Shigella flexneri Reveals a Hetero-Octameric DNA-Binding Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dienemann, Christian; Bøggild, Andreas; Winther, Kristoffer S.

    2011-01-01

    the crystal structure of the intact Shigella flexneri VapBC TA complex, determined to 2.7 Å resolution. Both in solution and in the crystal structure, four molecules of each protein combine to form a large and globular hetero-octameric assembly with SpoVT/AbrB-type DNA-binding domains at each end and a total...

  4. Possível interferência da antitoxina tetânica pré-existente, na vacinação antitetânica Possible interference of pre-existing tetanus antitoxin in antitetanus immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalvo Guidolin

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se qual a possível interferência no desenvolvimento da imunidade antitetânica ativa em cobaias e camundongos, filhos de fêmeas vacinadas contra o tétano em diferentes épocas durante o período da prenhês. Verificou-se que a vacinação das fêmeas, em gestação não interferiu, negativamente, no desenvolvimento da imunidade ativa dos animais filhos, quando submetidos à vacinação ao redor de 60 dias após o nascimento. A presença de baixos níveis de anticorpos circulantes, recebidos congenitamente, parece ter, em determinadas condições, estimulado a resposta imunitária quando, posteriormente, os animais filhos foram vacinados contra o tétano. Sugere-se que o complexo antígeno-anticorpo formado seja capaz de melhorar a resposta imunitária induzida pelo toxóide.Possibility of interference in the development of active antitetanic immunity was studied in the offspring of guinea pigs and mice whose mothers had received antitetanic vaccine during different periods of pregnancy. Vaccination of the females during pregnancy did not interfere negatively in the development of active immunity in their offspring when the latter were vaccinated about 60 days after birth. The presence of small amounts of circulating antibodies, congenitally received, seems, under certain conditions, to stimulate the immune response upon posterior vaccination against tetanus. This suggests that the acquired antigen-antibody complex heightens the immune response induced by the toxoid.

  5. Back to the roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Alexander; Gerdes, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Jankevicius et al. (2016) characterize the DarTG toxin-antitoxin module in which the DarT toxin ADP-ribosylates single-stranded DNA and the DarG antitoxin counteracts DarT by direct binding and by enzymatic removal of the ADP-ribosylation....

  6. Cluster of Botulism among dutch tourists in Turkey, june 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaan, C.M.; Ouwerkerk, van M.; Roest, H.I.J.

    2010-01-01

    In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An

  7. Messenger RNA Interferase RelE Controls relBE Transcription by Conditional Cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Borch, Jonas; Jørgensen, Mikkel G

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci consist of two genes in an operon that encodes a metabolically stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin. The antitoxin neutralises its cognate toxin by forming a tight complex with it. In all cases known, the antitoxin autoregulates TA operon transcription by b...... operator DNA. A mutational analysis of the operator-sites showed that RelE in excess counteracted cooperative binding of the RelB(2)*RelE complexes to the operator-sites. Thus, RelE controls relBE transcription by conditional cooperativity.......Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci consist of two genes in an operon that encodes a metabolically stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin. The antitoxin neutralises its cognate toxin by forming a tight complex with it. In all cases known, the antitoxin autoregulates TA operon transcription...... by binding to one or more operators in the promoter region while the toxin functions as a co-repressor of transcription. Interestingly, the toxin can also stimulate TA operon transcription. Here we analyse mechanistic aspects of how RelE of Escherichia coli can function both as a co-repressor and derepressor...

  8. HicA of Escherichia coli defines a novel family of translation-independent mRNA interferases in bacteria and archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel G; Pandey, Deo P; Jaskolska, Milena

    2009-01-01

    . Expression of HicB (145 aa) prevented HicA-mediated inhibition of cell growth. These results suggest that HicB neutralizes HicA and therefore functions as an antitoxin. As with other antitoxins (RelB and MazF), HicB could resuscitate cells inhibited by HicA, indicating that ectopic production of HicA induces...

  9. 9 CFR 113.108 - Clostridium Novyi Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released. (a) Purity test. Final... words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of Alpha Antitoxin... chloride in each 100 ml of distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 121 °C for 25 minutes...

  10. 9 CFR 113.109 - Clostridium Sordellii Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in this section. A serial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released. (a... following words and terms shall mean: (i) International antitoxin unit. (I.U.) That quantity of antitoxin... distilled water; adjusting the pH to 7.2; autoclaving at 121 °C for 25 minutes; and storing at 4 °C until...

  11. Sensitive assays enable detection of serum IgG antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B in healthy subjects and patients with Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuemei; Bender, Florent; Shukla, Rajiv; Kang, John J; Caro-Aguilar, Ivette; Laterza, Omar F

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic Clostridium difficile produces two proinflammatory exotoxins, toxin A and toxin B. Low level of serum antitoxin IgG antibodies is a risk factor for the development of primary and recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). We developed and validated two sensitive, titer-based electrochemiluminescence assays for the detection of serum antibody levels against C. difficile toxins A and B. These assays demonstrated excellent precision. The sensitivity of the assays allowed the detection of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG antibodies in all tested serum samples during assay validation. The validated titer-based assays enable assessment of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG antibodies as potential biomarkers to identify patients with CDI at increased risk for CDI recurrence.

  12. Tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clostridium tetani that usually live in soil. The bacteria produce a toxin (a chemical or poison that harms ... care unit (ICU). They receive large doses of antibiotics to kill the tetanus bacteria and tetanus antitoxin (a medicine that neutralizes the ...

  13. PCR-based plasmid typing in Enterococcus faecium strains reveals widely distributed pRE25-, pRUM-, pIP501-and pHT beta-related replicons associated with glycopeptide resistance and stabilizing toxin-antitoxin systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosvoll, T.C.S.; Pedersen, T.; Sletvold, H.

    2010-01-01

    A PCR-based typing scheme was applied to identify plasmids in an epidemiologically and geographically diverse strain collection of Enterococcus faecium (n=93). Replicon types of pRE25 (n=56), pRUM (n=41), pIP501 (n=17) and pHT beta (n=14) were observed in 83% of the strains, while pS86, pCF10, pA...

  14. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product

    OpenAIRE

    Divers, Thomas J.; Tennant, Bud C.; Kumar, Arvind; McDonough, Sean; Cullen, John; Bhuva, Nishit; Jain, Komal; Chauhan, Lokendra Singh; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Lipkin, W. Ian; Laverack, Melissa; Trivedi, Sheetal; Srinivasa, Satyapramod; Beard, Laurie; Rice, Charles M.

    2018-01-01

    Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler’s disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares

  15. SIALIDASE (NEURAMINIDASE) OF CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WARREN, L; SPEARING, C W

    1963-11-01

    Warren, Leonard (National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, Bethesda, Md.) and C. W. Spearing. Sialidase (neuraminidase) of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J. Bacteriol. 86:950-955. 1963.-The characteristics of a sialidase produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae were studied. The enzyme was partially purified from preparations of diphtheria toxin on a column of Sephadex G-75. By this means the lethal factor of diphtheria toxin was separated, in part, from the sialidase activity. There appeared to be a close immunological relationship between the sialidases of C. diphtheriae and clostridia, since a preparation of diphtheria antitoxin was as effective an inhibitor of diphtheria sialidase as of the sialidase of three species of clostridia. Conversely, antitoxin to clostridia inhibited diphtheria sialidase. Diphtheria antitoxin was essentially inactive toward influenza virus sialidase, and was completely inactive against purified sialidase of Vibrio cholerae. Removal of sialic acid from the proteins in a preparation of diphtheria antitoxin did not alter the inhibitory activity of the antitoxin against diphtheria sialidase. The enzyme operated optimally at pH 5.5 and did not require calcium ions for activity. The substrate specificity of diphtheria sialidase appears to be the same as that of other previously described sialidases.

  16. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in Army Personnel and Adult Civilians in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyyed Javad; Mohammadi, Babak; Rajabi, Jalil; Mohammadian Roshan, Ghasem

    2017-03-24

    This study aimed to investigate serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in army personnel and a sample population of adult civilians in Mashhad, Iran. Army personnel (n = 180) and civilians (n = 83) who presented at Mashhad army hospital participated in this study. Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 77% and 94% of army personnel aged 18-34 years had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin level ≥0.1 IU/mL) and tetanus (antitoxin level >0.1 IU/mL), respectively. For civilians in this age group, the proportions were 76% for both diseases. Antitoxin levels waned with age. Thus, participants older than 50 years had lower immunity; this decrease in immunity was more pronounced for tetanus than for diphtheria in both army personnel and civilians. For both diseases, geometric mean antitoxin titers and the proportion of participants with at least basic protection were higher in subjects with a history of vaccination in the last 10 years (P diphtheria and tetanus. However, the large number of susceptible older adults (>50 years old) calls for improved booster vaccination protocols.

  17. Reações locais e níveis de antitoxina circulante decorrentes de administração do toxóide tetânico: estudo comparativo entre Ped-o-Jet e seringa hipodérmica Local reactions and antitoxin levels induced by the administration of tetanus toxoid: a comparative study between Ped-o-Jet and hypodermic syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Aratangy Pluciennik

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar reações locais e conversão sorológica apresentadas por adultos que receberam o toxóide tetânico através de Ped-o-Jet (via subcutânea ou de seringa hipodérmica (via intramuscular, o toxóide foi administrado a 472 recrutas do Exército. Em observações realizadas 4 e 24 horas após a vacinação verificou-se que as reações locais dos indivíduos vacinados com Ped-o-Jet eram significativamente mais freqüentes e mais intensas do que aquelas dos vacinados com seringa hipodérmica, não tendo ocorrido, entretanto, reações graves. A conversão sorológica dos não imunes vacinados com Ped-o-Jet ocorreu numa freqüência maior do que nos indivíduos vacinados com seringa hipodérmica. Conclui-se portanto, que o Ped-o-Jet pode ser utilizado em campanhas de vacinação em massa contra o tétano, embora a via de administração preferencial, até o momento, seja a intramuscular.This paper deals with the administration of tetanus toxoid to 472 army recruits, 50% of which received the vaccine subcutaneously using a Ped-o-Jet pressure injector and the remaining subjects received the vaccine intramuscularly, with hypodermic syringe and needle. The objective was to draw comparative conclusions regarding local reactions and serumconvertion in those young adults. Local reactions were observed four and 24 hours after immunization. Although significantly more frequent and intense in individuals receiving the toxoid by jet injection than in those inoculated with hypodermic syringe, no serious reactions were registered. At the first observation, local reactions occured in 64% of black men vaccinated by Ped-o-Jet and in only 31% of those vaccinated by syringe; 70% of the non-black showed local reactions when vaccinated by Ped-o-Jet and 21% when vaccinated by hypodermic syringe. At the second observation, black men vaccinated by Ped-o-Jet showed local reactions in 78% of the cases and in 3% when vaccinated by syringe; 87% of the non-black had some kind of local reaction when vaccinated by Ped-o-Jet and 17% when the vaccine was administered by syringe. Systemic reactions did not differ in either group. There was no statistical difference between blacks and non-blacks regarding local reactions. Antibody response to vaccination as measured by the paper filter Whatman # 31 technique, after digital punction, occured in a higher frequency in non-immune individuals vaccinated by Ped-o-Jet than in those vaccinated by hypodermic syringe. While in the first ones only 6.6% did not show serumconvertion, 26.9% of those vaccinated by syringe remained susceptible. The jet injector did not have any performance problems and was well accepted by the subjects, Results led to the conclusion that the Ped-o-Jet can be used for mass vaccination against tetanus.

  18. AAU-Specific RNA Cleavage Mediated by MazF Toxin Endoribonuclease Conserved in Nitrosomonas europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Miyamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrosomonas europaea carries numerous toxin-antitoxin systems. However, despite the abundant representation in its chromosome, studies have not surveyed the underlying molecular functions in detail, and their biological roles remain enigmatic. In the present study, we found that a chromosomally-encoded MazF family member, predicted at the locus NE1181, is a functional toxin endoribonuclease, and constitutes a toxin-antitoxin system, together with its cognate antitoxin, MazE. Massive parallel sequencing provided strong evidence that this toxin endoribonuclease exhibits RNA cleavage activity, primarily against the AAU triplet. This sequence-specificity was supported by the results of fluorometric assays. Our results indicate that N. europaea alters the translation profile and regulates its growth using the MazF family of endoribonuclease under certain stressful conditions.

  19. Combined active-passive immunisation of horses against tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1980-03-01

    The protection afforded by active, passive and combined active-passive methods of immunisation against tetanus was examined in previously unimmunised horses. Three groups of horses were injected; one with tetanus toxoid alone, one with tetanus antitoxin alone and one in which the tetanus toxoid and tetanus antitoxin were injected simultaneously. The protection afforded was determined by monitoring the levels of antitoxin achieved in the horses by each of these methods. The results obtained demonstrated the effectiveness of the combined active-passive method in affording rapid and prolonged protection and enabled the examination of some of the factors involved in active and in passive immunisation when used alone. The advantages obtained by the use of the combined active-passive method in protecting unimmunised horses suddenly placed at risk to infection are outlined.

  20. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Thomas J; Tennant, Bud C; Kumar, Arvind; McDonough, Sean; Cullen, John; Bhuva, Nishit; Jain, Komal; Chauhan, Lokendra Singh; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Lipkin, W Ian; Laverack, Melissa; Trivedi, Sheetal; Srinivasa, Satyapramod; Beard, Laurie; Rice, Charles M; Burbelo, Peter D; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward; Kapoor, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler's disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares horses using a tetanus antitoxin contaminated with EqPV-H. Viremia developed, the horses seroconverted, and acute hepatitis developed that was confirmed by clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic testing. We also determined that EqPV-H is an endemic infection because, in a cohort of 100 clinically normal adult horses, 13 were viremic and 15 were seropositive. We identified a new virus associated with equine serum hepatitis and confirmed its pathogenicity and transmissibility through contaminated biological products.

  1. Atypical tetanus in a completely immunized 14-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Kai; Ringe, Hannelore; Dorner, Brigitte G; Diers, Alexander; Uhlenberg, Birgit; Müller, Dominik; Varnholt, Verena; Gaedicke, Gerhard

    2007-11-01

    We report the uncommon clinical course of tetanus in a completely immunized 14-year-old boy. His initial symptoms, which included a flaccid paralysis, supported a diagnosis of botulism. Preliminary mouse-test results with combined botulinum antitoxins A, B, and E, obtained from tetanus-immunized horses, backed this diagnosis. The change in his clinical course from paralysis to rigor and the negative, more specific, botulinum mouse test with isolated botulinum antitoxins A, B, and E, obtained from nonvaccinated rabbits, disproved the diagnosis of botulism. Tetanus was suspected despite complete vaccination. The final results of a positive mouse test performed with isolated tetanus antitoxin confirmed the diagnosis. Adequate treatment was begun, and the boy recovered completely.

  2. RNA decay by messenger RNA interferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Overgaard, Martin; Winther, Kristoffer Skovbo

    2008-01-01

    Two abundant toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene families, relBE and mazEF, encode mRNA cleaving enzymes whose ectopic overexpression abruptly inhibits translation and thereby induces a bacteriostatic condition. Here we describe and discuss protocols for the overproduction, purification, and analysis of mR...... cleaving enzymes such as RelE of Escherichia coli and the corresponding antitoxin RelB. In particular, we describe a set of plasmid vectors useful for the detailed analysis of cleavage sites in model mRNAs.......Two abundant toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene families, relBE and mazEF, encode mRNA cleaving enzymes whose ectopic overexpression abruptly inhibits translation and thereby induces a bacteriostatic condition. Here we describe and discuss protocols for the overproduction, purification, and analysis of mRNA...

  3. A retrospective study of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus from Western, Northern and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Galen, Gaby; Rijckaert, Joke; Claude, Saegerman

    2017-01-01

    described and statistically compared between adults and foals. The described cases were often young horses. In 4 adult horses, tetanus developed despite appropriate vaccination and in 2 foals despite preventive tetanus antitoxin administration at birth. Castration, hoof abscesses, and wounds were the most...... treatment, tetanus antitoxin, muscle spasm and seizure control, analgesia, anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid therapy, and nutritional support. Mortality rates were 68.4% in adult horses and 66.7% in foals. Foals differed from adult horses with respect to months of occurrence, signalment, management...

  4. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases...

  5. Translation affects YoeB and MazF messenger RNA interferase activities by different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin loci encode mRNA cleaving enzymes that inhibit translation. Two types are known: those that cleave mRNA codons at the ribosomal A site and those that cleave any RNA site specifically. RelE of Escherichia coli cleaves mRNA at the ribosomal A site in vivo and in vitro bu...

  6. Molecular biology. A Swiss army knife of immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, S.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements are more than a daily nuisance in the life of prokaryotes. Whereas viruses can multiply by reprogramming host cells, or integrate in the host genome as “stowaways,” conjugative plasmids (transferrable extrachromosomal DNA) make cells addicted to plasmid-encoded antitoxin

  7. Botulisme hos spaedbørn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Mølbak, Kåre; Paerregaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    of voluntary muscles. Presenting symptoms include constipation, lethargy, mydriasis and ptosis. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical examination and confirmed by isolating the toxin in serum or stools. Treatment consists of supportive intensive care and treatment with antitoxins....

  8. Persistence Increases in the Absence of the Alarmone Guanosine Tetraphosphate by Reducing Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802- 4400, USA. 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State...of Toxin- Antitoxin Activity. Cell 154, 1140–1150 (2013). 26. Osbourne, D. O., Soo, V. W. C., Konieczny, I. & Wood, T. K. Polyphosphate, cyclic AMP

  9. Structural and functional analysis of the kid toxin protein from E. coli Plasmid R1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hargreaves, D.; Santos-Sierra, S.; Giraldo, R.; Sabariegos-Jareño, R.; de la Cueva-Méndez, G.; Boelens, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070151407; Díaz-Orejas, R.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined the structure of Kid toxin protein from E. coli plasmid R1 involved in stable plasmid inheritance by postsegregational killing of plasmid-less daughter cells. Kid forms a two-component system with its antagonist, Kis antitoxin. Our 1.4 Å crystal structure of Kid reveals a 2-fold

  10. Discovery of Peptidic Anti-cobratoxins by Next Generation Phage Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lynagh, Timothy; Kringelum, Jens Vindahl

    Antivenoms are still being produced by animal immunization protocols and are therefore associated with high immunogenicity for human recipients. Here we report the first step towards discovery of synthetic antitoxins that could be used for development of a fully synthetic antivenom against...

  11. DIPHTHERIA PROPHYLACTICS*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersin2 in 1888, and of antitoxin in small animals by von. Behring and Kitasat03 in .... Until the introduction of the flocculation test, the estimation of the L+ was the only .... difficult and somewhat wasteful to increase this to 2500-. 3000 Lf/mg. P .

  12. Decision Making in Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Chengzhe

    This thesis consists of five projects in three topics with a shared theme of understanding cellular decision-making processes with mathematical modeling. In the first topic, we address the possible interaction between bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) systems and stringent response alarmone guanosin...

  13. Distressing bacteria: structure of a prokaryotic detox program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2003-04-01

    MazF and MazE are components of a chromosomal toxin-antitoxin system of Escherichia coli. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kamada et al. describe the crystal structure of a MazE/MazF heterohexamer and propose that the mechanism of toxin-antidote recognition is common to other homologous chromosomal and plasmid-borne systems.

  14. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divers, Thomas J; Tennant, Bud C; Kumar, Arvind

    2018-01-01

    Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler's disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum ...

  15. Texas Emergency Resource Management. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    Laryngoscope. instruments, equipment Diphtheria antitoxin. Light, surgical, portable. and supplies Diphtheria and tetanus Litter . Chemical reagents...All interior display and showcase lighting. d. All comfort air conditioning. e. The use of electric ovens and broilers in home cooking, and reduce...green and yellow juniors dresses 2335 Light, surgical, portable 3841 vegetables. Important for Womens, etc. suits, Litter 3842 Vitamin A. skirts

  16. Evaluation of diphtheria convalescent patients to serve as donors for the production of anti-diphtheria immunoglobulin preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissumbhar, B.; Rakhmanova, A.G.; Berbers, G.; Iakolev, A.; Nosikova, E.; Melnick, O.; Ovtcharenko, E.; Rümke, H. C.; Ruitenberg, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of selecting convalescent diphtheria patients to serve in emergency situations as donors for the production of anti-diphtheria immunoglobulin. To select suitable donors, the criterion of an antitoxin titer ≥3.0 IU/ml was used. In addition,

  17. Persistence of Vancomycin Resistance in Multiple Clones of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Danish Broilers 15 Years after the Ban of Avoparcin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, Valeria; Mander, Manuela; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2015-01-01

    associated with a transferable nontypeable plasmid lineage occurring in multiple E. faecium clones. Coselection of sequence type 842 by tetracycline use only partly explained the persistence of vancomycin resistance in the absence of detectable plasmid coresistance and toxin-antitoxin systems....

  18. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  19. ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹⁵N backbone and side-chain chemical shift assignment of the toxin Doc in the unbound state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, Steven; Loris, Remy; van Nuland, Nico A J; Garcia-Pino, Abel

    2014-04-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules in bacteria are involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic stress response, persister formation and programmed cell death. The toxin Doc, from the phd/doc module, blocks protein synthesis by targeting the translation machinery. Despite a large wealth of biophysical and biochemical data on the regulatory aspects of the operon transcription and role of Doc co-activator and co-repressor, little is still know on the molecular basis of Doc toxicity. Structural information about this toxin is only available for its inhibited state bound to the antitoxin Phd. Here we report the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments of the toxin Doc from of bacteriophage P1 (the model protein from this family of TA modules) in its free state. The BMRB accession number is 18899.

  20. A New Selectable Marker System for Genetic Studies of Bacteria: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, D; Tolmasky, M; Chain, P; Segelke, B W

    2011-03-18

    Genetic manipulations in bacteria currently rely on the introduction of antibiotic resistance genes into a bacterial strain; for those organisms that will be used for commercial or industrial applications, the genetic cassette encoding the antibiotic resistance is sometimes removed after selection. it is clear that if alternative technologies could obviate the need to introduce antibiotic resistance into bacteria, they would most certainly become a standard tool in molecular micriobiology for commercial, industrial as well as research applications. Here, they present the development of a novel genetic engineering technology based on toxin-antitoxin systems to modify bacterial genomes without the use of antibiotic resistance in the mutagenesis process. The primary goal is to develop antibiotic-free selection for genetically altered select agent pathogens. They are adapting the toxinc-antitoxin system to enable gene replacement in select agent pathogens since the NIH restrictions introducing antibiotic resistance into select agent pathogens have hindered research with select agent pathogens.

  1. Plastic surgical management of a cobra bite – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhbier, Jörn W.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cobra bites are quite rare in European countries as these snakes are not native there. Toxins are devastating for tissue resulting in massive necrosis, thus plastic surgery might play a role in reconstruction of the lost tissue. A case of a male patient bitten by a thai cobra in the left index finger is presented. Antitoxin administration was delayed due to secondary patient admission. Progressive tissue necrosis made radical debridement necessary, resulting in the need for plastic surgical defect coverage with a flap. While a radical debridement to prevent toxic necrosis due to lytic enzymes in cobra venom has been favoured beforehand, large case studies led to a more restrained initial surgical intervention. However, antitoxin administration should be first line therapy in management of these cases. If severe necrosis is present as it might occur in delayed admission, a plastic surgical management of the patient might be advantageous.

  2. Diphtheria outbreak with high mortality in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besa, N C; Coldiron, M E; Bakri, A; Raji, A; Nsuami, M J; Rousseau, C; Hurtado, N; Porten, K

    2014-04-01

    SUMMARY A diphtheria outbreak occurred from February to November 2011 in the village of Kimba and its surrounding settlements, in Borno State, northeastern Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in Kimba village and the surrounding settlements to better describe the extent and clinical characteristics of this outbreak. Ninety-eight cases met the criteria of the case definition of diphtheria, 63 (64.3%) of whom were children aged diphtheria. None of the 98 cases received diphtheria antitoxin, penicillin, or erythromycin during their illness. The overall case-fatality ratio was 21.4%, and was highest in children aged 0-4 years (42.9%). Low rates of immunization, delayed clinical recognition of diphtheria and absence of treatment with antitoxin and appropriate antibiotics contributed to this epidemic and its severity.

  3. Comparison of the Structural Stability and Dynamic Properties of Recombinant Anthrax Protective Antigen and its 2-Fluorohistidine Labeled Analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lei; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Andra, Kiran K.; Thakkar, Santosh V.; Volkin, David B.; Bann, James G.; Middaugh, C. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the primary protein antigenic component of both the currently used anthrax vaccine and related recombinant vaccines under development. An analogue of recombinant PA (2-FHis rPA) has been recently shown to block the key steps of pore formation in the process of inducing cytotoxicity in cells, and thus can potentially be used as an antitoxin or a vaccine. This rPA analogue was produced by fermentation to incorporate the unnatural amino acid 2-fluorohistidine (2-FHis)....

  4. Early, Real-Time Medical Diagnosis of Botulism by Endopeptidase-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Osnat; Feldberg, Liron; Gura, Sigalit; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Guri, Alex; Zimhony, Oren; Shapiro, Eli; Beth-Din, Adi; Stein, Dana; Ozeri, Eyal; Barnea, Ada; Turgeman, Amram; Ben David, Alon; Schwartz, Arieh; Elhanany, Eytan; Diamant, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Zichel, Ran

    2015-12-15

    Botulinum toxin was detected in patient serum using Endopeptidase-mass-spectrometry assay, although all conventional tests provided negative results. Antitoxin was administered, resulting in patient improvement. Implementing this highly sensitive and rapid assay will improve preparedness for foodborne botulism and deliberate exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Volunteer Challenge With Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli That Express Intestinal Colonization Factor Fimbriae CS17 and CS19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Serotype was determined by classic serological methods at the Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico [UNAMl. H- indrcates non-motility. b CF...Levine MM, Merson MM. Serologic differentiation between antitoxin responses to infection with Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli...prototype cholera B subunit-colonization factor antigen cnterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Vaccine 1993; 1[:929-34. 15. Levine MM, Nalin DR

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the YafN–YafO complex from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Xing, Li; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome-dependent mRNA interferase YafO from Escherichia coli belongs to a type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) system and its cognate antitoxin YafN neutralizes cell toxicity by forming a stable YafN–YafO complex. Here, the YafN–YafO complex has been expressed and crystallized. The ribosome-dependent mRNA interferase YafO from Escherichia coli belongs to a type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) system and its cognate antitoxin YafN neutralizes cell toxicity by forming a stable YafN–YafO complex. The YafN–YafO TA system is upregulated by the SOS response (a global response to DNA damage in which the cell cycle is arrested and mutagenesis is induced) and may then inhibit protein synthesis by endoribonuclease activity of YafO with the 50S ribosome subunit. Structural information on the YafN–YafO complex and related complexes would be helpful in order to understand the structural basis of the mechanism of mRNA recognition and cleavage, and the assembly of these complexes. Here, the YafN–YafO complex was expressed and crystallized. Crystals grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 3.50 Å resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.14, b = 86.14, c = 173.11 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Both Matthews coefficient analysis and the self-rotation function suggested the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit in the crystal, with a solvent content of 65.69% (V M = 3.58 Å 3 Da −1 )

  7. Evolutionary reprograming of protein-protein interaction specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Eyal; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2015-10-22

    Using mutation libraries and deep sequencing, Aakre et al. study the evolution of protein-protein interactions using a toxin-antitoxin model. The results indicate probable trajectories via "intermediate" proteins that are promiscuous, thus avoiding transitions via non-interactions. These results extend observations about other biological interactions and enzyme evolution, suggesting broadly general principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Agrococcusbaldri Strain Marseille-P2731.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouda, Pamela; Dubourg, Gregory; Labas, Noemie; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2017-03-09

    Agrococcus baldri strain Marseille-P2731 was isolated from a Siberian permafrost specimen dated around 10 million years. The 3,021,022-bp genome of strain Marseille-P2731, with a 71.82% G+C content, includes 2,844 protein-coding genes, 72 toxin/antitoxin modules, nine bacteriocin-encoding genes, and 1,266 genes associated with mobilome. Copyright © 2017 Afouda et al.

  9. RNA Futile Cycling in Model Persisters Derived from MazF Accumulation (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-17

    the nature of antitoxins and mechanism by which they inhibit their cognate toxins (36). Each toxin can also target different cellular components...48). MazF accumulation depresses cellular energy levels. To fur- ther investigate the metabolic changes in cells during toxin- induced shutdown, we...We com- pared the abundance of metabolites extracted from MazF- accumulating cells with that of metabolites extracted from cells coexpressing MazE

  10. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  11. The research progress and medicine application of the ScFv antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Lili; Zhang Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Since the scholar of England and Japan had found the diphtheria antitoxin, the research of the antibody has experienced three phases: polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies and genetically engineered antibodies. In recent years, far more attention has been paid to single-chain antibody by researchers owing to it's small molecular, strong ability of penetration, short half-lives in blood, high specificity to combine with the corresponding antibody, weak immunogenicity and possibility to be expressed in prokaryocyte. (authors)

  12. Discovery of peptidic anti-­myotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjärtun, Johanna; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Munk, Andreas

    More than 2.5 millions envenomations and 125.000 death occur each year due to snakebite. Current antivenoms consist of immunoglobulinesderived from animals, and they are therefore associated with a high risk of adverse reactions in humans. The use of synthetic peptidic antitoxinsmay lead to safer...... and more effective antivenoms. This research reports the discovery of peptidic antitoxins against myotoxin II from B. asper....

  13. Saccharomyces boulardii Stimulates Intestinal Immunoglobulin A Immune Response to Clostridium difficile Toxin A in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Amir; Aboudola, Samer; Warny, Michel; Michetti, Pierre; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; LaMont, J. Thomas; Kelly, Ciarán P.

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a nonpathogenic yeast that protects against antibiotic-associated diarrhea and recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. The administration of C. difficile toxoid A by gavage to S. boulardii-fed BALB/c mice caused a 1.8-fold increase in total small intestinal immunoglobulin A levels (P = 0.003) and a 4.4-fold increase in specific intestinal anti-toxin A levels (P boulardii-mediated protection against diarrheal illnesses. PMID:11254650

  14. Identification of novel substrates of Shigella T3SA through analysis of its virulence plasmid-encoded secretome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Laurie; Ferrari, Mariana L.; Friedman, Robin; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Phalipon, Armelle; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2017-01-01

    Many human Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express a Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA), including among the most notorious Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). These bacteria express on their surface multiple copies of the T3SA that mediate the delivery into host cells of specific protein substrates critical to pathogenesis. Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens responsible for human bacillary dysentery. The effector function of several Shigella T3SA substrates has largely been studied but their potential cellular targets are far from having been comprehensively delineated. In addition, it is likely that some T3SA substrates have escaped scrutiny as yet. Indeed, sequencing of the virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri has revealed numerous open reading frames with unknown functions that could encode additional T3SA substrates. Taking advantage of label-free mass spectrometry detection of proteins secreted by a constitutively secreting strain of S. flexneri, we identified five novel substrates of the T3SA. We further confirmed their secretion through the T3SA and translocation into host cells using β-lactamase assays. The coding sequences of two of these novel T3SA substrates (Orf13 and Orf131a) have a guanine-cytosine content comparable to those of T3SA components and effectors. The three other T3SA substrates identified (Orf48, Orf86 and Orf176) have significant homology with antitoxin moieties of type II Toxin-Antitoxin systems usually implicated in the maintenance of low copy plasmids. While Orf13 and Orf131a might constitute new virulence effectors contributing to S. flexneri pathogenicity, potential roles for the translocation into host cells of antitoxins or antitoxin-like proteins during Shigella infection are discussed. PMID:29073283

  15. Analysis of non-typeable Haemophilous influenzae VapC1 mutations reveals structural features required for toxicity and flexibility in the active site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Hamilton

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved mechanisms that allow them to survive in the face of a variety of stresses including nutrient deprivation, antibiotic challenge and engulfment by predator cells. A switch to dormancy represents one strategy that reduces energy utilization and can render cells resistant to compounds that kill growing bacteria. These persister cells pose a problem during treatment of infections with antibiotics, and dormancy mechanisms may contribute to latent infections. Many bacteria encode toxin-antitoxin (TA gene pairs that play an important role in dormancy and the formation of persisters. VapBC gene pairs comprise the largest of the Type II TA systems in bacteria and they produce a VapC ribonuclease toxin whose activity is inhibited by the VapB antitoxin. Despite the importance of VapBC TA pairs in dormancy and persister formation, little information exists on the structural features of VapC proteins required for their toxic function in vivo. Studies reported here identified 17 single mutations that disrupt the function of VapC1 from non-typeable H. influenzae in vivo. 3-D modeling suggests that side chains affected by many of these mutations sit near the active site of the toxin protein. Phylogenetic comparisons and secondary mutagenesis indicate that VapC1 toxicity requires an alternative active site motif found in many proteobacteria. Expression of the antitoxin VapB1 counteracts the activity of VapC1 mutants partially defective for toxicity, indicating that the antitoxin binds these mutant proteins in vivo. These findings identify critical chemical features required for the biological function of VapC toxins and PIN-domain proteins.

  16. Identification of novel substrates of Shigella T3SA through analysis of its virulence plasmid-encoded secretome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Pinaud

    Full Text Available Many human Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express a Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA, including among the most notorious Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. These bacteria express on their surface multiple copies of the T3SA that mediate the delivery into host cells of specific protein substrates critical to pathogenesis. Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens responsible for human bacillary dysentery. The effector function of several Shigella T3SA substrates has largely been studied but their potential cellular targets are far from having been comprehensively delineated. In addition, it is likely that some T3SA substrates have escaped scrutiny as yet. Indeed, sequencing of the virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri has revealed numerous open reading frames with unknown functions that could encode additional T3SA substrates. Taking advantage of label-free mass spectrometry detection of proteins secreted by a constitutively secreting strain of S. flexneri, we identified five novel substrates of the T3SA. We further confirmed their secretion through the T3SA and translocation into host cells using β-lactamase assays. The coding sequences of two of these novel T3SA substrates (Orf13 and Orf131a have a guanine-cytosine content comparable to those of T3SA components and effectors. The three other T3SA substrates identified (Orf48, Orf86 and Orf176 have significant homology with antitoxin moieties of type II Toxin-Antitoxin systems usually implicated in the maintenance of low copy plasmids. While Orf13 and Orf131a might constitute new virulence effectors contributing to S. flexneri pathogenicity, potential roles for the translocation into host cells of antitoxins or antitoxin-like proteins during Shigella infection are discussed.

  17. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  18. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G), a new mosaic toxin type termed Bo...

  19. Crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin type HA, also known as type FA or H

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, G; Lam, KH; Perry, K; Weisemann, J; Rummel, A; Jin, R

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established Bo...

  20. Coxofemoral luxation in a border collie as a complication of a Clostridium tetani infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, M A; Chapman, P S; Grierson, J M

    2008-03-01

    A four-month-old male, entire, border collie was presented to the Queen Mother Hospital for Animals with a two day history of muscular spasms and "Risus sardonicus". Tetanus was diagnosed, and the dog was treated with tetanus antitoxin, antibiotics and supportive therapy. Coxofemoral luxation resulted as a complication of the tetanus and was successfully managed by performing a femoral head and neck excision. This is the first report of joint luxation associated with Clostridium tetani infection in a dog.

  1. Active immunisation of horses against tetanus including the booster dose and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1981-02-01

    Successful active immunisation of horses against tetanus is dependent on a number of factors of which the toxoid preparation used, its method of application and the ability of the individual horse to respond are fundamental. Two immunisation schedules using an aluminium-based toxoid preparation were examined and the protection determined by monitoring the level of antitoxin afforded by each schedule. The results obtained demonstrated that 2 doses of this toxoid are necessary to ensure 12 months protection in all horses. These results are discussed in relation to the factors involved in active immunisation against tetanus. Reference is also made to the occurrence of a transient phase of reduced levels of antitoxin following booster doses of toxoid in immunised horses during which it is considered these horses could become more susceptible to tetanus. The effect of a booster dose on immunised horses was examined and while there can be a reduction in the level of antitoxin in some immunised horses following this dose its effect is minimal, short-lived and for all practical purposes can be disregarded. The application of the booster dose in practice is also discussed.

  2. A novel membrane-bound toxin for cell division, CptA (YgfX), inhibits polymerization of cytoskeleton proteins, FtsZ and MreB, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hisako; Tan, Qian; Awano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-03-01

    Nearly all free-living bacteria carry toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems on their genomes, through which cell growth and death are regulated. Toxins target a variety of essential cellular functions, including DNA replication, translation, and cell division. Here, we identified a novel toxin, YgfX, on the Escherichia coli genome. The toxin, consisting of 135 residues, is composed of the N-terminal membrane domain, which encompasses two transmembrane segments, and the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Upon YgfX expression, the cells were initially elongated and then the middle portion of the cells became inflated to form a lemon shape. YgfX was found to interact with MreB and FtsZ, two essential cytoskeletal proteins in E. coli. The cytoplasmic domain [YgfX(C)] was found to be responsible for the YgfX toxicity, as purified YgfX(C) was found to block the polymerization of FtsZ and MreB in vitro. YgfY, located immediately upstream of YgfX, was shown to be the cognate antitoxin; notably, YgfX is the first membrane-associating toxin in bacterial TA systems. We propose to rename the toxin and the antitoxin as CptA and CptB (for Cytoskeleton Polymerization inhibiting Toxin), respectively. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. YeeU enhances the bundling of cytoskeletal polymers of MreB and FtsZ, antagonizing the CbtA (YeeV) toxicity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hisako; Tan, Qian; Awano, Naoki; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-06-01

    All free-living bacteria carry the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems controlling cell growth and death under stress conditions. YeeU-YeeV (CbtA) is one of the Escherichia coli TA systems, and the toxin, CbtA, has been reported to inhibit the polymerization of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, MreB and FtsZ. Here, we demonstrate that the antitoxin, YeeU, is a novel type of antitoxin (type IV TA system), which does not form a complex with CbtA but functions as an antagonist for CbtA toxicity. Specifically, YeeU was found to directly interact with MreB and FtsZ, and enhance the bundling of their filamentous polymers in vitro. Surprisingly, YeeU neutralized not only the toxicity of CbtA but also the toxicity caused by other inhibitors of MreB and FtsZ, such as A22, SulA and MinC, indicating that YeeU-induced bundling of MreB and FtsZ has an intrinsic global stabilizing effect on their homeostasis. Here we propose to rename YeeU as CbeA for cytoskeleton bundling-enhancing factor A. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum GB-LP1 Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihyun; Ahn, Sojin; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Lee, Chanho; Kang, Jungsun; Cho, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kang, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Heebal

    2017-08-28

    As probiotics play an important role in maintaining a healthy gut flora environment through antitoxin activity and inhibition of pathogen colonization, they have been of interest to the medical research community for quite some time now. Probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum , which can be found in fermented food, are of particular interest given their easy accessibility. We performed whole-genome sequencing and genomic analysis on a GB-LP1 strain of L. plantarum isolated from Korean traditional fermented food; this strain is well known for its functions in immune response, suppression of pathogen growth, and antitoxin effects. The complete genome sequence of GB-LP1 is a single chromosome of 3,040,388 bp with 2,899 predicted open reading frames. Genomic analysis of GB-LP1 revealed two CRISPR regions and genes showing accelerated evolution, which may have antibiotic and antitoxin functions. The aim of the present study was to predict strain specific-genomic characteristics and assess the potential of this new strain as lactic acid bacteria at the genomic level using in silico analysis. These results provide insight into the L. plantarum species as well as confirm the possibility of its utility as a candidate probiotic.

  5. Cluster of botulism among Dutch tourists in Turkey, June 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaan, C M; van Ouwerkerk, I M; Roest, H J

    2010-04-08

    In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An outbreak investigation was initiated into all nine cruise members, eight of whom developed symptoms. C. botulinum type B was isolated in stool culture from four of them. No other patients were notified locally. Food histories revealed locally purchased unprocessed black olives, consumed on board of the ship, as most likely source, but no left-overs were available for investigation. C. botulinum type D was detected in locally purchased canned peas, and whilst type D is not known to be a cause of human intoxication, its presence in a canned food product indicates an inadequate preserving process. With increasing tourism to areas where food-borne botulism is reported regularly special requests for botulism antitoxin may become necessary. Preparing an inventory of available reserve stock in Europe would appear to be a necessary and valuable undertaking.

  6. Seroprevalence of antibody against diphtheria among the population in Khon Kaen province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansiddhi, Hataichanok; Vuthitanachot, Viboonsuk; Vuthitanachot, Chanpim; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-03-01

    To assess diphtheria immunity in the northeastern region of Thailand, a seroepidemiological survey was undertaken in 2011 from 516 healthy individuals (age range 2-87 years) in Khon Kaen province. Diphtheria antitoxin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titers of ≥0.1 IU/mL were considered to be protective antitoxin levels. Among the studied population, 94.8% have fully protective levels. The younger population (age range 2-19 years) has higher diphtheria immunity with seroprotection rates of 96.8% to 97.9%, compared with the adult population. The proportion of protective diphtheria antitoxin levels declines to 88.3% to 91.9% in the middle-aged group (20-50 years), and appeared to be higher again in the older age-group (50-70 years). To avoid epidemic spreading, promoting immunization booster programs will be helpful, especially among the adult population (20-50 years). Finally, this study may serve as a valuable guide in deciding exactly which age-groups should be targeted by such an effort. © 2012 APJPH.

  7. Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomovici, A; Barreto, L; Zickler, P; Meekison, W; Noya, F; Voloshen, T; Lavigne, P

    2012-03-30

    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in earlier clinical trials. Outcome measures were seroprotection (tetanus and diphtheria) or seropositivity (pertussis) and geometric mean concentrations. Humoral immune responses to all antigens were robust 1 month after initial immunization, decreased at subsequent measurements, but continued to exceed pre-immunization levels 1, 3, 5, and 10 years later. Protective levels of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin persisted in 99.3% of adolescents 10 years after a booster dose of Tdap. Seropositivity to 1 or more pertussis antigens also persisted in most adolescents for 10 years. Although tetanus antitoxin responses were similar in adults to those observed in adolescents, diphtheria antitoxin titers were lower, reflecting the fact that a smaller proportion of adults had received diphtheria toxoid in the previous 10 years compared to adolescents. These data will contribute to the selection of the optimal interval for repeat doses of Tdap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two regulatory RNA elements affect TisB-dependent depolarization and persister formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Bork A; Hoekzema, Mirthe; Aulbach, Lena; Wagner, E Gerhart H

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial survival strategies involve phenotypic diversity which is generated by regulatory factors and noisy expression of effector proteins. The question of how bacteria exploit regulatory RNAs to make decisions between phenotypes is central to a general understanding of these universal regulators. We investigated the TisB/IstR-1 toxin-antitoxin system of Escherichia coli to appreciate the role of the RNA antitoxin IstR-1 in TisB-dependent depolarization of the inner membrane and persister formation. Persisters are phenotypic variants that have become transiently drug-tolerant by arresting growth. The RNA antitoxin IstR-1 sets a threshold for TisB-dependent depolarization under DNA-damaging conditions, resulting in two sub-populations: polarized and depolarized cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that an inhibitory 5' UTR structure in the tisB mRNA serves as a regulatory RNA element that delays TisB translation to avoid inappropriate depolarization when DNA damage is low. Investigation of the persister sub-population further revealed that both regulatory RNA elements affect persister levels as well as persistence time. This work provides an intriguing example of how bacteria exploit regulatory RNAs to control phenotypic heterogeneity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. SiMa Cells for a Serotype Specific and Sensitive Cell-Based Neutralization Test for Botulinum Toxin A and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Nicola; Rajagopal, Shalini; Stickings, Paul; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2017-07-20

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs), of which there are seven serotypes, are among the most potent neurotoxins, with serotypes A, B and E causing human botulism. Antitoxins form the first line of treatment for botulism, and functional, highly sensitive in vitro methods for toxin neutralization are needed to replace the current in vivo methods used for determination of antitoxin potency. In this preliminary proof of concept study, we report the development of a neutralization test using the neuroblastoma SiMa cell line. The assay is serotype specific for either BoNT/A or BoNT/E, which both cleave unique sequences on SNAP-25 within SiMa cells. The end point is simple immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 from cell lysates with antibodies detecting only the newly exposed sequence on SNAP-25. Neutralizing antibodies prevent the toxin-induced cleavage of SNAP-25. The toxin neutralization assay, with an EC50 of ~2 mIU/mL determined with a standardized reference antiserum, is more sensitive than the mouse bioassays. Relevance was demonstrated with commercial and experimental antitoxins targeting different functional domains, and of known in vivo neutralizing activities. This is the first report describing a simple, specific, in vitro cell-based assay for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against BoNT/A and BoNT/E with a sensitivity exceeding that of the mouse bioassay.

  10. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incompatibility group P-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2010-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a 25-kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the IncP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidiosa required a 1.4-kbp region from pXF-RIV11 containing a replication initiation gene (trfA) and the adjacent origin of DNA replication (oriV). Constructs containing trfA and oriV from pVEIS01, a related IncP-1 plasmid of the earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae, also were competent for replication in X. fastidiosa. Constructs derived from pXF-RIV11 but not pVEIS01 replicated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas syringae. Although plasmids bearing replication elements from pXF-RIV11 or pVEIS01 could be maintained in X. fastidiosa under antibiotic selection, removal of selection resulted in plasmid extinction after 3 weekly passages. Addition of a toxin-antitoxin addiction system (pemI/pemK) from pXF-RIV11 improved plasmid stability such that >80 to 90% of X. fastidiosa cells retained plasmid after 5 weekly passages in the absence of antibiotic selection. Expression of PemK in E. coli was toxic for cell growth, but toxicity was nullified by coexpression of PemI antitoxin. Deletion of N-terminal sequences of PemK containing the conserved motif RGD abolished toxicity. In vitro assays revealed a direct interaction of PemI with PemK, suggesting that antitoxin activity of PemI is mediated by toxin sequestration. IncP-1 plasmid replication and stability factors were added to an E. coli cloning vector to constitute a stable 6.0-kbp shuttle vector (pXF20-PEMIK) suitable for use in X. fastidiosa.

  11. Molecular basis of immunogenicity to botulinum neurotoxins and uses of the defined antigenic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, M Z

    2015-12-01

    Intensive research in this laboratory over the last 19 years has aimed at understanding the molecular bases for immune recognition of botulinum neurotoxin, types A and B and the role of anti-toxin immune responses in defense against the toxin. Using 92 synthetic 19-residue peptides that overlapped by 5 residues and comprised an entire toxin (A or B) we determined the peptides' ability to bind anti-toxin Abs of human, mouse, horse and chicken. We also localized the epitopes recognized by Abs of cervical dystonia patients who developed immunoresistance to correlate toxin during treatment with BoNT/A or BoNT/B. For BoNT/A, patients' blocking Abs bound to 13 regions (5 on L and 8 on H subunit) on the surface and the response to each region was under separate MHC control. The responses were defined by the structure of the antigen and by the MHC of the host. The antigenic regions coincided or overlapped with synaptosomes (SNPS) binding regions. Antibody binding blocked the toxin's ability to bind to neuronal cells. In fact selected synthetic peptides were able to inhibit the toxin's action in vivo. A combination of three synthetic strong antigenic peptides detected blocking Abs in 88% of immunoresistant patients' sera. Administration of selected epitopes, pre-linked at their N(α) group to monomethoxyployethylene glycol, into mice with ongoing blocking anti-toxin Abs, reduced blocking Ab levels in the recipients. This may be suitable for clinical applications. Defined epitopes should also be valuable in synthetic vaccines design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxian Zhang

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011. In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT, constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.

  13. Complete sequence of the IncA/C1 plasmid pCf587 carrying blaPER-2 from Citrobacter freundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Melina; Girlich, Delphine; Dabos, Laura; Power, Pablo; Naas, Thierry; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2018-02-20

    The bla PER-2 harboring plasmid pCf587 (191,541 bp) belongs to lineage IncA/C 1 and is closely related to pRA1. It contains a large resistance island including the bla PER-2 gene between two copies of IS Kox2 -like elements, the toxin-antitoxin module pemK-pemI, several other resistance genes inserted within a Tn 2 transposon, a Tn 21 -like structure, and a class 1 integron. pCf587 belongs into ST 13, a new pMLST. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Characterization of Endogenous Plasmids from Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Fang; Flynn, Sarah; Li, Yin; Claesson, Marcus J.; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Collins, J. Kevin; van Sinderen, Douwe; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 comprises a 1.83-Mb chromosome, a 242-kb megaplasmid (pMP118), and two smaller plasmids of 20 kb (pSF118-20) and 44 kb (pSF118-44). Annotation and bioinformatic analyses suggest that both of the smaller plasmids replicate by a theta replication mechanism. Furthermore, it appears that they are transmissible, although neither possesses a complete set of conjugation genes. Plasmid pSF118-20 encodes a toxin-antitoxin system composed of pemI and pemK h...

  15. [Development of autoimmune reactions in horses serving to produce antitetanus serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgadze, I A; Nozadze, Z M

    1986-03-01

    The hyperimmunization of horses with large doses of tetanus toxoid is accompanied by an increase in the levels of both specific antitoxic antibodies and autoantibodies to the tissue antigens of the liver, the spleen, the heart. The reverse relationship between the level of autoantibodies and the titer of antitoxin has been established. The authors suggest that the synthesis of autoantibodies is stimulated by the presence of antigen-antibody immune complexes in the circulating blood, as well as by the action of exo- and endopolyclonal stimulators.

  16. Dynamic changes of horse serum T-globulin immunization with snake venoms, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H F; Lee, J D; Lee, Y C

    1979-12-01

    In course of immunizing horses with snake venoms, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, a new serum component, T-globulin, was formed and migrated between the beta- and gamma-globulins. The T-globulin content was parallel with the antibody titre after the middle course of immunization. There were many components in snake antivenin and T-globulin was composed of most of those components. The components of diphtheria T-globulin were the same as those of crude antitoxin and tetanus T-globulin except one precipitin.

  17. Computer-Assisted Communication Device for Botulinum-Intoxicated Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    development of small molecule therapeutics for botulinum neurotoxin and on the development of nerve agent pretreatments and therapies . He has published...Souayah, N., Karim, H., Kamin, S.S., McArdle, J. and Marcus, S. (2006) ‘Severe botulism after focal injection of botulinum toxin’, Neurology , Vol...67, pp.1855–1856. Tacket, C.O., Shandera, W.X., Mann, J.M., Hargrett, N.T. and Blake, P.A. (1984) ‘ Equine antitoxin use and other factors that

  18. Physico-Chemical-Managed Killing of Penicillin-Resistant Static and Growing Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Vegetative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Farris, III, Alex F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for the use of compounds from the Hofmeister series coupled with specific pH and temperature to provide rapid physico-chemical-managed killing of penicillin-resistant static and growing Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria. The systems and methods represent the more general physico-chemical enhancement of susceptibility for a wide range of pathological macromolecular targets to clinical management by establishing the reactivity of those targets to topically applied drugs or anti-toxins.

  19. Corrigendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramisetty, Bhaskar C.M.; Ghosh, Dimpy; Chowdhury, Moumita Roy

    2017-01-01

    A corrigendum on What Is the Link between Stringent Response, Endoribonuclease Encoding Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems and Persistence? by Ramisetty, B. C. M., Ghosh, D., Roy Chowdhury, M., and Santhosh, R. S. (2016). Front. Microbiol. 7:1882. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01882 Text Correction In the.......78 and 1.98 cm, respectively. We did not find any significant difference with the other antibiotics at the concentrations used (Figures 3B,C). The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way....

  20. Role of O2 in the Growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 on Glucose and Succinate

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, Rachel M.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Geddes, Barney A.; Perry, Benjamin J.; Yost, Chris K.; Poole, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Insertion sequencing (INSeq) analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 (Rlv3841) grown on glucose or succinate at both 21% and 1% O2 was used to understand how O2 concentration alters metabolism. Two transcriptional regulators were required for growth on glucose (pRL120207 [eryD] and RL0547 [phoB]), five were required on succinate (pRL100388, RL1641, RL1642, RL3427, and RL4524 [ecfL]), and three were required on 1% O2 (pRL110072, RL0545 [phoU], and RL4042). A novel toxin-antitoxin s...

  1. Global occurrence and heterogeneity of the Roseobacter-clade species Ruegeria mobilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein, Eva; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; D'Alvise, Paul

    2017-01-01

    in the free-living fraction occurring in 40% and 6% of the samples, respectively. Our data and the TARA data, although lacking sufficient data from the polar regions, demonstrate that R. mobilis is a globally distributed marine bacterial species found primarily in the upper open oceans. It has preserved key....... Major genomic differences within the sub-clusters include prophages and toxin-antitoxin systems. In general, the genome of R. mobilis revealed adaptation to a particle-associated life style and querying TARA ocean data confirmed that R. mobilis is more abundant in the particle-associated fraction than...

  2. Micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunosorbent technique (RIST) for the detection of immunity to clinical tetanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, G T [Royal Infirmary, Manchester (UK)

    1980-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and radioimmunosorbent assay (RIST) techniques for the detection of tetanus toxin antibodies are described. Both methods proved to be highly sensitive, and allowed the measurement of 5 x 10/sup -3/ units/ml tetanus antitoxin in human serum or plasma, sensitivity and reproducibility comparing well with other techniques previously described, and being superior to haemagglutination and latex agglutination tests. Results of the two methods correlated well, and reflected the immunization histories obtained. Micro ELISA and micro RIST would seem to be suitable for the detection of immunity, or non-immunity to clinical tetanus.

  3. A micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunosorbent technique (RIST) for the detection of immunity to clinical tetanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and radioimmunosorbent assay (RIST) techniques for the detection of tetanus toxin antibodies are described. Both methods proved to be highly sensitive, and allowed the measurement of 5 x 10 -3 units/ml tetanus antitoxin in human serum or plasma, sensitivity and reproducibility comparing well with other techniques previously described, and being superior to haemagglutination and latex agglutination tests. Results of the two methods correlated well, and reflected the immunization histories obtained. Micro ELISA and micro RIST would seem to be suitable for the detection of immunity, or non-immunity to clinical tetanus. (author)

  4. Diphtheria in a 7-year-old child in north-eastern Nigeria - management in a resource-poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Baba Waru; Gofama, Mustapha M; Lawan, Gana M; Haruna, Yusuph; Bukar, Bakki; Musa, Kida I

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 7-year-old unimmunized child who presented with a 2 week history of nasal quality speech, hoarseness of the voice, regurgitation of feeds, and unstable gait. He had a previous history of fever, severe sore throat and bloody nasal discharge. A throat swab was negative for Corynebacterium diphtheria; however, he had received antibiotics at a primary care clinic prior to presentation. A clinical diagnosis of diphtheria with neurologic complication was made and the child was started on oral erythromycin, nasogastric tube feeding and daily physiotherapy, following which he improved. We did not prescribe diphtheria anti-toxin because of its unavailability.

  5. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: evidence-based management of pediatric patients in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibners, Lara

    2017-02-01

    Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts. Most importantly, issues regarding vaccination and prevention are highlighted.

  6. Toxin ζ Reversible Induces Dormancy and Reduces the UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Pool as One of the Protective Responses to Cope with Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Tabone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxins of the ζ/PezT family, found in the genome of major human pathogens, phosphorylate the peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG leading to unreactive UNAG-3P. Transient over-expression of a PezT variant impairs cell wall biosynthesis and triggers autolysis in Escherichia coli. Conversely, physiological levels of ζ reversibly induce dormancy produce a sub-fraction of membrane-compromised cells, and a minor subpopulation of Bacillus subtilis cells become tolerant of toxin action. We report here that purified ζ is a strong UNAG-dependent ATPase, being GTP a lower competitor. In vitro, ζ toxin phosphorylates a fraction of UNAG. In vivo, ζ-mediated inactivation of UNAG by phosphorylation does not deplete the active UNAG pool, because expression of the toxin enhances the efficacy of genuine cell wall inhibitors (fosfomycin, vancomycin or ampicillin. Transient ζ expression together with fosfomycin treatment halt cell proliferation, but ε2 antitoxin expression facilitates the exit of ζ-induced dormancy, suggesting that there is sufficient UNAG for growth. We propose that ζ induces diverse cellular responses to cope with stress, being the reduction of the UNAG pool one among them. If the action of ζ is not inhibited, e.g., by de novo ε2 antitoxin synthesis, the toxin markedly enhances the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment without massive autolysis in Firmicutes.

  7. Quorum Sensing Extracellular Death Peptides Enhance the Endoribonucleolytic Activities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MazF Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Akanksha; Kumar, Sathish

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT mazEF is a toxin-antitoxin module located on chromosomes of most bacteria. MazF toxins are endoribonucleases antagonized by MazE antitoxins. Previously, we characterized several quorum sensing peptides called "extracellular death factors" (EDFs). When secreted from bacterial cultures, EDFs induce interspecies cell death. EDFs also enhance the endoribonucleolytic activity of Escherichia coli MazF. Mycobacterium tuberculosis carries several mazEF modules. Among them, the endoribonucleolytic activities of MazF proteins mt-1, mt-3, and mt-6 were identified. MazF-mt6 and MazF-mt-3 cleave M. tuberculosis rRNAs. Here we report the in vitro effects of EDFs on the endoribonucleolytic activities of M. tuberculosis MazFs. Escherichia coli EDF (EcEDF) and the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa EDFs (PaEDFs) individually enhance the endoribonucleolytic activities of MazF-mt6 and MazF-mt3 and overcome the inhibitory effect of MazE-mt3 or MazE-mt6 on the endoribonucleolytic activities of the respective toxins. We propose that these EDFs can serve as a basis for a novel class of antibiotics against M. tuberculosis. PMID:29717013

  8. Historical links between toxinology and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaillon, Jean-Marc

    2018-04-01

    Research on bacterial toxins is closely linked to the birth of immunology. Our understanding of the interaction of bacterial protein toxins with immune cells has helped to decipher immunopathology, develop preventive and curative treatments for infections, and propose anti-cancer immunotherapies. The link started when Behring and Kitasato demonstrated that serotherapy was effective against 'the strangling angel', namely diphtheria, and its dreadful toxin discovered by Roux and Yersin. The antitoxin treatment helped to save thousands of children. Glenny demonstrated the efficacy of the secondary immune response compared to the primary one. Ramon described anatoxins that allowed the elaboration of effective vaccines and discovered the use of adjuvant to boost the antibody response. Similar approaches were later made for the tetanus toxin. Studying antitoxin antibodies Ehrlich demonstrated, for the first time, the transfer of immunity from mother to newborns. In 1989 Marrack and Kappler coined the concept of 'superantigens' to characterize protein toxins that induce T-lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine release by both T-lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells. More recently, immunotoxins have been designed to kill cancer cells targeted by either specific antibodies or cytokines. Finally, the action of IgE antibodies against toxins may explain their persistence through evolution despite their side effect in allergy.

  9. The SOS response is permitted in Escherichia coli strains deficient in the expression of the mazEF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderon, Ziva; Kumar, Sathish; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli (E. coli) SOS response is the largest, most complex, and best characterized bacterial network induced by DNA damage. It is controlled by a complex network involving the RecA and LexA proteins. We have previously shown that the SOS response to DNA damage is inhibited by various elements involved in the expression of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin mazEF pathway. Since the mazEF module is present on the chromosomes of most E. coli strains, here we asked: Why is the SOS response found in so many E. coli strains? Is the mazEF module present but inactive in those strains? We examined three E. coli strains used for studies of the SOS response, strains AB1932, BW25113, and MG1655. We found that each of these strains is either missing or inhibiting one of several elements involved in the expression of the mazEF-mediated death pathway. Thus, the SOS response only takes place in E. coli cells in which one or more elements of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin module mazEF or its downstream pathway is not functioning.

  10. Tetanus in the horse: a review of 20 cases (1970 to 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S L; Little, C B; Baird, J D; Tremblay, R R; Smith-Maxie, L L

    1994-01-01

    The case records of 20 horses with tetanus referred to the Ontario Veterinary College-Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed. The fatality rate was 75%. There was a strong association with previous vaccination and survival (P = .03). Most of the animals had been injured an average of 9 days (range 2 to 21 days) prior to development of clinical signs. Hyperesthesia and prolapse of the third eyelid were the most common clinical signs. Treatment regimens varied during hospitalization; however, all horses received parenteral penicillin, tranquilizers, tetanus toxoid, and antitoxin. Five of the nonsurviving animals were given intrathecal tetanus antitoxin. One animal had seizures as a complication of intrathecal treatment. The prognosis was best for horses that (1) had been vaccinated prior to the injury, (2) responded to the phenothiazine tranquilizers, and (3) did not rapidly (over 24 to 48 hours) become recumbent. Considering the species susceptibility, potential for contaminated wounds, and the increased survival of vaccinated horses, yearly revaccination is recommended.

  11. TETANUS—Prophylaxis and Treatment of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Donald E.; Kraut, J. J.

    1959-01-01

    Cleansing and debridement is paramount in dealing with tetanus-prone wounds (severe crushing injuries, piercing wounds, blisters and burns are outstanding examples, particularly if contaminated with dirt, grass or other debris). Prophylaxis then is relatively easy in persons who have been actively immunized by toxoid injections. For them, a “booster” injection is indicated. Use of antitoxin, however, is hazardous, whether for prophylaxis or for treatment of the disease. Since it may in itself cause severe disease, including anaphylactic reaction and serum sickness, decision to use it must be weighed against the possibility of the development of tetanus in each case. To prepare for use of it, careful history should be taken, with particular reference to sensitivity to horse dander. Dermal tests, and perhaps ophthalmic tests, for sensitivity to the serum should be carried out. Even the tests may be hazardous and precautions should be taken accordingly. If it is decided that the use of antitoxin is necessary even though the patient is sensitive to the material, desensitization must be carried out promptly, with adequate preparation for severe reaction. There is experimental evidence that antibiotics of the tetracycline group, given soon after injury, may have prophylactic effect against tetanus. PMID:13651954

  12. Tetanus: prophylaxis and treatment of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSS, D E; KRAUT, J J

    1959-05-01

    Cleansing and debridement is paramount in dealing with tetanus-prone wounds (severe crushing injuries, piercing wounds, blisters and burns are outstanding examples, particularly if contaminated with dirt, grass or other debris). Prophylaxis then is relatively easy in persons who have been actively immunized by toxoid injections. For them, a "booster" injection is indicated. Use of antitoxin, however, is hazardous, whether for prophylaxis or for treatment of the disease. Since it may in itself cause severe disease, including anaphylactic reaction and serum sickness, decision to use it must be weighed against the possibility of the development of tetanus in each case. To prepare for use of it, careful history should be taken, with particular reference to sensitivity to horse dander. Dermal tests, and perhaps ophthalmic tests, for sensitivity to the serum should be carried out. Even the tests may be hazardous and precautions should be taken accordingly. If it is decided that the use of antitoxin is necessary even though the patient is sensitive to the material, desensitization must be carried out promptly, with adequate preparation for severe reaction. There is experimental evidence that antibiotics of the tetracycline group, given soon after injury, may have prophylactic effect against tetanus.

  13. Doc toxin is a kinase that inactivates elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W; Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S; Dunham, Christine M; Woychik, Nancy A

    2014-03-14

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site.

  14. Doc Toxin Is a Kinase That Inactivates Elongation Factor Tu*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W.; Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S.; Dunham, Christine M.; Woychik, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site. PMID:24448800

  15. A Chimeric protein of CFA/I, CS6 subunits and LTB/STa toxoid protects immunized mice against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Goujani, Goli; Amani, Jafar; Ahangari, Ghasem; Akhavian, Asal; Jafari, Mahyat

    2017-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the commonest bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs is commonly considered the bottleneck to developing an effective vaccine. It is believed that broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be achieved by induced anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity simultaneously. Here, a fusion antigen strategy was used to construct a quadrivalent recombinant protein called 3CL and composed of CfaB, a structural subunit of CFA/I, and CS6 structural subunits, LTB and STa toxoid of ETEC. Its anti-CF and antitoxin immunogenicity was then assessed. To achieve high-level expression, the 3CL gene was synthesized using E. coli codon bias. Female BALB/C mice were immunized with purified recombinant 3CL. Immunized mice developed antibodies that were capable of detecting each recombinant subunit in addition to native CS6 protein and also protected the mice against ETEC challenge. Moreover, sera from immunized mice also neutralized STa toxin in a suckling mouse assay. These results indicate that 3CL can induce anti-CF and neutralizing antitoxin antibodies along with introducing CFA/I as a platform for epitope insertion. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a commensal bacterium, Hafnia alvei CBA7124, isolated from human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hye Seon; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Yeon Bee; Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kang, Jisu; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Ju Suk; Choi, Jong-Soon; Choi, Hak-Jong; Nam, Young-Do; Roh, Seong Woon

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Hafnia have been isolated from the feces of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish, as well as from soil, water, sewage, and foods. Hafnia alvei is an opportunistic pathogen that has been implicated in intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. However, its pathogenicity is still unclear. In this study, we isolated H. alvei from human feces and performed sequencing as well as comparative genomic analysis to better understand its pathogenicity. The genome of H. alvei CBA7124 comprised a single circular chromosome with 4,585,298 bp and a GC content of 48.8%. The genome contained 25 rRNA genes (9 5S rRNA genes, 8 16S rRNA genes, and 8 23S rRNA genes), 88 tRNA genes, and 4043 protein-coding genes. Using comparative genomic analysis, the genome of this strain was found to have 72 strain-specific singletons. The genome also contained genes for antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance, as well as toxin-antitoxin systems. We revealed the complete genome sequence of the opportunistic gut pathogen, H. alvei CBA7124. We also performed comparative genomic analysis of the sequences in the genome of H. alvei CBA7124, and found that it contained strain-specific singletons, antibiotic resistance genes, and toxin-antitoxin systems. These results could improve our understanding of the pathogenicity and the mechanism behind the antibiotic resistance of H. alvei strains.

  17. Profiling Humoral Immune Responses to Clostridium difficile-Specific Antigens by Protein Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shone, Clifford C; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E; Edwards, Laura J; Tighe, Patrick J; Wilcox, Mark H; Monaghan, Tanya M

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Diphtheritic polyneuropathy: a clinical study and comparison with Guillain-Barré syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logina, I.; Donaghy, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND METHODS—Clinical features of 50 adults with diphtheritic polyneuropathy (DP) were studied in Riga, Latvia and compared with 21 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).
RESULTS—Neurological complications occurred in 15% of patients admitted to hospital with diphtheria and usually after severe pharyngeal infection. Bulbar dysfunction occurred in 98% of patients with DP and only 10% of patients with GBS. Limb weakness was mild or absent in 30% of patients with DP. Ventilation dependent respiratory failure occurred in 20% of patients with DP. The first symptoms of DP occurred 2-50 days after the onset of local diphtheria infection. Neurological deterioration in DP continued for a median of 49(range 15-83) days and improvement started 73 (range 20-115) days after onset. In 66% of patients with DP, the neuropathy was biphasic with a secondary worsening after 40 days. By contrast patients with GBS worsened for only 10 days on average (range 2-28 days) and improved after 21 (range 4-49) days. Eight patients with DP died, four from severe cardiomyopathy and four from multiple diphtheritic organ failure. Prolonged distal motor latencies (DMLs) were common to both DP and GBS, and more pronounced than motor conduction slowing. Limb symptoms continued after 1 year in 80% of the patients with DP, 6% were unable to walk independently, but independent respiratory and bulbar function had returned in all survivors. By comparison no patients with GBS died and none were severely disabled after 1 year. No death, in patients with DP occurred after antitoxin on days 1 or 2 after onset of diphtheria symptoms, whereas identical rates of death and peak severity of DP were seen both in those who received antitoxin on days 3-6 and those who did not receive it at all.
CONCLUSION—Diphtheric polyneuropathy is much more likely than GBS to have a bulbar onset, to lead to respiratory failure, to evolve more slowly, to take a biphasic course, and to cause death or long

  19. Clostridium difficile chimeric toxin receptor binding domain vaccine induced protection against different strains in active and passive challenge models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing-Hui; Glenn, Gregory; Flyer, David; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Ye; Sullivan, Eddie; Wu, Hua; Cummings, James F; Elllingsworth, Larry; Smith, Gale

    2017-07-24

    Clostridium difficile is the number one cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. Historically, pathogenesis was attributed two homologous glucosylating toxins, toxin-A (TcdA) and toxin-B (TcdB). Over the past decade, however, highly virulent epidemic strains of C. difficile (B1/NAP1/027) have emerged and are linked to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Increased virulence is attributed to multiple factors including: increased production of A- and B-toxins; production of binary toxin (CDT); and the emergence of more toxic TcdB variants (TcdB (027) ). TcdB (027) is more cytotoxicity to cells; causes greater tissue damage and toxicity in animals; and is antigenically distinct from historical TcdB (TcdB (003) ). Broadly protective vaccines and therapeutic antibody strategies, therefore, may target TcdA, TcdB variants and CDT. To facilitate the generation of multivalent toxin-based C. difficile vaccines and therapeutic antibodies, we have generated fusion proteins constructed from the receptor binding domains (RBD) of TcdA, TcdB (003) , TcdB (027) and CDT. Herein, we describe the development of a trivalent toxin (T-toxin) vaccine (CDTb/TcdB (003) /TcdA) and quadravalent toxin (Q-toxin) vaccine (CDTb/TcB (003) /TcdA/TcdB (027) ) fusion proteins that retain the protective toxin neutralizing epitopes. Active immunization of mice or hamsters with T-toxin or Q-toxin fusion protein vaccines elicited the generation of toxin neutralizing antibodies to each of the toxins. Hamsters immunized with the Q-toxin vaccine were broadly protected against spore challenge with historical C. difficile 630 (toxinotype 0/ribotype 003) and epidemic NAP1 (toxinotype III/ribotype 027) strains. Fully human polyclonal antitoxin IgG was produced by immunization of transgenic bovine with these fusion proteins. In passive transfer studies, mice were protected against lethal toxin challenge. Hamsters treated with human antitoxin IgG were completely protected when

  20. Development of an antibiotic marker-free platform for heterologous protein production in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Laura; Díaz, Margarita; Santamaría, Ramón I

    2017-09-26

    The industrial use of enzymes produced by microorganisms is continuously growing due to the need for sustainable solutions. Nevertheless, many of the plasmids used for recombinant production of proteins in bacteria are based on the use of antibiotic resistance genes as selection markers. The safety concerns and legal requirements surrounding the increased use of antibiotic resistance genes have made the development of new antibiotic-free approaches essential. In this work, a system completely free of antibiotic resistance genes and useful for the production of high yields of proteins in Streptomyces is described. This system is based on the separation of the two components of the yefM/yoeBsl (antitoxin/toxin) operon; the toxin (yoeBsl) gene, responsible for host death, is integrated into the genome and the antitoxin gene (yefMsl), which inactivates the toxin, is located in the expression plasmid. To develop this system, the toxin gene was integrated into the genome of a strain lacking the complete operon, and the antibiotic resistance gene integrated along with the toxin was eliminated by Cre recombinase to generate a final host strain free of any antibiotic resistance marker. In the same way, the antibiotic resistance gene from the final expression plasmid was removed by Dre recombinase. The usefulness of this system was analysed by checking the production of two hydrolases from different Streptomyces. Production of both proteins, with potential industrial use, was high and stable over time after strain storage and after serial subcultures. These results support the robustness and stability of the positive selection system developed. The total absence of antibiotic resistance genes makes this system a powerful tool for using Streptomyces as a host to produce proteins at the industrial level. This work is the first Streptomyces antibiotic marker-free system to be described. Graphical abstract Antibiotic marker-free platform for protein expression in Streptomyces

  1. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children...... during an epidemic with Vibrio cholerae El Tor in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Eighty mothers with clinical cholera and their children were identified, and interviewed. Blood samples for vibriocidal and antitoxin antibodies were collected from mother-and-child pairs. Breast milk samples were...... collected from lactating mothers.Cholera was defined as acute watery diarrhea during the epidemic and a vibriocidal reciprocal titer of 20 or above. RESULTS: Three (7%) of 42 breastfed children had cholera as defined above compared with 9 (24%) of 38 nonbreastfed children (RR for breastfed children, 0...

  2. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Shen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6, which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins.

  3. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Hey, A S

    1997-01-01

    To assess the effect of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in rural Africa, blood samples were collected in two Kenyan sublocations. Serum antibodies against tetanus toxoid were measured in 155 individuals 1-70 years of age. Titers greater than the protective level of 0.01 IU/ml were found...... in 47% of the population. Protection was significantly higher in children born after the launching of the EPI (68%) and in women who had been at childbearing age since then (69%). Significantly lower protection was demonstrated in other age and sex-groups. The level of protection in children was equal...... in the two populations, whereas protection in fertile women was significantly lower in the population living a long distance from a health center. Diphtheria anti-toxin was measured in the samples from one sublocation, and 70 of 84 individuals (83%) had antibody levels greater than the protective level...

  4. Biological and molecular properties of yellow venom of the Amazonian coral snake Micrurus surinamensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiana da Rocha; Noronha, Maria das Dores Nogueira; Lozano, Jorge Luis Lopez

    2017-01-01

    The coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, which is widely distributed throughout Amazonia, has a neurotoxic venom. It is important to characterize the biological and molecular properties of this venom in order to develop effective antitoxins. Toxins from the venom of M. surinamensis were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their neurotoxic effects in vivo were evaluated. Most proteins in the venom had masses < 14kDa, low phospholipase A2 activity, and no proteolytic activity. The toxins inhibited the coagulation cascade. The venom had neurotoxic effects in mice, with a median lethal dose upon intravenous administration of 700 µg/kg. Immunogenic studies revealed abundant cross-reactivity of antielapidic serum with 14kDa toxins and limited cross-reactivity with toxins < 10kDa. These results indicate that antielapidic serum against M. surinamensis venom has weak potency (0.35mg/ml) in mice.

  5. Generalised tetanus in a 2-week-old foal: use of physiotherapy to aid recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, A K; Hyytiäinen, H K; McGowan, C M

    2011-11-01

    A 2-week-old Estonian Draft foal presented with signs of severe generalised tetanus, recumbency and inability to drink. The suspected source of infection was the umbilicus. Medical treatment was administered, including tetanus antitoxin, antimicrobial therapy and phenobarbital to control tetanic spasms. In addition, an intensive physiotherapy program was carried out during the recovery period. Techniques designed for syndromes involving upper motor neuron spasticity in humans were applied. Exercises aimed at weight-bearing and mobility were executed with the help of a walking-frame. The foal made a complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of physiotherapy in the treatment of tetanus in horses. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. [Seroepidemiology of cholera in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bonilla, C; Valle-Valdez, J G; Núñez-León, A; Moguel-Pech, L; Villanueva-Zamudio, A

    1994-01-01

    Antibodies against Vibrio cholerae were determined in 2352 serum samples obtained from patients with clinical diagnosis of cholera. Samples from their contacts and from healthy people living in the same communities were also analyzed. Vibriocidal antibodies with titers 1:160 or higher were observed in 25% of the samples. An increase of vibriocidal and antitoxin antibody titers were observed in 56 to 60% of the patients in which paired samples were available, one obtained in the acute phase of the disease and the other in the convalescence, confirming the diagnosis of cholera. Differences in the antibody titers were noticed when comparing the serotype according to the geographic area and the season of the year.

  7. Transcriptome changes in STSV2-infected Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A undergoing continuous CRISPR spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Sobrino, Carlos; Kot, Witold P; Garrett, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    A transcriptome study was performed on Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A actively undergoing CRISPR spacer acquisition from the crenarchaeal monocaudavirus STSV2 in rich and basal media over a 6 day period. Spacer acquisition preceded strong host growth retardation, altered transcriptional activity...... of four different CRISPR-Cas modules and changes in viral copy numbers, and with significant differences in the two media. Transcript levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle were reduced, while those of DNA replication, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and some antitoxin-toxin pairs...... and transposases were unchanged or enhanced. Antisense RNAs were implicated in the transcriptional regulation of adaptation and interference modules of the type I-A CRISPR-Cas system and evidence was found for the occurrence of functional coordination between the single CRISPR-Cas adaptation module...

  8. Improved vacuum sealing drainage in the treatment of gas gangrene: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaofa; Zhao, Dewei; Wang, Benjie

    2015-01-01

    In this case, improved vacuum sealing drainage was used for gas gangrene treatment, which is different from traditional therapies of gas gangrene and this is the first report of using improved vacuum sealing drainage to treat gas gangrene. The patient was a 12-year-old Asian Male who was presented to the Emergency Department with a one-day history of left femoral progressing swelling, paining and fevering. Four days ago, rusty iron bars were plugged into the muscle of the left femoral when he played. Then he was taken to the local clinic and injected with tetanus antitoxin. A diagnosis of gas gangrene was made and modified vacuum sealing drainage device was used after thorough debridement. After two weeks' treatment, left femoral was kept and gas gangrene was cured successfully.

  9. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine

    2016-01-01

    in using bioactive toxins from spiders and scorpions for drug discovery purposes and for solving crystal structures of membrane-embedded receptors. Additionally, the identification and isolation of a myriad of spider and scorpion toxins has allowed research within next generation antivenoms to progress...... at an increasingly faster pace. In this review, the current knowledge of spider and scorpion venoms is presented, followed by a discussion of all published biotechnological efforts within development of spider and scorpion antitoxins based on small molecules, antibodies and fragments thereof, and next generation...... immunization strategies. The increasing number of discovery and development efforts within this field may point towards an upcoming transition from serum-based antivenoms towards therapeutic solutions based on modern biotechnology....

  10. Inhibition of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) in apple juices and its resistance to pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains. Studies with immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that Stx2 activity was restored when removed from the apple juice. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no difference (P pasteurize apple juice, but lost all activity when exposed to 100 degrees C for 5 min. The results suggest that pasteurization of apple juice used to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 has no effect on Stx2, and that food-compatible and safe antitoxin compounds can be used to inhibit the biological activity of the Shiga toxin.

  11. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: evidence-based management of pediatric patients in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibners, Lara; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2017-02-22

    Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts. Most importantly, issues regarding vaccination and prevention are highlighted. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  12. Generation and characterization of recombinant bivalent fusion protein r-Cpib for immunotherapy against Clostridium perfringens beta and iota toxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Majumder, Saugata; Kingston, Joseph J; Batra, Harsh V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta (CPB) and iota (CPI) toxaemias result in some of the most lethal forms of haemorrhagic and necrotic enteritis and sudden death syndrome affecting especially neonates. While CPB enterotoxemia is one of the most common forms of clostridial enterotoxemia, CPI enterotoxemia though putatively considered to be rare is an emerging cause of concern. The similarities in clinical manifestation, gross and histopathology findings of both types of toxaemias coupled to the infrequency of CPI toxaemia might lead to symptomatic misidentification with Type C resulting in therapeutic failure due to habitual administration of CPB anti-toxin which is ineffective against CPI. Therefore in the present study, to generate a composite anti-toxin capable of neutralizing both toxaemias, a novel bivalent chimera r-Cpib was constructed by splicing the non-toxic C terminal binding regions of CPB and CPI, via a flexible glycine linker (G4S) by overlap-extension PCR. The fusion protein was characterized for its therapeutic abilities toward CPI and CPB toxin neutralizations. The r-Cpib was found to be non-toxic and could competitively inhibit binding of CPB to host cell receptors thereby reducing its cytotoxicity. Immunization of mice with r-Cpib generated specific antibodies capable of neutralizing the above toxaemias both in vitro and in vivo. Caco-2 cells exposed to a mixture of anti-r-Cpib sera and native CPI or CPB, displayed significantly superior protection against the respective toxins while passive challenge of mice with a similar mixture resulted in 83 and 91% protection against CPI and CPB respectively. Alternatively, mice exposed to a mixture of sham sera and native toxins died within 2-3 days. This work thus demonstrates r-Cpib as a novel bivalent fusion protein capable of efficient immunotherapy against C. perfringens CPI and CPB toxaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines by double antigen ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, U; Noeske, K; Werner, E

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a double antigen ELISA (DAE) for rapid, specific and reliable assessment of the antitetanus immune status of horses and sheep. Compared with the indirect ELISA, the double antigen ELISA has the advantage of species-independent testing of sera. Thanks to its test design, it is more specific since the detected antibodies are forced to bind tetanus toxoid twice. In addition, it is very sensitive to tetanus antibodies, enabling the detection of low antibody titres, in range which is relevant for the assessment of the protective status (tetanus toxin neutralising antibodies). The detection limit of the DAE for tetanus antibodies is in the order of 10(-4) EU/ml. A comparison of in vitro results of individual sera with in vivo titres showed that horse sera with titres of 0.04 and 0.05 EU/ml in the DAE showed titres of > 0.05 IU and 0.034 IU/ml respectively during in vivo testing thus indicating good agreement. For tested sheep sera which were rated > 0.05 IU/ml in vivo, the corresponding titre in the DAE was 0.24 EU/ml. Clear tetanus antitoxin establishment of protective ELISA limits requires further comparative examination of sera with low titres (tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. As a consequence, the toxin neutralisation test (still being the standard method of choice for quantifying tetanus toxin neutralising antitoxin titres) could be replaced, since it requires too great a number of animals per test and involves considerable suffering for the animals. The test described here reduces the use of mice and guinea pigs within vaccine efficacy testing. In addition, it involves less exposure of the laboratory personnel to toxin.

  14. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus in Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 1: Description of history and clinical evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Gaby; Saegerman, Claude; Rijckaert, Joke; Amory, Helene; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshøj Delany, Rikke; Fouché, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika; Picavet, Tresemiek; Roscher, Katja; Verwilghen, Denis; Wehrli Eser, Meret; Westermann, Cornélie; Mair, Tim

    2017-11-01

    To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus. Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. One hundred fifty-five adult equids (>6 months) and 21 foals (tetanus. None. Information on geographic, annual and seasonal data, demographic- and management-related data, clinical history, clinical examination and blood analysis on admission, complications, treatments, and outcomes were described and statistically compared between adults and foals. The described cases were often young horses. In 4 adult horses, tetanus developed despite appropriate vaccination and in 2 foals despite preventive tetanus antitoxin administration at birth. Castration, hoof abscesses, and wounds were the most common entry sites for adults; umbilical cord infections and wounds for foals. Stiffness was the commonest observed initial clinical sign. Blood analyses frequently revealed an inflammatory response, hemoconcentration, muscle damage, azotemia, negative energy balance, liver damage, and electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Common complications or clinical signs developing during hospitalization included dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency, hyperthermia, seizures, hyperlipemia, gastrointestinal impactions, dysuria, and laryngeal spasms. Cases were supported with wound debridement, antimicrobial treatment, tetanus antitoxin, muscle spasm and seizure control, analgesia, anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid therapy, and nutritional support. Mortality rates were 68.4% in adult horses and 66.7% in foals. Foals differed from adult horses with respect to months of occurrence, signalment, management-related data, potential causative events, clinical signs on admission, blood analysis, complications, and severity grades. This is the first study that rigorously describes a large population of equids affected by tetanus. The information provided is potentially useful to

  15. CbtA toxin of Escherichia coli inhibits cell division and cell elongation via direct and independent interactions with FtsZ and MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Danielle M; Tavag, Mrinalini; Hochschild, Ann

    2017-09-01

    The toxin components of toxin-antitoxin modules, found in bacterial plasmids, phages, and chromosomes, typically target a single macromolecule to interfere with an essential cellular process. An apparent exception is the chromosomally encoded toxin component of the E. coli CbtA/CbeA toxin-antitoxin module, which can inhibit both cell division and cell elongation. A small protein of only 124 amino acids, CbtA, was previously proposed to interact with both FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that is essential for cell division, and MreB, an actin homolog that is essential for cell elongation. However, whether or not the toxic effects of CbtA are due to direct interactions with these predicted targets is not known. Here, we genetically separate the effects of CbtA on cell elongation and cell division, showing that CbtA interacts directly and independently with FtsZ and MreB. Using complementary genetic approaches, we identify the functionally relevant target surfaces on FtsZ and MreB, revealing that in both cases, CbtA binds to surfaces involved in essential cytoskeletal filament architecture. We show further that each interaction contributes independently to CbtA-mediated toxicity and that disruption of both interactions is required to alleviate the observed toxicity. Although several other protein modulators are known to target FtsZ, the CbtA-interacting surface we identify represents a novel inhibitory target. Our findings establish CbtA as a dual function toxin that inhibits both cell division and cell elongation via direct and independent interactions with FtsZ and MreB.

  16. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  17. Defense Islands in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes and Prediction of Novel Defense Systems ▿†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic “sinks” that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands. PMID:21908672

  18. Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, E M; van Gageldonk, P G M; de Melker, H E; van der Klis, F R; Berbers, G A M; Mollema, L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) a population-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was performed in the Netherlands. We assessed diphtheria antitoxin levels in the general Dutch population and in low vaccination coverage (LVC) areas where a relatively high proportion of orthodox Protestants live who decline vaccination based on religious grounds. Results were compared with a nationwide seroepidemiological study performed 11 years earlier. In 2006/2007 a national serum bank was established. Blood samples were tested for diphtheria antitoxin IgG concentrations using a multiplex immunoassay for 6383 participants from the national sample (NS) and 1518 participants from LVC municipalities. A cut-off above 0.01 international units per ml (IU/ml) was used as minimum protective level. In the NS 91% of the population had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml compared to 88% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey (pdiphtheria vaccination in the NIP and 46% (vs. 37% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey, p = 0.11) of orthodox Protestants living in LVC areas had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml. Linear regression analysis among fully immunized individuals (six vaccinations) without evidence of revaccination indicated a continuous decline in antibodies in both serosurveys, but geometric mean antibodies remained well above 0.01 IU/ml in all age groups. The NIP provides long-term protection against diphtheria, although antibody levels decline after vaccination. As a result of natural waning immunity, a substantial proportion of individuals born before introduction of diphtheria vaccination in the NIP lack adequate levels of diphtheria antibodies. Susceptibility due to lack of vaccination is highest among strictly orthodox Protestants. The potential risk of spread of diphtheria within the geographically clustered orthodox Protestant community after introduction in the Netherlands has not disappeared, despite national long-term high vaccination coverage.

  19. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jonge, Natalie, E-mail: ndejonge@vub.ac.be; Buts, Lieven; Vangelooven, Joris [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mine, Natacha; Van Melderen, Laurence [Laboratoire de Génétique des Procaryotes, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-04-01

    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdB{sub Vfi}) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdB{sub Vfi} with the GyrA14{sub Vfi} fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14{sub Ec} crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdB{sub Vfi} and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdA{sub F} crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.

  20. Development of Protective Immunity in New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis Spores and Treated with Antibiotics and Obiltoxaximab, a Monoclonal Antibody against Protective Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Lisa N; Carpenter, Sarah; Stark, Gregory V; Serbina, Natalya V

    2018-02-01

    The recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen (PA), is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for the treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease reemergence after treatment cessation is a concern, and there is a need to understand the development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens. Here, acquired protective immunity was examined in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits challenged with a targeted lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis spores and treated with antibiotics, obiltoxaximab, or a combination of both. Survivors of the primary challenge were rechallenged 9 months later and monitored for survival. Survival rates after primary and rechallenge for controls and animals treated with obiltoxaximab, levofloxacin, or a combination of both were 0, 65, 100, and 95%, and 0, 100, 95, and 89%, respectively. All surviving immune animals had circulating antibodies to PA and serum toxin-neutralizing titers prior to rechallenge. Following rechallenge, systemic bacteremia and toxemia were not detected in most animals, and the levels of circulating anti-PA IgG titers increased starting at 5 days postrechallenge. We conclude that treatment with obiltoxaximab, alone or combined with antibiotics, significantly improves the survival of rabbits that received a lethal inhalation B. anthracis spore challenge dose and does not interfere with the development of immunity. Survivors of primary challenge are protected against reexposure, have rare incidents of systemic bacteremia and toxemia, and have evidence of an anamnestic response. Copyright © 2018 Henning et al.

  1. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, Natalie; Buts, Lieven; Vangelooven, Joris; Mine, Natacha; Van Melderen, Laurence; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2007-01-01

    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdB Vfi ) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I2 1 3, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdB Vfi with the GyrA14 Vfi fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14 Ec crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdB Vfi and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdA F crystallizes in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution

  2. Replacement of the in vivo neutralisation test for efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Ute; Noeske, Kerstin; Werner, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The bacterium Clostridium (C.) tetani is an ubiquitous pathogen. This anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium can form spores and can be found in the whole environment. It enters the body via injuries of the skin and wounds where it releases the neurotoxin "tetanospasmin" (= tetanus toxin). The animals most susceptible to tetanus infection are horses and sheep. Only active immunisation by tetanus vaccine provides effective protection against tetanus intoxication. The marketing authorisation requirements stipulate that efficacy of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. must be demonstrated in all target animal species via determination of neutralising tetanus serum antitoxin concentrations. The standard method used for this purpose is still the toxin neutralisation test (TNT), as it quantifies the tetanus toxin-neutralising effect of tetanus serum antibodies in vivo. In this test, tetanus toxin is added to dilutions of serum from vaccinated horse and sheep. The serum dilutions are then administered to mice or guinea pigs, which are observed for toxic symptoms. Against the background of animal protection, the goal of one project of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry for Education and Research), 0312636) was to establish an alternative to the toxin neutralisation test, enabling the testing of efficacy of tetanus vaccines with serological in vitro methods. For this purpose, a so-called double antigen ELISA (DAE) was established which enables the testing of sera of different species in one assay. In addition, the sera were tested in an indirect ELISA for horses and sheep separately. Altogether, ten groups of horses and eight groups of sheep were immunised with ten animals per group each. The tetanus vaccines comprised almost all products authorised for the German market at the start of the project. 564 horse sera and 257 sheep sera were tested using the two ELISA methods. Some sera were also tested in vivo. The kinetics of

  3. Live virus-free or die: coupling of antivirus immunity and programmed suicide or dormancy in prokaryotes

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    Makarova Kira S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The virus-host arms race is a major theater for evolutionary innovation. Archaea and bacteria have evolved diverse, elaborate antivirus defense systems that function on two general principles: i immune systems that discriminate self DNA from nonself DNA and specifically destroy the foreign, in particular viral, genomes, whereas the host genome is protected, or ii programmed cell suicide or dormancy induced by infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Almost all genomic loci encoding immunity systems such as CRISPR-Cas, restriction-modification and DNA phosphorothioation also encompass suicide genes, in particular those encoding known and predicted toxin nucleases, which do not appear to be directly involved in immunity. In contrast, the immunity systems do not appear to encode antitoxins found in typical toxin-antitoxin systems. This raises the possibility that components of the immunity system themselves act as reversible inhibitors of the associated toxin proteins or domains as has been demonstrated for the Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC that interacts with the PrrI restriction-modification system. We hypothesize that coupling of diverse immunity and suicide/dormancy systems in prokaryotes evolved under selective pressure to provide robustness to the antivirus response. We further propose that the involvement of suicide/dormancy systems in the coupled antivirus response could take two distinct forms: 1 induction of a dormancy-like state in the infected cell to ‘buy time’ for activation of adaptive immunity; 2 suicide or dormancy as the final recourse to prevent viral spread triggered by the failure of immunity. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis entails many experimentally testable predictions. Specifically, we predict that Cas2 protein present in all cas operons is a mRNA-cleaving nuclease (interferase that might be activated at an early stage of virus infection to enable incorporation of virus

  4. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Adhesin-Toxoid Multiepitope Fusion Antigen CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTaN12S-mnLTG192G/L211A-Derived Antibodies Inhibit Adherence of Seven Adhesins, Neutralize Enterotoxicity of LT and STa Toxins, and Protect Piglets against Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul; Ruan, Xiaosai; Lu, Ti; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David; Zhang, Weiping

    2018-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Vaccines inducing antibodies to broadly inhibit bacterial adherence and to neutralize toxin enterotoxicity are expected to be effective against ETEC-associated diarrhea. 6×His-tagged adhesin-toxoid fusion proteins were shown to induce neutralizing antibodies to several adhesins and LT and STa toxins (X. Ruan, D. A. Sack, W. Zhang, PLoS One 10:e0121623, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121623). However, antibodies derived from His-tagged CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa A14Q -dmLT or CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa N12S -dmLT protein were less effective in neutralizing STa enterotoxicity and were not evaluated in vivo for efficacy against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, His-tagged proteins are considered less desirable for human vaccines. In this study, we produced a tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) protein, enhanced anti-STa immunogenicity by including a third copy of STa toxoid STa N12S , and examined antigen immunogenicity in a murine model. Moreover, we immunized pregnant pigs with the tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA protein and evaluated passive antibody protection against STa + or LT + ETEC infection in a pig challenge model. Results showed that tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broad antiadhesin and antitoxin antibody responses in the intraperitoneally immunized mice and the intramuscularly immunized pigs. Mouse and pig serum antibodies significantly inhibited adherence of seven colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins (CFA/I and CS1 to CS6) and effectively neutralized both toxins. More importantly, suckling piglets born to the immunized mothers acquired antibodies and were protected against STa + ETEC and LT + ETEC diarrhea. These results indicated that tagless CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broadly protective antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies and demonstrate that this adhesin

  5. Contribution of the Chromosomal ccdAB Operon to Bacterial Drug Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kritika; Tripathi, Arti; Sahu, Alishan; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2017-10-01

    One of the first identified and best-studied toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in Escherichia coli is the F-plasmid-based CcdAB system. This system is involved in plasmid maintenance through postsegregational killing. More recently, ccdAB homologs have been found on the chromosome, including in pathogenic strains of E. coli and other bacteria. However, the functional role of chromosomal ccdAB genes, if any, has remained unclear. We show that both the native ccd operon of the E. coli O157 strain ( ccd O157 ) and the ccd operon from the F plasmid ( ccd F ), when inserted on the E. coli chromosome, lead to protection from cell death under multiple antibiotic stress conditions through formation of persisters, with the O157 operon showing higher protection. While the plasmid-encoded CcdB toxin is a potent gyrase inhibitor and leads to bacterial cell death even under fully repressed conditions, the chromosomally encoded toxin leads to growth inhibition, except at high expression levels, where some cell death is seen. This was further confirmed by transiently activating the chromosomal ccd operon through overexpression of an active-site inactive mutant of F-plasmid-encoded CcdB. Both the ccd F and ccd O157 operons may share common mechanisms for activation under stress conditions, eventually leading to multidrug-tolerant persister cells. This study clearly demonstrates an important role for chromosomal ccd systems in bacterial persistence. IMPORTANCE A large number of free-living and pathogenic bacteria are known to harbor multiple toxin-antitoxin systems, on plasmids as well as on chromosomes. The F-plasmid CcdAB system has been extensively studied and is known to be involved in plasmid maintenance. However, little is known about the function of its chromosomal counterpart, found in several pathogenic E. coli strains. We show that the native chromosomal ccd operon of the E. coli O157 strain is involved in drug tolerance and confers protection from cell death under multiple

  6. Unearthing Bacillus endophytes from desert plants that enhance growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Ameerah M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we embarked a bioprospecting project that focuses on the isolation and characterization of plant root endophytes, collected from the Thar Desert. A total of 381 endophytes were isolated and based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, genus Bacillus (58 strains) was identified as the major taxon and only endophytes from this genus were isolated from all plant types. Of the 58 Bacillus strains, only 16 strains were selected for screening of plant growth promotion traits such as P and Zn solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production, and antimicrobial activity. Based on the presence of specific plant growth promotion traits 10 strains were shortlisted for further in vitro screening with A. thaliana; to confirm that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt stress conditions by more than 50 % compared to the uninoculated control. An interesting observation was that B. circulans (PK3-109) (shown to produce IAA exopolysaccharide) and B. circulans (PK3-138) (shown to produce IAA) in vitro results were substantially different as B. circulans (PK3-138) decreased the total fresh weight of A. thaliana by 47 %, whilst B. circulans (PK3-109) was one of the best performing strains. Thus, the genomes of these two strains were sequences to unravel the molecular versatility of B. circulans strains, specifically with respect to their interaction with plants. Most of the genome of these strains is identical but the most interesting feature was the presence of 1/ the DegS–DegU two-component system that is known to mediate the salt stress response and DegU also represses toxin wapA similar to antitoxin wapI, and 2/ YxiG, a gene in the unique orthogroup of PK3-109 was found to be linked to WapI. Thus, PK3-138 substantially decreasing the total fresh

  7. Comparative metagenomic analysis of plasmid encoded functions in the human gut microbiome

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    Marchesi Julian R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the pool of mobile genetic elements associated with the human gut microbiome. In this study we employed the culture independent TRACA system to isolate novel plasmids from the human gut microbiota, and a comparative metagenomic analysis to investigate the distribution and relative abundance of functions encoded by these plasmids in the human gut microbiome. Results Novel plasmids were acquired from the human gut microbiome, and homologous nucleotide sequences with high identity (>90% to two plasmids (pTRACA10 and pTRACA22 were identified in the multiple human gut microbiomes analysed here. However, no homologous nucleotide sequences to these plasmids were identified in the murine gut or environmental metagenomes. Functions encoded by the plasmids pTRACA10 and pTRACA22 were found to be more prevalent in the human gut microbiome when compared to microbial communities from other environments. Among the most prevalent functions identified was a putative RelBE toxin-antitoxin (TA addiction module, and subsequent analysis revealed that this was most closely related to putative TA modules from gut associated bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes. A broad phylogenetic distribution of RelE toxin genes was observed in gut associated bacterial species (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, but no RelE homologues were identified in gut associated archaeal species. We also provide indirect evidence for the horizontal transfer of these genes between bacterial species belonging to disparate phylogenetic divisions, namely Gram negative Proteobacteria and Gram positive species from the Firmicutes division. Conclusions The application of a culture independent system to capture novel plasmids from the human gut mobile metagenome, coupled with subsequent comparative metagenomic analysis, highlighted the unexpected prevalence of plasmid encoded functions in the gut microbial ecosystem. In

  8. Comparative Genomics of Acetobacterpasteurianus Ab3, an Acetic Acid Producing Strain Isolated from Chinese Traditional Rice Vinegar Meiguichu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kai; Li, Yudong; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xinle

    2016-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus, an acetic acid resistant bacterium belonging to alpha-proteobacteria, has been widely used to produce vinegar in the food industry. To understand the mechanism of its high tolerance to acetic acid and robust ability of oxidizing ethanol to acetic acid (> 12%, w/v), we described the 3.1 Mb complete genome sequence (including 0.28 M plasmid sequence) with a G+C content of 52.4% of A. pasteurianus Ab3, which was isolated from the traditional Chinese rice vinegar (Meiguichu) fermentation process. Automatic annotation of the complete genome revealed 2,786 protein-coding genes and 73 RNA genes. The comparative genome analysis among A. pasteurianus strains revealed that A. pasteurianus Ab3 possesses many unique genes potentially involved in acetic acid resistance mechanisms. In particular, two-component systems or toxin-antitoxin systems may be the signal pathway and modulatory network in A. pasteurianus to cope with acid stress. In addition, the large numbers of unique transport systems may also be related to its acid resistance capacity and cell fitness. Our results provide new clues to understanding the underlying mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter species and guiding industrial strain breeding for vinegar fermentation processes.

  9. New insights into the mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter pasteurianus using iTRAQ-dependent quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kai; Zang, Ning; Zhang, Junmei; Zhang, Hong; Li, Yudong; Liu, Ye; Feng, Wei; Liang, Xinle

    2016-12-05

    Acetobacter pasteurianus is the main starter in rice vinegar manufacturing due to its remarkable abilities to resist and produce acetic acid. Although several mechanisms of acetic acid resistance have been proposed and only a few effector proteins have been identified, a comprehensive depiction of the biological processes involved in acetic acid resistance is needed. In this study, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was adopted to investigate the whole proteome of different acidic titers (3.6, 7.1 and 9.3%, w/v) of Acetobacter pasteurianus Ab3 during the vinegar fermentation process. Consequently, 1386 proteins, including 318 differentially expressed proteins (p150 proteins were differentially expressed. Specifically, proteins involved in amino acid metabolic processes and fatty acid biosynthesis were differentially expressed, which may contribute to the acetic acid resistance of Acetobacter. Transcription factors, two component systems and toxin-antitoxin systems were implicated in the modulatory network at multiple levels. In addition, the identification of proteins involved in redox homeostasis, protein metabolism, and the cell envelope suggested that the whole cellular system is mobilized in response to acid stress. These findings provide a differential proteomic profile of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter pasteurianus and have potential application to highly acidic rice vinegar manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Camelid-derived heavy-chain nanobody against Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin E in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban, Roghayyeh; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Nazarian, Shahram; Bakherad, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) result in severe and often fatal disease, botulism. Common remedial measures such as equine antitoxin and human botulism immunoglobulin in turn are problematic and time-consuming. Therefore, diagnosis and therapy of BoNTs are vital. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) has unique features, such as the ability to identify and bind specifically to target epitopes and ease of production in bacteria and yeast. The Pichia pastoris is suitable for expression of recombinant antibody fragments. Disulfide bond formation and correct folds of protein with a high yield are some of the advantages of this eukaryotic host. In this study, we have expressed and purified the camelid VHH against BoNT/E in P. pastoris. The final yield of P. pastoris-expressed antibody was estimated to be 16 mg/l, which is higher than that expressed by Escherichia coli. The nanobody expressed in P. pastoris neutralized 4LD50 of the BoNT/E upon i.p. injection in 25% of mice. The nanobody expressed in E. coli extended the mice's survival to 1.5-fold compared to the control. This experiment indicated that the quality of expressed protein in the yeast is superior to that of the bacterial expression. Favorable protein folding by P. pastoris seems to play a role in its better toxin-binding property. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Characterization of Endogenous Plasmids from Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Flynn, Sarah; Li, Yin; Claesson, Marcus J.; van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Collins, J. Kevin; van Sinderen, Douwe; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 comprises a 1.83-Mb chromosome, a 242-kb megaplasmid (pMP118), and two smaller plasmids of 20 kb (pSF118-20) and 44 kb (pSF118-44). Annotation and bioinformatic analyses suggest that both of the smaller plasmids replicate by a theta replication mechanism. Furthermore, it appears that they are transmissible, although neither possesses a complete set of conjugation genes. Plasmid pSF118-20 encodes a toxin-antitoxin system composed of pemI and pemK homologs, and this plasmid could be cured when PemI was produced in trans. The minimal replicon of pSF118-20 was determined by deletion analysis. Shuttle vector derivatives of pSF118-20 were generated that included the replication region (pLS203) and the replication region plus mobilization genes (pLS208). The plasmid pLS203 was stably maintained without selection in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, and the pSF118-20-cured derivative strain of L. salivarius UCC118 (strain LS201). Cloning in pLS203 of genes encoding luciferase and green fluorescent protein, and expression from a constitutive L. salivarius promoter, demonstrated the utility of this vector for the expression of heterologous genes in Lactobacillus. This study thus expands the knowledge base and vector repertoire of probiotic lactobacilli. PMID:18390685

  12. Fatal Clostridium botulinum toxicosis in eleven Holstein cattle fed round bale barley haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, W J; Kerr, L A; Pringle, J K; Rohrbach, B W; Whitlock, R H

    2000-09-01

    Twenty-two lactating Holstein cattle in Tennessee had clinical signs of intoxication with preformed Clostridium botulinum toxin. These signs included weakness, paralysis of the tongue and chest muscles, abdominal breathing, and, in 11 of the 22 cows, death. Differential diagnoses included hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, carbohydrate overload, and several toxicoses including mycotoxin, lead, nitrate, organophosphate, atropine or atropine-like alkaloid, and botulism. A diagnosis of botulism by the ingestion of preformed C. botulinum type B toxin was made by eliminating these other diseases, by finding C. botulinum type B spores in 3 bales of round bale barley haylage fed to these cattle, and by isolating preformed type B toxin from 1 of the 3 bales. Confirmation of the toxin type was made by demonstrating mouse lethality by intraperitoneal injection of specimen extracts with neutralization by C. botulinum type B antitoxin. The haylage, harvested green and encased in black plastic bags to facilitate fermentation, was presumably contaminated by the botulinum toxin when fermentation failed to produce enough acid to lower the pH to 4.5, the pH below which C. botulinum growth is inhibited. Farmers and ranchers who use round hay balers to produce haylage should be alert to this potential problem.

  13. THE EFFECT OF A NEW SALICYLATE SYNTHESIS PRODUCT ON BLOOD GSH VALUES IN RATS

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    CORINA GRĂVILĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available GSH (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine is a sulfhydril (-SH antioxidant, antitoxin and enzyme cofactor which is an important component of the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Being water soluble it is found mainly in the cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system and thus constitute one of the most important intracellular antioxidants (10,7,9. GSH plays a role in removing various toxic chemicals and drugs from the body. As a result glutathione levels in the body are reduced by exposure to heavy metals and the chemicals used in chemotherapy (6. Sulfanilamide was the first sulfonamide discovered in this class of antimicrobial agents and its structure is considered to contain the minimum pharmacophore. They prevent or limit bacterial multiplication. Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid, is the basic substance of the salicylates which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Salicylic acid and methyl salicylate (ester (methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate are the main therapeutically used substances of this group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of a new synthesis product in comparison with the effect of sulfanilamide on GSH values in intraperitonally injected Wistar rats.

  14. In vitro Determination of Extracellular Proteins from Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Juliano S; Santiago, André S; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Horta, Maria A C; de Souza, Alessandra A; Tasic, Ljubica; de Souza, Anete P

    2016-01-01

    The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes economic losses in important agricultural crops. Xylem vessel occlusion caused by biofilm formation is the major mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of distinct strains of X. fastidiosa . Here, we provide a detailed in vitro characterization of the extracellular proteins of X. fastidiosa . Based on the results, we performed a comparison with a strain J1a12, which cannot induce citrus variegated chlorosis symptoms when inoculated into citrus plants. We then extend this approach to analyze the extracellular proteins of X. fastidiosa in media supplemented with calcium. We verified increases in extracellular proteins concomitant with the days of growth and, consequently, biofilm development (3-30 days). Outer membrane vesicles carrying toxins were identified beginning at 10 days of growth in the 9a5c strain. In addition, a decrease in extracellular proteins in media supplemented with calcium was observed in both strains. Using mass spectrometry, 71 different proteins were identified during 30 days of X. fastidiosa biofilm development, including proteases, quorum-sensing proteins, biofilm formation proteins, hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, chaperones, toxins, antitoxins, and extracellular vesicle membrane components.

  15. Global expression profile of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial compounds in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa reveals evidence of persister cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Takita, Marco A; Olivato, Jacqueline C; Kishi, Luciano T; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2012-09-01

    Investigations of biofilm resistance response rarely focus on plant-pathogenic bacteria. Since Xylella fastidiosa is a multihost plant-pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm in the xylem, the behavior of its biofilm in response to antimicrobial compounds needs to be better investigated. We analyzed here the transcriptional profile of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in response to inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of copper and tetracycline. Copper-based products are routinely used to control citrus diseases in the field, while antibiotics are more widely used for bacterial control in mammals. The use of antimicrobial compounds triggers specific responses to each compound, such as biofilm formation and phage activity for copper. Common changes in expression responses comprise the repression of genes associated with metabolic functions and movement and the induction of toxin-antitoxin systems, which have been associated with the formation of persister cells. Our results also show that these cells were found in the population at a ca. 0.05% density under inhibitory conditions for both antimicrobial compounds and that pretreatment with subinhibitory concentration of copper increases this number. No previous report has detected the presence of these cells in X. fastidiosa population, suggesting that this could lead to a multidrug tolerance response in the biofilm under a stressed environment. This is a mechanism that has recently become the focus of studies on resistance of human-pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics and, based on our data, it seems to be more broadly applicable.

  16. Persister formation in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with ATP depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian P.; Rowe, Sarah E.; Gandt, Autumn Brown; Nuxoll, Austin S.; Donegan, Niles P.; Zalis, Eliza A.; Clair, Geremy; Adkins, Joshua N.; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Lewis, Kim

    2016-04-18

    Persisters are dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are tolerant to killing by antibiotics1. Persisters are associated with chronic bacterial infection and antibiotic treatment failure. In Escherichia coli, toxin/antitoxin (TA) modules are responsible for persister formation. The mechanism of persister formation in Gram positive bacteria is unknown. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, responsible for a variety of chronic and relapsing infections such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis and infections of implanted devices. Deleting TA modules in S. aureus did not affect the level of persisters. Here we show that S. aureus persisters are produced due to a stochastic entrance to stationary phase accompanied by a drop in intracellular ATP. Cells expressing stationary state markers are present throughout the growth phase, increasing in frequency with cell density. Cell sorting revealed that expression of stationary markers was associated with a 100-1000 fold increased likelihood of survival to antibiotic challenge. We find that the antibiotic tolerance of these cells is due to a drop in intracellular ATP. The ATP level of the cell is predictive of bactericidal antibiotic efficacy and explains bacterial tolerance to antibiotic treatment.

  17. Metagenomic binning of a marine sponge microbiome reveals unity in defense but metabolic specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Beate M; Hackl, Thomas; Horn, Hannes; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute

    2017-11-01

    Marine sponges are ancient metazoans that are populated by distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. In order to obtain deeper insights into the functional gene repertoire of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba, we combined Illumina short-read and PacBio long-read sequencing followed by un-targeted metagenomic binning. We identified a total of 37 high-quality bins representing 11 bacterial phyla and two candidate phyla. Statistical comparison of symbiont genomes with selected reference genomes revealed a significant enrichment of genes related to bacterial defense (restriction-modification systems, toxin-antitoxin systems) as well as genes involved in host colonization and extracellular matrix utilization in sponge symbionts. A within-symbionts genome comparison revealed a nutritional specialization of at least two symbiont guilds, where one appears to metabolize carnitine and the other sulfated polysaccharides, both of which are abundant molecules in the sponge extracellular matrix. A third guild of symbionts may be viewed as nutritional generalists that perform largely the same metabolic pathways but lack such extraordinary numbers of the relevant genes. This study characterizes the genomic repertoire of sponge symbionts at an unprecedented resolution and it provides greater insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying microbial-sponge symbiosis.

  18. Massive activation of archaeal defense genes during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quax, Tessa E F; Voet, Marleen; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnes; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick; van der Oost, John; Lavigne, Rob; Prangishvili, David

    2013-08-01

    Archaeal viruses display unusually high genetic and morphological diversity. Studies of these viruses proved to be instrumental for the expansion of knowledge on viral diversity and evolution. The Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) is a model to study virus-host interactions in Archaea. It is a lytic virus that exploits a unique egress mechanism based on the formation of remarkable pyramidal structures on the host cell envelope. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we present here a global map defining host and viral gene expression during the infection cycle of SIRV2 in its hyperthermophilic host S. islandicus LAL14/1. This information was used, in combination with a yeast two-hybrid analysis of SIRV2 protein interactions, to advance current understanding of viral gene functions. As a consequence of SIRV2 infection, transcription of more than one-third of S. islandicus genes was differentially regulated. While expression of genes involved in cell division decreased, those genes playing a role in antiviral defense were activated on a large scale. Expression of genes belonging to toxin-antitoxin and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems was specifically pronounced. The observed different degree of activation of various CRISPR-Cas systems highlights the specialized functions they perform. The information on individual gene expression and activation of antiviral defense systems is expected to aid future studies aimed at detailed understanding of the functions and interplay of these systems in vivo.

  19. Ca2+ influx and tyrosine kinases trigger Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT endocytosis. Cell physiology and expression of the CD11b/CD18 integrin major determinants of the entry route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3, its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca(2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface.

  20. A survey of traditional Iranian food products for contamination with toxigenic Clostridium botulinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Tavakoli

    Full Text Available Summary: This study aimed to determine the rate of Clostridium botulinum contamination in some traditional Iranian food products (cheese, kashk and salted fish and evaluate the efficacy of the mouse bioassay method in detection of C. botulinum toxins in these foods. A total of 131 samples (57 cheese, 11 kashk and 63 salted fish were collected and examined to determine the rate of contamination by C. botulinum. Standard monovalent anti-toxins were used to determine the types of toxin. C. botulinum bacteria were detected in 4.58% of the examined samples (1.52% of cheese and 3.06% of salted fish samples. While no contamination was detected in the kashk samples, C. botulinum types A and E were found to be dominant in cheese and salted fish samples, respectively. These results indicate—some traditional Iranian foods may be contaminated with different types of C. botulinum, and the consumption of these products, either raw or cooked, may contribute to food-borne intoxications. Keywords: Clostridium botulinum, Botulinum toxin, Traditional foods

  1. Veterinary immunology as colonial science: method and quantification in the investigation of horsesickness in South Africa, C. 1905-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfoyle, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the practice of veterinary immunology in South Africa during the first half of the twentieth century through an analysis of research into a horsesickness vaccine at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. From the early 1900s, Arnold Theiler prioritized research into horsesickness, by then defined as an insect-borne disease caused by an ultravisible virus. He succeeded in devising a means of prophylaxis using a simultaneous injection of infective blood and immune serum, but he discovered antigenically different strains of the virus, which could overcome the immunity produced by his treatment. The practical value of Theiler's methods was further limited by difficulties in standardizing the biological material used in immunization, the results of which remained too erratic for application on a large scale. No further advances were made until the 1930s, by which time Onderstepoort had been drawn more closely into international scientific networks. Using techniques derived from research into yellow fever in America and canine distemper in Britain, the Onderstepoort scientist Raymond Alexander invented a method of immunization that utilized the propagation of the horsesickness virus in the brains of mice. Alexander's methods, which were characterized by successful technical adaptation and innovation, depended upon methods of quantification first developed by Paul Ehrlich to standardize diphtheria antitoxin during the 1890s. During the 1940s, vaccination expanded rapidly in South Africa, and Onderstepoort later exported the vaccine and associated technology to other countries affected by horsesickness.

  2. Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Darab; Mior Ahmad, Zainal Abidin; Yee How, Tan; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Shahnazi, Sahar

    2013-12-01

    Food contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. In order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. Anti-infectious activity of Piper betle used in traditional medicine of Malaysia has been reported previously. Crude methanol extract from P. betel powdered leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water. The fractions were tested against A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis were tested by disk diffusion and macrodillution techniques, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques using AFB1 standard. The chloroform soluble compounds were identified using HPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry technique. The results, evaluated by measuring the mycelial growth and quantification of aflatoxin B1(AFLB1) production in broth medium revealed that chloroform soluble compounds extract from P. betle dried leaves was able to block the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway at concentration of 500μg/ml without a significant effect on mycelium growth. In analyzing of this effective fractions using HPLC-MS(2) with ESI ionization technique, 11 phenolic compounds were identified. The results showed that the certain phenolic compounds are able to decline the aflatoxin production in A. flavus with no significant effect on the fungus mycelia growth. The result also suggested P. betle could be used as potential antitoxin product.

  3. Obg and Membrane Depolarization Are Part of a Microbial Bet-Hedging Strategy that Leads to Antibiotic Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Natalie; Knapen, Wouter Joris; Kint, Cyrielle Ines; Liebens, Veerle; Van den Bergh, Bram; Dewachter, Liselot; Michiels, Joran Elie; Fu, Qiang; David, Charlotte Claudia; Fierro, Ana Carolina; Marchal, Kathleen; Beirlant, Jan; Versées, Wim; Hofkens, Johan; Jansen, Maarten; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Within bacterial populations, a small fraction of persister cells is transiently capable of surviving exposure to lethal doses of antibiotics. As a bet-hedging strategy, persistence levels are determined both by stochastic induction and by environmental stimuli called responsive diversification. Little is known about the mechanisms that link the low frequency of persisters to environmental signals. Our results support a central role for the conserved GTPase Obg in determining persistence in Escherichia coli in response to nutrient starvation. Obg-mediated persistence requires the stringent response alarmone (p)ppGpp and proceeds through transcriptional control of the hokB-sokB type I toxin-antitoxin module. In individual cells, increased Obg levels induce HokB expression, which in turn results in a collapse of the membrane potential, leading to dormancy. Obg also controls persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and thus constitutes a conserved regulator of antibiotic tolerance. Combined, our findings signify an important step toward unraveling shared genetic mechanisms underlying persistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Starvation, Together with the SOS Response, Mediates High Biofilm-Specific Tolerance to the Fluoroquinolone Ofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Steve P.; Lebeaux, David; DeFrancesco, Alicia S.; Valomon, Amandine; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    High levels of antibiotic tolerance are a hallmark of bacterial biofilms. In contrast to well-characterized inherited antibiotic resistance, molecular mechanisms leading to reversible and transient antibiotic tolerance displayed by biofilm bacteria are still poorly understood. The physiological heterogeneity of biofilms influences the formation of transient specialized subpopulations that may be more tolerant to antibiotics. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify biofilm-specific tolerant mutants normally exhibited by subpopulations located in specialized niches of heterogeneous biofilms. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we demonstrated, through identification of amino acid auxotroph mutants, that starved biofilms exhibited significantly greater tolerance towards fluoroquinolone ofloxacin than their planktonic counterparts. We demonstrated that the biofilm-associated tolerance to ofloxacin was fully dependent on a functional SOS response upon starvation to both amino acids and carbon source and partially dependent on the stringent response upon leucine starvation. However, the biofilm-specific ofloxacin increased tolerance did not involve any of the SOS-induced toxin–antitoxin systems previously associated with formation of highly tolerant persisters. We further demonstrated that ofloxacin tolerance was induced as a function of biofilm age, which was dependent on the SOS response. Our results therefore show that the SOS stress response induced in heterogeneous and nutrient-deprived biofilm microenvironments is a molecular mechanism leading to biofilm-specific high tolerance to the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin. PMID:23300476

  5. Ciprofloxacin causes persister formation by inducing the TisB toxin in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Dörr

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria induce stress responses that protect the cell from lethal factors such as DNA-damaging agents. Bacterial populations also form persisters, dormant cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics and play an important role in recalcitrance of biofilm infections. Stress response and dormancy appear to represent alternative strategies of cell survival. The mechanism of persister formation is unknown, but isolated persisters show increased levels of toxin/antitoxin (TA transcripts. We have found previously that one or more components of the SOS response induce persister formation after exposure to a DNA-damaging antibiotic. The SOS response induces several TA genes in Escherichia coli. Here, we show that a knockout of a particular SOS-TA locus, tisAB/istR, had a sharply decreased level of persisters tolerant to ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic that causes DNA damage. Step-wise administration of ciprofloxacin induced persister formation in a tisAB-dependent manner, and cells producing TisB toxin were tolerant to multiple antibiotics. TisB is a membrane peptide that was shown to decrease proton motive force and ATP levels, consistent with its role in forming dormant cells. These results suggest that a DNA damage-induced toxin controls production of multidrug tolerant cells and thus provide a model of persister formation.

  6. Cyclic AMP Regulates Bacterial Persistence through Repression of the Oxidative Stress Response and SOS-Dependent DNA Repair in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Silva-Valenzuela, Cecilia; Brewster, Jennifer; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Levy, Stuart B; Camilli, Andrew

    2018-01-09

    Bacterial persistence is a transient, nonheritable physiological state that provides tolerance to bactericidal antibiotics. The stringent response, toxin-antitoxin modules, and stochastic processes, among other mechanisms, play roles in this phenomenon. How persistence is regulated is relatively ill defined. Here we show that cyclic AMP, a global regulator of carbon catabolism and other core processes, is a negative regulator of bacterial persistence in uropathogenic Escherichia coli , as measured by survival after exposure to a β-lactam antibiotic. This phenotype is regulated by a set of genes leading to an oxidative stress response and SOS-dependent DNA repair. Thus, persister cells tolerant to cell wall-acting antibiotics must cope with oxidative stress and DNA damage and these processes are regulated by cyclic AMP in uropathogenic E. coli IMPORTANCE Bacterial persister cells are important in relapsing infections in patients treated with antibiotics and also in the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Our results show that in uropathogenic E. coli , the second messenger cyclic AMP negatively regulates persister cell formation, since in its absence much more persister cells form that are tolerant to β-lactams antibiotics. We reveal the mechanism to be decreased levels of reactive oxygen species, specifically hydroxyl radicals, and SOS-dependent DNA repair. Our findings suggest that the oxidative stress response and DNA repair are relevant pathways to target in the design of persister-specific antibiotic compounds. Copyright © 2018 Molina-Quiroz et al.

  7. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  8. Tetanus in the equine species: a retrospective study of 31 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, G; Delguste, C; Sandersen, C; Verwilghen, D; Grulke, S; Amory, H

    2008-06-15

    Few studies exist about factors affecting the outcome of horses with tetanus. 31 equids (30 horses and 1 donkey) with a clinical diagnosis of tetanus admitted to the Equine Clinic of the University of Liege between 1991 and 2006. The cases were divided into two groups according to the outcome (survivors and non-survivors). The clinical data of survivors and non-survivors were compared using an ANOVA (continuous data) or a Fisher's test (discrete data). The survival rate was 32%. Most animals were 5 years or younger, and none had been appropriately vaccinated. The non-survivors were significantly younger than the survivors. The development of dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency was observed significantly more in the non-survivors than in the survivors. The timing of tetanus antitoxin administration (either immediately after the onset of suggestive signs or after a delay) was not different between the two groups. The time between the occurrence of a wound and the first signs ranged from 2 days to 2 months and was not significantly different between groups. All non-survivors died within 8 days of the first signs. This study suggests that young animals are affected more often and more severely by tetanus than older animals. Dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency can be considered as indicators of a poor prognosis in equids suffering from tetanus.

  9. Specific Gene Loci of Clinical Pseudomonas putida Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Molina

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida are ubiquitous inhabitants of soils and clinical isolates of this species have been seldom described. Clinical isolates show significant variability in their ability to cause damage to hosts because some of them are able to modulate the host's immune response. In the current study, comparisons between the genomes of different clinical and environmental strains of P. putida were done to identify genetic clusters shared by clinical isolates that are not present in environmental isolates. We show that in clinical strains specific genes are mostly present on transposons, and that this set of genes exhibit high identity with genes found in pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. The set of genes prevalent in P. putida clinical isolates, and absent in environmental isolates, are related with survival under oxidative stress conditions, resistance against biocides, amino acid metabolism and toxin/antitoxin (TA systems. This set of functions have influence in colonization and survival within human tissues, since they avoid host immune response or enhance stress resistance. An in depth bioinformatic analysis was also carried out to identify genetic clusters that are exclusive to each of the clinical isolates and that correlate with phenotypical differences between them, a secretion system type III-like was found in one of these clinical strains, a determinant of pathogenicity in Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Nucleotide sequence of pOLA52: a conjugative IncX1 plasmid from Escherichia coli which enables biofilm formation and multidrug efflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H.; She, Qunxin

    2008-01-01

    . The plasmid was also classified as IncX1 with incompatibility testing. The conjugal transfer and plasmid maintenance regions of pOLA52 therefore seem to represent IncX1 orthologues of the well-characterized IncX2 plasmid R6K. Sequence homology searches in GenBank also suggested a considerably higher...... of type 3 fimbriae (mrkABCDF). The plasmid was found to be 51,602 bp long with 68 putative genes. About half of the plasmid constituted a conserved IncX1-type backbone with predicted regions for conjugation, replication and partitioning, as well as a toxin/antitoxin (TA) plasmid addiction system...... prevalence of IncX1 group plasmids than IncX2. The 21 kb 'genetic load' region of pOLA52 was shown to consist of a mosaic, among other things a fragmented Tn3 transposon encoding ampicillin resistance. Most notably the oqxAB and mrkABCDF cassettes were contained within two composite transposons (Tn6010...

  11. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisa, A. U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N. [Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2013-07-15

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  12. Time-resolved, single-cell analysis of induced and programmed cell death via non-invasive propidium iodide and counterstain perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Christina E M; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    Conventional propidium iodide (PI) staining requires the execution of multiple steps prior to analysis, potentially affecting assay results as well as cell vitality. In this study, this multistep analysis method has been transformed into a single-step, non-toxic, real-time method via live-cell imaging during perfusion with 0.1 μM PI inside a microfluidic cultivation device. Dynamic PI staining was an effective live/dead analytical tool and demonstrated consistent results for single-cell death initiated by direct or indirect triggers. Application of this method for the first time revealed the apparent antibiotic tolerance of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum cells, as indicated by the conversion of violet fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CvAM). Additional implementation of this method provided insight into the induced cell lysis of Escherichia coli cells expressing a lytic toxin-antitoxin module, providing evidence for non-lytic cell death and cell resistance to toxin production. Finally, our dynamic PI staining method distinguished necrotic-like and apoptotic-like cell death phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae among predisposed descendants of nutrient-deprived ancestor cells using PO-PRO-1 or green fluorogenic calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CgAM) as counterstains. The combination of single-cell cultivation, fluorescent time-lapse imaging, and PI perfusion facilitates spatiotemporally resolved observations that deliver new insights into the dynamics of cellular behaviour.

  13. The role of DNA restriction-modification systems in the biology of Bacillus anthracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan eSitaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction-modification (R-M systems are widespread among prokaryotes and, depending on their type, may be viewed as selfish genetic elements that persist as toxin-antitoxin modules or as cellular defense systems against phage infection. Studies in the last decade have made it amply clear that these two options do not exhaust the list of possible biological roles for R-M systems. Their presence in a cell may also have a bearing on other processes such as horizontal gene transfer and gene regulation. From genome sequencing and experimental data, we know that Bacillus anthracis encodes at least three methylation-dependent (typeIV restriction endonucleases, and an orphan DNA methyltransferase. In this article, we first present an outline of our current knowledge of R-M systems in Bacillus anthracis. Based on available DNA sequence data, and on our current understanding of the functions of similar genes in other systems, we conclude with hypotheses on the possible roles of the three restriction endonucleases and the orphan DNA methyltransferase.

  14. YeeV is an Escherichia coli toxin that inhibits cell division by targeting the cytoskeleton proteins, FtsZ and MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qian; Awano, Naoki; Inouye, Masayori

    2011-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of free-living bacteria have recently demonstrated that these toxins inhibit cell growth by targeting essential functions of cellular metabolism. Here we show that YeeV toxin inhibits cell division, leads to a change in morphology and lysis of Escherichia coli cells. YeeV interacts with two essential cytoskeleton proteins, FtsZ and MreB. Purified YeeV inhibits both the GTPase activity and the GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ. YeeV also inhibits ATP-dependent polymerization of MreB. Truncated C-terminal deletions of YeeV result in elongation of cells, and a deletion of the first 15 amino acids from the N-terminus of YeeV caused lemon-shaped cell formation. The YeeV toxin is distinct from other well-studied toxins: it directs the binding of two cytoskeletal proteins and inhibits FtsZ and MreB simultaneously. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Network analysis of S. aureus response to ramoplanin reveals modules for virulence factors and resistance mechanisms and characteristic novel genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Devika; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2015-12-10

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and ramoplanin is an antimicrobial attributed for effective treatment. The goal of this study was to examine the transcriptomic profiles of ramoplanin sensitive and resistant S. aureus to identify putative modules responsible for virulence and resistance-mechanisms and its characteristic novel genes. The dysregulated genes were used to reconstruct protein functional association networks for virulence-factors and resistance-mechanisms individually. Strong link between metabolic-pathways and development of virulence/resistance is suggested. We identified 15 putative modules of virulence factors. Six hypothetical genes were annotated with novel virulence activity among which SACOL0281 was discovered to be an essential virulence factor EsaD. The roles of MazEF toxin-antitoxin system, SACOL0202/SACOL0201 two-component system and that of amino-sugar and nucleotide-sugar metabolism in virulence are also suggested. In addition, 14 putative modules of resistance mechanisms including modules of ribosomal protein-coding genes and metabolic pathways such as biotin-synthesis, TCA-cycle, riboflavin-biosynthesis, peptidoglycan-biosynthesis etc. are also indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin attenuates virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszczol, Carmen; Bernardo, Katussevani; Krönke, Martin; Krut, Oleg

    2006-09-01

    The semi-synthetic streptogramin quinupristin/dalfopristin antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We investigated whether, like other bactericidal antibiotics used at subinhibitory concentrations, quinupristin/dalfopristin enhances release of toxins by Gram-positive cocci. The activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin on exotoxin release by S. aureus was investigated by 2D SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and by western blotting. We show that quinupristin/dalfopristin at subinhibitory concentrations reduces the release of S. aureus factors that induce tumour necrosis factor secretion in macrophages. Furthermore, quinupristin/dalfopristin but not linezolid attenuated S. aureus-mediated killing of infected host cells. When added to S. aureus cultures at different stages of bacterial growth, quinupristin/dalfopristin reduced in a dose-dependent manner the release of specific virulence factors (e.g. autolysin, protein A, alpha- and beta-haemolysins, lipases). In contrast, other presumably non-toxic exoproteins remained unchanged. The results of the present study suggest that subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin inhibits virulence factor release by S. aureus, which might be especially helpful for the treatment of S. aureus infections, where both bactericidal as well as anti-toxin activity may be advantageous.

  17. The Fic protein Doc uses an inverted substrate to phosphorylate and inactivate EF-Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Roa, Daniel; Garcia-Pino, Abel; De Gieter, Steven; van Nuland, Nico A J; Loris, Remy; Zenkin, Nikolay

    2013-12-01

    Fic proteins are ubiquitous in all of the domains of life and have critical roles in multiple cellular processes through AMPylation of (transfer of AMP to) target proteins. Doc from the doc-phd toxin-antitoxin module is a member of the Fic family and inhibits bacterial translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that, in contrast to having AMPylating activity, Doc is a new type of kinase that inhibits bacterial translation by phosphorylating the conserved threonine (Thr382) of the translation elongation factor EF-Tu, rendering EF-Tu unable to bind aminoacylated tRNAs. We provide evidence that EF-Tu phosphorylation diverged from AMPylation by antiparallel binding of the NTP relative to the catalytic residues of the conserved Fic catalytic core of Doc. The results bring insights into the mechanism and role of phosphorylation of EF-Tu in bacterial physiology as well as represent an example of the catalytic plasticity of enzymes and a mechanism for the evolution of new enzymatic activities.

  18. Anti-snake venom: use and adverse reaction in a snake bite study clinic in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites can present local or systemic envenomation, while neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis are the main cause of death. The mainstay of management is anti-snake venom (ASV, which is highly effective, but liable to cause severe adverse reactions including anaphylaxis. The types of adverse reaction to polyvalent anti-snake venom have not been previously studied in Bangladesh. In this prospective observational study carried out between 1999 and 2001, in the Snake Bite Study Clinic of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, 35 neurotoxic-snake-bite patients who had received polyvalent anti-snake venom were included while the ones sensitized to different antitoxins and suffering from atopy were excluded. The common neurotoxic features were ptosis (100%, external ophthalmoplegia (94.2%, dysphagia (77.1%, dysphonia (68.5% and broken neck sign (80%. The percentage of anti-snake venom reaction cases was 88.57%; pyrogenic reaction was 80.64%; and anaphylaxis was 64.51%. The common features of anaphylaxis were urticaria (80%; vomiting and wheezing (40%; and angioedema (10%. The anti-snake venom reaction was treated mainly with adrenaline for anaphylaxis and paracetamol suppository in pyrogenic reactions. The average recovery time was 4.5 hours. Due to the danger of reactions the anti-snake venom should not be withheld from a snakebite victim when indicated and appropriate guidelines should be followed for its administration.

  19. Molecular Structure of Endotoxins from Gram-negative Marine Bacteria: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Molinaro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria are microrganisms that have adapted, through millions of years, to survival in environments often characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, namely pressure, temperature and salinity. The main interest in the research on marine bacteria is due to their ability to produce several biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, or their portions, from Gram-negative marine bacteria, have often shown low virulence, and represent potential candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock. Besides, the molecular architecture of such molecules is related to the possibility of thriving in marine habitats, shielding the cell from the disrupting action of natural stress factors. Over the last few years, the depiction of a variety of structures of lipids A, core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been given. In particular, here we will examine the most recently encountered structures for bacteria belonging to the genera Shewanella, Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas, of the γ-Proteobacteria phylum, and to the genera Flavobacterium, Cellulophaga, Arenibacter and Chryseobacterium, of the Cytophaga- Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention will be paid to the chemical features expressed by these structures (characteristic monosaccharides, non-glycidic appendages, phosphate groups, to the typifying traits of LPSs from marine bacteria and to the possible correlation existing between such features and the adaptation, over years, of bacteria to marine environments.

  20. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Mechanisms of Virulence Regulation by Small Noncoding RNAs in Low GC Gram-Positive Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Pitman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of small noncoding regulatory RNAs (sRNAs in bacteria has grown tremendously recently, giving new insights into gene regulation. The implementation of computational analysis and RNA sequencing has provided new tools to discover and analyze potential sRNAs. Small regulatory RNAs that act by base-pairing to target mRNAs have been found to be ubiquitous and are the most abundant class of post-transcriptional regulators in bacteria. The majority of sRNA studies has been limited to E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria. However, examples of sRNAs in gram-positive bacteria are still plentiful although the detailed gene regulation mechanisms behind them are not as well understood. Strict virulence control is critical for a pathogen’s survival and many sRNAs have been found to be involved in that process. This review outlines the targets and currently known mechanisms of trans-acting sRNAs involved in virulence regulation in various gram-positive pathogens. In addition, their shared characteristics such as CU interaction motifs, the role of Hfq, and involvement in two-component regulators, riboswitches, quorum sensing, or toxin/antitoxin systems are described.

  2. Molecular Analysis of VanA Outbreak of Enterococcus faecium in Two Warsaw Hospitals: The Importance of Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wardal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium represents a growing threat in hospital-acquired infections. Two outbreaks of this pathogen from neighboring Warsaw hospitals have been analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of SmaI-digested DNA, multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST revealed a clonal variability of isolates which belonged to three main lineages (17, 18, and 78 of nosocomial E. faecium. All isolates were multidrug resistant and carried several resistance, virulence, and plasmid-specific genes. Almost all isolates shared the same variant of Tn1546 transposon, characterized by the presence of insertion sequence ISEf1 and a point mutation in the vanA gene. In the majority of cases, this transposon was located on 50 kb or 100 kb pRUM-related plasmids, which lacked, however, the axe-txe toxin-antitoxin genes. 100 kb plasmid was easily transferred by conjugation and was found in various clonal backgrounds in both institutions, while 50 kb plasmid was not transferable and occurred solely in MT159/ST78 strains that disseminated clonally in one institution. Although molecular data indicated the spread of VRE between two institutions or a potential common source of this alert pathogen, epidemiological investigations did not reveal the possible route by which outbreak strains disseminated.

  3. A Family Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism Following Consumption of Home-Canned Doogh in Hamadan, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Food-borne botulism is one of the potentially fatal forms of food poisoning, usually caused by ingestion of home-canned vegetables, fruits and fish products. Objectives The aim of this study was to report an outbreak of botulism due to homemade doogh in Hamadan, Iran. Patients and Methods During an outbreak, 10 members of a family referred to the hospital because of food poisoning. All patients had a history of consumption of doogh, a traditional drink. After careful physical examination, all of them were hospitalized. Botulism was suspected in all patients except for the first patient. Results The first patient was a 76-year-old man who died after 12 hours of admission due to respiratory distress. Nine subsequent patients were diagnosed as botulism with the following symptoms: diplopia (90%, dizziness (70%, nausea and vomiting (80%, ptosis (60%, symmetric weakness of extremities (60%, dysarthria (30%, chest discomfort (30%, mydriasis (20%, dysphasia (20% and dry mouth (20%. All of the nine patients received botulinum antitoxin and improved during 5-15 days of hospitalization. Conclusions Immediate diagnosis based on careful history and physical examination are essential for management of botulism. People should be notified about proper food handling and preparation of traditional homemade foods.

  4. Polyclonal Antibody Therapies for Clostridium difficile Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Simon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a growing worldwide health problem. The colitis of Clostridium difficile infection results from the synergistic action of C. difficile secreted toxins A and B upon the colon mucosa. A human monoclonal IgG anti-toxin has demonstrated the ability in combination therapy to reduce mortality in C. difficile challenged hamsters. This antibody is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of human Clostridium difficile infection. More than one group of investigators has considered using polyclonal bovine colostral antibodies to toxins A and B as an oral passive immunization. A significant proportion of the healthy human population possesses polyclonal antibodies to the Clostridium difficile toxins. We have demonstrated that polyclonal IgA derived from the pooled plasma of healthy donors possesses specificity to toxins A and B and can neutralize these toxins in a cell-based assay. This suggests that secretory IgA prepared from such pooled plasma IgA may be able to be used as an oral treatment for Clostridium difficile infection.

  5. Culex pipiens crossing type diversity is governed by an amplified and polymorphic operon of Wolbachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Manon; Atyame, Celestine; Beji, Marwa; Justy, Fabienne; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Sicard, Mathieu; Weill, Mylène

    2018-01-22

    Culex pipiens mosquitoes are infected with Wolbachia (wPip) that cause an important diversity of cytoplasmic incompatibilities (CIs). Functional transgenic studies have implicated the cidA-cidB operon from wPip and its homolog in wMel in CI between infected Drosophila males and uninfected females. However, the genetic basis of the CI diversity induced by different Wolbachia strains was unknown. We show here that the remarkable diversity of CI in the C. pipiens complex is due to the presence, in all tested wPip genomes, of several copies of the cidA-cidB operon, which undergoes diversification through recombination events. In 183 isofemale lines of C. pipiens collected worldwide, specific variations of the cidA-cidB gene repertoires are found to match crossing types. The diversification of cidA-cidB is consistent with the hypothesis of a toxin-antitoxin system in which the gene cidB co-diversifies with the gene cidA, particularly in putative domains of reciprocal interactions.

  6. Obiltoxaximab Prevents Disseminated Bacillus anthracis Infection and Improves Survival during Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Animal Models of Inhalational Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Brent J.; Shadiack, Annette M.; Carpenter, Sarah; Sanford, Daniel; Henning, Lisa N.; Gonzales, Nestor; O'Connor, Edward; Casey, Leslie S.

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend adjunctive antitoxins when systemic anthrax is suspected. Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with antibiotics and for prophylaxis when alternative therapies are not available. The impact of toxin neutralization with obiltoxaximab during pre- and postexposure prophylaxis was explored, and efficacy results that supported the prophylaxis indication are presented here. New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques received obiltoxaximab as a single intramuscular or intravenous dose of 2 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at various times relative to Bacillus anthracis aerosol spore challenge. The primary endpoint was survival, and effect of treatment timing was explored. In rabbits, obiltoxaximab administration 9 h postchallenge singly or combined with a 5-day levofloxacin regimen protected 89% to 100% of animals compared to 33% with levofloxacin monotherapy. In cynomolgus macaques, a single intramuscular dose of 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab led to 100% survival when given 1 to 3 days preexposure and 83% to 100% survival when given 18 to 24 h postexposure and prior to systemic bacteremia onset. Obiltoxaximab administration after bacteremia onset resulted in lower (25% to 50%) survival rates reflective of treatment setting. Prophylactic administration of obiltoxaximab before spore challenge or to spore-challenged animals before systemic bacterial dissemination is efficacious in promoting survival, ameliorating toxemia, and inhibiting bacterial spread to the periphery. PMID:27431219

  7. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  8. Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of the CD11b/CD18 Integrin Major Determinants of the Entry Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Gómez-Bilbao, Geraxane; Ostolaza, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3), its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface. PMID:24058533

  9. [Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Due to Corynebacterium ulcerans - Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Christian; Schwede, Ilona; Neumann, Volker; Pietsch, Cristine; Handrick, Werner

    2017-10-01

    History and clinical findings  We report on three patients suffering from skin and soft tissue infections of the legs due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strains. In all three patients, there was a predisposition due to chronic diseases. Three patients had domestic animals (cat, dog) in their households. Investigations and diagnosis  A mixed bacterial flora including Corynebacterium ulcerans was found in wound swab samples. Diphtheric toxin was produced by the Corynebacterium ulcerans strains in all three cases. Treatment and course  In all three patients, successful handling of the skin and soft tissue infections was possible by combining local treatment with antibiotics. Diphtheria antitoxin was not administered in any case. Conclusion  Based on a review of the recent literature pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and signs, diagnostics and therapy of skin and soft tissue infections due to Corynebacterium ulcerans are discussed. Corynebacterium ulcerans should be considered as a potential cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections. Occupational or domestic animal contacts should be evaluated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Bioterrorism in Canada: An Economic Assessment of Prevention and Postattack Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald St John

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper calculates the human and economic consequences of a bioterrorist attack on Canadian soil using aerosolized Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum. The study assumed that 100,000 people in a Canadian suburban neighbourhood were exposed over a 2 h period to an infectious dose of one of the agents. Using an epidemic curve based on the epidemiology and management of anthrax and botulinum poisoning, the costs of intervention and treatment after an attack were compared with the costs of preparedness before a bioterrorist attack. The results show that an investment in planning and preparedness to manage the consequences of an attack can reduce morbidity, mortality and economic costs. The sooner that an intervention program is instituted, the more significant are the health and economic benefits. The greatest benefits were realized when postattack intervention was initiated before day 3 after the event. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack in Canada could range from $6.4 billion/100,000 exposed to B anthracis to $8.6 billion/100,000 exposed in an attack using C botulinum. Without the benefit of an effective consequence management program, predicted deaths totalled 32,875 from anthrax and 30,000 from botulinum toxin. Rapid implementation of a postattack prophylaxis program that includes the stockpiling of antibiotics, vaccines and antitoxins; training of first responders in the diagnosis, handling and treatment of pathogens; and the general enhancement of Canada's response capability would reduce both human and economic losses.

  11. Unveiling the pan-genome of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs: molecular characterisation of new variable regions of SXT/R391-like ICEs detected in Pseudoalteromonas sp. and Vibrio scophthalmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2016-08-01

    Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have been identified in fish-isolated bacterial strains collected from marine aquaculture environments of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula. Here we analysed the variable regions of two ICEs, one preliminarily characterised in a previous study (ICEVscSpa3) and one newly identified (ICEPspSpa1). Bacterial strains harboring these ICEs were phylogenetically assigned to Vibrio scophthalmi and Pseudoalteromonas sp., thus constituting the first evidence of SXT/R391-like ICEs in the genus Pseudoalteromonas to date. Variable DNA regions, which confer element-specific properties to ICEs of this family, were characterised. Interestingly, the two ICEs contained 29 genes not found in variable DNA insertions of previously described ICEs. Most notably, variable gene content for ICEVscSpa3 showed similarity to genes potentially involved in housekeeping functions of replication, nucleotide metabolism and transcription. For these genes, closest homologues were found clustered in the genome of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans L19, suggesting a transfer as a block to ICEVscSpa3. Genes encoding antibiotic resistance, restriction modification systems and toxin/antitoxin systems were absent from hotspots of ICEVscSpa3. In contrast, the variable gene content of ICEPspSpa1 included genes involved in restriction/modification functions in two different hotspots and genes related to ICE maintenance. The present study unveils a relatively large number of novel genes in SXT/R391-ICEs, and demonstrates the major role of ICE elements as contributors to horizontal gene transfer.

  12. Inhibition of biological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) by apple juice and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-05-12

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.

  13. Drivers of bacterial genomes plasticity and roles they play in pathogen virulence, persistence and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2016-11-01

    Despite the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, sophisticated data analysis and drug development efforts, bacterial drug resistance persists and is escalating in magnitude. To better control the pathogens, a thorough understanding of their genomic architecture and dynamics is vital. Bacterial genome is extremely complex, a mosaic of numerous co-operating and antagonizing components, altruistic and self-interested entities, behavior of which are predictable and conserved to some extent, yet largely dictated by an array of variables. In this regard, mobile genetic elements (MGE), DNA repair systems, post-segregation killing systems, toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, restriction-modification (RM) systems etc. are dominant agents and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), gene redundancy, epigenetics, phase and antigenic variation etc. processes shape the genome. By illegitimate recombinations, deletions, insertions, duplications, amplifications, inversions, conversions, translocations, modification of intergenic regions and other alterations, bacterial genome is modified to tackle stressors like drugs, and host immune effectors. Over the years, thousands of studies have investigated this aspect and mammoth amount of insights have been accumulated. This review strives to distillate the existing information, formulate hypotheses and to suggest directions, that might contribute towards improved mitigation of the vicious pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular characterization of the pSinB plasmid of the arsenite oxidizing, metallotolerant Sinorhizobium sp. M14 - insight into the heavy metal resistome of sinorhizobial extrachromosomal replicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Krzysztof; Dziewit, Lukasz; Decewicz, Przemyslaw; Mielnicki, Sebastian; Radlinska, Monika; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. M14 is an As(III)-oxidizing, psychrotolerant strain, capable of growth in the presence of extremely high concentrations of arsenic and many other heavy metals. Metallotolerant abilities of the M14 strain depend upon the presence of two extrachromosomal replicons: pSinA (∼ 109 kb) and pSinB (∼ 300 kb). The latter was subjected to complex analysis. The performed analysis demonstrated that the plasmid pSinB is a narrow-host-range repABC-type replicon, which is fully stabilized by the phd-vapC-like toxin-antitoxin stabilizing system. In silico analysis showed that among the phenotypic gene clusters of the plasmid pSinB, eight modules are potentially involved in heavy metals resistance (HMR). These modules carry genes encoding efflux pumps, permeases, transporters and copper oxidases, which provide resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc. The functional analysis revealed that the HMR modules are active and have an effect on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values observed for the heterological host cells. The phenotype was manifested by an increase or decrease of the MICs of heavy metals and it was strain specific. The analysis of distribution of the heavy metal resistance genes, i.e. resistome, in Sinorhizobium spp. plasmids, revealed that the HMR modules are common in these replicons. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Insights into dynamics of mobile genetic elements in hyperthermophilic environments from five new Thermococcus plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart Krupovic

    Full Text Available Mobilome of hyperthermophilic archaea dwelling in deep-sea hydrothermal vents is poorly characterized. To gain insight into genetic diversity and dynamics of mobile genetic elements in these environments we have sequenced five new plasmids from different Thermococcus strains that have been isolated from geographically remote hydrothermal vents. The plasmids were ascribed to two subfamilies, pTN2-like and pEXT9a-like. Gene content and phylogenetic analyses illuminated a robust connection between pTN2-like plasmids and Pyrococcus abyssi virus 1 (PAV1, with roughly half of the viral genome being composed of genes that have homologues in plasmids. Unexpectedly, pEXT9a-like plasmids were found to be closely related to the previously sequenced plasmid pMETVU01 from Methanocaldococcus vulcanius M7. Our data suggests that the latter observation is most compatible with an unprecedented horizontal transfer of a pEXT9a-like plasmid from Thermococcales to Methanococcales. Gene content analysis revealed that thermococcal plasmids encode Hfq-like proteins and toxin-antitoxin (TA systems of two different families, VapBC and RelBE. Notably, although abundant in archaeal genomes, to our knowledge, TA and hfq-like genes have not been previously found in archaeal plasmids or viruses. Finally, the plasmids described here might prove to be useful in developing new genetic tools for hyperthermophiles.

  16. Mycobacterium ahvazicum sp. nov., the nineteenth species of the Mycobacterium simiae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouam, Amar; Heidarieh, Parvin; Shahraki, Abodolrazagh Hashemi; Pourahmad, Fazel; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Baptiste, Emeline; Armstrong, Nicholas; Levasseur, Anthony; Robert, Catherine; Drancourt, Michel

    2018-03-07

    Four slowly growing mycobacteria isolates were isolated from the respiratory tract and soft tissue biopsies collected in four unrelated patients in Iran. Conventional phenotypic tests indicated that these four isolates were identical to Mycobacterium lentiflavum while 16S rRNA gene sequencing yielded a unique sequence separated from that of M. lentiflavum. One representative strain AFP-003 T was characterized as comprising a 6,121,237-bp chromosome (66.24% guanosine-cytosine content) encoding for 5,758 protein-coding genes, 50 tRNA and one complete rRNA operon. A total of 2,876 proteins were found to be associated with the mobilome, including 195 phage proteins. A total of 1,235 proteins were found to be associated with virulence and 96 with toxin/antitoxin systems. The genome of AFP-003 T has the genetic potential to produce secondary metabolites, with 39 genes found to be associated with polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide syntases and 11 genes encoding for bacteriocins. Two regions encoding putative prophages and three OriC regions separated by the dnaA gene were predicted. Strain AFP-003 T genome exhibits 86% average nucleotide identity with Mycobacterium genavense genome. Genetic and genomic data indicate that strain AFP-003 T is representative of a novel Mycobacterium species that we named Mycobacterium ahvazicum, the nineteenth species of the expanding Mycobacterium simiae complex.

  17. Adaptation of Escherichia coli traversing from the faecal environment to the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Stegger, Marc; Godfrey, Paul A; Feldgarden, Michael; Andersen, Paal S; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-12-01

    The majority of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are found in the patient's own gut flora, but only limited knowledge is available on the potential adaptation that may occur in the bacteria in order to traverse the perineum and successfully infect the urinary tract. Here, matching pairs of faecal and UTI isolates from 42 patients were compared pairwise using in-depth whole-genome sequencing to investigate whether genetic changes were evident for successful colonization in these two different environments. The identified non-synonymous mutations (0-12 substitutions in each pair) were primarily associated to genes encoding virulence factors and nutrient metabolism; and indications of parallel evolution were observed in genes encoding the major phase-variable protein antigen 43, a toxin/antitoxin locus and haemolysin B. No differences in virulence potential were observed in a mouse UTI model for five matching faecal and UTI isolates with or without mutations in antigen 43 and haemolysin B. Variations in plasmid content were observed in only four of the 42 pairs. Although, we observed mutations in known UTI virulence genes for a few pairs, the majority showed no detectable differences with respect to mutations or mobilome when compared to their faecal counterpart. The results show that UPECs are successful in colonizing both the bladder and gut without adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. RelB and RelE of Escherichia coli Form a Tight Complex That Represses Transcription via The Ribbon-Helix-Helix Motif in RelB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Borch, Jonas; Gerdes, Kenn

    2009-01-01

    RelB, the Ribbon-Helix-Helix (RHH) repressor encoded by the relBE toxin-antitoxin locus of Escherichia coli, forms a tight complex with RelE and thereby counteracts the mRNA cleavage activity of RelE. In addition, RelB dimers repress the strong relBE promoter and this repression by RelB is enhanced...... by RelE - that is - RelE functions as a transcriptional co-repressor. RelB is a Lon protease substrate and Lon is required both for activation of relBE transcription and for activation of the mRNA cleavage activity of RelE. Here we characterize the molecular interactions important for transcriptional...... motif recognizes four 6 bp repeats within the bipartite binding site. The spacing between each half-site was found to be essential for cooperative interactions between adjacently bound RelB dimers stabilized by the co-repressor RelE. Kinetic and stoichiometric measurements of the interaction between Rel...

  19. A Stress-Induced Bias in the Reading of the Genetic Code in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Oron-Gottesman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli mazEF is an extensively studied stress-induced toxin-antitoxin (TA system. The toxin MazF is an endoribonuclease that cleaves RNAs at ACA sites. Thereby, under stress, the induced MazF generates a stress-induced translation machinery (STM, composed of MazF-processed mRNAs and selective ribosomes that specifically translate the processed mRNAs. Here, we further characterized the STM system, finding that MazF cleaves only ACA sites located in the open reading frames of processed mRNAs, while out-of-frame ACAs are resistant. This in-frame ACA cleavage of MazF seems to depend on MazF binding to an extracellular-death-factor (EDF-like element in ribosomal protein bS1 (bacterial S1, apparently causing MazF to be part of STM ribosomes. Furthermore, due to the in-frame MazF cleavage of ACAs under stress, a bias occurs in the reading of the genetic code causing the amino acid threonine to be encoded only by its synonym codon ACC, ACU, or ACG, instead of by ACA.

  20. Molecular characterization of long direct repeat (LDR) sequences expressing a stable mRNA encoding for a 35-amino-acid cell-killing peptide and a cis-encoded small antisense RNA in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuoki; Oshima, Taku; Kasai, Hiroaki; Mori, Hirotada

    2002-07-01

    Genome sequence analyses of Escherichia coli K-12 revealed four copies of long repetitive elements. These sequences are designated as long direct repeat (LDR) sequences. Three of the repeats (LDR-A, -B, -C), each approximately 500 bp in length, are located as tandem repeats at 27.4 min on the genetic map. Another copy (LDR-D), 450 bp in length and nearly identical to LDR-A, -B and -C, is located at 79.7 min, a position that is directly opposite the position of LDR-A, -B and -C. In this study, we demonstrate that LDR-D encodes a 35-amino-acid peptide, LdrD, the overexpression of which causes rapid cell killing and nucleoid condensation of the host cell. Northern blot and primer extension analysis showed constitutive transcription of a stable mRNA (approximately 370 nucleotides) encoding LdrD and an unstable cis-encoded antisense RNA (approximately 60 nucleotides), which functions as a trans-acting regulator of ldrD translation. We propose that LDR encodes a toxin-antitoxin module. LDR-homologous sequences are not pre-sent on any known plasmids but are conserved in Salmonella and other enterobacterial species.

  1. Crystal structure of the toxin Msmeg_6760, the structural homolog of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2035, a novel type II toxin involved in the hypoxic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, R. Alexandra; Arbing, Mark A.; Shin, Annie; Cascio, Duilio; Miallau, Linda (UCLA)

    2016-11-19

    The structure of Msmeg_6760, a protein of unknown function, has been determined. Biochemical and bioinformatics analyses determined that Msmeg_6760 interacts with a protein encoded in the same operon, Msmeg_6762, and predicted that the operon is a toxin–antitoxin (TA) system. Structural comparison of Msmeg_6760 with proteins of known function suggests that Msmeg_6760 binds a hydrophobic ligand in a buried cavity lined by large hydrophobic residues. Access to this cavity could be controlled by a gate–latch mechanism. The function of the Msmeg_6760 toxin is unknown, but structure-based predictions revealed that Msmeg_6760 and Msmeg_6762 are homologous to Rv2034 and Rv2035, a predicted novel TA system involved inMycobacterium tuberculosislatency during macrophage infection. The Msmeg_6760 toxin fold has not been previously described for bacterial toxins and its unique structural features suggest that toxin activation is likely to be mediated by a novel mechanism.

  2. Changes in intestinal fluid and mucosal immune responses to cholera toxin in Giardia muris infection and binding of cholera toxin to Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungström, I; Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A M; Ferrante, A

    1985-10-01

    The effect of Giardia muris infection on the diarrheal response and gut mucosal antibody response to cholera toxin was examined in mice. The results obtained showed that the fluid accumulation in intestinal loops exposed to cholera toxin was increased in mice infected with a low number (5 X 10(4) ) of G. muris cysts compared with the response in noninfected mice. This effect was associated with a marked reduction in absorption of oral rehydration fluid from the intestine. In contrast, mice infected with a high dose (2 X 10(5) ) of cysts showed a marked decrease in fluid accumulation in response to the toxin. This decrease might be related to the finding that both G. muris and Giardia lamblia trophozoites can bind significant amounts of cholera toxin. Evidence is presented which suggests that the gut mucosal antibody response, mainly immunoglobulin A but also immunoglobulin G, to an immunization course with perorally administered cholera toxin was depressed in mice infected with G. muris. The reduction in antibody levels was particularly evident when the primary immunization was made very early after infection. The serum antitoxin antibodies to the oral immunization with cholera toxin were, however, not affected. Likewise, the delayed-type hypersensitivity response against sheep erythrocytes in animals primed subcutaneously with sheep erythrocytes was not modified during the course of G. muris infection.

  3. Effective humoral immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Czirják, László; Hóbor, Renáta; Illes, Zsolt; Bánáti, Miklós; Rajczy, Katalin; Tordai, Attila; Füst, George

    2013-07-01

    Controversy exists about the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immune response in patients with immunoregulatory disorders. Our aim was to determine the antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus in patients with either of two autoimmune diseases. 279 patients with SLE (205 females, aged 45.0 ± 13.8 years), 158 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) (101 females, aged 55 ± 18.7 years) and 208 healthy subjects (122 females, aged 48 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled. Serum concentrations of diphtheria-antitoxin-IgG (A-DIPHTH) and tetanus-antitoxoid-IgG (A-TET) were determined with ELISA. Equal proportions of healthy subjects, as well as patients with SLE or MG exhibited proper antibody responses and immune protection against diphtheria and tetanus. In all three test groups, serum concentration of A-DIPHTH decreased significantly (p60-years-old) subjects. There were no significant differences among the groups in the age-related changes of A-TET and A-DIPHTH except that in diphtheria and tetanus infections in patients with SLE or MG is comparable to the healthy population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Corynebacterium ulcerans cutaneous diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Luke S P; Leslie, Asuka; Meltzer, Margie; Sandison, Ann; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient with cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans who developed a right hand flexor sheath infection and symptoms of sepsis such as fever, tachycardia, and elevated C-reactive protein, after contact with domestic cats and dogs, and a fox. We summarise the epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, diagnosis, therapy, and public health aspects of this disease, with emphasis on improving recognition. In many European countries, C ulcerans has become the organism commonly associated with cutaneous diphtheria, usually seen as an imported tropical disease or resulting from contact with domestic and agricultural animals. Diagnosis relies on bacterial culture and confirmation of toxin production, with management requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and prompt administration of antitoxin, if necessary. Early diagnosis is essential for implementation of control measures and clear guidelines are needed to assist clinicians in managing clinical diphtheria. This case was a catalyst to the redrafting of the 2014 national UK interim guidelines for the public health management of diphtheria, released as final guidelines in March, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diphtheria: forgotten, but not gone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, N R; Mahony, A; Friedman, N D

    2013-02-01

    Diphtheria is an acute, highly infectious, vaccine-preventable and previously endemic disease whose etiologic agent is Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria may manifest as an upper respiratory tract infection, a cutaneous infection or as an asymptomatic carrier state. The most common sites of infection are the pharynx and the tonsils, with common clinical manifestations that include sore throat, malaise, cervical lymphadenopathy and low-grade fever. Absorption and dissemination of C. diphtheriae from the respiratory tract can cause disseminated infection and may lead to cardiac or neurological toxicity. The cornerstone of treatment for diphtheria is diphtheria antitoxin. Early treatment is critical as the degree of protection is inversely proportional to the duration of the illness before its administration. Routine childhood vaccination virtually eliminated diphtheria in most industrialised countries. However, in the pre-vaccination era, diphtheria was the most common infectious cause of death in Australia. A case of diphtheria in Brisbane in April 2011 and two recent positive cultures in regional Victoria underscore the need for heightened awareness of C. diphtheriae as an important pathogen. In order to prevent the re-emergence of diphtheria in Australia, public health measures are required to increase immunity in early school leavers and the adult population, and to ensure that travellers to endemic regions are fully immunised. Health policy-makers and clinicians alike should not underestimate the importance of primary vaccination and booster vaccination against diphtheria among healthy adults and travellers. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Immunogenicity test of tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines by toxin binding inhibition test

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    Denise Cristina Souza Matos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus (adult use dT vaccine and from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccine were used to standardize and validate the in vitro toxin binding inhibition (ToBI test for the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component. The levels of tetanus antitoxin obtained by ToBI test were compared to those obtained using the toxin neutralization (TN test in mice routinely employed to perform the quality control of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. The results ranged from 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for dT and 2 to 4 IU/ml for DTP by ToBI test and 1.4 to 3 IU/ml for dT and 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for DTP by TN in mice. These results were significantly correlated. From this study, it is concluded that the ToBI test is an alternative to the in vivo neutralization procedure in the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. A substantial refinement and a reduction in use of animals can be achieved.

  7. Differential Rickettsial Transcription in Bloodfeeding and Non-Bloodfeeding Arthropod Hosts.

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    Victoria I Verhoeve

    Full Text Available Crucial factors influencing the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis include pathogenesis and transmission. Detection of R. felis DNA in a number of arthropod species has been reported, with characterized isolates, R. felis strain LSU and strain LSU-Lb, generated from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, and the non-hematophagous booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, respectively. While it is realized that strain influence on host biology varies, the rickettsial response to these distinct host environments remained undefined. To identify a panel of potential rickettsial transmission determinants in the cat flea, the transcriptional profile for these two strains of R. felis were compared in their arthropod hosts using RNAseq. Rickettsial genes with increased transcription in the flea as compared to the booklouse were identified. Genes previously associated with bacterial virulence including LPS biosynthesis, Type IV secretion system, ABC transporters, and a toxin-antitoxin system were selected for further study. Transcription of putative virulence-associated genes was determined in a flea infection bioassay for both strains of R. felis. A host-dependent transcriptional profile during bloodfeeding, specifically, an increased expression of selected transcripts in newly infected cat fleas and flea feces was detected when compared to arthropod cell culture and incubation in vertebrate blood. Together, these studies have identified novel, host-dependent rickettsial factors that likely contribute to successful horizontal transmission by bloodfeeding arthropods.

  8. The Effect of Various Species of Macroalgae on the Growth, Survival, and Toxicity of Karenia brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K. G.; Lovko, V. J.; Henry, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis produce toxins that result in negative impacts to both humans and the environment. Little is known about the termination stages of these blooms, and few viable control mechanisms have been suggested. Natural, algae derived compounds have been proposed as a way to limit bloom growth and reduce brevetoxins in the water column. The work presented here examines the ability of macroalgae to inhibit the growth or survival of K. brevis, similar to what has been demonstrated with other red tide species. Additionally, we attempted to determine if macroalgae decreases water column brevetoxins which, to our knowledge, has not been tested with macroalgae but has been demonstrated in other studies with microalgal species. The macroalgae species Dictyota sp. and Gracilaria sp. caused 100% mortality of K. brevis in under 24 hours. Compared to the control, 7 other species significantly decreased the growth rate of K. brevis. The Dictyota treatments showed significant toxin reduction and increase of the antitoxin brevanol. These results indicate that some combination of compounds produced by macroalgae inhibit growth and survival of K. brevis and possibly limit their toxin production. Future studies will attempt to isolate and identify these compounds and test their effects on other marine organisms such as diatoms. Determining the interactions between HAB species K. brevis and macroalgal species will provide insights on the mechanism of bloom termination and a potential control method.

  9. Packaging BCG: standardizing an anti-tuberculosis vaccine in interwar Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonah, Christian

    2008-06-01

    Using the example of the anti-tuberculosis vaccine BCG during the 1920s and 1930s, this article asks how a labile laboratory-modified bacteria was transformed into a genuine standard vaccine packaged and commercialized as a pharmaceutical product. At the center of the analysis lies the notion of standardization inquiring why and how a local laboratory process with standard operating procedures (SOPs) reached its limits and was transformed when the product faced international distribution. Moving from Paul Ehrlich's initial technological notion of Wertbestimmung referring to a practice physiologically testing the effects of ill-defined antitoxins, the concept of standardization is extended to pharmaceutical and economical meanings implying quality control for biological therapeutic agents produced by a variety of industrial entrepreneurs. Following the request for product uniformity, two ways to maintain levels of compatibility and commonality are depicted opposing SOPs and end-product control. Furthermore, standardization is understood as a spiral, never ending process where progressive transformation of the vaccine in its production and medical uses periodically recreated the necessity of standardization. Developments analyzed are thus understood as a stabilization process aligning laboratory settings, products, and practices with medical theories and practices through technical, bureaucratic, and organizational systems. A paradox of the analysis is that standardization as a historical phenomenon and moment in the history of drug development was initially linked to a problem of under-determination of what was to be standardized and to a knowledge gap before it could become a central concept for quality control.

  10. Molecular Analysis of VanA Outbreak of Enterococcus faecium in Two Warsaw Hospitals: The Importance of Mobile Genetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardal, Ewa; Markowska, Katarzyna; Żabicka, Dorota; Wróblewska, Marta; Giemza, Małgorzata; Mik, Ewa; Połowniak-Pracka, Hanna; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sadowy, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium represents a growing threat in hospital-acquired infections. Two outbreaks of this pathogen from neighboring Warsaw hospitals have been analyzed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI-digested DNA, multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed a clonal variability of isolates which belonged to three main lineages (17, 18, and 78) of nosocomial E. faecium. All isolates were multidrug resistant and carried several resistance, virulence, and plasmid-specific genes. Almost all isolates shared the same variant of Tn1546 transposon, characterized by the presence of insertion sequence ISEf1 and a point mutation in the vanA gene. In the majority of cases, this transposon was located on 50 kb or 100 kb pRUM-related plasmids, which lacked, however, the axe-txe toxin-antitoxin genes. 100 kb plasmid was easily transferred by conjugation and was found in various clonal backgrounds in both institutions, while 50 kb plasmid was not transferable and occurred solely in MT159/ST78 strains that disseminated clonally in one institution. Although molecular data indicated the spread of VRE between two institutions or a potential common source of this alert pathogen, epidemiological investigations did not reveal the possible route by which outbreak strains disseminated. PMID:25003118

  11. The pharmaceuticalisation of security: Molecular biomedicine, antiviral stockpiles, and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are now critical to the security of populations. Antivirals, antibiotics, next-generation vaccines, and antitoxins are just some of the new 'medical countermeasures' that governments are stockpiling in order to defend their populations against the threat of pandemics and bioterrorism. How has security policy come to be so deeply imbricated with pharmaceutical logics and solutions? This article captures, maps, and analyses the 'pharmaceuticalisation' of security. Through an in-depth analysis of the prominent antiviral medication Tamiflu , it shows that this pharmaceutical turn in security policy is intimately bound up with the rise of a molecular vision of life promulgated by the biomedical sciences. Caught in the crosshairs of powerful commercial, political, and regulatory pressures, governments are embracing a molecular biomedicine promising to secure populations pharmaceutically in the twenty-first century. If that is true, then the established disciplinary view of health as a predominantly secondary matter of 'low' international politics is mistaken. On the contrary, the social forces of health and biomedicine are powerful enough to influence the core practices of international politics - even those of security. For a discipline long accustomed to studying macrolevel processes and systemic structures, it is in the end also our knowledge of the minute morass of molecules that shapes international relations.

  12. Association of RNAs with Bacillus subtilis Hfq.

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    Michael Dambach

    Full Text Available The prevalence and characteristics of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs have not been well characterized for Bacillus subtilis, an important model system for Gram-positive bacteria. However, B. subtilis was recently found to synthesize many candidate sRNAs during stationary phase. In the current study, we performed deep sequencing on Hfq-associated RNAs and found that a small subset of sRNAs associates with Hfq, an enigmatic RNA-binding protein that stabilizes sRNAs in Gram-negatives, but whose role is largely unknown in Gram-positive bacteria. We also found that Hfq associated with antisense RNAs, antitoxin transcripts, and many mRNA leaders. Several new candidate sRNAs and mRNA leader regions were also discovered by this analysis. Additionally, mRNA fragments overlapping with start or stop codons associated with Hfq, while, in contrast, relatively few full-length mRNAs were recovered. Deletion of hfq reduced the intracellular abundance of several representative sRNAs, suggesting that B. subtilis Hfq-sRNA interactions may be functionally significant in vivo. In general, we anticipate this catalog of Hfq-associated RNAs to serve as a resource in the functional characterization of Hfq in B. subtilis.

  13. A case of respiratory toxigenic diphtheria: contact tracing results and considerations following a 30-year disease-free interval, Catalonia, Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Vidal, Maria José; Camps, Neus; Campins, Magda; Martínez, Ana; Balcells, Joan; Martin-Gomez, Maria Teresa; Bassets, Gloria; Herrera-León, Silvia; Foguet, Anton; Maresma, Mar; Follia, Nuria; Uriona, Sonia; Pumarola, Tomàs

    2018-03-01

    In May 2015, following a 30-year diphtheria-free interval in Catalonia, an unvaccinated 6-year-old child was diagnosed with diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae . After a difficult search for equine-derived diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), the child received the DAT 4 days later but died at the end of June. Two hundred and seventeen contacts were identified in relation to the index case, and their vaccination statuses were analysed, updated and completed. Of these, 140 contacts underwent physical examination and throat swabs were taken from them for analysis. Results were positive for toxigenic C. diphtheriae in 10 contacts; nine were asymptomatic vaccinated children who had been in contact with the index case and one was a parent of one of the nine children. Active surveillance of the 217 contacts was initiated by healthcare workers from hospitals and primary healthcare centres, together with public health epidemiological support. Lack of availability of DAT was an issue in our case. Such lack could be circumvented by the implementation of an international fast-track procedure to obtain it in a timely manner. Maintaining primary vaccination coverage for children and increasing booster-dose immunisation against diphtheria in the adult population is of key importance.

  14. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Improves Intestinal Enzyme Function: A Trophic Effects Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret I; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    Several properties of the probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 contribute to its efficacy to prevent or treat diarrhoea. Besides immunologic effects, pathogen-binding and anti-toxin effects, as well as positive effects on the microbiota, S boulardii CNCM I-745 also has pronounced effects on digestive enzymes of the brush border membrane, known as trophic effects. The latter are the focus of this review. Literature has been reviewed after searching Medline and PMC databases. All relevant non-clinical and clinical studies are summarized. S. boulardii CNCM I-745 synthesizes and secretes polyamines, which have a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The administration of polyamines or S. boulardii CNCM I-745 enhances the expression of intestinal digestive enzymes as well as nutrient uptake transporters. The signalling mechanisms leading to enzyme activation are not fully understood. However, polyamines have direct nucleic acid-binding capacity with regulatory impact. S. boulardii CNCM I-745 induces signalling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In addition, effects on the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway have been reported. As an additional direct effect, S. boulardii CNCM I-745 secretes certain enzymes, which enhance nutrient acquisition for the yeast and the host. The increased availability of digestive enzymes seems to be one of the mechanisms by which S. boulardii CNCM I-745 counteracts diarrhoea; however, also people with certain enzyme deficiencies may profit from its administration. More studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms of trophic activation by the probiotic yeast.

  15. Analysing the Structural Effect of Point Mutations of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1 on Lu/BCAM Adhesion Glycoprotein Association

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    Alexandre G. de Brevern

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1 was identified in 1983 as a protein toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. Since then, numerous studies have investigated its particularities. For instance, it is associated with the single chain AB-toxin family, and can be divided into different functional and structural domains, e.g., catalytic and transmembrane domain and interaction sites. A few years ago, the identification of the Lutheran (Lu adhesion glycoprotein/basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM as a cellular receptor for CNF1 provided new insights into the adhesion process of CNF1. Very recently, the Ig-like domain 2 of Lu/BCAM was confirmed as the main interaction site using protein-protein interaction and competition studies with various different mutants. Here, I present in silico approaches that precisely explain the impact of these mutations, leading to a better explanation of these experimental studies. These results can be used in the development of future antitoxin strategies.

  16. Locating therapeutic vaccines in nineteenth-century history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradmann, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    This essay places some therapeutic vaccines, including particularly the diphtheria antitoxin, into their larger historical context of the late nineteenth century. As industrially produced drugs, these vaccines ought to be seen in connection with the structural changes in medicine and pharmacology at the time. Given the spread of industrial culture and technology into the field of medicine and pharmacology, therapeutic vaccines can be understood as boundary objects that required and facilitated communication between industrialists, medical researchers, public health officials, and clinicians. It was in particular in relation to evaluation and testing for efficacy in animal models that these medicines became a model for twentieth-century medicine. In addition, these medicines came into being as a parallel invention in two very distinct local cultures of research: the Institut Pasteur in Paris and the Institut für Infektionskrankheiten in Berlin. While their local cultural origins were plainly visible, the medicines played an important role in the alignment of the methods and objects that took place in bacteriology research in France and Germany in the 1890s. This article assesses the two locally specific regimes for control in France and in Imperial Germany. In France the Institut Pasteur, building on earlier successful vaccines, enjoyed freedom from scrutinizing control. The tight and elaborate system of control that evolved in Imperial Germany is portrayed as being reliant on experiences that were drawn from the dramatic events that surrounded the launching of a first example of so-called "bacteriological medicine," tuberculin, in 1890.

  17. Molecular characterization of a 21.4 kilobase antibiotic resistance plasmid from an α-hemolytic Escherichia coli O108:H- human clinical isolate.

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    Fay E Dawes

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the 21.4 kilobase plasmid pECTm80 isolated from Escherichia coli strain 80, an α hemolytic human clinical diarrhoeal isolate (serotype O108:H-. DNA sequence analysis of pECTm80 revealed it belonged to incompatibility group X1, and contained plasmid partition and toxin-antitoxin systems, an R6K-like triple origin (ori replication system, genes required for replication regulation, insertion sequences IS1R, ISEc37 and a truncated transposase gene (Tn3-like ΔtnpA of the Tn3 family, and carried a class 2 integron. The class 2 integron of pECTm80 contains an intact cassette array dfrA1-sat2, encoding resistance to trimethoprim and streptothricin, and an aadA1 gene cassette truncated by the insertion of IS1R. The complex plasmid replication system includes α, β and γ origins of replication. Pairwise BLASTn comparison of pECTm80 with plasmid pE001 reveals a conserved plasmid backbone suggestive of a common ancestral lineage. Plasmid pECTm80 is of potential clinical importance, as it carries multiple genes to ensure its stable maintenance through successive bacterial cell divisions and multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  18. Fatal course of foodborne botulism in an eigth-month old Infant

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    Davide Lonati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month old girl, weighing 9 kg, was brought by her parents at 8.15 am to the Emergency Department (ED for a progressive worsening of weakness and acute respiratory failure. On admission, the baby presented with poor oral intake, a weak cry and extremely weak muscular body control. Poor gag and suck, unreactive mydriasis, hypotonia, lethargy and absence of peristalsis were noted. Laboratory data showed severe respiratory acidosis. Chest X-ray, electroencephalography, encephalic CT scan and MRI were all normal, as were cerebrospinal fluid analysis and viral tests. Orotracheal intubation and continuous mechanical ventilation were applied. The patient received fluids, corticosteroids, aerosol therapy, large-spectrum antibiotics and enteral- nutrition. Further investigation revealed ingestion of an improperly prepared homecanned homogenized turkey meal. Type A botulinum neurotoxin was identified. Trivalent botulinum antitoxin, prostigmine and oral activated charcoal were administered. Generalized flaccid paralysis, areflexic bilateral mydriasis, gastric stasis and deep coma persisted for the duration of the hospital stay, and the patient died of severe respiratory failure and cardiac arrest 12 days after ED admission. Botulism poisoning should be suspected in any infant presenting with feeding difficulties, constipation, descendent paralysis or acute respiratory failure. Supportive treatment and antidotal therapy should be performed as soon as a clinical diagnosis is made. We describe a case of foodborne botulism in an 8-month old infant caused by ingestion of an improperly prepared home-canned homogenized turkey meal, representing the youngest fatal case reported in medical literature.

  19. An Integrative Genomic Island Affects the Adaptations of Piezophilic Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus yayanosii to High Temperature and High Hydrostatic Pressure

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    Zhen Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments are characterized by high hydrostatic pressure and sharp temperature and chemical gradients. Horizontal gene transfer is thought to play an important role in the microbial adaptation to such an extreme environment. In this study, a 21.4-kb DNA fragment was identified as a genomic island, designated PYG1, in the genomic sequence of the piezophilic hyperthermophile Pyrococcus yayanosii. According to the sequence alignment and functional annotation, the genes in PYG1 could tentatively be divided into five modules, with functions related to mobility, DNA repair, metabolic processes and the toxin-antitoxin system. Integrase can mediate the site-specific integration and excision of PYG1 in the chromosome of P. yayanosii A1. Gene replacement of PYG1 with a SimR cassette was successful. The growth of the mutant strain ∆PYG1 was compared with its parent strain P. yayanosii A2 under various stress conditions, including different pH, salinity, temperature and hydrostatic pressure. The ∆PYG1 mutant strain showed reduced growth when grown at 100 °C, while the biomass of ∆PYG1 increased significantly when cultured at 80 MPa. Differential expression of the genes in module Ⅲ of PYG1 was observed under different temperature and pressure conditions. This study demonstrates the first example of an archaeal integrative genomic island that could affect the adaptation of the hyperthermophilic piezophile P. yayanosii to high temperature and high hydrostatic pressure.

  20. Mutagenic Deimmunization of Diphtheria Toxin for Use in Biologic Drug Development

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    Joerg U. Schmohl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Targeted toxins require multiple treatments and therefore must be deimmunized. We report a method of protein deimmunization based on the point mutation of highly hydrophilic R, K, D, E, and Q amino acids on the molecular surface of truncated diphtheria-toxin (DT390. Methods: Based on their surface position derived from an X-ray-crystallographic model, residues were chosen for point mutation that were located in prominent positions on the molecular surface and away from the catalytic site. Mice were immunized with a targeted toxin containing either a mutated DT390 containing seven critical point mutations or the non-mutated parental toxin form. Results: Serum analysis revealed a significant 90% reduction in anti-toxin antibodies in mice immunized with the mutant, but not the parental drug form despite multiple immunizations. The experiment was repeated in a second strain of mice with a different MHC-haplotype to address whether point mutation removed T or B cell epitopes. Findings were identical indicating that B cell epitopes were eliminated from DT. The mutant drug form lost only minimal activity in vitro as well as in vivo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that this method may be effective for deimmunizing of other proteins and that discovery of a deimmunized form of DT may lead to the development of more effective targeted toxin.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carezzano, M E; Sotelo, J P; Primo, E; Reinoso, E B; Paletti Rovey, M F; Demo, M S; Giordano, W F; Oliva, M de Las M

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in leaves during the colonisation process. The damage is associated with production of many virulence factors, such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have been demonstrated to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on production of virulence factors of phytopathogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities. The broth microdilution method was used for determination of MIC and biofilm inhibition assays. Coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were pheno- and genotypically evaluated. Both oils showed good inhibitory activity against P. syringae, with MIC values from 1.43 to 11.5 mg·ml -1 for thyme and 5.8 to 11.6 mg·ml -1 for oregano. Biofilm formation, production of coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were inhibited by thyme and oregano essential oil in most strains. The results presented here are promising, demonstrating the bactericidal activity and reduction of virulence factor production after treatment with thyme and oregano oil, providing insight into how they exert their antibacterial activity. These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of diseases caused by P. syringae. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Evaluation of coproexamination as a diagnostic test for avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wayne I.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal extracts and blood sera from 113 ducks showing clinical signs of botulism were examined for Clostridium botulinum type C toxin by means of the mouse toxicity test to evaluate coproexamination as a diagnostic procedure, as compared with demonstration of toxin in serum. When death of test mice unprotected with type specific antitoxin (while protected controls survived) was the criterion, 78.8% of the sera and 5.3% of the fecal extracts were positive. When characteristic signs of intoxication in the unprotected mice was included as evidence of toxin in the specimens, these percentages increased to 86.7 and 6.2, respectively.Fecal specimens were collected hourly for the first 6 h after peroral dosing of eight mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with 1.0 LD50, of type C toxin and at 24, 48, and 72 h from birds surviving that long. From 2 to 4 toxin-positive specimens were passed by all eight ducks during the first 6 h, five specimens were positive at 24 h, and three were positive at 48 h. Only three specimens were collected at 72 h, all of which were negative. These findings suggest that attempts to detect toxin in the feces of wild ducks might have been more successful had the birds been captured earlier in the course of the disease.

  3. Viability, biofilm formation, and MazEF expression in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji-Li; Liu, Wei; Xie, Wan-Ying; Cao, Xu-Dong; Yuan, Li

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the most common chronic infectious amphixenotic diseases worldwide. Prevention and control of TB are greatly difficult, due to the increase in drug-resistant TB, particularly multidrug-resistant TB. We speculated that there were some differences between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains and that mazEF 3,6,9 toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) were involved in MTB viability. This study aimed to investigate differences in viability, biofilm formation, and MazEF expression between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant MTB strains circulating in Xinjiang, China, and whether mazEF 3,6,9 TASs contribute to MTB viability under stress conditions. Growth profiles and biofilm-formation abilities of drug-sensitive, drug-resistant MTB strains and the control strain H37Rv were monitored. Using molecular biology experiments, the mRNA expression of the mazF 3, 6, and 9 toxin genes, the mazE 3, 6, and 9 antitoxin genes, and expression of the MazF9 protein were detected in the different MTB strains, H37RvΔ mazEF 3,6,9 mutants from the H37Rv parent strain were generated, and mutant viability was tested. Ex vivo culture analyses demonstrated that drug-resistant MTB strains exhibit higher survival rates than drug-sensitive strains and the control strain H37Rv. However, there was no statistical difference in biofilm-formation ability in the drug-sensitive, drug-resistant, and H37Rv strains. mazE 3,6 mRNA-expression levels were relatively reduced in the drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains compared to H37Rv. Conversely, mazE 3,9 expression was increased in drug-sensitive strains compared to drug-resistant strains. Furthermore, compared with the H37Rv strain, mazF 3,6 expression was increased in drug-resistant strains, mazF 9 expression was increased in drug-sensitive strains, and mazF 9 exhibited reduced expression in drug-resistant strains compared with drug-sensitive strains. Protein expression of mazF9

  4. What not to say: risk communication for botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah C; Drury, Allison; Cavanaugh, Clint; Shoaf, Kimberley

    2008-03-01

    This formative research study used qualitative methods to test the suitability of messages about botulism for the general public. Nine focus group interviews and 27 cognitive interviews were conducted with diverse audiences to pretest radio, television, and fact sheet messages predicated on a hypothetical terrorist attack using botulinum toxin. Narrative data were collected, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using content domains based on risk and health communication theories. While participants accepted the need for materials, the messages produced contained images and references describing botulism as a toxin-caused illness spread both by food and water contamination as well as by airborne means. The audience's lack of understanding of the term toxin and an imperfect understanding of airborne transmission of a toxic substance meant that some people interpreted botulism as being an infectious disease rather than a type of poisoning. The communication materials did not clearly show how the set of botulism symptoms are unique and described the anti-toxin as "not a cure," thus compounding the audience's misunderstanding. Using models from cognitive and developmental psychology, our findings were interpreted to show that certain terms evoke or elicit long-held conceptual frameworks that lay audiences use to explain medical phenomena. Relevant to botulism, poisoning events are distinct from infectious diseases, but prepared messages did not reinforce these distinctions. Ignoring how people organize preexisting health information when trying to communicate new information is a prescription for failure, especially in a crisis risk communication scenario. Findings from this study have been used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reformulate pre-event crisis risk communication materials for botulism.

  5. Identification of IncA/C Plasmid Replication and Maintenance Genes and Development of a Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Steven J; Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including bla CMY and bla NDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a bla NDM-1 -positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of bla NDM -positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this bla NDM -containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Comparative genomics of the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, W Florian; Welch, Timothy J; McDermott, Patrick F; Mammel, Mark K; LeClerc, J Eugene; White, David G; Cebula, Thomas A; Ravel, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids belonging to the IncA/C plasmid family are widely distributed among Salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug-resistant Yersinia pestis isolate (IP275) from Madagascar. Here, we present the complete plasmid sequences of the IncA/C reference plasmid pRA1 (143,963 bp), isolated in 1971 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, and of the cryptic IncA/C plasmid pRAx (49,763 bp), isolated from Escherichia coli transconjugant D7-3, which was obtained through pRA1 transfer in 1980. Using comparative sequence analysis of pRA1 and pRAx with recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family, we show that both plasmids provide novel insights into the evolution of the IncA/C MDR plasmid family and the minimal machinery necessary for stable IncA/C plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family evolved from a common ancestor, similar in composition to pRA1, through stepwise integration of horizontally acquired resistance gene arrays into a conserved plasmid backbone. Phylogenetic comparisons predict type IV secretion-like conjugative transfer operons encoded on the shared plasmid backbones to be closely related to a group of integrating conjugative elements, which use conjugative transfer for horizontal propagation but stably integrate into the host chromosome during vegetative growth. A hipAB toxin-antitoxin gene cluster found on pRA1, which in Escherichia coli is involved in the formation of persister cell subpopulations, suggests persistence as an early broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance mechanism in the evolution of IncA/C resistance plasmids.

  7. Transcriptome mapping of pAR060302, a blaCMY-2-positive broad-host-range IncA/C plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin S; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Xu, Wayne; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    The multidrug resistance-encoding plasmids belonging to the IncA/C incompatibility group have recently emerged among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains in the United States. These plasmids have a unique genetic structure compared to other enterobacterial plasmid types, a broad host range, and a propensity to acquire large numbers of antimicrobial resistance genes via their accessory regions. Using E. coli strain DH5α harboring the prototype IncA/C plasmid pAR060302, we sought to define the baseline transcriptome of IncA/C plasmids under laboratory growth and in the face of selective pressure. The effects of ampicillin, florfenicol, or streptomycin exposure were compared to those on cells left untreated at logarithmic phase using Illumina platform-based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Under growth in Luria-Bertani broth lacking antibiotics, much of the backbone of pAR060302 was transcriptionally inactive, including its putative transfer regions. A few plasmid backbone genes of interest were highly transcribed, including genes of a putative toxin-antitoxin system and an H-NS-like transcriptional regulator. In contrast, numerous genes within the accessory regions of pAR060302 were highly transcribed, including the resistance genes floR, bla(CMY-2), aadA, and aacA. Treatment with ampicillin or streptomycin resulted in no genes being differentially expressed compared to controls lacking antibiotics, suggesting that many of the resistance-associated genes are not differentially expressed due to exposure to these antibiotics. In contrast, florfenicol treatment resulted in the upregulation of floR and numerous chromosomal genes. Overall, the transcriptome mapping of pAR060302 suggests that it mitigates the fitness costs of carrying resistance-associated genes through global regulation with its transcriptional regulators.

  8. CNCM I-745 Improves Intestinal Enzyme Function: A Trophic Effects Review

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    Margret I Moré

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Several properties of the probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 contribute to its efficacy to prevent or treat diarrhoea. Besides immunologic effects, pathogen-binding and anti-toxin effects, as well as positive effects on the microbiota, S boulardii CNCM I-745 also has pronounced effects on digestive enzymes of the brush border membrane, known as trophic effects. The latter are the focus of this review. Literature has been reviewed after searching Medline and PMC databases. All relevant non-clinical and clinical studies are summarized. S. boulardii CNCM I-745 synthesizes and secretes polyamines, which have a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. The administration of polyamines or S. boulardii CNCM I-745 enhances the expression of intestinal digestive enzymes as well as nutrient uptake transporters. The signalling mechanisms leading to enzyme activation are not fully understood. However, polyamines have direct nucleic acid–binding capacity with regulatory impact. S. boulardii CNCM I-745 induces signalling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In addition, effects on the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K pathway have been reported. As an additional direct effect, S. boulardii CNCM I-745 secretes certain enzymes, which enhance nutrient acquisition for the yeast and the host. The increased availability of digestive enzymes seems to be one of the mechanisms by which S. boulardii CNCM I-745 counteracts diarrhoea; however, also people with certain enzyme deficiencies may profit from its administration. More studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms of trophic activation by the probiotic yeast.

  9. A Small Molecule-Screening Pipeline to Evaluate the Therapeutic Potential of 2-Aminoimidazole Molecules Against Clostridium difficile

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    Rajani Thanissery

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are considered to be the first line of treatment for mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI in humans. However, antibiotics are also risk factors for CDI as they decrease colonization resistance against C. difficile by altering the gut microbiota and metabolome. Finding compounds that selectively inhibit different stages of the C. difficile life cycle, while sparing the indigenous gut microbiota is important for the development of alternatives to standard antibiotic treatment. 2-aminoimidazole (2-AI molecules are known to disrupt bacterial protection mechanisms in antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus, but are yet to be evaluated against C. difficile. A comprehensive small molecule-screening pipeline was developed to investigate how novel small molecules affect different stages of the C. difficile life cycle (growth, toxin, and sporulation in vitro, and a library of commensal bacteria that are associated with colonization resistance against C. difficile. The initial screening tested the efficacy of eleven 2-AI molecules (compound 1 through 11 against C. difficile R20291 compared to a vancomycin (2 μg/ml control. Molecules were selected for their ability to inhibit C. difficile growth, toxin activity, and sporulation. Further testing included growth inhibition of other C. difficile strains (CD196, M68, CF5, 630, BI9, M120 belonging to distinct PCR ribotypes, and a commensal panel (Bacteroides fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, C. scindens, C. hylemonae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. gasseri, Escherichia coli, B. longum subsp. infantis. Three molecules compound 1 and 2, and 3 were microbicidal, whereas compounds 4, 7, 9, and 11 inhibited toxin activity without affecting the growth of C. difficile strains and the commensal microbiota. The antimicrobial and anti-toxin effects of 2-AI molecules need to be further characterized for mode of

  10. Mobile Genetic Elements and Evolution of CRISPR-Cas Systems: All the Way There and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems of bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity show multifaceted evolutionary relationships with at least five classes of mobile genetic elements (MGE). First, the adaptation module of CRISPR-Cas that is responsible for the formation of the immune memory apparently evolved from a Casposon, a self-synthesizing transposon that employs the Cas1 protein as the integrase and might have brought additional cas genes to the emerging immunity loci. Second, a large subset of type III CRISPR-Cas systems recruited a reverse transcriptase from a Group II intron, providing for spacer acquisition from RNA. Third, effector nucleases of Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems that are responsible for the recognition and cleavage of the target DNA were derived from transposon-encoded TnpB nucleases, most likely, on several independent occasions. Fourth, accessory nucleases in some variants of types I and III toxin and type VI effectors RNases appear to be ultimately derived from toxin nucleases of microbial toxin–antitoxin modules. Fifth, the opposite direction of evolution is manifested in the recruitment of CRISPR-Cas systems by a distinct family of Tn7-like transposons that probably exploit the capacity of CRISPR-Cas to recognize unique DNA sites to facilitate transposition as well as by bacteriophages that employ them to cope with host defense. Additionally, individual Cas proteins, such as the Cas4 nuclease, were recruited by bacteriophages and transposons. The two-sided evolutionary connection between CRISPR-Cas and MGE fits the “guns for hire” paradigm whereby homologous enzymatic machineries, in particular nucleases, are shuttled between MGE and defense systems and are used alternately as means of offense or defense. PMID:28985291

  11. A camelid single-domain antibody neutralizes botulinum neurotoxin A by blocking host receptor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Weisemann, Jasmin; Peng, Lisheng; Krez, Nadja; Perry, Kay; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Dong, Min; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng (BCH); (Cornell); (Tufts CTSI); (UCI); (MHH)

    2017-08-07

    Antibody treatment is currently the only available countermeasure for botulism, a fatal illness caused by flaccid paralysis of muscles due to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication. Among the seven major serotypes of BoNT/A-G, BoNT/A poses the most serious threat to humans because of its high potency and long duration of action. Prior to entering neurons and blocking neurotransmitter release, BoNT/A recognizes motoneurons via a dual-receptor binding process in which it engages both the neuron surface polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Previously, we identified a potent neutralizing antitoxin against BoNT/A1 termed ciA-C2, derived from a camelid heavy-chain-only antibody (VHH). In this study, we demonstrate that ciA-C2 prevents BoNT/A1 intoxication by inhibiting its binding to neuronal receptor SV2. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structure of ciA-C2 in complex with the receptor-binding domain of BoNT/A1 (HCA1) at 1.68 Å resolution. The structure revealed that ciA-C2 partially occupies the SV2-binding site on HCA1, causing direct interference of HCA1 interaction with both the N-glycan and peptide-moiety of SV2. Interestingly, this neutralization mechanism is similar to that of a monoclonal antibody in clinical trials, despite that ciA-C2 is more than 10-times smaller. Taken together, these results enlighten our understanding of BoNT/A1 interactions with its neuronal receptor, and further demonstrate that inhibiting toxin binding to the host receptor is an efficient countermeasure strategy.

  12. Protein translation and cell death: the role of rare tRNAs in biofilm formation and in activating dormant phage killer genes.

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    Rodolfo García-Contreras

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We discovered previously that the small Escherichia coli proteins Hha (hemolysin expression modulating protein and the adjacent, poorly-characterized YbaJ are important for biofilm formation; however, their roles have been nebulous. Biofilms are intricate communities in which cell signaling often converts single cells into primitive tissues. Here we show that Hha decreases biofilm formation dramatically by repressing the transcription of rare codon tRNAs which serves to inhibit fimbriae production and by repressing to some extent transcription of fimbrial genes fimA and ihfA. In vivo binding studies show Hha binds to the rare codon tRNAs argU, ileX, ileY, and proL and to two prophage clusters D1P12 and CP4-57. Real-time PCR corroborated that Hha represses argU and proL, and Hha type I fimbriae repression is abolished by the addition of extra copies of argU, ileY, and proL. The repression of transcription of rare codon tRNAs by Hha also leads to cell lysis and biofilm dispersal due to activation of prophage lytic genes rzpD, yfjZ, appY, and alpA and due to induction of ClpP/ClpX proteases which activate toxins by degrading antitoxins. YbaJ serves to mediate the toxicity of Hha. Hence, we have identified that a single protein (Hha can control biofilm formation by limiting fimbriae production as well as by controlling cell death. The mechanism used by Hha is the control of translation via the availability of rare codon tRNAs which reduces fimbriae production and activates prophage lytic genes. Therefore, Hha acts as a toxin in conjunction with co-transcribed YbaJ (TomB that attenuates Hha toxicity.

  13. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P < 0.0005). It may be of value to consider additional vaccination efforts to protect older adults at higher risk for exposure against diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Removal of hepatitis C virus-infected cells by a zymogenized bacterial toxin.

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    Assaf Shapira

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and has become a global health threat. No HCV vaccine is currently available and treatment with antiviral therapy is associated with adverse side effects. Moreover, there is no preventive therapy for recurrent hepatitis C post liver transplantation. The NS3 serine protease is necessary for HCV replication and represents a prime target for developing anti HCV therapies. Recently we described a therapeutic approach for eradication of HCV infected cells that is based on protein delivery of two NS3 protease-activatable recombinant toxins we named "zymoxins". These toxins were inactivated by fusion to rationally designed inhibitory peptides via NS3-cleavable linkers. Once delivered to cells where NS3 protease is present, the inhibitory peptide is removed resulting in re-activation of cytotoxic activity. The zymoxins we described suffered from two limitations: they required high levels of protease for activation and had basal activities in the un-activated form that resulted in a narrow potential therapeutic window. Here, we present a solution that overcame the major limitations of the "first generation zymoxins" by converting MazF ribonuclease, the toxic component of the E. coli chromosomal MazEF toxin-antitoxin system, into an NS3-activated zymoxin that is introduced to cells by means of gene delivery. We constructed an expression cassette that encodes for a single polypeptide that incorporates both the toxin and a fragment of its potent natural antidote, MazE, linked via an NS3-cleavable linker. While covalently paired to its inhibitor, the ribonuclease is well tolerated when expressed in naïve, healthy cells. In contrast, activating proteolysis that is induced by even low levels of NS3, results in an eradication of NS3 expressing model cells and HCV infected cells. Zymoxins may thus become a valuable tool in eradicating cells infected by intracellular pathogens that

  15. Removal of Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Cells by a Zymogenized Bacterial Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Assaf; Shapira, Shiran; Gal-Tanamy, Meital; Zemel, Romy; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and has become a global health threat. No HCV vaccine is currently available and treatment with antiviral therapy is associated with adverse side effects. Moreover, there is no preventive therapy for recurrent hepatitis C post liver transplantation. The NS3 serine protease is necessary for HCV replication and represents a prime target for developing anti HCV therapies. Recently we described a therapeutic approach for eradication of HCV infected cells that is based on protein delivery of two NS3 protease-activatable recombinant toxins we named “zymoxins”. These toxins were inactivated by fusion to rationally designed inhibitory peptides via NS3-cleavable linkers. Once delivered to cells where NS3 protease is present, the inhibitory peptide is removed resulting in re-activation of cytotoxic activity. The zymoxins we described suffered from two limitations: they required high levels of protease for activation and had basal activities in the un-activated form that resulted in a narrow potential therapeutic window. Here, we present a solution that overcame the major limitations of the “first generation zymoxins” by converting MazF ribonuclease, the toxic component of the E. coli chromosomal MazEF toxin-antitoxin system, into an NS3-activated zymoxin that is introduced to cells by means of gene delivery. We constructed an expression cassette that encodes for a single polypeptide that incorporates both the toxin and a fragment of its potent natural antidote, MazE, linked via an NS3-cleavable linker. While covalently paired to its inhibitor, the ribonuclease is well tolerated when expressed in naïve, healthy cells. In contrast, activating proteolysis that is induced by even low levels of NS3, results in an eradication of NS3 expressing model cells and HCV infected cells. Zymoxins may thus become a valuable tool in eradicating cells infected by intracellular pathogens that express

  16. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus from Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 2: Prognostic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Gaby; Rijckaert, Joke; Mair, Tim; Amory, Helene; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshøj Delany, Rikke; Fouché, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika; Picavet, Tresemiek; Roscher, Katja; Verwilghen, Denis; Westermann, Cornélie; Saegerman, Claude

    2017-11-01

    To identify prognostic variables for adult equids and foals with tetanus. Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. One hundred fifty-five adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus. None. Variables from history and clinical examination were statistically compared between survivors and nonsurvivors (adults: 49 survivors, 85 nonsurvivors; foals: 7 survivors, 10 nonsurvivors). Cases euthanized for financial reasons were excluded. Mortality rates in adults and foals were 68.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Variables associated with survival in adults included: standing, normal intestinal sounds and defecation, voluntarily drinking, eating soft or normal food, lower heart and respiratory rates, high base excess on admission, longer diagnosis time, treatment and hospitalization delay, and mild severity grade. Variables associated with death included: anorexia, dysphagia, dyspnea, low blood potassium concentration on admission, moderate and severe disease grading, development of dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency and seizures during hospitalization, treatment with glycerol guaiacolate, intravenous fluids, and intravenous glucose solutions. Variables associated with survival in foals included standing on admission, voluntarily eating soft food and drinking, older age, and longer hospitalization delay. Outcome was not different between different tetanus antitoxin (TAT) dosages, although there was a trend of increasing survival rate with increasing TAT dosages. Cases with appropriate vaccination prior to development of tetanus were rare, but had improved outcome and shorter hospitalization. Prognosis for equine tetanus is poor with similar outcome and prognostic factors in foals and adults. The prognostic assessment of cases with tetanus provides clinicians with new evidence-based information related to patient management. Several prognostic indicators relate to the ability to

  17. Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel vaccines in healthy infants in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Jo; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Morris, Rhonwen; Waight, Pauline; Hudson, Michael; Balmer, Paul; Findlow, Helen; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the use of two doses of three different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines when given for primary immunization with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Pediacel, a combination product containing five acellular pertussis components, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, and inactivated-poliovirus vaccine. The immune response after a single dose of MCC is also presented. Infants were randomized to receive two doses of one of the MCC vaccines and PCV7 at 2 and 3 months or at 2 and 4 months of age. Meningococcal group C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), and diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin GMCs, together with the proportions of infants achieving putative protective levels, were determined. A total of 393 infants were recruited. Following the first dose of NeisVac-C (MCC conjugated to tetanus toxoid), 97% of infants achieved protective levels (SBA titer of >or=8), compared with 80% and 53%, respectively, for Menjugate and Meningitec (both of which are conjugated to CRM(197)). SBA responses to MCC vaccines were not significantly different when administered at 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 months of age. Following two doses of each MCC, 98 to 100% of infants achieved protective levels. Both PRP IgG and tetanus responses were significantly enhanced when Pediacel was coadministered with NeisVac-C. This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies.

  18. Pathogenicity of Human ST23 Streptococcus agalactiae to Fish and Genomic Comparison of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Isolates

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    Rui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS, is a major pathogen causing neonatal sepsis and meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. CC23, including its namesake ST23, is not only the predominant GBS strain derived from human and cattle, but also can infect a variety of homeothermic and poikilothermic species. However, it has never been characterized in fish. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS to fish and explore the mechanisms causing the difference in the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS based on the genome analysis. Infection of tilapia with 10 human-derived ST23 GBS isolates caused tissue damage and the distribution of pathogens within tissues. The mortality rate of infection was ranged from 76 to 100%, and it was shown that the mortality rate caused by only three human isolates had statistically significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain (P < 0.05, whereas the mortality caused by other seven human isolates did not show significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain. The genome comparison and prophage analysis showed that the major genome difference between virulent and non-virulent ST23 GBS was attributed to the different prophage sequences. The prophage in the P1 region contained about 43% GC and encoded 28–39 proteins, which can mediate the acquisition of YafQ/DinJ structure for GBS by phage recombination. YafQ/DinJ belongs to one of the bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA systems and allows cells to cope with stress. The ST23 GBS strains carrying this prophage were not pathogenic to tilapia, but the strains without the prophage or carrying the pophage that had gene mutation or deletion, especially the deletion of YafQ/DinJ structure, were highly pathogenic to tilapia. In conclusion, human ST23 GBS is highly pathogenic to fish, which may be related to the phage recombination.

  19. A Three Monoclonal Antibody Combination Potently Neutralizes Multiple Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Razai, Ali; Geren, Isin N; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Wen, Wei-Hua; Farr-Jones, Shauna; Smith, Theresa J; Brown, Jennifer L; Skerry, Janet C; Smith, Leonard A; Marks, James D

    2018-03-01

    Human botulism is most commonly caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. For this work, we sought to develop a human monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based antitoxin capable of binding and neutralizing multiple subtypes of BoNT/E. Libraries of yeast-displayed single chain Fv (scFv) antibodies were created from the heavy and light chain variable region genes of humans immunized with pentavalent-toxoid- and BoNT/E-binding scFv isolated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). A total of 10 scFv were isolated that bound one or more BoNT/E subtypes with nanomolar-level equilibrium dissociation constants (K D ). By diversifying the V-regions of the lead mAbs and selecting for cross-reactivity, we generated three scFv that bound all four BoNT/E subtypes tested at three non-overlapping epitopes. The scFvs were converted to IgG that had K D values for the different BoNT/E subtypes ranging from 9.7 nM to 2.28 pM. An equimolar combination of the three mAbs was able to potently neutralize BoNT/E1, BoNT/E3, and BoNT/E4 in a mouse neutralization assay. The mAbs have potential utility as therapeutics and as diagnostics capable of recognizing multiple BoNT/E subtypes. A derivative of the three-antibody combination (NTM-1633) is in pre-clinical development with an investigational new drug (IND) application filing expected in 2018.

  20. Envenenamento ofídico em crianças: frequência de reações precoces ao antiveneno em pacientes que receberam pré-tratamento com antagonistas H1 e H2 da histamina e hidrocortisona Snake envenomation in children: early reactions frequency at antivenom in patients pretreated with histamine antagonists HI and H2 and hydrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Bucarethi

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 24 crianças, com idade entre 2 a 14 anos, de 1989 a 1993, vítimas de acidentes ofídicos, submetidas a pré-tratamento com antagonistas H1 (dextroclorfeniramina e H2 (cimetidine ou ranitidina da histamina e hidrocortisona, com objetivo de avaliar a frequência e o tipo de reações precoces (RP ao antiveneno (AV. Em nenhum paciente havia antecedente de atopia ou uso prévio de algum tipo de antiveneno ou antitoxina heteróloga. Das 24 crianças 15 receberam AV botrópico (RP em 5, 7 AV crotálico (RP em 5, 1 AV crotálico e AV botrópico-crotálico e 1 AV elapídico (RP. Foram observadas RP graves em 3 crianças, as 3 classificadas como acidente crotálico grave. A análise dos resultados sugere que o pré-tratamento realizado não ofereceu uma proteção segura quanto ao aparecimento de RP.Type and frequency of early reactions (ER were studied in 24 children aging 2-14 years victims of snake bites who received pretreatment with histamine antagonists H1 (dextrochlorfenirarnine and H2 (cimetidine or ranitidine and hydrocortisone from 1989 to 1993. None of them had atopy nor received any type of anti-venoms(AV and antitoxins before. Of 24 children, 15 received bothropic AV (ER in 5, 7 crotalic AV (ER in 5, 1 crotalic plus crotalic-bothropic AV, and 1 elapidic AV (ER in 1. In 3 children severe early reactions were observed and they were classified as severe crotalic accident. Results suggest that pre-treatment did not offer safety protection at the appearance of early reactions.

  1. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of new acylated derivatives of epigallocatechin gallate

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    Yoshimi eMatsumoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG has useful antiviral, antimicrobial, antitoxin, and antitumor properties. Previously, Mori, S. et al. (Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:4249-4252, 2008 found that addition of long acyl chains (C16–18 to EGCG enhanced its anti-influenza virus activity up to 44-fold. The chemical stability of EGCG against oxidative degradation was also enhanced by acylation. We further evaluated the in vitro activity spectrum of the EGCG derivatives against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. A series of EGCG O-acyl derivatives were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. These derivatives exhibited several-fold higher activities than EGCG, particularly against Gram-positive organisms. Antifungal activities of the derivatives were also 2 to 4-fold superior to those of EGCG. The activities of the EGCG derivatives against Gram-negative bacteria were not distinguishable from those of EGCG. Among the derivatives evaluated, MICs of dioctanoate, palmitate (C16, palmitoleate, and linolenate for 17 Staphylococcus aureus strains were 4–32 μg/ml, although MIC of EGCG for these 17 strains was >128 μg/ml. C16 demonstrated rapid bactericidal activity against MRSA at 25 μg/ml. The enhanced activity of C16 against S. aureus was supported by its increased membrane permeabilizing activity determined by increased SYTOX Green uptake. The EGCG derivatives were exported by the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC of Escherichia coli. The tolC deletion mutant exhibited higher sensitivity to C16 than to EGCG. Addition of long alkyl chains to EGCG significantly enhanced its activities against various bacteria and fungi, particularly against S. aureus including MRSA. C16 would be an alternative to antibiotics and disinfectants.

  2. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2017-03-08

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A-G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (H C ) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the H C . Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-H C at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.

  3. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H

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    Guorui Yao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G, a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2 that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2. Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures.

  4. Draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T: Genetic insights into the lifestyle, cell fitness and virulence.

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    Atteyet F Yassin

    Full Text Available The permanent draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T is presented. The annotated genome includes 2,130,987 bp, with 1777 protein-coding and 58 rRNA-coding genes. Genome sequence analysis revealed absence of genes encoding for: components of the PTS systems, enzymes of the TCA cycle, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogensis. Genomic data revealed that A. schaalii is able to oxidize carbohydrates via glycolysis, the nonoxidative pentose phosphate and the Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Besides, the genome harbors genes encoding for enzymes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetate and ethanol, which are found to be the end products of carbohydrate fermentation. The genome contained the gene encoding Type I fatty acid synthase required for de novo FAS biosynthesis. The plsY and plsX genes encoding the acyltransferases necessary for phosphatidic acid biosynthesis were absent from the genome. The genome harbors genes encoding enzymes responsible for isoprene biosynthesis via the mevalonate (MVA pathway. Genes encoding enzymes that confer resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS were identified. In addition, A. schaalii harbors genes that protect the genome against viral infections. These include restriction-modification (RM systems, type II toxin-antitoxin (TA, CRISPR-Cas and abortive infection system. A. schaalii genome also encodes several virulence factors that contribute to adhesion and internalization of this pathogen such as the tad genes encoding proteins required for pili assembly, the nanI gene encoding exo-alpha-sialidase, genes encoding heat shock proteins and genes encoding type VII secretion system. These features are consistent with anaerobic and pathogenic lifestyles. Finally, resistance to ciprofloxacin occurs by mutation in chromosomal genes that encode the subunits of DNA-gyrase (GyrA and topisomerase IV (ParC enzymes, while resistant to metronidazole was due to the frxA gene, which encodes NADPH

  5. Neutralization of Clostridium difficile Toxin B Mediated by Engineered Lactobacilli That Produce Single-Domain Antibodies

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    Andersen, Kasper Krogh; Strokappe, Nika M.; Hultberg, Anna; Truusalu, Kai; Smidt, Imbi; Mikelsaar, Raik-Hiio; Mikelsaar, Marika; Verrips, Theo; Hammarström, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the Western world. The major virulence factors of C. difficile are two exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), which cause extensive colonic inflammation and epithelial damage manifested by episodes of diarrhea. In this study, we explored the basis for an oral antitoxin strategy based on engineered Lactobacillus strains expressing TcdB-neutralizing antibody fragments in the gastrointestinal tract. Variable domain of heavy chain-only (VHH) antibodies were raised in llamas by immunization with the complete TcdB toxin. Four unique VHH fragments neutralizing TcdB in vitro were isolated. When these VHH fragments were expressed in either secreted or cell wall-anchored form in Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, they were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effect of the toxin in an in vitro cell-based assay. Prophylactic treatment with a combination of two strains of engineered L. paracasei BL23 expressing two neutralizing anti-TcdB VHH fragments (VHH-B2 and VHH-G3) delayed killing in a hamster protection model where the animals were challenged with spores of a TcdA− TcdB+ strain of C. difficile (P survived until the termination of the experiment at day 5 and showed either no damage or limited inflammation of the colonic mucosa despite having been colonized with C. difficile for up to 4 days. The protective effect in the hamster model suggests that the strategy could be explored as a supplement to existing therapies for patients. PMID:26573738

  6. Comparative genomics evidence that only protein toxins are tagging bad bugs

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    Kalliopi eGeorgiades

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The term toxin was introduced by Roux and Yersin and describes macromolecular substances that, when produced during infection or when introduced parenterally or orally, cause an impairment of physiological functions that lead to disease or to the death of the infected organism. Long after the discovery of toxins, early genetic studies on bacterial virulence demonstrated that removing a certain number of genes from pathogenic bacteria decreases their capacity to infect hosts. Each of the removed factors was therefore referred to as a virulence factor, and it was speculated that non-pathogenic bacteria lack such supplementary factors. However, many recent comparative studies demonstrate that the specialization of bacteria to eukaryotic hosts is associated with massive gene loss. We recently demonstrated that the only features that seem to characterize 12 epidemic bacteria are toxin-antitoxin (TA modules, which are addiction molecules in host bacteria. In this study, we investigated if protein toxins are indeed the only molecules specific to pathogenic bacteria by comparing 14 epidemic bacterial killers (bad bugs with their 14 closest non-epidemic relatives (controls. We found protein toxins in significantly more elevated numbers in all of the bad bugs. For the first time, statistical principal components analysis, including genome size, GC%, TA modules, restriction enzymes and toxins, revealed that toxins are the only proteins other than TA modules that are correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria. Moreover, intracellular toxins appear to be more correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria than secreted toxins. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the only truly identifiable phenomena, witnessing the convergent evolution of the most pathogenic bacteria for humans are the loss of metabolic activities, i.e., the outcome of the loss of regulatory and transcription factors and the presence of protein toxins, alone or coupled as TA

  7. Passive therapy with humanized anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B antibodies attenuates systemic inflammatory response and protects from lethal pneumonia caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B-producing Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Karau, Melissa J; Tilahun, Mulualem E; Krogman, Ashton; Osborne, Barbara A; Goldsby, Richard A; David, Chella S; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2017-10-03

    Drugs such as linezolid that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating infections caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. As protein synthesis inhibitors have no effect on preformed toxins, neutralization of pathogenic exotoxins with anti-toxin antibodies may be beneficial in conjunction with antibacterial therapy. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antibodies in the treatment of experimental pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S. aureus. Since HLA class II transgenic mice mount a stronger systemic immune response following challenge with SEB and are more susceptible to SEB-induced lethal toxic shock than conventional mice strains, HLA-DR3 transgenic mice were used. Lethal pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S. aureus in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice was characterized by robust T cell activation and elevated systemic levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Prophylactic administration of a single dose of linezolid 30 min prior to the onset of infection attenuated the systemic inflammatory response and protected from mortality whereas linezolid administered 60 min after the onset of infection failed to confer significant protection. Human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-SEB antibodies alone, but not polyclonal human IgG, mitigated this response and protected from death when administered immediately after initiation of infection. Further, anti-SEB antibodies as well as intact polyclonal human IgG, but not its Fab or Fc fragments, protected from lethal pneumonia when followed with linezolid therapy 60 min later. In conclusion, neutralization of superantigens with high-affinity antibodies may have beneficial effects in pneumonia.

  8. A Supercluster of Neutralizing Epitopes at the Interface of Ricin’s Enzymatic (RTA and Binding (RTB Subunits

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    Amanda Y. Poon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of an effort to engineer ricin antitoxins and immunotherapies, we previously produced and characterized a collection of phage-displayed, heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs from alpacas that had been immunized with ricin antigens. In our initial screens, we identified nine VHHs directed against ricin toxin’s binding subunit (RTB, but only one, JIZ-B7, had toxin-neutralizing activity. Linking JIZ-B7 to different VHHs against ricin’s enzymatic subunit (RTA resulted in several bispecific antibodies with potent toxin-neutralizing activity in vitro and in vivo. JIZ-B7 may therefore be an integral component of a future VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA for ricin toxin. In this study, we now localize, using competitive ELISA, JIZ-B7’s epitope to a region of RTB’s domain 2 sandwiched between the high-affinity galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc-binding site and the boundary of a neutralizing hotspot on RTA known as cluster II. Analysis of additional RTB (n = 8- and holotoxin (n = 4-specific VHHs from a recent series of screens identified a “supercluster” of neutralizing epitopes at the RTA-RTB interface. Among the VHHs tested, toxin-neutralizing activity was most closely associated with epitope proximity to RTA, and not interference with RTB’s ability to engage Gal/GalNAc receptors. We conclude that JIZ-B7 is representative of a larger group of potent toxin-neutralizing antibodies, possibly including many described in the literature dating back several decades, that recognize tertiary and possibly quaternary epitopes located at the RTA-RTB interface and that target a region of vulnerability on ricin toxin.

  9. Sequencing and characterizing the genome of Estrella lausannensis as an undergraduate project: training students and biological insights

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    Claire eBertelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies, sequencing projects have become pervasive in the molecular life sciences. The huge bulk of data generated daily must be analyzed further by biologists with skills in bioinformatics and by embedded bioinformaticians, i.e., bioinformaticians integrated in wet lab research groups. Thus, students interested in molecular life sciences must be trained in the main steps of genomics: sequencing, assembly, annotation and analysis. To reach that goal, a practical course has been set up for master students at the University of Lausanne: the Sequence a genome class. At the beginning of the academic year, a few bacterial species whose genome is unknown are provided to the students, who sequence and assemble the genome(s and perform manual annotation. Here, we report the progress of the first class from September 2010 to June 2011 and the results obtained by seven master students who specifically assembled and annotated the genome of Estrella lausannensis, an obligate intracellular bacterium related to Chlamydia. The draft genome of Estrella is composed of 29 scaffolds encompassing 2,819,825 bp that encode for 2,233 putative proteins. Estrella also possesses a 9,136 bp plasmid that encodes for 14 genes, among which we found an integrase and a toxin/antitoxin module. Like all other members of the Chlamydiales order, Estrella possesses a highly conserved type III secretion system, considered as a key virulence factor. The annotation of the Estrella genome also allowed the characterization of the metabolic abilities of this strictly intracellular bacterium. Altogether, the students provided the scientific community with the Estrella genome sequence and a preliminary understanding of the biology of this recently-discovered bacterial genus, while learning to use cutting-edge technologies for sequencing and to perform bioinformatics analyses.

  10. Evolution of the Quorum network and the mobilome (plasmids and bacteriophages) in clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii during a decade.

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    López, M; Rueda, A; Florido, J P; Blasco, L; Fernández-García, L; Trastoy, R; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Martínez-Martínez, L; Vila, J; Pascual, A; Bou, G; Tomas, M

    2018-02-06

    In this study, we compared eighteen clinical strains of A. baumannii belonging to the ST-2 clone and isolated from patients in the same intensive care unit (ICU) in 2000 (9 strains referred to collectively as Ab_GEIH-2000) and 2010 (9 strains referred to collectively as Ab_GEIH-2010), during the GEIH-REIPI project (Umbrella BioProject PRJNA422585). We observed two main molecular differences between the Ab_GEIH-2010 and the Ab_GEIH-2000 collections, acquired over the course of the decade long sampling interval and involving the mobilome: i) a plasmid harbouring genes for bla OXA 24/40 ß-lactamase and abKA/abkB proteins of a toxin-antitoxin system; and ii) two temperate bacteriophages, Ab105-1ϕ (63 proteins) and Ab105-2ϕ (93 proteins), containing important viral defence proteins. Moreover, all Ab_GEIH-2010 strains contained a Quorum functional network of Quorum Sensing (QS) and Quorum Quenching (QQ) mechanisms, including a new QQ enzyme, AidA, which acts as a bacterial defence mechanism against the exogenous 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Interestingly, the infective capacity of the bacteriophages isolated in this study (Ab105-1ϕ and Ab105-2ϕ) was higher in the Ab_GEIH-2010 strains (carrying a functional Quorum network) than in the Ab_GEIH-2000 strains (carrying a deficient Quorum network), in which the bacteriophages showed little or no infectivity. This is the first study about the evolution of the Quorum network and the mobilome in clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii during a decade.

  11. Review of the inhibition of biological activities of food-related selected toxins by natural compounds.

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    Friedman, Mendel; Rasooly, Reuven

    2013-04-23

    There is a need to develop food-compatible conditions to alter the structures of fungal, bacterial, and plant toxins, thus transforming toxins to nontoxic molecules. The term 'chemical genetics' has been used to describe this approach. This overview attempts to survey and consolidate the widely scattered literature on the inhibition by natural compounds and plant extracts of the biological (toxicological) activity of the following food-related toxins: aflatoxin B1, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A produced by fungi; cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae bacteria; Shiga toxins produced by E. coli bacteria; staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; ricin produced by seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis; and the glycoalkaloid α-chaconine synthesized in potato tubers and leaves. The reduction of biological activity has been achieved by one or more of the following approaches: inhibition of the release of the toxin into the environment, especially food; an alteration of the structural integrity of the toxin molecules; changes in the optimum microenvironment, especially pH, for toxin activity; and protection against adverse effects of the toxins in cells, animals, and humans (chemoprevention). The results show that food-compatible and safe compounds with anti-toxin properties can be used to reduce the toxic potential of these toxins. Practical applications and research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the toxic burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes of animal feed and human food and (b) educate food producers and processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating the undesirable effects of natural toxins that may present in the diet.

  12. Medical countermeasures for national security: a new government role in the pharmaceuticalization of society.

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    Elbe, Stefan; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Long, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    How do governments contribute to the pharmaceuticalization of society? Whilst the pivotal role of industry is extensively documented, this article shows that governments too are accelerating, intensifying and opening up new trajectories of pharmaceuticalization in society. Governments are becoming more deeply invested in pharmaceuticals because their national security strategies now aspire to defend populations against health-based threats like bioterrorism and pandemics. To counter those threats, governments are acquiring and stockpiling a panoply of 'medical countermeasures' such as antivirals, next-generation vaccines, antibiotics and anti-toxins. More than that, governments are actively incentivizing the development of many new medical countermeasures--principally by marshaling the state's unique powers to introduce exceptional measures in the name of protecting national security. At least five extraordinary policy interventions have been introduced by governments with the aim of stimulating the commercial development of novel medical countermeasures: (1) allocating earmarked public funds, (2) granting comprehensive legal protections to pharmaceutical companies against injury compensation claims, (3) introducing bespoke pathways for regulatory approval, (4) instantiating extraordinary emergency use procedures allowing for the use of unapproved medicines, and (5) designing innovative logistical distribution systems for mass drug administration outside of clinical settings. Those combined efforts, the article argues, are spawning a new, government-led and quite exceptional medical countermeasure regime operating beyond the conventional boundaries of pharmaceutical development and regulation. In the first comprehensive analysis of the pharmaceuticalization dynamics at play in national security policy, this article unearths the detailed array of policy interventions through which governments too are becoming more deeply imbricated in the pharmaceuticalization of

  13. Molecular and Epidemiological Review of Toxigenic Diphtheria Infections in England between 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Collins, Sarah; de Zoysa, Aruni; White, Joanne; Mandal, Sema

    2014-01-01

    Human infections caused by toxigenic corynebacteria occur sporadically across Europe. In this report, we undertook the epidemiological and molecular characterization of all toxigenic corynebacterium strains isolated in England between January 2007 and December 2013. Epidemiological aspects include case demographics, risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome. Molecular characterization was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alongside traditional phenotypic methods. In total, there were 20 cases of toxigenic corynebacteria; 12 (60.0%) were caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans, where animal contact was the predominant risk factor. The remaining eight (40.0%) were caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains; six were biovar mitis, which were associated with recent travel abroad. Adults 45 years and older were particularly affected (55.0%; 11/20), and typical symptoms included sore throat and fever. Respiratory diphtheria with the absence of a pharyngeal membrane was the most common presentation (50.0%; 10/20). None of the eight C. diphtheriae cases were fully immunized. Diphtheria antitoxin was issued in two (9.5%) cases; both survived. Two (9.5%) cases died, one due to a C. diphtheriae infection and one due to C. ulcerans. MLST demonstrated that the majority (87.5%; 7/8) of C. diphtheriae strains represented new sequence types (STs). By adapting several primer sequences, the MLST genes in C. ulcerans were also amplified, thereby providing the basis for extension of the MLST scheme, which is currently restricted to C. diphtheriae. Despite high population immunity, occasional toxigenic corynebacterium strains are identified in England and continued surveillance is required. PMID:25502525

  14. Seroprevalence of diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies in children, adolescents and adults in Poland.

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    Zasada, Aleksandra A; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2013-11-19

    Recommendations for diphtheria immunization are to apply an effective primary immunization in infancy and to maintain immunity throughout life. Immunity against diphtheria depends primarily on antibody to the diphtheria toxin. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of IgG diphtheria antitoxin in sera of healthy children, adolescents and adults in Poland. A total of 1387 serum samples collected between 2010 and 2012 from individuals with ages ranging from 1 month to 85 years were investigated. Antibody concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA IgG, Euroimmun, Germany). The results showed that among 1387 individuals examined, 547 (39.4%) had anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibody levels below 0.1 IU/ml (36.9% ≤ 18 years and 40.5% >18 years old, respectively). The 212 (50.8%) children and 542 (55.9%) adults showed only basic protection (0.1-1.0 IU/ml) and need immediate booster. High levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were found more often in children and adolescent (12.2%) than in adults (3.6%) and this was statistically significant (P 60 years old. Characteristically, in individuals > 40 years old high levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were not seen. There were no statistically significant differences in results in relation to gender. The present study showed inadequate immunity levels to diphtheria amongst the Polish population, especially in adults > 40 years old and children ≤ 2 years old. To prevent reemergence of diphtheria an information campaign reminding people about recommendations concerning diphtheria booster vaccination in adults should be conducted. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the DTP vaccine used in Poland should be verified.

  15. International External Quality Assurance for Laboratory Diagnosis of Diphtheria ▿

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    Neal, S. E.; Efstratiou, A.

    2009-01-01

    The diphtheria surveillance network (DIPNET) encompassing National Diphtheria Reference Centers from 25 European countries is a Dedicated Surveillance Network recognized by the European Commission. A key DIPNET objective is the quality assessment of microbiological procedures for diphtheria across the European Union and beyond. A detailed questionnaire on the level of reference laboratory services and an external quality assessment (EQA) panel comprising six simulated throat specimens were sent to 34 centers. Twenty-three centers are designated National Diphtheria Reference Centers, with the laboratory in the United Kingdom being the only WHO Collaborating Centre. A variety of screening and identification tests were used, including the cysteinase test (20/34 centers), pyrazinamidase test (17/34 centers), and commercial kits (25/34 centers). The classic Elek test for toxigenicity testing is mostly used (28/34 centers), with variations in serum sources and antitoxin concentrations. Many laboratories reported problems obtaining Elek reagents or media. Only six centers produced acceptable results for all six specimens. Overall, 21% of identification and 13% of toxigenicity reports were unacceptable. Many centers could not isolate the target organism, and most found difficulties with the specimens that contained Corynebacterium striatum as a commensal contaminant. Nineteen centers generated either false-positive or negative toxigenic results, which may have caused inappropriate medical management. The discrepancies in this diphtheria diagnostics EQA alarmingly reflect the urgent need to improve laboratory performance in diphtheria diagnostics in Europe, standardize feasible and robust microbiological methods, and build awareness among public health authorities. Therefore, DIPNET recommends that regular workshops and EQA distributions for diphtheria diagnostics should be supported and maintained. PMID:19828749

  16. Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Thomas, Archana; Poore, Elizabeth A.; Amanna, Ian J.; Rynko, Abby E.; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Slifka, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and rates of vaccine-associated adverse events, the 10-year revaccination schedule has come into question. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analysis of serum antibody titers in 546 adult subjects stratified by age or sex. All serological results were converted to international units after calibration with international serum standards. Results. Approximately 97% of the population was seropositive to tetanus and diphtheria as defined by a protective serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 IU/mL. Mean antibody titers were 3.6 and 0.35 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. Antibody responses to tetanus declined with an estimated half-life of 14 years (95% confidence interval, 11–17 years), whereas antibody responses to diphtheria were more long-lived and declined with an estimated half-life of 27 years (18–51 years). Mathematical models combining antibody magnitude and duration predict that 95% of the population will remain protected against tetanus and diphtheria for ≥30 years without requiring further booster vaccination. Conclusions. These studies demonstrate that durable levels of protective antitoxin immunity exist in the majority of vaccinated individuals. Together, this suggests that it may no longer be necessary to administer booster vaccinations every 10 years and that the current adult vaccination schedule for tetanus and diphtheria should be revisited. PMID:27060790

  17. Insights on the Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Analysis of Mycobacterium kansasii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joyce; McIntosh, Fiona; Radomski, Nicolas; Dewar, Ken; Simeone, Roxane; Enninga, Jost; Brosch, Roland; Rocha, Eduardo P.; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; Behr, Marcel A.

    2015-01-01

    By phylogenetic analysis, Mycobacterium kansasii is closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet, although both organisms cause pulmonary disease, M. tuberculosis is a global health menace, whereas M. kansasii is an opportunistic pathogen. To illuminate the differences between these organisms, we have sequenced the genome of M. kansasii ATCC 12478 and its plasmid (pMK12478) and conducted side-by-side in vitro and in vivo investigations of these two organisms. The M. kansasii genome is 6,432,277 bp, more than 2 Mb longer than that of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and the plasmid contains 144,951 bp. Pairwise comparisons reveal conserved and discordant genes and genomic regions. A notable example of genomic conservation is the virulence locus ESX-1, which is intact and functional in the low-virulence M. kansasii, potentially mediating phagosomal disruption. Differences between these organisms include a decreased predicted metabolic capacity, an increased proportion of toxin–antitoxin genes, and the acquisition of M. tuberculosis-specific genes in the pathogen since their common ancestor. Consistent with their distinct epidemiologic profiles, following infection of C57BL/6 mice, M. kansasii counts increased by less than 10-fold over 6 weeks, whereas M. tuberculosis counts increased by over 10,000-fold in just 3 weeks. Together, these data suggest that M. kansasii can serve as an image of the environmental ancestor of M. tuberculosis before its emergence as a professional pathogen, and can be used as a model organism to study the switch from an environmental opportunistic pathogen to a professional host-restricted pathogen. PMID:25716827

  18. A Three Monoclonal Antibody Combination Potently Neutralizes Multiple Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E Subtypes

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    Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human botulism is most commonly caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT serotypes A, B, and E. For this work, we sought to develop a human monoclonal antibody (mAb-based antitoxin capable of binding and neutralizing multiple subtypes of BoNT/E. Libraries of yeast-displayed single chain Fv (scFv antibodies were created from the heavy and light chain variable region genes of humans immunized with pentavalent-toxoid- and BoNT/E-binding scFv isolated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS. A total of 10 scFv were isolated that bound one or more BoNT/E subtypes with nanomolar-level equilibrium dissociation constants (KD. By diversifying the V-regions of the lead mAbs and selecting for cross-reactivity, we generated three scFv that bound all four BoNT/E subtypes tested at three non-overlapping epitopes. The scFvs were converted to IgG that had KD values for the different BoNT/E subtypes ranging from 9.7 nM to 2.28 pM. An equimolar combination of the three mAbs was able to potently neutralize BoNT/E1, BoNT/E3, and BoNT/E4 in a mouse neutralization assay. The mAbs have potential utility as therapeutics and as diagnostics capable of recognizing multiple BoNT/E subtypes. A derivative of the three-antibody combination (NTM-1633 is in pre-clinical development with an investigational new drug (IND application filing expected in 2018.

  19. Creation of a virtual antidotes network between pharmacy departments of catalan hospitals

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    Raquel Aguilar-Salmerón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: To design a virtual antidote network between hospitals that could help to locate on-line those hospitals that stocked those antidotes with the highest difficulty in terms of availability, and ensured that the medication was loaned in case of necessity.Methods: The application was developed by four hospital pharmacists and two clinical toxicologists with the support of a Healthcare Informatics Consultant Company.Results: The antidotes network in Catalonia, Spain, was launched in July 2015. It can be accessed through the platform: www.xarxaantidots.org. The application has an open area with overall information about the project and the option to ask toxicological questions of non-urgent nature. The private area is divided into four sections: 1 Antidotes: data of interest about the 15 antidotes included in the network and their recommended stock depending on the complexity of the hospital, 2 Antidote stock management: virtual formulary, 3 Loans: location of antidotes through the on-line map application Google Maps, and virtual loan request, and 4 Documentation: As of June, 2016, 40 public and private hospitals have joined the network, from all four provinces of Catalonia, which have accessed the private area 2 102 times, requested two loans of silibinin, one of hydroxocobalamin, three of antiophidic serum and three of botulism antitoxin. Thirteen toxicological consultations have been received.Conclusions: The implementation of this network improves the communication between centers that manage poisoned patients, adapts and standardizes the stock of antidotes in hospitals, speeds up loans if necessary, and improves the quality of care for poisoned patients.

  20. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 supports regeneration of the intestinal microbiota after diarrheic dysbiosis - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret I; Swidsinski, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926 (Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745) is used for the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Its action is based on multiple mechanisms, including immunological effects, pathogen-binding and antitoxinic effects, as well as effects on digestive enzymes. Correlated with these effects, but also due to its inherent properties, S. boulardii is able to create a favorable growth environment for the beneficial intestinal microbiota, while constituting extra protection to the host mucus layer and mucosa. This review focuses on the positive influence of S. boulardii on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In a dysbiosis, as during diarrhea, the main microbial population (especially Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae) is known to collapse by at least one order of magnitude. This gap generally leads to transient increases in pioneer-type bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Clostridiaceae). Several human studies as well as animal models demonstrate that treatment with S. boulardii in dysbiosis leads to the faster reestablishment of a healthy microbiome. The most relevant effects of S. boulardii on the fecal composition include an increase of short chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (along with a rise in short chain fatty acids), especially of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, as well as an increase in Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae. At the same time, there is a suppression of pioneer bacteria. The previously observed preventive action of S. boulardii, eg, during antibiotic therapy or regarding traveler's diarrhea, can be explained by several mechanisms, including a stabilizing effect on the healthy microbiota as well as possibly on the mucus layer. Several different dysbiotic situations could profit from the effects of S. boulardii CNCM I-745. Its additional potential lies in a general stabilization of the gut flora for at-risk populations

  1. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 supports regeneration of the intestinal microbiota after diarrheic dysbiosis – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret I; Swidsinski, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926 (Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745) is used for the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Its action is based on multiple mechanisms, including immunological effects, pathogen-binding and antitoxinic effects, as well as effects on digestive enzymes. Correlated with these effects, but also due to its inherent properties, S. boulardii is able to create a favorable growth environment for the beneficial intestinal microbiota, while constituting extra protection to the host mucus layer and mucosa. This review focuses on the positive influence of S. boulardii on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In a dysbiosis, as during diarrhea, the main microbial population (especially Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae) is known to collapse by at least one order of magnitude. This gap generally leads to transient increases in pioneer-type bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Clostridiaceae). Several human studies as well as animal models demonstrate that treatment with S. boulardii in dysbiosis leads to the faster reestablishment of a healthy microbiome. The most relevant effects of S. boulardii on the fecal composition include an increase of short chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (along with a rise in short chain fatty acids), especially of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, as well as an increase in Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae. At the same time, there is a suppression of pioneer bacteria. The previously observed preventive action of S. boulardii, eg, during antibiotic therapy or regarding traveler’s diarrhea, can be explained by several mechanisms, including a stabilizing effect on the healthy microbiota as well as possibly on the mucus layer. Several different dysbiotic situations could profit from the effects of S. boulardii CNCM I-745. Its additional potential lies in a general stabilization of the gut flora for at-risk populations

  2. Production and evaluation of a recombinant chimeric vaccine against clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types C and D.

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    Luciana A F Gil

    Full Text Available Bovine botulism is a fatal disease that is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs produced by Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D and that causes great economic losses, with nearly 100% lethality during outbreaks. It has also been considered a potential source of human food-borne illness in many countries. Vaccination has been reported to be the most effective way to control bovine botulism. However, the commercially available toxoid-based vaccines are difficult and hazardous to produce. Neutralizing antibodies targeted against the C-terminal fragment of the BoNT heavy chain (HC are known to confer efficient protection against lethal doses of BoNTs. In this study, a novel recombinant chimera, consisting of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB, a strong adjuvant of the humoral immune response, fused to the HC of BoNT serotypes C and D, was produced in E. coli. Mice vaccinated with the chimera containing LTB and an equivalent molar ratio of the chimera without LTB plus aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH3 developed 2 IU/mL of antitoxins for both serotypes. Guinea pigs immunized with the recombinant chimera with LTB plus Al(OH3 developed a protective immune response against both BoNT/C (5 IU/mL and BoNT/D (10 IU/mL, as determined by a mouse neutralization bioassay with pooled sera. The results achieved with guinea pig sera fulfilled the requirements of commercial vaccines for prevention of botulism, as determined by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food, Supply. The presence of LTB was essential for the development of a strong humoral immune response, as it acted in synergism with Al(OH3. Thus, the vaccine described in this study is a strong candidate for the control of botulism in cattle.

  3. Identification of Fic-1 as an enzyme that inhibits bacterial DNA replication by AMPylating GyrB, promoting filament formation.

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    Lu, Canhua; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Zhang, Li-Qun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2016-01-26

    The morphology of bacterial cells is important for virulence, evasion of the host immune system, and coping with environmental stresses. The widely distributed Fic proteins (filamentation induced by cAMP) are annotated as proteins involved in cell division because of the presence of the HPFx[D/E]GN[G/K]R motif. We showed that the presence of Fic-1 from Pseudomonas fluorescens significantly reduced the yield of plasmid DNA when expressed in Escherichia coli or P. fluorescens. Fic-1 interacted with GyrB, a subunit of DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. Fic-1 catalyzed the AMPylation of GyrB at Tyr(109), a residue critical for binding ATP, and exhibited auto-AMPylation activity. Mutation of the Fic-1 auto-AMPylated site greatly reduced AMPylation activity toward itself and toward GyrB. Fic-1-dependent AMPylation of GyrB triggered the SOS response, indicative of DNA replication stress or DNA damage. Fic-1 also promoted the formation of elongated cells when the SOS response was blocked. We identified an α-inhibitor protein that we named anti-Fic-1 (AntF), encoded by a gene immediately upstream of Fic-1. AntF interacted with Fic-1, inhibited the AMPylation activity of Fic-1 for GyrB in vitro, and blocked Fic-1-mediated inhibition of DNA replication in bacteria, suggesting that Fic-1 and AntF comprise a toxin-antitoxin module. Our work establishes Fic-1 as an AMPylating enzyme that targets GyrB to inhibit DNA replication and may target other proteins to regulate bacterial morphology. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. The Structural Diversity of Carbohydrate Antigens of Selected Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria

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    Elena P. Ivanova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. Marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. Among these biologically active molecules, the carbohydrate antigens, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, O-antigens found in cell walls of Gram-negative marine bacteria, show great potential as candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock due to their low virulence. The structural diversity of LPSs is thought to be a reflection of the ability for these bacteria to adapt to an array of habitats, protecting the cell from being compromised by exposure to harsh environmental stress factors. Over the last few years, the variety of structures of core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been discovered. In this review, we discuss the most recently encountered structures that have been identified from bacteria belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Alteromonas, Idiomarina, Microbulbifer, Pseudoalteromonas, Plesiomonas and Shewanella of the Gammaproteobacteria phylum; Sulfitobacter and Loktanella of the Alphaproteobactera phylum and to the genera Arenibacter, Cellulophaga, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Flexibacter of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention is paid to the particular chemical features of the LPSs, such as the monosaccharide type, non-sugar substituents and phosphate groups, together with some of the typifying traits of LPSs obtained from marine bacteria. A possible correlation is then made between such features and the environmental adaptations undertaken by marine bacteria.

  5. Crystal Structure of the Receptor-Binding Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type HA, Also Known as Type FA or H

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    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Perry, Kay; Weisemann, Jasmin; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng (Cornell); (Dusseldorf); (UCI)

    2017-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A–G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently. Sequence analyses indicate that the receptor-binding domain (HC) of BoNT/HA is ~84% identical to that of BoNT/A1. However, BoNT/HA responds differently to some potent BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies (e.g., CR2) that target the HC. Therefore, it raises a serious concern as to whether BoNT/HA poses a new threat to our biosecurity. In this study, we report the first high-resolution crystal structure of BoNT/HA-HC at 1.8 Å. Sequence and structure analyses reveal that BoNT/HA and BoNT/A1 are different regarding their binding to cell-surface receptors including both polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Furthermore, the new structure also provides explanations for the ~540-fold decreased affinity of antibody CR2 towards BoNT/HA compared to BoNT/A1. Taken together, these new findings advance our understanding of the structure and function of this newly identified toxin at the molecular level, and pave the way for the future development of more effective countermeasures

  6. Extraction and inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/A antibodies.

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    Suzanne R Kalb

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing death or respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care. Treatment includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication. Rapidly determining human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3 complex as well as the recombinant LC of A1. We also evaluated the same antibody panel for the ability to extract BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3. Among the mAbs, there were significant differences in extraction efficiency, ability to extract BoNT/A subtypes, and inhibitory effect on BoNT catalytic activity. The mAbs binding the C-terminal portion of the BoNT/A heavy chain had optimal properties for use in the Endopep-MS assay.

  7. Regulatory RNAs in the Less Studied Streptococcal Species: from Nomenclature to Identification

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    Mohamed Amine Zorgani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcal species are Gram-positive bacteria involved in severe and invasive diseases in humans and animals. Although this group includes different pathogenic species involved in life-threatening infections for humans, it also includes beneficial species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, which is used in yogurt production. In bacteria virulence factors are controlled by various regulatory networks including regulatory RNAs. For clearness and to develop logical thinking, we start this review with a revision of regulatory RNAs nomenclature. Previous reviews are mostly dealing with Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae regulatory RNAs. We especially focused our analysis on regulatory RNAs in Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus thermophilus and other less studied Streptococcus species. Although S. agalactiae RNome remains largely unknown, sRNAs (small RNAs are supposed to mediate regulation during environmental adaptation and host infection. In the case of S. mutans, sRNAs are suggested to be involved in competence regulation, carbohydrate metabolism and Toxin-Antitoxin systems. A new category of miRNA-size small RNAs (msRNAs was also identified for the first time in this species. The analysis of S. thermophilus sRNome shows that many sRNAs are associated to the bacterial immune system known as CRISPR-Cas system. Only few of the other different Streptococcus species have been the subject of studies pointed toward the characterization of regulatory RNAs. Finally, understanding bacterial sRNome can constitute one step forward to the elaboration of new strategies in therapy such as substitution of antibiotics in the management of S. agalactiae neonatal infections, prevention of S. mutans dental caries or use of S. thermophilus CRISPR-Cas system in genome editing applications.

  8. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis Using the Mouse Phrenic Nerve Hemidiaphragm Assay (MPN

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    Hans Bigalke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The historical method for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT is represented by the mouse bioassay (MBA measuring the animal survival rate. Since the endpoint of the MBA is the death of the mice due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle, an ex vivo animal replacement method, called mouse phrenic nerve (MPN assay, employs the isolated N. phrenicus-hemidiaphragm tissue. Here, BoNT causes a dose-dependent characteristic decrease of the contraction amplitude of the indirectly stimulated muscle. Within the EQuATox BoNT proficiency 13 test samples were analysed using the MPN assay by serial dilution to a bath concentration resulting in a paralysis time within the range of calibration curves generated with BoNT/A, B and E standards, respectively. For serotype identification the diluted samples were pre-incubated with polyclonal anti-BoNT/A, B or E antitoxin or a combination of each. All 13 samples were qualitatively correctly identified thereby delivering superior results compared to single in vitro methods like LFA, ELISA and LC-MS/MS. Having characterized the BoNT serotype, the final bath concentrations were calculated using the calibration curves and then multiplied by the respective dilution factor to obtain the sample concentration. Depending on the source of the BoNT standards used, the quantitation of ten BoNT/A containing samples delivered a mean z-score of 7 and of three BoNT/B or BoNT/E containing samples z-scores <2, respectively.

  9. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 supports regeneration of the intestinal microbiota after diarrheic dysbiosis – a review

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    Moré MI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Margret I Moré,1 Alexander Swidsinski2 1analyze & realize GmbH, Berlin, Germany; 2Laboratory for Molecular Genetics, Polymicrobial Infections and Bacterial Biofilms, Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology, Charité Hospital, CCM, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926 (Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 is used for the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Its action is based on multiple mechanisms, including immunological effects, pathogen-binding and antitoxinic effects, as well as effects on digestive enzymes. Correlated with these effects, but also due to its inherent properties, S. boulardii is able to create a favorable growth environment for the beneficial intestinal microbiota, while constituting extra protection to the host mucus layer and mucosa. This review focuses on the positive influence of S. boulardii on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In a dysbiosis, as during diarrhea, the main microbial population (especially Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae is known to collapse by at least one order of magnitude. This gap generally leads to transient increases in pioneer-type bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Clostridiaceae. Several human studies as well as animal models demonstrate that treatment with S. boulardii in dysbiosis leads to the faster reestablishment of a healthy microbiome. The most relevant effects of S. boulardii on the fecal composition include an increase of short chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (along with a rise in short chain fatty acids, especially of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, as well as an increase in Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae. At the same time, there is a suppression of pioneer bacteria. The previously observed preventive action of S. boulardii, eg, during antibiotic therapy or regarding traveler’s diarrhea, can be explained by several

  10. A Single-Domain Llama Antibody Potently Inhibits the Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Binding to the Non-Catalytic [alpha]-Exosite Binding Region

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    Dong, Jianbo; Thompson, Aaron A.; Fan, Yongfeng; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Ho, Mengfei; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Wilson, Brenda A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Marks, James D. (UIUC); (Scripps); (UCSF)

    2010-08-13

    Ingestion or inhalation of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) results in botulism, a severe and frequently fatal disease. Current treatments rely on antitoxins, which, while effective, cannot reverse symptoms once BoNT has entered the neuron. For treatments that can reverse intoxication, interest has focused on developing inhibitors of the enzymatic BoNT light chain (BoNT Lc). Such inhibitors typically mimic substrate and bind in or around the substrate cleavage pocket. To explore the full range of binding sites for serotype A light chain (BoNT/A Lc) inhibitors, we created a library of non-immune llama single-domain VHH (camelid heavy-chain variable region derived from heavy-chain-only antibody) antibodies displayed on the surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Library selection on BoNT/A Lc yielded 15 yeast-displayed VHH with equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub d}) from 230 to 0.03 nM measured by flow cytometry. Eight of 15 VHH inhibited the cleavage of substrate SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25,000 Da) by BoNT/A Lc. The most potent VHH (Aa1) had a solution K{sub d} for BoNT/A Lc of 1.47 x 10{sup -10} M and an IC{sub 50} (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.7 x 10{sup -10} M and was resistant to heat denaturation and reducing conditions. To understand the mechanism by which Aa1 inhibited catalysis, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the BoNT/A Lc-Aa1 VHH complex at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals that the Aa1 VHH binds in the {alpha}-exosite of the BoNT/A Lc, far from the active site for catalysis. The study validates the utility of non-immune llama VHH libraries as a source of enzyme inhibitors and identifies the BoNT/A Lc {alpha}-exosite as a target for inhibitor development.

  11. Ranking of persister genes in the same Escherichia coli genetic background demonstrates varying importance of individual persister genes in tolerance to different antibiotics

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    Nan eWu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the identification of many genes and pathways involved in the persistence phenomenon of bacteria, the relative importance of these genes in a single organism remains unclear. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model, we generated mutants of 21 known candidate persister genes and compared the relative importance of these mutants in persistence to various antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim at different times. We found that oxyR, dnaK, sucB, relA, rpoS, clpB, mqsR, and recA were prominent persister genes involved in persistence to multiple antibiotics. These genes map to the following pathways: antioxidative defense pathway (oxyR, global regulators (dnaK, clpB, and rpoS, energy production (sucB, stringent response (relA, toxin–antitoxin (TA module (mqsR, and SOS response (recA. Among the TA modules, the ranking order was mqsR, lon, relE, tisAB, hipA, and dinJ. Intriguingly, rpoS deletion caused a defect in persistence to gentamicin but increased persistence to ampicillin and norfloxacin. Mutants demonstrated dramatic differences in persistence to different antibiotics at different time points: some mutants (oxyR, dnaK, phoU, lon, recA, mqsR, and tisAB displayed defect in persistence from early time points, while other mutants (relE, smpB, glpD, umuD, and tnaA showed defect only at later time points. These results indicate that varying hierarchy and importance of persister genes exist and that persister genes can be divided into those involved in shallow persistence and those involved in deep persistence. Our findings suggest that the persistence phenomenon is a dynamic process with different persister genes playing roles of variable significance at different times. These findings have implications for improved understanding of persistence phenomenon and developing new drugs targeting persisters for more effective cure of persistent infections.

  12. Variable Persister Gene Interactions with (pppGpp for Persister Formation in Escherichia coli

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    Shuang Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Persisters comprise a group of phenotypically heterogeneous metabolically quiescent bacteria with multidrug tolerance and contribute to the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Although recent work has shown that toxin-antitoxin (TA system HipAB depends on stringent response effector (pppGppin persister formation, whether other persister pathways are also dependent on stringent response has not been explored. Here we examined the relationship of (pppGpp with 15 common persister genes (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, pspF, tnaA, sucB, ssrA, smpB, recA, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ using Escherichia coli as a model. By comparing the persister levels of wild type with their single gene knockout and double knockout mutants with relA, we divided their interactions into five types, namely A “dependent” (dnaK, recA, B “positive reinforcement” (rpoS, pspF, ssrA, recA, C “antagonistic” (clpB, sucB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ, D “epistasis” (clpB, rpoS, tnaA, ssrA, smpB, hipA, and E “irrelevant” (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, tnaA, sucB, smpB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ. We found that the persister gene interactions are intimately dependent on bacterial culture age, cell concentrations (diluted versus undiluted culture, and drug classifications, where the same gene may belong to different groups with varying antibiotics, culture age or cell concentrations. Together, this study represents the first attempt to systematically characterize the intricate relationships among the different mechanisms of persistence and as such provide new insights into the complexity of the persistence phenomenon at the level of persister gene network interactions.

  13. Structural basis for recognition of synaptic vesicle protein 2C by botulinum neurotoxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Roger M.; Frey, Daniel; Hilbert, Manuel; Kevenaar, Josta T.; Wieser, Mara M.; Stirnimann, Christian U.; McMillan, David; Ceska, Tom; Lebon, Florence; Jaussi, Rolf; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Schertler, Gebhard F. X.; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Capitani, Guido; Kammerer, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) belongs to the most dangerous class of bioweapons. Despite this, BoNT/A is used to treat a wide range of common medical conditions such as migraines and a variety of ocular motility and movement disorders. BoNT/A is probably best known for its use as an antiwrinkle agent in cosmetic applications (including Botox and Dysport). BoNT/A application causes long-lasting flaccid paralysis of muscles through inhibiting the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by cleaving synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) within presynaptic nerve terminals. Two types of BoNT/A receptor have been identified, both of which are required for BoNT/A toxicity and are therefore likely to cooperate with each other: gangliosides and members of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) family, which are putative transporter proteins that are predicted to have 12 transmembrane domains, associate with the receptor-binding domain of the toxin. Recently, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) has also been reported to be a potential BoNT/A receptor. In SV2 proteins, the BoNT/A-binding site has been mapped to the luminal domain, but the molecular details of the interaction between BoNT/A and SV2 are unknown. Here we determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the BoNT/A receptor-binding domain (BoNT/A-RBD) in complex with the SV2C luminal domain (SV2C-LD). SV2C-LD consists of a right-handed, quadrilateral β-helix that associates with BoNT/A-RBD mainly through backbone-to-backbone interactions at open β-strand edges, in a manner that resembles the inter-strand interactions in amyloid structures. Competition experiments identified a peptide that inhibits the formation of the complex. Our findings provide a strong platform for the development of novel antitoxin agents and for the rational design of BoNT/A variants with improved therapeutic properties.

  14. Screening of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli able to antagonise the cytotoxic effect of Clostridium difficile upon intestinal epithelial HT29 monolayer

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    Lorena eValdés-Varela

    2016-04-01

    toxigenic supernatant. Image analysis showed that this strain prevents HT29 cell rounding; this was achieved by preserving the F-actin microstructure and tight-junctions between adjacent cells, thus keeping the typical epithelium-like morphology. Besides, preliminary evidence showed that the viability of B. longum IPLA20022 is needed to exert the protective effect and that secreted factors seems to have anti-toxin activity.

  15. The complete sequence and comparative analysis of a multidrug- resistance and virulence multireplicon IncFII plasmid pEC302/04 from an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli EC302/04 indicate extensive diversity of IncFII plasmids

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    Wing Sze eHo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC that causes extraintestinal infections often harbor plasmids encoding fitness traits such as resistance and virulence determinants that are of clinical importance. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pEC302/04 from a multidrug-resistant E. coli EC302/04 which was isolated from the tracheal aspirate of a patient in Malaysia. In addition, we also performed comparative sequence analyses of 18 related IncFIIA plasmids to determine the phylogenetic relationship and diversity of these plasmids. The 140,232 bp pEC302/04 is a multireplicon plasmid that bears three replication systems (FII, FIA and FIB with subtype of F2:A1:B1. The plasmid is self-transmissible with a complete transfer region. pEC302/04 also carries antibiotic resistance genes such as blaTEM-1 and a class I integron containing sul1, cml and aadA resistance genes, conferring multidrug resistance (MDR to its host, E. coli EC302/04. Besides, two iron acquisition systems (SitABCD and IutA-IucABCD which are the conserved virulence determinants of ExPEC-colicin V or B and M (ColV/ColBM-producing plasmids were identified in pEC302/04. Multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA-based addiction systems (i.e., PemI/PemK, VagC/VagD, CcdA/CcdB, and Hok/Sok and a plasmid partitioning system, ParAB and PsiAB, which are important for plasmid maintenance were also found.Comparative plasmid analysis revealed only one conserved gene, the repA1 as the core genome, showing that there is an extensive diversity among the IncFIIA plasmids. The phylogenetic relationship of 18 IncF plasmids based on the core regions revealed that ColV/ColBM-plasmids and non-ColV/ColBM plasmids were separated into two distinct groups. These plasmids, which carry highly diverse genetic contents, are also mosaic in nature. The atypical combination of genetic materials, i.e., the MDR- and ColV/ColBM-plasmid-virulence encoding regions in a single ExPEC plasmid is rare but of

  16. The Complete Sequence and Comparative Analysis of a Multidrug-Resistance and Virulence Multireplicon IncFII Plasmid pEC302/04 from an Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli EC302/04 Indicate Extensive Diversity of IncFII Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing Sze; Yap, Kien-Pong; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Rajasekaram, Ganeswrie; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2015-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) that causes extraintestinal infections often harbor plasmids encoding fitness traits such as resistance and virulence determinants that are of clinical importance. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pEC302/04 from a multidrug-resistant E. coli EC302/04 which was isolated from the tracheal aspirate of a patient in Malaysia. In addition, we also performed comparative sequence analyses of 18 related IncFIIA plasmids to determine the phylogenetic relationship and diversity of these plasmids. The 140,232 bp pEC302/04 is a multireplicon plasmid that bears three replication systems (FII, FIA, and FIB) with subtype of F2:A1:B1. The plasmid is self-transmissible with a complete transfer region. pEC302/04 also carries antibiotic resistance genes such as bla TEM-1 and a class I integron containing sul1, cml and aadA resistance genes, conferring multidrug resistance (MDR) to its host, E. coli EC302/04. Besides, two iron acquisition systems (SitABCD and IutA-IucABCD) which are the conserved virulence determinants of ExPEC-colicin V or B and M (ColV/ColBM)-producing plasmids were identified in pEC302/04. Multiple toxin-antitoxin (TA)-based addiction systems (i.e., PemI/PemK, VagC/VagD, CcdA/CcdB, and Hok/Sok) and a plasmid partitioning system, ParAB, and PsiAB, which are important for plasmid maintenance were also found. Comparative plasmid analysis revealed only one conserved gene, the repA1 as the core genome, showing that there is an extensive diversity among the IncFIIA plasmids. The phylogenetic relationship of 18 IncF plasmids based on the core regions revealed that ColV/ColBM-plasmids and non-ColV/ColBM plasmids were separated into two distinct groups. These plasmids, which carry highly diverse genetic contents, are also mosaic in nature. The atypical combination of genetic materials, i.e., the MDR- and ColV/ColBM-plasmid-virulence encoding regions in a single ExPEC plasmid is rare but of clinical

  17. Sibling Rivalry in Myxococcus xanthus Is Mediated by Kin Recognition and a Polyploid Prophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Conklin, Austin C; Pathak, Darshankumar T; Troselj, Vera; Wall, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Myxobacteria form complex social communities that elicit multicellular behaviors. One such behavior is kin recognition, in which cells identify siblings via their polymorphic TraA cell surface receptor, to transiently fuse outer membranes and exchange their contents. In addition, outer membrane exchange (OME) regulates behaviors, such as inhibition of wild-type Myxococcus xanthus (DK1622) from swarming. Here we monitored the fate of motile cells and surprisingly found they were killed by nonmotile siblings. The kill phenotype required OME (i.e., was TraA dependent). The genetic basis of killing was traced to ancestral strains used to construct DK1622. Specifically, the kill phenotype mapped to a large "polyploid prophage," Mx alpha. Sensitive strains contained a 200-kb deletion that removed two of three Mx alpha units. To explain these results, we suggest that Mx alpha expresses a toxin-antitoxin cassette that uses the OME machinery of M. xanthus to transfer a toxin that makes the population "addicted" to Mx alpha. Thus, siblings that lost Mx alpha units (no immunity) are killed by cells that harbor the element. To test this, an Mx alpha-harboring laboratory strain was engineered (by traA allele swap) to recognize a closely related species, Myxococcus fulvus. As a result, M. fulvus, which lacks Mx alpha, was killed. These TraA-mediated antagonisms provide an explanation for how kin recognition specificity might have evolved in myxobacteria. That is, recognition specificity is determined by polymorphisms in traA, which we hypothesize were selected for because OME with non-kin leads to lethal outcomes. The transition from single cell to multicellular life is considered a major evolutionary event. Myxobacteria have successfully made this transition. For example, in response to starvation, individual cells aggregate into multicellular fruiting bodies wherein cells differentiate into spores. To build fruits, cells need to recognize their siblings, and in part, this is

  18. Antivirulence Properties of Probiotics in Combating Microbial Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran Nair, M; Amalaradjou, M A; Venkitanarayanan, K

    2017-01-01

    antimicrobial substances like bacteriocins, competition for limiting resources in the host, antitoxin effect, inhibition of virulence, antiadhesive and antiinvasive effects, and competitive exclusion by competition for binding sites or stimulation of epithelial barrier function. Although much has been documented about the ability of probiotics to promote host health, there is limited discussion on the above mentioned effects of probiotics on pathogens. Being in an era of antibiotic resistance, a better understanding of this complex probiotic-pathogen interaction is critical for development of effective strategies to control infections. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the ability of probiotics to directly modulate the infectious nature of pathogens and the underlying mechanisms that mediate these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic plasticity of the Shigella virulence plasmid is mediated by intra- and inter-molecular events between insertion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Giulia; McVicker, Gareth; Tang, Christoph M

    2017-09-01

    Acquisition of a single copy, large virulence plasmid, pINV, led to the emergence of Shigella spp. from Escherichia coli. The plasmid encodes a Type III secretion system (T3SS) on a 30 kb pathogenicity island (PAI), and is maintained in a bacterial population through a series of toxin:antitoxin (TA) systems which mediate post-segregational killing (PSK). The T3SS imposes a significant cost on the bacterium, and strains which have lost the plasmid and/or genes encoding the T3SS grow faster than wild-type strains in the laboratory, and fail to bind the indicator dye Congo Red (CR). Our aim was to define the molecular events in Shigella flexneri that cause loss of Type III secretion (T3S), and to examine whether TA systems exert positional effects on pINV. During growth at 37°C, we found that deletions of regions of the plasmid including the PAI lead to the emergence of CR-negative colonies; deletions occur through intra-molecular recombination events between insertion sequences (ISs) flanking the PAI. Furthermore, by repositioning MvpAT (which belongs to the VapBC family of TA systems) near the PAI, we demonstrate that the location of this TA system alters the rearrangements that lead to loss of T3S, indicating that MvpAT acts both globally (by reducing loss of pINV through PSK) as well as locally (by preventing loss of adjacent sequences). During growth at environmental temperatures, we show for the first time that pINV spontaneously integrates into different sites in the chromosome, and this is mediated by inter-molecular events involving IS1294. Integration leads to reduced PAI gene expression and impaired secretion through the T3SS, while excision of pINV from the chromosome restores T3SS function. Therefore, pINV integration provides a reversible mechanism for Shigella to circumvent the metabolic burden imposed by pINV. Intra- and inter-molecular events between ISs, which are abundant in Shigella spp., mediate plasticity of S. flexneri pINV.

  20. Clusters of orthologous genes for 41 archaeal genomes and implications for evolutionary genomics of archaea

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    Wolf Yuri I

    2007-11-01

    that, in addition to the core archaeal functions, encoded more idiosyncratic systems, e.g., the CASS systems of antivirus defense and some toxin-antitoxin systems. Conclusion The arCOGs provide a convenient, flexible framework for functional annotation of archaeal genomes, comparative genomics and evolutionary reconstructions. Genomic reconstructions suggest that the last common ancestor of archaea might have been (nearly as advanced as the modern archaeal hyperthermophiles. ArCOGs and related information are available at: ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/koonin/arCOGs/. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Peer Bork, Patrick Forterre, and Purificacion Lopez-Garcia.

  1. Enhanced production of a single domain antibody with an engineered stabilizing extra disulfide bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinny L; Goldman, Ellen R; Zabetakis, Dan; Walper, Scott A; Turner, Kendrick B; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Anderson, George P

    2015-10-09

    Single domain antibodies derived from the variable region of the unique heavy chain antibodies found in camelids yield high affinity and regenerable recognition elements. Adding an additional disulfide bond that bridges framework regions is a proven method to increase their melting temperature, however often at the expense of protein production. To fulfill their full potential it is essential to achieve robust protein production of these stable binding elements. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that decreasing the isoelectric point of single domain antibody extra disulfide bond mutants whose production fell due to the incorporation of the extra disulfide bond would lead to recovery of the protein yield, while maintaining the favorable melting temperature and affinity. Introduction of negative charges into a disulfide bond mutant of a single domain antibody specific for the L1 antigen of the vaccinia virus led to approximately 3.5-fold increase of protein production to 14 mg/L, while affinity and melting temperature was maintained. In addition, refolding following heat denaturation improved from 15 to 70 %. It also maintained nearly 100 % of its binding function after heating to 85 °C for an hour at 1 mg/mL. Disappointingly, the replacement of neutral or positively charged amino acids with negatively charged ones to lower the isoelectric point of two anti-toxin single domain antibodies stabilized with a second disulfide bond yielded only slight increases in protein production. Nonetheless, for one of these binders the charge change itself stabilized the structure equivalent to disulfide bond addition, thus providing an alternative route to stabilization which is not accompanied by loss in production. The ability to produce high affinity, stable single domain antibodies is critical for their utility. While the addition of a second disulfide bond is a proven method for enhancing stability of single domain antibodies, it frequently comes at the cost of reduced

  2. Isolation and functional characterization of the novel Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin A8 subtype.

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    Skadi Kull

    toxin function might pave the way for the development of novel therapeutics and tailor-made antitoxins.

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of the novel Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin A8 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Skadi; Schulz, K Melanie; Weisemann, Jasmin; Kirchner, Sebastian; Schreiber, Tanja; Bollenbach, Alexander; Dabrowski, P Wojtek; Nitsche, Andreas; Kalb, Suzanne R; Dorner, Martin B; Barr, John R; Rummel, Andreas; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-01-01

    pave the way for the development of novel therapeutics and tailor-made antitoxins.

  4. Characterization of Metagenomes in Urban Aquatic Compartments Reveals High Prevalence of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewaters

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    Charmaine Ng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6 were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb. A cluster analysis showed that the taxonomic composition of wastewaters was highly similar and had a bacterial community composition enriched in gut bacteria (Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, the Enterobacteriaceae group (Klebsiella, Aeromonas, Enterobacter and opportunistic pathogens (Prevotella, Comamonas, Neisseria. Wastewater, treated effluents and surface waters had a shared resistome of 21 ARGs encoding multidrug resistant efflux pumps or resistance to aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramins (MLS, quinolones, sulfonamide, and tetracycline resistance which suggests that these genes are wide spread across different environments. Wastewater had a distinctively higher average abundance of clinically relevant, class A beta-lactamase resistant genes (i.e., blaKPC, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM. The wastewaters from clinical isolation wards, in particular, had a exceedingly high levels of blaKPC-2 genes (142,200 x/Gb, encoding for carbapenem resistance. Assembled scaffolds (16 and 30 kbp from isolation ward wastewater samples indicated this gene was located on a Tn3-based transposon (Tn4401, a mobilization element found in Klebsiella pneumonia plasmids. In the longer scaffold, transposable elements were flanked by a toxin–antitoxin (TA system and other metal resistant genes that likely increase the persistence, fitness and propagation of the plasmid in the

  5. Adding to Yersinia enterocolitica Gene Pool Diversity: Two Cryptic Plasmids from a Biotype 1A Isolate

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    Daniela Lepka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequence of two novel cryptic plasmids (4357 and 14 662 base pairs carried by a Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strain isolated from pork. As distinguished from most biotype 1A strains, this isolate, designated 07-04449, exhibited adherence to eukaryotic cells. The smaller plasmid pYe4449-1 carries five attributable open reading frames (ORFs encoding the first CcdA/CcdB-like antitoxin/toxin system described for a Yersinia plasmid, a RepA-like replication initiation protein, and mobilizing factors MobA and MobC. The deduced amino acid sequences showed highest similarity to proteins described in Salmonella (CcdA/B, Klebsiella (RepA, and Plesiomonas (MobA/C indicating genomic fluidity among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One additional ORF with unknown function, termed ORF5, was identified with an ancestry distinct from the rest of the plasmid. While the C+G content of ORF5 is 38.3%, the rest of pYe4449-1 shows a C+G content of 55.7%. The C+G content of the larger plasmid pYe4449-2 (54.9% was similar to that of pYe4449-1 (53.7% and differed from that of the Y. enterocolitica genome (47.3%. Of the 14 ORFs identified on pYe4449-2, only six ORFs showed significant similarity to database entries. For three of these ORFs likely functions could be ascribed: a TnpR-like resolvase and a phage replication protein, localized each on a low C+G island, and DNA primase TraC. Two ORFs of pYe4449-2, ORF3 and ORF7, seem to encode secretable proteins. Epitope-tagging of ORF3 revealed protein expression at 4°C but not at or above 27°C suggesting adaptation to a habitat outside swine. The hypothetical protein encoded by ORF7 is the member of a novel repeat protein family sharing the DxxGN(xnDxxGN motif. Our findings illustrate the exceptional gene pool diversity within the species Y. enterocolitica driven by horizontal gene transfer events.

  6. Transmission of the PabI family of restriction DNA glycosylase genes: mobility and long-term inheritance.

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    Kojima, Kenji K; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2015-10-19

    R.PabI is an exceptional restriction enzyme that functions as a DNA glycosylase. The enzyme excises an unmethylated base from its recognition sequence to generate apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, and also displays AP lyase activity, cleaving the DNA backbone at the AP site to generate the 3'-phospho alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde end in addition to the 5'-phosphate end. The resulting ends are difficult to religate with DNA ligase. The enzyme was originally isolated in Pyrococcus, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, and additional homologs subsequently identified in the epsilon class of the Gram-negative bacterial phylum Proteobacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori. Systematic analysis of R.PabI homologs and their neighboring genes in sequenced genomes revealed co-occurrence of R.PabI with M.PabI homolog methyltransferase genes. R.PabI and M.PabI homolog genes are occasionally found at corresponding (orthologous) loci in different species, such as Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter acinonychis and Helicobacter cetorum, indicating long-term maintenance of the gene pair. One R.PabI and M.PabI homolog gene pair is observed immediately after the GMP synthase gene in both Campylobacter and Helicobacter, representing orthologs beyond genera. The mobility of the PabI family of restriction-modification (RM) system between genomes is evident upon comparison of genomes of sibling strains/species. Analysis of R.PabI and M.PabI homologs in H. pylori revealed an insertion of integrative and conjugative elements (ICE), and replacement with a gene of unknown function that may specify a membrane-associated toxin (hrgC). In view of the similarity of HrgC with toxins in type I toxin-antitoxin systems, we addressed the biological significance of this substitution. Our data indicate that replacement with hrgC occurred in the common ancestor of hspAmerind and hspEAsia. Subsequently, H. pylori with and without hrgC were intermixed at this locus, leading to complex distribution of hrgC in East

  7. Doctor’s identity in modern Western society

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    KIM Ock-Joo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago doctors perceived themselves quite differently as they do today Doctor’s identity in modern Western society shaped from the modernization of medicine starting in the nineteenth century Modern medicine as practiced today was established from 1800 to the World War I In the eighteenth century three medical groups (physicians surgeons and apothecaries struggled to elevate their position and to organize their education Surgery and surgical education in hospitals developed greatly while physicians tried to theorize their own medical system in the eighteenth century In the early nineteenth century hospital medicine emerged hospitals moved from the place for the poor and the social inadequate to the center of medical education and research Especially French hospitals became the birth places of clinico-pathology new diagnosis with stethoscope careful observation and the numerical method The influence of the hospital medicine spread from France to England America and other parts of Europe After the birth of clinic in France laboratory medicine emerged in Germany France Britain and the United States Surpassing other nations Germany developed university-centered laboratory research system Most of all the reward and status of the laboratory researchers were established so that they could concentrate on their research Although other countries were influenced by German system and knowledge they did not develop research system at the same degree as Germany Rise of scientific medicine transformed self-perception of doctors Science made a great impact not only on the doctors’ practice of medicine but also on the public’s perception of medicine and doctors In the late nineteenth century new discoveries and new armament of scientific medicine marched through antiseptic surgery tropical medicine new laboratories antitoxin therapies from immunology the rise of pharmaceutical industry and the discovery of X-ray Payment system also was changed