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Sample records for antithyroid drugs

  1. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  2. Anti-thyroid drugs in pediatric Graves′ disease

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    Mathew John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Most children and adolescents are treated with anti-thyroid drugs as the initial modality. Studies have used Methimazole, Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU either as titration regimes or as block and replacement regimes. The various studies of anti-thyroid drug (ATD treatment of Graves′ disease in pediatric patients differ in terms of the regimes, remission rate, duration of therapy for adequate remission, follow up and adverse effects of ATD. Various studies show that lower thyroid hormone levels, prolonged duration of treatment, lower levels of TSH receptor antibodies, smaller goiter and increased age of child predicted higher chance of remission after ATD. A variable number of patients experience minor and major adverse effects limiting initial and long term treatment with ATD. The adverse effects of various ATD seem to more in children compared to that of adults. In view of liver injury including hepatocellular failure need of liver transplantation associated with PTU, the use has been restricted in children. The rate of persistent remission with ATD following discontinuation is about 30%. Radioactive iodine therapy is gaining more acceptance in older children with Graves′s disease in view of the limitations of ATD. For individual patients, risk-benefit ratio of ATD should be weighed against benefits of radioactive iodine therapy and patient preferences.

  3. Effect of universal salt iodization on antithyroid drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Wei-xin; LIAN Xiao-lan; LU Lin; LI Su-mei; LI Shu-hua; LI Xiu-wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ Iodine deficiency disease (IDD) is common in China.An universal salt iodization (USI) program has been implemented by the Chinese government since 1996. As a result, the goiter rate in 8- to 10-year old children decreased from 20.4% in 1995 to 5.8% in 2002.1 But the adverse effects of iodine excess such as iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, iodine-induced goiters, iodine-induced hypothyroidism, etc. have become a great concern to healthcare professionals as well as the general population. The impact of USI on antithyroid drugs (ATDs) might become a potential challenge to address. With a special grant from the Department of Disease Control, the Health Ministry of China, we conducted a prospective study on the effects of USI on ATDs at the thyroid section of the Endocrinology Clinic of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Beijing.

  4. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methimazole (MMI) and Propylthiouracil (PTU) are both associated with birth defects, and may also rarely be associated with agranulocytosis and liver failure. The frequency of these side effects when antithyroid drugs (ATD) are used in the population in general or in pregnancy remains...... of agranulocytosis (1 in pregnancy) and 10 cases of liver failure (1 in pregnancy). This corresponded to 41/11 cases of agranulocytosis/liver failure per 5 million inhabitants during a 10-year period (agranulocytosis: 0.16% of ATD exposed (MMI: 0.11% vs. PTU: 0.27%, p=0.02); liver failure: 0.03% of ATD exposed (MMI......: 0.03% vs. PTU: 0.05%, p=0.4)). The majority (83%) developed the side effect within 3 months of ATD treatment, and 25% during hyperthyroidism relapse. The use of ATD in pregnancy was associated with birth defects in 3.4% of exposed children (44 cases/5 million inhabitants/10 years), and the frequency...

  5. An Overview on the Proposed Mechanisms of Antithyroid Drugs-Induced Liver Injury

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    Reza Heidari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a major problem for pharmaceutical industry and drug development. Mechanisms of DILI are many and varied. Elucidating the mechanisms of DILI will allow clinicians to prevent liver failure, need for liver transplantation, and death induced by drugs. Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU are two convenient antithyroid agents which their administration is accompanied by hepatotoxicity as a deleterious side effect. Although several cases of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury are reported, there is no clear idea about the mechanism(s of hepatotoxicity induced by these medications. Different mechanisms such as reactive metabolites formation, oxidative stress induction, intracellular targets dysfunction, and immune-mediated toxicity are postulated to be involved in antithyroid agents-induced hepatic damage. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity, it is impossible to draw a specific conclusion about the mechanisms of liver injury. However, it seems that reactive metabolite formation and immune-mediated toxicity have a great role in antithyroids liver toxicity, especially those caused by methimazole. This review attempted to discuss different mechanisms proposed to be involved in the hepatic injury induced by antithyroid drugs.

  6. Fever or a soar throat after start of antithyroidal drugs? A medical emergency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeloffzen, WWH; Verhaegh, JJ; van Poelgeest, AE; Gansevoort, RT

    1998-01-01

    We describe two patients who developed granulocytopenia (granulocyte count <1.0 x 10(9)/l) after treatment with antithyroid drugs. Although, perhaps, an already known side-effect of these drugs, we present these cases in order to stay alert for this serious complication. The first patient developed

  7. Bioinorganic Chemistry in Thyroid Gland: Effect of Antithyroid Drugs on Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation and Iodination Reactions

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    G. Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI are the most commonly used antithyroid drugs. The available data suggest that these drugs may block the thyroid hormone synthesis by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase (TPO or diverting oxidized iodides away from thyroglobulin. It is also known that PTU inhibits the selenocysteine-containing enzyme ID-1 by reacting with the selenenyl iodide intermediate (E-SeI. In view of the current interest in antithyroid drugs, we have recently carried out biomimetic studies to understand the mechanism by which the antithyroid drugs inhibit the thyroid hormone synthesis and found that the replacement of sulfur with selenium in MMI leads to an interesting compound that may reversibly block the thyroid hormone synthesis. Our recent results on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase (LPO-catalyzed oxidation and iodination reactions by antithyroid drugs are described.

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of some trisulfide analoges of thiouracil-based antithyroid drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhabak, Krishna P.; Bhowmick, Debasish

    2012-08-01

    Thiourea-based antithyroid drugs are effectively used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of new trisulfides (11-12) from the commonly used thiourea-based antithyroid drugs such as 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) and 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU) in the reaction with I2/KI system. Structural analysis by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed the stabilization of trisulfides by a lactam-lactim tautomerism facilitating effective intramolecular as well as intermolecular non-covalent interactions. Although the structures of both trisulfides were found to be quite similar, a notable difference in the intermolecular interactions was observed between compounds 11 and 12 leading to different structural patterns. Structural stabilization of these trisulfides by tautomerism followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule.

  9. [Treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease: what is the recommended antithyroid drug during pregnancy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, P

    2013-05-01

    Clinical hyperthyroidism during the first trimester of pregnancy due to Graves' disease can be associated with maternal, obstetrical and fetal complications, indicating an active treatment to restore normal thyroid function. Antithyroid drugs are the first line treatment in pregnant women with hyperthyroidism. Due to the increased congenital malformations reported in neonates after first-trimester carbimazole/methimazole treatment and propylthiouracil associated hepatotoxicity, the recommended treatment for pregnant women with hyperthyroid Graves' disease is propylthiouracil during the first trimester of pregnancy and following the first trimester, consideration should be given switching to carbimazole/methimazole during the second part of gestation.

  10. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gouriprasanna Roy; G Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, generated by thyroid oxidase enzymes, is a crucial substrate for the thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalysed biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the thyroid gland. It is believed that the H2O2 generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, the control of hydrogen peroxide concentration is one of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the replacement of sulphur in MMI by selenium leads to a selone, which exists predominantly in its zwitterionic form. In contrast to the sulphur drug, the selenium analogue (MSeI) reversibly inhibits the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation and iodination reactions. Theoretical studies on MSeI reveal that the selenium atom in this compound carries a large negative charge. The carbon-selenium bond length in MSeI is found to be close to single-bond length. As the selenium atom exhibits a large nucleophilic character, the selenium analogue of MMI may scavenge the hydrogen peroxide present in the thyroid cells, which may lead to a reversible inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

  11. Outcome of Very Long-Term Treatment with Antithyroid Drugs in Graves' Hyperthyroidism Associated with Graves' Orbitopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Elbers; M. Mourits; W. Wiersinga

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is still debated which treatment modality for Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) is most appropriate when Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is present. The preference in our center has been always to continue antithyroid drugs for GH (as the block-and-replace [B-R] regimen) until all medical and/or

  12. 131I therapy for 345 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism: Without antithyroid drug pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Xing, Jialiu; Fang, Yi; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Youren; Long, Yahong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and long-term results of (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment. From January 2002 to December 2012, 408 patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism were treated with (131)I alone. Among them, 345 were followed up for 1 to 10 years for physical examination, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound. Complete Blood Count (CBC) liver function, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) thyroid imaging were performed as indicated. The 345 patients had concomitant conditions including thyrotoxic heart disease, severe liver dysfunction, enlarged thyroid weighing 80 to 400 g, severe cytopenia, and vasculitis. One to two weeks prior to (131)I therapy, all patients were given low-iodine diet. The dose of (131)I therapy was 2.59 to 6.66 MBq (70 to180 µCi) per gram of thyroid with an average of 3.83 ± 0.6 MBq (103.6 ± 16.4 µCi); and the total (131)I activity administrated for the individuals was 111 to 3507.6 MBq (3.0 to 94.8 mCi, mean 444 ± 336.7 MBq (12.0 ± 9.1 mCi)). Out of the 408 patients, 283 were cured, 15 with complete remission, and 47 with incomplete remission. No treatment failure or significant clinical worsening was noted in these patients. Our data indicated that (131)I therapy alone for patients with refractory severe hyperthyroidism without antithyroid drug pretreatment is safe and effective.

  13. Relationship between dose of antithyroid drugs and adverse events in pediatric patients with Graves’ disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kie; Miyoshi, Yoko; Tachibana, Makiko; Namba, Noriyuki; Miki, Kazunori; Nakata, Yukiko; Takano, Toru; Ozono, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Graves’ disease (GD) accounts for a large proportion of pediatric hyperthyroidism, and the first-line treatment is antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Methimazole (MMI) is effective in most patients but is associated with significant adverse events (AEs). We reviewed the medical records of GD patients (n = 56) with onset age of <15 yr and investigated the relationship between MMI dose and AEs. The study population comprised 11 male and 45 female patients and the median age at diagnosis was 11 yr. All patients were initially treated with ATDs. Among the 52 patients initially treated with MMI, 20 received a low dose, and 32 received a high dose of MMI (< 0.7 vs ≥ 0.7 mg/kg/day, respectively). AEs occurred in 20% of the patients in the low-dose MMI group, and in 50% patients in the high-dose MMI group (p = 0.031). A greater variety of AEs was observed in the high-dose group. Neutropenia and rash were observed in both groups. With treatment transition to low-dose MMI according to the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology guidelines, we expect a decrease in the incidence of AEs in future. However, we should be careful as neutropenia and rash can occur independently of the MMI dose.

  14. Can bone loss be reversed by antithyroid drug therapy in premenopausal women with Graves' disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsing Tina Z

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Hyperthyroidism can lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk particularly in postmenopausal women, but the mechanism behind is still unclear. Objective Prospective examination of the influence of thyroid hormones and/or thyroid autoantibodies on BMD in premenopause. Design We have examined 32 premenopausal women with untreated active Graves' disease from time of diagnosis, during 18 months of antithyroid drug therapy (ATD and additionally 18 months after discontinuing ATD. Variables of thyroid metabolism, calcium homeostasis and body composition were measured every 3 months. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured at baseline, 18 ± 3 and 36 ± 3 months. Data were compared to base line, a sex- and age matched control group and a group of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated with non-suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Results The study showed significantly (p Conclusion The results indicated a clinically relevant impact of thyroid function on bone modulation also in premenopausal women with Graves' disease, and further indicated the possibility for a direct action of TRAb on bones.

  15. The thyroid function of Graves' disease patients is aggravated by depressive personality during antithyroid drug treatment

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    Miyauchi Akira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stresses, thyroid function and the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed GD patients. Methods Sixty-four untreated GD patients responded to the MMPI for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses before and during ATD treatment. Results In the untreated thyrotoxic state, depressive personality (T-scores of hypochondriasis, depression or psychasthenia greater than 60 points in MMPI were found for 44 patients (69%. For 15 (23% of these patients, the scores decreased to the normal range after treatment. However, depressive personality persisted after treatment in the remaining 29 patients (46%. Normal scores before treatment were found for 20 patients (31%, and the scores were persistently normal for 15 patients (23%. The remaining 5 patients (8% had higher depressive personality after treatment. Such depressive personality was not associated with the severity of hyperthyroidism. Serum TSH receptor antibody activity at three years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0351 greater in the depression group than in the non- depression group. The remission rate at four years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0305 lower in the depression group than in the non- depression group (22% vs 52%. Conclusion The data indicate that in GD patients treated with ATD, depressive personality during treatment reflects the effect of emotional stress more than that of

  16. Antithyroid drugs as a factor influencing the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease and toxic nodular goitre?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, C.; Schneider, P.; Koerber-Hafner, N.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-09-01

    There is controversy over the factors that may influence the outcome of radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases. Antithyroid medication has been claimed to negatively influence the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the influence of sex, age, antithyroid drugs, target radiation dose, target mass, applied activity, delivered dose, interval between last meal and application, and TSH, FT{sub 3} and FT{sub 4} levels on the outcome of radioiodine therapy. One hundred and forty-four patients (111 female, 33 male) suffering from Graves' disease (GD) and 563 patients (434 female, 129 male) with toxic nodular goitre (TNG) were entered in the study and followed up until 8 months after therapy. Treatment was defined as successful when the TSH level was found to be normal or elevated. Ninety-eight GD patients and 418 TNG patients were successfully treated. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis models retained only the target mass in GD and the applied activity in TNG as significantly associated with the outcome of therapy. The predictive value of all variables involved was extremely low in both disease groups. Whereas concomitant antithyroid medication had no influence in GD, it adversely influenced radioiodine therapy of TNG. This effect may be attributed to a radioiodine ''steal phenomenon'' induced by TSH-stimulated normal thyroid tissue, which causes overestimation of the uptake in toxic nodules. (orig.)

  17. Antithyroid drugs in Graves′ disease: Are we stretching it too far?

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    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early and durable achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid status with low likelihood of relapse is the key to effective treatment of Graves′ disease (GD. Although antithyroid drugs (ATDs are commonly used first-line agents, likelihood of remission remains highest with radioactive iodine (RAI therapy and surgery. Data regarding efficacy and economical superiority of RAI therapy over ATDs are lacking from India. This study was designed to study the response to long-term (>12 months use of ATDs in GD with respect to attainment of remission and to compare the cost of treatment with ATDs versus RAI therapy beyond 12 months. Settings: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center. Study Design: This was a retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: Patients of GD in our follow-up from February 2009 to March 2016 who had received ATDs for a duration exceeding 12 months were retrospectively analyzed. Patients who underwent radioablation after a period of at least 12 months on ATDs were analyzed and their status was recorded after a minimum of 6 months after radioablation. Patients who remained hyperthyroid beyond 12 months and received RAI therapy were further compared with those who continued on ATDs, for achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid status. Cost analysis was done for follow-ups and treatment and compared. Statistical Analysis Used : All analyses were done using Fisher′s exact test for categorical and descriptive statistics for numerical data. Results: Use of ATDs leading to euthyroid and hypothyroid status in GD patients was only significant beyond 24 years when compared to those at <12-18 months therapy (P = 0.0262 and P = 0.0217, respectively. The patients who ended up with hypothyroid status were significantly greater in RAI group compared to ATD group (P = 0.0003. Cost of therapy per patient beyond 12 months was lower in the RAI group compared to the ATD group (cost difference Rs. 5435.00. Conclusions : Within

  18. Effect of thione-thiol tautomerism on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase by anti-thyroid drugs and their analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N JAyaram; Gouriprasanna Roy; Govindasamy Mugesh

    2008-01-01

    The keto-enol type tautomerism in anti-thyroid drugs and their selenium analogues are described. The commonly used anti-thyroid drug methimazole exists predominantly in its thione form, whereas its selenium analogue exists in a zwitterionic form. To understand the effect of thione/thiol and selone/selenol tautomerism on the inhibition of peroxidase-catalysed reactions, we have synthesized some thiones and selones in which the formation of thiol/selenol forms are blocked by different substituents. These compounds were synthesized by a carbene route utilizing an imidazolium salt. The crystal structures of these compounds reveal that the C=Se bonds in the selones are more polarized than the C=S bonds in the corresponding thiones. The structures of selones were studied in solution by NMR spectroscopy and the 77Se NMR chemical shifts for the selones show large upfield shifts in the signals, confirming their zwitterionic structures in solution. The inhibition of lactoperoxidase by the synthetic thiones indicates that the presence of a free N-H moiety is essential for an efficient inhibition. In contrast, such moiety is not required for an inhibition by the selenium compounds.

  19. Occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and associated vasculitis in patients with hyperthyroidism treated with antithyroid drugs : A long-term followup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, MC; Links, TP; Stegeman, CA; Tervaert, JWC

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To test whether antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) are not only induced during treatment with antithyroid drugs, but can also become evident when medication has been ceased, possibly after years. Methods. Patients who visited our hospital for

  20. Congenital anomalies in children exposed to antithyroid drugs in-utero: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Li

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism affects about 0.2%-2.7% of all pregnancies, and is commonly managed with antithyroid drugs (ATDs. However, previous studies about the effects of ATDs on congenital anomalies are controversial. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was performed to explore the risk of congenital anomalies in children exposed to ATDs in-utero.Embase, Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, and BIOSIS Citation Index were searched to find out studies about congenital anomalies in children exposed to ATDs in-utero reported up to May 2014. The references cited by the retrieved articles were also searched. The relative risks (RRs and confidence intervals (CIs for the individual studies were pooled by fixed effects models, and heterogeneity was analyzed by chi-square and I2 tests.Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU, methimazole/carbimazole (MMI/CMZ, and PTU & MMI/CMZ was investigated in 7, 7 and 2 studies, respectively. The pooled RR was 1.20 (95%CI: 1.02-1.42, 1.64 (95%CI: 1.39-1.92, and 1.83 (95%CI: 1.30-2.56 for congenital anomalies after exposure to PTU, MMI/CMZ, and PTU & MMI/CMZ, respectively.The meta-analysis suggests that exposure to ATDs in-utero increases the risk of congenital anomalies. The use of ATDs in pregnancy should be limited when possible. Further research is needed to delineate the exact teratogenic risk for particular congenital anomaly.

  1. Usefulness of Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Antibody at the Time of Antithyroid Drug Withdrawal for Predicting Relapse of Graves Disease

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    Hyemi Kwon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHyperthyroidism relapse in Graves disease after antithyroid drug (ATD withdrawal is common; however, measuring the thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb at ATD withdrawal in order to predict outcomes is controversial. This study compared measurement of thyroid stimulatory antibody (TSAb and thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII at ATD withdrawal to predict relapse.MethodsThis retrospective study enrolled patients with Graves disease who were treated with ATDs and whose serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were normal after receiving low-dose ATDs. ATD therapy was stopped irrespective of TRAb positivity after an additional 6 months of receiving the minimum dose of ATD therapy. Patients were followed using thyroid function tests and TSAb (TSAb group; n=35 or TBII (TBII group; n=39 every 3 to 6 months for 2 years after ATD withdrawal.ResultsTwenty-eight patients (38% relapsed for a median follow-up of 21 months, and there were no differences in baseline clinical characteristics between groups. In the TSAb group, relapse was more common in patients with positive TSAb at ATD withdrawal (67% than patients with negative TSAb (17%; P=0.007. Relapse-free survival was shorter in TSAb-positive patients. In the TBII group, there were no differences in the relapse rate and relapse-free survivals according to TBII positivity. For predicting Graves disease relapse, the sensitivity and specificity of TSAb were 63% and 83%, respectively, whereas those of TBII were 28% and 65%.ConclusionTSAb at ATD withdrawal can predict the relapse of Graves hyperthyroidism, but TBII cannot. Measuring TSAb at ATD withdrawal can assist with clinical decisions making for patients with Graves disease.

  2. Safety issues of thiourea antithyroid drugs%硫脲类抗甲状腺药物的安全性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连小兰

    2011-01-01

    Thiourea antithyroid drugs have an inhibitory effect on the production of thyroid hormone and are used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in clinical practice. The commonly used thiourea antithyroid drugs are methimazole and propylthiouracil. Their adverse reactions include drug eruption, agranulocytosis, serious hepatic injures, ANCA-associated vasculitis and teratogenicity. Severe hepatic injures and ANCA-associated vasculitis are mainly related to propylthiouracil, while teratogenicity is caused by methimazole. Methimazole is a first-choice drug for treating children and non-pregnant women with hyperthyroidism, while propylthiouracil is a first-choice drug for treating pregnant and breast-feeding women. The measures of the prevention and treatment of adverse reactions to thiourea antithyroid drugs are as follows; rational drug use, regular monitoring, drug withdrawl immediately after developing related adverse reactions and treatment.%硫脲类抗甲状腺药物具有抑制甲状腺激素生成的作用,临床上用于治疗甲状腺功能亢进症.常见的硫脲类抗甲状腺药物有丙硫氧嘧啶和甲巯咪唑.其不良反应包括药疹、粒细胞缺乏症、严重肝损伤、抗中性粒细胞胞质抗体(ANCA)相关性血管炎等,并有一定的致畸作用.严重肝损伤和ANCA相关性血管炎的发生多与丙硫氧嘧啶有关,致畸作用主要见于甲巯咪唑.儿童和非妊娠期甲状腺功能亢进症患者的治疗首选甲巯咪唑,妊娠和哺乳期患者首选丙硫氧嘧啶.防治硫脲类抗甲状腺药物不良反应的措施包括:合理用药、定期监测、出现不良反应及时停药,以及对症治疗.

  3. 抗甲状腺药物治疗甲状腺功能亢进症临床分析%Antithyroid Drug Therapy of Hyperthyroidism Clinical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国萍

    2013-01-01

      目的:对甲状腺功能亢进患者行抗甲状腺药物治疗临床治疗方法分析。方法:临床采取抗甲状腺药物治疗甲状腺功能亢进症。结果:早期诊断、早期治疗,防止并发症,尤其是防止浸润性突眼、甲亢性肌病、甲亢性心脏病及甲亢危象等,患者症状逐渐缓解,病情得到控制。结论:抗甲状腺药物可作为单独治疗、手术治疗前准备、辅助131碘治疗、中西医结合治疗及甲亢危象治疗,提高疗效。%Objective:On hyperthyroidism patients with antithyroid drug therapy clinical treatment analysis. Methods: clinical taken antithyroid drug therapy of hyperthyroidism.Results:early diagnosis, early treatment, prevention of complications, especially to prevent infiltration exophthalmos, thyrotoxic myopathy, hyperthyroid heart disease and hyperthyroidism crisis, symptoms were in remission, the disease under control. Conclusions: anti thyroid drugs as single treatment, preoperative preparation, operation, adjuvant iodine 131 in the treatment of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy and hyperthyroidism crisis treatment, improve the curative effect.

  4. How does fatty acid influence anti-thyroid drugs binding and specificity toward protein human serum albumin? A blind docking simulation study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijan K Paul; Nikhil Guchhait

    2014-11-01

    This study reports an AutoDock-based blind docking simulation investigation to characterize the binding interaction of a series of anti-thyroid drugs (2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), 2-thiouracil (TU), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU), 6--propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) with a model plasma protein Human SerumAlbumin (HSA) in the presence and absence of fatty acid (FA). The drug-protein binding efficiency is characterized in terms of binding free energy and the association constant (Ka, which is estimated as the reciprocal of the inhibition constant, Ki) of the drugs to the transport protein. The study also unveils the substantial impact of the presence of fatty acid (FA) on the binding interaction process. It is shown that in the presence of FA the drug-protein binding efficiency is markedly enhanced (except for MTU) and the binding location is changed. Hydrogen bonding interaction appears to play a governing role in the process of FA-induced modifications of binding efficiency and location.

  5. A Report of Three Girls with Antithyroid Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis; Retrospective Analysis of 18 Cases Aged 15 Years or Younger Reported between 1995 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamitani, Kanshi; Oikawa, Junko; Wataki, Kunio; Kashima, Kyoko; Hoshi, Mari; Inomata, Hiroaki; Ota, Setsuo

    2011-04-01

    Agranulocytosis is an extremely serious, although rare, adverse effect of antithyroid drugs (ATDs), including methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU), in children and adolescents. There are few reports about the characteristics of ATD-induced agranulocytosis in Japanese children and adolescents. This report presents the cases of three girls with ATD-induced agranulocytosis and a retrospective analysis of 18 patients with ATD-induced agranulocytosis, whose cases had been referred to the drug manufacturer, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Our 3 patients, ranging in age from 12 to 14 yr, developed ATD-induced agranulocytosis between the 15th and 57th day of ATD treatment for hyperthyroidism. Fever and sore throat were the earliest symptoms of agranulocytosis. The patients were rescued by ceasing ATD therapy and administering antibiotics, potassium iodide, glucocorticoid, immunoglobulin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We retrospectively analyzed 18 cases of ATD-induced agranulocytosis treated with MMI in 16 cases and PTU in 2 cases. Twelve patients were treated with 20-45 mg/d MMI. Agranulocytosis developed between the 15th and 1,344th day of therapy. In conclusion, considering the risk of ATD-induced agranulocytosis, we recommend low-dose MMI therapy for treatment of Graves' disease.

  6. Update on the side effects of antithyroid drugs%抗甲状腺药物不良反应的再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 蒋琳

    2011-01-01

    Antithyroid drugs(ATD)is the main treatment for hyperthyroidism and its adverse reactions have been much concerned by physicians. Methimazole(MMI)and propylthiouracil(PTU)are the two common antitithyroid drugs used currently. Generally, the ATD are safe and effective, though their clinical adverse reactions are also relatively common. The toxic effects include liver damage and leukocytopenia, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated pulmonary small-vessel vasculitis, hypoglycemia, allergic reactions, muscle impairment,and so on. They are usually reversible and disappear spontaneously when the drug is discontinued. However,the serious rare side effects can also occur and there may have potentially deadly threatening effects which need to be cautious for the clinicians. MMI is usually preferred over PTU because it has significantly fewer side effects. And unlike the dose-dependent side effects of MMI, there has no significant correlation between adverse reaction and drug dosage in using PTU. Moreover, PTU has more severe hepatotoxity than MMI, even fatal liver impairment and liver failure. The risk of liver damage from PTU is an important concern, particularly in children. For this reason, MMI is the first choice for treating children with hyperthyroidism.%抗甲状腺药物(ATD)是治疗甲状腺功能亢进症主要手段,其不良反应备受学者们关注.ATD常用药物为丙基硫氧嘧啶(PTU)和甲巯咪唑(MMI).总的来说,ATD治疗是安全且有效的,但其临床不良反应亦较常见,如对肝脏、血液系统的毒性作用、抗中性粒细胞胞浆抗体相关性肺小血管炎、低血糖、变态反应、肌肉损伤等,一般程度较轻,如能及时停用ATD则能够自行恢复,但亦可出现少见、严重的副作用,可能存在潜在致命的危险,故需引起临床医生的重视.MMI与PTU比较,其不良反应显著低于PTU,且前者大多具有剂量依赖性,后者与药物的剂量无显著相关.此外,PTU的肝毒性强

  7. Differences in the Treatment Response to Antithyroid Drugs versus Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Case of Recurrent Catatonia due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a case which presented recurrent episodes of catatonia as a result of Graves’ disease with hyperthyroidism. The patient showed different treatment response in each episodes; in the first episode, psychiatric and physical symptoms were resolved by a combination of antithyroid and anxiolytic therapies, while in the second episode, the combination therapy did not ameliorate her symptoms and ECT was indicated. We postulated that decreased CSF level of TTR and the resulting susceptibility to the derangement of peripheral thyroid function might be involved in this different treatment response.

  8. 抗甲状腺药物治疗妊娠甲亢对新生儿甲状腺功能的影响%Impact of antithyroid drugs in treatment of gestational hyperthyroidism for neonatal thyroid function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸣燕; 李娴彧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze Impact of antithyroid drugs in treatment of gestational hyperthyroidism for neonatal thyroid function. Methods Retrospective analyzed clinical data in 60 cases of pregnancy in patients with hyperthyroidism between date of January 1, 2012 to January 1 2013 in our hospital, they were divided into control group (30 cases) and the experimental group (30 cases) according to the treatment. Patients in the control group were given a non-antithyroid drug treatment, the test group of patients were given anti-thyroid drug treatment, observation and comparin of treatment outcome between the two groups of patients. Results the control group of adverse outcomes(46.66%) was higher than outcomes in the experimental group (10.00%); P<0.05, there was statistically significant; TSH of test group, FT3, FT4 and other thyroid function was better than the control group, P<0.05,there was statistically significant. Conclusion after antithyroid drug therapy of gestational hyperthyroidism can significantly improve neonatal thyroid function, which can reduce adverse outcomes of pregnancy, it should be reasonable promotion in clinic.%目的:探讨分析抗甲状腺药物治疗妊娠甲亢对新生儿甲状腺功能的影响。方法回顾性分析2012年1月1日—2013年1月1日期间该院的60例妊娠甲亢患者的临床资料,根据治疗方式分为对照组(30例)和试验组(30例)。对照组患者被给予非抗甲状腺药物治疗,试验组患者被给予抗甲状腺药物治疗,观察、比较两组患者的治疗结果。结果对照组不良结局比(46.66%)高于试验组不良结局比(10.00%);P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义;试验组的TSH 、FT3、FT4等甲状腺功能均优于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论抗甲状腺药物治疗妊娠甲亢后可显著提升新生儿甲状腺功能,减少可妊娠不良结局,应于临床中合理推广。

  9. Liver volume, portal vein flow, and clearance of indocyanine green and antipyrine in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Court-Payen, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment.......The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment....

  10. Cost-effectiveness-analysis: radioiodine or antithyroid drugs as first-line therapy of hyperthyroidism due to Graves` disease; Kosten-Effektivitaets-Analyse: Radioiod oder thyreostatische Medikation bei der Primaerbehandlung der Immunhyperthyreose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Moka, D.; Dederichs, B.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Hunsche, E.; Lauterbach, K.W. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Gesundheitsoekonomie, Medizin und Gesellschaft

    1999-06-01

    Aim: As first-line therapy of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves` disease antithyroid drugs are favoured in Europe, while radioiodine therapy is favoured in the USA. Radioiodine therapy has become more economic in Germany since the new recommendations by the Federal German Radiation Protection Committee (SSK) for patient discharge guidelines. Method: Sensitivity analyses took into account the long-term relapse rate of conservative or radioiodine therapy, use of diagnostic tests, level of health insurance, drops in productivity and a discount factor. Costing models included the costs of follow-up care over 30 years. The costs of the hospitalisation for radioiodine therapy were calculated for 300 patients, discharged with 250 MBq I-131 residual activity. Result: Antithyroid drugs were considered cost-effective when they achieved relapse rate of 50% or less, a cut in the number of tests needed and reduced working hours. Failure to meet any one of these conditions makes primary radioiodine therapy more cost-effective in 1593 of 1944 calculated costing models. Repeated conservative therapies will increase clearly the overall costs. Conclusion: Radioiodine is a cost-effective, first-line therapy in patients with a special risk of relapse after primary conservative therapy (goitre, younger patient, persistent elevated TSH-receptor-antibodies or Tc-uptake). (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Die Erstmanifestation einer Immunhyperthyreose wird in Europa ueberwiegend thyreostatisch, in den USA mehrheitlich mit Radioiod definitiv behandelt. Diese beiden Alternativen wurden auf dem Hintergrund neuer nationaler Entlassungsrichtwerte nach einer Radioiodtherapie (RITh) verglichen. Methode: Aus Sicht der Gesellschaft entscheiden einerseits die langfristigen Rezidivraten, andererseits die Menge medizinischer Leistungen, der Versicherungsstatus und der Produktivitaetsausfall des Patienten (Fehlzeiten, Einkommen) sowie die zeitliche Verteilung der Kosten (Diskontierung) ueber die Kosten

  11. 抗甲状腺药物治疗甲状腺功能亢进症疗效观察%Observation on Curative Effect of Anti-thyroid Drugs in Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婉童

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observe the curative effect on hyperthyroidism application anti-thyroid medication. Methods Selected 100 cases with diagnosed thyroid function hyperfunction from octomber 2012 to January 2014 in our hospital, divided into the drug treatment group and the surgical treatment group according to their aspiration, each group had 50 cases. analyzed the curative effect of two groups. Results The clinical drug treatment group total effective rate was higher than the surgical treatment group, P<0.05, had difference statistically significnce. Conclusion The application of drugs for the treatment of hyperthyroidism its curative effect is distinc.%目的:观察甲状腺功能亢进症应用抗甲状腺药物治疗的疗效。方法选取我院2012年10月~2014年1月期间被诊断为甲状腺功能亢进并进行治疗的患者100例,并按照患者意愿分为药物治疗组和手术治疗组,每组50例。对两组患者治疗后的疗效进行统计分析。结果药物治疗组的临床总有效率高于手术治疗组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论应用药物进行甲状腺功能亢进症的治疗其疗效显著。

  12. The Observed Iodine 131 Antithyroid Drug Therapy of Hyperthyroidism Short and Long Term Efficacy%碘131与抗甲状腺药物治疗甲亢的近远期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝晓波

    2013-01-01

      Objective Iodine 131 anti-thyroid drugs and treatment of hyperthyroidism near, forward curative effect. Methods Select 250 cases of thyroid function in patients with hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism) for A group, to their use of iodine 131 treatment, the other 250 cases of patients with hyperthyroidism for group B, the use of antithyroid drugs (ATD) treatment. Observation than two groups of drug treatment of near future curative effect. Results A group of patients with hyperthyroidism using iodine 131 after treatment, A 210 cases were cured and 35 cases were improved invalid in 5 patients;group B patients with hyperthyroidism using ATD after treatment, a 121 cases were cured, 75 cases of better. A group of patients after treatment in A heart and liver function damage and reduce blood picture (appear A and above) there were 12 cases, there were 66 cases of group B, two groups of comparisons with significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion Although the iodine 131 patients after treatment of hyperthyroidism there a low incidence is higher, goggle-eyed improve were so poor phenomenon, in the clinical medicine, promote the use of this method.%  目的观察碘131与抗甲状腺药物治疗甲亢近、远期疗效。方法选取250例甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)患者为 A 组,对他们使用碘131进行治疗,另选同期250例甲亢患者为 B 组,使用抗甲状腺药物(ATD)进行治疗。观察比对两组药物治疗的近、远期疗效。结果 A 组甲亢患者使用碘131治疗后,一次治愈210例,好转35例,无效5例;B 组甲亢患者使用 ATD 治疗后,一次治愈121例,好转75例。A 组治疗后患者出现甲心病以及肝功能受损和血象降低(出现1项及以上的)共发生12例,B 组共发生66例,两组比较差异具有显著性(P <0.01)。结论尽管采用碘131治疗甲亢后存在患者甲低发生率较高,突眼的改善较差等现象,在临床医学中推广使用这种方法。

  13. 抗甲状腺药物治疗对甲亢患者胰岛功能作用的研究%Researches on the Islet Function of Hyperthyroidism Patients with Antithyroid Drug Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚红; 薛雪花; 张越

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the newly diagnosed patients with hyperthyroidism insulin sensitivity index and insulin resistance index changes after treatment with antithyroid drugs,and to analyze the correlation between thyroid hormone levels and HOMA-IR or HOMA-β.Method:In 38 cases of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed as hyperthyroidism group,at the same time,selected 36 cases of the control group,Fasting plasma glucose,Fasting insulin,free T3(FT3),free T4(FT4),thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)and other basic biochemical level before and after treatment with antithyroid drugs of all participants were measured.And calculated insulin sensitivity index(HOMA-β)and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR)changes,and analyzed the correlation between FT3,FT4,TSH and the HOMA-βor HOMA-IR.Result:(1)Pre-treatment of hyperthyroidism group’s FT3,FT4, fasting blood glucose(FBG),fasting insulin(FIns),glycosylated hemoglobin(HBA1c),HOMA-IR were significantly higher than the control group(P0.05).(2)Compared with before treatment,After treatment the hyperthyroidism group’s ALT,AST,FBG,HbA1c,FT3, FT4,HOMA-IR were significantly decreased(P0.05).(3)Pearson correlation analysis showed FT3,FT4 were negatively correlated with HOMA-β(r=-0.424, P0.05)。(2)治疗后甲亢组丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、FBG、HbA1c、FT3、FT4、HOMA-IR与治疗前比较均明显下降(P0.05)。(3)Pearson相关分析显示FT3、FT4与HOMA-β均呈负相关(r=-0.424,P<0.05;r=-0.307,P<0.05),TSH与HOMA-β呈正相关(r=0.456,P<0.05)。FT3、FT4与HOMA-IR相关性不显著,而TSH与HOMA-IR呈负相关(r=-0.429,P<0.05)。结论:甲亢患者的胰岛素抵抗指数较正常人偏高,胰岛功能较正常人偏低,甲亢控制后患者的胰岛功能恢复,但胰岛素抵抗仍存在,故临床上有必要对甲亢患者进行定期的糖耐量及胰岛功能检查,以便及早发现、及早干预。

  14. Technetium uptake predicts remission and relapse in Grave's disease patients on antithyroid drugs for at least 1 year in South Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Most of the information on remission related factors in Grave's disease are derived from Western literature. It is likely that there may be additional prognostic factors and differences in the postdrug treatment course of Grave's disease in India. Aim: To study factors which predict remission/relapse in Grave's disease patients from South India. Also to establish if technetium (Tc uptake has a role in predicting remission. Subjects and Methods: Records of 174 patients with clinical, biochemical, and scintigraphic criteria consistent with Grave's disease, seen in our Institution between January 2006 and 2014 were analyzed. Patient factors, drug-related factors, Tc-99m uptake and other clinical factors were compared between the remission and nonremission groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square tests were used when appropriate to compare the groups. Results: Fifty-seven (32.7% patients attained remission after at least 1 year of thionamide therapy. Of these, 11 (19.2% patients relapsed within 1 year. Age, gender, goiter, and presence of extrathyroidal manifestations were not associated with remission. Higher values of Tc uptake were positively associated with remission (P- 0.02. Time to achievement of normal thyroid function and composite dose: Time scores were significantly associated with remission (P - 0.05 and P - 0.01, respectively. Patients with lower FT4 at presentation had a higher chance of remission (P - 0.01. The relapse rates were lower than previously reported in the literature. A higher Tc uptake was found to be significantly associated with relapse also (P - 0.009. Conclusion: The prognostic factors associated with remission in Graves's disease in this South Indian study are not the same as that reported in Western literature. Tc scintigraphy may have an additional role in identifying people who are likely to undergo remission and thus predict the outcome of Grave's disease.

  15. Efficacy of Anti-Thyroid Drugs in Treating Pregnant Women with Hyperthyroidism and Their Influence on Fetus%抗甲状腺药物治疗孕妇甲状腺功能亢进的疗效及对胎儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹璐; 姚涛; 陈志芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨抗甲状腺药物治疗孕妇甲状腺功能亢进的疗效及对胎儿的影响。方法将70例甲状腺功能亢进的孕妇按是否接受抗甲状腺药物治疗分为研究组和对照组,各35例。研究组孕妇给予抗甲状腺药物治疗,对照组孕妇未接受抗甲状腺药物治疗。观察并比较两组患者的疗效及胎儿的发育情况。结果研究组孕妇足月顺产30例,早产5例,对照组孕妇流产或死胎15例,足月顺产15例,早产5例;两组新生儿在性别、胎龄、出生体重等方面比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05);研究组患者总有效率为77.14%,显著高于对照组的28.57%( P<0.05);研究组和对照组新生儿游离T3( FT3)、游离T4( FT4)、血清总T4( TT4)水平无显著性差异( P>0.05)。结论抗甲状腺药物治疗孕妇甲状腺功能亢进可显著促进孕妇的健康,且对胎儿无明显不良反应。%Objective To investigate the efficacy of anti-thyroid drugs in treating pregnant women with hyperthyroidism and their influ-ence on fetus. Methods Totally 70 pregnant women with hyperthyroidism were divided into the study group and the control group ac-cording to whether or not accepting the antithyroid drug therapy,35 cases in each group. The pregnant women in the study group were given the anti-thyroid drugs,while the pregnant women in the control group were not given the anti-thyroid drugs. The efficacy and the influence on the fetal development were observed and compared between the two groups. Results The study group had 30 cases of full-term normal delivery,5 cases of premature labor;while the control group had 15 cases of miscarriage or stillbirth,and 15 cases of full-term normal delivery and 5 cases of preterm labor. The neonates in the two groups had no statistically significance differences in the aspects of gender,gestational age,birth weight and so on( P > 0. 05). The total effective rate in the study group was 77

  16. Clinical Features of Patients with Antithyroid Drugs Induced Agranulocytosis Complicated by Infection%抗甲状腺药物致粒细胞缺乏患者合并感染的临床特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靖; 谢翠松; 陈亚军; 钟警; 洪涛; 文格波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of patients with agranulocytosis induced by antithyroid drugs ( ATD ) and infection complication. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 36 ATD induced agranulocytosis inpatients complicated by infection in three affiliated hospitals of South China University. Results Among the 36 patients there were 27 induced by methimazole ( MMI ) and 9 induced by propylthiouracil ( PTU ), and the foci of the complicated infection were mainly in respiratory tract, followed by urinary tract, digestive tract, skin and soft tissue. Blood or secretions were cultured for 31 patients after admission, of which 24 specimens got pathogens, including 10 stains of G+ cocci, 13 strains of G-bacillus and 3 strains of fungal ( 2 with mixed infection ) . Conclusion The ATD induced agranulocytosis patients are susceptible to secondary mlections, witn respiratory mlection being the most common, Tne mlections by G+ cocci and G- bacillus are similar, but the fungal infections are not rare. It is of important significance to confirm the pathogenic bacteria by culture the secretions or blood timely so as to guide rational application of antibiotics.%目的 了解抗甲状腺药物(ATD)治疗导致粒细胞缺乏症患者合并感染的临床特点.方法 对36例服用ATD导致粒细胞缺乏且合并感染的住院患者临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 36例粒细胞缺乏患者中27例由甲巯咪唑所致,9例由丙基硫氧嘧啶所致,主要感染部位为呼吸道,其次为泌尿系、消化道及皮肤软组织.31例患者住院后进行了血或分泌物培养,24份标本培养出致病菌,其中革兰阳性(G+)球菌10株,革兰阴性(G-)杆菌13株,真菌3株(有2例患者为混合感染).结论 ATD导致粒细胞缺乏患者容易继发各种感染,其中呼吸道感染最为常见,感染致病菌中G-杆菌与G+球菌相当,真菌感染并不少见,及时行分泌物及血培养对明确致病菌及指导

  17. Limbic encephalitis associated with elevated antithyroid antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacohen, Yael; Joseph, Sonia; Kneen, Rachel; Eunson, Paul; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Immune-mediated limbic encephalitis affects both adults and children. Patients typically present with seizures, memory problems, and imaging changes in the medial temporal lobes. Both paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic forms have been described in which the antibody to the voltage-gated potassium channel-complex associated protein, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1, is most commonly reported. Elevated antithyroid antibodies have also been reported in a range of neurological syndromes with encephalopathy, such as limbic encephalitis, often collectively termed Hashimoto encephalopathy, a condition whereby corticosteroids responsiveness with a complete recovery is commonly observed. Here we describe 3 children presenting with limbic encephalitis with elevated thyroid antibodies that did not respond to corticosteroids alone and required more aggressive immunotherapy, mirroring the slower treatment response that is more frequently seen in other immune-mediated forms of limbic encephalitis.

  18. 抗甲状腺药物对妊娠合并甲状腺功能亢进患者的疗效及对胎儿的影响分析%Efficacy and impact on fetus of antithyroid drugs on pregnant women with hyperthyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟; 邱长莲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of antithyroid drugs on pregnant woMen with hyperthyroidisM and the iM-pact on fetus. Methods:96 cases of pregnant woMen with hyperthyroidisM in our hospital froM May 2009 to May 2014 were se-lected and randoMly divided into control group and observation group,each group 48 cases. Patients in control group were not adMinistrated with anti - thyroid drugs,and patients in observation group were dealed with antithyroid drugs. The thyroid func-tion,the pregnant woMen coMplications,the newborn average weight and the one Minute Apgar scores of two groups were ana-lyzed and coMpared. Results:The FT3,FT4 and TSH levels of observation group were significantly lower than control group(P﹤ 0. 05). The pregnant woMen coMplications rate of observation group was significantly lower than control group(P ﹤ 0. 05). The newborn average weight of observation group was significantly higher than control group,and the Apgar score high of obser-vation group was significantly higher than control group. The differences were statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:For pregnant woMen with hyperthyroidisM,antithyroid drugs can significantly iMprove thyroid function,the newborn average weight and one Minute Apgar scores.%目的:探讨抗甲状腺药物对妊娠合并甲状腺功能亢进患者的治疗效果及对胎儿的影响。方法:选取2009年5月—2014 年5月收治的妊娠合并甲状腺功能亢进患者96例,随机分成对照组和观察组,每组48例。对照组患者不接受抗甲状腺药物治疗,观察组接受抗甲状腺药物治疗。对两组患者甲状腺功能、孕妇并发症以及新生儿平均体重和1 Min Apgar 评分进行分析比较。结果:观察组患者的游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺激素(FT4)以及血清促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平均显著低于对照组;观察组并发症发生率显著低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05

  19. 从美国和中国甲状腺功能亢进症诊治指南看妊娠和哺乳期抗甲亢药物的选择%Advance in selection of antithyroid drugs during pregnancy and lactation from American and Chinese hyperthyroidism treatment guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萍; 计成; 葛卫红

    2012-01-01

    Management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy and lactation has been the topic for many years. Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism is associated with the increasing of morbidity and mortality of maternal and infants. Hyperthyroidism management guidelines in American and China were updated, wite many advance in regime of antithyroid drugs. In this article, we compared and summarized the advance of different guidelines to supply reference to the rational drug use.%妊娠及哺乳期合并甲状腺功能亢进(甲亢)的合理治疗,是临床面临的共同难题之一,也是引起母婴病死率升高的主要原因之一.随着美国和中国甲亢诊治指南的不断翻新,可以看出治疗妊娠和哺乳期甲亢的药物治疗方案有不少进展,本文将甲亢诊治指南中有关抗甲状腺药物治疗的更新作一总结,以为临床合理用药提供参考.

  20. Pregnancy outcomes after fetal exposure to antithyroid medications or levothyroxine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schurmann, Lene; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .94% Odds Ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.46 - 2.86) and had higher infant mortality (Odds ratio 2.37, 95% CI 1.42 - 3.94). Infants exposed to ATD were more likely to have low birth weight and length for GA (Odds ratios 1.29 (1.12 - 1.50) and 1.40 (1.17 - 1.66). There was no difference in head circumference for the 3......AIM: To investigate whether fetal exposure to antithyroid drugs (ATD) and levothyroxine affects gestational age (GA), birth weight, birth length, head circumference and prevalence of congenital anomalies. METHODS: Cohort of all pregnancies from GA 12 weeks recorded in Danish registries from 1995......: Overall 0.66% of the pregnant women had a prescription for levothyroxine and 0.19% had a prescription for ATD during the exposure period. There was no difference in proportion of live births compared to non-exposed pregnancies, but infants exposed to ATD were more often born very preterm (1.99% versus 0...

  1. Liver dysfunction and anti-thyroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae A Papachristos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioamides have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for over 50 years. Liver dysfunction is a rare but important side effect associated with their use. Recently, cases of liver failure associated with propylthiouracil have prompted the Federal Drug Administration to issue a Boxed Warning to the label of propylthiouracil regarding its risk of potentially fatal liver injury and acute liver failure in adults and children. Herein, we present a case to underline the importance of recognising the similar potential for severe hepatic dysfunction with the use of other thioamides.

  2. Relationship between Antithyroid Antibody and Pregnancy Outcome following in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ping Zhong, Ying Ying, Hai-tao Wu, Can-quan Zhou, Yan-wen Xu, Qiong Wang, Jie Li, Xiao-ting Shen, Jin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the impact of antithyroid antibody on pregnancy outcome following the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET.Methods: A total of 90 patients (156 cycles positive for antithyroid antibody (ATA+ group and 676 infertile women (1062 cycles negative for antithyroid antibody (ATA- group undergoing IVF/ICSI from August 2009 to August 2010 were retrospectively analyzed.Results: There was no significant difference in the days of ovarian stimulation, total gonadotropin dose, serum E2 level of HCG day and number of oocytes retrieved between the two groups. The fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate following IVF-ET were significantly lower in women with antithyroid antibody than in control group (64.3% vs 74.6%, 17.8% vs 27.1% and 33.3% vs 46.7%, respectively, but the abortion rate was significantly higher in patients with antithyroid antibody (26.9% vs 11.8%.Conclusion: Patients with antithyroid antibody showed significantly lower fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate and higher risk for abortion following IVF-ET when compared with those without antithyroid antibody. Thus, the presence of antithyroid antibody is detrimental for the pregnancy outcome following IVF-ET.

  3. Change of CD4+ CD25+ CD127 low regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of patients with Graves disease treated by 131 I or antithyroid drugs therapy%Graves病131I或抗甲状腺药物治疗前后外周血CD4+CD25+CD127low调节性T细胞的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 潘天荣; 杜益君; 钟兴

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨调节性T细胞( Treg)在Graves病( GD)患者外周血中变化,以及131 I或抗甲状腺药物( ATD)治疗后其变化趋势,寻找评价131 I和ATD治疗疗效的新指标。方法健康者40例设为对照组,初诊GD患者40例设为GD组,并将GD组随机分成131 I 治疗组(20例)及 ATD 治疗组(20例)。检测131 I治疗组、ATD治疗组治疗前、治疗后及对照组CD4+CD25+CD127 low Treg 比例、白介素-10( IL-10)、转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)水平,通过统计学软件处理相关结果。结果①治疗前GD组Treg比例较对照组明显降低,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);②131 I治疗组、ATD治疗组治疗后第3个月及第6个月Treg比例较治疗前均升高,差异均有统计学意义( P <0.01);③治疗后第3个月及第6个月, ATD治疗组Treg比例与131 I治疗组差异无统计学意义;④治疗前GD组IL-10、TGF-β1水平较对照组均降低,治疗后6个月,细胞因子水平较治疗前均升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),各时间点131 I治疗组与ATD治疗组之间,细胞因子差异无统计学意义。结论 GD患者Treg比例和功能显著降低,治疗后部分恢复,因此,对于甲亢患者,Treg可能是评价免疫状态及治疗后病情缓解的指标之一。%Objective To investigate the changes of regulatory T cells ( Treg) in Graves disease ( GD) before and after being treated by 131 I or antithyroid drugs( ATD) ,and to seek for new clinical indicators to evaluate the treat-ment response. Methods The study groups included 40 patients with GD ( GD group) , 20 of whom were treated by 131 I ,others were treated by ATD. Forty healthy donors without history of thyroid or autoimmune disease were en-rolled in control group. The proportions of CD4 +CD25 +CD127low Treg , IL-10 and TGF-β1 were tested before and after treatment respectively. Results ① The significant decrease in the proportion of CD4 +CD25 +CD127low Treg cells in untreated GD patients ( GD group) was

  4. CD1a expression in psoriatic skin following treatment with propylthiouracil, an antithyroid thioureylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr Ronald J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antithyroid thioureylenes, propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI, are effective in the treatment of patients with plaque psoriasis. The mechanism of action of the drugs in psoriasis is unknown. Since the drugs reduce circulating IL-12 levels in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism, the effect of propylthiouracil on CD1a expression in psoriatic lesions was examined in biopsy samples of patients with plaque psoriasis. CD1a is a marker of differentiated skin antigen presenting cells (APC, Langerhans cells. Langerhans cells and skin monocyte/macrophages are the source of IL-12, a key cytokine involved in the events that lead to formation of the psoriatic plaque. Methods Biopsy specimens were obtained from six patients with plaque psoriasis who were treated with 300 mg propylthiouracil (PTU daily for three months. Clinical response to PTU as assessed by PASI scores, histological changes after treatment, and CD1a expression in lesional skin before and after treatment were studied. Results Despite significant improvement in clinical and histological parameters the expression of CD1a staining cells in the epidermis did not decline with propylthiouracil treatment. Conclusions It appears that the beneficial effect of propylthiouracil in psoriasis is mediated by mechanisms other than by depletion of skin antigen-presenting cells.

  5. Propylthiouracil, independent of its antithyroid effect, decreases VSMC collagen expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Jan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Kwang-Huei; Yang, Su-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU), in addition to its antithyroid effect, is recently found to have a potent antiatherosclerotic effect. Because collagen accumulation is the major contributor to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions and the neointimal formation after arterial injury, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PTU on collagen regulation. In the rat carotid injury model, PTU administration reversed the up-regulation of collagen in the neointima induced by balloon injury. In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the main origin of arterial collagen, were treated with PTU. Propylthiouracil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in collagen I and III steady-state protein and mRNA levels, as determined by immuno-cytochemistry, Western, and/or Northern blot analyses. Transient transfection experiments using rat type I collagen promoter construct showed that PTU failed to affect collagen gene transcription in VSMCs. Actinomycin D studies demonstrated that the half-life of collagens mRNA decreased with PTU treatment, suggesting that PTU down-regulates collagen expression predominantly at the post-transcriptional level. Taken together, these data suggest that PTU inhibits VSMC collagen production via destabilization of collagen mRNA that contributes to its beneficial effect on atherogenesis and neointimal formation after arterial injury. However, whether the destabilization of collagen may induce plaque rupture in PTU-treated arteries merits further investigation.

  6. Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase and Risk of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Madani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 2-4% of all women have recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA; however, the cause is determined in only 50% of cases. Recent studies have shown an association between thyroid autoantibodies as a sign of thyroid autoimmunity and abortion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether circulating anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO was associated with RSA.Materials and Methods: In this observational analytic study, Sera from 58 non-pregnant women with a history of RSA and also 58 healthy, fertile subjects with at least one live birth as control (Aging from 18 to 45 years were tested for thyroid peroxidase antibodies by means of a standard Anti-TPO ELISA kit. We used data collection forms and SPSS software for data analysis.Results: Of 116 women, 8 (13.8% of the control subjects and 12 (20.7% of the women with a history of RSA had positive results for anti-TPO. There was not any significant association between presence of anti-TPO and RSA.Conclusions: We did not find any correlation between the presence of TPO antibodies and abortion in women with a history of RSA. On the basis of this study, testing for anti-TPO doesn’t seem to be useful in the evaluation of patients with a history of RSA.

  7. Association of antithyroid peroxidase antibody with fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Blumen, Helena; Tagoe, Clement E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate how autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) affects the clinical presentation of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with particular reference to fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain (CWP). A cohort of 204 patients with RA for whom the presence or absence of autoimmune thyroid antibodies was documented was examined for the relationships between thyroid autoantibodies and fibromyalgia or CWP. We identified 29 % who tested positive for antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was found in 24 %. Among the thyroid autoantibody-positive patients, 40 % had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia or CWP versus 17 % for antibody negative patients. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex, diabetes and BMI) indicated that TPOAb-positive patients were more likely to have fibromyalgia or CWP, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.641, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.110-10.207) P fibromyalgia, OR 4.458, 95 % CI (1.950-10.191), P fibromyalgia was not significant (P > .05). Additional logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex and BMI) indicated a significant relationship between TPOAb and fibromyalgia or CWP in patients without diabetes and those without hypothyroidism (OR of 4.873, 95 % CI (1.877-12.653), P = .001 and OR of 4.615 95 % CI (1.810-11.770), P = .001, respectively). There may be a positive association between the ATD antibody TPOAb, and fibromyalgia syndrome and CWP in patients with established RA.

  8. Steroid-Responsive Epilepsia Partialis Continua with Anti-Thyroid Antibodies: A Spectrum of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Masuda; Masahiro Mori; Shoichi Ito; Toshiyuki Yagishita; Satoshi Kuwabara

    2014-01-01

    Background: When a neuropsychiatric symptom due to encephalopathy develops in a patient with anti-thyroid antibodies, especially when the symptom is steroid-responsive, Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of the patient. Although HE is an elusive disease, it is thought to cause various clinical presentations including seizures, myoclonus, and epilepsia partialis continua (EPC). Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Japanese woman who ...

  9. Anti-thyroid drugs or {sup 131}I therapy to control the hyperthyroidism of graves disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis; Tratamento clinico com drogas antitireoidianas ou dose terapeutica de Iodo-131 no controle do hipertireoidismo na doenca de Graves: avaliacao dos custos e beneficios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Junior, Antonio Fiel; Takahashi, Miriam Hideco; Albino, Claudio Cordeiro [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: afiel@bs2.com.br

    2006-12-15

    In this study, we set out to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of the 2 most used therapies in our region, ATD or RAI. 23 patients, 6 men and 16 women, with a mean age of 35.4 years, treated with ATD, and 35 patients, 5 men and 30 women, mean age of 39.4 years, treated with RAI, were studied. After 2 years receiving ATD, 21 patients achieved euthyroidism and 2 remained hyperthyroid. In the RAI group, 21 patients presented hypothyroidism and 13 became euthyroid. To calculate the costs of each therapy, we analyzed the number of visits during this period, the laboratory data and the drugs needed, such as tiamazol and/or thyroxine. The group treated only with ATD needed a higher number of visits and laboratory measurements, with the mean total cost of R$ 1,345.81, while the RAI group spent a mean amount of R$ 622.94. Therefore, the costs of the RAI treatment were 53.5% lower than clinical therapy with ATD. The present study demonstrates that RAI treatment has a lower cost than ATD, being very effective in controlling the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. (author)

  10. Goitrogenic/antithyroidal potential of green tea extract in relation to catechin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; De, Neela

    2010-01-01

    Catechins are flavonoids found in abundance in green tea, have elicited high interest due to their beneficial effects on health. Though flavonoids have been reported to have an antithyroid effect and also to be goitrogenic there have been no reports about the effect of green tea on rat thyroid. The present study was designed to examine whether high doses of green tea has any harmful effect on thyroid physiology. For this purpose green tea extract was administered orally to male albino rats for 30 days at doses of 1.25 g%, 2.5 g% and 5.0 g%, respectively. Similarly, pure catechin was administered at doses of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight which is equivalent to above doses of green tea extract. Lower body weight gain associated with marked hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the follicles was noted in the high dose of green tea and catechin treated groups. Decreased activity of thyroid peroxidase and 5'-deiodinase I and substantially elevated thyroidal Na,K+ATPase activity have been observed. Moreover, serum T3 and T4 levels were found to reduce followed by significant elevation of serum TSH. Taken together, these results suggest that catechin present in green tea extract might behave as antithyroid agent and possibly the consumption of green tea at high dose could alter thyroid function adversely.

  11. Steroid-Responsive Epilepsia Partialis Continua with Anti-Thyroid Antibodies: A Spectrum of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Masuda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a neuropsychiatric symptom due to encephalopathy develops in a patient with anti-thyroid antibodies, especially when the symptom is steroid-responsive, Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of the patient. Although HE is an elusive disease, it is thought to cause various clinical presentations including seizures, myoclonus, and epilepsia partialis continua (EPC. Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Japanese woman who acutely developed EPC in the right hand as an isolated manifestation. A thyroid ultrasound showed an enlarged hypoechogenic gland, and a thyroid status assessment showed euthyroid with high titers of thyroid antibodies. A brain MRI revealed a nodular lesion in the left precentral gyrus. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in a cessation of the symptom. Conclusions: A precentral nodular lesion can be responsible for steroid-responsive EPC in a patient with anti-thyroid antibodies and may be caused by HE. The serial MRI findings of our case suggest the presence of primary demyelination, with ischemia possibly due to vasculitis around the demyelinating lesion.

  12. Thermoregulatory deficits in adult long evans rat offspring exposed perinatally to the antithyroidal drug, propylthiouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting toxicants has been shown to alter a variety of physiological processes in mature offspring. Body (core) temperature (Tc) is a tightly regulated homeostatic system but is susceptible to disruptors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid...

  13. Elevated antithyroid peroxidase antibodies indicating Hashimoto's thyroiditis are associated with the treatment response in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Johannes; Aust, Stefanie; Kurz, Christine; Nouri, Kazem; Wirth, Stefan; Huber, Johannes C; Mayerhofer, Klaus

    2010-12-01

    In infertile women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies values exceeding the upper level of normal were found in significantly more clomiphene citrate resistant patients compared clomiphene citrate responders and metformin responders. Thus, elevated antiTPO levels are associated with poor treatment response in infertile women who suffer from PCOS.

  14. Preliminary Study on Chinese Drug-Induced Apoptosis ofThyrocytes in Graves' Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After 2-10 weeks treatment, effect of anti-thyroid drugs combined with Chinese drugs on the thyrocytes of Graves' disease: apoptosis ratio is 18.66±20.01% (n=13), P<0.01; Compared with that of single anti-thyroid drug group: 2.11±1.78%, n=13TUNEL  The increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei (blue color) was observed: 3-5 cells/vision field in combining Chinese drugs treatment group; 0-1 cell/vision field in treating with anti-thyroid drugs before combining with Chinese drugs group, and the control cell showed red color, see Figure 4.

  15. Adult-onset temporal lobe epilepsy, cognitive decline, multi-antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy: Two case studies ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Sadan, Ofer; Seyman, Estelle; Ash, Elissa L.; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Neufeld, Miri Y.

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is defined by the coexistence of encephalopathy and antithyroid antibodies. We report two cases of adult-onset temporal lobe epilepsy with subacute cognitive decline, high titers of antithyroid antibodies, multi-antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity, and good response to immunomodulatory treatment. The relevance of multidrug hypersensitivity in the setting of adult-onset epilepsy and the importance of searching for autoimmune causes for epilepsy are discussed.

  16. Non-tumor-Associated Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Encephalitis in Chinese Girls With Positive Anti-thyroid Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjuan; Fu, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Hui; Jing, Lijun; Lu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Hong; Teng, Junfang; Jia, Yanjie

    2015-10-01

    Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a new category of autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies. The disease was first described in 2007, and it predominantly affects young women with or without ovarian teratomas. Most patients typically present with seizures, a decreased consciousness level, dyskinesia, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies in non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis was first described in 2010. Additionally, anti-thyroid antibodies were found in teratoma-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report the cases of 3 Chinese girls with non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with positive anti-thyroid antibodies. We followed up the details of their titers and suggest that anti-thyroid antibodies were an indicator of autoimmune predisposition in the development of non-tumor-associated anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

  17. Diagnostic value of antithyroid peroxidase antibody for incidental autoimmune thyroiditis based on histopathologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Dong Wook; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Park, Young Mi; Kwon, Min Jeong; Jung, Soo Jin; Kim, Young Wook; Kang, Taewoo

    2012-12-01

    Detection of antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) is widely used in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but no research has evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of TPOAb detection using histopathologic reference standards. To fill this research gap, this study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of detection of TPOAb and that of other serological markers in asymptomatic patients who had been diagnosed with AIT by histopathologic analysis after thyroid surgery. After review of patient records, 598 patients who had undergone thyroid nodule surgery were enrolled for examination for thyroid parenchyma by a pathologist and classification into no co-existing lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, or non-Hashimoto type of lymphocytic thyroiditis (NHLT). The correlation between patient serological data and thyroid parenchyma pathology was analyzed. Statistically significant differences (P lymphocytic thyroiditis and no co-existing lymphocytic thyroiditis groups regarding thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TPOAb levels. And, TPOAb titer was significantly associated with the degree of inflammation. An abnormal TPOAb titer was found in 86 of the 598 patients (14.4 %) and the specificity of TPOAb detection for AIT diagnosis was found to be 96.9 %. The prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis and NHLT in the 560 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients was found to be 7.9 and 17.9 %, respectively. The results indicate that TPOAb titer is associated with the degree of thyroid inflammation and that detection of TPOAb is a very specific means of diagnosing AIT. The results also indicate that the incidence of AIT and PTC coexistence is relatively high.

  18. Propylthiouracil, independent of its antithyroid effect, promotes vascular smooth muscle cells differentiation via PTEN induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Jan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Kwang-Huei; Lee, Dany-Young; Hsu, Lung-An; Kuo, Chi-Tai

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU), independent of its antithyroid effect, is recently found to have an antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of PTU on phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), as phenotypic modulation may contribute to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions and neointimal formation after arterial injury. Propylthiouracil reduced neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. In vitro, PTU may convert VSMCs from a serum-induced dedifferentiation state to a differentiated state, as indicated by a spindle-shaped morphology and an increase in the expression of SMC differentiation marker contractile proteins, including calponin and smooth muscle (SM)-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). Transient transfection studies in VSMCs demonstrated that PTU induced the activity of SMC marker genes (calponin and SM-MHC) promoters, indicating that PTU up-regulates these genes expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, PTU enhanced the expression of PTEN and inhibition of PTEN by siRNA knockdown blocked PTU-induced activation of contractile proteins expression and promoter activity. In the rat carotid injury model, PTU reversed the down-regulation of contractile proteins and up-regulated PTEN in the neointima induced by balloon injury. Propylthiouracil promotes VSMC differentiation, at lest in part, via induction of the PTEN-mediated pathway. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which PTU may contribute to its beneficial effects on atherogenesis and neointimal formation after arterial injury.

  19. Mitosis in the oesophageal epithelium of rats during chronic antithyroid treatment with carbimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffery, A R; Mobarak, M

    1990-11-01

    The mitotic activity of the oesophageal epithelium of male rats maintained under carefully controlled conditions was studied, using the metaphase-arrest agent, vincristine sulphate. The accumulation of metaphases was linear (r = 0.97). In untreated rats there was a clear mitotic rhythm with a peak metaphase index (expressed as a percentage) of 12.4 +/- 0.86 (S.E.M.) at 12.00-15.00 h and a trough of 1.3 +/- 0.35 at 24.00 h. The overall mean metaphase index was 5.4 +/- 0.76. The effect of treatment with the antithyroid agent, carbimazole (0.1 g/100 ml in the drinking water), for 3 weeks was to depress the higher values at 12.00-18.00 h (P less than 0.01), while leaving the overall index unchanged. Carbimazole caused a significant (P less than 0.01), transient 40% increase in the metaphase index after 2 days; thereafter the metaphase index remained at control levels until 12 weeks of treatment when a steady decline occurred until 24 weeks. The results are in contrast to those in previously described experiments on thyroid follicular cells which show a large increase in the first few days of treatment, followed by a steady decline towards control levels at 12 weeks. The metabolic activity of the animals is about 50% of normal at 12 weeks when both the oesophageal epithelium and the thyroid follicular cells begin to show a reduction in proliferative activity.

  20. [The effect of long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor ddt on serum levels of thyroid protein autoantigenes and antithyroid autoantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaglova, N V; Yaglov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Changes in secretion of thyroid autoantigenes and production of antithyroid autoantibodies after long-term exposure to low doses of DDT were studied. Changes in serum levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid peroxidase, attributed to disruption of thyroxine production by DDT were found. Long-term exposure of rats to low doses of DDT revealed no specific impact on serum autoantibodies to all thyroid autoantigenes studied. The increase of the ratio of autoantibody/autoantigen for thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin was rather small and thus could not be considered as a significant symptom of thyroid autoimmunity.

  1. Side Effects of Anti-Thyroid Drugs and Their Impact on the Choice of Treatment for Thyrotoxicosis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is a serious condition and its management is complex. Whilst carbimazole/methimazole (CBZ/MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) have similar efficacies in controlling hyperthyroidism, their risk of side effects such as major congenital abnormalities and hepatotoxicity are different. Methods Various combinations of the terms ‘anti-thyroid drugs’, ‘thionamide’, ‘carbimazole’, ‘methimazole’, ‘propylthiouracil’, ‘pregnancy’, ‘side effects’, ‘agranulocytosis’, ‘...

  2. Antithyroid drug detection using an enzyme cascade blocking in a nanoparticle-based lab-on-a-chip system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Sevinc; Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Rivas, Lourdes; Ozkan, Sibel A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-05-15

    A methimazole (MT) biosensor based on a nanocomposite of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with iridium oxide nanoparticles (IrOx NPs) and tyrosinase (Tyr) immobilized onto screen printed electrode (SPE) by using a permanent magnet is presented. This system is evaluated in batch mode via chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase and in flow mode by thioquinone formation. The MT detection in flow mode is achieved using a hybrid polydimethylsiloxane/polyester amperometric lab-on-a-chip (LOC) microsystem with an integrated SPE. Both systems are very sensitive with low limit of detection (LOD): 0.006 μM and 0.004 μM for batch and flow modes, respectively. Nevertheless, the flow mode has advantages such as its reusability, automation, low sample volume (6 μL), and fast response (20 s). Optimization and validation parameters such as enzyme-substrate amount, flow rate, inhibition conditions, repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor have been performed. The proposed methods have been applied in MT detection in spiked human serum and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  3. Drug: D08659 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) classification [BR:br08303] H SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATIONS, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AND INSULINS H03 THYROID ...THERAPY H03B ANTITHYROID PREPARATIONS H03BX Other antithyroid preparations H03BX0

  4. Sertraline and its iodine product: Experimental and theoretical vibrational studies. Potential in vitro anti-thyroid activity of sertraline and iodine product toxicity with respect to male Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Graciela E.; Ferraresi Curotto, Verónica; Laino, Carlos H.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Williams, Patricia A. M.; Ferrer, Evelina G.

    2013-03-01

    Mayor depression, obsessive-compulsive panic, social anxiety disorders are common diseases that are usually treated with sertraline hydrochloride which is the active ingredient of the well known drugs as Zoloft and Lustral. In this work, we presented a more complete vibrational characterization of the solid phase FT-IR spectra of Sertraline hydrochloride and its sertraline-iodine product in which the conformational space of the molecules was investigated performing molecular dynamic simulations within an NVT ensemble. Geometrical, electronic and vibrational properties were calculated with the density functional theory. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes of both molecules. In addition, for the first time we present the evaluation of anti-thyroid activity of sertraline hydrochloride by using the Lang's method. Also, with the aim to evaluate the antidepressant effect of its iodine product we demonstrated for this compound the toxic effect towards the male Wistar rats.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Thyroid Function and Anti-Thyroid Antibodies in Iranian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Influences of Age and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Sharifi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD.Genetic susceptibility for autoantibody formation in association with ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been described with varying frequencies, but there is still debate about its prevailing situation in Iran. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti thyroglubolin (Anti TG antibodies in type 1 diabetic patients, and compared the effect of age and sex on the thyroid autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Iran.Ninety one subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and one hundred and sixty three unrelated normal controls under the age of thirty years were recruited for the detection of anti-TPO and anti-TG. Radio Immuno Assay and chemiluminescence methods were used for anti-TPO and anti-TG detection respectively.Among 91 type 1 diabetic patients, 36 (39.6% were positive for anti-TPO and 27(30% were positive for antiTG. Anti-TPO antibodies were detected only in 6.7% of control group. Comparing with those without thyroid autoimmunity, there was a female preponderance for the type 1 diabetic patients with thyroid autoimmunity (female: male, 28:14 vs. 28:20 respectively. Among the type 1 diabetic patients those with thyroid autoimmunity, tended to be older (p: 0.04 and to have higher TSH concentration (p: 0.03. Patients with high anti-TPO levels had longer duration of diabetes (P: 0.02.The presence of anti-TPO in 39.6% of our type 1 diabetic patients comparing with 8.5% of normal subjects confirmed the strong association of ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies in Iranian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: influences of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Faranak; Ghasemi, Leila; Mousavinasab, Nouraddin

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD).Genetic susceptibility for autoantibody formation in association with ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been described with varying frequencies, but there is still debate about its prevailing situation in Iran. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti thyroglubolin (Anti TG) antibodies in type 1 diabetic patients, and compared the effect of age and sex on the thyroid autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Iran.Ninety one subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and one hundred and sixty three unrelated normal controls under the age of thirty years were recruited for the detection of anti-TPO and anti-TG. Radio Immuno Assay and chemiluminescence methods were used for anti-TPO and anti-TG detection respectively.Among 91 type 1 diabetic patients, 36 (39.6%) were positive for anti-TPO and 27(30%) were positive for antiTG. Anti-TPO antibodies were detected only in 6.7% of control group. Comparing with those without thyroid autoimmunity, there was a female preponderance for the type 1 diabetic patients with thyroid autoimmunity (female: male, 28:14 vs. 28:20 respectively). Among the type 1 diabetic patients those with thyroid autoimmunity, tended to be older (p: 0.04) and to have higher TSH concentration (p: 0.03). Patients with high anti-TPO levels had longer duration of diabetes (P: 0.02).The presence of anti-TPO in 39.6% of our type 1 diabetic patients comparing with 8.5% of normal subjects confirmed the strong association of ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to confirm the cause of thyroid problems, including Hashimoto thyroiditis . The test is also used to find ... positive test may be due to: Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also ...

  9. [Reversible white matter lesions and antithyroid antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid in Hashimoto's encephalopathy: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Masakazu; Nishikage, Hirofumi; Goshima, Kazuyuki

    2004-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman with Hashimoto's disease was admitted to our hospital because of involuntary movement, gait disturbance, and mental decline. Her consciousness was alert but her orientation about time and place was disturbed. She was mentally ill (HDS-R; 12/30, MMSE; 14/30), and could not walk because of truncal ataxia. Myoclonus was present in the upper extremities. Laboratory examinations showed hypothyroidism and very high titers of antithyroid antibodies (ATA) in serum. Head MRI showed no abnormal lesions. On electroencephalogram (EEG), the basic rhythm was slow and bursts of irregular slow waves (4-6 Hz) were present. Her conditions gradually ameliorated so that she was discharged. However, she was hospitalized again because of sudden worsening of the illness: her consciousness got disturbed and the myoclonus became marked. As the result, she got bed-ridden. At the time, thyroid function was almost normal, suggesting that the deterioration could not be attributed to hypothyroidism. The EEG findings were quite different from the former: complex of multiple spikes and slow waves was continuously present. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of protein and IgG (cell 1/m3, protein 101 mg/dl, sugar 60 mg/dl ,Cl 124 mEq/l, IgG 20.4 mg/dl). IgG index was 0.57 and Q albumin (CSF-albumin/serum-albumin ratio) was 15.2 (9.0>) . After the second admission, she recovered from the bed-ridden state but was still unable to walk or communicate. She continued to need complete support for all daily lives. The diagnosis was made as Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE), from the following points: 1) encephalopathy not due to hypothyroidism, 2) very high titers of ATA, 3) elevated CSF protein. The effectiveness of steroid therapy was so amazing that the neurological problems faded away very soon. Finally she completely recovered. As well as the clinical manifestations, the EEG findings were improved. At the stage in which excellent clinical

  10. Population of antithyroid autoantibodies as a source of antibodies of various levels of specificity and functionality: the clinical importance of a phenomenon of combination theory at monitoring of patients with autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Andreeva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature is dedicated to comparative analysis of pathogenetic and clinicodiagnostic significance of antithyroid autoantibodies (autoAB differing in their specificity (АB to thyroglobulin (anti-TG and АB to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, anti-TGPO, and functionality TG- and TPO-antibodies, namely antibodies-proteases in pathogenesis autoimmune diseases thyroid gland and possibility of their use in modern diagnostics of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  11. The link between thyroid autoimmunity (antithyroid peroxidase autoantibodies with anxiety and mood disorders in the community: a field of interest for public health in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardu Claudia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between mood and anxiety disorders and thyroid autoimmunity in a community sample. Methods: A community based sample of 222 subjects was examined. Psychiatric diagnoses were formulated using the International Composite Diagnostic Interview Simplified (CIDIS, according to DSM-IV criteria. All subjects underwent a complete thyroid evaluation including physical examination, thyroid echography and measure of serum free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO. Results 16.6% of the overall sample had an anti-TPO value above the normal cut-off. Subjects with at least one diagnosis of anxiety disorders (OR = 4.2, C.L. 95% 1.9–38.8 or mood disorders (OR = 2.9, Cl 95% 1.4–6.6, P Conclusions The study seems to suggest that individuals in the community with thyroid autoimmunity may be at high risk for mood and anxiety disorders. The psychiatric disorders and the autoimmune reaction seem to be rooted in a same (and not easy correctable aberrancy in the immuno-endocrine system. Should our results be confirmed, the findings may be of great interest for future preventive and case finding projects.

  12. Anti-glutamate receptor ɛ2 antibodies in psychiatric patients with anti-thyroid autoantibodies--a prevalence study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yuhei; Katsuse, Omi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Yoneda, Makoto; Kunii, Misako; Ihata, Atsushi; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Takeno, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Takashi; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2013-02-08

    Patients with anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAs) present various kinds of psychiatric conditions. When these psychiatric patients with ATAs (PPATs) show responsiveness to immunotherapy, they are frequently diagnosed with a diffuse progressive type of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE). Anti-glutamate receptor ɛ2 subunit (GluRɛ2) antibodies have previously been reported in HE patients. However, it is unclear whether there is any relationship between PPATs, including HE patients, and anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies. We investigated anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 15 PPATs, and we compared the results with those of 11 patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), an anti-glutamate receptor antibody-related disease. We then compared the neuropsychiatric symptoms between the PPATs with and without anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies. The prevalence of anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies was significantly higher in the CSF than in the serum of PPATs (41.7% versus 6.7%; p=0.040). The prevalence of anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies was slightly higher in the CSF of PPATs than NPSLE patients. PPAT-GluR(+)s showed a significantly higher prevalence of emotional instability (100% versus 33.3%; p=0.03) and also showed a significantly lower prevalence of delusions (0% versus 100%; p=0.001) and hallucinations (17% versus 83%; p=0.038) than PPAT-GluR(-)s. Our results suggest that anti-GluRɛ2 antibodies may be associated with the neuropsychiatric manifestation of PPATs.

  13. Drug: D07519 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D INSULINS H03 THYROID THERAPY H03B ANTITHYROID PREPARATIONS H03BA Thiouracils H0...erapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] H SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATIONS, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AN

  14. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? ... and Family Can Help Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug- ...

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  16. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts Bodies Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  18. Drug: D00401 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] H SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATIONS, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AND INSULINS H03 THYROID THERAPY H03B ANTITHYR...OID PREPARATIONS H03BB Sulfur-containing imidazole derivatives H03BB02 Thiamazole D

  19. Drug: D07232 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 D07232.gif ATC code: H03BC01 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] H SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATION...S, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AND INSULINS H03 THYROID THERAPY H03B ANTITHYROID PREPARATIONS H03

  20. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  1. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  2. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  3. [Methodology for Estimating the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Pregnant Women: Analysis of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takamasa; Ohtsu, Fumiko; Sekiya, Yasuaki; Mori, Chiyo; Sakata, Hiroshi; Goto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Safety information regarding drug use during pregnancy is insufficient. The present study aimed to establish an optimal signal detection method to identify adverse drug reactions in pregnant women and to evaluate information in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database between April 2004 and November 2014. We identified reports on pregnant women using the Standardised MedDRA Queries. We calculated the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and reporting odds ratio (ROR) of the risk factors for the two known risks of antithyroid drugs and methimazole (MMI) embryopathy, and ritodrine and fetal/infant cardiovascular events. The PRR and ROR values differed between all reports in the JADER database and those on pregnant women, affecting whether signal detection criteria were met. Therefore we considered that reports on pregnant women should be used when risks associated with pregnancy were determined using signal detection. Analyses of MMI embryopathy revealed MMI signals [PRR, 159.7; ROR, 669.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 282.4-1588.7] but no propylthiouracil signals (PRR, 1.98; ROR, 2.0; 95%CI, 0.3-15.4). These findings were consistent with those of reported risks. Analyses of fetal/infant cardiovascular events revealed ritodrine signals (PRR, 2.1; ROR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.3). These findings were also consistent with reported risks. Mining the JADER database was helpful for analyzing adverse drug reactions in pregnant women.

  4. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  5. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  6. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative detection of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in serum%血清抗甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体ELISA定量方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 李会强; 陈寅; 仁杰; 李婵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of the concentra tion of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in serum. Methods The microtiter plate was coated with biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and streptavidin. The biotinylated TPO antigen and standardized anti-TPOAb or test sera were successively added into the wells of plate. The HRP-anti-IgG was then added into the plate for colorization. The optimal concentrations of biotinylated TPO an tigen and HRP-anti-IgG were screened by chessboard titration, and the reaction conditions were optimized for the method evaluation. Results In the indirect-coating mode, the amount of coated antigen was 0. 083 μg/mL. The sensitivity of the assay was 0. 165 IU/mL. The coefficient of variations (CV) of inter-assay in high and low concentration of serum mixture were 9.2% and 9.0% , and the CV of intra-assay were 4.6% and 5.6% respectively. The recovery rate was between 96% and 104%. The coated ELISA plate re mained stable for 5 days at 37 ℃. The rate of cross-reaction with anti-thyroid globulin (TGAb) was 0. 22%. The reference range in serum was less than 65. 7 IU/mL. The correlation coefficient of the experimental results with those of Abbott kit was 0. 985 (P < 0.01). Conclusion In the developed ELISA of indirect-coated mode, the amount of needed purified antigen significantly reduced. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were satisfied. The method is simple and cost-saving, so it should be very suitable for anti TPOAb detection in primary hospitals.%目的 建立一种ELISA方法用于定量分析血清抗甲状腺过氧化物酶(TPO)抗体(TPOAb).方法 用生物素化牛血清清蛋白(BSA)和链霉亲合素包被微孔板,同时加入生物素化TPO抗原和待检血清,再加入酶标记抗人IgG,建立间接包被模式酶联免疫法测定抗TPO抗体.经方阵滴定确定生物素化抗原和酶标抗体的最适浓度,优化反应条件,

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  8. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ... misuse of prescription drugs can make driving a car unsafe—just like driving after drinking alcohol. Drugged ...

  9. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skippy, The Smart Drug, Vitamin R, Bennies, Black Beauties, Roses, Hearts, Speed, Uppers Prescription drug misuse has ... body, especially in brain areas involved in the perception of pain and pleasure. Prescription stimulants , such as ...

  10. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta Most people get study ... How Much Sleep Do I Need? Prescription Drug Abuse How to Make Homework Less Work Organizing Schoolwork & ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from ...

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs ...

  13. Drugs (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs for fever, cough, stuffy nose, runny nose, diarrhea, and allergies are common drugs which are especially helpful during times of illness. All medications should be kept out of the reach of children.

  14. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  15. Orphan drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. The beginning of orphan drugs development. This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the ”Orphan Drug Act” was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. Conclusion. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41012

  16. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  17. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Dülger

    2014-01-01

    Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions ...

  18. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age Adults in 2015 Teens and E-cigarettes Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Substance Use in Women and Men View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home ...

  19. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010263 Drug resistance mechanism of non-small cell lung cancer PC9/AB2 cell line with acquired drug resistance to gefitinib.JU Lixia(鞠立霞),et al. Dept Oncol,Shanghai Pulm Hosp,Tongji Univ,Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2010;33(5):354-358. Objective To

  20. Thyroid-Induced Worsening of Parkinsonian Tremor Resistant to Drugs and Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Minár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Symptoms of both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis can be easily overlooked in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. We report on a patient whose parkinsonian tremor worsened and proved refractory not only to common treatment, but also to deep brain stimulation (DBS. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old woman with advanced PD underwent bilateral subthalamic DBS, with an excellent outcome. Twenty-one months after the surgery, however, patient’s resting/postural tremor markedly worsened. There was a slight improvement for 1 month after repeated adjustments of DBS parameters, but then the tremor worsened again. Since even a minimal increase of the dose of dopaminergic drugs caused extremely severe dyskinesias, an anticholinergic drug biperiden and benzodiazepine clonazepam were introduced, what helped for another month. With the onset of severe diarrhoea, a laboratory workup was performed. Thyrotoxicosis was detected. During treatment with the antithyroid agent carbimazole, the parkinsonian tremor clearly improved within two weeks. Conclusion. A hyperthyroid state can markedly exaggerate all forms of tremor, as well as other types of movement disorders. This condition can be overlooked or masked by other symptoms. Therefore, if the tremor in a patient with PD gradually worsens and proves resistant to the usual treatment, examine the thyroid gland.

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  2. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one.

  3. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulants Stimulants include amphetamines, meth (methamphetamine), cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin). They are often used and abused in ... a medication, talk to your doctor. Preventing drug abuse in children and teenagers Take these steps to ...

  4. Drug-drug interactions: antiretroviral drugs and recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staltari, Orietta; Leporini, Christian; Caroleo, Benedetto; Russo, Emilio; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are living longer, however, some patients encounter co- morbidities which sometimes require treatment. Therefore, during the treatment with ARV drugs these patients could take several recreational drugs (e.g. amphetamines, hallucinogenes, opiates, or alcohol) with a possible development of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In particular, Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) are mainly excreted through the kidney and are not substrates of the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein, therefore the DDIs during this treatment are minimal. In contrast, the other ARV drugs (i.e. non-nucleoside reversetranscriptase inhibitors, Protease inhibitors, Integrase inhibitors, chemokine receptor 5 antagonists and HIV-fusion inhibitors) are an important class of antiretroviral medications that are frequent components of HAART regimens but show several DDIs related to interaction with the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein. In this paper we will review data concerning the possibility of DDI in HIV patients treated with ARV and taking recreational drugs.

  5. 不同剂量复方甲亢片对甲亢缓解期亚临床甲状腺功能亢进疗效影响的临床观察%Clinical Effects of Different Dosages of Compound Antithyroid Tablet on Subclinical Hyperthyroidism in Remission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王前

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effects of different dosages of compound antithyroid tablet on subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods Chose 120 cases of patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism,divided them into three groups by therapeutic dosages,the low-dosage group,the middle-dosage group and the high-dosage group of which each had 40 cases,and observed the therapeutic effects of three groups. Results The therapeutic results of high-dosage and middle-dosage groups were better than that of low-dosage group(P < 0.05). After the treatment,three groups’TSH level rises greatly(P < 0.05),but FT3 and FT4 are still in the normal range. Conclusion The compound antithyroid tablet has significant clinical effects on subclinical hyperthyroidism and the proper increase in dosage can improve therapeutic effects,thus is suitable for clinical application.%目的:探讨不同剂量复方甲亢片对亚临床甲状腺功能亢进疗效的影响。方法选取120例亚临床甲亢患者,按照各自所用治疗药物剂量的不同分成3组,分别为低剂量组、中剂量组与高剂量组,每组患者均为40例,观察各组患者治疗效果。结果高剂量组与中剂量组治疗效果优于低剂量组(P <0.05),治疗后,各组 TSH 水平上升(P <0.05);但 FT3、FT4水平仍处于正常范围内。结论复方甲亢片治疗亚临床甲亢临床效果显著,并且适当增加用药剂量可以提高治疗效果,临床使用时可加以利用。

  6. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  7. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  8. Mucoactive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balsamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucus hypersecretion is a clinical feature of severe respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway mucosal infection and/or inflammation associated with these diseases often gives rise to inflammatory products, including neutrophil-derived DNA and filamentous actin, in addition to bacteria, apoptotic cells and cellular debris, that may collectively increase mucus production and viscosity. Mucoactive agents have been the medication of choice for the treatment of respiratory diseases in which mucus hypersecretion is a clinical complication. The main purpose of mucoactive drugs is to increase the ability to expectorate sputum and/or decrease mucus hypersecretion. Many mucoactive drugs are currently available and can be classified according to their putative mechanism of action. Mucoactive medications include expectorants, mucoregulators, mucolytics and mucokinetics. By developing our understanding of the specific effects of mucoactive agents, we may result in improved therapeutic use of these drugs. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant mucoactive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  9. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure f

  10. Drug signs and teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers Images Signs of drug abuse References National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Talking with Children. www.ncadd. ...

  11. Drug resistance and antiretroviral drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Robert W.; Jonathan M Schapiro

    2005-01-01

    As more drugs for treating HIV have become available, drug resistance profiles within antiretroviral drug classes have become increasingly important for researchers developing new drugs and for clinicians integrating new drugs into their clinical practice. In vitro passage experiments and comprehensive phenotypic susceptibility testing are used for the pre-clinical evaluation of drug resistance. Clinical studies are required, however, to delineate the full spectrum of mutations responsible fo...

  12. [Emergent drugs (I): smart drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, G; Díaz, B Climent; Pazos, J L Echarte; Mas, P Munné; Miró, O; Puiguriguer, J; Dargan, P

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a series of new drugs, known as smart drugs or legal highs, have gaining in popularity. They are easily obtainable through online shops. This is happening amongst younger segments of the population and is associated with recreational consumption, at weekends. In general, they are synthetic derivatives of natural products. There has been hardly any clinical research into them and they are not detectable in hospital laboratories. Three of these products, BZP (1- benzylpiperazine), mefedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and Spice are probably the most widely used in Europe. The first two are consumed as an alternative to ecstasy and cocaine and are characterized by their producing a clinical profile of a sympathetic mimetic type; on occasion, they have serious consequences, with convulsions and even death. Spice (a mixture of herbs with synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497-C8) is giving rise to profiles of dependence and schizophrenia. Although the emergent drugs have an aura of safety, there is an increasing amount of experience on their secondary effects.

  13. Comparative study of 131I and conventional drug therapy for hyperthyroidism in pilots%131I与常规药物治疗飞行员甲状腺功能亢进症疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩哲; 王建昌; 刘朝阳; 徐先荣; 刘红巾; 郑军; 刘晶; 付兆君; 熊巍; 关小宏

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价131I和抗甲状腺药物(antithyroid drug,ATD)治疗飞行员甲状腺功能亢进(甲亢)的疗效及对医学鉴定的影响。方法回顾分析空军总医院2000年12月—2014年12月间住院的甲亢飞行员30例的临床资料,按照治疗方式不同分为131I治疗组及ATD治疗组。主要研究终点:停飞率;次要研究终点:合格率、平均治疗时间、复发率。结果30例中,131I治疗组4例:2例飞行合格,2例暂时飞行不合格,无停飞病例;ATD治疗组26例:7例飞行合格,4例暂时飞行不合格,15例停飞,停飞率为57.69%。131I治疗组的2例飞行合格的飞行员平均地面观察时间6.5个月(6~7个月);ATD治疗组的7例飞行合格的飞行员平均地面观察时间则长达23.25个月(11~69个月)。131I治疗组1例复发,复发率25.00%;ATD治疗组有3例复发,复发率23.08%。结论飞行员患甲亢用ATD治疗,停飞率高,恢复飞行者治疗周期和地面观察时间长,建议将131I作为首选治疗,以缩短治疗时间,降低停飞率。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 131I and antithyroid drug therapy for the hyperthyroidism disease in pilots and its impact on medical evaluation, summarizing the experience in aviation medicine. Methods The pilots with hyperthyroidism inpatients in the General Airforce Hospital from December 2000 to December 2014 were reviewed, the patients were divided into two groups: the 131I therapy group and the control group (antithyroid drugs treatment group). The main endpoint was disqualified rate. The second endpoint was qualified rate, the average treatment time and relapse rate. Results Among 30 cases of hyperthyroidism diseases: four cases with radioactive 131I therapy group: two cases were finally flying qualified, two cases were assessed as temporary grounding, disqualified rate was 0; among 26 cases of antithyroid drug treatment groups, 7 cases were finally flying

  14. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  17. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  18. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs...

  19. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  20. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  1. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  2. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  3. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z All Drugs Drug News Thursday, February 2, 2017 Sustiva Drug Label Updated ... Drug Label Updated Tuesday, January 31, 2017 Stribild Drug Label Updated More News Mobile Apps iPhone/iPad App Android App Back ...

  4. Drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and novel cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Greco, Cesare; Gaudio, Carlo; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-10-15

    The combination of aspirin and the thienopyridine clopidogrel is a cornerstone in the prevention of atherothrombotic events. These two agents act in concert to ameliorate the prothrombotic processes stimulated by plaque rupture and vessel injury complicating cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend the use of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and the drug remains the most utilized P2Y12 receptor inhibitor despite the fact that newer antiplatelet agents are now available. In recent years, numerous studies have shown inconsistency in the efficacy of clopidogrel to prevent atherothrombotic events. Studies of platelet function testing have shown variability in the response to clopidogrel. One of the major reason for this phenomenon lies in the interaction between clopidogrel and other drugs that may affect clopidogrel absorption, metabolism, and ultimately its antiplatelet action. Importantly, these drug-drug interactions have prognostic implications, since patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity associated with reduced clopidogrel metabolism have an increased risk of ischemia. Previous systematic reviews have focused on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and specific pharmacologic classes, such as proton pump inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and statins. However, more recent pieces of scientific evidence show that clopidogrel may also interact with newer drugs that are now available for the treatment of cardiovascular patients. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to highlight and discuss recent data on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and third-generation proton pump inhibitors, pantoprazole and lansoprazole, statins, pitavastatin, and antianginal drug, ranolazine.

  5. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  6. KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) [KEGG DRUG

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DRUG: D06027 Entry D06027Drug Name Technetium Tc 99m apcitide (USP); Acutect (TN) F... 1 838085 1 848586 1 857781 1 868182 1 878280 1 888687 1 898288 2 908689 2 918390 1 929091 2 939092 1 949495 2 KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) ...

  7. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  8. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  9. Drugs of Abuse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be used for: Medical screening Legal or forensic information Employment drug testing Sports/athletics testing Monitoring ... article Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing . Legal or Forensic Testing Drug testing for legal purposes primarily aims ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome ( ...

  11. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  12. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  13. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ML. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content? J ... about drugs and drug abuse. NDFW includes local school and community events and Drug Facts Chat Day, ...

  14. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  15. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  16. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  17. Drug: D06717 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 Crude drugs D06717 Safflower (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for removing blood stasis D06717 *Safflower; Safflower Drugs for external use Drugs

  18. Drug: D06770 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ommia family) Eucommia bark (dried) Major component: Gutta-percha Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...e Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06770 Eucommia bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: a

  19. Study on thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies changes of Wistar rats during sleep deprivation%连续6天睡眠剥夺对大鼠甲状腺功能及抗甲状腺抗体影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董作亮; 谭丽; 褚晨晨; 王帆; 高兴; 乔潇; 李珊; 梁钰涵; 张媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of sleep deprivation for six-consecutive-day on thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies in Wistar rats.Methods Thirty rats aged 3 month healthy Wistar were randomly divided into three groups according to a random number table:sleep deprivation group(SD group),tank cage group (TC group) and control group (CC group),with five females and five males in each group.Sleep deprivation was induced in rats by housing them on small platforms over water.Controls were housed either in tanks with large platforms(TC group) or in normal cage(CC group).Rats in SD group and TC group were placed in 24-hour proposed lighting environment,and rats in SD group were deprived of sleep for 6 consecutive days.Rats in CC group were placed in 12 hours light and 12 hours dark environment.Six days later,all rats were sacrificed,thyroid tissue and blood from femoral artery were saved.Total T3(TT3),totalT4(T4),free T3 (FT3),free T4 (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum were detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay,and the level of anti-thyroid peroxidase(TPOAb),anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay.Results TT3 in SD group were significandy higher than that of rats in TC and CC group (all P <0.05).Compared with TC and CC group,the concentrations of TT4,FT4 were lower (all P < 0.05),and FT3 and Tg concentrations were a little higher.No significant changes were found in TSH,TPOAb and TgAb among the three groups.Conclusion Six consecutive days of sleep deprivation can influence thyroid function,but can be compensated by transferring more T4 to T3.%目的 研究连续6d睡眠剥夺对Wistar大鼠甲状腺功能及抗甲状腺抗体的影响.方法 健康3月龄Wistar大鼠30只,随机数字法分为睡眠剥夺组(SD组)、实验对照组(TC组)、空白对照组(CC组),每组雌鼠、雄鼠各5只,利用“小平台水环境法”建立大鼠睡眠剥夺模型,以大平台及正常笼养组分别作

  20. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  1. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and vitiligo: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhyani Maryam

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder due to destruction of melanocytes. Although many theories have been suggested for its pathogenesis, the role of autoimmunity is the most popular one. The association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid diseases and the increased prevalence of autoantibodies including thyroid autoantibodies in vitiligo favor this role. Our objective was to compare the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO in vitiligo patients with healthy subjects in Iran. Methods Ninety-four cases of vitiligo (46 female and 48 male and 96 control subjects (49 female and 47 male were enrolled in this controlled study. Patients with known thyroid disease, history of thyroid surgery and those receiving thyroid medications were not included. The two groups were matched regarding gender and age. The demographic data, symptoms related to thyroid diseases and results of skin and thyroid examinations were recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. Thyroid function tests including free T3, free T4 and TSH-IRMA were performed. Anti-TPO levels were assessed as well. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version-11 in vitiligo patients and subgroups according to gender, age, extent, and duration of the disease compared with the control group. Results Anti-TPO was detected in 17 (18.1% of patients affected by vitiligo, while this figure was 7 (7.3% in the control group; the difference was significant with p-value The difference of the frequency of anti-TPO was not significant regarding the duration and extent of vitiligo. In addition, there was no significant difference in the levels of free T3, free T4, and TSH in vitiligo patients compared with the control group. Conclusion According to our study, anti-TPO was shown to be significantly more common in vitiligo patients especially in young women, compared with control group. As this antibody is a relatively sensitive and specific marker of autoimmune thyroid disorders including Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and considering the fact that vitiligo usually precedes the onset of thyroid dysfunction, periodic follow-up of vitiligo patients for detecting thyroid diseases is further emphasized especially in young women with increased level of anti-TPO.

  2. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  3. Fighting the Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan…

  4. Utah Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in junior and senior high school students. The 21 multiple choice items pertain to drug use practices, use history, available of drugs, main reason for drug use, and demographic data. The questionnaire is untimed, group administered, and may be given by the classroom teacher in about 10 minutes. Item…

  5. New drug update: 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2010-10-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  6. 2016 New Drug Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2016-04-01

    Six new drugs marketed within the last year, which are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly, have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include a hypnotic, an anticoagulant, two drugs for heart failure, and two drugs to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  7. New drug update: 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2012-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often encountered in the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating (NDCR) system developed by the author. In the NDCR system, a rating from 1 to 5 (5 being the highest rating) is assigned for each new drug. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  8. New drug update: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2013-04-01

    Five new drugs that are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are considered, and a rating for each new drug is determined. The rating is based on a comparison of the new drug with related drugs already marketed. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating.

  9. Food and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of d...

  10. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  11. Drug: D06742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Crude drugs D06742 Houttuynia herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drug...s for clearing heat D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Crude drugs [B

  12. Drug: D06803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06803 Nelumbo seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06803 Nelumbo seed Crude dr

  13. Drug: D06749 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06749 Nuphar rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06749 Nuphar rhizome; Nup

  14. Drug: D06706 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 06706 Immature orange (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs... for regulating Qi D06706 *Immature orange; Kijitsu Drugs for pus discharge Drugs

  15. Drug: D06736 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ehmannia root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs... for replenishing Ying D06736 *Rehmannia root; Rehmannia root Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishin

  16. Drug: D06813 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nent: Scopoletin [CPD:C01752] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and a...ntidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06813 *Dolichos seed Drugs for dampness Drugs

  17. Drug: D06767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs D06767 Benincasa seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for removing blood stasis D06767 *Benincasa seed Drugs for pus discharge Drugs

  18. Drug: D09185 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic ...and antidiarrheal drugs D09185 *Myrica Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D09185 *Myrica Crude dr

  19. Drug: D03404 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drugs D03404 Cardamon (JP16); Cardamom seed (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for dampness Drugs for resolving dampness D03404 Cardamon; Cardamom seed; Cardamon Crude drugs [B

  20. Drug: D04705 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 05 Lithospermum root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D04705 *Lithospermum root; Lithospermum root Drugs for external use Drugs

  1. Drug: D06697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00 Crude drugs D06697 Polygonum root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing blood D06697 Polygonum root Crude drugs [BR

  2. Drug: D05431 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic d...rugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D05431 *Peppermint; Peppermint Drugs for external use Drugs

  3. Drug: D06894 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available daisy family) Artemisia leaf (dried) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for replenishing blood D06894 *Artemisiae folium; Gaiyo Drugs for external use Drugs

  4. Drug: D06772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic an...d antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06772 *Ginseng; Powdered ginseng; Ginseng Drugs for Qi Drugs

  5. Drug: D09151 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D09151 Sw...eetflag rhizome Other drugs Drugs for resuscitation D09151 Acorus gramineus rhizo

  6. Drug: D06689 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs...lodendron bark; Phellodendron bark Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06689 *Phellodendron bark;

  7. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating drug...

  8. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  9. Drug: D06732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r component: Loganin [CPD:C01433] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs...ine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06732 Cornus fruit; Sanshuyu Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06732 Cornus fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medic

  10. Drug development, radiolabelled drugs and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaalburg, W; Hendrikse, NH; de Vries, EFJ

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides noninvasive in vivo quantitative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information on novel and established drugs. Because only very low amounts of the (potential) drug have to be administered, far below toxicity levels, human studies can be carried out even

  11. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illeg

  12. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and drug administration (USFDA has approved eslicarbazepine acetate, ezogabine, perampanel and brivaracetam which have shown a promising future as better AEDs and drugs like ganaxolone, intranasal diazepam, ICA- 105665, valnoctamide, VX-765, naluzotan are in the pipeline. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 587-592

  13. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  14. Application of the Drug in the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism and Analysis%药物治疗甲状腺功能亢进症的应用及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉香

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze drug for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Methods Our hospital 72 cases of patients with hyperthyroidism, divided into two groups, control group given conventional thyroid surgery treatment, the team give anti-thyroid medication, clinical therapeutic effect of two groups of patients were analyzed. Results The team clinical total effective rate was significantly better than the control group, comparing differences between groups with statistical signiifcance (P<0.05). Conclusion Drug treatment of hyperthyroidism curative effect is ideal, worthy of clinical choice.%目的:分析药物治疗甲状腺功能亢进症的效果。方法选择我院收治的甲状腺功能亢进症患者72例,分为两组,对照组给予常规甲状腺切除手术治疗,研究组给予抗甲状腺药物治疗,对两组患者临床治疗效果进行分析。结果研究组临床总有效率显著优于对照组,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论药物治疗甲状腺功能亢进症疗效理想。

  15. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  16. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... Is it safe? > Street drugs and pregnancy Street drugs and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ...

  17. Life after Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDONGPING

    2004-01-01

    THE famous Kunming Drug Rehabilitation Center, founded in 1989, is located in the suburbs of Kunming City. Yunnan Province. It is the first drug rehabilitation center in China and the biggest in Asia.Covering 200 hectares, the center is

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  19. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  20. Drug use first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or extreme social withdrawal. Cannabis drugs such as marijuana may cause relaxation, impaired motor skills, and increased appetite. When prescription drugs are taken in higher than normal amounts, serious side effects may occur.

  1. CMS Drug Spending

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  2. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge ... Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 National Drug IQ Challenge ...

  3. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  4. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  5. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mottram, David R

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  6. Drug: D06718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ied) Major component: Ginsenoside [CPD:C08944 C08945] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06718 Red ginseng (JP16) Crude drugs

  7. Drug: D06680 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eaf Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drug...s 5100 Crude drugs D06680 Sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16); Powdered sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16) Crude drugs

  8. Drug: D06731 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs fo...r clearing heat D06731 *Gardenia fruit; Powdered gardenia fruit; Gerenia fruit Drugs... for Qi Sedative drugs D06731 *Gardenia fruit; Powdered gardenia fruit; Gerenia fruit Drugs for external use Drugs

  9. Drug: D06688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06688 *Scute...eal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; Scutellaria root Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; S

  10. Drug: D06911 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06911 Lilium bulb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06911 *Lilii bulbus; Lily bulb; Byakugo Drugs

  11. Drug: D06695 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in [CPD:C10443] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regula...ting Qi D06695 *Termeric; Turmeric rhizome Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06695 *Termeric; Turmeric rhizome Drugs... for external use Drugs for external use D06695 *Termeric;

  12. Drug: D06798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D...06798 Coix seed (JP16); Powdered coix seed (JP16) 59 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...tions 590 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 5900 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula

  13. Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generics, the origin of drugs and the breadth of therapeutic index, have been taken into account. Certain stages have been analyzed, particularly drug use in individual diseases, drug selection, expert drug evaluation, and expert recommendations to include specific drugs in the drug list. Organizational steps have been proposed to implement the rational choice of drugs to be included in the drug formulary.

  14. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users...

  15. [Fluoroquinolones. Drug interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, G; Dănilă, G

    2000-01-01

    This review summarizes clinically relevant drug-drug interactions for fluoroquinolones: antiacids containing aluminum and magnesium salts, iron or zinc preparations, sucralfate, cimetidine, ranitidine, warfarina, cyclosporin, rifampin, oral contraceptive steroids, benzodiazepine, probenecid, beta-lactam antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, metronidazole, theophylline, caffeine.

  16. Teenage Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    W 4. 0 10 n Used Sws Oduor Nick Drug Note "Other illcilt" drugs includes cocaine, halucinogens, heroin, and the nonmedical use of psycho- therapeutics...Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, May 1988. Strasburger, Victor . "Sex, Drugs, Rock ’n’ Roll: An Introduction." Pediat- rics, 76:4 (Oct. 1985

  17. Drug: D06715 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory family) Pharbitis seed Major component: Pharbitin Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06715 Pharbitis seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs... Purgative drugs D06715 Pharbitis seed; Pharbitis seed Crude drugs [B

  18. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  19. Drug: D06741 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :C17056] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06741 Plantago herb (JP16) Trad...itional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06741 Plantago... herb; Plantago herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D06741 Plantago herb PubChem: 47208392 ...

  20. Drug: D06756 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt: Sennoside [CPD:C10404 C13526 C16797 C16798] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06756 Rhubarb (JP16...); Powdered rhubarb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs... Purgative drugs D06756 Rhubarb; Powdered rhubarb; Rhubarb Crude drugs [BR:br08305

  1. Drug: D06909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available data rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06909 Aralia rhizome (JP16)... Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Antirheumatic drugs D0690...9 Araliae cardatae rhizoma; Dokkatsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D06909 Aralia rhizome PubChem: 51091251 ...

  2. Drug: D06787 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (carrot family) Saposhnikovia root Major component: Fraxidin [CPD:C17479] Therapeutic category of drugs in ...Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06787 Sapo...shnikovia root; Fangfeng Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D06787 Saposhnikovia root PubChem: 47208438 ...

  3. Drug: D06707 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Apiaceae (carrot family) Notopterygium rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06707 ...rude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06707 Notopterygium rhizome Crude drugs...Notopterygium rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] C

  4. Drug: D06782 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 5100 Arecaceae (palm family) Areca seed Major component: Arecoline [CPD:C10129] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06782 Areca (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medici...ne in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for expelling parasites Anthelmintic drugs D06782 Areca; Areca Crude drugs

  5. Drug: D06723 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chi...nese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06723... Burdock fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs... pungent in flavor and cool in property D06723 Burdock fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plan

  6. Drug: D06762 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ry: 5100 Rubiaceae (madder family) Uncaria hook Major component: Rhyncophylline [CPD:C09236] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06762 Uncaria hook (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine ...in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06762 Uncaria hook Crude drugs [BR:br08305] D

  7. Drug: D06783 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [CPD:C14495] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06783 Poria sclerotium (JP1...6); Powdered poria sclerotium (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06783 Poria sclerotium; Powdered poria sclerotium; Hoelen Crude drugs

  8. 2015 new drug update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Daniel A

    2015-04-01

    Six new drugs approved within the last two years, which are used for medical problems often experienced by the elderly, have been selected for consideration in this review. The uses and most important properties of these agents are discussed, and a rating for each new drug is determined using the New Drug Comparison Rating system developed by the author. Advantages, disadvantages, and other important information regarding the new drug are identified and used as the basis for determining the rating. The drugs include two antidiabetic agents, one bronchodilator, one antidepressant, one for erectile dysfunction, and one for menopause-associated conditions.

  9. Rational drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Soma; Moudgil, Mee'nal; Mandal, Sanat K

    2009-12-25

    In this article, current knowledge of drug design is reviewed and an approach of rational drug design is presented. The process of drug development is challenging, expensive, and time consuming, although this process has been accelerated due to the development of computational tools and methodologies. The current target based drug design approach is incomplete because most of the drugs developed by structure guided approaches have been shown to have serious toxic side effects. Otherwise these drugs would have been an ideal choice for the treatment of diseases. Hence, rational drug design would require a multidisciplinary approach. In this regard, incorporation of gene expression technology and bioinformatics tools would be indispensable in the structure based drug design. Global gene expression data and analysis of such data using bioinformatics tools will have numerous benefits such as efficiency, cost effectiveness, time saving, and will provide strategies for combination therapy in addition to overcoming toxic side effects. As a result of incorporation of gene expression data, partial benefit of the structure based drug design is slowly emerging and rapidly changing the approach of the drug development process. To achieve the full benefit of developing a successful drug, multidisciplinary approaches (approaches such as computational chemistry and gene expression analysis, as discussed in this article) would be necessary. In the future, there is adequate room for the development of more sophisticated methodologies.

  10. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  11. 甲状腺功能亢进症伴严重药物性胆汁郁积性肝炎1例并文献复习%One case of hyperthyroidism with severe drug-induced cholestasis hepatitis and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雯; 郑仁东; 陈国芳; 包薇萍; 刘超

    2014-01-01

    甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)本身可导致肝功能损害,而抗甲状腺药物亦可引起肝功能损伤.但出现严重药物性胆汁郁积性肝炎的病例比较少见,临床治疗较为困难.本院收治1例,在治疗甲亢的基础上,采用甲强龙静脉脉冲冲击联合口服强的松的方案,降低患者胆红素水平,使肝功能恢复正常,甲亢亦得以控制.%Hyperthyroidism can cause liver damage,while anti-thyroid drugs can also cause liver dysfunction.Severe case of drug-induced cholestasis hepatitis is rare,difficult to treat.Here we report a case with drug-induced cholestasis hepatitis.On the basis of the treatment of hyperthyroidism,intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy combined with oral prednisone was used to reduce bilirubin levels in patients,therefore the liver function of the patient returned back to normal,and the hyperthyroidism was controlled.

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drug: D06709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Lycium mature fruit Major component: Betaine [CPD:C00719] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06709 Lycium fruit Crude drugs

  20. Drug: D06761 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06761 Anemarrhena rhizome; Ane... Crude drugs D06761 Anemarrhena rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Ja

  1. Drug: D09520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nensis carapace; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D09520 A

  2. Drug: D06794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06794 Akebia stem; Akebiae caulis Crude drugs...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06794 Akebia stem (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  3. Drug: D06799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06799 Longgu; Fossilized mammal bones Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06799 Longgu PubChem: 47208450 ...

  4. Drug: D09127 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D09127 Scrophularia root; Ningpo figwort root Crude dr

  5. Drug: D06775 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs fo...r replenishing Ying D06775 *Ophiopogon tuber; Ophiopogonis tuber Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants and e

  6. Drug: D06703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppr...essants and expectorants D06703 *Platycodon root; Powdered platycodon root; Platycodon root Drugs for pus discharge Drugs

  7. Drug: D06750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06750 Toad venom Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Amphibians D06750 Toad venom PubChem: 47208401 ...

  8. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin ... Misuse Mental Health Military Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities ...

  12. Drug: D01729 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioacti...ve drugs D01729 3-Iodobenzylguanidine (123I) (JAN) Anato

  13. Drug: D08762 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioact...ive drugs D08762 Technetium (99mTc) labelled macroaggreg

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health ...

  15. Drug: D08765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 4300 ATC code: V09BA03 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  16. Drug: D08766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08766 Sodium phytate hydrate - technetium (99mTc)

  17. Drug: D08761 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tegory: 4300 ATC code: V09GA06 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08

  18. Drug: D04163 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available THER DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES, INHALANTS R03BX Other drugs for obstructive airway...MIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DX Other systemic drugs for obstructive airway diseases R03DX03

  19. Incidence of potential drug-drug interactions with antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzic, I; Bacic-Vrca, V

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to achieve normoglycemia more than one antidiabetic agent is usually needed. Diabetes is associated with several comorbidities and patients with diabetes are often treated with multiple medications. Therefore, patients with diabetes are especially exposed to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and type of potential DDIs of antidiabetic drugs in patients with diabetes. This retrospective study analyzed pharmacy record data of 225 patients with diabetes mellitus. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients who were taking at least one antidiabetic agent during the period of six months were included. We investigated associated therapy in that period in order to identify potential DDIs with antidiabetic therapy. Potential interactions were identified by Lexicomp Lexi-Interat Online (Lexi-Comp, Inc., Hudson, USA) software which categorizes potential DDIs according to clinical significance in five types (A, B, C, D and X). Categories C, D and X are of clinical concern and always require medical attention (therapy monitoring, therapy modification or avoiding combination). We found that 80.9% of patients had at least one potential category C interaction while there were no D and X interactions. Most frequently encountered potential DDI (n = 176) included antidiabetic drugs and thiazide or thiazide like diuretics. Patients with diabetes are exposed to a large number of potential clinically significant DDIs that may require appropriate monitoring. Using databases of DDIs could be helpful in reducing the risk of potential clinically significant DDIs.

  20. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  1. Drug: D06702 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06702 Crude, Drug Processed ginger (JP16) [6]-Shogaol [CPD:C10494], [6]-Gingerol [...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06702 Processed ginger (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06702 Processed ginger Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) D06702 Processed ginger PubChem: 47208353 ...

  2. Drug: D06730 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bin [CPD:C17449] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06730 Smilax rhizome (J...izome; Smilax rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Smilacaceae (catbrier famly) D06730 Smilax rhizome PubChem: 47208381 ...

  3. Drug: D04388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available monene [CPD:C06078] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04388 Bitter orange peel (JP16) Crude drugs

  4. Drug: D06760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Chikusetsusaponin [CPD:C17539 C17540 C17543 C17544 C17545] Therapeutic category of drugs i...n Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06760 Panax rhizome (JP16); Powdered panax rhizome (JP16) Crude drugs [

  5. Drug: D04360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raniaceae (geranium family) Geranium thunbergii aerial part Major component: Geraniin [CPD:C10230] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04360 Geranium herb (JP16); Powdered geranium herb (JP16) Crude drugs

  6. Drug: D06777 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ent: Imperatorin [CPD:C09269] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06777 Glehnia root (JP16) Crude dru...gs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D06777 Glehnia root PubChem: 47208428 ...

  7. Drug: D01728 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Calcium sulfate [DR:D09201] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0172... for clearing heat D01728 Gypsum; Calcium sulfate; Gypsum fibrosum Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals D01728 Gypsum PubChem: 7848791 ...

  8. Drug: D06716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ae (gentian family) Gentiana lutea root and rhizome Major component: Gentiopicrin [CPD:C09782] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06716 Gentian (JP16); Powdered gentian (JP16) Crude drugs

  9. Drug related critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Hoda, M Q

    2005-01-01

    Drug related incidents are a common form of reported medical errors. This paper reviews the critical incidents related to drug errors reported from the main operating theatre suite in a teaching hospital in a developing country from January 1997 to December 2002. Each report was evaluated individually by two reviewers using a structured process. During this period, 44 874 anaesthetics were administered; 768 critical incidents were reported, 165 (21%) of which were related to drug errors. Underdosage, side-effect/drug reaction and syringe swap were the most common. A total of 76% were classified as preventable; 56% due to human error and 19% due to system error. High risk incidents accounted for 10% of all drug errors and most of these were related to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. This analysis has been found useful in addressing some issues about priorities.

  10. Discontinued drugs in 2012: cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Min; Xiang, Bing-Ren

    2013-11-01

    The continued high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has attracted wide concern and great attention of pharmaceutical industry. In order to reduce the attrition of cardiovascular drug R&D, it might be helpful recapitulating previous failures and identifying the potential factors to success. This perspective mainly analyses the 30 cardiovascular drugs dropped from clinical development in 2012. Reasons causing the termination of the cardiovascular drugs in the past 5 years are also tabulated and analysed. The analysis shows that the attrition is highest in Phase II trials and financial and strategic factors and lack of clinical efficacy are the principal reasons for these disappointments. To solve the four problems (The 'better than the Beatles' problem, the 'cautious regulator' problem, the 'throw money at it' tendency and the 'basic researchbrute force' bias) is recommended as the main measure to increase the number and quality of approvable products.

  11. New Drugs for CML

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0232 TITLE: New Drugs for CML PRINCIPAL...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 1 Feb 2006– 31 Jan 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER New Drugs for CML 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...Deisseroth A. Use of combinatorial structural variation of top design new drugs for CML. Mol Cancer Ther, 6: 655-666, 2007. Novel compounds with

  12. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  13. Drug-induced diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O; Michaux, A; Bergmann, J F

    2000-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a relatively frequent adverse event, accounting for about 7% of all drug adverse effects. More than 700 drugs have been implicated in causing diarrhoea; those most frequently involved are antimicrobials, laxatives, magnesium-containing antacids, lactose- or sorbitol-containing products, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandins, colchicine, antineoplastics, antiarrhythmic drugs and cholinergic agents. Certain new drugs are likely to induce diarrhoea because of their pharmacodynamic properties; examples include anthraquinone-related agents, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, lipase inhibitors and cholinesterase inhibitors. Antimicrobials are responsible for 25% of drug-induced diarrhoea. The disease spectrum of antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea ranges from benign diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis. Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in drug-induced diarrhoea: osmotic diarrhoea, secretory diarrhoea, shortened transit time, exudative diarrhoea and protein-losing enteropathy, and malabsorption or maldigestion of fat and carbohydrates. Often 2 or more mechanisms are present simultaneously. In clinical practice, 2 major types of diarrhoea are seen: acute diarrhoea, which usually appears during the first few days of treatment, and chronic diarrhoea, lasting more than 3 or 4 weeks and which can appear a long time after the start of drug therapy. Both can be severe and poorly tolerated. In a patient presenting with diarrhoea, the medical history is very important, especially the drug history, as it can suggest a diagnosis of drug-induced diarrhoea and thereby avoid multiple diagnostic tests. The clinical examination should cover severity criteria such as fever, rectal emission of blood and mucus, dehydration and bodyweight loss. Establishing a relationship between drug consumption and diarrhoea or colitis can be difficult when the time elapsed between the start of the drug and the onset of symptoms is long, sometimes up to several

  14. Pharmacology and drug distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.

    1979-08-01

    An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.

  15. Single compartment drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modi...

  16. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organi......Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...... their performance....

  17. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Drugs used to treat heartburn and stomach ulcers, such as omeprazole (Prilosec), esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (AcipHex), pantoprazole (Protonix), cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine ( ...

  18. Metallomics in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi Nhu Tam; Ostergaard, Jesper; Stürup, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for separation of free cisplatin from liposome-encapsulated cisplatin and protein-bound cisplatin was developed. A liposomal formulation of cisplatin based on PEGylated liposomes was used as model drug formulation...... to plasma constituents in plasma samples. It was demonstrated that this approach is suitable for studies of the stability of liposome formulations as leakage of active drug from the liposomes and subsequent binding to biomolecules in plasma can be monitored. This methodology has not been reported before...... and will improve characterization of liposomal drugs during drug development and in studies on kinetics....

  19. How to Misuse Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Edwards

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of us, during our training, are taught about the actions of drugs and their side-effects, but very few of us are taught how to misuse drugs. However, this is an art that seems to be acquired through practice in handling drugs, by various members of the medical and nursing professions, as well as by the general population. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a few of the ways in which drugs can be, and are, misused.

  20. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  1. Intracellular drug release nanosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Meng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to elicit therapeutic effects, many drugs including small molecule anticancer drugs, proteins, siRNA, and DNA have to be delivered and released into the specific cellular compartments typically the cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells. Intracellular environment-responsive nanosystems that exhibit good extracellular stability while rapidly releasing drugs inside cancer cells have been actively pursued for effective cancer therapy. Here, we highlight novel designs of smart nanosystems that release drugs in response to an intracellular biological signal of cancer cells such as acidic pH in endo/lysosomal compartments, enzymes in lysosomes, and redox potential in cytoplasm and the cell nucleus.

  2. State Drug Control and Illicit Drug Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of state criminal justice expenditures and state public health expenditures on deterring illicit drug use. The empirical model is based on a demand and supply model of drug markets. The effect of a given expenditure on criminal justice or public health programs is dependent on the magnitude of the resulting shifts in the two functions and the demand price elasticity. A reduced form of the demand and supply model is also estimated. The data e...

  3. Drug-drug co-crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Singh Sekhon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs are most conveniently developed and delivered orally as solid dosage forms that contain a defined crystalline form of an API. Co-crystal is a crystalline entity formed by two different or more molecular entities where the intermolecular interactions are weak forces like hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking. Co-crystals are an enabling technology that is used in new or existing drug delivery systems by majority of pharmaceutical companies in formulation and drug development.

  4. Drug: D06906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ri, or other related species larval exuvia; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...n Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property ...D06906 Cicadae periostracum; Cicada slough; Zentai Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D06906 Cicada larva exuvia PubChem: 51091248 ...

  5. Drug: D06721 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available attle family) Oriental bezoar Major component: Bile acid [CPD:C01558] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06721 Oriental ...bezoar (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Drugs for resuscita...tion D06721 Oriental bezoar Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06721 Oriental bezoar PubChem: 47208372 ...

  6. Drug: D06785 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available menium stem and rhizome Major component: Sinomenine [CPD:C09643] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06785 Sinomenium ste...m (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D0...6785 Sinomenium stem; Fangji Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Menispermaceae (moonseed family) D06785 Sinomenium stem PubChem: 47208436 ...

  7. The relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Qiu, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Dong; Cui, Qing-hua

    2012-05-01

    Previous analysis of systems pharmacology has revealed a tendency of rational drug design in the pharmaceutical industry. The targets of new drugs tend to be close with the corresponding disease genes in the biological networks. However, it remains unclear whether the rational drug design introduces disadvantages, i.e. side effects. Therefore, it is important to dissect the relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects. Based on a recently released drug side effect database, SIDER, here we analyzed the relationship between drug side effects and the rational drug design. We revealed that the incidence drug side effect is significantly associated with the network distance of drug targets and diseases genes. Drugs with the distances of three or four have the smallest incidence of side effects, whereas drugs with the distances of more than four or smaller than three show significantly greater incidence of side effects. Furthermore, protein drugs and small molecule drugs show significant differences. Drugs hitting membrane targets and drugs hitting cytoplasm targets also show differences. Failure drugs because of severe side effects show smaller network distances than approved drugs. These results suggest that researchers should be prudent on rationalizing the drug design. Too small distances between drug targets and diseases genes may not always be advantageous for rational design for drug discovery.

  8. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  9. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2013-07-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions.

  10. Drugs and brain death: drug assay perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R G

    1996-08-01

    The ability to make any meaningful interpretation of a drug assay result is very dependent upon a knowledge of the limitations of the method(s) used (sensitivity, specificity etc.), and the concentration that may be measured in plasma and its relationship to CNS effects. We need more information about 'critical' concentrations for each drug and sedation in the setting of the brain-injured patient before meaningful interpretation can be applied to such data. While the above discussion is critical of screen-type assays, the alternative specific assays are not easily provided for, as obviously the resourcing of laboratories to be able to deliver such specialized services for a range of therapeutic drugs, in addition to 'social' drugs or other toxins (e.g. glues, pesticides, solvents, environmental substances etc), becomes an increasingly complex issue in the current economic climate. Hence, the analytical laboratory can offer valuable support to the clinical team however, the interpretation of such results must be assessed in the light of many limitations of such assay methods and not seen as the 'gold standard' for assessment of brain function.

  11. Drug: D06774 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rds for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and... Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...ss Cough suppressants and expectorants D06774 Fritillaria bulb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) D06774 Fritillaria bulb PubChem: 47208425 ...

  12. Drug: D06896 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory: 5100 Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) Trichosanthes seed; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs M...ajor component: Trichosanic acid [CPD:C08364] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06896 Trichosanthis semen; Karonin Crude drugs [BR:br0830

  13. Drug: D06766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or component: Asparagine [CPD:C16438] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06766 Asparagus tuber (JP16) ...hing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06766 Asparagus tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Asparagaceae (asparagus family) D06766 Asparagus tuber PubChem: 47208417 ...

  14. Drug: D04365 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s D04365 Glycyrrhiza (JP16); Powdered glycyrrhiza (JP16); Licorice (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drug...rrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for Qi Drugs for replen...ishing Qi D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for... pus discharge D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for external use Drugs

  15. Ayurvedic drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Premalatha; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2007-12-01

    Ayurveda is a major traditional system of Indian medicine that is still being successfully used in many countries. Recapitulation and adaptation of the older science to modern drug discovery processes can bring renewed interest to the pharmaceutical world and offer unique therapeutic solutions for a wide range of human disorders. Eventhough time-tested evidences vouch immense therapeutic benefits for ayurvedic herbs and formulations, several important issues are required to be resolved for successful implementation of ayurvedic principles to present drug discovery methodologies. Additionally, clinical examination in the extent of efficacy, safety and drug interactions of newly developed ayurvedic drugs and formulations are required to be carefully evaluated. Ayurvedic experts suggest a reverse-pharmacology approach focusing on the potential targets for which ayurvedic herbs and herbal products could bring tremendous leads to ayurvedic drug discovery. Although several novel leads and drug molecules have already been discovered from ayurvedic medicinal herbs, further scientific explorations in this arena along with customization of present technologies to ayurvedic drug manufacturing principles would greatly facilitate a standardized ayurvedic drug discovery.

  16. Newer antithrombotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Thromboembolic disorders are one of the disorders for which we are still on the look out for a safe and efficient drug. Despite the widespread use of antithrombotic drugs for the prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thrombosis, thromboembolic diseases continue to be a major cause of death and disability worldwide. This shows our inefficiency in searching efficacious and safe antithrombotic drugs. We have reached the basic mechanism of thrombus formation and by interrupting various steps of this mechanism, we can prevent as well as treat thromboembolic disorders. In continuation of Aspirin, now, we are using Clopidogrel, Ticlopidine and GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors (Abciximab, Tirofiban and Eptifibatide). Warfarin is an old antithrombotic drug which is still being used; but due to various side effects and drug interactions, we are bound to use newer drugs. Newer antiplatelet drugs include Prasugrel, Ticagrelor and Cangrelor, whereas newer thrombin inhibitors are Ximelgatran and Dabigatran. Apixaban is also a newer entry in this category as factor Xa inhibitor. Idrabiotaparinux is an indirect inhibitor of Xa as it accelerates the activity of antithrombin. Moreover, researches and trials for better and safe drugs are ongoing. PMID:21572750

  17. Club Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person is thirsty, give him or her a sports drink (like Gatorade), not plain water. If the person doesn’t start feeling better, get medical help right away. PreventionHow can I prevent someone from giving me a club drug?Club drugs often are used as “date ...

  18. The Drug War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCrosta, Anthony

    1989-01-01

    The role of teachers in helping fight against drug abuse is discussed stressing the teacher's ability to see changes in the students and the potential for positive influence. A vital school role involves teaching life skills and wellness principles. Information on commonly abused drugs and their effects is presented. (SM)

  19. Interoception and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P; Stewart, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an "embodied" experience of drug uses together with the individual's predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  20. Drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Robert L

    2005-04-15

    Autoantibodies and, less commonly, systemic rheumatic symptoms are associated with treatment with numerous medications and other types of ingested compounds. Distinct syndromes can be distinguished, based on clinical and laboratory features, as well as exposure history. Drug-induced lupus has been reported as a side-effect of long-term therapy with over 40 medications. Its clinical and laboratory features are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, except that patients fully recover after the offending medication is discontinued. This syndrome differs from typical drug hypersensitivity reactions in that drug-specific T-cells or antibodies are not involved in induction of autoimmunity, it usually requires many months to years of drug exposure, is drug dose-dependent and generally does not result in immune sensitization to the drug. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that oxidative metabolites of the parent compound trigger autoimmunity. Several mechanisms for induction of autoimmunity will be discussed, including bystander activation of autoreactive lymphocytes due to drug-specific immunity or to non-specific activation of lymphocytes, direct cytotoxicity with release of autoantigens and disruption of central T-cell tolerance. The latter hypothesis will be supported by a mouse model in which a reactive metabolite of procainamide introduced into the thymus results in lupus-like autoantibody induction. These findings, as well as evidence for thymic function in drug-induced lupus patients, support the concept that abnormalities during T-cell selection in the thymus initiate autoimmunity.

  1. Dimensions of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  2. Effect of Drug Loading Method on Drug Content and Drug Release from Calcium Pectinate Gel Beads

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Drug-loaded calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads were prepared by either mixing, absorption, or swelling method. The effects of drug loading method as well as the drug loading factors (i.e., drug concentration, soaking time in drug solution, type of solvent) on drug content and drug release were investigated. The amount of drug uptake (i.e., drug content) into CaPG beads increased as the initial drug concentration increased and varied depending on the loading method. The in vitro release studie...

  3. Impact and Roles of Drug Information in Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstadt, Michael S.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented elucidating the role of knowledge about drugs in facilitating or impeding drug use. The issues considered include (1) the role of drug information in previous "education" programs, (2) the source and uses of drug information, (3) the impact of this information, and (4) the alternative roles for drug information. (Author)

  4. Computational drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-sheng OU-YANG; Jun-yan LU; Xiang-qian KONG; Zhong-jie LIANG; Cheng LUO; Hualiang JIANG

    2012-01-01

    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process.Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information,the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow,including target identification and validation,lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests.Over the past decades,computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking,pharmacophore modeling and mapping,de novo design,molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved.In this review,we present an overview of these important computational methods,platforms and successful applications in this field.

  5. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  6. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  7. Clustering drug-drug interaction networks with energy model layouts: community analysis and drug repurposing

    OpenAIRE

    Lucreţia Udrescu; Laura Sbârcea; Alexandru Topîrceanu; Alexandru Iovanovici; Ludovic Kurunczi; Paul Bogdan; Mihai Udrescu

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing drug-drug interactions may unravel previously unknown drug action patterns, leading to the development of new drug discovery tools. We present a new approach to analyzing drug-drug interaction networks, based on clustering and topological community detection techniques that are specific to complex network science. Our methodology uncovers functional drug categories along with the intricate relationships between them. Using modularity-based and energy-model layout community detection...

  8. Drug: D06790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available herapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medi...cine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06790 Oyster shell (JP16); Powdered oyste...r shell (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D0...6790 Oyster shell; Powdered oyster shell; Oyster shell Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mollusks D06790 Oyster shell PubChem: 47208441 ... ...: E00159 Therapeutic category: 5100 Osteridae Oyster shell Major component: Calcium carbonate [CPD:C08129] T

  9. Drug: D05525 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antain family) Plantago mature seed (dried) Major component: Aucubin [CPD:C09771] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D05525 Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (AT...Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D05525 Plantago seed; Ispaghula; Plantago seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D05525 Plantago seed PubChem: 17398302 ...

  10. Drug: D06763 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 5100 Polyporaceae (Polypore) Polyporus sclerotium Major component: Ergosterol [CPD:C01694] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06763 Polyporus sclerotium (JP16); Powdered pol...yporus sclerotium (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06763 Polyporus sclerotium; Powdered polyporus sclerotium; Chuling Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Fungi Basidiomycetes D06763 Polyporus sclerotium PubChem: 47208414 ...

  11. Drug: D06738 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mponent: Kaempferol [CPD:C05903] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chine...se medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06738 Tribulus fruit (JP16) Tradit...ional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06738 Tribulus fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Zygophyllaceae (creosote-bush family) D06738 Tribulus fruit PubChem: 47208389 ...

  12. Drug: D06793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mp fruit Major component: Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs Purgative drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Cannabaceae (hop family) D06793 Hemp fruit PubChem: 47208444 ...

  13. Drug: D06693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5100 Fabaceae (pea family) Pueraria root Major component: Puerarin [CPD:C10524] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D06693 Puer...aria root; Pueraria root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) D06693 Pueraria root PubChem: 47208344 ...

  14. Drug: D06786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt: Cylindrin [CPD:C17534] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese med...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06786 Imperat...a rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Hemostatic drugs... D06786 Imperata rhizome; Imperatae rhizoma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) D06786 Imperata rhizome PubChem: 47208437 ...

  15. Drug: D06910 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hordeum vulgare seed Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06910 Malt (JP16) PubChem: 51091252 ...

  16. Drug: D06903 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available heaceae (tea family) Tea leaf Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese ...medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06903 Theae folium PubChem: 51091245 ...

  17. Drug: D07153 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Cinchona bark Major component: Quinine [CPD:C06526] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07153 Cinchona bark PubChem: 51091492 ...

  18. Drug: D06892 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Yi...ng D06892 *Asini corii collas; Ass-hide glue; Donkey-hide glue; Akyo; Gelatin Drugs for blood Drugs for repl...dae Equus asinus hide glue; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  19. Drug: D04674 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D0...4674 *Forsythia fruit; Forsythia fruit Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D04674 *Forsythia fru

  20. Drug: D06748 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6748 Cnidium rhizome (JP16); Powdered cnidium rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06748 *Cnidium rhizome; Powdered cnidium rhizome; Cnidii rhizoma Dru...gs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06748 *Cni

  1. Drug: D06764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06764 *Citrus... unshiu peel; Citrus unshiu peel Drugs for dampness Drugs for resolving dampness D06764 *Citrus unshiu peel;

  2. Drug: D06694 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs D06694 Clematis root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for damp...ness Antirheumatic drugs D06694 *Clematis root; Irei-sen Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D0669

  3. Drug: D06740 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Dru...gs for external use Drugs for external use D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Crude dru

  4. Drug: D06739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing bl...ood D06739 *Peony root; Powdered peony root; Peony root Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D067

  5. Drug: D06710 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ); Powdered sophora root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... for clearing heat D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; Sophora root Drugs... for external use Drugs for external use D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; Sopho

  6. Drug: D00092 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JP16); Powdered coptis rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... rhizome; Powdered coptis rhizome; Coptis rhizome Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D00092 *Copt

  7. Drug: D06768 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing blood D06768 *Japanese angelic...a root; Powdered japanese angelica root; Japanese angelica root Drugs for external use Drugs for external us

  8. Drug: D06758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs St...omachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06758 *Jujube

  9. Drug: D06727 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5100 Crude drugs D06727 Bupleurum root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06727 Bupleurum root; Bupleurum root Crude drugs [BR:br083

  10. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Drug: D07152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07152 Crude, Drug Processed aconite root Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconitine [CPD...Same as: E00256 Therapeutic category: 5100 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Processed... drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07152 Processed aconite root PubChem: 51091491 ...

  14. Drug: D06800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06800 Crude, Drug Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16); Genti...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06800 Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16) Traditional Chinese Med...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06800 Japanese gentian; Powdered japanese

  15. Intracerebroventricular administration of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Aaron M; Mieure, Katherine D; Owen, Robert D; Pesaturo, Adam B; Hatton, Jimmi

    2009-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular drug administration is a method that bypasses the blood-brain barrier and other mechanisms that limit drug distribution into the brain, allowing high drug concentrations to enter the central compartment. Instillation of drugs directly into the ventricles of the brain must be done carefully and with full consideration of factors affecting the efficacy and safety of this route of administration. These factors include the osmolarity, pH, volume, and presence of preservatives and diluents of the drug solution being administered. Very few studies have formally investigated intraventricular therapies, and dosing recommendations may vary widely depending on the agent and the patient. Many antimicrobials have been given intraventricularly, although very few prospective studies have evaluated this strategy. There are wide variations among the reports regarding dosage regimens and the pharmacokinetics of the antimicrobials used. Guidance on appropriate formulations and their use is lacking. Clinicians should be aware of their patients' ongoing disease processes and neurologic status, as well as pertinent physiochemical properties of drugs when formulating them for intracerebroventricular administration; a high index of suspicion should be maintained when monitoring patients for adverse drug events after instillation.

  16. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  17. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  18. Bioequivalence of generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-09-01

    Generic drugs are bioequivalent to the original brand; this is a prerequisite for marketing approval. It is theoretically possible that one generic drug may overestimate the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the original and another generic may underestimate these PK parameters; in consequence, these 2 generics may not be bioequivalent between themselves. The result could be loss of efficacy or development of drug-related adverse effects if these generics are interchanged in stable patients. In a recent study involving 292 indirect comparisons of generic formulations of 9 different drugs, mathematical modeling showed that in most cases (87.0% for maximum concentration, 90.1% for area under the curve, and 80.5% for both) generic drugs are bioequivalent to each other. These reassuring findings notwithstanding, prudence dictates that, in stable patients, generic drugs should be interchanged only if there is a good reason for it. This is because bioequivalent brands of drugs may differ in their excipient content, and this can result in variations in safety profiles.

  19. Drug-induced gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Ari; Dobs, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    Gynecomastia is caused by drugs in 10 - 25% of all cases. The pathophysiologic mechanism for some drugs includes exogenous estrogens exposure, medications that cause hypogonadism, anti-androgenic effects and hyperprolactinemia. This manuscript reviews common examples of drug-induced gynecomastia, discussing the mechanisms and possible treatments. Discontinuing the medication is always the best choice; however, if this is not possible, then testosterone replacement therapy may be needed for hypogonadism. When a man is euogonadal, a trial of the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor may be an option.

  20. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  1. Drug: D06722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 722 Achyranthes root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06722 Achyranthes root; Achyranthese root Crude d

  2. Drug: D06754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06...5 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] Traditional Chinese Medicine in J

  3. Drug: D06801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ly) Alpinia Officinarum Rhizome Major component: Cineole [CPD:C09844] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06801 Alpinia offcin

  4. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  7. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  8. Drug: D04403 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04403 Drug Guar gum (NF) Pharmaceutic aid [tablet binder]; Pharmaceutic aid [table...NG DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS A10BX Other blood glucose lowering drugs, excl. insulins A10BX01 Guar gum D04403

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. Drug: D07379 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 02 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES... R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DX Other systemic drugs

  11. Drug: D01828 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISE...ASES R03DX Other systemic drugs for obstructive airway diseases R03DX01 Amlexanox D

  12. Drug: D08767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioa...ctive drugs D08767 Benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine - mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine technetium (99mTc) mixt PubChem: 96025450 ...

  13. Drug: D09125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rt Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Drugs for resolving dam...705] Pogostemon cablin [TAX:28511] Same as: E00188 Lamiaceae (mint family) Pogostemon cablin above ground pa

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. Drug: D06905 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06905 Crude, Drug Peucedanum root (JP16); Peucedani radix; Zenko (Pd-Ia, II,III, I... Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06905 *Peucedani radix; Hogfennel root;

  18. Drug: D08546 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ISM A02 DRUGS FOR ACID RELATED DISORDERS A02B DRUGS FOR PEPTIC ULCER AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (...GORD) A02BX Other drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (G

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Meetings & Events Media Guide About NIDA Director's Page Organization Legislative Activities Advisory Boards & Groups Working at NIDA ...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  3. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  4. Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trials, Critical Path Initiative and more Icon for Business & Industry section. For Industry Guidance, registration and listing, ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  5. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  6. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  7. Drug-induced catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Harpreet S; Singh, Ira

    2005-09-01

    Catatonia is a heterogeneous syndrome that varies in etiology, presentation, course and sequelae. Initially conceptualized as a subtype of schizophrenia, catatonia is now recognized to occur not only with other psychiatric conditions but also with medical conditions and drug-induced and toxic states. While drug-induced catatonia is now a recognized entity, most studies club it with catatonia due to general medical conditions or organic catatonia, thus precluding any meaningful interpretation of such cases. The literature on drug-induced catatonia mostly draws from scattered case reports. This article attempts to review the available literature in this realm and integrate the information in an attempt to explore the epidemiology, etiology, mechanism and treatment of drug-induced catatonia.

  8. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  9. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  10. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  11. Professional thieves and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, J A; Russe, B R

    1977-12-01

    The "professional thief" is a highly specialized predatory offender with a history that dates back to Elizabethan England. Although this type of criminal is generally associated with narcotic addiction, his drug-taking typically involved the use of heroin, morphine, and cocaine on an intermittent basis. However, trafficking in drugs was common to the "professional" underworld, and as a result this deviant fraternity had a notable impact on the impressment of a criminal model of drug use on twentieth century conceptions of the addict. The concept of "professional" theft is reviewed, the use of drugs by professional thieves is discussed, and the interaction between this underworld group and the early Federal Bureau of Narcotics is examined.

  12. The drug swindlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M; Lydecker, M; Lee, P R

    1990-01-01

    In a number of important developing nations--among them Indonesia, India, and Brazil--clinical pharmacologists and other drug experts are revealing mounting concern over the marketing of fraudulent drug products. These are shaped, colored, flavored, marked, and packaged to mimic the real product. They may contain the actual antibiotic or other drug indicated on the label, but so "cut" that the product provides only a small fraction of the labeled amount, or they may contain only useless flour or starch. At best, they are worthless. At the worst, they can kill. In most instances, it is believed that these "drugs" are produced and marketed by local or domestic fly-by-night groups and not by multinational pharmaceutical firms. Blame for these practices is placed on inadequate or unenforced laws, only trivial punishments, bribery and corruption, and the fact that generally "nobody inspects the inspectors."

  13. Bugs, Drugs, and Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilroy, John E.; Campbell, Bruce D.; Mathewson, Herbert O.; Scarafile, Peter D.; Solomon, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the development, implementation, and review of a daily reporting system using data from two modules of a hospital information system: Kirby-Bauer sensitivity results from Microbiology, and patient drug profiles from Pharmacy.

  14. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising: Questions to Ask Yourself Sample Prescription Drug Advertisements Give Us Feedback Resources for You Report a ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  15. Drug-Food Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t stir medicine into your food or take capsules apart (unless your doctor tells you to) because this may change the way the drug works.Don’t take vitamin pills at the same time you take medicine ...

  16. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and controls used for the manufacturing, processing and packaging of the drug are adequate to preserve its ... have a complaints regarding veterinary standard of care issues? Complaints and questions about standard of care issues ...

  17. Drug: D06778 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Araceae (arum family) Pinellia tuber Major component: Homogentisic acid [CPD:C00544] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06778 Pinellia tuber (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...llia tuber; Pineliae tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) D06778 Pinellia tuber PubChem: 47208429 ...

  18. Drug: D01033 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th stem exudation Major component: Tragacanthic acid Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01033 Tragacan...th (JP16/NF); Powdered tragacanth (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) D01033 Tragacanth PubChem: 7848096 ...

  19. Drug: D01032 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 100 Gelidiaceae Gelidium amansii mucous (freeze dry) Major component: Agarose [CPD:C01399] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01032 Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Algae Red algae D01032 Agar PubChem: 7848095 ...

  20. Epigenetic Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Peedicayil, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities in epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Advances in epigenetics have given rise to a new class of drugs, epigenetic drugs. Although many classes of epigenetic drugs are being investigated, at present most attention is being paid to two classes of epigenetic drugs: drugs that inhibit DNA methyltransferase (DNMTi) and drugs that inhibit histone deacetylase (HDACi). This paper discusses ...

  1. Prediction of drug-drug interactions from chemogenomic and gene-gene interactions and analysis of drug-drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between multiple drugs administered to an organism concurrently, whether in the form of synergy or antagonism, are of clinical relevance. Moreover, un-derstanding the mechanisms and nature of drug-drug interactions is of great practical and theoretical interest. Work has previously been done on gene-gene and gene-drug interactions, but the prediction and rationalization of drug-drug interactions from this data is not straightforward. We present a strategy for attacking this p...

  2. FDA relations during drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchel, Jules T.

    2000-01-01

    Working closely and cooperatively with regulatory authorities during drug development is vital to successful drug development programs. In the United States, the drug development team includes not only members of the key disciplines of drug discovery, clinical research, regulatory affairs, marketing, chemistry, toxicology, and legal aspects, but also the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). New regulations encourage meetings at the pre-investigational new drug (pre-IND), end-of-phase-2, and pr...

  3. Optimizing HIV drug therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calmy, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of drugs used in HIV-infected patients has dramatically changed since triple antiretroviral combinations were introduced, albeit at the expense of some severe adverse events, in 1996. Long term complications of antiretroviral drug exposure, such as HIV lipodystrophy, as well as organ-specific disease of heart and bone are, therefore, a critical issue when designing antiretroviral regimens. Because it is difficult to predict the occurrence of lipodystrophy, and because there is no...

  4. New drugs for migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Stovner, Lars Jacob; Tronvik, Erling; Hagen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    After the triptans, a calcitonin gene-related peptide blocker (telcagepant) is the first acute medicine that has been developed primarily for treatment of acute migraine. Otherwise, the new drugs have been developed first for other purposes, like anticonvulsants, antihypertensives and antidepressants used for migraine prophylaxis. For acute attacks, a new way to administer a traditional drug like dihydroergotamine is under way, and documentation of efficacy in migraine has been gained for som...

  5. Chemoinformatics and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Hagler

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews current achievements in the field of chemoinformatics and their impact on modern drug discovery processes. The main data mining approaches used in cheminformatics, such as descriptor computations, structural similarity matrices, and classification algorithms, are outlined. The applications of cheminformatics in drug discovery, such as compound selection, virtual library generation, virtual high throughput screening, HTS data mining, and in silico ADMET are discussed. At the conclusion, future directions of chemoinformatics are suggested.

  6. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  7. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases.

  8. [Drug use in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U

    2005-01-01

    Drug use in pregnancy is associated with a number of serious complications for mother and fetus. There are safe data on destructive effects of alcohol, cocain, marijuana and tobacco on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Of importance is the fact that for many drugs similar effects on pregnancy could be observed: vasoconstriction of the placental vessels resulting in placental abruption, preterm labour (mother), spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preterm delivery and stillbirth (fetus). Symptoms of withdrawal and neurodevelopmental disorders are the most important problems of the neonate. However, only small data exist about the effects of recently popular party drugs like ecstasy or LSD. In addition, from most drugs, with exception of alcohol, safe information about the risk of congenital malformations doesn't exist. Nevertheless they may be a useful guide in the diagnostic of potential malformations by ultrasound. Most of pregnant women using drugs are poly-drug users and are often in reduced general condition. They need therefore the intensive care of the obstetrician in cooperation with other specialists (internal medicine, psychiatry).

  9. Drug: D06759 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medic...ine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06759 Alisma rhizome (JP16); Powdered alis...ma rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06759 Alisma rhizome; Powdered alisma rhizome; Alisma rhizome Crude drugs...Alismataceae (water-plantain family) Thrumwort rhizome Major component: Alisol [CPD:C17459 C17460 C17461] Therapeutic category of dru

  10. Drugs affecting the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  11. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  12. New Drugs and Drug Resistance in Malaria: Molecular Genetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-26

    heterologous expressions system in yeast for potential drug target enzymes. The yeast expression system should allow rapid screening of new drugs , greatly...medication yet the world faces a crisis-drug resistance is emerging and spreading faster than drugs are being developed and the flow in the pipeline of new ... drugs has all but stopped. This represents a particular threat to the US Military. In a short time there may be parts of the world where no effective

  13. Drug development and immunotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SugiY; IzumM

    2002-01-01

    Immunotoxicity of drugs has to be evaluated same as other kinds of toxicities,since the functions of the immune system are vital to human survival,consisting of the protection of the body from invading pathogens and to provide immune surveillance against arising tumor cells.A given drug's effect on the immune system can be classified as (1)immuno-suppression/activation.(2)antigenicity and hypersensitivity,(3)autoimmunity.The guidance of immumotoxicity has highlighted on immuno-suppression in Harmonizing Congress among EC,USA and Japan.In this paper,the strategy and methods to evaluate immunotoxicity,mainly immuno-suppression,of the drugs will be show.complexity and variety of immuno-systems make assessment of immumotoxicity complex.The testing in rats to assess immune function is thought to be the first choice for immunotoxicity evaluation in a drug development,and then other suitable testing should be added depending on the mature of drugs.

  14. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  15. DRUGS AND SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Lukina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a well – known risk factor of many diseases. It influences the efficacy and safety of drug treatment by affecting the course of different physiological processes and modifying the metabolism of drugs. The number of researches showed decrease in efficacy of some cardiovascular drugs in smokers.Aim. To compare efficacy and safety of selective and non-selective beta–adrenoceptor blockers in smokers and nonsmokers with chronic ischemic disease.Material and Methods. Antianginal efficacy of drugs in patients of both groups was evaluated by burden tests on treadmill, effective doses of bisoprolol and propranolol were adjusted.Results. The result shows that smokers two times more often need prescription of double doses of drugs. Depressed antianginal activity of both beta-adrenoceptor blockers, especially of non-selective propranolol, in smokers was revealed. When evaluating the parameters of spirography, it was found that non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranol statistically significant decreases figures of bronchial passage, irrespective of the status of smoking. Moreover, with propranol treatment, bigger number of side effects is registered in both groups, demonstrating 30% more in smokers compared to nonsmokers.Conclusion. Smoking attenuates efficacy and safety of beta-blockers, especially these of non-selective ones.

  16. Drug: D08760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:...br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs... 4300 Radioactive drugs D08760 Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid - diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) mixt PubChem: 96025443 ...

  17. Drug: D08757 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Neurolite (TN) C12H21N2O5S2. Tc. 433.9956 436.3417 Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  18. Drug: D06679 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants a...nd expectorants D06679 Gambir; Powdered gambir; Gamibir Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06679

  19. Drug: D06696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (laurel family) Lindera root Major component: Linderol [CPD:C01766] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06696 Lindera root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Ot

  20. Drug: D07154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07154 Persimmon calyx (non-JP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D07154 Kaki calyx Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ebenaceae (ebony family) D07154 Kaki calyx PubChem: 51091493 ...

  1. Drug: D06734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yphus jujuba [TAX:326968] Same as: E00105 Therapeutic category: 5100 Rhamnaceae (buckthorn...08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06734 Jujube seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) D06734 Jujube seed PubChem: 47208385 ...

  2. Drug: D04526 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USP); Indium oxine In 111 (TN) (C9H6NO)3. In 543.0399 547.2681 D04526.gif Diagnostic aid; Radioactive agent... Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive... drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D04526

  3. Drug: D08669 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N07 OTHER NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS N07B DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS N07BA Drugs used in nicotine dependen...ce N07BA03 Varenicline D08669 Varenicline (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302

  4. Drug: D02102 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N07 OTHER NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS N07B DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS N07BC Drugs used in opioid depende...nce N07BC02 Methadone D02102 Methadone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) USP drug classificat

  5. Drug: D06791 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in flavor and warm in property D06791 Ephedra herb; Ephedrae Herba Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Naked-seed plants Ephedraceae (ephedra family) D06791 Ephedra herb PubChem: 47208442 ... ...) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent

  6. Drug: D06746 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in prope...rty D06746 Magnolia flower Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Magnoliaceae (magnolia family) D06746 Magnolia flower PubChem: 47208397 ...

  7. Drug: D08758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08758 Technetium (99mTc) N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan PubChem: 96025441 ...

  8. Drug: D02006 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ron (TN) SrCl2 158.8452 158.526 D02006.gif Antineoplastic; Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC ...code: V10BX01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D02006 Strontium (89

  9. Drug: D06339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06339 Drug Xenon Xe 133 (JAN/USP/INN); Xenon (133Xe); Xenon Xe 133 (TN) Xe 132.9059 131.293 D06339.gif Radi...gory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radio

  10. Drug: D08764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08764 Technetium (99mTc) hydroxymethylene diphosphonate PubChem: 96025447 ...

  11. Drug: D05189 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Meditec (TN) TcO4. Na 185.8757 185.8936 D05189.gif Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V...09FX01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D05189 Sodium pertechnetate

  12. Drug: D07520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07520 Drug Bepridil (INN); Bepadin (TN) C24H34N2O 366.2671 366.5396 D07520.gif Antiarrhythmic...; Calcium antagonist; Coronary vasodilator Same as: C06847 ATC code: C08EA02 Class IV antiarrhythmic...36 Calcium channel blocking drugs map07037 Antiarrhythmic drugs map07231 Sodium channel blocking drugs Anato

  13. Drug: D06779 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06779 Crude, Drug Angelica dahurica root (JP16); Angelica dahuricae radix (TN) Bya...PD:C10451], Caryophyllene [CPD:C09629], Ligustilide [CPD:C16987], Osthol [CPD:C09280], Isoimperatorin [CPD:C16976] Angelica... dahurica [TAX:48101] Same as: E00149 Therapeutic category: 5100 Angelica dahurica root Major...:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06779 Angelica...c drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06779 Angelica dahurica root; Angelica dah

  14. Drug: D06724 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06724 Crude, Drug Schisandra fruit (JP16); Schisandra fruit (TN) Schizandrin [CPD:...[CPD:C09635], beta-Chamigrene [CPD:C09637], Chamigrenal, Fumarate [CPD:C00122], Schizandrel A, B Schisandra ...chinensis [TAX:50507] Same as: E00096 Therapeutic category: 5100 Schisandraceae (schisand...in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06724 Schisand...R:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06724 Schisandra fruit; Schisand

  15. Drug: D06744 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06744 Crude, Drug Ginger (JP16); Powdered ginger (JP16); Ginger (TN) Zingiberene [...77 C11392], Myrcene [CPD:C06074], [6]-Gingerol [CPD:C10462], [8]-Gingerol [CPD:C17495], [10]-Ginger...) Zingiber officinale rhizome Major component: Gingerol [CPD:C10462 C17495 C17496...de drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06744 Ginger (JP16); Powdered ginger (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06744 *Ginger

  16. Drug: D03868 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered lpecac (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Rubiaceae (madder family) D03868 Ipecac CAS: 8012-96-2 PubChem: 17397952 ... ...D03868 Crude, Drug Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered lpecac (JP16); Ipsatol (TN) Emetine ...ry: 5100 ATC code: R05CA04 V03AB01 Rubiaceae (madder family) Cephaelis root Major component: Emetine [CPD:C0...9421] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Cru...de drugs 5100 Crude drugs D03868 Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered

  17. Drug abuse among the students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...

  18. Genomics and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, W A

    2001-09-01

    Genomics, the systematic study of all the genes of an organism, offers a new and much-needed source of systematic productivity for the pharmaceutical industry. The isolation of the majority of human genes in their most useful form is leading to the creation of new drugs based on human proteins, antibodies, peptides, and genes. Human Genome Sciences, Inc, was the first company to use the systematic, genomics approach to discovering drugs, and we have placed 4 of these in clinical trials. Two are described: repifermin (keratinocyte growth factor-2, KGF-2) for wound healing and treatment of mucositis caused by cancer therapy, and B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) for stimulation of the immune system. An anti-BLyS antibody drug is in advanced preclinical development for treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  19. [Chirality and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, B; Reist, M; Carrupt, P A

    2000-07-01

    The two enantiomers of a chiral drug may have vastly different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. As a result, the research and development of chiral drugs raises specific problems some of which are discussed here. Thus, various pharmacokinetic interactions may involve two enantiomers, as seen for example when one enantiomer inhibits the metabolism of the other and modifies its effects. A different situation occurs when a third compound stereoselectively inhibits the metabolism of one of the two enantiomers. Another problem examined here results from the lack of configurational stability of some chiral drugs, a little known phenomenon whose consequences can be of pharmacological or pharmaceutical significance depending on the rate of the reaction of racemization or epimerisation. In-depth investigations are needed before choosing between a eutomer or a racemate.

  20. Storytelling in drug treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Professionals who provide drug treatment to young people regularly encounter what they conceive to be inauthentic client claims, that is, claims not in accordance with reality. Earlier research demonstrates how authenticity remains a key concern within drug treatment, but it has not sufficiently...... of ulterior motives, clients are interpreted as making inauthentic claims because they want to obtain something externally from drug treatment (e.g., avoid prison or work training programs), and (3) the story of disorders explains inauthenticity as a result of pathology. The study illuminates how...... professionals assert narrative control through storytelling and how specific stories carry specific consequences and may ultimately contribute to the exclusion of some clients from treatment....

  1. Drug delivery goes supercritical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Ginty

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of drug delivery, the ability to control the size, morphology, and release of drug particles is fundamental to good targeting, but is often hampered by harsh processing conditions or inadequate methods; likewise for the processing of polymeric controlled-release systems. However, the use of supercritical fluids such as supercritical CO2 (scCO2 has provided a ‘clean’ and effective alternative to traditional methods of drug and polymer processing. In particular, scCO2 has a number of unique properties that make it possible to process both bioactive molecules and amorphous polymers without using toxic organic solvents or elevated temperatures. Here, we review the positive impact that supercritical fluids have had on the micronization, encapsulation, and impregnation of molecules of interest to both the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  2. Anesthetics drug pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, P; Schneider, G; Kochs, E

    2008-01-01

    Anesthesia cannot be defined in an unambiguous manner. The essential components of general anesthesia are absence of consciousness and pain. This translates into two particular qualities: (1) sedation and hypnosis, i.e., mental blockade and (2) analgesia/antinociception, i.e., sensory blockade. Anesthetic actions on these two subcomponents are difficult to separate. On the one hand, very few anesthetics act exclusively on one of these components. On the other hand, these components are closely related to each other. Unconsciousness prevents (conscious) perception of pain, and nociception may serve as an arousal stimulus and change the level of sedation and hypnosis. The art of anesthesia lies in adequate dosing of drugs to reach both mental and sensory blockade. Drug administration can be based on pharmacokinetic considerations. Pharmacokinetic models allow an estimation of what happens to the administered drug in the body. Models with an effect site compartment may facilitate a tailored administration of anesthetic drugs. Finally, the quantification of pharmacodynamic effects allows a precise titration of drugs. Clinical assessment of mental blockade is often dichotomous, and therefore not very helpful to guide drug administration. Several scoring systems exist, but once consciousness is lost they become less reliable, in particular because reaction to stimuli is assessed, which mixes assessment of mental blockade with assessment of sensory blockade. Clinical assessment of analgesia requires a conscious patient, so antinociception is difficult to measure. Several methods of objective quantification on the basis of electrical brain activity are discussed including EEG and evoked potentials. Despite numerous indexes of the hypnotic component of anesthesia, there is no parameter that unambiguously quantifies the level of mental or sensory blockade.

  3. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  4. Drugs and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, E

    1993-01-01

    Naturopathy has received considerable interest all over the world recently. The use of its methods and its consequences have raised legal and ethical problems. This article reports on the use of two 'oncolytic' drugs. Neither of them was produced by cancer researchers and neither passed the analytic examination required in pharmaceutical research. During their use--they were prescribed and applied by physicians--conventional treatment was withdrawn. The ethical responsibility of doctors using fringe medicine drugs is dealt with. Naturopathy may, however, have a role in official medicine in certain cases.

  5. Metrology for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter; Klein, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    In various recently published studies, it is argued that there are underestimated risks with infusion technology, i.e., adverse incidents believed to be caused by inadequate administration of the drugs. This is particularly the case for applications involving very low-flow rates, i.e., metrological infrastructure for low-flow rates. Technical challenges such as these were the reason a European research project "Metrology for Drug Delivery" was started in 2011. In this special issue of Biomedical Engineering, the results of that project are discussed.

  6. Thoughts on Drug Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦兴宁

    2013-01-01

    Through the book“The economics of Public Issues”,in chapter 6,the author discussed why the government could not easily get spectacular success in the il egal commodity such as sex,booze,and drugs in economic way.In normal market, according to the law of demand,when the price of good is rising,the consumed amount wil decrease.However,the government has executed a lot of policies to reduce supply of drugs, but the consequence is not as good as they expected. Economics can help to find the answer to the phenomenon and improve the government's decision.

  7. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  8. Drug: D05157 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05157 Drug Nicotine polacrilex (USAN); Nicorette (TN) Smoking cessation adjunct AT... NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS N07B DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS N07BA Drugs used in nicotine dependence N07BA01 Nicotine D05157 Nicotine...Anti-Addiction/Substance Abuse Treatment Agents Smoking Cessation Agents Nicotine D05157 Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) CAS: 96055-45-7 PubChem: 47206881 DrugBank: DB00184 ...

  9. Drug: D06050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kit (TN) map04976 Bile secretion Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D...trofosmin 99mTc-complex Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V09GA02 Component of Myoview ...D06050 Drug Technetium Tc 99m tetrofosmin (USP); Technetium (99mTc) tetrofosmin; Te

  10. Drug: D06699 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06699 Crude, Drug Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16); Val... hypnotics and sedatives N05CM09 Valerian radix D06699 Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian ...erian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br0... drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06699 Japanese val

  11. Smart drugs: green shuttle or real drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, L; Borghesi, B; Canali, C; Andrenacci, M; Basso, M; Federici, S; Labra, M

    2013-11-01

    We have combined morphological, molecular, and chemical techniques in order to identify the plant and chemical composition of some last-generation smart drugs, present on the market under the following names: Jungle Mistic Incense, B-52, Blendz, and Kratom 10x. Micromorphological analyses of botanical fragments allowed identification of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, starch, crystals, and pollen. DNA barcoding was carried out by the plastidial gene rbcL and the spacer trnH-psbA as universal markers. The combination of morphological and molecular data revealed a mixture of plants from different families, including aromatic species, viz., Lamiaceae and Turneraceae. GC-MS and LC-MS analyses on ethanol or methanol extracts showed the presence of synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-250 in Jungle, JWH-122 in B-52, and JWH-073 and JWH-018 in Blendz. In Kratom 10x, only the indole alkaloid mitragynine was detected. All the identified synthetic cannabinoids, apart from mitragynine, are under the restriction of law in Italy (TU 309/90). Synthetic cannabinoid crystals were also identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which also detected other foreign organic chemicals, probably preservatives or antimycotics. In Kratom only leaf fragments from Mitragyna speciosa, containing the alkaloid mitragynine, were found. In the remaining products, aromatic plant species have mainly the role of hiding synthetic cannabinoids, thus acting as a "green shuttle" rather than as real drugs. Such a multidisciplinary approach is proposed as a method for the identification of herbal blends of uncertain composition, which are widely marketed in "headshops" and on the Internet, and represent a serious hazard to public health.

  12. Drug application of hyperthyroidism%甲状腺功能亢进症的药物应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海燕; 邵迎新

    2011-01-01

    治疗甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)的药物主要包括抗甲状腺药(ATD)甲巯咪唑(MMI)和丙基硫氧嘧啶(PTU),β受体阻滞剂盐酸普萘洛尔,碘剂复方碘溶液,糖皮质激素泼尼松等,如何合理应用这些药物是临床医生应慎重考虑的问题.笔者认为药物选择的最佳方案要从药物的安全性、剂量、给药方式、激素伍用时机等方面进行综合考虑.通过查阅文献得出,与PTU相比,MMI不良反应显著低于PTU,而且MMI的不良反应大多与剂量有关,而PTU的不良反应与剂量无显著相关性,特别是PTU可能导致致命性肝损害,因此,笔者认为治疗甲亢应首选MMI,尤其对儿童和青少年甲亢患者,而PTU主要应用于孕妇和甲亢危象;盐酸普萘洛尔可按说明书服用;碘剂用于甲状腺术前准备和甲亢危象;糖皮质激素泼尼松在严重甲亢、肝功能损害、白细胞减少、皮肤过敏时可小剂量应用2~8周.%Drugs application in hyperthyroidism therapy mainly including following kinds of drugs, MMI and PTLJ are the common antithyroid drugs using for hyperthyroidism therapy and β receptor blockers usually chooses Propranolol, compound iodine solution and glucocorticoid Prednisone are also often used for hyperthyroidism. Doctors should consider care -fully about how to choose these drugs reasonably. Best drug usage plan should consider drug safety, dosage, drug delivery and the time of hormone compatibility. According to literature, compared with PTLJ, the adverse reaction incidence of MMI is obvious lower than PTLJ and the adverse reaction of MMI manifests dose relation but PTLJ has no dose relation. More -over, PTLJ can lead to fatal liver damage. Therefore, MMI is a preferred choice especially for children and young people. PTLJ is mainly used for pregnant woman and thyroid crisis. Administration of Propranolol is according to drug manual. Io -dine is used for thyroid preoperative preparation and thyroid crisis. Prednisone

  13. Ingestion of drugs by "parachuting": a unique drug delivery technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenerson, Katherine L; Lear-Kaul, Kelly C

    2012-06-01

    "Parachuting" is a technique of drug delivery where medications or illicit drugs are ingested by wrapping the drug of choice in a covering, which then will dissolve or unravel in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby releasing the drug for absorption. Parachuting of drugs can entail crushing of a pill prior to packaging to theoretically increase the surface area for absorption or may involve the packaging of a higher than usual dose of a drug in attempts to attain a sustained-release effect as the "parachute" dissolves or unravels. A case is presented in which a prescription drug abuser known to parachute his medications dies from obstruction of his airway by the inhaled packet. Risks of parachuting any drug would include overdose and fatal toxic effect from the drug itself and adverse effects from the packaging including bowel obstruction or perforation, or airway obstruction.

  14. The metaphorical nature of drugs and drug taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, M

    1988-01-01

    An inquiry into the role metaphor plays in personal and societal conceptions of drugs and drug taking reveals that drug metaphors and symbols are quite pervasive in individual thinking, social discourse, and the cultural media. They appear to influence beliefs and attitudes regarding drugs, the nature and meaning of drug experiences, and the reasons behind drug-taking behaviors. Some drug metaphors are common to different cultures and historical periods, while others are specific and exclusive to particular individuals and groups or drug-taking situations. These metaphors can carry positive as well as negative connotations. Further study is needed to delineate the metaphorical structuring of our thinking about drugs, and the process whereby these metaphors are generated and spread throughout society.

  15. Clinical Drug-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction Potential of Sucralfate with Other Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulochana, Suresh P; Syed, Muzeeb; Chandrasekar, Devaraj V

    2016-01-01

    of drugs. This review covers several category of drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fluoroquinolones, histamine H2-receptor blockers, macrolides, anti-fungals, anti-diabetics, salicylic acid derivatives, steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and provides pharmacokinetic data summary along...

  16. 77 FR 43337 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Certain Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ..., functional diarrhea, drug- induced diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, urinary bladder spasm, and urethral spasm... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos. FDA-1975-N-0336 (Formerly 75N-0184), FDA-1975-N... Hydrocortisone Acetate and Pramoxine Hydrochloride] Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study...

  17. Clinically relevant drug interactions with anti-Alzheimer's drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraci, Filippo; Sultana, Janet; Drago, Filippo; Spina, Edoardo

    2017-03-03

    The aging world population had led to an increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drugs used to slow down the onset of AD, galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine and memantine, are generally well-tolerated. However, drug interactions between these drugs and other drugs are an important aspect of patient safety that should be borne in mind, particularly given the high burden of polypharmacy in the elderly. The aim of this review is to provide an updated review of clinically significant drug-drug interactions concerning drugs approved for AD. PubMed was searched for relevant keywords. No time limit was imposed but only articles in English published in peer-reviewed journals were selected. Relevant literature was also identified from the references of identified articles. Further information was obtained from drug summary of product characteristics. The major pharmacokinetic interactions identified concerned fluoxetine, paroxetine and ketoconazole when used with galantamine or donepezil. On the other hand, the major potential pharmacodynamic interactions concerned anti-dementia drugs and general anesthesia agents, anti-cholinergic drugs, conventional antipsychotics and bradycardia-inducing drugs. In clinical practice memantine shows a lower potential for pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) compared to other drug classes. In conclusion, the concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs with other drugs can have variable clinical effects, making appropriate prescribing of these drugs very challenging. A simple and coherent way of presenting evidence on complex drug interaction information from heterogenous sources to clinicians is needed in order for the voluminous data available to have an impact on clinical practice.

  18. Drugs Used in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  19. Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the epidemic of prescription drug overdose, especially in women, and what can be done about it.  Created: 7/2/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  20. Prevention and Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Mark F.; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance…

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an opportunity to confront the person about the consequences of addiction and ask him or her to accept treatment. Think of an intervention as giving your loved one a clear opportunity to make changes before things get really bad. Prescription drug abuse may occur in people who ...

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL HERBAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishteswar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic. Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial drugs, and paved the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was actually a prodrug. However, with the development of antimicrobials, microorganisms have adapted and become resistant to previous antimicrobial agents. In view of certain side effects caused due to usage of modern antimicrobial drugs and antibiotics scientists have made some attempts to screen some of the Ayurvedic herbs, which possess broader spectrum of safety. Some selected herbs which are used by tribal and rural people for curing various infective diseases caused due to bacteria, virus and fungi have been reported to possess anti-microbial properties. In the present paper and attempt is made to review about the indigenous medicinal plant which exhibited antimicrobial properties.

  3. Drugs in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, David

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may be used by athletes for a number of reasons, including performance enhancement. The role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is vital to ensure a winning performance has been achieved by fair means. Substances and methods that are included on the WADA Prohibited List are described. The procedures for testing banned substances are…

  4. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for futu

  5. Drug development and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  6. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  7. Drug therapy of hyperthyroidism%甲状腺功能亢进症的药物治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婷婷; 肖海鹏

    2011-01-01

    抗甲状腺药物(ATD)治疗的最佳方案要从药物的选择、具体剂量、给药方式、服药疗程、是否合用左旋甲状腺素(L-T4)、免疫抑制剂及其他影响患者缓解率的因素等多方面综合考虑.除妊娠期妇女外,目前大多数学者将甲硫咪唑(MMI)列为治疗甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)的首选药物.药物具体起始剂量可根据患者甲状腺的大小、甲亢病情的严重程度决定,治疗持续时间为12~18个月.但也有将传统的滴定疗法作为治疗甲亢的首选.对于是否在ATD治疗过程中合用L-T4及何时加用L-T4疗效更好,目前仍有争论,而免疫抑制剂的广泛使用仍需要更多临床研究来确认其临床疗效及安全性.%The choice of drug,dosage, administration, course of treatment, the combination of L-T4,the application of immunosuppressive agent, and other factors which can influence the remission rate should be considered in the treatment of hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs (ATD). Currently, most researchers consider methimazole(MMI) as the first choice used to treat hyperthyroidism, except for the women during pregnancy. The starting dose should be according to the size of thyroid nodules and the severity of the disease. The duration of therapy was 12 to 18 months. Titration regimens have been widely accepted to be the standard therapy for hyperthyroidism nowadays. Should L-T4 be combined with ATD and choice of optimal medication time is controversial. Further clinical research is needed to conform their safety and efficiency for the widely use of immunosuppressive agents.

  8. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  9. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carrabba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced lupus is a syndrome which share symptoms and laboratory characteristics with the idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The list of medications implicated as etiologic agents in drug-induced lupus continues to grow. The terms used for this condition are lupus-like syndrome, drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE and drug related lupus. More than 80 drugs have been associated with DILE. The first case of DILE was reported in 1945 and associated with sulfadiazin. In 1953 it was reported that DILE was related to the use of hydralazine. Drugs responsible for the development of DILE can divided into three groups, but the list of these drugs is quite long because new drugs are included yearly in the list. The syndrome is characterised by arthralgia, myalgia, pleurisy, rash and fever in association with antinuclear antibodies in the serum. Recognition of DILE is important because it usually reverts within a few weeks after stopping the drug.

  10. Epigenetic Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedicayil, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities in epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Advances in epigenetics have given rise to a new class of drugs, epigenetic drugs. Although many classes of epigenetic drugs are being investigated, at present most attention is being paid to two classes of epigenetic drugs: drugs that inhibit DNA methyltransferase (DNMTi) and drugs that inhibit histone deacetylase (HDACi). This paper discusses the potential use of epigenetic drugs in the treatment of MS, focusing on DNMTi and HDACi. Preclinical drug trials of DNMTi and HDACi for the treatment of MS are showing promising results. Epigenetic drugs could improve the clinical management of patients with MS.

  11. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  12. Discrimination of approved drugs from experimental drugs by learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yixue

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess whether a compound is druglike or not as early as possible is always critical in drug discovery process. There have been many efforts made to create sets of 'rules' or 'filters' which, it is hoped, will help chemists to identify 'drug-like' molecules from 'non-drug' molecules. However, among the chemical space of the druglike molecules, the minority will be approved drugs. Classifying approved drugs from experimental drugs may be more helpful to obtain future approved drugs. Therefore, discrimination of approved drugs from experimental ones has been done in this paper by analyzing the compounds in terms of existing drugs features and machine learning methods. Results Four methodologies were compared by their performance to classify approved drugs from experimental ones. The best results were obtained by SVM, in which the accuracy is 0.7911, the sensitivity is 0.5929, and the specificity is 0.8743. Based on the results, consensus model was developed to effectively discriminate drugs, which further pushed the correct classification rate up to 0.8517, sensitivity up to 0.7242, specificity up to 0.9352. The applications on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Ingredients Database (TCM-ID tested the methods. Therefore this model has been proven to be a potent tool for identifying drug molecules. Conclusion The studies would have potential applications in the research of combinatorial library design and virtual high throughput screening for drug discovery.

  13. 76 FR 13880 - Investigational New Drug Applications and Abbreviated New Drug Applications; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 312 and 314 Investigational New Drug Applications and Abbreviated New Drug Applications; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... amending its investigational new drug application (IND) regulations and abbreviated new drug...

  14. 77 FR 71802 - Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Investigational New Drug Applications for... ``Investigational New Drug Applications for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs.'' The guidance is intended to assist manufacturers of PET drugs in submitting investigational new drug applications (INDs)....

  15. Drug: D06796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9], beta-Selinene [CPD:C09723], beta-Caryophyllene [CPD:C09629], alpha-Humulene [CPD:C09684], Nootkatol [CPD:C17915], 1,8-Cine...a oxyphylla fruit Major component: Cineole [CPD:C09844] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] ...5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 51...00 Crude drugs D06796 Bitter cardamon (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs

  16. Scaffold Repurposing of Old Drugs Towards New Cancer Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Wu, Jianlei; Gao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    As commented by the Nobelist James Black that "The most fruitful basis of the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug", drug repurposing represents an attractive drug discovery strategy. Despite the success of several repurposed drugs on the market, the ultimate therapeutic potential of a large number of non-cancer drugs is hindered during their repositioning due to various issues including the limited efficacy and intellectual property. With the increasing knowledge about the pharmacological properties and newly identified targets, the scaffolds of the old drugs emerge as a great treasure-trove towards new cancer drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of novel small molecules for cancer therapy by scaffold repurposing with highlighted examples. The relevant strategies, advantages, challenges and future research directions associated with this approach are also discussed.

  17. Drug resistance mechanisms and novel drug targets for tuberculosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Mahmudul; Hameed, H M Adnan; Mugweru, Julius; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Wang, Changwei; Tan, Yaoju; Liu, Jianxiong; Li, Xinjie; Tan, Shouyong; Ojima, Iwao; Yew, Wing Wai; Nuermberger, Eric; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-20

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant challenge to the successful treatment and control of TB worldwide. Resistance to anti-TB drugs has existed since the beginning of the chemotherapy era. New insights into the resistant mechanisms of anti-TB drugs have been provided. Better understanding of drug resistance mechanisms helps in the development of new tools for the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant TB. There is also a pressing need in the development of new drugs with novel targets to improve the current treatment of TB and to prevent the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review summarizes the anti-TB drug resistance mechanisms, furnishes some possible novel drug targets in the development of new agents for TB therapy and discusses the usefulness using known targets to develop new anti-TB drugs. Whole genome sequencing is currently an advanced technology to uncover drug resistance mechanisms in M. tuberculosis. However, further research is required to unravel the significance of some newly discovered gene mutations in their contribution to drug resistance.

  18. Drug safety and the impact of drug warnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, G.; Fischer, K. E.; Borch-Johnsen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the impact of drug safety warnings from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on drug utilisation and their interaction with information released through national reimbursement bodies. Methods Insurance claims data on anti-diabetic drug prescriptions in primary care in Germany ...

  19. Drug-drug interactions with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Sander; de Vries, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In their Review, Roelof van Leeuwen and colleagues1 recommend various dose adjustments during concomitant use of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and drugs that inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4).1 Most information is taken from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s drug label or the Eur

  20. Rhythmomimetic drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Calderer, M Carme; Siegel, Ronald A; Yao, Lingxing

    2015-01-01

    We present modeling, analysis and numerical simulation of a prototype glucose driven drug delivery device based on chemomechanical interactions and volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels. The device consists of two fluid compartments, an external cell (I) mimicking the physiological environment, and a closed chamber (II), separated by a hydrogel membrane. Cell I, which is held at constant pH and ionic strength, provides a constant supply of glucose to cell II, and also serves as clearance station for reaction products. Cell II contains the drug to be delivered to the body, an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of glucose into hydrogen ions, and a piece of marble to remove excess hydrogen ions that would otherwise overwhelm the system. When the membrane is swollen, glucose flux into Cell II is high, leading to rapid production of hydrogen ions. However, the hydrogen ions are not immediately released to Cell I but react, instead, with the negatively charged carboxyl groups of the membrane, which collaps...

  1. [Visceral leishmaniasis: new drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Robert, S; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2003-12-01

    The standard treatment of visceral leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimony (meglumine antimoniate or sodium stibogluconate), but toxicity is frequent with this drug. Moreover, antimony unresponsiveness is increasing, both in immunocompetent and in immunosuppressed patients. Amphotericin B is a polyene macrolide antibiotic that binds to sterols in cell membranes. It is the most active antileishmanial agent in use. Its infusion-related and renal toxicity may be reduced by lipid-based delivery. Liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) seems to be less toxic than other amphotericin B lipid formulations (Amphocil, Amphotec). Optimal drug regimens of Ambisome vary from one geographical area to another. In the Mediterranean Basin, a total dose of 18 to 24 mg/kg is safe and effective. Shortening the duration of treatment without decreasing the total dose (i.e., 10 mg/kg/day for 2 days) seems promising to reduce the global cost of the therapy.

  2. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered.

  3. Drug models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeds, Hannah; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains. Approximately one third of patients are resistant to currently available medication. New therapeutic targets and a better understanding of the basic biological processes that drive pathogenesis are needed in order to develop therapies that will improve quality of life for these patients. Several drugs that act on neurotransmitter systems in the brain have been suggested to model aspects of schizophrenia in animals and in man. In this paper, we selectively review findings from dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, cannabinoid, GABA, cholinergic and kappa opioid pharmacological drug models to evaluate their similarity to schizophrenia. Understanding the interactions between these different neurotransmitter systems and their relationship with symptoms will be an important step towards building a coherent hypothesis for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25653831

  4. Chronicles in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Shelley L; Moral, Maria Angels; Bozzo, Jordi

    2007-03-01

    Chronicles in Drug Discovery features special interest reports on advances in drug discovery. This month we highlight agents that target and deplete immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, which are produced by tumor cells to hinder innate immunity against, or chemotherapies targeting, tumor-associated antigens. Antiviral treatments for respiratory syncytial virus, a severe and prevalent infection in children, are limited due to their side effect profiles and cost. New strategies currently under clinical development include monoclonal antibodies, siRNAs, vaccines and oral small molecule inhibitors. Recent therapeutic lines for Huntington's disease include gene therapies that target the mutated human huntingtin gene or deliver neuroprotective growth factors and cellular transplantation in apoptotic regions of the brain. Finally, we highlight the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties of new compounds targeting the somatostatin receptor subtype sst4, which warrant further study for their potential application as clinical analgesics.

  5. [Drug control of appetite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoundou, V; Golay, A

    2011-01-12

    The control of the appetite by drugs (sensation of hunger, satiation and satiety) is crucial in the management of obesity. Numerous drugs in this domain were forbidden these last years because of serious side effects. New researches allow the development of new substances presenting fewer side effects either by better specificity on receptors (locarserin), or by new mechanism of action (GLP-1, leptin, anti Ghrelin). The appetite is settled by a complex neurohormonal mechanism. To act on some systems at the same time, the development of products "polypill" combining naltroxone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate or amylin-leptine give encouraging results. However the dominant mechanism of the appetite dysregulation needs to be better understood.

  6. Melatonergic drugs in development

    OpenAIRE

    Carocci A; Catalano A; Sinicropi MS

    2014-01-01

    Alessia Carocci,1 Alessia Catalano,1 Maria Stefania Sinicropi2 1Department of Pharmacy–Drug Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, 2Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cosenza, Italy Abstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is widely known as "the darkness hormone". It is a major chronobiological regulator involved in circadian phasing and sleep-wake cycle in humans. Numerous other functions, including ...

  7. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy ,2 LSD,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...replaces CRS Report RL33582, International Drug Trade and U.S. Foreign Policy, by Raphael F. Perl. 2 Ecstasy is the street name for MDMA (3,4... mechanisms to monitor treaty adherence— through the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)—and for the collection of data related to the illicit

  8. High throughput drug profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Entzeroth, Michael; Chapelain, Béatrice; Guilbert, Jacques; Hamon, Valérie

    2000-01-01

    High throughput screening has significantly contributed to advances in drug discovery. The great increase in the number of samples screened has been accompanied by increases in costs and in the data required for the investigated compounds. High throughput profiling addresses the issues of compound selectivity and specificity. It combines conventional screening with data mining technologies to give a full set of data, enabling development candidates to be more fully compared.

  9. New Antiplatelet Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2011-01-01

    @@ ADP- receptor antagonist Prasugrel is a thienopyridine of the third generation and needs conversion into an active drug metabolite (R138727).Preclinical and clinical studies showed a more rapid,potent and consistent inhibition of patelet function for prasugrel compared to clopidogrel.Prasugrel has been shown to be of particular benefit in patients with diabetes,especially those on insulin [30% relative risk reduction (RRR) in cardiovascular death, MI,or stroke (P <0.001 ) and 37% RRR,respectively] .

  10. Nanotopography applications in drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Allen, Jessica L; Desai, Tejal A

    2016-01-01

    Refinement of micro- and nanofabrication in the semiconductor field has led to innovations in biomedical technologies. Nanotopography, in particular, shows great potential in facilitating drug delivery. The flexibility of fabrication techniques has created a diverse array of topographies that have been developed for drug delivery applications. Nanowires and nanostraws deliver drug cytosolically for in vitro and ex vivo applications. In vivo drug delivery is limited by the barrier function of the epithelium. Nanowires on microspheres increase adhesion and residence time for oral drug delivery, while also increasing permeability of the epithelium. Low aspect ratio nanocolumns increase paracellular permeability, and in conjunction with microneedles increase transdermal drug delivery of biologics in vivo. In summary, nanotopography is a versatile tool for drug delivery. It can deliver directly to cells or be used for in vivo delivery across epithelial barriers. This editorial highlights the application of nanotopography in the field of drug delivery. PMID:26512871

  11. Drug: D06964 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ... be transmitted between users. Other infections-such as hepatitis C-can also be spread this way. Hepatitis ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depict the devastating consequences of compromised judgment and critical thinking that can result from drug use. Young ... HIV epidemic. As we learn more about the critical connection between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS and ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. ...

  15. Drug: D08468 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M05B DRUGS AFFECTING BONE STRUCTURE AND MINERALIZATION M05BX Other drugs affecting bone structure and mine...ralization M05BX03 Strontium ranelate D08468 Strontium ranelate CAS: 135459-87-9 Pu

  16. Drug: D08689 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] M MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM M05 DRUGS FOR TREATMENT OF BONE... DISEASES M05B DRUGS AFFECTING BONE STRUCTURE AND MINERALIZATION M05BA Bisphosphonate

  17. Drug: D08599 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] M MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM M05 DRUGS FOR TREATMENT OF BONE DISE...ASES M05B DRUGS AFFECTING BONE STRUCTURE AND MINERALIZATION M05BA Bisphosphonates

  18. Drug: D07281 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DRUGS FOR TREATMENT OF BONE DISEASES M05B DRUGS AFFECTING BONE STRUCTURE AND MINERALIZATION M05BA Bisphospho...apeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] M MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM M05

  19. Drug: D02373 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] M MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM M05 DRUGS FOR TREATMENT OF BONE... DISEASES M05B DRUGS AFFECTING BONE STRUCTURE AND MINERALIZATION M05BA Bisphosph

  20. Drug: D00152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03A DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03AX Other drugs for functional gastrointestinal diso...rders A03AX12 Phloroglucinol D00152 Phloroglucinol (JAN)

  1. Drug: D06261 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06261 Drug Typhoid vaccine Immunizing agent [active] USP drug classification [BR:b...r08302] Immunological Agents Vaccines Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral D06261 Typhoid vaccine PubChem: 47207919 ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Drug Misuse Mental Health Military Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding ... antiretroviral medications that can suppress the virus and prevent or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about ...

  3. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  4. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  5. Drugs that may cause impotence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  6. Drug: D00289 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tagonists Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 24 Hormones...drug classification [BR:br08302] Hormonal Agents, Stimulant/Replacement/Modifying (Sex Hormones/Modifiers) A

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  8. Drug: D10244 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LISM A10 DRUGS USED IN DIABETES A10B BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS...ode: A10BD03 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] A ALIMENTARY TRACT AND METABO

  9. Drug: D08229 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTHE...R SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DC Leukotriene receptor antagonists R03DC03 Montelukast

  10. Drug: D08408 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTH...ER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DC Leukotriene receptor antagonists R03DC02 Pranlukast

  11. Drug: D08227 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TIONS FOR TOPICAL USE R01AD Corticosteroids R01AD09 Mometasone D08227 Mometasone (INN) R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES... R03B OTHER DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES, INHALANTS

  12. Drug: D00411 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES... R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DC Leukotriene receptor antagonists

  13. Drug: D07491 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fication [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES... R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DA Xanthines R03DA08 Bamifylline D07491 Bam

  14. Drug: D03051 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTH...ER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DA Xanthines R03DA08 Bamifylline D03051 Bamifylline hyd

  15. Drug: D07062 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTHER... SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DA Xanthines R03DA09 Acefyllin

  16. Drug: D10297 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SES R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES...R03DA54 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEA

  17. Drug: D02884 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES ...R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DA Xanthines R03DA10

  18. Drug: D00227 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTHER SYSTEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES...contraction Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS

  19. Drug: D06104 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TC) classification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03D OTHER SY...STEMIC DRUGS FOR OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY DISEASES R03DA Xanthines R03DA04 Theophylline

  20. Drug: D01570 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drochloride I 123 (USAN); Spectamine (TN) C12H18IN. HCl 335.0262 339.6434 D01570.gif Diagnostic aid; Radioactive...4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive