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Sample records for antithyroid drugs

  1. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin; Brocks, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  2. Factors affecting drug-induced liver injury: antithyroid drugs as instances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Reza; Niknahad, Hossein; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Abdoli, Narges

    2014-09-01

    Methimazole and propylthiouracil have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for more than half a century. However, hepatotoxicity is one of the most deleterious side effects associated with these medications. The mechanism(s) of hepatic injury induced by antithyroid agents is not fully recognized yet. Furthermore, there are no specific tools for predicting the occurrence of hepatotoxicity induced by these drugs. The purpose of this article is to give an overview on possible susceptibility factors in liver injury induced by antithyroid agents. Age, gender, metabolism characteristics, alcohol consumption, underlying diseases, immunologic mechanisms, and drug interactions are involved in enhancing antithyroid drugs-induced hepatic damage. An outline on the clinically used treatments for antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity and the potential therapeutic strategies found to be effective against this complication are also discussed.

  3. Anti-thyroid drugs in pediatric Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mathew; Sundrarajan, Rajasree; Gomadam, S Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Most children and adolescents are treated with anti-thyroid drugs as the initial modality. Studies have used Methimazole, Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU) either as titration regimes or as block and replacement regimes. The various studies of anti-thyroid drug (ATD) treatment of Graves' disease in pediatric patients differ in terms of the regimes, remission rate, duration of therapy for adequate remission, follow up and adverse effects of ATD. Various studies show that lower thyroid hormone levels, prolonged duration of treatment, lower levels of TSH receptor antibodies, smaller goiter and increased age of child predicted higher chance of remission after ATD. A variable number of patients experience minor and major adverse effects limiting initial and long term treatment with ATD. The adverse effects of various ATD seem to more in children compared to that of adults. In view of liver injury including hepatocellular failure need of liver transplantation associated with PTU, the use has been restricted in children. The rate of persistent remission with ATD following discontinuation is about 30%. Radioactive iodine therapy is gaining more acceptance in older children with Graves's disease in view of the limitations of ATD. For individual patients, risk-benefit ratio of ATD should be weighed against benefits of radioactive iodine therapy and patient preferences. PMID:25932387

  4. Anti-thyroid drugs in pediatric Graves′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Most children and adolescents are treated with anti-thyroid drugs as the initial modality. Studies have used Methimazole, Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU either as titration regimes or as block and replacement regimes. The various studies of anti-thyroid drug (ATD treatment of Graves′ disease in pediatric patients differ in terms of the regimes, remission rate, duration of therapy for adequate remission, follow up and adverse effects of ATD. Various studies show that lower thyroid hormone levels, prolonged duration of treatment, lower levels of TSH receptor antibodies, smaller goiter and increased age of child predicted higher chance of remission after ATD. A variable number of patients experience minor and major adverse effects limiting initial and long term treatment with ATD. The adverse effects of various ATD seem to more in children compared to that of adults. In view of liver injury including hepatocellular failure need of liver transplantation associated with PTU, the use has been restricted in children. The rate of persistent remission with ATD following discontinuation is about 30%. Radioactive iodine therapy is gaining more acceptance in older children with Graves′s disease in view of the limitations of ATD. For individual patients, risk-benefit ratio of ATD should be weighed against benefits of radioactive iodine therapy and patient preferences.

  5. Effect of universal salt iodization on antithyroid drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Wei-xin; LIAN Xiao-lan; LU Lin; LI Su-mei; LI Shu-hua; LI Xiu-wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ Iodine deficiency disease (IDD) is common in China.An universal salt iodization (USI) program has been implemented by the Chinese government since 1996. As a result, the goiter rate in 8- to 10-year old children decreased from 20.4% in 1995 to 5.8% in 2002.1 But the adverse effects of iodine excess such as iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, iodine-induced goiters, iodine-induced hypothyroidism, etc. have become a great concern to healthcare professionals as well as the general population. The impact of USI on antithyroid drugs (ATDs) might become a potential challenge to address. With a special grant from the Department of Disease Control, the Health Ministry of China, we conducted a prospective study on the effects of USI on ATDs at the thyroid section of the Endocrinology Clinic of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), Beijing.

  6. 131I metabolism in the study of antithyroid drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the present report was to study the action of antithyroid drugs on different parameters of thyroid activity utilizing 131I, in the offsprings of rats treated during pregnancy and the perinatal period. Both PTU and MMI caused alterations in growth and thyroid activity, but they were more dramatic with the former. A significative increase in 131I thyroid uptake and in circulating radioactivity was observed. When % uptake was expressed as a function of thyroidal and body weights, a significative decrease was noticed. The ratio T/S and the percentage of labelled iodothyronines in pancreatin digests were also decreased. Neuromuscular maturation was evaluated, by means of the test of Schapiro. A group of animals treated with PTU plus T4 had a significant delay, reaching normal developement later than the controls or those treated with MMI. (author)

  7. An Overview on the Proposed Mechanisms of Antithyroid Drugs-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a major problem for pharmaceutical industry and drug development. Mechanisms of DILI are many and varied. Elucidating the mechanisms of DILI will allow clinicians to prevent liver failure, need for liver transplantation, and death induced by drugs. Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU are two convenient antithyroid agents which their administration is accompanied by hepatotoxicity as a deleterious side effect. Although several cases of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury are reported, there is no clear idea about the mechanism(s of hepatotoxicity induced by these medications. Different mechanisms such as reactive metabolites formation, oxidative stress induction, intracellular targets dysfunction, and immune-mediated toxicity are postulated to be involved in antithyroid agents-induced hepatic damage. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity, it is impossible to draw a specific conclusion about the mechanisms of liver injury. However, it seems that reactive metabolite formation and immune-mediated toxicity have a great role in antithyroids liver toxicity, especially those caused by methimazole. This review attempted to discuss different mechanisms proposed to be involved in the hepatic injury induced by antithyroid drugs.

  8. An overview on the proposed mechanisms of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Reza; Niknahad, Hossein; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Abdoli, Narges

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major problem for pharmaceutical industry and drug development. Mechanisms of DILI are many and varied. Elucidating the mechanisms of DILI will allow clinicians to prevent liver failure, need for liver transplantation, and death induced by drugs. Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU) are two convenient antithyroid agents which their administration is accompanied by hepatotoxicity as a deleterious side effect. Although several cases of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury are reported, there is no clear idea about the mechanism(s) of hepatotoxicity induced by these medications. Different mechanisms such as reactive metabolites formation, oxidative stress induction, intracellular targets dysfunction, and immune-mediated toxicity are postulated to be involved in antithyroid agents-induced hepatic damage. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity, it is impossible to draw a specific conclusion about the mechanisms of liver injury. However, it seems that reactive metabolite formation and immune-mediated toxicity have a great role in antithyroids liver toxicity, especially those caused by methimazole. This review attempted to discuss different mechanisms proposed to be involved in the hepatic injury induced by antithyroid drugs.

  9. Bioinorganic Chemistry in Thyroid Gland: Effect of Antithyroid Drugs on Peroxidase-Catalyzed Oxidation and Iodination Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI are the most commonly used antithyroid drugs. The available data suggest that these drugs may block the thyroid hormone synthesis by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase (TPO or diverting oxidized iodides away from thyroglobulin. It is also known that PTU inhibits the selenocysteine-containing enzyme ID-1 by reacting with the selenenyl iodide intermediate (E-SeI. In view of the current interest in antithyroid drugs, we have recently carried out biomimetic studies to understand the mechanism by which the antithyroid drugs inhibit the thyroid hormone synthesis and found that the replacement of sulfur with selenium in MMI leads to an interesting compound that may reversibly block the thyroid hormone synthesis. Our recent results on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase (LPO-catalyzed oxidation and iodination reactions by antithyroid drugs are described.

  10. The Influence of Antithyroid Drug Discontinuation to the Therapeutic Efficacy of 131I in Hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Kartamihardja, A. Hussein Sundawa; Massora, Stepanus

    2016-01-01

    The influence of antithyroid drugs (ATDs) on the therapeutic efficacy of radioactive iodine in hyperthyroidism is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ATD discontinuation to the therapeutic efficacy of I-131 in hyperthyroidism patients with long-term ATD treatment. Retrospective study was done to 39 subjects with hyperthyroidism who had been treated with doses of 300 MBq radioactive iodine. The subjects were divided into three groups: Group I (n = 14) had b...

  11. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gouriprasanna Roy; G Mugesh

    2006-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, generated by thyroid oxidase enzymes, is a crucial substrate for the thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalysed biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the thyroid gland. It is believed that the H2O2 generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, the control of hydrogen peroxide concentration is one of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the replacement of sulphur in MMI by selenium leads to a selone, which exists predominantly in its zwitterionic form. In contrast to the sulphur drug, the selenium analogue (MSeI) reversibly inhibits the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation and iodination reactions. Theoretical studies on MSeI reveal that the selenium atom in this compound carries a large negative charge. The carbon-selenium bond length in MSeI is found to be close to single-bond length. As the selenium atom exhibits a large nucleophilic character, the selenium analogue of MMI may scavenge the hydrogen peroxide present in the thyroid cells, which may lead to a reversible inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

  12. Outcome of Very Long-Term Treatment with Antithyroid Drugs in Graves' Hyperthyroidism Associated with Graves' Orbitopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Elbers; M. Mourits; W. Wiersinga

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is still debated which treatment modality for Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) is most appropriate when Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is present. The preference in our center has been always to continue antithyroid drugs for GH (as the block-and-replace [B-R] regimen) until all medical and/or

  13. [Treatments with synthetic antithyroid drugs during pregnancy. Evaluation of the neonatal thyroid function. 25 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricaire, H; Viron, B; Czernichow, P; Luton, J P

    1983-04-16

    Twenty-four hyperthyroid women were treated with antithyroid drugs during 25 pregnancies. The thyroid function of the 21 children who lived was evaluated by standard clinical and laboratory methods. In 8 of these, T3, T4 and TSH were assayed between birth and the 5th day, with timed samplings during the first hours of life. There was no hypothyroxinaemia at birth, but the T4 peak was delayed; T3 was normal. The TSH peak was abnormal in 3 children, one of whom presented with clinical hypothyroidism. All abnormal findings disappeared spontaneously during the first few days of life, except for one child with congenital Grave's disease who had to be treated. On a 6 months to 6 years follow-up all children had normal growth and psychomotor development. PMID:6189116

  14. The Influence of Antithyroid Drug Discontinuation to the Therapeutic Efficacy of (131)I in Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartamihardja, A Hussein Sundawa; Massora, Stepanus

    2016-01-01

    The influence of antithyroid drugs (ATDs) on the therapeutic efficacy of radioactive iodine in hyperthyroidism is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ATD discontinuation to the therapeutic efficacy of I-131 in hyperthyroidism patients with long-term ATD treatment. Retrospective study was done to 39 subjects with hyperthyroidism who had been treated with doses of 300 MBq radioactive iodine. The subjects were divided into three groups: Group I (n = 14) had been using ATDs for more than one year and discontinued more than three days; group II (n = 14) had been using ATDs for more than one year but discontinued only for three days or less, and group III (n = 11) has never been used any ATD before radioactive iodine treatment. There was a significant difference in the therapeutic efficacy after three months of radioactive iodine treatment between group I and group II (P = 0.018), group II and group III (P = 0.017), but not between group I and group III (P = 1.0). There was no observed difference on the therapeutic efficacy between the three groups at 6 months after radioactive iodine therapy (P = 0.143). Administration of ATDs more than 1 year without discontinuation decreased response of radioactive iodine treatment in 3 months follow-up. Discontinuation of ATDs for more than 3 days before radioactive iodine treatment is recommended. PMID:27134556

  15. The Influence of Antithyroid Drug Discontinuation to the Therapeutic Efficacy of 131I in Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartamihardja, A. Hussein Sundawa; Massora, Stepanus

    2016-01-01

    The influence of antithyroid drugs (ATDs) on the therapeutic efficacy of radioactive iodine in hyperthyroidism is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ATD discontinuation to the therapeutic efficacy of I-131 in hyperthyroidism patients with long-term ATD treatment. Retrospective study was done to 39 subjects with hyperthyroidism who had been treated with doses of 300 MBq radioactive iodine. The subjects were divided into three groups: Group I (n = 14) had been using ATDs for more than one year and discontinued more than three days; group II (n = 14) had been using ATDs for more than one year but discontinued only for three days or less, and group III (n = 11) has never been used any ATD before radioactive iodine treatment. There was a significant difference in the therapeutic efficacy after three months of radioactive iodine treatment between group I and group II (P = 0.018), group II and group III (P = 0.017), but not between group I and group III (P = 1.0). There was no observed difference on the therapeutic efficacy between the three groups at 6 months after radioactive iodine therapy (P = 0.143). Administration of ATDs more than 1 year without discontinuation decreased response of radioactive iodine treatment in 3 months follow-up. Discontinuation of ATDs for more than 3 days before radioactive iodine treatment is recommended. PMID:27134556

  16. Effect of thione-thiol tautomerism on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase by anti-thyroid drugs and their analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N JAyaram; Gouriprasanna Roy; Govindasamy Mugesh

    2008-01-01

    The keto-enol type tautomerism in anti-thyroid drugs and their selenium analogues are described. The commonly used anti-thyroid drug methimazole exists predominantly in its thione form, whereas its selenium analogue exists in a zwitterionic form. To understand the effect of thione/thiol and selone/selenol tautomerism on the inhibition of peroxidase-catalysed reactions, we have synthesized some thiones and selones in which the formation of thiol/selenol forms are blocked by different substituents. These compounds were synthesized by a carbene route utilizing an imidazolium salt. The crystal structures of these compounds reveal that the C=Se bonds in the selones are more polarized than the C=S bonds in the corresponding thiones. The structures of selones were studied in solution by NMR spectroscopy and the 77Se NMR chemical shifts for the selones show large upfield shifts in the signals, confirming their zwitterionic structures in solution. The inhibition of lactoperoxidase by the synthetic thiones indicates that the presence of a free N-H moiety is essential for an efficient inhibition. In contrast, such moiety is not required for an inhibition by the selenium compounds.

  17. New antibacterial, non-genotoxic materials, derived from the functionalization of the anti-thyroid drug methimazole with silver ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainis, I; Banti, C N; Owczarzak, A M; Kyros, L; Kourkoumelis, N; Kubicki, M; Hadjikakou, S K

    2016-07-01

    The new silver(I) compound {[AgBr(μ2-S-MMI)(TPP))]2} (1) and the known one [AgCl(TPP)2(MMI)] (2) were obtained by refluxing toluene solutions of silver(I) halide with triphenylphosphine (TPP) and the anti-thyroid drug 2-mercapto-1-methyl-imidazole or methimazole (MMI). The complexes were characterized by m.p., vibrational spectroscopy (mid-FT-IR), (1)H, (31)P-NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. The antibacterial effect of 1 and 2 against the bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO) and Escherichia coli was evaluated. Compound 1 exhibits comparable activity to the corresponding one of the silver nitrate which is an antibacterial drug in use. The in vivo genotoxicity of 1-2 by the mean of Allium cepa test shows no alterations in the mitotic index values due to the absence of chromosomal aberrations. The mechanism of action of the title compounds is evaluated. The DNA binding tests indicate the ability of the complexes 1-2 to modify the activity of the bacteria. The binding constants of 1-2 towards CT-DNA indicate interaction through opening of the hydrogen bonds of DNA. Docking studies on DNA-complexes interactions confirm the binding of both complexes 1-2 in the major groove of the CT-DNA. In conclusion the silver complex 1 is an anti-bacterial and non-genotoxic material, which can be applied to antibacterial drug in the future. PMID:26765999

  18. Dual binding mode of antithyroid drug methimazole to mammalian heme peroxidases - structural determination of the lactoperoxidase-methimazole complex at 1.97 Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi Prabha; Singh, Avinash; Sirohi, Harsh Vardhan; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2016-07-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO, EC 1.11.1.7) is a member of the mammalian heme peroxidase family which also includes thyroid peroxidase (TPO). These two enzymes have a sequence homology of 76%. The structure of LPO is known but not that of TPO. In order to determine the mode of binding of antithyroid drugs to thyroid peroxidase, we have determined the crystal structure of LPO complexed with an antithyroid drug, methimazole (MMZ) at 1.97 Å resolution. LPO was isolated from caprine colostrum, purified to homogeneity and crystallized with 20% poly(ethylene glycol)-3350. Crystals of LPO were soaked in a reservoir solution containing MMZ. The structure determination showed the presence of two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. Both molecules contained one molecule of MMZ, but with different orientations. MMZ was held tightly between the heme moiety on one side and the hydrophobic parts of the side chains of Arg255, Glu258, and Leu262 on the opposite side. The back of the cleft contained the side chains of Gln105 and His109 which also interacted with MMZ. In both orientations, MMZ had identical buried areas and formed a similar number of interactions. It appears that the molecules of MMZ can enter the substrate-binding channel of LPO in two opposite orientations. But once they reach the distal heme pocket, their orientations are frozen due to equally tight packing of MMZ in both orientations. This is a novel example of an inhibitor binding to an enzyme with two orientations at the same site with nearly equal occupancies. PMID:27398304

  19. How does fatty acid influence anti-thyroid drugs binding and specificity toward protein human serum albumin? A blind docking simulation study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijan K Paul; Nikhil Guchhait

    2014-11-01

    This study reports an AutoDock-based blind docking simulation investigation to characterize the binding interaction of a series of anti-thyroid drugs (2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), 2-thiouracil (TU), 6-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU), 6--propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) with a model plasma protein Human SerumAlbumin (HSA) in the presence and absence of fatty acid (FA). The drug-protein binding efficiency is characterized in terms of binding free energy and the association constant (Ka, which is estimated as the reciprocal of the inhibition constant, Ki) of the drugs to the transport protein. The study also unveils the substantial impact of the presence of fatty acid (FA) on the binding interaction process. It is shown that in the presence of FA the drug-protein binding efficiency is markedly enhanced (except for MTU) and the binding location is changed. Hydrogen bonding interaction appears to play a governing role in the process of FA-induced modifications of binding efficiency and location.

  20. Does thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, or antithyroid drug treatment alter reactivity of patients` T cells to epitopes of thyrotropin receptor in autoimmune thyroid diseases?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, M.; Kaplan, E.; Abdel-Latif, A. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The effect of treatment on thyroid antibody production and T cell reactivity to thyroid antigens was studied in 15 patients with Graves` disease (GD) before and after thyroidectomy, 19 patients with GD before and after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and 9 patients maintained euthyroid on antithyroid drugs (ATD). In GD patients, the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TSH receptor (TSHR)-specific T cell lines to recombinant human TSHR extracellular domain, thyroglobulin, and TSHR peptides were examined on the day of surgery or RAI therapy (day 0) and also 6-8 weeks and 3-6 months thereafter. Reactivity to TSHR peptides before surgery was heterogeneous and spanned the entire extracellular domain. Six to 8 weeks after subtotal thyroidectomy, the number of patients` PBMC responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides decreased. A further decrease in the T cell reactivity to TSHR peptides was observed 3-6 months after surgery. The responses of PBMC from Graves` patients before RAI therapy were less than those in the presurgical group. Six to 8 weeks after RAI therapy, the number of patients responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides increased. Three to 6 months after RAI, T cell responses to TSHR peptides were less than those 6-8 weeks after RAI therapy, but still higher than the values on day 0. Responses of PBMC from patients with GD, maintained euthyroid on ATD, were lower than those before surgery or RAI therapy. The reactivity of T cell lines in different groups reflected a pattern similar to PBMC after treatment. TSHR antibody and microsomal antibody levels decreased after surgery, but increased after RAI therapy. The difference in the number of recognized peptides by patients` PBMC before RAI and surgery may reflect the effect of long term therapy with ATD in the patients before RAI vs. the shorter period in patients before surgery. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Does thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy, or antithyroid drug treatment alter reactivity of patients' T cells to epitopes of thyrotropin receptor in autoimmune thyroid diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of treatment on thyroid antibody production and T cell reactivity to thyroid antigens was studied in 15 patients with Graves' disease (GD) before and after thyroidectomy, 19 patients with GD before and after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and 9 patients maintained euthyroid on antithyroid drugs (ATD). In GD patients, the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TSH receptor (TSHR)-specific T cell lines to recombinant human TSHR extracellular domain, thyroglobulin, and TSHR peptides were examined on the day of surgery or RAI therapy (day 0) and also 6-8 weeks and 3-6 months thereafter. Reactivity to TSHR peptides before surgery was heterogeneous and spanned the entire extracellular domain. Six to 8 weeks after subtotal thyroidectomy, the number of patients' PBMC responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides decreased. A further decrease in the T cell reactivity to TSHR peptides was observed 3-6 months after surgery. The responses of PBMC from Graves' patients before RAI therapy were less than those in the presurgical group. Six to 8 weeks after RAI therapy, the number of patients responding to any peptide and the average number of recognized peptides increased. Three to 6 months after RAI, T cell responses to TSHR peptides were less than those 6-8 weeks after RAI therapy, but still higher than the values on day 0. Responses of PBMC from patients with GD, maintained euthyroid on ATD, were lower than those before surgery or RAI therapy. The reactivity of T cell lines in different groups reflected a pattern similar to PBMC after treatment. TSHR antibody and microsomal antibody levels decreased after surgery, but increased after RAI therapy. The difference in the number of recognized peptides by patients' PBMC before RAI and surgery may reflect the effect of long term therapy with ATD in the patients before RAI vs. the shorter period in patients before surgery. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Interaction of methimazole with I2: X-ray crystal structure of the charge transfer complex methimazole-I2. implications for the mechanism of action of methimazole-based antithyroid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaia, Francesco; Aragoni, M Carla; Arca, Massimiliano; Demartin, Francesco; Devillanova, Francesco A; Floris, Giovanni; Garau, Alessandra; Hursthouse, Michael B; Lippolis, Vito; Medda, Rosaria; Oppo, Fabio; Pira, Marilena; Verani, Gaetano

    2008-07-10

    The antithyroid drug methimazole (MMI) reacts with molecular iodine to form, in a multistep process, 1-methylimidazole as final product. In this process, the charge transfer complex MMI-I 2 and the ionic disulfide [(C 4H 6N 2S-) 2] (2+) ( 1, dication MMI disulfide) have been isolated and their X-ray crystal structures solved. Dication MMI disulfide perchlorate acts effectively both in reducing I 2 to I (-) ions and in showing antioxidant properties in inactivating the enzyme lactoperoxidase compound I. PMID:18529045

  3. Differences in the Treatment Response to Antithyroid Drugs versus Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Case of Recurrent Catatonia due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a case which presented recurrent episodes of catatonia as a result of Graves’ disease with hyperthyroidism. The patient showed different treatment response in each episodes; in the first episode, psychiatric and physical symptoms were resolved by a combination of antithyroid and anxiolytic therapies, while in the second episode, the combination therapy did not ameliorate her symptoms and ECT was indicated. We postulated that decreased CSF level of TTR and the resulting susceptibility to the derangement of peripheral thyroid function might be involved in this different treatment response.

  4. Liver volume, portal vein flow, and clearance of indocyanine green and antipyrine in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Court-Payen, M;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment.......The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment....

  5. 抗甲状腺药物治疗妊娠甲亢对新生儿甲状腺功能的影响%Impact of antithyroid drugs in treatment of gestational hyperthyroidism for neonatal thyroid function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸣燕; 李娴彧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze Impact of antithyroid drugs in treatment of gestational hyperthyroidism for neonatal thyroid function. Methods Retrospective analyzed clinical data in 60 cases of pregnancy in patients with hyperthyroidism between date of January 1, 2012 to January 1 2013 in our hospital, they were divided into control group (30 cases) and the experimental group (30 cases) according to the treatment. Patients in the control group were given a non-antithyroid drug treatment, the test group of patients were given anti-thyroid drug treatment, observation and comparin of treatment outcome between the two groups of patients. Results the control group of adverse outcomes(46.66%) was higher than outcomes in the experimental group (10.00%); P<0.05, there was statistically significant; TSH of test group, FT3, FT4 and other thyroid function was better than the control group, P<0.05,there was statistically significant. Conclusion after antithyroid drug therapy of gestational hyperthyroidism can significantly improve neonatal thyroid function, which can reduce adverse outcomes of pregnancy, it should be reasonable promotion in clinic.%目的:探讨分析抗甲状腺药物治疗妊娠甲亢对新生儿甲状腺功能的影响。方法回顾性分析2012年1月1日—2013年1月1日期间该院的60例妊娠甲亢患者的临床资料,根据治疗方式分为对照组(30例)和试验组(30例)。对照组患者被给予非抗甲状腺药物治疗,试验组患者被给予抗甲状腺药物治疗,观察、比较两组患者的治疗结果。结果对照组不良结局比(46.66%)高于试验组不良结局比(10.00%);P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义;试验组的TSH 、FT3、FT4等甲状腺功能均优于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论抗甲状腺药物治疗妊娠甲亢后可显著提升新生儿甲状腺功能,减少可妊娠不良结局,应于临床中合理推广。

  6. Technetium uptake predicts remission and relapse in Grave's disease patients on antithyroid drugs for at least 1 year in South Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Most of the information on remission related factors in Grave's disease are derived from Western literature. It is likely that there may be additional prognostic factors and differences in the postdrug treatment course of Grave's disease in India. Aim: To study factors which predict remission/relapse in Grave's disease patients from South India. Also to establish if technetium (Tc uptake has a role in predicting remission. Subjects and Methods: Records of 174 patients with clinical, biochemical, and scintigraphic criteria consistent with Grave's disease, seen in our Institution between January 2006 and 2014 were analyzed. Patient factors, drug-related factors, Tc-99m uptake and other clinical factors were compared between the remission and nonremission groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square tests were used when appropriate to compare the groups. Results: Fifty-seven (32.7% patients attained remission after at least 1 year of thionamide therapy. Of these, 11 (19.2% patients relapsed within 1 year. Age, gender, goiter, and presence of extrathyroidal manifestations were not associated with remission. Higher values of Tc uptake were positively associated with remission (P- 0.02. Time to achievement of normal thyroid function and composite dose: Time scores were significantly associated with remission (P - 0.05 and P - 0.01, respectively. Patients with lower FT4 at presentation had a higher chance of remission (P - 0.01. The relapse rates were lower than previously reported in the literature. A higher Tc uptake was found to be significantly associated with relapse also (P - 0.009. Conclusion: The prognostic factors associated with remission in Graves's disease in this South Indian study are not the same as that reported in Western literature. Tc scintigraphy may have an additional role in identifying people who are likely to undergo remission and thus predict the outcome of Grave's disease.

  7. Mechanism for the anti-thyroid action of minocycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerge, D.R.; Divi, R.L.; Deck, J. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States); Taurog, A. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Administration of minocycline (MN), a tetracycline antibiotic, produces a black pigment in the thyroids of humans and several species of experimental animals and antithyroid effects in rodents. We have previously shown that these effects appear to be related to interactions of MN with thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormone synthesis. In the present study, the mechanisms for inhibition of TPO-catalyzed iodination and coupling reactions by MN were investigated. 37 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Birth defects after early pregnancy use of antithyroid drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen;

    2013-01-01

    OR of birth defects. MMI/CMZ and PTU were associated with urinary system malformation, and PTU with malformations in the face and neck region. Choanal atresia, esophageal atresia, omphalocele, omphalomesenteric duct anomalies, and aplasia cutis were common in MMI/CMZ-exposed children (combined, adjusted...

  9. Correlation of serum antithyroid microsomal antibody and autologous serum skin test in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Balvant Lunge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 25-45% of patients of chronic urticaria (CU have been stated to have histamine releasing autoantibodies in their blood. The term autoimmune urticaria is increasingly being accepted for this subgroup of patients. Review of the literature suggests high autologous serum skin test (ASST positivity and presence of antithyroid microsomal antibodies in patients with autoimmune urticaria. Aims: To study prevalence of ASST positivity and antithyroid microsomal antibodies in chronic "idiopathic" urticaria and to study the correlation between the two parameters. Methods: All patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria satisfying inclusion/exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after written informed consent. Patients of CU secondary to infections and infestations, physical urticaria including dermatographism, mastocytosis, urticarial vasculitis and those on treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for urticaria were excluded from the study. In all of these patients, complete blood count; ASST, serum T3/T4/thyroid stimulating hormone levels, antithyroid microsomal antibody (AMA levels were done. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Kappa statistics. Results: Study included 24 males and 26 females with mean age of 39.54 years. Majority of patients belonged to 20-40 years of age. Females showed more ASST positivity. A total of 12 out of 50 (24% patients showed positive ASST. A total of four out of 12 (33.33% had positive ASST and raised AMA levels. Conclusion: Only 25% of patients of chronic idiopathic urticaria had positive ASST. ASST and AMA levels were positively correlated in our study. Further studies are required to authenticate this association.

  10. Change of CD4+ CD25+ CD127 low regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of patients with Graves disease treated by 131 I or antithyroid drugs therapy%Graves病131I或抗甲状腺药物治疗前后外周血CD4+CD25+CD127low调节性T细胞的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 潘天荣; 杜益君; 钟兴

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨调节性T细胞( Treg)在Graves病( GD)患者外周血中变化,以及131 I或抗甲状腺药物( ATD)治疗后其变化趋势,寻找评价131 I和ATD治疗疗效的新指标。方法健康者40例设为对照组,初诊GD患者40例设为GD组,并将GD组随机分成131 I 治疗组(20例)及 ATD 治疗组(20例)。检测131 I治疗组、ATD治疗组治疗前、治疗后及对照组CD4+CD25+CD127 low Treg 比例、白介素-10( IL-10)、转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)水平,通过统计学软件处理相关结果。结果①治疗前GD组Treg比例较对照组明显降低,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);②131 I治疗组、ATD治疗组治疗后第3个月及第6个月Treg比例较治疗前均升高,差异均有统计学意义( P <0.01);③治疗后第3个月及第6个月, ATD治疗组Treg比例与131 I治疗组差异无统计学意义;④治疗前GD组IL-10、TGF-β1水平较对照组均降低,治疗后6个月,细胞因子水平较治疗前均升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),各时间点131 I治疗组与ATD治疗组之间,细胞因子差异无统计学意义。结论 GD患者Treg比例和功能显著降低,治疗后部分恢复,因此,对于甲亢患者,Treg可能是评价免疫状态及治疗后病情缓解的指标之一。%Objective To investigate the changes of regulatory T cells ( Treg) in Graves disease ( GD) before and after being treated by 131 I or antithyroid drugs( ATD) ,and to seek for new clinical indicators to evaluate the treat-ment response. Methods The study groups included 40 patients with GD ( GD group) , 20 of whom were treated by 131 I ,others were treated by ATD. Forty healthy donors without history of thyroid or autoimmune disease were en-rolled in control group. The proportions of CD4 +CD25 +CD127low Treg , IL-10 and TGF-β1 were tested before and after treatment respectively. Results ① The significant decrease in the proportion of CD4 +CD25 +CD127low Treg cells in untreated GD patients ( GD group) was

  11. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12 th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother′s antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.

  12. Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase and Risk of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

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    Tahereh Madani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 2-4% of all women have recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA; however, the cause is determined in only 50% of cases. Recent studies have shown an association between thyroid autoantibodies as a sign of thyroid autoimmunity and abortion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether circulating anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO was associated with RSA.Materials and Methods: In this observational analytic study, Sera from 58 non-pregnant women with a history of RSA and also 58 healthy, fertile subjects with at least one live birth as control (Aging from 18 to 45 years were tested for thyroid peroxidase antibodies by means of a standard Anti-TPO ELISA kit. We used data collection forms and SPSS software for data analysis.Results: Of 116 women, 8 (13.8% of the control subjects and 12 (20.7% of the women with a history of RSA had positive results for anti-TPO. There was not any significant association between presence of anti-TPO and RSA.Conclusions: We did not find any correlation between the presence of TPO antibodies and abortion in women with a history of RSA. On the basis of this study, testing for anti-TPO doesn’t seem to be useful in the evaluation of patients with a history of RSA.

  13. Bipolar disorder and antithyroid antibodies: review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchetta, Alberto; Traccis, Francesco; Mosca, Enrica; Serra, Alessandra; Tamburini, Giorgio; Loviselli, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Mood disorders and circulating thyroid antibodies are very prevalent in the population and their concomitant occurrence may be due to chance. However, thyroid antibodies have been repeatedly hypothesized to play a role in specific forms of mood disorders. Potentially related forms include treatment-refractory cases, severe or atypical depression, and depression at specific phases of a woman's life (early gestation, postpartum depression, perimenopausal). With regard to bipolar disorder, studies of specific subgroups (rapid cycling, mixed, or depressive bipolar) have reported associations with thyroid antibodies. Offspring of bipolar subjects were found more vulnerable to develop thyroid antibodies independently from the vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. A twin study suggested thyroid antibodies among possible endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. Severe encephalopathies have been reported in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Cases with pure psychiatric presentation are being reported, the antithyroid antibodies being probably markers of some other autoimmune disorders affecting the brain. Vasculitis resulting in abnormalities in cortical perfusion is one of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26869176

  14. Association of antithyroid peroxidase antibody with fibromyalgia in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Blumen, Helena; Tagoe, Clement E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate how autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) affects the clinical presentation of established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with particular reference to fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain (CWP). A cohort of 204 patients with RA for whom the presence or absence of autoimmune thyroid antibodies was documented was examined for the relationships between thyroid autoantibodies and fibromyalgia or CWP. We identified 29 % who tested positive for antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) was found in 24 %. Among the thyroid autoantibody-positive patients, 40 % had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia or CWP versus 17 % for antibody negative patients. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex, diabetes and BMI) indicated that TPOAb-positive patients were more likely to have fibromyalgia or CWP, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.641, 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.110-10.207) P fibromyalgia, OR 4.458, 95 % CI (1.950-10.191), P fibromyalgia was not significant (P > .05). Additional logistic regression analyses (adjusted by age, sex and BMI) indicated a significant relationship between TPOAb and fibromyalgia or CWP in patients without diabetes and those without hypothyroidism (OR of 4.873, 95 % CI (1.877-12.653), P = .001 and OR of 4.615 95 % CI (1.810-11.770), P = .001, respectively). There may be a positive association between the ATD antibody TPOAb, and fibromyalgia syndrome and CWP in patients with established RA.

  15. Correlation of serum antithyroid microsomal antibody and autologous serum skin test in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Snehal Balvant Lunge; Milind Borkar; Sushil Pande

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 25–45% of patients of chronic urticaria (CU) have been stated to have histamine releasing autoantibodies in their blood. The term autoimmune urticaria is increasingly being accepted for this subgroup of patients. Review of the literature suggests high autologous serum skin test (ASST) positivity and presence of antithyroid microsomal antibodies in patients with autoimmune urticaria. Aims: To study prevalence of ASST positivity and antithyroid microsomal antibodies in chronic...

  16. High frequency of positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO) in adult subjects without known thyroid disease, Santiago de Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies have a pathogenic role in Hashimoto thyroiditis. Between 10 and 19% of individuals without thyroid disease, have positive titers of these antibodies. Aim: To study the frequency of positive titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in healthy individuals. Material and Methods: A blood sample, to measure anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by chemiluminescence assay, was obtained from 67 women and 62 men aged 45 ± 14 years, without a personal or familiar history of thyroid diseases and normal thyroid palpation. The cutoff point of the manufacturer to consider positive a titer of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies was set at 35 IU/ml. Results: Twenty-eight women and 28 men had positive antibody titers (43% of the sample). Subjects in the upper tercile of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody titers had a higher TSH than those in the second tercile, although within normal limits (1.73 ± 0.74 and 1.37 ± 0.59 mlU/L, respectively p = 0.02) Conclusions: Forty three percent of the studied subjects without personal or familial history of thyroid diseases had positive titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Further prospective studies should evaluate whether this observation discloses an increase in thyroid autoimmune disease in a population with increased iodine intake

  17. Anti-thyroid drugs or {sup 131}I therapy to control the hyperthyroidism of graves disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis; Tratamento clinico com drogas antitireoidianas ou dose terapeutica de Iodo-131 no controle do hipertireoidismo na doenca de Graves: avaliacao dos custos e beneficios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Junior, Antonio Fiel; Takahashi, Miriam Hideco; Albino, Claudio Cordeiro [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: afiel@bs2.com.br

    2006-12-15

    In this study, we set out to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of the 2 most used therapies in our region, ATD or RAI. 23 patients, 6 men and 16 women, with a mean age of 35.4 years, treated with ATD, and 35 patients, 5 men and 30 women, mean age of 39.4 years, treated with RAI, were studied. After 2 years receiving ATD, 21 patients achieved euthyroidism and 2 remained hyperthyroid. In the RAI group, 21 patients presented hypothyroidism and 13 became euthyroid. To calculate the costs of each therapy, we analyzed the number of visits during this period, the laboratory data and the drugs needed, such as tiamazol and/or thyroxine. The group treated only with ATD needed a higher number of visits and laboratory measurements, with the mean total cost of R$ 1,345.81, while the RAI group spent a mean amount of R$ 622.94. Therefore, the costs of the RAI treatment were 53.5% lower than clinical therapy with ATD. The present study demonstrates that RAI treatment has a lower cost than ATD, being very effective in controlling the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. (author)

  18. Study of the antithyroid and radioprotective properties of compounds of the 5 thione imidazolidines group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some compounds of the 5 thione imidazolidines group were synthesized by conventional or original methods, and this study is aimed at defining certain pharmacodynamic properties which these substances may be expected to show on the basis of their structure. The properties looked for are: - antithyroid activity, by studying the difference in iodine 131 fixation by the thyroid of rats previously treated or not with these materials; - radioprotective activity, by the comparative study of percentage survival; after 30 days, of mice subjected to a lethal dose of X radiation and having received or not, before irradiation, an intraperitoneal injection of the product under investigation. (author)

  19. Steroid-Responsive Epilepsia Partialis Continua with Anti-Thyroid Antibodies: A Spectrum of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Masuda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a neuropsychiatric symptom due to encephalopathy develops in a patient with anti-thyroid antibodies, especially when the symptom is steroid-responsive, Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of the patient. Although HE is an elusive disease, it is thought to cause various clinical presentations including seizures, myoclonus, and epilepsia partialis continua (EPC. Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Japanese woman who acutely developed EPC in the right hand as an isolated manifestation. A thyroid ultrasound showed an enlarged hypoechogenic gland, and a thyroid status assessment showed euthyroid with high titers of thyroid antibodies. A brain MRI revealed a nodular lesion in the left precentral gyrus. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in a cessation of the symptom. Conclusions: A precentral nodular lesion can be responsible for steroid-responsive EPC in a patient with anti-thyroid antibodies and may be caused by HE. The serial MRI findings of our case suggest the presence of primary demyelination, with ischemia possibly due to vasculitis around the demyelinating lesion.

  20. Thermoregulatory deficits in adult long evans rat offspring exposed perinatally to the antithyroidal drug, propylthiouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting toxicants has been shown to alter a variety of physiological processes in mature offspring. Body (core) temperature (Tc) is a tightly regulated homeostatic system but is susceptible to disruptors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid...

  1. Preliminary Study on Chinese Drug-Induced Apoptosis ofThyrocytes in Graves' Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    After 2-10 weeks treatment, effect of anti-thyroid drugs combined with Chinese drugs on the thyrocytes of Graves' disease: apoptosis ratio is 18.66±20.01% (n=13), P<0.01; Compared with that of single anti-thyroid drug group: 2.11±1.78%, n=13TUNEL  The increase of TUNEL-positive nuclei (blue color) was observed: 3-5 cells/vision field in combining Chinese drugs treatment group; 0-1 cell/vision field in treating with anti-thyroid drugs before combining with Chinese drugs group, and the control cell showed red color, see Figure 4.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants and anti-thyroid peroxidase levels in Akwesasne Mohawk young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2009-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (DDE), have been found to elicit a broad spectrum of biologic, metabolic, and immunologic responses. The potential of these pollutants to impair immune responses and trigger autoimmune disease is of growing concern, given their structural similarity to thyroid hormones and their potential to modulate the mechanisms and interfere with the binding of these hormones. We examine the relationship of different groupings of PCBs, according to chlorination and structure, and of p,p'-DDE and HCB to anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody, a useful tool in the evaluation of thyroid dysfunction, among 115 young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation. Overall, 18 participants (15.4%) had anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) levels above the normal laboratory reference range (23% of females, 9% of males). Among participants who were breast fed (n=47), those with an elevated TPOAb level had significantly higher levels of all PCB groupings, with the exception of levels of non-persistent PCBs which did not differ significantly. Levels of p,p'-DDE were also significantly elevated, while HCB and mirex were not higher among those with elevated TPOAb. Also, after stratifying by breast-feeding status, participants who were breast fed showed significant, positive relationships between TPOAb levels and all PCB groupings, except groups comprised of non-persistent PCBs, and with p,p'-DDE, HCB, and mirex. No effects were evident among non-breast-fed young adults. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the site and mechanism of action of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and to establish thresholds for these effects, especially among populations with background levels of toxicant exposure. PMID:18995849

  3. Peculiarities of antithyroid autoimmunity indicators in type 2 diabetic patients depending on leptin level in blood serum and their dynamics as a result of sodium selenite treatment

    OpenAIRE

    ABRAMOVA N.O.; PASHKOVSKA N.V.; BEREZOVA M.S.

    2015-01-01

    There were studied 46 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in order to identify the autoimmune processes directed against thyroid tissue and dependence of those changes on the level of leptin in blood serum. It was established that in patients with high leptin serum level antithyroid antibody titer increased. In order to adjust the levels of antithyroid antibodies sodium selenite was prescribed against the background of standard therapy. Statistically significant reduction in antibodies exp...

  4. Immuno-localisation of anti-thyroid antibodies in adult human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kogie; Botha, Julia; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2011-03-15

    Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. PMID:21196016

  5. Persistent organic pollutants and anti-thyroid peroxidase levels in Akwesasne Mohawk young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs, HCB and DDE, have been found to elicit a broad spectrum of biologic, metabolic, and immunologic responses. The potential of these pollutants to impair immune responses and trigger autoimmune disease is of growing concern, given their structural similarity to thyroid hormones and their potential to modulate the mechanisms and interfere with the binding of these hormones. We examine the relationship of different groupings of PCBs, according to chlorination and structure, and of p,p’-DDE and HCB to anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody, a useful tool in the evaluation of thyroid dysfunction, among 115 young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation. Overall, eighteen participants (15.4%) had TPOAb levels above the normal laboratory reference range (23% of females, 9% of males). Among participants who were breast fed (n=47), those with an elevated TPOAb level had significantly higher levels of all PCB groupings, with the exception of levels of non-persistent PCBs which did not differ significantly. Levels of p,p’-DDE were also significantly elevated, while HCB and mirex were not higher among those with elevated TPOAb. Also, after stratifying by breast feeding status, participants who were breast fed showed significant, positive relationships between TPOAb levels and all PCB groupings, except groups comprised of non-persistent PCBs, and with p,p’-DDE, HCB, and mirex. No effects were evident among non-breastfed young adults. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the site and mechanism of action of these POPs and to establish thresholds for these effects, especially among populations with background levels of toxicant exposure. PMID:18995849

  6. Association between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and asthma in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Samareh Fekri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available About 8% of the general population suffers from autoimmune diseases, from which 78% are women. One of the most important causes of thyroid diseases is autoimmunity in origin, and it seems that people with thyroid diseases present more signs of asthma. This study was therefore designed to investigate the frequency of autoimmune thyroid diseases in women suffering from bronchial asthma.In a cross-sectional study, 100 women with asthma and 100 women as control group were tested for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab measurements.  The  asthmatic  patients  were  selected  based  on  having  chronic  cough, dyspnea, wheezing and clinical examination of the chest. The diagnosis was confirmed by pulmonary function tests. Blood tests were done by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method.No hyperthyroid patient was found in either group. Serum TSH and Total T4 levels were not statistically different between the two groups, but serum anti-TPO Ab levels in women with asthma (74±13.6  IU/ml  was significantly higher than  control  group  (45.24±10.56 IU/ml. After adjusting the effect of age and BMI, the relationship between asthma and anti- TPO Ab (>50 IU/ml was statistically significant (OR=3.3, P<0.01.Positive anti-TPO Ab in asthmatic patients may show presence of a hidden autoimmune thyroiditis in these patients. We suggested checking asthmatic patients for thyroid diseases.

  7. Anti-natrium/iodide symporter antibodies and other anti-thyroid antibodies in children with Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Anna M; Czarnocka, Barbara; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies against the Na/I symporter (anti-NIS ab) have been found in adult patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases. As easily available for the immune system, NIS can play a role in the initial stage of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Children with Turner's syndrome (TS) being at high risk of autoimmune thyroid disease development seem a valuable group for the investigation of the early autoimmune process. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of anti-NIS ab and its potential clinical significance in TS children. Fifty four girls with TS were examined (age 11.9 ± 2.46 years), and 23 healthy girls with normal thyroid function, free of autoimmune diseases. Anti-NIS antibodies were measured by the in-house ELISA method and the Western blotting. Sera considered positive for anti-NIS ab were used for the iodide uptake bioassay using COS7 cells stably transfected with hNIS. In all patients the thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies presence and thyroid ultrasonography were evaluated. In 20% of the patients a subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed and 70.4% had antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO - 64.8% and Anti-Tg - 24%). Anti-NISab were present in 14.8% girls with TS and in none of the control group. Their presence was unrelated to other antithyroid antibodies titre or patients' age. A positive correlation between the anti-NIS ab presence and the hypothyroidism was found (p < 0.04). Anti-NIS ab-positive sera did not suppress iodine uptake. In conclusion, anti-NIS antibodies were present in 14.8% of children with TS and they were related to the presence of hypothyroidism. PMID:22836628

  8. Subacute cognitive deterioration with high serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: two cases and a plea for pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Kurt; Braconnier, Philippe; Corazza, Francis; Divano, Luisa; Mabrouk, Asmaa; Robberecht, Jean; Surquin, Murielle

    2013-09-01

    Autoimmune encephalopathy is a rare but potentially reversible cause of cognitive deterioration and neuropsychiatric disturbances. We describe two older female patients with subacute cognitive decline and marked neuropsychiatric disturbances in the presence of high serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and with normal dosage of free thyroxine 4. One patient recovered almost completely after oral corticotherapy. Differential diagnosis and the role of biomarkers, in particular, are discussed. We support a pragmatic approach involving a short empirical therapeutic trial with intravenous or oral corticoids; this should be considered in all patients with subacute encephalopathy and with laboratory arguments for an underlying autoimmune aetiology. PMID:25913766

  9. Drug: D08659 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) classification [BR:br08303] H SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATIONS, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AND INSULINS H03 THYROID ...THERAPY H03B ANTITHYROID PREPARATIONS H03BX Other antithyroid preparations H03BX0

  10. Sertraline and its iodine product: Experimental and theoretical vibrational studies. Potential in vitro anti-thyroid activity of sertraline and iodine product toxicity with respect to male Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Graciela E.; Ferraresi Curotto, Verónica; Laino, Carlos H.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo; Williams, Patricia A. M.; Ferrer, Evelina G.

    2013-03-01

    Mayor depression, obsessive-compulsive panic, social anxiety disorders are common diseases that are usually treated with sertraline hydrochloride which is the active ingredient of the well known drugs as Zoloft and Lustral. In this work, we presented a more complete vibrational characterization of the solid phase FT-IR spectra of Sertraline hydrochloride and its sertraline-iodine product in which the conformational space of the molecules was investigated performing molecular dynamic simulations within an NVT ensemble. Geometrical, electronic and vibrational properties were calculated with the density functional theory. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes of both molecules. In addition, for the first time we present the evaluation of anti-thyroid activity of sertraline hydrochloride by using the Lang's method. Also, with the aim to evaluate the antidepressant effect of its iodine product we demonstrated for this compound the toxic effect towards the male Wistar rats.

  11. [Reversible white matter lesions and antithyroid antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid in Hashimoto's encephalopathy: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Masakazu; Nishikage, Hirofumi; Goshima, Kazuyuki

    2004-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman with Hashimoto's disease was admitted to our hospital because of involuntary movement, gait disturbance, and mental decline. Her consciousness was alert but her orientation about time and place was disturbed. She was mentally ill (HDS-R; 12/30, MMSE; 14/30), and could not walk because of truncal ataxia. Myoclonus was present in the upper extremities. Laboratory examinations showed hypothyroidism and very high titers of antithyroid antibodies (ATA) in serum. Head MRI showed no abnormal lesions. On electroencephalogram (EEG), the basic rhythm was slow and bursts of irregular slow waves (4-6 Hz) were present. Her conditions gradually ameliorated so that she was discharged. However, she was hospitalized again because of sudden worsening of the illness: her consciousness got disturbed and the myoclonus became marked. As the result, she got bed-ridden. At the time, thyroid function was almost normal, suggesting that the deterioration could not be attributed to hypothyroidism. The EEG findings were quite different from the former: complex of multiple spikes and slow waves was continuously present. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of protein and IgG (cell 1/m3, protein 101 mg/dl, sugar 60 mg/dl ,Cl 124 mEq/l, IgG 20.4 mg/dl). IgG index was 0.57 and Q albumin (CSF-albumin/serum-albumin ratio) was 15.2 (9.0>) . After the second admission, she recovered from the bed-ridden state but was still unable to walk or communicate. She continued to need complete support for all daily lives. The diagnosis was made as Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE), from the following points: 1) encephalopathy not due to hypothyroidism, 2) very high titers of ATA, 3) elevated CSF protein. The effectiveness of steroid therapy was so amazing that the neurological problems faded away very soon. Finally she completely recovered. As well as the clinical manifestations, the EEG findings were improved. At the stage in which excellent clinical

  12. Fetal and Neonatal Goiter in Cynomolgus Monkeys Following Administration of the Antithyroid Drug Thiamazole at High Doses to Dams During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Moriyama, Akiko; Kodama, Rinya; Sasaki, Yuji; Sunagawa, Tatsumi; Okazaki, Takanobu; Urashima, Asami; Nishida, Yoshiro; Arima, Akihiro; Inoue, Ayumi; Negishi, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Ihara, Toshio; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate morphologic alterations in the thyroid gland in the second generation in cynomolgus monkeys, pregnant dams were exposed to high doses of thiamazole. In Experiment A, dams received thiamazole intragastrically via a nasogastric catheter from gestation day (GD) 50 to GD 150 or on the day before delivery. Initially, the dose level was 20 mg/kg/day (10 mg/kg twice daily); however, the dose level was subsequently decreased to 5 mg/kg/day (2.5 mg/kg twice daily), since deteriorated general conditions were observed in two dams. Six out of seven neonates died on the day of birth. The cause of neonatal death was tracheal compression and suffocation from goiter. The transplacental exposure to thiamazole affected the fetal thyroid glands and induced goiter in all neonates. The surviving neonate was necropsied 767 days after discontinuation of thiamazole exposure and showed reversibility of the induced changes. In Experiment B, dams were intragastrically administered thiamazole at 5 mg/kg/day (2.5 mg/kg twice daily) for treatment periods from GDs 51 to 70, 71 to 90, 91 to 110, 111 to 130 and 131 to 150. All fetuses showed enlarged thyroid glands but were viable. Histopathologically, hypertrophy and/or hyperplastic appearance of the follicular epithelium of the thyroid gland was observed at the end of each treatment period. The most active appearance of the follicular epithelium, consisting of crowded pedunculated structure, was demonstrated at end of the treatment period from GD 131 to 150. This is the first report on the morphology of fetal and neonatal goiter in the cynomolgus monkey. PMID:22319233

  13. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with serum anti-thyroid antibodies and IgM antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen: a case report and one year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chun-Ling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an increasingly common autoimmune disorder mediated by antibodies to certain subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Recent literatures have described anti-thyroid and infectious serology in this encephalitis but without follow-up. Case presentation A 17-year-old Chinese female patient presented with psychiatric symptoms, memory deficits, behavioral problems and seizures. She then progressed through unresponsiveness, dyskinesias, autonomic instability and central hypoventilation during treatment. Her conventional blood work on admission showed high titers of IgG antibodies to thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase and IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen. An immature ovarian teratoma was found and removal of the tumor resulted in a full recovery. The final diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis was made by the identification of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in her cerebral spinal fluid. Pathology studies of the teratoma revealed N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 positive ectopic immature nervous tissue and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. She was discharged with symptoms free, but titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies remained elevated. One year after discharge, her serum remained positive for anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies, but negative for anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and IgM against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen. Conclusions Persistent high titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies from admission to discharge and until one year later in this patient may suggest a propensity to autoimmunity in anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and support the idea that neuronal and thyroid autoimmunities represent a pathogenic spectrum. Enduring anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies from admission to one year

  14. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts ... Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What To Say if You Were ...

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Abuse Hurts Other People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn ...

  16. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Abuse Hurts Unborn Children Drug Abuse Hurts Your Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  17. Drug: D07232 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 D07232.gif ATC code: H03BC01 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] H SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATION...S, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AND INSULINS H03 THYROID THERAPY H03B ANTITHYROID PREPARATIONS H03

  18. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? ...

  19. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  20. Effect of antithyroid drugs, surgery and radioactive iodine therapy on Graves' disease%三种不同方法治疗Graves病的疗效和预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 巴建明; 陆菊明; 王玲

    2000-01-01

    目的研究药物、手术、放射性碘治疗三种方法对Graves病(GD)的有效率、复发率及其相关性.方法采用回顾性调查方法,分析212例 GD患者的治疗情况及预后.结果治疗停止半年后治愈率分别为药物组78.6%、手术组91.9%、放疗组95.2%,治疗后5年治愈率分别为药物组54.5%、手术组90.6%、放疗组81.8%.结论治疗后半年及5年药物组治愈率均低于手术组和放疗组,而复发率则相反.药物组有18例患者长期治疗无效,手术组与放疗组疗效接近.

  1. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  2. Generic Drugs

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    ... name drug. A brand- name drug has a patent. When the patent runs out— usually after 10 to 14 years— ... if you do not have drug coverage. Condition Diabetes Heart failure High cholesterol Migraine Brand-name drug ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ... of the drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different ...

  4. Novel insight into drug repositioning: Methylthiouracil as a case in point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Moon-Chang; Jung, Byeongjin; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-09-01

    Drug repositioning refers to the development of existing drugs for new indications. These drugs may have (I) failed to show efficacy in late stage clinical trials without safety issues; (II) stalled in the development for commercial reasons; (III) passed the point of patent expiry; or (IV) are being explored in new geographic markets. Over the past decade, pressure on the pharmaceutical industry caused by the 'innovation gap' owing to rising development costs and stagnant product output have become major reasons for the growing interest in drug repositioning. Companies that offer a variety of broad platforms for identifying new indications have emerged; some have been successful in building their own pipelines of candidates with reduced risks and timelines associated with further clinical development. The business models and platforms offered by these companies will be validated if they are able to generate positive proof-of-concept clinical data for their repositioned compounds. This review describes the strategy of biomarker-guided repositioning of chemotherapeutic drugs for inflammation therapy, considering the repositioning of methylthiouracil (MTU), an antithyroid drug, as a potential anti-inflammatory reagent. PMID:26117428

  5. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Drug Abuse Hurts Other People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn Children ... a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free ...

  6. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative detection of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in serum%血清抗甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体ELISA定量方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖; 李会强; 陈寅; 仁杰; 李婵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of the concentra tion of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in serum. Methods The microtiter plate was coated with biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and streptavidin. The biotinylated TPO antigen and standardized anti-TPOAb or test sera were successively added into the wells of plate. The HRP-anti-IgG was then added into the plate for colorization. The optimal concentrations of biotinylated TPO an tigen and HRP-anti-IgG were screened by chessboard titration, and the reaction conditions were optimized for the method evaluation. Results In the indirect-coating mode, the amount of coated antigen was 0. 083 μg/mL. The sensitivity of the assay was 0. 165 IU/mL. The coefficient of variations (CV) of inter-assay in high and low concentration of serum mixture were 9.2% and 9.0% , and the CV of intra-assay were 4.6% and 5.6% respectively. The recovery rate was between 96% and 104%. The coated ELISA plate re mained stable for 5 days at 37 ℃. The rate of cross-reaction with anti-thyroid globulin (TGAb) was 0. 22%. The reference range in serum was less than 65. 7 IU/mL. The correlation coefficient of the experimental results with those of Abbott kit was 0. 985 (P < 0.01). Conclusion In the developed ELISA of indirect-coated mode, the amount of needed purified antigen significantly reduced. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were satisfied. The method is simple and cost-saving, so it should be very suitable for anti TPOAb detection in primary hospitals.%目的 建立一种ELISA方法用于定量分析血清抗甲状腺过氧化物酶(TPO)抗体(TPOAb).方法 用生物素化牛血清清蛋白(BSA)和链霉亲合素包被微孔板,同时加入生物素化TPO抗原和待检血清,再加入酶标记抗人IgG,建立间接包被模式酶联免疫法测定抗TPO抗体.经方阵滴定确定生物素化抗原和酶标抗体的最适浓度,优化反应条件,

  7. Prescription Drugs

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    ... Us Search Search close Teens Teachers Parents Drugs & Health Blog NDAFW Enter Search Term(s): Teens / Drug Facts / Prescription Drugs Prescription Drugs Print What Is Prescription Drug Abuse? Also known as: Opioids: Hillbilly heroin, oxy, OC, oxycotton, percs, happy pills, vikes Depressants: ...

  8. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  9. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Learn more Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  10. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  11. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  12. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  13. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ... of the drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different ...

  14. Analgesic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kerec Kos, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In the management of pain analgesic drugs are chosen regarding the intensity and type of pain. The selection of analgesic drug depends on pharmacokinetic properties of the drug and available pharmaceutical dosage forms. Beside non-opioid analgesics (non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen), opioid analgesic drugs have an important role in the treatment of pain. Pri zdravljenju bolečine izberemo analgetik glede na jakost in vrsto bolečine. Na izbiro ustreznega analgetika vplivaj...

  15. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance use; Hypnotic - substance ...

  16. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can ...

  17. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that ... about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain ...

  18. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ...

  19. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  20. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  1. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  2. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between ... This Website Tools and Resources | Contact Us | Site Map | Accessibility | Privacy | FOIA (NIH) The National Institute on ...

  3. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved ...

  4. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth ( ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You ...

  5. Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Many drugs of abuse, including cannabinoids, opioids, alcohol and nicotine, can alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the brain. Recent studies show that release of endocannabinoids in the ventral tegmental area can modulate the reward-related effects of dopamine and might therefore be an important neurobiological mechanism underlying drug addiction. There is strong evidence that the endocannabinoid system is involved in drug-seeking behavior (especially behavior that is reinforced by drug-...

  6. Medicaid Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Poisal, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The following commentary unites a collection of articles primarily concerned with prescription drug issues in Medicaid. It also features highlights from a piece outlining Australia's pharmaceutical delivery system. Specifically, in this issue, you will find comprehensive analyses of drug expenditure trends, issues regarding access to pharmaceuticals in Medicaid, and an evaluation of ongoing generic drug cost-containment programs.

  7. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near ... different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. ...

  8. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  9. Orphan drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. The beginning of orphan drugs development. This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the ”Orphan Drug Act” was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. Conclusion. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41012

  10. Study Drugs

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    ... messages back and forth by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters. Prescription stimulants have chemical structures that are similar to some neurotransmitters. When someone takes them, the drugs boost the ...

  11. Drug Interactions

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    ... WITH HIV MEDICATIONS? Protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are processed by the liver and cause many ... taken with any protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. You can also check for drug-drug and ...

  12. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010263 Drug resistance mechanism of non-small cell lung cancer PC9/AB2 cell line with acquired drug resistance to gefitinib.JU Lixia(鞠立霞),et al. Dept Oncol,Shanghai Pulm Hosp,Tongji Univ,Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2010;33(5):354-358. Objective To

  13. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop ... marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who ...

  14. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one. PMID:20471318

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that says "Listen" ... the computer will read the text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and ...

  16. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... computer will read the text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft ...

  17. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one.

  18. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following information: Facts and Figures – Includes the latest information and statistics. Legislation – A sample of links to online Federal and ... recognized agencies and organizations that provide services or information. CLUB DRUGS Summary Facts & ... & Technical Assistance Grants & Funding Related ...

  19. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  20. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  1. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs And Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Indrati; Herry Prasetyo

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  2. Drug Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi

    2016-09-01

    An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730

  3. Effects of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  4. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help ... her life. She finds support from family and friends who don't use marijuana. Haga clic aquí ...

  8. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  9. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home Site Map FAQs Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA Contact Subscribe Archives PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word documents require the free Microsoft Word ...

  10. Drug Rash (Unclassified Drug Eruption) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Drug Eruption, Unclassified (Pediatric) A parent's guide to condition ... lesions coming together into larger lesions typical of drug rashes (eruptions). Overview A drug eruption, also known ...

  11. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs...

  12. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  13. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav AIDS info Drug Database Home > Drugs Español small medium large Text Size ... health care providers and patients. Search the Drug Database Help × Search by drug name Performs a search ...

  14. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  15. Teenagers and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. DO NOT ... drug abuse . You can find more information at teens.drugabuse. ...

  16. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR), and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object) by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug). Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin) are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or act...

  19. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  20. Drug-drug interactions in the hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Vonbach, Priska

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Drug interaction screening programs are an important tool to check prescriptions of multiple drugs for potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs). Several programs are available on the market. They differ in layout, update frequency, search functions, content and price. The aim of the current study was to critically appraise several interaction screening programs in the Department of Medicine of a Swiss public teaching hospital. Methods A drug interaction screening program had to f...

  1. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  2. Drugs and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different kinds of drugs who can be transferred through the mother's milk to the lactant and its effects are showed in this work. A list of them as below: cardiotonics, diuretics, anti-hypertensives, beta-blockings, anti-arrythmics, drugs with gastrintestinal tract action, hormones, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, citostatic drugs, central nervous system action drugs and anticoagulants drugs. (L.M.J.)

  3. [Drug-drug interactions in antirheumatic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, K

    2012-04-01

    Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions contribute considerably to potentially dangerous drug side-effects and are frequently the reason for hospitalization. Nevertheless they are often overlooked in daily practice. For most antirheumatic drugs a vast number of interactions have been described but only a minority with clinical relevance. Several potentially important drug interactions exist for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate-mofetil and especially for cyclosporin A. Most importantly co-medication with methotrexate and sulfmethoxazole trimethoprim as well as azathioprine and allopurinol carries the risk of severe, sometimes life-threatening consequences. Nevertheless, besides these well-known high-risk combinations in each case of polypharmacy with antirheumatic drugs it is necessary to bear in mind the possibility of drug interactions. As polypharmacy is a common therapeutic practice in older patients with rheumatic diseases, they are at special risk. PMID:22527215

  4. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illegal trafficking in hard drugs. This multifaceted approach established the basic principles and operating practices of contemporary social and criminal drug policy in the Netherlands.

  5. Drug: D06717 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 Crude drugs D06717 Safflower (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for removing blood stasis D06717 *Safflower; Safflower Drugs for external use Drugs

  6. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  7. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  8. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  9. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Arranon (Nelarabine) Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi ...

  10. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause them to use the drugs more and more ...

  11. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  12. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  13. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  14. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  15. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs, and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0 and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III. Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs, i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor, and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR, due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug's impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse

  16. Drug: D06770 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ommia family) Eucommia bark (dried) Major component: Gutta-percha Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...e Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06770 Eucommia bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: a

  17. 妊娠对经抗甲状腺药物治疗成功的Graves病患者疾病复发的影响%The effect of pregnancy on subsequent relapse from Graves' disease following a successful course of anti-thyroid drug therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨嫣; 关海霞; 滕卫平

    2008-01-01

    Graves病(GD)患者的病情在妊娠早期加重,在妊娠后期有所改善,常常在产后再次加重。许多研究力图找出可能预测GD甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)在产后期加重的因子,结果表明:所有曾经妊娠的GD患者,如果在妊娠早期出现甲亢,那她们在产后发生严重甲亢的危险性增大。应用硫酰胺类(thionamides,甲巯咪唑或丙硫氧嘧啶)治疗GD甲亢对于恢复甲状腺正常功能有效,但停用药物后甲亢复发率很高。在大多数病例中,甲亢在停用抗甲状腺药物(ATD)后的6个月至2年内复发,但这之后也可能发生复发。尽管这些结果令人失望,但仍有稳定比例(30%左右)的GD患者经过ATD治疗后达到了病情的长期缓解。因此,内科治疗仍是有效治疗GD的选择方案之一。

  18. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts. PMID:4075000

  19. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  20. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Kumari; Dependra K Timshina; Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2011-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), viz., phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalit...

  1. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  2. Food and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of drugs, the interval between a meal and drug intake and food composition. Food consistency is of lesser influence on drug bioavailability than food composition (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, cereals. Important interactions can occur during application of drugs with low therapeutic index, whereby the plasma level significantly varies due to changes in resorption or metabolism (e.g. digoxin, theophyllin, cyclosporin and drugs such as antibiotics, whose proper therapeutic effect requires precise plasma concentrations.

  3. Practice Gaps: Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Stephen E

    2016-07-01

    The term "drug reactions" is relevant to dermatology in three categories of reactions: cutaneous drug reactions without systemic features, cutaneous drug reactions with systemic features, and systemic drugs prescribed by the dermatologist with systematic adverse effects. This article uses examples from each of these categories to illustrate several important principles central to drug reaction diagnosis and management. The information presented will help clinicians attain the highest possible level of certainty before making clinical decisions. PMID:27363888

  4. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Vihang S. Chawan; Abhishek M. Phatak; Kalpesh V. Gawand; Sagar V. Badwane; Sagar S. Panchal

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and...

  5. Drug: D06742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Crude drugs D06742 Houttuynia herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drug...s for clearing heat D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Crude drugs [B

  6. Monitoring of drug-drug and drug-food interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian-Ruffalo, S M; Syrja-Farber, M; Lanius, P M; Plucinski, A

    1988-07-01

    A program for detecting and preventing potentially serious drug-drug and drug-food interactions is described. Two clinical pharmacists developed drug interaction alert (DIA) cards for each potential interaction to be monitored. The cards contain information about the proposed mechanism and potential result of the interaction, as well as information about how to monitor or circumvent the interaction. Staff pharmacists check for the occurrence of potential interactions daily as they verify the filling of the patient-medication cassettes; a poster of all the interactions that are included in the program is posted in each satellite pharmacy to serve as a quick reference for the pharmacists. When a pharmacist detects a potential interaction, he or she completes a DIA card and places it in the medication cassette drawer (if the notice is directed to the nurse) or on the front of the patient's chart (if the notice is directed to the physician). The program was introduced to hospital personnel through inservice education programs and departmental newsletters. The results of a quality assurance review indicated that 95 of 279 (34%) cards dispensed to nurses and 40 of 49 (82%) cards dispensed to physicians resulted in some form of action. The program to detect and prevent potentially serious drug-drug and drug-food interactions has been successful. PMID:3414718

  7. Drug: D06749 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06749 Nuphar rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06749 Nuphar rhizome; Nup

  8. Drug: D05431 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic d...rugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D05431 *Peppermint; Peppermint Drugs for external use Drugs

  9. Drug: D09185 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic ...and antidiarrheal drugs D09185 *Myrica Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D09185 *Myrica Crude dr

  10. Drug: D03404 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drugs D03404 Cardamon (JP16); Cardamom seed (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for dampness Drugs for resolving dampness D03404 Cardamon; Cardamom seed; Cardamon Crude drugs [B

  11. Drug: D06767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs D06767 Benincasa seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for removing blood stasis D06767 *Benincasa seed Drugs for pus discharge Drugs

  12. Drug: D06772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic an...d antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06772 *Ginseng; Powdered ginseng; Ginseng Drugs for Qi Drugs

  13. Drug: D06803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06803 Nelumbo seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06803 Nelumbo seed Crude dr

  14. Drug: D06894 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available daisy family) Artemisia leaf (dried) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for replenishing blood D06894 *Artemisiae folium; Gaiyo Drugs for external use Drugs

  15. Drug: D06813 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nent: Scopoletin [CPD:C01752] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and a...ntidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06813 *Dolichos seed Drugs for dampness Drugs

  16. Drug: D09151 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D09151 Sw...eetflag rhizome Other drugs Drugs for resuscitation D09151 Acorus gramineus rhizo

  17. Drug: D04705 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 05 Lithospermum root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D04705 *Lithospermum root; Lithospermum root Drugs for external use Drugs

  18. Drug: D06736 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ehmannia root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs... for replenishing Ying D06736 *Rehmannia root; Rehmannia root Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishin

  19. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Drug Addiction DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  20. Drug: D06732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r component: Loganin [CPD:C01433] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs...ine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06732 Cornus fruit; Sanshuyu Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06732 Cornus fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medic

  1. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illeg

  2. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Biresh K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecules, liposome, taste-masking, oral fast- dispersing dosage forms, technology for in- soluble drugs, and delivery of drugs through intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, vaginal, colon, and transmucosal routes.

  3. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and drug administration (USFDA has approved eslicarbazepine acetate, ezogabine, perampanel and brivaracetam which have shown a promising future as better AEDs and drugs like ganaxolone, intranasal diazepam, ICA- 105665, valnoctamide, VX-765, naluzotan are in the pipeline. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 587-592

  4. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effective of health policy, and also the implementation process. With the policy development and effective health policy, rational drug uses, sufficient health service budget so a country can overcome the health problems. Besides infrastructures, regulations, distribution and cultural influences; the main obstacles for drug access is drugs affordability if the price of drugs is an important part and determined by many factors, especially the drug status whether is still patent orgenerics that significantly decrease cost of health cares and enhance the drugs affordability. The determination of essential drug prices in developing countries should based on equity principal so that poor people pay cheaper and could afford the essential drugs. WHO predicts two third of world population can not afford the essential drugs in which in developing countries, some are because of in efficient budget allocation in consequence of drug distribution management, including incorrect selection and allocation and also irrational uses. In part these could be overcome by enhancing performances on the allocation pharmacy needs, including the management of information system, inventory management, stock management and the distribution. Key words: access, drugs, essential drugs, generic drugs

  5. Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD; Tatiana F. Odegova, PhD, ScD

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary) for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generi...

  6. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2016 What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male ...

  7. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  8. Drug use first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or extreme social withdrawal. Cannabis drugs such as marijuana may cause relaxation, impaired motor skills, and increased appetite. When prescription drugs are taken in higher than normal amounts, serious side effects may occur.

  9. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  10. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... Is it safe? > Street drugs and pregnancy Street drugs and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ...

  11. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  12. Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs @ FDA Device Approvals & Clearances Biologics Products & Establishments Food & Color Additives Animal Drugs @ FDA MedWatch: Adverse Event Reporting Report a Non-Emergency For Industry: Reportable Food Registry Report an Emergency Report Suspected Criminal Activity ...

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  14. Life after Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDONGPING

    2004-01-01

    THE famous Kunming Drug Rehabilitation Center, founded in 1989, is located in the suburbs of Kunming City. Yunnan Province. It is the first drug rehabilitation center in China and the biggest in Asia.Covering 200 hectares, the center is

  15. Drug: D06911 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06911 Lilium bulb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06911 *Lilii bulbus; Lily bulb; Byakugo Drugs

  16. Drug: D06688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06688 *Scute...eal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; Scutellaria root Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; S

  17. Drug: D06718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ied) Major component: Ginsenoside [CPD:C08944 C08945] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06718 Red ginseng (JP16) Crude drugs

  18. Drug: D06680 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eaf Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drug...s 5100 Crude drugs D06680 Sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16); Powdered sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16) Crude drugs

  19. Drug: D06907 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s family) Bambusa tuldoides, Phyllostachys nigra, Phyllostachys bambusoides culm; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06907 Bamboo culm (no...nd expectorants D06907 Bambusae caulis; Phyllostachysis caulis; Tikujyo Crude drugs

  20. Drug: D06780 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06780 Crude, Drug Atractylodes rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes rhizome (JP16... drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06780 Atractylodes rhizome (JP16); Powder...pness Diuretic drugs D06780 *Atractylodes rhizome; Powdered atractylodes rhizome; Atractyloides rhizoma Drug...s for resolving dampness D06780 *Atractylodes rhizome; Powdered atractylodes rhizome; Atractyloides rhizoma

  1. Drug: D06798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D...06798 Coix seed (JP16); Powdered coix seed (JP16) 59 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...tions 590 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 5900 Other crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula

  2. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar Biresh K; Jain Devananda; Banerjee Angshu

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecule...

  3. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mottram, David R

    2012-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  4. Medicinsk forbedring: study drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Holm Sørensen, Camilla; Juul Asmussen, Melanie; Constantin, Liv; Haugtved, Claire Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates medical optimization regarding cognitive enhancement. Study drugs are performance-enhancing drugs that people use in terms of optimizing cognitive skills. The use of study drugs has turned out to have a beneficial effect when it comes to perform in stressful situations for example an examination. The purpose of our project is to analyze central arguments for and against the use of study drugs. We analyze two arguments for and three arguments that express a statem...

  5. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-01-01

    Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effec...

  6. Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generics, the origin of drugs and the breadth of therapeutic index, have been taken into account. Certain stages have been analyzed, particularly drug use in individual diseases, drug selection, expert drug evaluation, and expert recommendations to include specific drugs in the drug list. Organizational steps have been proposed to implement the rational choice of drugs to be included in the drug formulary.

  7. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users ...

  8. Drug: D06741 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :C17056] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06741 Plantago herb (JP16) Trad...itional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06741 Plantago... herb; Plantago herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D06741 Plantago herb PubChem: 47208392 ...

  9. Drug: D06707 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Apiaceae (carrot family) Notopterygium rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06707 ...rude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06707 Notopterygium rhizome Crude drugs...Notopterygium rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] C

  10. Drug: D06734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available buckthorn family) Jujube seed Major component: Zizybeoside [CPD:C17564 C17565] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06734 Jujube seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) D06734 Jujube seed PubChem: 47208385 ...

  11. Drug: D06909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available data rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06909 Aralia rhizome (JP16)... Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Antirheumatic drugs D0690...9 Araliae cardatae rhizoma; Dokkatsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D06909 Aralia rhizome PubChem: 51091251 ...

  12. Drug: D06715 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory family) Pharbitis seed Major component: Pharbitin Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06715 Pharbitis seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs... Purgative drugs D06715 Pharbitis seed; Pharbitis seed Crude drugs [B

  13. Drug: D06783 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [CPD:C14495] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06783 Poria sclerotium (JP1...6); Powdered poria sclerotium (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06783 Poria sclerotium; Powdered poria sclerotium; Hoelen Crude drugs

  14. Drug: D06723 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chi...nese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06723... Burdock fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs... pungent in flavor and cool in property D06723 Burdock fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plan

  15. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  16. Drug: D06787 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (carrot family) Saposhnikovia root Major component: Fraxidin [CPD:C17479] Therapeutic category of drugs in ...Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06787 Sapo...shnikovia root; Fangfeng Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D06787 Saposhnikovia root PubChem: 47208438 ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ...

  19. Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Pioglitazone

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yihui; Aickelin, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose a novel method to successfully detect the ADRs using feature matrix and feature selection. A feature matrix, which characterizes the medical events before patients take drugs or after patients take drugs, is created from THIN database. The feature selection method of Student's t-test is used to detect the significant features from thousands of medical events. The significant ADRs, which are corresponding to significant features, are detected. Experiments are performed...

  20. Introduction to concept of personal drugs, essential drug list and awareness of cost of drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Indla; Thangam Chinnathambi; Regina Roy; Alice Kuruvilla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate medical students acquire knowledge about use of drugs during teaching sessions related to prescription of drugs. Appropriate selection of drugs from the available list of numerous formulations requires skill. This can be imparted using the concept of personal drugs (P-drugs). Knowledge of the price of drugs is important consideration in selection of drug. This paper describes method of introducing medical student to the concept of P-drugs, essential drug list (ED lis...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain ... and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are ...

  8. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma Alimta (Pemetrexed Disodium) Pemetrexed Disodium Drug Combinations Used ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drug: D06794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06794 Akebia stem; Akebiae caulis Crude drugs...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06794 Akebia stem (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  11. Drug: D09520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nensis carapace; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D09520 A

  12. Drug: D06709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Lycium mature fruit Major component: Betaine [CPD:C00719] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06709 Lycium fruit Crude drugs

  13. Drug: D09127 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D09127 Scrophularia root; Ningpo figwort root Crude dr

  14. Drug: D06703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppr...essants and expectorants D06703 *Platycodon root; Powdered platycodon root; Platycodon root Drugs for pus discharge Drugs

  15. Drug: D06761 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06761 Anemarrhena rhizome; Ane... Crude drugs D06761 Anemarrhena rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Ja

  16. Drug: D06750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06750 Toad venom Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Amphibians D06750 Toad venom PubChem: 47208401 ...

  17. Drug: D06686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06686 Crude, Drug Corydalis tuber (JP16); Powdered corydalis tuber (JP16); Corydal...ude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06686 Corydalis tuber (JP16); Powdered corydalis tuber (JP16) Tr

  18. Drug: D06751 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06751 Crude, Drug Senna leaf (JP16); Powdered senna leaf (JP16); Senna (TN) Kaempf... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06751 Senna leaf (JP16); Powder

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  1. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug abuse ...

  3. Drug: D08761 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tegory: 4300 ATC code: V09GA06 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08

  4. Drug: D08766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08766 Sodium phytate hydrate - technetium (99mTc)

  5. Drug: D08765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 4300 ATC code: V09BA03 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  6. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  8. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. Serious drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J

    1993-10-01

    Of the many varieties of drug interactions, which occur when the disposition or actions of one drug are changed by another, only a few are serious or potentially fatal. A representative outline of some of these illustrates the problem. Precipitant drugs are those which produce the interaction, and object drugs are those whose effects are changed. The interactions which are usually significant are those which alter the metabolism, involve renal excretion, or change the effects of the object drug, especially when the object drug has a low therapeutic index (cardiovascular drugs, anticoagulants, drugs acting on the brain, hypoglycemic drugs, hormones, and cytotoxic drugs). Warfarin toxicity, for example, is produced by aspirin, phenylbutazone, and azapropazone. The dosage requirements of warfarin are reduced by chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, erythromycin and some of the other macrolides, metronidazole and other imidazoles, tetracyclines, amiodarone, cimetidine (but not ranitidine), and fibrates. Potassium-depleting drugs can potentiate the action of digoxin, and the elimination of digoxin can be reduced by amiodarone, propafenone, quinidine, and verapamil. Combined oral contraceptives can lose effectiveness through the interaction of carbamazepine, griseofulvin, phenytoin, or rifampicin, which increase estrogen metabolism. In addition, broad-spectrum antibiotics such as ampicillin or tetracyclines also reduce contraceptive effectiveness by altering gut absorption. Even a single drink of an alcoholic beverage may be dangerous to people taking antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, or lithium. Antihistamines suffer inhibited metabolism in the liver if taken in conjunction with the antifungal imidazoles and some of the macrolide antibiotics. Cardiotoxicity of antihistamines is also enhanced by drugs with similar cardiotoxic effects. Lithium potentiation is enhanced by the new serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, and lithium

  14. Drug: D06744 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06744 Crude, Drug Ginger (JP16); Powdered ginger (JP16); Ginger (TN) Zingiberene [...de drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06744 Ginger (JP16); Powdered ginger (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...property D06744 *Ginger; Powdered ginger; Ginger Stomachic and antidiarrheal drug...s Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06744 *Ginger; Powdered ginger; Ginger Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) D06744 Ginger PubChem: 47208395 ...

  15. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  16. Drug-induced hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Badreddine, Atef; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Hmouda, Houssem

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common clinical condition that can be defined as a serum potassium concentration exceeding 5.0 mmol/L. Drug-induced hyperkalemia is the most important cause of increased potassium levels in everyday clinical practice. Drug-induced hyperkalemia may be asymptomatic. However, it may be dramatic and life threatening, posing diagnostic and management problems. A wide range of drugs can cause hyperkalemia by a variety of mechanisms. Drugs can interfere with potassium homoeostasis either by promoting transcellular potassium shift or by impairing renal potassium excretion. Drugs may also increase potassium supply. The reduction in renal potassium excretion due to inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system represents the most important mechanism by which drugs are known to cause hyperkalemia. Medications that alter transmembrane potassium movement include amino acids, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, suxamethonium, and mannitol. Drugs that impair renal potassium excretion are mainly represented by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcineurin inhibitors, heparin and derivatives, aldosterone antagonists, potassium-sparing diuretics, trimethoprim, and pentamidine. Potassium-containing agents represent another group of medications causing hyperkalemia. Increased awareness of drugs that can induce hyperkalemia, and monitoring and prevention are key elements for reducing the number of hospital admissions, morbidity, and mortality related to drug-induced hyperkalemia.

  17. Drug: D06760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Chikusetsusaponin [CPD:C17539 C17540 C17543 C17544 C17545] Therapeutic category of drugs i...n Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06760 Panax rhizome (JP16); Powdered panax rhizome (JP16) Crude drugs [

  18. Drug: D06730 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bin [CPD:C17449] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06730 Smilax rhizome (J...izome; Smilax rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Smilacaceae (catbrier famly) D06730 Smilax rhizome PubChem: 47208381 ...

  19. Drug: D04360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raniaceae (geranium family) Geranium thunbergii aerial part Major component: Geraniin [CPD:C10230] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04360 Geranium herb (JP16); Powdered geranium herb (JP16) Crude drugs

  20. Drug: D01728 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Calcium sulfate [DR:D09201] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0172... for clearing heat D01728 Gypsum; Calcium sulfate; Gypsum fibrosum Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals D01728 Gypsum PubChem: 7848791 ...

  1. Drug: D06725 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e [CPD:C05315] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06725 Calumba (JP16); Pow...dered calumba (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Menispermaceae (moonseed family) D06725 Calumba PubChem: 47208376 ...

  2. Drug: D06691 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or component: Prunellin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06691 Prunella s... clearing heat D06691 Prunella spike; Prunella spike Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dic

  3. Drug: D06716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ae (gentian family) Gentiana lutea root and rhizome Major component: Gentiopicrin [CPD:C09782] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06716 Gentian (JP16); Powdered gentian (JP16) Crude drugs

  4. Drug: D06777 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ent: Imperatorin [CPD:C09269] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06777 Glehnia root (JP16) Crude dru...gs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D06777 Glehnia root PubChem: 47208428 ...

  5. Drug: D06683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06683 Crude, Drug Fennel (JP16); Powdered fennel (JP16); Fennel (TN) Anethole [CPD... drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06683 Fennel (JP16); Powdered fennel (JP16) Traditional ...Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06683 Fennel; Powde

  6. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  7. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  8. ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ingole Rajesh.Kundlikrao

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda the Indian traditional Medical science uses many drugs for diseases derived from medicinal plants, Minerals, herbo mineral. Diabetes (Madhumeha) is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. This review focuses on Ayurvedic drugs like plants, minerals in single or compound form in various research institutes and articles. A list of Ayurvedic drugs having antidiabetic and related beneficial in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These ...

  9. Psychotropic Drugs and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Lúcia Moreira; Melinda Carmen Godinho Pereira; Diogo Telles-Correia

    2014-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disor- ders like psychosis, depression and anxiety. Psychiatric comorbidities may interfere with adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are essential. However, the administration of a psychotropic drug to HAART therapy can result in drug interactions.Objectives: This review aims to analyze the various psychotropic drugs that can be used in these patients, as well as ...

  10. Pharmacology and drug distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.

    1979-08-01

    An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.

  11. Metallomics in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi Nhu Tam; Ostergaard, Jesper; Stürup, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    to plasma constituents in plasma samples. It was demonstrated that this approach is suitable for studies of the stability of liposome formulations as leakage of active drug from the liposomes and subsequent binding to biomolecules in plasma can be monitored. This methodology has not been reported before......A capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for separation of free cisplatin from liposome-encapsulated cisplatin and protein-bound cisplatin was developed. A liposomal formulation of cisplatin based on PEGylated liposomes was used as model drug formulation...... and will improve characterization of liposomal drugs during drug development and in studies on kinetics....

  12. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  13. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  14. Drug-drug co-crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Singh Sekhon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs are most conveniently developed and delivered orally as solid dosage forms that contain a defined crystalline form of an API. Co-crystal is a crystalline entity formed by two different or more molecular entities where the intermolecular interactions are weak forces like hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking. Co-crystals are an enabling technology that is used in new or existing drug delivery systems by majority of pharmaceutical companies in formulation and drug development.

  15. Drug: D06743 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06743 Crude, Drug Amomum seed (JP16); Powdered amomum seed (JP16); Amomum seed (TN...rneol [CPD:C01411] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude dr...ugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06743 Amomum seed (JP...16); Powdered amomum seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Dr...ugs for resolving dampness D06743 Amomum seed; Powdered amomum seed; Amomum seed Crude drugs [BR:br

  16. Drug: D06785 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available menium stem and rhizome Major component: Sinomenine [CPD:C09643] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06785 Sinomenium ste...m (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D0...6785 Sinomenium stem; Fangji Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Menispermaceae (moonseed family) D06785 Sinomenium stem PubChem: 47208436 ...

  17. Drug: D06721 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available attle family) Oriental bezoar Major component: Bile acid [CPD:C01558] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06721 Oriental ...bezoar (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Drugs for resuscita...tion D06721 Oriental bezoar Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06721 Oriental bezoar PubChem: 47208372 ...

  18. Drug: D06906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ri, or other related species larval exuvia; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...n Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property ...D06906 Cicadae periostracum; Cicada slough; Zentai Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D06906 Cicada larva exuvia PubChem: 51091248 ...

  19. Drug: D06755 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dehyde [CPD:C02576] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drug...s 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06755 Perilla herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pun...gent in flavor and warm in property D06755 Perilla herb; Perilla herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) D06755 Perilla herb PubChem: 47208406 ...

  20. Drug: D06791 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available family) Ephedra stem Major component: Ephedrine [CPD:C01575] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06791 Ephedra herb (JP16...) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent... in flavor and warm in property D06791 Ephedra herb; Ephedrae Herba Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Naked-seed plants Ephedraceae (ephedra family) D06791 Ephedra herb PubChem: 47208442 ...

  1. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  2. Drug: D04365 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s D04365 Glycyrrhiza (JP16); Powdered glycyrrhiza (JP16); Licorice (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drug...rrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for Qi Drugs for replen...ishing Qi D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for... pus discharge D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for external use Drugs

  3. Drug: D06774 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rds for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and... Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...ss Cough suppressants and expectorants D06774 Fritillaria bulb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) D06774 Fritillaria bulb PubChem: 47208425 ...

  4. Drug: D06896 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory: 5100 Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) Trichosanthes seed; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs M...ajor component: Trichosanic acid [CPD:C08364] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06896 Trichosanthis semen; Karonin Crude drugs [BR:br0830

  5. Dimensions of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  6. Ayurvedic drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Premalatha; Govindarajan, Rajgopal

    2007-12-01

    Ayurveda is a major traditional system of Indian medicine that is still being successfully used in many countries. Recapitulation and adaptation of the older science to modern drug discovery processes can bring renewed interest to the pharmaceutical world and offer unique therapeutic solutions for a wide range of human disorders. Eventhough time-tested evidences vouch immense therapeutic benefits for ayurvedic herbs and formulations, several important issues are required to be resolved for successful implementation of ayurvedic principles to present drug discovery methodologies. Additionally, clinical examination in the extent of efficacy, safety and drug interactions of newly developed ayurvedic drugs and formulations are required to be carefully evaluated. Ayurvedic experts suggest a reverse-pharmacology approach focusing on the potential targets for which ayurvedic herbs and herbal products could bring tremendous leads to ayurvedic drug discovery. Although several novel leads and drug molecules have already been discovered from ayurvedic medicinal herbs, further scientific explorations in this arena along with customization of present technologies to ayurvedic drug manufacturing principles would greatly facilitate a standardized ayurvedic drug discovery.

  7. Newer antithrombotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Pranav; Bindra, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Thromboembolic disorders are one of the disorders for which we are still on the look out for a safe and efficient drug. Despite the widespread use of antithrombotic drugs for the prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thrombosis, thromboembolic diseases continue to be a major cause of death and disability worldwide. This shows our inefficiency in searching efficacious and safe antithrombotic drugs. We have reached the basic mechanism of thrombus formation and by interrupting various steps of this mechanism, we can prevent as well as treat thromboembolic disorders. In continuation of Aspirin, now, we are using Clopidogrel, Ticlopidine and GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors (Abciximab, Tirofiban and Eptifibatide). Warfarin is an old antithrombotic drug which is still being used; but due to various side effects and drug interactions, we are bound to use newer drugs. Newer antiplatelet drugs include Prasugrel, Ticagrelor and Cangrelor, whereas newer thrombin inhibitors are Ximelgatran and Dabigatran. Apixaban is also a newer entry in this category as factor Xa inhibitor. Idrabiotaparinux is an indirect inhibitor of Xa as it accelerates the activity of antithrombin. Moreover, researches and trials for better and safe drugs are ongoing. PMID:21572750

  8. Taking Current Antiretroviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... INHIBITORS INTEGRASE INHIBITORS 1. NUCLEOSIDE AND NUCLEOTIDE ANALOG REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (NUKES) DRUG DAILY PILLS (ADULTS) HOW TO TAKE & ... Don't combine with d4T. 2. NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS** (NNRTIs or NON-NUKES) DRUG DAILY PILLS (Adults)* ...

  9. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  10. Drug-induced lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Robert L

    2005-04-15

    Autoantibodies and, less commonly, systemic rheumatic symptoms are associated with treatment with numerous medications and other types of ingested compounds. Distinct syndromes can be distinguished, based on clinical and laboratory features, as well as exposure history. Drug-induced lupus has been reported as a side-effect of long-term therapy with over 40 medications. Its clinical and laboratory features are similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, except that patients fully recover after the offending medication is discontinued. This syndrome differs from typical drug hypersensitivity reactions in that drug-specific T-cells or antibodies are not involved in induction of autoimmunity, it usually requires many months to years of drug exposure, is drug dose-dependent and generally does not result in immune sensitization to the drug. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that oxidative metabolites of the parent compound trigger autoimmunity. Several mechanisms for induction of autoimmunity will be discussed, including bystander activation of autoreactive lymphocytes due to drug-specific immunity or to non-specific activation of lymphocytes, direct cytotoxicity with release of autoantigens and disruption of central T-cell tolerance. The latter hypothesis will be supported by a mouse model in which a reactive metabolite of procainamide introduced into the thymus results in lupus-like autoantibody induction. These findings, as well as evidence for thymic function in drug-induced lupus patients, support the concept that abnormalities during T-cell selection in the thymus initiate autoimmunity.

  11. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred...... on efforts to create a sense of normalcy of family life, involving keeping drug use secret from children, and investing heavily in strategies to maintain ambiguity regarding children's awareness. Our analysis highlights that damage limitation strategies double-up in accounts as resources of child protection...

  12. Computational drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-sheng OU-YANG; Jun-yan LU; Xiang-qian KONG; Zhong-jie LIANG; Cheng LUO; Hualiang JIANG

    2012-01-01

    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process.Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information,the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow,including target identification and validation,lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests.Over the past decades,computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking,pharmacophore modeling and mapping,de novo design,molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved.In this review,we present an overview of these important computational methods,platforms and successful applications in this field.

  13. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  14. Drug: D06763 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 5100 Polyporaceae (Polypore) Polyporus sclerotium Major component: Ergosterol [CPD:C01694] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06763 Polyporus sclerotium (JP16); Powdered pol...yporus sclerotium (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06763 Polyporus sclerotium; Powdered polyporus sclerotium; Chuling Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Fungi Basidiomycetes D06763 Polyporus sclerotium PubChem: 47208414 ...

  15. Drug: D06793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mp fruit Major component: Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs Purgative drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Cannabaceae (hop family) D06793 Hemp fruit PubChem: 47208444 ...

  16. Drug: D06693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5100 Fabaceae (pea family) Pueraria root Major component: Puerarin [CPD:C10524] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D06693 Puer...aria root; Pueraria root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) D06693 Pueraria root PubChem: 47208344 ...

  17. Drug: D06790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available herapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medi...cine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06790 Oyster shell (JP16); Powdered oyste...r shell (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D0...6790 Oyster shell; Powdered oyster shell; Oyster shell Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mollusks D06790 Oyster shell PubChem: 47208441 ... ...: E00159 Therapeutic category: 5100 Osteridae Oyster shell Major component: Calcium carbonate [CPD:C08129] T

  18. Drug: D05525 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antain family) Plantago mature seed (dried) Major component: Aucubin [CPD:C09771] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D05525 Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (AT...Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D05525 Plantago seed; Ispaghula; Plantago seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D05525 Plantago seed PubChem: 17398302 ...

  19. Drug: D06786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt: Cylindrin [CPD:C17534] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese med...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06786 Imperat...a rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Hemostatic drugs... D06786 Imperata rhizome; Imperatae rhizoma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) D06786 Imperata rhizome PubChem: 47208437 ...

  20. Drug: D06738 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mponent: Kaempferol [CPD:C05903] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chine...se medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06738 Tribulus fruit (JP16) Tradit...ional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06738 Tribulus fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Zygophyllaceae (creosote-bush family) D06738 Tribulus fruit PubChem: 47208389 ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Off-Label Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  4. Drug: D06892 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Yi...ng D06892 *Asini corii collas; Ass-hide glue; Donkey-hide glue; Akyo; Gelatin Drugs for blood Drugs for repl...dae Equus asinus hide glue; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  5. Drug: D06727 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5100 Crude drugs D06727 Bupleurum root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06727 Bupleurum root; Bupleurum root Crude drugs [BR:br083

  6. Drug: D06739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing bl...ood D06739 *Peony root; Powdered peony root; Peony root Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D067

  7. Drug: D06748 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6748 Cnidium rhizome (JP16); Powdered cnidium rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06748 *Cnidium rhizome; Powdered cnidium rhizome; Cnidii rhizoma Dru...gs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06748 *Cni

  8. Drug: D06740 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Dru...gs for external use Drugs for external use D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Crude dru

  9. Drug: D00092 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (JP16); Powdered coptis rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... rhizome; Powdered coptis rhizome; Coptis rhizome Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D00092 *Copt

  10. Drug: D06710 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ); Powdered sophora root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... for clearing heat D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; Sophora root Drugs... for external use Drugs for external use D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; Sopho

  11. Drug: D07152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ssed aconite root See [DR:D06784] (Fibrous root) Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07152 Processed aconite root PubChem: 51091491 ...

  12. Drug: D06910 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hordeum vulgare seed Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06910 Malt (JP16) PubChem: 51091252 ...

  13. Drug: D06903 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available heaceae (tea family) Tea leaf Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese ...medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06903 Theae folium PubChem: 51091245 ...

  14. Drug: D06771 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06771 Crude, Drug Picrasma wood (JP16); Powdered picrasma wood (JP16); Japanase qu...cine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06771 Picrasma wood (JP16); Powdered picr...3AX04 Quassia D06771 Picrasma wood (JP16); Powdered picrasma wood (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plan

  15. Drug: D03374 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03374 Crude, Drug Capsicum (JP16/USP); Powdered capsicum (JP16); Capsicum (TN) Cap...5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D03374 Capsicum (JP16/USP); Powder

  16. Drug: D04385 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04385 Crude, Drug Swertia herb (JP16); Powdered swertia herb (JP16); Swertia (TN) ...nts D04385 Swertia herb (JP16); Powdered swertia herb (JP16) 5 Crude drugs and Ch...inese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04385 Swertia herb (JP16); Powder

  17. Drug: D06800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06800 Crude, Drug Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16); Genti...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06800 Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16) Traditional Chinese Med...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06800 Japanese gentian; Powdered japanese

  18. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  2. Benzylpiperazine: "A messy drug".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D P; Deruiter, J; Bhattacharya, D; Ahuja, M; Bhattacharya, S; Clark, C R; Suppiramaniam, V; Dhanasekaran, M

    2016-07-01

    Designer drugs are synthetic structural analogues/congeners of controlled substances with slightly modified chemical structures intended to mimic the pharmacological effects of known drugs of abuse so as to evade drug classification. Benzylpiperazine (BZP), a piperazine derivative, elevates synaptic dopamine and serotonin levels producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects, respectively, similar to the well-known drug of abuse, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Furthermore, BZP augments the release of norepinephrine by inhibiting presynaptic autoreceptors, therefore, BZP is a "messy drug" due to its multifaceted regulation of synaptic monoamine neurotransmitters. Initially, pharmaceutical companies used BZP as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of various disease states, but due to its contraindications and abuse potential it was withdrawn from the market. BZP imparts predominately sympathomimetic effects accompanied by serious cardiovascular implications. Addictive properties of BZP include behavioral sensitization, cross sensitization, conditioned place preference and repeated self-administration. Additional testing of piperazine derived drugs is needed due to a scarcity of toxicological data and widely abuse worldwide. PMID:27207154

  3. Anti-Microtubule Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Stefan; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule drugs that target microtubules (MTs), many of them natural products, have long been important tools in the MT field. Indeed, tubulin (Tb) was discovered, in part, as the protein binding partner of colchicine. Several anti-MT drug classes also have important medical uses, notably colchicine, which is used to treat gout, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and pericarditis, and the vinca alkaloids and taxanes, which are used to treat cancer. Anti-MT drugs have in common that they bind specifically to Tb in the dimer, MT or some other form. However, their effects on polymerization dynamics and on the human body differ markedly. Here we briefly review the most-studied molecules, and comment on their uses in basic research and medicine. Our focus is on practical applications of different anti-MT drugs in the laboratory, and key points that users should be aware of when designing experiments. We also touch on interesting unsolved problems, particularly in the area of medical applications. In our opinion, the mechanism by which any MT drug cures or treats any disease is still unsolved, despite decades of research. Solving this problem for particular drug-disease combinations might open new uses for old drugs, or provide insights into novel routes for treatment. PMID:27193863

  4. Teratogenic drugs and their drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, M R; Li, L; Shon, J; Bashaw, E D; Kim, M-J

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for Industry-Drug Interaction Studies, recommends that a potential human teratogen needs to be studied in vivo for effects on contraceptive steroids.(1) This article highlights the need to evaluate the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between drugs with teratogenic potential and hormonal contraceptives (HCs) during drug development. It also addresses the FDA's effort of communicating DDI findings in product labels to mitigate the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:27090193

  5. Drug-drug co-crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder Singh Sekhon

    2012-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are most conveniently developed and delivered orally as solid dosage forms that contain a defined crystalline form of an API. Co-crystal is a crystalline entity formed by two different or more molecular entities where the intermolecular interactions are weak forces like hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking. Co-crystals are an enabling technology that is used in new or existing drug delivery systems by majority of pharmaceutical companies in formulation ...

  6. ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole Rajesh Kundlikrao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda the Indian traditional Medical science uses many drugs for diseases derived from medicinal plants, Minerals, herbo mineral. Diabetes (Madhumeha is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. This review focuses on Ayurvedic drugs like plants, minerals in single or compound form in various research institutes and articles. A list of Ayurvedic drugs having antidiabetic and related beneficial in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Trivanga Bhasma, Triphala Churna, Terminalia chebula, Nimbapatra, Ashvattha, Acacia arabica, Mangifera indica, Eugenia jambolana, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Tinospora cordifolia etc.

  7. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin (Chlorambucil) Becenum ( ...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. Drug: D07817 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Diclofenac D07817 Diclofenac diethylamine Anti-infl...ammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Diclofenac D07817 Diclofenac d

  10. Drug: D08102 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs... Ketoprofen D08102 Ketoprofen lysine Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ketoprofe

  11. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) Afinitor (Everolimus) ...

  12. Drug: D06722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 722 Achyranthes root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06722 Achyranthes root; Achyranthese root Crude d

  13. Drug: D06754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06...5 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] Traditional Chinese Medicine in J

  14. Drug: D06801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ly) Alpinia Officinarum Rhizome Major component: Cineole [CPD:C09844] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06801 Alpinia offcin

  15. Drug: D08546 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ISM A02 DRUGS FOR ACID RELATED DISORDERS A02B DRUGS FOR PEPTIC ULCER AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (...GORD) A02BX Other drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (G

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  17. No more free drug samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chimonas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan Chimonas and Jerome Kassirer argue that giving out "free" drug samples is not effective in improving drug access for the indigent, does not promote rational drug use, and raises the cost of care.

  18. No more free drug samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Chimonas; Kassirer, Jerome P.

    2009-01-01

    Susan Chimonas and Jerome Kassirer argue that giving out “free” drug samples is not effective in improving drug access for the indigent, does not promote rational drug use, and raises the cost of care.

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is treatment, but no cure, ...

  1. Drug: D06905 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06905 Crude, Drug Peucedanum root (JP16); Peucedani radix; Zenko (Pd-Ia, II,III, I... Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06905 *Peucedani radix; Hogfennel root;

  2. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Cosmegen (Dactinomycin) Dactinomycin Denosumab Doxorubicin Hydrochloride ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter ... research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between drug abuse and HIV and ...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis ( ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  8. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  9. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pancreatic cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  10. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  11. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Medicare forms Advance directives & long-term care Electronic prescribing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) Download claims with Medicare’s Blue ... or needed a prescription drug and this created waste and unnecessary additional costs for people with Medicare ...

  12. Drug treatment of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, D; Gotto, A M

    1976-03-01

    The most frequent indication for treatment of hyperlipidemia is for prevention of arteriosclerosis, a suspected but unproved benefit. The cornerstone of treatment of primary hyperlipidemia is diet; drugs may be added to, but do not replace, diet. When a drug is used with any patient, its potential benefits and hazards must be carefully weighed for the given subject. The subjects should be carefully followed and observed for side effects. Plasma lipids should be monitored during the course of treatment. Five drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: cholestyramine, clofibrate, nicotinic acid, sodium dextrothyroxine and beta-sitosterol. The use, the actions and the side effects of each and of several nonapproved agents are discussed.

  13. Professional thieves and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, J A; Russe, B R

    1977-12-01

    The "professional thief" is a highly specialized predatory offender with a history that dates back to Elizabethan England. Although this type of criminal is generally associated with narcotic addiction, his drug-taking typically involved the use of heroin, morphine, and cocaine on an intermittent basis. However, trafficking in drugs was common to the "professional" underworld, and as a result this deviant fraternity had a notable impact on the impressment of a criminal model of drug use on twentieth century conceptions of the addict. The concept of "professional" theft is reviewed, the use of drugs by professional thieves is discussed, and the interaction between this underworld group and the early Federal Bureau of Narcotics is examined.

  14. Treating Prescription Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & ... Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...

  15. The drug swindlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M; Lydecker, M; Lee, P R

    1990-01-01

    In a number of important developing nations--among them Indonesia, India, and Brazil--clinical pharmacologists and other drug experts are revealing mounting concern over the marketing of fraudulent drug products. These are shaped, colored, flavored, marked, and packaged to mimic the real product. They may contain the actual antibiotic or other drug indicated on the label, but so "cut" that the product provides only a small fraction of the labeled amount, or they may contain only useless flour or starch. At best, they are worthless. At the worst, they can kill. In most instances, it is believed that these "drugs" are produced and marketed by local or domestic fly-by-night groups and not by multinational pharmaceutical firms. Blame for these practices is placed on inadequate or unenforced laws, only trivial punishments, bribery and corruption, and the fact that generally "nobody inspects the inspectors."

  16. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  17. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising: Questions to Ask Yourself Sample Prescription Drug Advertisements Give Us Feedback Resources for You Report a ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Drugs in breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  19. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea associated with medicines ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  20. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains ...

  1. The drug swindlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M; Lydecker, M; Lee, P R

    1990-01-01

    In a number of important developing nations--among them Indonesia, India, and Brazil--clinical pharmacologists and other drug experts are revealing mounting concern over the marketing of fraudulent drug products. These are shaped, colored, flavored, marked, and packaged to mimic the real product. They may contain the actual antibiotic or other drug indicated on the label, but so "cut" that the product provides only a small fraction of the labeled amount, or they may contain only useless flour or starch. At best, they are worthless. At the worst, they can kill. In most instances, it is believed that these "drugs" are produced and marketed by local or domestic fly-by-night groups and not by multinational pharmaceutical firms. Blame for these practices is placed on inadequate or unenforced laws, only trivial punishments, bribery and corruption, and the fact that generally "nobody inspects the inspectors." PMID:2265874

  2. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  3. Medicare Drug Spending Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As part of its effort to provide additional information, increase transparency, and address the affordability of prescription drugs, CMS is releasing a new online...

  4. Analysis of Street Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stuart H.; Bhatt, Sudhir

    1972-01-01

    A study of the content of street drugs available to a college campus and a community is presented. Emphasis is given to the adulterants and substitutions encountered in the illicit preparations. (Author)

  5. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome (Dacarbazine) IL-2 (Aldesleukin) Imlygic (Talimogene Laherparepvec) Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin) Intron A ( ...

  6. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  7. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substances Act DEA Museum and Visitors Center Doing Business with DEA Drug Disposal Employee Assistance Program Extortion Scam Alert For Victims of Crime How do I...? National Clandestine Laboratory Register Registration ...

  8. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  9. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  10. Drug: D06705 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eeper family) Catalpa fruit Major component: Catalposide [CPD:C09775] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06705 Catalpa fruit (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Bignoniaceae (trumpet-creeper family) D06705 Catalpa fruit PubChem: 47208356 ...

  11. Drug: D01033 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th stem exudation Major component: Tragacanthic acid Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01033 Tragacan...th (JP16/NF); Powdered tragacanth (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) D01033 Tragacanth PubChem: 7848096 ...

  12. Drug: D06778 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Araceae (arum family) Pinellia tuber Major component: Homogentisic acid [CPD:C00544] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06778 Pinellia tuber (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...llia tuber; Pineliae tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) D06778 Pinellia tuber PubChem: 47208429 ...

  13. Drug abuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  14. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that caused the condition. Treatment may include: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat arthritis and pleurisy Corticosteroid creams to treat skin rashes Antimalarial drugs (hydroxychloroquine) to ...

  15. Drug: D06759 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medic...ine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06759 Alisma rhizome (JP16); Powdered alis...ma rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D06759 Alisma rhizome; Powdered alisma rhizome; Alisma rhizome Crude drugs...Alismataceae (water-plantain family) Thrumwort rhizome Major component: Alisol [CPD:C17459 C17460 C17461] Therapeutic category of dru

  16. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  17. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual social aims as well as competitive situations. Association of Differentiation Theory claims that drug use behavior is a learned behavior and the first learning occurs in a friendly small group (i.e. youngsters. Social Control theory believes that one can predict normal and abnormal behaviors through the rate of individuals' social commitments. Internal and external controls also determine commitment rate. Micro-cultural theory considers drug use as a compatibility with abnormal micro-culture rules. Symbolic Mutual Action Believes that the etiquettes which society attribute to individuals/behaviors determine their acquired social reactions rather than any inherited acquisition.

  18. Drug abuse in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  19. Extracting drug-enzyme relation from literature as evidence for drug drug interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Heng-Yi; Du, Jingcheng; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Li, Lang; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Information about drug–drug interactions (DDIs) is crucial for computational applications such as pharmacovigilance and drug repurposing. However, existing sources of DDIs have the problems of low coverage, low accuracy and low agreement. One common type of DDIs is related to the mechanism of drug metabolism: a DDI relation may be caused by different interactions (e.g., substrate, inhibit) between drugs and enzymes in the drug metabolism process. Thus, information from drug enzyme ...

  20. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  1. Definition and classification of drug addiction and drug misuse issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author points out conceptual and terminological inconsistency of drug vocabulary and influence of value and moralistic elements. Most illustrative example for this represents term narcomany, which is still widely used by domestic authors to refer to drug use, in spite of its obvious insufficiency and impreciseness. Similar case is with terms toxicomany, habituation and addiction. Drug classification issue has been also analyzed in totality of viewing of drug use as a social and individual phenomenon. Author emphasizes that optimal strategy of drug control have to aim to differentiated approach to specific drugs, but also points out to unjustified referring to any drug as "soft" or harmless.

  2. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: Implications for drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan S Dsouza

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades...

  3. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades...

  4. Drugs and taste aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug.

  5. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Timshina, Dependra K; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), viz., phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins. PMID:21220873

  6. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  7. Psychotropic Drugs and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Lúcia Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disor- ders like psychosis, depression and anxiety. Psychiatric comorbidities may interfere with adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are essential. However, the administration of a psychotropic drug to HAART therapy can result in drug interactions.Objectives: This review aims to analyze the various psychotropic drugs that can be used in these patients, as well as the interactions and adverse reactions that may occur. Methods: A MEDLINE search on anglo-saxonic literature was conducted, from 1993 until 2011, using the key-words: HIV, AIDS, psychosis, depression, anxiety, secondary mania, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, HAART. Results: We found 100 articles, of which 66 were included and 34 excluded. The articles that showed no specific data on the use of psychotropic drugs in HIV patients were excluded. Discussion: Pharmachologic interactions may occur by occupation of the same metabolic pathways. Further research is needed with indications for best practices. Psychotherapeutic interventions should be considered. Conclusion: The choice of the therapeutic intervention, namely when considering psychotropic drugs with the lowest number of interactions and adverse effects is crucial in order to achieve therapeutic success in the treatment of HIV infected patients.

  8. Drug development and immunotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SugiY; IzumM

    2002-01-01

    Immunotoxicity of drugs has to be evaluated same as other kinds of toxicities,since the functions of the immune system are vital to human survival,consisting of the protection of the body from invading pathogens and to provide immune surveillance against arising tumor cells.A given drug's effect on the immune system can be classified as (1)immuno-suppression/activation.(2)antigenicity and hypersensitivity,(3)autoimmunity.The guidance of immumotoxicity has highlighted on immuno-suppression in Harmonizing Congress among EC,USA and Japan.In this paper,the strategy and methods to evaluate immunotoxicity,mainly immuno-suppression,of the drugs will be show.complexity and variety of immuno-systems make assessment of immumotoxicity complex.The testing in rats to assess immune function is thought to be the first choice for immunotoxicity evaluation in a drug development,and then other suitable testing should be added depending on the mature of drugs.

  9. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  10. Drug: D06042 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06042 Drug Human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid technetium (99m... drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D06042 Human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaaceti...2 Human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) injection (JAN); Technetium Tc

  11. Drug: D07154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07154 Persimmon calyx (non-JP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D07154 Kaki calyx Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ebenaceae (ebony family) D07154 Kaki calyx PubChem: 51091493 ...

  12. Drug: D06696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (laurel family) Lindera root Major component: Linderol [CPD:C01766] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06696 Lindera root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Ot

  13. Drug: D06746 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in prope...rty D06746 Magnolia flower Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Other flowering plants Magnoliaceae (magnolia family) D06746 Magnolia flower PubChem: 47208397 ...

  14. Drug: D08757 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Neurolite (TN) C12H21N2O5S2. Tc. 433.9956 436.3417 Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  15. Drug: D08760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:...br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs... 4300 Radioactive drugs D08760 Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid - diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) mixt PubChem: 96025443 ...

  16. Drug: D08764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs... 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08764 Technetium (99mTc) hydroxymethylene diphosphonate PubChem: 96025447 ...

  17. Drug: D02107 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Indiclor (TN) InCl3 219.8104 221.177 D02107.gif Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs... 4300 Radioactive drugs D02107 Indium (111In) chloride injection (JP16);

  18. Drug: D08758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs... 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08758 Technetium (99mTc) N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan PubChem: 96025441 ...

  19. Drug: D08767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cetylglycylglycylglycine technetium (99mTc) Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japa...n [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs... 4300 Radioactive drugs D08767 Benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine - mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine technetium (99mTc) mixt PubChem: 96025450 ...

  20. Drug: D06752 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06752 Crude, Drug Atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes lancea...D06752 Atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06752 *Atractylodes lancea rhizome; Powder...Atractylodes lancea rhizome; Powdered atractylodes lancea rhizome; Atractylodis l

  1. Neurocognitive Predictors of Drug Relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Marhe (Reshmi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, about 35 million people, that is 0.8% of the world’s adult population, use heroin and/or cocaine and more than 10-13% of these drug users are or will become drug dependent (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2012). Drug dependency is characterized as a chronic relapsing disorder (Leshn

  2. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic and brand names. This page also lists common drug combinations used in lung ...

  3. Drug: D02006 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ron (TN) SrCl2 158.8452 158.526 D02006.gif Antineoplastic; Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC ...code: V10BX01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D02006 Strontium (89

  4. Drug: D06339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06339 Drug Xenon Xe 133 (JAN/USP/INN); Xenon (133Xe); Xenon Xe 133 (TN) Xe 132.9059 131.293 D06339.gif Radi...gory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radio

  5. Drug: D05189 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Meditec (TN) TcO4. Na 185.8757 185.8936 D05189.gif Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V...09FX01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D05189 Sodium pertechnetate

  6. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  7. Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Qiu, Chengxiang; Cui, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Some databases for drug-associated pathways have been built and are publicly available. However, the pathways curated in most of these databases are drug-action or drug-metabolism pathways. In recent years, high-throughput technologies such as microarray and RNA-sequencing have produced lots of drug-induced gene expression profiles. Interestingly, drug-induced gene expression profile frequently show distinct patterns, indicating that drugs normally induce the activation or repression of distinct pathways. Therefore, these pathways contribute to study the mechanisms of drugs and drug-repurposing. Here, we present Drug-Path, a database of drug-induced pathways, which was generated by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for drug-induced upregulated genes and downregulated genes based on drug-induced gene expression datasets in Connectivity Map. Drug-Path provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize and download the drug-induced pathway data in the database. In addition, the genes deregulated by a given drug are highlighted in the pathways. All data were organized using SQLite. The web site was implemented using Django, a Python web framework. Finally, we believe that this database will be useful for related researches. PMID:26130661

  8. Drug: D06779 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06779 Crude, Drug Angelica dahurica root (JP16); Angelica dahuricae radix (TN) Bya...PD:C10451], Caryophyllene [CPD:C09629], Ligustilide [CPD:C16987], Osthol [CPD:C09280], Isoimperatorin [CPD:C16976] Angelica... dahurica [TAX:48101] Same as: E00149 Therapeutic category: 5100 Angelica dahurica root Major...:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06779 Angelica...c drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06779 Angelica dahurica root; Angelica dah

  9. Drug: D06689 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available endron amurense [TAX:68554], Phellodendron chinense [TAX:354508] Same as: E00063 Therapeutic category: 5100 Rutaceae (ru... Powdered phellodendron bark; Phellodendron bark Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Ru...D06689 Crude, Drug Phellodendron bark (JP16); Powdered phellodendron bark (JP16); P...Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude dru...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06689 Phellodendron bark (JP16); Powdered phellodendron bark (JP16)

  10. Drug: D03868 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered lpecac (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Rubiaceae (madder family) D03868 Ipecac CAS: 8012-96-2 PubChem: 17397952 ... ...D03868 Crude, Drug Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered lpecac (JP16); Ipsatol (TN) Emetine ...ry: 5100 ATC code: R05CA04 V03AB01 Rubiaceae (madder family) Cephaelis root Major component: Emetine [CPD:C0...9421] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Cru...de drugs 5100 Crude drugs D03868 Ipecac (JP16/USP); Powdered

  11. Drug: D06762 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06762 Uncaria hook Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ru...D06762 Crude, Drug Uncaria hook (JP16) Rhynchophylline [CPD:C09236], Isorhynchophyl...a [TAX:43575], Uncaria sinensis, Uncaria macrophylla, Uncaria [TAX:43574] Same as: E00132 Therapeutic category: 5100 Ru...biaceae (madder family) Uncaria hook Major component: Rhyncophylline [CPD:C09236] Therapeutic category of dru...gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude dru

  12. Drug: D06733 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylum piperitum [TAX:354529] Same as: E00104 Therapeutic category: 5100 Rutaceae (ru...ior D06733 Zanthoxylum fruit; Powdered zanthoxylum fruit; Zanthoxylum fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Ru...D06733 Crude, Drug Zanthoxylum fruit (JP16); Powdered zanthoxylum fruit (JP16); Zanthoxylum fru...e family) Zanthoxylum fruit Major component: Sanshool [CPD:C17091] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dru...gs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06733 Zanthoxylum fru

  13. Drug: D06719 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06719 Crude, Drug Cyperus rhizome (JP16); Powdered cyperus rhizome (JP16); Xianghu...], (+)-Camphor [CPD:C00808] Cyperus rotundus [TAX:512623] Same as: E00091 Therapeutic category: 5100 Cyperaceae (sedge family) Cyperu...10 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06719 Cyperus rhizome (JP16); Powdered cyperus rhizome (JP16) Traditional C...hinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06719 Cyperus... rhizome; Powdered cyperus rhizome; Xianghu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Cyperaceae (sedge family) D06719 Cyperus rhizome PubChem: 47208370 ...

  14. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Mintzer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications.

  15. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. PMID:25448391

  16. Drug Screening in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Susan Givens

    2016-01-01

    Gestational substance exposure continues to be a significant problem. Neonates may be exposed to various substances including illicit drugs, prescription drugs, and other legal substances that are best not used during pregnancy because of their potential deleterious effects as possible teratogens or their potential to create dependence and thus withdrawal in the neonate. Screening the newborn for gestational substance exposure is important for both acute care and early intervention to promote the best possible long-term outcomes. This column provides insight into what is known about the extent of substance use by pregnant women, an overview of neonatal biologic matrices for drug testing, and a discussion of the legal implications of neonatal substance screening. PMID:27636697

  17. Drug delivery goes supercritical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Ginty

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of drug delivery, the ability to control the size, morphology, and release of drug particles is fundamental to good targeting, but is often hampered by harsh processing conditions or inadequate methods; likewise for the processing of polymeric controlled-release systems. However, the use of supercritical fluids such as supercritical CO2 (scCO2 has provided a ‘clean’ and effective alternative to traditional methods of drug and polymer processing. In particular, scCO2 has a number of unique properties that make it possible to process both bioactive molecules and amorphous polymers without using toxic organic solvents or elevated temperatures. Here, we review the positive impact that supercritical fluids have had on the micronization, encapsulation, and impregnation of molecules of interest to both the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  18. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions. PMID:20169800

  19. Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil

    OpenAIRE

    Loknath Ghoshal; Mausumi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy associated excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep disorder related to shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, presently it is being used as a lifestyle medicine; in India, it has been misused as an "over the counter" drug. Modafinil is known to have several cutaneous side effects. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug induced reaction pa...

  20. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural) to syntheti...

  1. Clinical nutrition and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ekincioğlu, Aygin Bayraktar; Demirkan, Kutay

    2013-01-01

    A drug’s plasma level, pharmacological effects or side effects, elimination, physicochemical properties or stability could be changed by interactions of drug-drug or drug-nutrition products in patients who receive enteral or parenteral nutritional support. As a result, patients might experience ineffective outcomes or unexpected effects of therapy (such as drug toxicity, embolism). Stability or incompatibility problems between parenteral nutrition admixtures and drugs might lead to alteration...

  2. Drug: D06810 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nishing Ying D06810 Polygonatum rhizome Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valley family) D06810 Polygonatum rhizome PubChem: 47208461 ... ...D06810 Crude, Drug Polygonatum rhizome (JP16) Starch [CPD:C00369], Sibiricoside A [...ianum, Polygonatum cyrtonema [TAX:195526], Polygonatum [TAX:16195] Same as: E00176 Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-va...ine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for reple

  3. Drug: D01030 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01030 Crude, Drug Saffron (JP16); Saffron (TN) Crocin [CPD:C08589], Picrocrocin [C...003 Therapeutic category: 5100 Iridaceae (Iris family) Saffron chapiter Major com...dicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01030 Saffron (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br...08305] Monocot plants Iridaceae (iris family) D01030 Saffron PubChem: 7848093 ...

  4. Drug: D01032 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01032 Crude, Drug Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16); Agar (TN) Agarose [CPD:C01...100 Gelidiaceae Gelidium amansii mucous (freeze dry) Major component: Agarose [CPD:C01399] Therapeutic categ...s 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01032 Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Algae Red algae D01032 Agar PubChem: 7848095 ...

  5. Drug: D06050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kit (TN) map04976 Bile secretion Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D...trofosmin 99mTc-complex Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V09GA02 Component of Myoview ...D06050 Drug Technetium Tc 99m tetrofosmin (USP); Technetium (99mTc) tetrofosmin; Te

  6. Drug: D06699 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06699 Crude, Drug Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16); Val... hypnotics and sedatives N05CM09 Valerian radix D06699 Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian ...erian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br0... drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06699 Japanese val

  7. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Zachary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7DOX-2, epirubicin (MCF-7EPI, paclitaxel (MCF-7TAX-2, or docetaxel (MCF-7TXT. During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. Results In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. Conclusion This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does

  8. Drug Use in Gyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2015-01-01

    Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures for the fre......Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures...

  9. Drugging Membrane Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Flynn, Aaron D

    2016-07-11

    The majority of therapeutics target membrane proteins, accessible on the surface of cells, to alter cellular signaling. Cells use membrane proteins to transduce signals into cells, transport ions and molecules, bind cells to a surface or substrate, and catalyze reactions. Newly devised technologies allow us to drug conventionally "undruggable" regions of membrane proteins, enabling modulation of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, we survey the state of the art of high-throughput screening and rational design in drug discovery, and we evaluate the advances in biological understanding and technological capacity that will drive pharmacotherapy forward against unorthodox membrane protein targets. PMID:26863923

  10. Thoughts on Drug Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦兴宁

    2013-01-01

    Through the book“The economics of Public Issues”,in chapter 6,the author discussed why the government could not easily get spectacular success in the il egal commodity such as sex,booze,and drugs in economic way.In normal market, according to the law of demand,when the price of good is rising,the consumed amount wil decrease.However,the government has executed a lot of policies to reduce supply of drugs, but the consequence is not as good as they expected. Economics can help to find the answer to the phenomenon and improve the government's decision.

  11. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  12. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    and in vivo cytotoxicity, as well as biopermeability, biostability and immunogenicity. The review deals with numerous applications of dendrimers as tools for efficient multivalent presentation of biological ligands in biospecific recognition, inhibition and targeting. Dendrimers may be used as drugs...... for antibacterial and antiviral treatment and have found use as antitumor agents. The review highlights the use of dendrimers as drug or gene delivery devices in e.g. anticancer therapy, and the design of different host-guest binding motifs directed towards medical applications is described. Other specific examples...

  13. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  14. The metaphorical nature of drugs and drug taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, M

    1988-01-01

    An inquiry into the role metaphor plays in personal and societal conceptions of drugs and drug taking reveals that drug metaphors and symbols are quite pervasive in individual thinking, social discourse, and the cultural media. They appear to influence beliefs and attitudes regarding drugs, the nature and meaning of drug experiences, and the reasons behind drug-taking behaviors. Some drug metaphors are common to different cultures and historical periods, while others are specific and exclusive to particular individuals and groups or drug-taking situations. These metaphors can carry positive as well as negative connotations. Further study is needed to delineate the metaphorical structuring of our thinking about drugs, and the process whereby these metaphors are generated and spread throughout society.

  15. Clustering drug-drug interaction networks with energy model layouts: community analysis and drug repurposing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, Lucreţia; Sbârcea, Laura; Topîrceanu, Alexandru; Iovanovici, Alexandru; Kurunczi, Ludovic; Bogdan, Paul; Udrescu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing drug-drug interactions may unravel previously unknown drug action patterns, leading to the development of new drug discovery tools. We present a new approach to analyzing drug-drug interaction networks, based on clustering and topological community detection techniques that are specific to complex network science. Our methodology uncovers functional drug categories along with the intricate relationships between them. Using modularity-based and energy-model layout community detection algorithms, we link the network clusters to 9 relevant pharmacological properties. Out of the 1141 drugs from the DrugBank 4.1 database, our extensive literature survey and cross-checking with other databases such as Drugs.com, RxList, and DrugBank 4.3 confirm the predicted properties for 85% of the drugs. As such, we argue that network analysis offers a high-level grasp on a wide area of pharmacological aspects, indicating possible unaccounted interactions and missing pharmacological properties that can lead to drug repositioning for the 15% drugs which seem to be inconsistent with the predicted property. Also, by using network centralities, we can rank drugs according to their interaction potential for both simple and complex multi-pathology therapies. Moreover, our clustering approach can be extended for applications such as analyzing drug-target interactions or phenotyping patients in personalized medicine applications. PMID:27599720

  16. A statistical methodology for drug-drug interaction surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, G Niklas; Sundberg, Rolf; Bate, Andrew; Edwards, I Ralph

    2008-07-20

    Interaction between drug substances may yield excessive risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when two drugs are taken in combination. Collections of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) related to suspected ADR incidents in clinical practice have proven to be very useful in post-marketing surveillance for pairwise drug--ADR associations, but have yet to reach their full potential for drug-drug interaction surveillance. In this paper, we implement and evaluate a shrinkage observed-to-expected ratio for exploratory analysis of suspected drug-drug interaction in ICSR data, based on comparison with an additive risk model. We argue that the limited success of previously proposed methods for drug-drug interaction detection based on ICSR data may be due to an underlying assumption that the absence of interaction is equivalent to having multiplicative risk factors. We provide empirical examples of established drug-drug interaction highlighted with our proposed approach that go undetected with logistic regression. A database wide screen for suspected drug-drug interaction in the entire WHO database is carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. As always in the analysis of ICSRs, the clinical validity of hypotheses raised with the proposed method must be further reviewed and evaluated by subject matter experts. PMID:18344185

  17. Designer drugs: the evolving science of drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, L A; DuBose, R F

    1998-07-01

    Drug discovery and design are fundamental to drug development. Until recently, most drugs were discovered through random screening or developed through molecular modification. New technologies are revolutionizing this phase of drug development. Rational drug design, using powerful computers and computational chemistry and employing X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship analysis, is creating highly specific, biologically active molecules by virtual reality modeling. Sophisticated screening technologies are eliminating all but the most active lead compounds. These new technologies promise more efficacious, safe, and cost-effective medications, while minimizing drug development time and maximizing profits. PMID:10185235

  18. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  19. Drugs Used in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  20. Want Drugs? Use Python

    OpenAIRE

    Nowotka, Michał; Papadatos, George; Davies, Mark; Dedman, Nathan; Hersey, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We describe how Python can be leveraged to streamline the curation, modelling and dissemination of drug discovery data as well as the development of innovative, freely available tools for the related scientific community. We look at various examples, such as chemistry toolkits, machine-learning applications and web frameworks and show how Python can glue it all together to create efficient data science pipelines.

  1. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  2. Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the epidemic of prescription drug overdose, especially in women, and what can be done about it.  Created: 7/2/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  3. Women and Drug Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Presents a feminist perspective which offers a social structural framework for examining women's problematic behavior in traditional gender roles. Examines implications for treatment of women with drug dependence problems including developing the helping agent's awareness of the pervasiveness of sexism and its potentially negative effects.…

  4. Antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, R G; Shear, N H

    1998-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is an adverse drug reaction associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), and primidone. The syndrome is defined by the triad of fever, skin rash, and internal organ involvement. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, terbinafine, azathioprine, and allopurinol. Diagnosis of AHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic, or collagen vascular disorders. The incidence is approximately 1 in 3,000 exposures. AHS starts with fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy, within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis, and myostitis. AHS is associated with a relative excess of reactive oxidative metabolites of the AED. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Crossreactivity among PHT, CBZ, and PB is as high as 70-80%. PMID:9798755

  5. Prevention and Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Mark F.; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance…

  6. Therapeutic drug monitoring and drug-drug interactions involving antiretroviral drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffito, M.; Acosta, E.; Burger, D.M.; Fletcher, C.V.; Flexner, C.; Garaffo, R.; Gatti, G.; Kurowski, M.; Perno, C.F.; Peytavin, G.; Regazzi, M.; Back, D.

    2005-01-01

    The consensus of current international guidelines for the treatment of HIV infection is that data on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (Pls) provide a framework for the implementation of TDM in certain defined scenar

  7. [Drug use and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire-Hurtel, Anne-Sophie; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Mura, Patrick; Verstraete, Alain G

    2015-10-01

    Some drugs are known to impair driving because they can change the vision or hearing, and/or disrupt the intellectual or motor abilities: impaired vigilance, sedation, disinhibition effect, the coordination of movement disorders and the balance. The doctor during prescribing and the pharmacist during deliverance of drug treatment should inform their patients of the potential risks of drugs on driving or operating machinery. The driver has direct responsibility, who hired him and him alone, to follow the medical advice received. The pictograms on the outer packaging of medicinal products intended to classify substances according to their risk driving: The driver can whether to observe simple precautions (level one "be prudent"), or follow the advice of a health professional (level two "be very careful"), or if it is totally not drive (level three "danger caution: do not drive"). This classification only evaluates the intrinsic danger of drugs but not the individual variability. Medicines should be taken into account also the conditions for which the medication is prescribed. It is important to inform the patient on several points. PMID:25956300

  8. Drug development and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  9. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for futu

  10. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...

  11. Drugs in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, David

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may be used by athletes for a number of reasons, including performance enhancement. The role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is vital to ensure a winning performance has been achieved by fair means. Substances and methods that are included on the WADA Prohibited List are described. The procedures for testing banned substances are…

  12. Drug: D06799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06799 Crude, Drug Longgu (JP16); Powdered longgu (JP16); Fossilized mammal bones (...56], Strontium [CPD:C13884], Zirconium, Rubidium [CPD:C17061], Potassium [CPD:C00238], Titanium, Aluminum, O...ajor component: Calcium carbonate [CPD:C08129], Calcium biphosphate [CPD:C13556] Therapeutic category of dru...gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dru...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06799 Longgu; Fossilized mammal bones Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06799 Longgu PubChem: 47208450 ...

  13. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  14. Monitoring drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buclin, Thierry; Gotta, Verena; Fuchs, Aline; Widmer, Nicolas; Aronson, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Drug development has improved over recent decades, with refinements in analytical techniques, population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling and simulation, and new biomarkers of efficacy and tolerability. Yet this progress has not yielded improvements in individualization of treatment and monitoring, owing to various obstacles: monitoring is complex and demanding, many monitoring procedures have been instituted without critical assessment of the underlying evidence and rationale, controlled clinical trials are sparse, monitoring procedures are poorly validated and both drug manufacturers and regulatory authorities take insufficient account of the importance of monitoring. Drug concentration and effect data should be increasingly collected, analyzed, aggregated and disseminated in forms suitable for prescribers, along with efficient monitoring tools and evidence-based recommendations regarding their best use. PK-PD observations should be collected for both novel and established critical drugs and applied to observational data, in order to establish whether monitoring would be suitable. Methods for aggregating PK-PD data in systematic reviews should be devised. Observational and intervention studies to evaluate monitoring procedures are needed. Miniaturized monitoring tests for delivery at the point of care should be developed and harnessed to closed-loop regulated drug delivery systems. Intelligent devices would enable unprecedented precision in the application of critical treatments, i.e. those with life-saving efficacy, narrow therapeutic margins and high interpatient variability. Pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies and academic clinical pharmacologists share the responsibility of leading such developments, in order to ensure that patients obtain the greatest benefit and suffer the least harm from their medicines. PMID:22360377

  15. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  16. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  17. Drug: D07153 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 527], Cinchonine [CPD:C06528], Cinchonidine [CPD:C11379], Tannin, , Quinate [CPD:C00296] Cinchona succirubra...D07153 Crude, Drug Cinchona bark; Cinchona Quinine [CPD:C06526], Quinidine [CPD:C06..., Cinchona [TAX:43462], Rubiaceae [TAX:24966] Same as: E00257 Therapeutic category: 5100 Rubiaceae (madder f...amily) Cinchona bark Major component: Quinine [CPD:C06526] Therapeutic category of dru...gs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07153 Cinchona bark PubChem: 51091492 ...

  18. Drug: D04674 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04674 Crude, Drug Forsythia fruit (JP16); Forsythia fruit (TN) Oleanolic acid [CPD...oside [CPD:C17528], Forsythiaside [CPD:C10456], Acteoside [CPD:C10501], Suspensaside [CPD:C10499], Ru...34 Therapeutic category: 5100 Oleaceae (olive family) Forsythia fruit Major component: Forsythiaside [CPD:C1...0456] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Cru...de drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04674 Forsythia fruit (JP16) Tradi

  19. Drug: D06714 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , Aurantio-obtusin [CPD:C17670], Aurantio-obtusin-beta-D-glucoside [CPD:C10303], Rubrofusarin [CPD:C09047], Norru...D06714 Crude, Drug Cassia seed (JP16); Cassia seed (TN) Emodin [CPD:C10343], Obtusi..., Cassiaside B2 [CPD:C17674], Cassiaside C3, Rubrofusarin gentiobioside Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia tora [TAX...jor component: Obtusifolin [CPD:C17039] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dru...gs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D

  20. Scaffold Repurposing of Old Drugs Towards New Cancer Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Wu, Jianlei; Gao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    As commented by the Nobelist James Black that "The most fruitful basis of the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug", drug repurposing represents an attractive drug discovery strategy. Despite the success of several repurposed drugs on the market, the ultimate therapeutic potential of a large number of non-cancer drugs is hindered during their repositioning due to various issues including the limited efficacy and intellectual property. With the increasing knowledge about the pharmacological properties and newly identified targets, the scaffolds of the old drugs emerge as a great treasure-trove towards new cancer drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of novel small molecules for cancer therapy by scaffold repurposing with highlighted examples. The relevant strategies, advantages, challenges and future research directions associated with this approach are also discussed.

  1. Scaffold Repurposing of Old Drugs Towards New Cancer Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Wu, Jianlei; Gao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    As commented by the Nobelist James Black that "The most fruitful basis of the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug", drug repurposing represents an attractive drug discovery strategy. Despite the success of several repurposed drugs on the market, the ultimate therapeutic potential of a large number of non-cancer drugs is hindered during their repositioning due to various issues including the limited efficacy and intellectual property. With the increasing knowledge about the pharmacological properties and newly identified targets, the scaffolds of the old drugs emerge as a great treasure-trove towards new cancer drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of novel small molecules for cancer therapy by scaffold repurposing with highlighted examples. The relevant strategies, advantages, challenges and future research directions associated with this approach are also discussed. PMID:26881709

  2. 78 FR 46977 - Generic Drug User Fee-Abbreviated New Drug Application, Prior Approval Supplement, Drug Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee--Abbreviated New Drug Application... application (ANDA), prior approval supplement to an approved ANDA (PAS), drug master file (DMF), generic drug... the Generic Drug User Fee Program for fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  3. Transporters and drug-drug interactions: important determinants of drug disposition and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Müller, Fabian; Fromm, Martin F

    2013-07-01

    Uptake and efflux transporters determine plasma and tissue concentrations of a broad variety of drugs. They are localized in organs such as small intestine, liver, and kidney, which are critical for drug absorption and elimination. Moreover, they can be found in important blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. Inhibition or induction of drug transporters by coadministered drugs can alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the victim drugs. This review will summarize in particular clinically observed drug-drug interactions attributable to inhibition or induction of intestinal export transporters [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], to inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters [organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)], or to inhibition of transporter-mediated [organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), P-gp] renal secretion of xenobiotics. Available data on the impact of nutrition on transport processes as well as genotype-dependent, transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions will be discussed. We will also present and discuss data on the variable extent to which information on the impact of transporters on drug disposition is included in summaries of product characteristics of selected countries (SPCs). Further work is required regarding a better understanding of the role of the drug metabolism-drug transport interplay for drug-drug interactions and on the extrapolation of in vitro findings to the in vivo (human) situation. PMID:23686349

  4. Rhythmomimetic drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Calderer, M Carme; Siegel, Ronald A; Yao, Lingxing

    2015-01-01

    We present modeling, analysis and numerical simulation of a prototype glucose driven drug delivery device based on chemomechanical interactions and volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels. The device consists of two fluid compartments, an external cell (I) mimicking the physiological environment, and a closed chamber (II), separated by a hydrogel membrane. Cell I, which is held at constant pH and ionic strength, provides a constant supply of glucose to cell II, and also serves as clearance station for reaction products. Cell II contains the drug to be delivered to the body, an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of glucose into hydrogen ions, and a piece of marble to remove excess hydrogen ions that would otherwise overwhelm the system. When the membrane is swollen, glucose flux into Cell II is high, leading to rapid production of hydrogen ions. However, the hydrogen ions are not immediately released to Cell I but react, instead, with the negatively charged carboxyl groups of the membrane, which collaps...

  5. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered. PMID:27089619

  6. Sleep without drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, M J; Clift, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbed sleep is a common problem, particularly among elderly people, and is usually treated with hypnotics. The side effects of longterm administration of hypnotic drugs are well known, but despite this there remains a substantial population of chronic users. These people can be helped to reduce their dependence on hypnotics through psychological techniques. A group of longterm users treated in this manner were shown to reduce their intake of hypnotics significantly more than a group of us...

  7. New Antiplatelet Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2011-01-01

    @@ ADP- receptor antagonist Prasugrel is a thienopyridine of the third generation and needs conversion into an active drug metabolite (R138727).Preclinical and clinical studies showed a more rapid,potent and consistent inhibition of patelet function for prasugrel compared to clopidogrel.Prasugrel has been shown to be of particular benefit in patients with diabetes,especially those on insulin [30% relative risk reduction (RRR) in cardiovascular death, MI,or stroke (P <0.001 ) and 37% RRR,respectively] .

  8. STANDARDISATION OF SIDDHA DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswathy, Ariamuthu

    1994-01-01

    Siddha system is the ancient Dravidian system of medicine presently practiced predominantly in South India. In practice, generally the plants used are often in the compound form to which either herbs, metals, minerals and animals products are added. This paper attempts to describe the need for standardizing the drugs since the efficacy of medicines depends on their genuineness, indicating the methodology to be adopted for standardization.

  9. Drug: D04881 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04881 Mixture, Drug Aluminum chloride - cetylpyridinium chloride - Lidocaine mixt; Dental...Therapeutic category: 2790 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 27 Dental

  10. Drug: D00152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03A DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03AX Other drugs for functional gastrointestinal diso...rders A03AX12 Phloroglucinol D00152 Phloroglucinol (JAN)

  11. Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Manual (PDBM) is user guide to Part D Prescription Drug Program. It includes information on general provisions, benefits,...

  12. Drug: D07477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  13. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs Proton Pump Inhibitors (for gastroesophageal reflux disease) Beta-Blockers (for high blood pressure and heart disease) Drugs ... theorized — and evidence mounted from subsequent studies — that beta-blockers (such as propranolol and metoprolol) would be effective ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Methamphetamine increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. Am. ...

  15. Drug: D07012 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...4] Formulas Formulas for Qi Sedative formulas D07012 Chotosan PubChem: 51091354 ...

  16. Drug: D10244 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LISM A10 DRUGS USED IN DIABETES A10B BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS...ode: A10BD03 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] A ALIMENTARY TRACT AND METABO

  17. Drug: D08103 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mmatory Drugs Ketoprofen D08103 Ketoprofen sodium Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory...etoprofen D08103 Ketoprofen sodium USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-infla

  18. Drug: D07819 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7819 Diclofenac calcium USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory... Drugs Diclofenac D07819 Diclofenac calcium Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory

  19. Drug: D01475 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Flurbiprofen D01475 Flurbiprofen axetil (JAN) Anti-inflammatory... Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Flurbiprofen D01475 Flurbiprofen axetil (JAN) Ophtha

  20. Drug: D00813 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ketorolac D008...13 Ketorolac tromethamine (USP) Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory

  1. Drug: D08162 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 Meclofenamate sodium USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory... Drugs Meclofenamate D08162 Meclofenamate sodium Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory

  2. Drug: D08059 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ibuprofen... D08059 Ibuprofen sodium Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ibuprofen D08059 Ibup

  3. Drug: D08104 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ketorolac D08104 Ketorolac (INN) Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-in...flammatory Drugs Ketorolac D08104 Ketorolac (INN) Ophtha

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ... United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ...

  5. Drug: D09255 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09255 Crude, Drug Sophora japoinca flower (non-JP); Sophora japonica flower bud; Sophorae flos Ru...a family) Sophora japonica flower bud; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Crude dru

  6. Drug: D07013 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medici...nes 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  7. Drug: D06991 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medici...nes 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06991 Shir

  8. Drug: D07045 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medici...nes 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  9. Drug: D07043 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medici...nes 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D07043

  10. Drug: D06973 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulatio...ns 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06

  11. Drug: D06977 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese med...icines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06977

  12. Drug: D06968 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ry: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations... 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  13. Drug: D06922 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine fo...rmulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  14. Drug: D06975 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medici...nes 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  15. Drug: D06923 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egory: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulati...ons 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  16. Drug: D06930 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pharyngodynia Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medici...ne formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  17. Drug: D07056 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medi...cines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D07056 R

  18. Drug: D06954 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gory: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulatio...ns 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  19. Drug: D06988 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available peutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medici...nes 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  20. Drug: D06947 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medici...nes 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  1. Drug: D06931 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicine...s 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06931 Kam

  2. Drug: D07019 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese med...icines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D07019

  3. Drug: D07044 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tegory: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulat...ions 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medici

  4. Drug: D08468 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ralization M05BX03 Strontium ranelate D08468 Strontium ranelate CAS: 135459-87-9 Pu...M05B DRUGS AFFECTING BONE STRUCTURE AND MINERALIZATION M05BX Other drugs affecting bone structure and mine

  5. Drug: D01154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 32 Nutrients, tonics 322 Miner... Potassium acetate (JAN/USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Therapeutic Nutrient

  6. Drug: D00937 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oporosis drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 32 Nutrie...nts, tonics 321 Calcium preparations 3219 Others D00937 Dibasic calcium phosphate h

  7. Drug: D06521 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06521 Drug Light anhydrous silicic acid (JP16); Silicon dioxide (NF); Silica gel S...SORDERS A03AX Other drugs for functional gastrointestinal disorders A03AX13 Silicones D06521 Silicon dioxide

  8. Drug: D06812 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06812 Crude, Drug Platycodon fluidextract (JP16) Polysaccharide [CPD:C00420], Poly...C17410] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Campanulaceae (bellflower family) D06812 Platycodon fluidextract PubChem: 47208463 ...

  9. Drug: D07008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [DR:D06772] Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: ... what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web site ...

  11. Drug: D00399 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alcium channel blocking drugs map07048 Antimigraines map00982 Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 Anatomical T...te D00399 Valproic acid (USP) Antimigraine Agents Prophylactic Valproic acid D003

  12. Drug: D06928 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chine...n'i Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Diaphoretic formulas Diaphoretic dformula

  13. Drug: D07015 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available herapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...:br08304] Formulas Formulas for dampness Diuretic formulas D07015 Choreitogoshimotsuto PubChem: 51091357 ...

  14. Drug: D06952 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available herapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...mulas Formulas for stomach Antidiarrheal formulas D06952 Keihito PubChem: 51091294 ...

  15. Drug: D06994 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...mpness Cough suppressant and expectorant formulas D06994 Shimpito PubChem: 51091336 ...

  16. Drug: D07000 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese me...nal Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Diaphoretic formulas Diaphoretic dformula

  17. Drug: D06927 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Tradi... for dampness Antirheumatic formulas D06927 Kakkontokajutsubuto PubChem: 51091269 ...

  18. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug abuse. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ...